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Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church Containing Principally the Biographies of the Men and Women, Both Ministers and Laymen, Whose Labors during a Hundred Years, Helped Make the A. M. E. Church What It Is; Also Short Historical Sketches of Annual Conferences, Educational Institutions, General Departments, Missionary Societies of the A. M. E. Church, and General Information about African Methodism and the Christian Church in General; Being a Literary Contribution to the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Formation of the African Methodist Episcopal Church Denomination by Richard Allen and others, at Philadelphia, Penna., in 1816:
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Wright, Richard R. (Richard Robert), b. 1848


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(title page) Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church Containing Principally the Biographies of the Men and Women, Both Ministers and Laymen, Whose Labors during a Hundred Years, Helped Make the A. M. E. Church What It Is; Also Short Historical Sketches of Annual Conferences, Educational Institutions, General Departments, Missionary Societies of the A. M. E. Church, and General Information about African Methodism and the Christian Church in General; Being a Literary Contribution to the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Formation of the African Methodist Episcopal Church Denomination by Richard Allen and others, at Philadelphia, Penna., in 1816
Richard R. Wright, Jr., A.M., B.D., Ph.D.
387, [5] p., ill.
Philadelphia
Book Concern of the A. M. E. Church
1916
Call number Folio BX8443 .W8 (Rare Book Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)


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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

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1816
1916
CENTENNIAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA
OF THE
African Methodist Episcopal Church


Containing principally the Biographies of the Men and Women, both Ministers and Laymen,
whose Labors during a Hundred Years, helped make the A. M. E. Church what it is;
also short Historical Sketches of Annual Conferences, Educational Institutions,
General Departments, Missionary Societies of the A. M. E.
Church, and General Information about
African Methodism and the Christian Church in General
Being a Literary Contribution to the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the
Formation of the African Methodist Episcopal Church Denomination by
Richard Allen and others, at Philadelphia, Penna., in 1816

BY

RICHARD R. WRIGHT, Jr., A. M., B. D., Ph. D.

Author of "The Negro in Pennsylvania," "The Teachings of Jesus," Editor of The Christian Recorder
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF


ASSISTED BY
JOHN R. HAWKINS, A.M., LL. B.
Financial Secretary of the A. M. E. Church; formerly Secretary of Education, A. M. E. Church
ASSOCIATE EDITOR

INTRODUCTION BY
BISHOP L. J. COPPIN, D.D., LL.D.
Thirtieth Bishop of the A. M. E. Church; Author of "Relation of Baptized Children to the Church," "Key to Scriptural Interpretation,"
"Observations of Persons and Things in South Africa," "Fifty-two Suggestive Sermon Syllabi," Etc.

PHILADELPHIA, PA., U.S.A.


Page 2

COPYRIGHTED
BY R. R. WRIGHT, JR.
1916

PRINTED BY
BOOK CONCERN OF THE A. M. E. CHURCH
631 PINE STREET. PHILADELPHIA, PA.
1916


Page 3

Preface

        THE manuscript for "Encyclopaedia of African Methodism" is completed. The purpose of the Encyclopaedia is to present in some sort of literary form the work of the men and women, both ministers and laymen, who have helped to make the Church what it is, and especially those now living who receive the inheritance of the fathers and upon whose shoulders rests the responsibility of passing the church down to a new century. The book is not a history of original research, nor history at all in the technical sense. It is prepared in such a way as makes it practically impossible to verify all statements contained therein. This verification will be made largely by criticisms received from those who will carefully read the book. Most of the material in the biographical part is largely autobiographical, taken from blank forms filled out by the subjects concerned, or from sketches furnished by themselves or some one who knew them, all of which has been edited as carefully as the time would allow. The files of the Christian Recorder, the various histories of the Church, the encyclopaedias by Bishops Wayman and Simpson, and other books have been called into service where possible.

        Our aim has been to present facts, and nothing but facts. We have not attempted to eulogize or to criticise, only to give the facts and let them tell their own story.

        Though the work has been in the making for more than two years, the greater part of the biographical matter came into the editor's hands less than three months before the time to go to press, making it impossible to as thoroughly organize it as he had hoped and still present the book by the time of the General Conference as he promised.

        But the book is given out merely as a beginning There should be collected and printed the biography and picture of every man and woman who has done anything creditable toward building our great Church, not so much for their sakes, but for the sake of the future, and the inspiration of the Church.

        The second part of the book deals with the Church in general, its history, location, laws, doctrines, statistics, etc., as well as items of interest pertaining to the religious life of the race.--Editors.


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Introduction

By Bishop L. J. Coppin

        A COMPLETE history of the Negro in America, is unwritten and unwritable. Much that would be most interesting and valuable, went to the grave with those who had no possible means of transmitting it except by the uncertain and unreliable method of tradition.

        Much that comes down to us through the maze, either written or by tradition is, indeed, somber and sad.

        It becomes the historian of the present day to throw side lights upon the dark past, by exhibiting some of its better products, lest the skeptical continue to ask "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?"

        A story which reveals a reniassance a hundred years ago among the oppressed of African descent, cannot fail to be valuable contribution to the literature of our times. But what is more, if much of the story is in autobiography, it is a living voice, divested of the speculative aspect of that which speaks alone for the past ages.

        There are but a few remaining who saw Richard Allen, but their children are legion.

        The Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, gives historical data, that has a direct bearing upon the earliest organized movement by the man of color, to vindicate his right to the title of man.

        The Toussaint L'Ouverture movement began in 1791; the Richard Allen movement in 1787.

        What could be expected at this early date of a people without education, or wealth, or even freedom and a name? The right of Christian marriage and Christian baptism was denied the man of color in those days.

        A glance at facts and figures revealed by the "Centennial Encyclopaedia" cannot fail to convince the most stubborn unbeliever, that our claim to manhood recognition is legitimate and just. That evidences of innate qualities to warrant aspiration to the highest and best in human possibilities are not wanting in our race variety; and that the progress of fifty years of freedom is without a parallel in the records of history, is also manifest.

        Should any one ask for a reason for giving those facts, the only true answer is, it would be a crime not to give them. They are not complete. They could not be complete in a single volume. The broadest opportunity has been given for contributions by writers from every section and corner of the Church. Many have availed themselves of the opportunity, and many more will be inspired, when they see this volume, to prepare for the next, when the work by another will be taken up where this leaves off.

        This first work of its kind on so large a scale, should go into the home of every man and woman, in whose veins flows a drop of blood that represents faith in the possibilities of the race, and a desire to inspire posterity with noble ambition. Especially should the African Methodist Episcopal Church consider it an obligation to see to it, that the work is given the largest possible circulation.

        The Editor-in-Chief, Dr. R. R. Wright, Jr., and the Assistant Editor, Professor John R. Hawkins, are themselves examples of the best hope of the race, and a guarantee of the intrinsic value of the work.

        These sons of African Methodism, one a minister, the other a layman, both born upon soil that, in the past, offered the greatest impediment to race advancement, but who stand as unchallenged samples of what is purest and brightest in morals and intellect, have placed the race under a debt of gratitude, for this latest accomplishment in race literature of a historical nature.

        The lessons would be incomplete if the mechanical work did not also represent race progress. Coming as it does from our Book Concern presses, the volume presents an additional claim upon those for whom it speaks; a claim, the answer to which should be a demand for future editions.


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One Hundred Years of African Methodism

        BEGINNING May 3, 1916, and continuing three weeks, there was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Centennial General Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, which, among other things, celebrated the one hundredth anniversary of its organization. The sessions were held in Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, upon ground purchased by that church in 1794, perhaps the oldest piece of real property owned by a Negro organization in this country.

        The history of this church dates back to 1787, when a number of persons of African descent, imbued with the spirit of independence then in the American atmosphere, and led by Richard Allen, a colored local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church, withdrew from St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, because the white Christians desired to segregate them in the gallery of the church, and otherwise place a badge of inferiority upon them. They established a society of their own, in which any person, regardless of his color, could enjoy the worship of God with freedom from restriction or segregation. Soon Negroes of other Pennsylvania localities, and of New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland followed the example of the Philadelphians, and formed distinctively African congregations--often with the encouragement of the whites. In 1816 representatives, sixteen in all, from Bethel African Church in Philadelphia, and African churches in Baltimore, Md., Wilmington, Del., Attleboro, Penna., and Salem, New Jersey, met in Philadelphia and formed a church organization or connection under the title of "The African Methodist Episcopal Church." (The term "African" was then prevalently used to designate the people of color, just as the terms "Negro" and "colored people" are now used). They adopted the polity and doctrine of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with some slight changes, and elected one of their number, Richard Allen, as their bishop.

        During the first fifty years, the church was confined almost entirely to the Northern States, as it was not allowed to operate among the slaves in the South, though in Charleston, New Orleans, and one or two other places, there were small organizations among free Negroes. In Boston, Newport, New Bedford, New York, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Washington, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, Sacramento and other Northern and Western cities, where there were a hundred or more Negroes, a church was organized. During this period many of the ministers of this church were active in the anti-slavery movement and "Underground Railroad," and much of the actual work of receiving and transporting escaped slaves was done by them.

        The emancipation of the slaves opened up a great field for the Church, which it was not slow to seize. Before the Civil War was over, hundreds of preachers and teachers had been sent as missionaries to the South, the first going from New York in 1863. Many of these became prominent in religious, business and political life. The first United States Senator of African descent was Rev. Hiram R. Revels, of Mississippi, who was an A. M. E. minister. Others went to Congress and became otherwise prominent. But the great majority confined their labors to the organization of the Church among the recently emancipated people and the results were little short of remarkable, as the people flocked to their standard in greater numbers than they could be efficiently cared for.

        The following table will show something of the growth of the Church from the beginning, which, as will be seen, has been greatest during the past fifty years. It is compiled from the best data at hand.

        
  1816. 1836. 1866. 1896. 1916.
No. of churches 7 86 286 4,850 7,500
No. of bishops 1 2 3 9 16
No. of conferences 2 4 10 52 81
No. of schools 0 0 1 20 24
No. of ministers 7 27 265 4,365 6,650
No. of local preachers         6,400
No. of members 400 7,594 73,000 518,000 650,000
Value of property $25,000 $125,000 $825,000 $8,630,000 $12,500,000
Paid for pastors' support (estimated).   1,126 85,593 956,875 2,000,000

        In 1816, the Church was established in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, with about only 400 members. In 1836 it was also in Ohio, New York, Massachusetts, and the Island of Hayti, and had 7,544 members. In 1856, it spread to Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Louisiana, Kentucky and Canada and had bout 20,000 members. In 1863, its first missionaries went to the South, and large accessions were made, so that in 1866, it had churches in South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee and Alabama, and a membership exceeding 73,000. In 1896 it had covered every Southern State and planted missions in Liberia, Bermuda and in South Aemrica, and the membership was 518,000. In 1916, there were missions also in Jamaica, South Africa, Nova Scotia, and the total


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membership is more than 650,000 members, 6,650 traveling ministers, and 6,400 local preachers, 15 active bishops and 1 retired bishop. There are 81 annual conferences, 7,500 churches, 2,750 parsonages, 24 schools, with property, the total value of which is more than $12,500,000.

        In 1844, plans were laid for the first school--a manual labor school--near Columbus, Ohio, and in 1863, one of its bishops bought Wilberforce University, now the oldest and one of the largest Negro institutions of higher learning in America. Since then an institution of learning has been established by the Church, in nearly every State in the South: Allen University, Columbia, S. C.; Morris Brown University, Atlanta, Ga.; Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla.; Payne University, Selma, Ala.; Campbell College, Jackson, Miss; Lampton College, Alexandria, La.; Paul Quinn College, Waco, Tex.; Shorter College, Little Rock, Ark.; Turner College, Shelbyville, Tenn.; Kittrell College, Kittrell, N. C.; Western University, Quindaro, Kans.; Wayman Institute, Harrodsburg, Ky. Besides these institutions there are several high school sand elementary schools, both in America and in foreign countries. All of these institutions except Western University, Wilberforce and Kittrell College are named for some one of the forty-one bishops who have served the church since 1816.

        In 1824, the first missionaries went to Hayti; in 1848 the Missionary Department was originated and in 1864 put into actual operation. In 1891, the first bishop visited West Africa; in 1898, the first bishop went to South Africa. Today there are more than a hundred missionaries and native workers in these foreign lands, where there are a half dozen schools and the membership numbers more than 25,000 persons. Many of the native sons and daughters of Africa have been brought to America and educated in the Church schools to return to their home for work among their kinsmen.

        In 1841, the first magazine was published, but did not last very long. In 1852, "The Christian Recorder," a weekly newspaper was established as the official organ and has been maintained ever since. Other weekly publications are the "Southern Christian Recorder," Columbus, Ga.; "The Western Christian Recorder," Kansas City, Mo., also "The Women's Missionary Recorder" (monthly), Columbia, S. C.; "The Voice of Missions" (monthly), New York; the "A. M. E. Review" (quarterly), Philadelphia; and numerous other publications for Sunday school and young people's society and local church work.

        In 1872, the Financial Department, or central treasury, now located in Washington, D. C., was established to collect one dollar, called Dollar Money, from each member, for general purposes. The first year, 1872-3, the income was $20,801. It has steadily increased until it is more than $210,000 for the present year, 1915-16. This money pays the salaries of the bishops and general officers, pensions for widows, of bishops and ministers, children under fourteen years of age of deceased bishops and ministers, superannuated ministers. A part of it, together with the collections from the missionary department, pays for the missionaries, and ministers whose salaries are below the average, for education and other general purposes. (See Financial Department).

        In 1882, the Sunday School Department was organized. By it, all of the literature of the A. M. E. Sunday schools is edited and published. There are now 275,000 pupils, teachers and officers enrolled in the A. M. E. Sunday schools of the country, and the Sunday school department employs more than 60 persons in writing and publishing its literature. In 1892, the Church Extension Society was established, and from a small beginning has extended the church by aiding small societies to build churches, and rescuing debtburdened churches from sale to the amount of more than $381,000 both in this country and in foreign countries.

        The A. M. E. Church has successfully solved the problems of Negro organization from the religious side. In nearly every city in the country, there are churches, and in the larger cities, property valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars. The biggest problem before the church today is that of ministerial training. There must come into the ministry about 500 new preachers each year. The necessity for training is greater today than in the past, when the appeal was simple, as the experience and opportunity of the people were meagre. But with increasing education, increasing wealth, travel, business, and other interests, the religious appeal to the Negro must change. To meet this changed condition is the greatest problem of this Church. Ministerial education will occupy a large part of the constructive work of the future.

        The General Conference which met in Philadelphia to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary probably drew together the largest number of talented Negroes ever assembled at one place and time in the history of the country. The six hundred and fifty delegates comprised both ministers and laymen from every State in the Union, where there is any considerable Negro population, from West Africa, South Africa, Canada, South America, and the West Indies, and represented the popular leaders of the Negro race. See list of delegates to the Centennial General Conference in the Appendix.


Page 7

What Has African Methodism To Say For Itself

By J. T. Jenifer
Historian of the A. M. E. Church.

"Having obtained help of God, we continue until this day,"--Acts xxvi, 22.


        STANDING, as it were, at the threshold of the Centennial of African Methodism, when the A. M. E. Church proposes to celebrate the one hundred years of its existence, we may, with a degree of propriety, raise the question--

What Has African Methodism to Say for Istelf?

        African Methodism did not spring from a spirit of ignorant obstinacy, neither was it a child of fanaticism and self-conceit, as has been sometimes charged. It arose as a protest against repression and ostracism at the altars of God. It entered its protest in 1787 with a purpose to erect its own altars and to encourage free religious thought and action.

        It sprang from a sense of duty, prompted by piety and pity. Its underlying motive was to save souls; to enlighten, evangelize and to lift up mankind. The founders saw their race ostracised, segregated, enslaved and crushed. They inscribed as an insignia upon their denominational banner--

"God Our Father, Man Our Brother, Christ Our Redeemer."

        The chief advice sent abroad by the founders of African Methodism to their race variety and neglected brethren, whom they saw enslaved, ostracised and crushed, was, to be good; to cheeish self-reliance; self help and with friendly aid, to cultivate the spirit of manly independence, with ths exercise of free relig these virtues they were to win.

        These purposes and messages were seriously needed by the American colored man, but the times were not very propitious. The colored people then had few churches and no schools; to educate them was a crime.

        In those days, every prospect to the black man, save the visions of faith, was dark. The slave clanked his chains in the land; the attempt to flee towards freedom, was to risk the sound of the bloodhounds' bray through the woods, and that upon American territory, under the sanction of the law.

        It was out of the sentiment of these times, that the United States Supreme Court, through its Chief Justice, Rodger B. Taney, decided that colored men had no rights which white men were bound to respect.

        It was at such times, pervaded by such sentiments, that, in 1816, sixteen pious and earnest men, loyal to God and religious liberty, met at Philadelphia in April, and organized the African Methodist Episcopal Church. They were Daniel Coker, Richard Williams, Henry Harding, Edward Williamson, Stephen Hall, Nicholson Gilliard, from Maryland; Richard Allen, Clayton Durham, Jacob Tapsico, James Chapman and Thomas Webster, from Philadelphia; Peter Spencer, from Delaware; Jacob Marsh, William Anderson, Edward Jackson, of Pennsylvania, and Peter Cuff, of New Jersey, making sixteen.

        These men organized the first conventional General Conference, which has become the mother of seventy-nine annual conferences. To preside over and superintend the work of the Church, when assembled in General Conference, they have elected and consecrated thirty-nine bishops.

        Thus, it is seen that the work has spread and is recognized among the other religious world powers, as co-partners in the world's evangelization.

        Richard Allen was the leader of those immortal sixteen founders, but

Who was Richard Allen, and What Did He Do?

        Every period in the history of the world's advancement has had its chief character to champion great principles and to lead on important reforms. These characters are the pioneers of new departures for the betterment of the condition of mankind. Sometimes these characters come from the summit of society, but, more frequently, they spring from the rank and file of the plain people--generally from obscurity, the cradle of genius. All parts of the globe have been their birthplaces; every race variety has produced them.


Page 8

        They have come in their times and at the places that great emergencies demanded of them, and, in a majority of cases, whatever has been the special line of their effort, by the things which these leaders make possible to others, they have builded better than they knew, and counseled wiser than they understood. These facts indicate that behind all proper advancement is the one, eternal- ever-present, infinitely wise, and all controlling first cause; and that first cause is God, the Ruler of the universe.

        Among these characters, who have been raised up to lead on a great religious reform, was one of our own race variety, a Negro, Richard Allen, of Philadelphia, Pa.

Who Was Richard Allen, and What Did He Do?

        In 1760, there lived in Philadelphia, Pa., on Fourth Street, near Spruce, in a house of one Benjamin Chew, a man and wife, both held as slaves. On the 14th day of February, these two had born unto them a son, whom they called Richard. The parents of Richard, with three other slaves, were sold into Delaware, to one Mr. Stokely.

        In 1777, Richard embraced religion and joined the Methodist Episcopal Church, at seventeen years of age. At that time the Methodist Church was as unpopular as its colored member. In 1782, Richard was licensed to preach, being twenty-two years old.

        Such was his thirst for liberty, he purchased his freedom and returned to Philadelphia in 1786, and joined St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church, where, where he was permitted to preach to the colored people at the 5 o'clock meetings. Richard Allen was the first colored man licensed to preach in the Methodist Episcopal Church in this country. He was the traveling companion of Bishop Asbury, and tradition says that he was present at the organization of the historic Christmas Conference held in Lovely Lane, Baltimore, Md., 1784.

        Through Richard's influence, the colored members of St. George's Church greatly increased; so much that their white brethren were greatly annoyed and began to feel that their colored brethren were in their way. Tradition says that the first evidence of this was that "the officers passed a rule compelling their colored members to sit but one in a pew, and that next to the wall."

        This plan did not work well, for the building soon became lined with colored members. They then said that they should go into the gallery. This order was complied with, then they went up next to the pulpit and, when things waxed warm, as was often the case with Methodists in those days, the colored brethren became a little noisy. They were then ordered to the rear gallery, where many of them refused to remain.

        In 1787, the colored people of Philadelphia, connected with St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church, met to consider the unkind treatment received at the hands of their white brethren.

        Caste in the church was so intense, and prejudice at the altar of God so arrogant, that while at prayers, the colored brethren were pulled off their knees and ordered to the back part of the house. Richard Allen said, "If you will wait until prayers are over, I will bother you no more."

        For this, and other unkind treatment, they resolved to withdraw from their white brethren. A committee, consisting of Richard Allen, Absalom Jones, William Gray and William Wilcher, were appointed to select and purchase a lot with a view of building a house where they might worship God with the freedom which their conscience dictated.

        Richard Allen bargained for a lot on the corner of Sixth and Lombard Streets. But, a majority of his committee having selected a lot on Locust Street, those who came out of St. George's Church decided to erect a house upon it. Richard Allen assisted them, and when they began to build, after prayer, he took out the first shovel of dirt from the foundation. At the meeting of the little society, to choose what religious society they should connect themselves with, all but Richard Allen and Absalom Jones, decided in favor of the Church of England--the Episcopal.

        The house was finished and dedicated, and Richard Allen was invited to become the pastor, but he refused, saying: "I am a Methodist, I think that the doctrines and simple forms of spiritual worship of the Methodist suit the colored people best." Having himself bargained for the lot on the corner of Sixth and Lombard Street sand paid for it, Richard Allen purchased Simms' old blacksmith shop, hauled it on the lot, and fixed it up as a house of worship.

        Those of the Methodist faith soon gathered about him, and the "Allenites" as they are called, increased in numbers daily. Then began a tedious series of expensive lawsuits, and perplexing opposition from their white brethren, who tried to get their property. Finally, a victory was gained in the courts, a charter obtained from the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, a new house of worship was erected, which in 1794 was opened, dedicated by Bishop Asbury, and called "Bethel." This was the origin of African Methodism.

        Twenty-nine years after, in 1816, a convention of colored Methodists from several States, who were having similar grievances, assembled at Philadelphia, in April, organized the first General Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church its connectional form, and Richard Allen was elected and ordained bishop, being the first Negro bishop in America.

What Has African Methodism to Say for its Origin?

        I believe that God led the sainted Allen to consider the wretched condition of his people, under the weight of neglect, ostracism and religious repression, to provide for them and coming generations, a place of divine worship--a place where they might find freedom from caste in the sanctuary of God, and where the gospel of Christ, unhampered, might be preached in its fullness, and its richness to all persons, without regard to race or color.

        These were times that tried men's souls; times when, for a gathering of colored people to be found assembled without the presence of a white man, was considered a conspiracy and a crime. Yet, with undaunted courage, true to his convictions, this holy man of God, with heavenly zeal, launched his little craft upon the waters, lashing and heaving with caste and color prejudice in society, church and state, with an intensity that swept all before it, which bore the impress of Africa. Is it to be thought out of order, therefore, that Richard Allen and his followers should refuse to submit to such treatment at the altar of God, with the lessons of the war of the Revolution so vividly in their memories? The struggle of 1776 for national independence had opened a new era in the political world. The people of this country had lately


Page 9

passed through a hot conflict with England for civil and political liberty.

        The spirit of liberty was pervading the air. Eleven years had only served to justify the wisdom of the struggle for Colonial independence. Hence, such times were not favorable for pulling people from their knees, while at prayer in the house of God. African Methodism had its origin, therefore, in stirring times in politics as well as in religion.

        Upon these troubled waters, with opposition and misrepresentations without any anxiety within, one hundred and twenty-nine years ago, in November, this small African Methodist bark set sail down the century, with her canvas unfurled to heavenly breezes, and her colors at the masthead. "God our Father, Christ our Saviour, Man our Brother," she has come to us, the African Methodist Episcopal Church of today.

        Many and marvelous have been the changes in the politics and in the religion of the country, affecting the nation and race. All who knew Richard Allen have joined him in the better land. None of the founders of our beloved Zion are here. Generation has followed generation, and millions have passed through our Zion, brushed the dews of Jordan and joined the hosts in the heavenly Canaan.

        The Allen movement was not the impulse of an obstinate individuality; it was the promptings of pity, patriotism and piety, exerted through manly independence. Such an independence as protests against caste at the altar of God, and demands free religious thought, action and worship. What event in the early history of the colored people has given to the American Negro higher incentives and more encouragement in efforts at self-help, than the spirit and achievements of Richard Allen and his followers?

        There were times in its history, when there were no church or school houses among its followers, no books nor connectional journals, but, her altar fires never were suffered to go out.

        In many places the religious leader was the pious patriarch of the plantation; the leader of the community by his devout and Godly speech. With these, "the mother in the cabin" who held and encouraged the community prayer meeting, nurtured the infant churches until the circuit preacher arrived.

        The log hut used for the church house, few and far between, in which, at stated periods, were held religious meetings, did much to encourage and unite the people, as well as to strengthen the cause. In connection with these were the grove camp meetings in the summer season, where the multitudes gathered for miles around. It was here they assembled, inspired by the enchantments of nature; refreshed by cooling breezes, permeated with the fragrance from foliage and flowers of the fields beyond. It was amid the simplicities that the feelings of the soul were inspired for edifying worship and devotion and, under these conditions, the preacher of the occasion, often without culture or book knowledge, but having a strong grip upon his faith in God, inspired by visions of spiritual things, proclaimed with power, the plain and pointed truths of the gospel, and Christian duty, as he believed and felt.

        It was in these temples the people worshiped with devout hearts, conscious of the nearness of the omnipresent and gracious God. It is easy to surmise that visions of the heavenly country were opened to the view of those pious and plain people, who with pathos, harmony and melody, chanted the stanzas:


                         "There is a land of pure delight,
                         Where saints immortal reign;
                         Infinite day excludes the night,
                         And pleasures banish pain."

        Looking away from their burdens and sorrows, they saw


                         "Sweet fields beyond the swelling flood
                         Stand dressed in living green,
                         Where generous fruits that never fail
                         On trees immortal grow."

        It was along these lines, where the altar fires were kept continually burning. It was in these epochs of the Church history, where its sturdy stock was nurtured, whose heredity gave to the A. M. E. Church of today the material composed of men and women, who under better conditions and appliances, are inspired to such noble endeavors, and to accomplish such marvelous achievements.

The Spread Aboard

        From Philadelphia, its cradle, in 1787, African Methodism went to Baltimore and organized in 1816. William Lambert, a Missionary from Philadelphia, planted the African Methodist banner on Mott Street, in New York City, in 1819.

        David Smith, a young Evangelist of Maryland, planted a mission seed in Georgetown; organized Israel Church in a rope walk on Third Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C., on November 14, 1828. Crossing the Allegheny mountains westward, he became acquainted with James and George Coleman and Abraham Lewis, at Pittsburgh, Pa., converted them, and planted a mission there in 1834.

        Bishop Morris Brown organized the Ohio Conference, our Western work, at Hillsboro, Ohio, in 1830, and the Canada Conference at Toronto, in 1840.

        Rev. William Paul Quinn, who joined the Philadelphia Conference May, 1833, was a member of the Pittsburgh Conference in 1840, and on September 5th, was appointed over the Pittsburgh circuit. On October 2, 1840, Bishop Morris Brown organized the Indiana Conference, at Blue River; N. J. Wilkerson, secretary. William Paul Quinn was put in charge of Brooklyn circuit, Ill., and was also given the oversight of all the circuits of the Indiana Conference. In the same year, 1840, he was appointed by the General Conference as the general missionary, to "plant the A. M. E. Church in the far West."

        He reported to the General Conference of 1844, as follows:

        "A brief outline of the rise and progress of the missions in the West, viz.: Number of colored inhabitants of the State of Illinois, 1800; churches established, 47; communicants, 1080; local preachers, 47; traveling preachers, 20; traveling elders, 7; lay members, 2000; Sunday schools, 40; pupils in schools, 920; teachers, 40; Sunday school scholars, 2000; Sunday school teachers, 200; teachers in public schools, 100; temperance societies, 40; camp meetings held, 17. Our people," reported he, "in these States are chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits."

        This report, it is thought, induced the General Conference, in May, 1844, to elect and ordain William Paul Quinn a bishop of the A. M. E. Church.

        The Missouri Annual Conference was organized at Louisville, Ky., September, 1855, with Rev. D. A.


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Payne, D. D., presiding. Rev. John M. Brown, then pastor at New Orleans, secretary.

        Bishop Quinn had sent Rev. J. M. Brown to New Orleans before the war. He organized the St. James A. M. E. Church, and two other missions in that city.

Far East to New England

        Rev. Charles Burch carried African Methodism to New England and planted a mission at New Haven, in 1830. Rev. Noah C. W. Cannon organized it on Anderson Street, Boston, Mass., in 1830, and from thence it spread over the New England States.

The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the Far West

        African Methodism on the Pacific Coast was planted by several local preachers, among whom were James Roswell Brown, of Washington, D. C.; Uriah Stokes, of Baltimore; Barney Fletcher and Jeremiah B. Saunderson, of Massachusetts. Rev. Thomas M. D. Ward, of the New England Conference, was assigned to the oversight of the mission field on the Pacific Coast, in 1854.

        The California Annual Conference was organized April 6, 1865, in the Powell Street A. M. E. Church, Bishop J. P. Campbell, presiding; J. B. Saunderson, secretary. At this session, James H. Hubbard, Peter R. Green and John T. Jenifer were ordained deacons--the first Negroes ordained on the Pacific Coast.

The Advent of African Methodism in Arkansas and Indian Territory

        The first African M. E. Society in the State of Arkansas was organized by Local Deacon Nathan Warren, at Little Rock, in 1866, in the home of Mother Lucy Elrod, and her husband, Anthony Elrod, was the first class leader and steward. Revs. Peter Donty and Levi F. Carter were the first pastors.

        The Arkansas Annual Conference was organized at Little Rock, November 9, 1868. Rt. Rev. J. P. Campbell presiding. Willitm A. Rector, a layman, acted as secretary.

        African Methodist Missionary work among the Indians in the Indian Territory, was begun when Aaron T. Gillett was sent from the Arkansas Annual Conference as a missionary in 1870.

        Elder James F. A. Sisson, a white brother, was transferred from the Georgia A. M. E. Conference and was appointed as presiding elder by Bishop John M. Brown, over the Pulaski District, which included the Indian Territory, also. This brother labored assiduously with George T. Rutherford, Granville Ryles and others, to spread the African M. E. Church among the several Indian tribes.

        Bishop T. M. D. Ward organized the Indian African M. E. Conference on October 25, 1879, in the home of Brother Billy Kile, at Yellow Springs, Indian Territory. Thus Ham began in an organized way to evangelize Japhet.

The Advent of African Methodism Southwestward

        It is evidenced by many facts that the spirit and fame of African Methodism had reached as far South as South Carolina in the early thirties. It is this fact that drew Rev. Morris Brown North to be ordained deacon in 1817, but the influence of American slavery and its pernicious laws prevented this species of Negro Christianity spreading in Southern territory.

        But, "God's clock struck the hour," as Dr. Ransom has put it. The War of the Rebellion came; slavery was shot to death; emancipation came and the Southern territory was made fertile soil for African Methodist gospel seed.

        The Baltimore Conference, by resolution offered by Elder A. W. Wayman, resolved to enter with missionaries the Southern field in 1863. Revs. James Lynch and J. D. S. Hall, of New York Conference, were appointed, and who sailed from New York on May 29, 1863. They commenced their operations at Hilton's Head, having as their co-laborers Rev. Wm. G. Stewart and Thos. W. Long. These were followed soon after by Bishop Wayman and Rev. Elisha Weaver, who went as far as Savannah, Ga., in 1865. Richmond had fallen. (See Handy's History.) Bishop D. A. Payne, with Elders James A. Handy, Licentiates; James H. A. Johnson and T. G. Stewart, organized at Charleston, S. C., in the colored Presbyterian Church, the South Carolina Conference of the A. M. E. Church. They were joined several days after by Elder Richard H. Cain and A. L. Stanford, of New York, and George A. Rue, of New England.

        One year later, May 9, 1866, Bishop D. A. Payne, with Elder Handy at their head, with twelve preachers, left Wilmington, N. C., for Savannah, Ga., to hold the first session of the South Carolina Conference, at which forty itinerant preachers were ordained. Fourteen elders and seven superintendents were appointed to oversee the work. Elders Henry McNeal Turner and A. L. Stanford, for Georgia; Elder Richard H. Cain and A. T. Carr, for South Carolina, and Elder Charles H. Pierce, for Florida.

        From these beginnings have grown and spread the gigantic and vigorous branch of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in the South and West. Thus far, we have traced the foot-steps of the pioneers over the four cardinal points of the North American continent.

Our Foreign Field

        The pioneers were not contented to confine the spirit of the Church of Richard Allen to the American continent, they had the courage to carry it abroad. Rev. Daniel Coker, one of the original sixteen founder fathers, carried African Methodism to West Africa, with the original colony in 1819, where we now have churches, missions, conference, preachers, schools and a resident bishop.

        The Baltimore Conference sent accredited missionaries to Hayti in 1827 in the person of Scipio Beans. In 1830, the little church at Samana, Santo Domingo, sent Rev. Jacob Robinson and Isaac Miller with accredited petitions to be recognized by the African M. E. Church in America.

        Rev. C. W. Moselle, an accredited missionary of the A. M. E. Church, with his sainted wife, labored from 1876 to 1884 at Port au Prince, Hayti, preaching and teaching. John Hurst, now bishop, with George Dorce, Joseph Meves and Jean Bullot, were sent to Wilberforce University to be trained under the department of missions for the foreign fields.

        Rev. R. A. Sealy, D. D., of Georgetown, Demarara, has been superintendent of the A. M. E. Mission work for many years in the West Indies.

        Bishop C. S. Smith was assigned to the oversight of the West Indian work in 1900, and held sessions of conferences at Georgetown, and with British America and South America in 1901.


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        Bishop B. F. Lee, visiting Demarara, S. A., in 1899, finding young Peter Luckie, a promising young man, induced him to go to Wilberforce University. He was educated under the Missionary Department and returned to that field a graduated missionary gospel minister.

South Africa

        When the Ethiopians of South Africa heard of the A. M. E. Church, St. Peter's Church, in Pretoria, South Africa, of which Rev. Joseph M. Kanyane was pastor, sent Rev. J. M. Duane, in 1896, to the A. M. E. General Conference at Wilmington, N. C., praying recognition and membership. He was received by Bishop H. M. Turner and Missionary Secretary H. B. Parks and Rev. Joseph S. Flipper, at Atlanta, Ga., July 12, 1896, into the A. M. E. connection in due form. Then Bishop Turner went to South Africa and organized the Cape Colony South African Annual Conference in 1896 with 7175 members. Now they have churches, conferences, schools, pupils and resident bishop. Hence it is seen that African Methodism, since its birth, has spread with efficiency and acceptance from east, west, north and south.

        The islands of the sea sought the light also, as they caught the joyful sound. Under the influences of the grace of God, as administered to thousands at the hands of African Methodist preachers and bishops, the great South has arisen since freedom in her might, in response to the call to a higher, stronger and efficient manhood and womanhood.

        Thus we have traced very scantily the initial steps of the pioneers of African Methodists, as they sought to reach, enlighten, evangelize and lift up the benighted sons of Africa.

        Conscious always of forces seeking to oppose and destroy, they seldom assembled in conference preliminary services without opening with the hymn:


                         "And are we yet alive
                         And see each other's face?
                         Glory and praise to Jesus give
                         For His redeeming grace."

        Nor were they ever unmindful of the weighty responsibility involved in the momentous task they had undertaken, as they evidenced it when at nearly every business meeting was heard:


                         "A charge to keep I have,
                         A God to glorify;
                         A never dying soul to save,
                         And fit it for the sky."

An Exemplary Incentive for Organized Effort

        The purpose in mind of the founder father of African Methodism, as stated above, was, among other things, to exemplify in the black man the power of self-reliance, self-help by the exercise of free religious thought with executive efficiency. Hence, her spirit and practices have been, at all times and places, to encourage fraternal and economic organizations among the colored race; so that, upon any proper occasion, she throws open her churches and halls for funerals, anniversaries and conventions.

        But note, we are far from making the claim that the African Methodist Episcopal Church has been the sole agency in the religious and educational enlightenment and uplift of the colored race variety. We do not forget the vast and efficient work along these lines of the Zion A. M. E. Church, the Baptist Church, the Methodist Episcopal, the C. M. E., the Congregational, the Presbyterian and Catholic churches--branches of the Church of Jesus Christ.

        James Varick, of the Zion; Miles, of the C. M. E. Church, with other founders and leaders, live in history and heaven, as well as Richard Allen and his compeers.

Executive Efficiency

        The closing decade of its century of connectional activities shows no decline, but is characterized by evidences of broadened and more efficient efforts and results.

        1. IN HER DEPARTMENT OF MISSIONS there is greater zeal for the cause of missions, local and foreign, in the churches and the conferences. The devout women of the church are intensely active, holding up the hands of the wide-awake secretary at its head. More moneys are raised, both for home and foreign fields; more missions planted, and its laborers better provided for.

        The secretary visits the foreign fields, and gives the connection a mission lesson book and ably edited "Voice of Missions." Hence, we are more and yet more enlightened, awakening to the fact that we are our brother's keeper.

        2. THE CHURCH EXTENSION. The people are becoming more and more enlightened as to the usefulness and power of this arm of the church. More funds are given, more poor missions and feeble churches aided, more embarrassed debt-burdened valuable property relieved and saved. And the realty in property values belonging to the connection is evidenced in this department, as in none other. And the church has shown good judgment in letting its present Secretary, Dr. B. F. Watson, remain long enough as its manager to gain, by experience, that efficiency, without which no executive head can reach the requirements, nor his departments its possibilities. Never have there been such surprising amounts raised by single efforts in cash, rallies to clear off mortgage debts, as are being done today.

        3. THE DEPARTMENT OF CONNECTIONAL EDUCATION evidences a similar spirit. In addition to the twenty-four connectional schools, two more in Georgia, and two in Africa, are recorded. Morris Brown University, of Atlanta, Ga., has its new Flipper Hall, and Wilberforce University its new Girls' Dormitory, costing $55,000.

        In Georgia, at Morris Brown, and at Waco, Texas, Bishop Smith, with his co-workers, surprised us all by the cash raised to clear those schools of their indebtedness. Now, Bishop John Hurst, with his forces, is putting new life in Edward Waters College, at Jacksonville, Florida. Thus, the Georgia regulars and Wilberforce veterans and the Florida fliers have set the connection a pace.

        There is an increase of pupils in all of our connectional schools. Their graduates are snatching honors from other leading colleges. The church is no longer dependent solely upon other scholastic sources to supply her faculties with instruction in the higher branches, but she now furnishes them for her own and other schools.

        The writer is sure that Dr. A. S. Jackson, A. M., Commissioner of Connectional Education, will come to the General Conference in 1916 reporting larger amounts collected for education.

        4. THE DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE. In spite of the limited fields of employment open to our people,


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and the hard times, with a few exceptions each annual conference session reports an increase of dollar money. If it were possible to show the aggregated amounts raised in all the local charges, we should scarcely credit the correct amounts stated. But it is interesting to note that these labors result, not simply in cash raising, but large increases in membership as well. Evidencing the fact that cash for revenue and grace, do not antagonize each other when a righteous purpose is back of them.

        5. THE PUBLISHING DEPARTMENT. The Book Concern, the oldest, mooted in 1817, has not grown with equal efficiency in comparison with the growth of connectional intelligence. Yet it has remained through the vicissitudes, giving us the Discipline, Hymn Books and Christian Recorder, with other books, helping the church to tell its own story, until now, under the management of Rev. J. I. Lowe, D. D., new vitality and efficiency are seen, so that with the scholarly R. R. Wright, B. D., Ph. D., editing the Recorder; R. C. Ransom, D. D., editing the A. M. E. Review; Editors G. W. Allen, D. D., of the Southern Christian Recorder; J. Frank McDonald, D. D., with the Western Recorder; the Georgia African Methodist, Paul Quinn Weekly, the House of Protection and the Chicago Recorder, together with the number of books bought and read, the world has evidences that the African Methodist Episcopal Church is not dying nor retrograding from mental stagnation.

        6. THE JUVENILE DEPARTMENT. Our Sunday schools are more largely attended, have better trained instructors and efficient superintendents, better graded system of lesson studies and superior class of music. The moneys raised under the management of this department have enabled its efficient Secretary-Treasurer, Ira T. Bryant, LL. B., to erect the most completely equipped and largest printing house among colored people in the United States.

        Akin to this in purpose and work is the Allen Christian Endeavor, with its literature and organ, The Endeavorer, under its efficient manager, Rev. Julian C. Caldwell, D. D., by which we are enabled to husband the youthful energy, ambition and tact in service for Christ and the church.

        There are three additional events in the history of African Methodism, which evidence that it is moving in the spirit of progress, we note among the above, viz.:

        1. Rev. J. W. Rankin, Missionary Secretary, visited the foreign field, West Africa, in 1914; also that he, with Bishop Hurst, visited Jamaica in 1915, and planted the A. M. E. Church by receiving into the connection representatives of several denominations.

        2. The Missionary Congress at Chicago, thus inaugurating a new missionary propaganda.

        3. The Educational Congress, held at Atlanta, Ga., July 8, 1914, under the joint management of the Sunday School Union and the Allen Christian Endeavor; Ira T. Bryant and Julian C. Caldwell, secretaries.

        Now, we may raise, at this point, the question--has there been good judgment shown, such as to justify the undertaking of the father founders of the African Methodist Episcopal Church? Let a few statistical facts answer:

African M. E. Church Came Out 1878; Founded, 1816.

        
Members in the United States 620,000
Missionary Field 25,000
Bishops ordained 39
Active Bishops 13
Pastors 6,554
Local preachers 6,437
Number of churches 6,000
Number of parsonages 2.748
Sunday school members 231,828
Teachers and officers 5,851
Books in Library 150,000
Church schools in United States 16
Church schools in West Indies 2
Church schools in West Africa 3
Church schools in South Africa 3
Students in Missionary Schools 4,725
Annual conferences 79
Publishing Houses 2
Newspapers 6

        The A. M. E. Church raises, per annum, for trustees and stewards' departments, $2,472,298.42; raises, annually, for missions, home and foreign, $75,000; for education, $1,000,000; according to the United States Census, has church property valued at $11,303,882.

        The Church is operating in the United States, Canada, West Indies, South and West Africa, Hayti and San Domingo, and South America.

-- From the A. M. E. Review, January, 1916.


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Chronology of African Methodism

By R. R. Wright, Jr.


Page 17

Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church

        ALLEN, RICHARD, the first bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born February 14, 1760, a slave of Benjamin Chew, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At an early age he, with his father, mother and three other children, was sold into the state of Delaware, where, on a farm in the neighborhood of Dover, he was brought up. About 1777 he was converted and soon afterwards, about 1780, began to preach. His religion was of such a genuine sort that it affected every department

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP RICHARD ALLEN.

of his life. As a result his master permitted prayer meeting and preaching in his house, and was himself converted. The master showed his conversion by making it possible for his slaves to become free. Accordingly Richard Allen and his brother bought their freedom for $2000 Continental money. Richard Allen left his master and began to stir for himself, with a job of cutting cord wood; then he was employed at $50 (Continental money) a month in a brick yard; then he worked as a day laborer; then as a teamster hauling salt during the Revolutionary War from Rehobar, Sussex County, Delaware. During all of this time he preached whenever he could. After he had acquired experience he began to travel from place to place preaching. Like Paul, he worked with his hands for his own support as he preached. In the fall of 1783 he was in Wilmington, Delaware; later and until spring of 1784 he traveled and preached in New Jersey; later in 1784 he traveled and preached in Pennsylvania, going to Radnor, Lancaster, York and other points. Thence he went to Baltimore, where, December, 1784, he was present at the first general conference of Methodism in America, and met the leaders. In 1785 he traveled and preached with Rev. Richard Watcoat on Baltimore Circuit, and held meetings in "Methodist Alley," Baltimore, Maryland. Bishop Asbury recognized Richard Allen's talent and frequently gave him assignments to preach. The latter part of 1785 found him again at Radnor. In February, 1786, he came to Philadelphia and preached at St. George Methodist Church and at different places in that city where there was then a large colored population. He said, "I soon saw a large field open in seeking and instructing my African brethren, who had been a long forgotten people, and few of them attended public worship." He started prayer meetings in Philadelphia and soon had 42 members. As early as 1786 he proposed a separate place of worship for the colored people, but the whites opposed this, and only three colored brethren favored the plan. But because of Allen's power the number of colored worshippers at St. George grew very large, and soon they were separated from the whites, who did not want them with them or away from them. The crisis came one Sunday morning when the sexton ordered the colored people to the gallery. But some made a mistake in the seats. Bishop Allen thus narrates it, "He told us to go, and we would see where to sit. We expected to take the seats over the ones we formerly occupied below, not knowing any better. We took those seats. Meeting had begun, and they were nearly done singing, and just as we got to the seats, the elder said, 'Let us pray.' We had not been long upon our knees before I heard considerable scuffling and low talking. I raised my head up and saw one of the trustees, H-- M--, having hold of the Rev. Absalom Jones, pulling him off of his knees, and saving, 'You must get up--you must not kneel here.' Mr. Jones replied, 'Wait till prayer is over.' Mr. H-- M-- said, 'No, you must get up now, or I will call for aid and force you away.' Mr. Jones said, 'Wait until prayer is over and I will get up and trouble you no more.' With that he beckoned to one of the other trustees, Mr. L-- S-- to come to his assistance. He came, and went to William White to pull him up. By this time prayer was over, and we all
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went out of the church in a body, and they were no more plagued with us in the church." Thus began the movement for an independent African Church. In 1787 the "Free African Society" was started by Richard Allen and Absalom Jones. Later Absalom Jones began the African Protestant Episcopal Church of st. Thomas, but the majority of the people remained Methodist and stayed with Richard Allen, worshipping in a house. The first property bought was on Lombard Street near 6th. But this property was not accepted by the majority of the committee. So Richard Allen kept it. After Allen and Jones separated, Allen purchased an old building used as a blacksmith shop and moved it on this lot. On July 1794 this church was dedicated by Bishop Asbury. In this church there was organized a Sunday school and a day and night school, and regular ministers were sent by the Methodist Conference. In 1799 Bishop Asbury ordained Richard Allen deacon, and in 1816 he was ordained elder.

        Other African churches had begun in much the same way in other parts of the country. Many of these were, like Bethel, under the Methodist Conference, but were dissatisfied. The organizing genius of Richard Allen got many of these together and in April, 1816 they held their first convention in Philadelphia and formed the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Richard Allen was elected bishop and ordained April 11, 1816. He served until his death, March 26, 1831. In 1817 he published the first discipline. Richard Allen was a man of independent character as shown by his conception of religion, by his purchasing his freedom, by his unwillingness to have others support him, by his unwillingness to travel as a preacher's assistant in the South and sleep in his carriage at night, by his resentment of the treatment of his people at St. George. He was a thrifty man. As a slave he did more work than other slaves; he always could find work; he seemed to have been a good trader; he owned several teams when Bethel was established though he had been in Philadelphia but a short while. He was a man of strict integrity; when a slave he delivered a message, his word was taken and he did not have to bear a note with his master's signature. When the first property was purchased for the African Church, though a majority of the committee wanted to give up the property and did do so, Allen had given his word, and therefore kept it. And this should ever be remembered in connection with the oldest piece of property owned by any Negro organization in the country--the first bond on it was Richard Allen's word.

        His remains lie buried in Bethel Church, Philadelphia.

        Abington, Rev. C. W., third son of Peter and Lucinda Abington, was born near Roanoke, Va., March 22, 1872. His father died before he was four years old, and the responsibility of providing for six small children fell upon the widowed mother, thus the boy was early in life taught the value of self help and self reliance. His uncle, Rev. William Frantz, both a preacher and a teacher, adopted him, but on account of poor health could not long keep him. Finally Rev. P. M. Onley, of Cumberland City, Md., took charge of him. Young Abington had evidenced signs of ability and Elder Onley and his wife, endeavored to give him the best training possible. But Mr. Onley was stricken with paralysis, and in 1885 young Abington began to shift for himself. He went first to Knoxville, Tenn., then to Chattanooga, where he continued his studies along with his work. He was converted in 1892 and joined Warren Chapel A. M. E. Church, Chattanooga, and despite the aversion to the ministry he was unable to resist. He was licensed to exhort shortly after his conversion by Rev. Jas. T. Gilmore, and licensed to preach by Rev. Dr. T. B. Caldwell. After studying some time in Chattanooga he entered Gammon Theological Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., from which he graduated with honors in the class of 1898, and at once was given a mission on Ft. Wood, Chattanooga, and in his

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. W. ABINGTON.

few months'stay he remodeled and beautified the church building, organized a choir and elevated the church service. At the annual Conference in 1898 he was transferred to the Oklahoma Conference and stationed at Guthrie, Okla., remaining five years, adding many people to the church and building the first pressed brick church owned by colored people in Oklahoma, also purchasing the property adjoining the church for a parsonage. To him was due also the credit for the Y. M. C. L. in Guthrie. He was transferred in 1904 to the Central Texas Conference and stationed at Metropolitan Church, Austin, Texas, a church erected by Bishop Grant. It was burdened with debts, many dating back fourteen years, and the building had also become almost a total wreck. But in a short while all of the old debts were discharged, confidence built up, the building entirely remodeled and provided with all modern improvements and comforts including an adequate heating plant, and the citizens of Austin, without regard to denomination, gave substantial recognition of his splendid services. At the close of his five years he was given what was then said to be the greatest ovation ever accorded a retiring minister in Austin, regardless of race variety. From Austin Rev. Abington was transferred to the Northeast Texas Conference and stationed at Bethel Church, Dallas, which was erected by Bishop Armstrong. He remained at Dallas for five years, being more popular at the end than at the beginning. The Dallas Express, a local journal, said of his pastorate, "it is conceded to be the most
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successful administration, viewed from every angle, in the history of the church, and this verdict is acquiesced in by persons who have held membership in the church for more than thirty years. Each year the church has extended its influence in the community. Aside from paying the mortgage debts and buying the house and lot adjoining the church property, and paying for it excepting one note, $150.00, not yet due, the building has been completely renovated and equipped with all modern conveniences and is unexcelled for beauty and comfort." Five hundred and thirty-seven members were received during the five years, most of whom were converted in the church meetings, and $24,569.05 was raised for all purposes, and the largest pipe organ in any colored church in the State was installed.

        From Dallas Rev. Abington was sent to Corsicana, where he is doing the same kind of work, being now in his second year. The Rev. Mr. Abington is a hard student, an eloquent and convincing preacher, a methodical pastor, a tireless worker and a lover of humanity. He received the degree of D.D. from Paul Quinn College in 1908. He was a delegate to the general conferences of 1912 and 1916, and a member of the Missionary Board.

        Adams, Revels Alcorn, was born in Vicksburg, Mississippi, February 28, 1869; the son of Rev. Henry Page and Caroline V. Adams, both of Mississippi, the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. R. A. ADAMS

former having come from Kentucky, and the latter from Virginia. His boyhood and youth were fraught with many discouraging circumstances.

        After completing the common school courses of his native State, he pursued the theological course at Payne Theological Seminary; then went into the active ministry, serving with success the various charges to which he has been appointed, adding large numbers to the church. Among others, he has served as pastor the leading charges in the following cities in Mississippi: Clarksdale, Brookhaven, Jackson, Natchez and Greenville; also Avery Church, Memphis, Tennessee. It was while serving the last named church, with a salary of $1800.00, that Dr. Adams answered the call to the work of an evangelist, in which he has been so eminently successful. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Tanner, January 15, 1892, and elder by Bishop W. B. Derrick, December 10, 1896. For about ten years he resisted the voice within which called him and found excuses in favor of refusing the evangelistic field, but eventually he humbled himself to the will of God, and as a result into his life has come the joy of doing service for humanity and helping thousands to find the peace which world giveth not.

        The following are some results of his evangelistic campaigns: at Natchez, Miss., 376 converts; Detroit, Mich., 600; Zanesville, Ohio, 140; Cincinnati, Ohio, 160; Boston, Mass., 84; Chicago, Ill., 800; Kansas City, Kansas, 250; Kansas City, Missouri, 300; Charleston, W. Va., 400. Dr. Adams also lectures on Social Purity, Sex Hygiene and Eugenics, and is a student of sociology. He is corresponding secretary of the New Evangelical Association, president of the National Home Purity League, editor of the Home Purity Magazine, author and publisher Cyclopedia of African Methodism in Mississippi and the new sensational book, "The Negro Girl," and composer of several musical productions.

        Dr. Adams signs; also plays the piano, organ, cornet and violin, and directs his own choirs in evangelistic campaigns.

        Alexander, Connie C., was born of slave parents, but devoted Christians, in Pulaski County, Arkansas, October 20, 1881. His mother, with whom he is now living and whom he supports, is a loyal Christian. His father, who died in 1912, was one of the industrious farmers in Arkansas, and had been a class-leader in

[ILLUSTRATION]
CONNIE CALVIN ALEXANDER

the African Methodist, Episcopal Church for thirty-five years.

        Mr. Alexander's education was received in the public schools in Pulaski County, near Little Rock, Arkansas, in the tribal schools in the Indian Territory (now Eastern Oklahoma), Philander Smith College, Little Rock, Arkansas, and the High School, Kansas City, Missouri. He was converted August 20, 1900, afterward joining the A. M. E. Church.

        In 1912 he was licensed to preach by the Rev. L. E. Nelson, of the North East Oklahoma Conference of the A. M. E. Church.


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        Alexander, Wellington Grenville, was born at Orange, Orange Co., Va., December 25, 1860, the first of seven children of Lewis and Celia Alexander, members of the A. M. E. Church. The family early after the war removed to the District of Columbia, where he attended the Government School, a Quaker school, the city public schools and Howard University. He also studied in and graduated from the Chautauqua Scientific and Literary Circle, Bishop J. H. Vincent, chancellor.

        Young Alexander professed religion and joined Mt. Pisgah A. M. E. Church during the pastorate of the

[ILLUSTRATION]
DR. W. G. ALEXANDER.

Rev. Jno. P. Cox, filling the positions of organist of the choir, teacher and superintendent of the Sunday School, class leader, trustee, steward and local preacher. He joined the Baltimore Conference May 9, 1879, holding its session at Union Bethel, now Metropolitan, under Bishop J. M. Brown. His first appointment was Queen Anne Circuit, Anne Arundel Co., Md. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Payne at Easton, Md., May, 1881, and elder by Bishop Payne, May, 1883. He has held the following appointments:

        West River, Md.; Frederick, Md.; Emanuel, Portsmouth, Va.; St. John, Montgomery, Ala.; St. John, Birmingham, Ala.; St. James, Columbus, Ga.; Bethel, Atlanta, Ga.; Stewart, Macon, Ga.; Campbell Chapel, Americus, Ga., and built the church at West River, Md., costing $3000; reduced the mortgage indebtedness at Frederick, Md., of $3000, one half; lifted mortgage at Portsmouth of $1000, at which place he built and furnished a parsonage costing $5500, paying over two-thirds of its cost; renovated the church at Montgomery at a cost of $2300, paying quite two-thirds of its cost. At St. James, Columbus, he paid $1700 on a debt of $3000; at Big Bethel, Atlanta, he reduced the mortgage of $32,000 to $17,000, tore down and rebuilt this great structure at an additional expense of $21,000, leaving only $3000 of this extra cost due. At St. John, Birmingham, Ala., he secured the deeds of this property by compromise suit, securing a two-story parsonage almost as a gift, which was improved, and on completion was worth $3500 to the Connection. He removed the debt of $1800 on Steward Church, Macon; Ga.; purchased the triangular lot adjoining, paying $1000 cash for it; secured by suit property of Armistead Bryant, valued at $4000. At Campbell Chapel, Americus, he remained six months, reducing the indebtedness $750. He has received into the church by revivals, etc., 3750; baptized 1800; was a delegate to the General Conference at Philadelphia, Pa., May, 1892; Wilmington, N. C., May, 1896; Columbus, O., May, 1900; Chicago, Ill., May, 1904; Philadelphia, 1916.

        Morris Brown College conferred upon him the degree of A.M., Wilberforce University, Ohio, the degree of D.D. Wellington, Jr. studied at Morris Brown College and Lincoln University; Florence was graduated as a trained nurse from Morris Brown College; Grant studied at Morris Brown College.

        He has been a contributor to the Christian and Southern Recorders, Voice of Missions, Voice of the People, New York and Atlanta Age, People's Advocate, Colored American. The following pamphlets have been written:

        "Living Words," "The Triumphant March of African Methodism," "The Man in the Pulpit, what he should be, what he should know." He has delivered the following addresses: "Richard Allen, the Pioneer in Negro-American Achievement," "The Negro-American in the Civilization of the Caucasian," "The Literary beauties of the Bible for lovers of Literature," "Payne, Crummall, Douglass, modern masters of the pulpit and platform," "The pulpit and the schoolroom in Negro-American Uplift," "Lectures on Biblical Archeology."

        He has set to music three of Bishop D. A. Payne's lyrics, which appear in his book, "Domestic Education." He is a Mason and Knight of Pythias.

        He was curator of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Va., for four years; a director of the Anti-Saloon League; a member of the World's Congress of Religions, Chicago, Ill.; of the Southern Sociological Congress; the National Geographic Society; president of the Southern Race Congress, Macon, Ga. For ten years he was dean and professor in Turner Theological Seminary, Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga. He served as Presiding Elder of the South Atlanta, Rome and Valdosta Districts A. M. E. Church, and fraternal messenger to the General Conference of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, Little Rock, Ark. He was elected to organize Young People's Christian Endeavor Societies throughout the A. M. E. Connection, but declined that he might rebuild the wrecked Big Bethel Church, Atlanta, Ga. He was elected president of Payne University, A. M. E., Selma, Ala., but declined He was voted for for Bishop at the General Conference at Columbus, Ohio.

        His wife, Mrs. Harriet Alexander, to whom he was married in Washington, D. C., May 9, 1876, has faithfully and courageously kept up with the work of her husband, and is a leading member of The Colored Women's Federation and other civic league clubs, and the Eastern Star Chapter. They own their own home at Atlanta, Ga.

        Dr. Alexander has lectured by invitation to such schools as Gammon Theological Seminary, Atlanta University, Clark University, Morris Brown University, Spelman. Atlanta Baptist College, Tuskegee, Hampton, Tallahassee, Edward Waters, Jacksonville,


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Payne, Selma, Montgomery Normal and Industrial Institute, Montgomery Girls' Industrial and the Huntsville Normal Agricultural College.

        Allen, Rev. George Wesley, son of George and Margaret Allen, one of ten children, was born August 10, 1854, in Lee County, Alabama. Parents were members of A. M. E. Church.

        Began attending school in 1867, and attended irregularly twenty years. He received much of his instruction from professors in colleges and high schools for whites, who taught him privately, as he was prohibited from attending their schools because he was colored. Received the degree D. D. from Payne University, and Wilberforce University.

        Was converted July, 1867, and joined M. E. Church (South) the same year, there being no A. M. E. Church near.

        He held almost every office in the church, steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher, Sunday school teacher, pastor, presiding elder and general

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. G. W. ALLEN, D.D.

officer. Was licensed to preach in 1878 at Enon, Alabama, by Rev. Cain Rogers, P. E.; ordained deacon December, 1892, at Eufaula, Ala., by Bishop A. Grant; ordained elder December, 1894, at Union Springs, Ala., by Bishop A. Grant. Joined Annual Conference at Opelika, Ala., under Bishop W. J. Gaines, December, 1890.

        Has held the following appointments: Phoenix City Mission, four years; Salem Circuit, two years; St. Peters and Grant Chapel, three years; presiding elder of Montgomery District, four years; presiding elder of Union Springs District, six months, until General Conference of May, 1904, at Chicago, when he was elected editor of Southern Christian Recorder, succeeding Rev. G. E. Taylor. He has built the following churches: Bethel, Bullock Co., Ala.; Gaines Chapel, Girard, Ala.; Grant Chapel, Phoenix City; St. Peters, Lee County, Ala.; aided in the erection of several others. He has been a delegate to General Conferences in 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912, and is a member of the Centennial General Conference of 1916. He was voted for the bishopric in May, 1912.

        Married Mrs. Phoebe Harvey Allen of Stewart Co., Ga., March 2, 1876. They have eight splendid children, all of whom they have given a first-class education, and in this respect are greatly to be complimented. The seven sons and one daughter are: Griffin A. Allen, M. D., 37 years, finished Tuskegee; at Meharry, as pharmacist and physician; also finished Girard City High School in Girard, Ala.

        William W. Allen, age 35, finished at Girard City High School and Georgia State College at Savannah, Ga., and was business manager of the Southern Christian Recorder, and a member of the General Conferences of 1908, 1912 and 1916.

        James L. Allen, age 33, finished at Girard City High School and Georgia State College.

        John S. Allen, age 31, finished at Girard City High School, and took a college course at Clark University and Lincoln University of Missouri.

        Alexander J. Allen, A. B., age 29, finished at Girard High School; finished college course at Clark University; is in senior year and class for B. D. at Yale University.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. G. W. ALLEN

        Nimrod B. Allen, A. B., B. D., age 27, finished Girard City High School; finished college course at Wilberforce University, and B. D. at Yale University.

        Marion A. Allen, A. B., age 24, finished Girard City High School and college course at Atlanta University.

        Bertha Lee Allen (only living daughter) finished at Columbus, Ga., and at Atlanta University, and is now studying in Boston, Mass.

        Contributed to many newspapers and magazines. He was manager of the Columbus Progressive Age, Columbus Messenger, editor and manager of the East Alabama Messenger, and is now editor of the Southern Christian Recorder.

        Addressed graduating classes at Columbus City High School, Payne University and others. Connected with A. F. and A. M. and International order; K. of P. and some local societies. Was W. M., secretary and treasurer in A. F. and A. M. He is a Republican and was representative in the Alabama Legislature two years and was elected a second time but counted


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out by Democrats. Dr. Allen lives in his own home and has been actively associated with the Orphan Home and Y. M. C. A. of Columbus, Ga.

        Allen, Mrs. Phoebe C., wife of Rev. G. W. Allen, D. D., editor of the Southern Christian Recorder. Miss Phoebe C. Harvey and Prof. G. W. Allen were united in matrimony March 2, 1876. Rev. C. S. Smith, (now Bishop) performed the marriage ceremony near Eufaula, Ala.

        Allen, Miss Mattie A., former district superintendent of S. S. of Phila., was born October 31, 1872, at Bensalem, Pa. One of twelve children born to Leroy and Lucy Allen. At an early age was converted in the Bensalem A. M. E. Church. Been an active worker in the church and Sunday school, filling office as

[ILLUSTRATION]
MISS MATTIE A. ALLEN

teacher and superintendent. She was District Superintendent of the Philadelphia District Sunday Schools of the Philadelphia Conference for six years, from 1909 to 1915. She was educated in the Bensalem public schools; also took a course in training for nurses.

        Alston, Lewis Markfield, was born in Charleston, S. C., September 10, 1859. After receiving a common school training in the public school, he served at trade in the George S. Hacker Door Sash and Blind Factory, and upon completion of his trade, was employed as a mechanic, serving as apprentice and tradesman for a period of thirty-five years.

        In the year 1883, January 10, he was joined in matrimony at the age of twenty-three, to Miss Maggie Jeanette Motte, by the Rev. J. F. Dart.

        He joined Emanuel A. M. E. Church, Charleston, S. C., May 24th, 1883, and was fellowshipped and appointed a steward by the Rev. L. R. Nichols the next year. He was elected clerk of the church during the pastorate of Dr. W. W. Beckett; appointed a class leader during the pastorate of the late Dr. J. H. Welch. He has been frequently elected a delegate to district conferences and was the delegate from Emanuel Church to the last Electoral College, from which he was elected a lay-delegate to the Centennial General Conference in Philadelphia, 1916. He is now in his twentieth year as clerk of Emanuel Church, under the

[ILLUSTRATION]
LEWIS MARKFIELD ALSTON

pastorate of Rev. A. E. Peats, and is a prominent factor in the community and church life of the city of Charleston, S. C. His wife, Mrs. Maggie J. Motte Alston, is a stewardess and president of the South Carolina Conference Branch of the W. H. & F. Society.

        Alston, Mrs. Maggie J., President Conference Branch of Women's Home & Foreign Missionary Society, South Carolina Conference, was born in

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MAGGIE J. ALSTON

Charleston, S. C., February 17, 1860, the daughter of William and Jeannetta Motte Alston. She attended Simonton and Avery Normal Institute of Charleston; became a member of Emanuel A. M. E. Church during the pastorate of the late Bishop M. B. Salter; became
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a Sunday School teacher at the age of sixteen years, and is still serving in that capacity. She has served her Church in many ways and is now an active member of the Stewardess' Board.

        Sister Alston is so deeply interested in the affairs of her Church that she has attended the Annual Conference Sessions for the past twenty-eight years. At the Annual Conference held at St. George, S. C., 1905, she was made President of the W. H. & F. M. Society of the South Carolina Conference Branch. During that time she has held conventions yearly and raised more than nine hundred dollars for the cause of missions.

        In 1908 she attended the General Conference at Norfolk, Va. In 1911 attended the Quadrennial Meeting of the W. H. & F. M. Society at Birmingham, Ala. In 1912 she attended the General Conference at Kansas City, Mo., and in 1915 the Quadrennial Meeting of the W. H. & F. M. Society in New Orleans, La.

        Becoming a member of the old Emanuel Church under Rev. (later Bishop) Salter's pastorate, she served the following pastors: Revs. L. R. Nichols, B. H. Williams, N. B. Sterrett, W. W. Beckett, J. H. Welch, H. W. B. Bennett, and A. E. Peets, and raised, during Drs. Welch and Bennett's pastorates, $1,892.73 on the new Emanuel, and to use her own expression, "feels neither tired nor weary but will work until she awakes in Christ's likeness." At the age of 22 she was married to Mr. L. M. Alston, a member of Emanuel Church. The two have lived together happily and served in the Church together for 34 years.

        Alston, Rev. W. R., was born in Marion, S. C., in 1853; was converted and joined the church at the age of 16. He attended the public schools of Marion and received his later education under the direction of H. T. Haynes, of Charleston, who afterwards became Secretary of State for South Carolina during Governor Chamberlain's administration, and the Rev. J. B. Middleton, a noted minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

        He taught school for a number of years. While engaged in teaching he was licensed to preach by the late Rev. William E. Johnson, who at the time was the leading character of the A. M. E. Church in South Carolina. In February, 1880, he was admitted into the South Carolina Conference on trial, ordained a deacon under the missionary rule by the late Bishop John M. Brown, and appointed pastor of the Centerville Station. In 1883 he was ordained an elder by the late Bishop William F. Dickerson, in Morris Brown Church, Charleston, S. C.

        In 1885, when the rebellion led by the afore-mentioned Rev. William E. Johnson occurred, which resulted in the birth of the Reformed Methodist Union Church of South Carolina, the Rev. W. R. Alston combatted the Rev. Johnson and his followers in defense of African Methodism. He met the enemy on the Britton Neck Circuit, and by argument, persuasion and preaching, took back the St. Wright Church with a large membership. This Church had gone over to the "Johnson faction," as it was then called.

        The A. M. E. Church at Florence was about to be captured when the Rev. Alston urged the Presiding Elder, the late Rev. D. J. Lites, to convene the ministers of the Marion District in extra session of the District Conference. At this District Conference, held in Marion, Rev. Alston said: "Mr. Chairman and brethren, I move that eighty dollars of money we have in hand to purchase a District personage be paid to this white lady, who will give us deeds and titles for our church property at Florence and then we can forbid the 'Johnson faction' making further entry thereon." By this act the A. M. E. Church was held fast in Florence and more permanently established.

        Later he was called by the officers of St. John Church, at Marion, to assist them in preventing the "Johnson faction" from making inroads on the Church there, for the Rev. Johnson, himself, was holding services in the Graded School building and making heavy attacks on the A. M. E. Church in his efforts to have the people of St. John follow him. Rev. Alston, through a prominent white attorney of the town, J. Monroe Johnson, procured an injunction restraining the rebel ministers from further use of the school building. He then preached to and pleaded with the members of St. John Church in full congregation assembled, which put an end to the spirit of rebellion, then apparently burning in many of them, as a result

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. R. ALSTON

of the eloquence and brilliancy of Rev. William E. Johnson, whose influence as a preacher and Presiding Elder in the A. M. E. Church prior to his rebellion was deeply felt by ministers and laymen alike. In after years, when the Rev. Johnson was ordained Bishop of the church founded by himself, he often referred to Rev. Alston in most laudable terms on account of the latter's work in resisting the advance of the "Johnson faction" in defense of African Methodism.

        The subject of this sketch has been a successful pastor in the thirty-five years of his ministry and has never had his character marked by an Annual Conference. He has pastored sixteen charges within that period of time, most prominent among which were Centerville, Florence, Mt. Zion and Beaufort Stations. He served for a number of years as Recording Secretary of the South Carolina Conference. At the adjournment of that Conference, at Walterboro, S. C., December, 1913, he was re-assigned to his charge, Mt. Zion Church, in the Beaufort District. One week afterwards, Bishop Coppin asked him to transfer to the


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Piedmont Conference and fill a vacancy by accepting the pastorate of Bethel Church in the City of Laurens, which charge he now holds.

        Amos, Rev. Adolphus A., was born in Barbados, West Indies, October 12, 1873. He attended the public schools when only five years of age. He spent six years in the public schools and four years in college. His father was a minister of Wesleyan Methodist Church.

        Converted at only twelve years of age he joined the church which his father was pastoring, being licensed to preach January, 1888.

        Soon afterward he went trading with the Royal Mail Boats between Europe and America, Brazil and Central American ports, but at length he ceased traveling and landed in America April, 1900. Here he visited and joined the A. M. E. Church, in which he was ordained deacon by Bishop Gaines, July 5, 1908. He first pastored St. Luke's A. M. E. Mission; then served as a supply at St. John's Church; then St. James Mission. He was ordained Elder by Bishop Gaines May 21, 1911, and is now serving as pastor for the second term at the Emmanuel A. M. E. Church in New York. This church he has had incorporated with the intention of erecting a suitable place for worship. In seventeen months he had twenty-five converts and fifty-seven additional members and raised over $1357, and has a Sunday School of fifty-three scholars.

        Anderson, Rev. Boyle C., was born in Shelbyville, Co., Ky., 1861; moved to Cincinnati the same year, then in 1865 to St. Charles, Missouri, then to Sturgeon, Boone Co., Mo., and later to California, returning in 1888. Was licensed to preach by Rev. W. B. Ousley in 1888. Ordained Elder at St. Joseph, Mo., by Bishop B. T. Tanner in 1899.

        Attended Wilberforce and graduated in Class of 1896.

        Has assisted in building and repairing many of the churches he has pastored. Before he became a member of the Conference he organized a church at Centralia, Mo., his sister having given a lot. Held the following appointments: Chillicothe, Mo., 1897; Clarksville Circuit, 1900; Salisbury and Utica Circuit in 1902; Wentsville, 1903-6-7; Canton Circuit, 1903-9-10; Breckinridge, 1904; Canton and La Grange, 1911-12; Frankford and Salt River, 1913-14, where he renovated the church and put in new electric lights.

        Anderson, H. P., was born in Salisbury, Pa., his father having been transported here in the early forties via "The Underground Railway." His early religious impressions were received from a Quaker family for whom his father worked. Losing his father early in life, young Anderson supported his mother and sister at first on the farm, then by working in a brickyard at Trenton, N. J., and later as a coachman. During all this time he was reading and studying with a view to entering Wilberforce University, which he did in 1889. Here he was converted and called to preach. Here also he met the young woman who afterwards became his wife. He spent seven years at Wilberforce completing the college and theological courses. He supported himself largely by dining-car service during vacation. While at Wilberforce for two and a half years he pastored a mission at Cedarville, Ohio. He was sent by Bishop Tanner on entering the New Jersey Conference to Morristown, N. J. While here he took a two years' post-graduate course at Drew Theological Seminary. Through Bishop Derrick he was appointed to St. James' Church, Newark, N. J. Here, as at Morristown, the church was renovated. Here he also organized a Y. M. C. A. for colored men. After five years at Newark, Bishop B. W. Arnett assigned him to Mt. Zion, an old and influential church at Trenton, N. J. During his pastorate here the church was newly carpeted, the walls frescoed

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. P. ANDERSON, D.D.

and a new pipe organ installed at a cost of $2000. Next he was assigned by Bishop W. J. Gaines to St. James' A. M. E. Church, Atlantic City, N. J., the largest church in the conference. Here he has remained seven years and done great work in the way of handling church obligations to the amount of $28,000. Rev. Anderson has served as secretary of his conference six years and has been three times elected to the general conference. He attributes his success in the ministry largely to his wife, who is his chief aid in Sunday-school work. Mrs. Anderson, who is the daughter of Rev. Jeremiah Lewis, one of the leading ministers in the Ohio Conference, is a graduate of Wilberforce University and has had experience as a public school teacher. For four years Rev. Anderson was head of the Knights of Pythias of New Jersey, resigning in order to devote himself more fully to the work of the pastorate. While Grand Chancellor of this organization he doubled the membership in New Jersey. Rev. Anderson was a member of the Educational Board 1908-16, the General Conference Commission 1916, the Episcopal Committee of the General Conference 1916, and received a large vote for missionary secretary at the Centennial General Conference.

        Anderson, Rev. J. C., is pastor of Quinn Chapel A. M. E. Church, Chicago, Illinois. He entered the itinerancy in January, 1889, at Marshalltown, Iowa, and has served from the smallest missions to stations of first rank in the Connection, pastoring such churches as St. James, St. Paul, Minn.; Wayman Chapel, Chicago, Ill.;


Page 25

Quinn Chapel, Louisville, Ky., and his present charge, Quinn Chapel, Chicago. He is now pastoring his fourth charge in nineteen years.

        He has organized churches and bought and paid for church property of every description and wiped out debts wherever he has gone, and added scores and hundreds of souls to the church in every place. In October, 1911, he purchased a church in Louisville, Ky., which originally cost $75,000 and entertained the West

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. C. ANDERSON.

Kentucky Conference. This property is acknowledged to be the finest and most commodious and convenient church owned by the race in the State of Kentucky.

        He studied in Hamline University and the University of Chicago, graduated from Taylor University and later from McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, Ill. A diligent student, he has met with the demands of his community. He led his delegation to the General Conference of 1912, and was a member of the Financial Board from 1912 to 1916, and fraternal delegate to the M. E. Church general conference at Saratoga Springs, May, 1916.

        Armstrong, Bishop Josiah Haynes, was born May 30, 1842, in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, converted at Jacksonville, Fla., 1868, under the preaching of Rev. William Bradwell. He joined the traveling Connection in the Florida Conference, 1869; was ordained a deacon 1869 by Bishop John M. Brown, and ordained an elder by the same Bishop, 1870. Ordained to the office of Bishop by Rt. Rev. Wesley John Gaines, D.D., May 19, 1896; died March 23, 1898, at Galveston, Tex., was buried at Galveston, Texas, March 27, 1898.

        He served in the Civil War as cook, teamster and when the regulations permitted, as a soldier. Coming out of the war he was converted and entered the ministry. He served the following charges: Lavilla Ct.; Lake City Ct.; Monticello, Fla.; Presiding Elder Live Oak District, Florida; pastor Reedy Chapel, Galveston; Bethel, Dallas; Austin, Texas; Presiding Elder of Houston (Texas) District. He was secretary of his Conference for eleven years. He was a member of the convention that nominated General Grant in 1872. He served two terms in the Florida Legislature as representative from Columbia County. He was a member of the F. and A. M. and was Grand Master of the State of Texas for four years. He was a trustee of Paul Quinn College. He built churches at Lake City, Fla.; Bellville, Fla.; Jasper, Fla.; Bethel, Dallas, Texas, and remodeled Reedy at Galveston, Texas.

        In 1892 he was elected financial secretary of the A. M. E. Church, and in 1896 at Wilmington, N. C., he was elected to the bishopric and assigned to the Tenth Episcopal District.

        He published two works: "Originals" and "What Communion Hath Light with Darkness."

        Arnett, Benjamin William, seventeenth bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born March 6th, 1838, at Brownsville, Fayette County, Pennsylvania; was baptized at six months old, by Samuel G. Clingman, of the Ohio Annual Conference. Was convicted under the preaching of Rev. Jeremiah Lewis, February 10th, 1856, converted February 14th, received into the Church February 17th by Rev. Leven Gross, of the Ohio Annual Conference; licensed to preach March 30th, 1865, by Rev. J. D. S. Hall, of the Baltimore Conference, Washington, D. C.; recommended to the traveling connection by Rev. William B. Lewis, of the Ohio Conference; received on probation April 16th, 1867, by the Ohio Annual Conference, at Lexington, Ky.; received first appointment to Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 19th, 1867; ordained deacon April 30, 1868, by William Paul Quinn, at Columbus, Ohio; ordained elder May 12th, 1870, by Bishop Daniel A. Payne, at Xenia, Ohio; assistant secretary to the general conference, 1872; secretary to the general conference, 1876-1880.

        In May, 1880, he was elected financial secretary of the A. M. E. Church by the general conference at St. Louis, Mo.; May, 1884, he was re-elected financial secretary by the general conference at Baltimore, Md.; May 19th, 1888, he was elected bishop of the A. M. E. Church by the general conference at Indianapolis, Ind.; ordained May 24th, 1888. His labors have been in the following states since that time.: 1882-1892, the Seventh Episcopal District, comprising South Carolina and Florida; 1892-1893, Arkansas and Mississippi; 1893-1896, Ohio and Western Pennsylvania; 1896-1900, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Michigan; 1900-1904, Ohio, California and Western Pennsylvania; 1904-1906, New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Eastern Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

        In 1893 he was a member of the Parliament of Religions at Chicago, Ill., delivered six addresses and presided September 15th. The A. M. E. Church presented him a gold medal for the part he took in behalf of the Church. He has held the following positions: Secretary of the Bishops' Council of the A. M. E. Church; historian of the A. M. E. Church, trustee of the Archaeological and Historical Society of Ohio; vice-president of the Anti-Saloon League of America, trustee of Wilberforce University, director of Payne Theological Seminary, chairman Executive Committee, trustee of the United Society of Christian Endeavor, trustee and vice-president of the Normal and Industrial Board of Wilberforce University, statistical secretary of the Ecumenical Conference for the Western Section, 1891-1901; chairman of the Statistical Committee for the Western Section. 1901-1911. He


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presided at the Ecumenical Conference, London, England, September 7th, 1901; was chaplain of the National Republican Convention at St. Louis, 1896; presented to President McKinley, for the A. M. E. Church, the Bible upon which he took his oath; he was a member of the Executive Committee, National Sociological Society; Chairman Committee on Legislation and Transportation, National Sociological Society; life member of the Business Men's League of the United States; president of the Publication Board, 1904-1906.

        For twenty-four years he edited the "Budget" of the A. M. E. Church. He organized the "Sons of Hannibal," at Brownsville, Pa., 1859; organized the "Sisters of Protection," June, 1859, at Brownsville; in August, 1859, organized the "Mutual Aid Society," composed of men; in 1863, organized the "Brothers and Sisters of Love and Charity," at Brownsville; was a delegate to the national Grand Tabernacle, in 1863, at Philadelphia; in 1864, organized the "Faith and Hope League of Equal Rights," at Brownsville, Uniontown, Washington, Monongahela City, Allegheny and Pittsburgh, Pa.; in 1865 was a member of the State Equal Rights League of Pennsylvania and western solicitor, having charge of twenty-two counties; in 1865 organized a joint stock company and started a store; prepared the charter which passed through the Legislature; in June, 1865, organized Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, at Brownsville, Pa. Was a member of the National Equal Rights League, Syracuse, N. Y., October 4th, 1865, Frederick Douglass, president; member of the Equal Rights Convention, Cleveland, Hon. J. M. Langston, president; secretary of the National Convention, Washington, D. C., December, 1866, Hon. J. M. Langston, president. Was foreman of a jury, where all were white, at Toledo, Ohio, 1872; also foreman of a jury composed of all colored men in the spring of 1872, at Toledo; was chairman of the Committee on Resolutions of the Congressional Convention in 1872, at Toledo, representing five counties, which nominated I. B. Sherwood. Was fraternal delegate to the Miami Convention of United Brothers, August 12th, 1872, at Pleasant Ridge, Ohio; in 1874 was grand orator of the Good Samaritans and Daughters of Samaria for the States of Ohio and Indiana and a life member of the same; he was a member of the Corinthian Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, at Cincinnati, Ohio; raised to the Sublime Degree Master Mason, August 13th, 1875; was arched in December, 1877, in Gustava Chapter, Urbana, Ohio; Knighted by the Taylor Commandery, at Columbus, Ohio, 1878; was Grand Chaplain Royal Arch Chapter of the State of Ohio in 1879; was Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge, 1879; was a member of the Knights of the Wise Men of the World, at Nashville, Tenn., 1882, and Grand Lecturer of the same; was Grand Lecturer of Councils of the Independent Order of Immaculates, at Nashville, 1883; member of the Independent Order of Good Templars, 1884. The Central Republican Club, of San Francisco, gave him a farewell meeting at the "Wigwam," October 19th, 1886; the Golden Gate Lodge, of San Francisco and the G. U. O. of O. F. tendered him a reception, October, 1886; was a member of the reception committee to welcome Hon. J. G. Blaine to Greene County, 1884; was elected to the Ohio Legislature to represent Greene County, 1886-87; was author of the bill abolishing "Black Laws" of the State, and to provide for the teaching of scientific temperance in all the schools.

        Was elected delegate to the Ohio State Sunday School Convention, at Norwalk, Ohio, 1878, and was elected vice-president of the same; was a delegate to the International Sunday School Union, at Atlanta, Ga., 1878, and at Toronto, Canada, 1881; was elected to the Sunday School Union of Ohio to represent them at Robert Raike's Centennial, London, England, 1880; elected to represent the Inter-Denominational S. S. Union, of South Carolina, at the World's Convention, London, England, July 2nd, 1889; May 25th, 1890, he responded to the welcome address of Hon. James A. Beaver, Governor of Pennsylvania, at the International S. S. Convention, Pittsburgh, Pa.; he was elected and was one of the vice-presidents of the International Convention until 1893.

        Delivered the Annual Address before the College Societies of Wilberforce University, June 19th, 1877; addressed the Masons of the District of Columbia, May, 1866; also the G. U. O. of O. F. of the District of Columbia; addressed the John G. Whittier Club. of Memphis, Tenn., 1898; delivered an address in the Tabernacle, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 4th, 1898; delivered an address before the International Anti-Saloon Convention, December, 1898, at Columbus, Ohio; addressed the Congregational Social Club, of Boston, 1899; delivered the Annual Address to the graduates of the High School, Paris, Ky., May, 1899; also to the faculty and students of the Georgia State Industrial School, Prof. R. R. Wright, president, June 7th, 1899; delivered an address by invitation to the Republican State Convention, of Denver, Col., September 28th, 1886. Was one of the invited guests and delivered several addresses at the Centennial Celebration of the first settlement of the Northwest Territory, April 7th, 1888, at Marietta, Ohio; delivered an address in the House of Representatives in the State of Georgia, before the Colored Teachers' Association, December 11th, 1883; was a member of the Centennial Conference of Methodists at Baltimore, Md., December 24th, 1884, and delivered an address, "The Mission of Methodism to the Extremes of Society;" delivered the Annual Address before the students of Claflin University and the Claflin College of Agriculture and Mechanical Institute, May 22nd, 1889, Orangeburg, S. C.; delivered an address at the reception of the G. A. R. in Chicago, August, 1900; also an address on "The Development of the Northwest Territory," in Music Hall, Chicago, October 11th, 1899; has delivered addresses before the International Christian Endeavor Convention, at Montreal, 1893; Cleveland, 1894; Boston, 1895; Washington, 1896; San Francisco, 1897; Nashville, 1898; Detroit, 1899; Cincinnati, 1900; delivered an address at St. James' Hall, London, England, Sunday, September 15th, 1901, and at the Wesleyan Church, Paris, France.

        He was married May 25th, 1858, to Mary Louisa Gordon, at Brownsville, Pa. Their union has been blest with the following children; Alonzo T. A., Benjamin


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W., Jr., Henry Y., Anna L., wife of Prof. Walter J. Mason; Alphonso T., Florence G., wife of Rev. Morrishaw, of New Jersey; Daniel A. Payne. Bishop Arnett died October 7th, 1906, at Wilberforce, while presiding bishop of the First Episcopal District.

        Arnett, Benjamin W., Jr., eldest son of Bishop B. W. Arnett, was born in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in 1866, attended public schools and Wilberforce University, from which he was graduated with the degree A.B. in 1886. He later attended Columbia University, New York. For many years he was a teacher, having taught in Birmingham, Ala.; at Campbell College, at Allen University, at the Georgia State Industrial College

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. B. W. ARNETT, JR., A.M., D.D.

and at Edward Waters College, where he was at one time president. He was chaplain of a regiment of United States Volunteers during the Spanish-American war. He has served as pastor at Springfield, Ill.; Springfield, O.; Brooklyn, N. Y.; Jamaica, N. Y.; Union, Philadelphia, and Bethel, New York, where he built the new edifice, and is at present pastor. He was also presiding elder of the Springfield (Ohio) and the Harrisburg (Pa.) Districts, and was secretary of the Allen Christian Endeavor League, 1900 to 1904. He was twice married and has one daughter. The honorary degrees A.M. and D.D. have been conferred upon him.

        Arnett, Rev. Henry Young, pastor of Ward A. M. E. Church, Philadelphia, is the third son of Bishop B. W. Arnett; was born at Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, May 26, 1868; attended the primary schools of Cincinnati, afterwards entering Wilberforce University (Ohio), pursuing the normal and scientific courses, graduating with the "Class of '89" with the degree of "Bachelor of Sciences." After completing a course in the Hudson Business College of Columbus, Ohio, he began teaching school. He taught mathematics in the Kittrell Normal and Industrial Institute (N. C.); taught pedagogy and natural philosophy in Allen University (Columbia, S. C.); was private secretary to the president, and then financial secretary of Wilberforce University.

        In State affairs he has many times been a delegate to the Greene County Republican conventions, and to the Ohio State Republican conventions; for twelve years he was an asst.-sergeant-at-arms of the Republican national conventions; he has served as a railway mail clerk, and was appointed comparer of deeds for the District of Columbia, by President William McKinley.

        As a churchman he has served as Sunday School teacher and superintendent, class leader, steward, missionary, deacon and elder. For five years he pastored the Frankford (Phila.) Station, at the same time pastoring

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. HENRY YOUNG ARNETT, M.S.

at Holmesburg three of these years. Here he reduced the mortgage indebtedness. He has just served his fifth year at Mt. Pisgah Church, one of the most active churches in Philadelphia. Here he has completely renovated the church, making it practically new, and leaves it with all bills paid, no indebtedness and a comfortable bank account.

        After serving as a delegate to the General Conferences in Columbus and Chicago as a layman, just as soon as he was eligible he was elected by the Philadelphia Conference to represent it in Kansas City, and is now a delegate to the Centennial General Conference to meet in Philadelphia. He is a member and the secretary of the Finance Committee of the Philadelphia annual conference, and the chairman of its special committee to protect its Bishop from newspaper attacks. For seven years he has been secretary of the Educational Congress and Literary Chautauqua of the First Episcopal District.

        He is married and lives at 47 North Ruby street, Phila., Pa. He served as reading clerk at the Kansas City General Conference, and is now a member and the secretary of the General Conference Commission and the sub-commission. For several years he was secretary to the Historical Commission of the church.

        Artis, Mrs. Mary Louisiana, was born in Little Rock, Ark. She joined Shorter A. M. E. Church, Denver, Colorado, in 1891, while Rev. P. A. Hubbard was the pastor. Sister Artis has worked along all lines in the A. M. E. Church, doing missionary work out in the far West, in Vancouver and Victoria City in British Columbia. For 25 years she has also worked under the W. C. T. U. She was consecrated a deaconess


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in Milwaukee, Wis., in St. Mark A. M. E. Church, by Bishop C. T. Shaffer in 1902. She founded

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. M. L. ARTIS.

Emanuel A. M. E. Church in 1910 in Montclair, New Jersey, where she now resides.

        Ashley, H. C., was born July 28th, 1854, at Clinton, Hickman County, Kentucky, and attended the public schools of the community. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church at an early age. In 1879 he was admitted to the Kentucky Annual Conference, under Bishop Payne, and appointed to Louisville. He served here successfully and many other

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. C. ASHLEY.

charges, among them at Woodland Mills, Ky.; Memphis, Tenn.; Shelbyville, Ky.; Chattanooga, Tenn.; Nashville, Tenn. He served also in Alabama, and was then transferred to New York in 1890. He served Springfield, Mass., three years, and erected a new church, at a cost of $12,000, paying $7000. In 1894 he was made presiding elder of the Trenton District of the New Jersey Conference. He also served the following charges in the First Episcopal District: Macedonia, Camden, N. J.; Trenton, N. J.; Media, Pa.; Jersey City, N. J.; East Camden, N. J.; New Brunswick, N. J., and Long Branch, N. J., where he died, December 28th, 1912, while serving the fourth year as pastor of Trinity A. M. E. Church. He was married to Mrs. M. A. (Burke) Ashley, and they had one child, now Mrs. Ida M. Ashley Browne, of Philadelphia.

        Ashton, Mrs. Estella G. (Goodwin), a graduate of Morris Brown University, class 1907, dressmaking and normal; studied at the McDowell School of Dressmaking and Designing, Philadelphia, Pa.; a graduate of the

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. ESTELLA G. ASHTON.

American College of Dressmaking and Designing, Kansas City, Mo., and Carnes School of Dressmaking, Jacksonville, Florida. She attended the Girls Normal School and the W. Phila., Evening High School in stenography and typewriting, Philadelphia, Pa. She is also a skilled hair culturess.

        She was converted at an early age, and was a member of Allen Temple, Atlanta, Ga.; is an excellent example of true womanhood. She is now a member of Mount Pisgah, Philadelphia; sings in the choir. She is a devoted wife and daughter.

        Askew, Rev. Tony Jackson, son of Andrew Jackson Askew and Flora Adline Sessomes, was born March 20, 1868, at Harrellsville, North Carolina. He is the second son of eleven children. At the age of five years he entered the first school ever taught for colored children in his native town after emancipation. He attended the country schools about seven years, three months to the year; the Plymouth State Normal at Plymouth, North Carolina, three years; Dickerson Seminary at Williamsport, Pennsylvania, two and a half years, and the Western Theological Seminary of Allegheny City, now North Side Pittsburgh, two years. The degree of D.D was conferred by Morris


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Brown College. He taught school in North Carolina two years with a first grade certificate.

        Converted in Scranton in 1891 under Rev. Chas. A. McGee, he joined the A. M. E. Church and served as class leader, steward, Sunday school superintendent and trustee in said church. He was licensed to preach in 1892, and joined the Conference in 1894 at Wheeling, West Virginia, under Bishop B. W. Arnett, D.D. He was ordained deacon at Wilkesbarre,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. TONY JACKSON ASKEW, D.D.

1895, by Bishop B. W. Arnett, and ordained elder at Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in 1898 by Bishop B. F. Lee, D.D.

        He has filled the following appointments: Lock Haven and Jersey Shore, Pennsylvania; West Newton and West Elizabeth, St. Paul, Pittsburgh; Bellefonte, Williamsport; St. Paul, Hamilton, Bermuda, West Indies, served as Presiding Elder of the Conference, Huntingdon and Everett, Pennsylvania, Washington, Pennsylvania. He is at present Presiding Elder of the Pittsburgh District of the Pittsburgh Conference. He lifted a mortgage of $1,000 at Bellefonte, $1,400 at Williamsport, $1,500 at St. Paul, Bermuda; reduced the mortgage $3,500 at Washington, Pennsylvania; built St. Paul Church, S. S. Pittsburgh, at a cost of $10,000, and reduced the debt on same to $3,700. Received into the Church twenty-seven hundred and forty-eight people, baptized eight hundred and twenty-two, married seven hundred and four.

        He was financial agent for Wilberforce University one year, a member of the general conferences of 1908 at Norfolk, 1912 at Kansas City, and 1916 at Philadelphia. He has been a member of the S. S. Union Board since 1912, and is a life trustee of Wilberforce University. In 1912, at Kansas City, he was voted for as Secretary of Education. On one occasion he preached the Baccalaureate Sermon to the High School of Mt. Union, Pennsylvania. He has been a contributor to the Christian Recorder and the Voice of Missions, the Bermuda Colonist, and the Williamsport Gazette-Times.

        In 1894 he married Mrs. Irene Jane Askew, a young lady of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Their one child, Flora Isabelle, 18 years old, was graduated from the Pittsburgh High School in 1915.

        Dr. Askew was Secretary of the Pittsburgh Conference for three years and is its present Treasurer, which office he has held for seven years. Was a member, by election, of the Fifth World International C. E. Convention, which convened in Chicago, Ill., July, 1915.

        Atkinson, Rev. Robert Lee, son of Isham and Clara Atkinson, was born September 26, 1864, at Smithfield, N. C., and died January 2, 1901, at Southport, N. C. His parents moved to Selma, N. C., in 1868, where he

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ROBERT LEE ATKINSON.

received his early training in the public schools. His parents being loyal members of the A. M. E. Church were among the founders of St. John A. M. E. Church and Sunday School of Selma, N. C., and trained their son in the laws and doctrine of the church of their choice. He received a normal school training at Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C.; was converted in 1880 and connected with St. John A. M. E. Church, in which he filled the following offices: steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher and Sunday School teacher. He was superintendent of St. John Sunday School from 1882 to 1892; was principal of Selma public school from 1886 to 1892, except one year, when he taught at Camden, S. C. He was Worshipful Master of Rough Ashler Lodge No. 52 of Selma, N. C. Masonic Fraternity for several years.

        His mother having died in 1883, he being the oldest of ten children, helped to support and educate the other members of the family.

        He was licensed to preach from St. John Church, Selma, N. C., in 1887; joined the North Carolina Conference at Kinston, N. C., in November, 1892, under Bishop Gaines, who assigned him to the East Greensboro Circuit. He pastored successfully the following charges: East Greensboro Circuit, Whitsett Circuit, Roxboro Circuit, St. James Station, Winston-Salem, N. C., and New Jordon Circuit.

        He was ordained deacon and Elder by Bishop Handy in 1893 and 1895 respectively. In November, 1900, he was transferred from the Western to the North Carolina


Page 30

Conference by Bishop Lee, who stationed him at Southport, N. C., where, after preaching on the last night of the old year, taking for his theme "The Christian Warfare," he departed this life in the early morning of January 2, 1901.

        Atkinson, William C., one of the Church's business men, was born in Black River, Georgetown Co., South Carolina, December 20, 1856, being the son of Amelia and James Christopher Atkinson, the former a member of the A. M. E. Church; the latter of the M. E. Church. There were fifteen other children besides William.

        He began attending the rural school in Black River in 1865. He only attended school four years of his life but was given some help in acquiring knowledge by a family for whom he worked. He was converted about 1886 and joined the A. M. E. Church.

[ILLUSTRATION]
WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER ATKINSON

He has held the following offices in the Church: Steward, Trustee, Class Leader and Treasurer of Steward Board.

        In December, 1888, he married a young woman of Georgetown, South Carolina. Their union was blessed with nine children: W. C. Atkinson, Jr., E. W. Atkinson, Lena, Theodore, Hughes, Florence, Amelia, Orilla and Janie. One daughter is married. Theodore and Lena are graduates.

        At an early age Mr. Atkinson worked at cutting timber, sleeping under a brush tent in the woods; later he tried the carpenter's trade, but not liking it he finally went into the mercantile business, where he has had excellent success.

        He is said to own the leading green grocery business in Georgetown, regardless of color. He owns a home valued at two thousand dollars, two brick stores in the business section of the city, and other property in the city and county. Though a prosperous business man, Mr. Atkinson says that his chief work is in and for his Church.

        Avery, J. M., the oldest of six children was born in Burke County, near Morganton, N. C., October 10, 1876; his parents being Thomas and Elizabeth Avery. He was graduated from Kittrell College, June, 1900, and in the same year was elected principal of the Graded School of Hickory, North Carolina.

        He began his insurance career as local agent in 1900. He is now the esteemed and efficient assistant manager

[ILLUSTRATION]
JOHN MOSES AVERY

and member of the Board of Directors of the North Carolina Mutual and Provident Association, director of the Loyal Knights of King David and the People's Building and Loan Association, treasurer of Lincoln Hospital, class leader, trustee and superintendent of St. Joseph A. M. E. Sunday school, Durham, N. C.

        Mr. Avery was a delegate to the General Conference in 1904, 1908 and 1916.

        He is president of the alumni of Kittrell College, and secretary of the Board of Trustees.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. C. AYLER.

        Ayler, Junius Crowley, was born in Virginia 49 years ago. His father was the son of a German woman and his mother was of Negro and Indian blood.


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His early scholastic and religious training was given by his mother. Junius found Christ when a youth, in a "quarter house," on the Via Mead farm, Tensas Parish, Louisiana. He taught in the public schools of Virginia and read theology at night. He served as principal of Suffolk Normal and Collegiate Institute one year. He married Alice V. Jackson, of Suffolk, Virginia, entered the Virginia Conference and was ordained deacon by Bishop John M. Brown and an elder by Bishop Daniel A. Payne, who transferred him to the New Jersey Conference at New Brunswick. He was prepared in private for college and entered the seminary of the Reformed (Dutch) Church and graduated as president of his class in 1886. While pastor at Princeton, N. J., he read law under James E. Hayes, Esq., and was admitted to the bar of New Jersey February 23, 1894. He also studied philosophy for two years and received a certificate (not a degree), dated February 8, 1893, signed by Prof. A. T. Ormont. Afterwards Chaddock College, Quincy, Ill., conferred on Rev. Ayler the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He was then appointed pastor at New Haven, Conn., and he matriculated in the senior class in 1899 of Yale University Law School, took a course of lectures under Simeon E. Baldwin and others. Rev. Dr. Ayler reads the Bible in ten languages and speaks five of them. See Dr. Blyden's "Islam, Christianity and the Negro Race." Also see the "African Abroad," by Wm. H. Ferris, A.M. He has built one church and is building another in Worcester, Mass. He represented the New Jersey Conference in the General Conference of 1892, Philadelphia, Pa. He has served his church as presiding elder in the New Jersey and New York conferences. The saddest stroke of his life was the death of his wife in 1901. Mr. Ayler is author of a little book, entitled "Guide-Lights," of a pamphlet known as the "Constitutional Rights of the American Negro," and of several articles in the A. M. E. Review, including one on "Elohistic Names." He is Republican in politics and a Prince Hall Master Mason.

        BARKSDALE, JAMES DRAYTON, was born at Goldsville, S. C., October 24, 1862; was baptized in infancy in Bethel A. M. E. Church, near Clinton, S. C., and has never been a member of any other denomination. He attended such country schools as were available in the early days of his childhood, but having a great yearning for education, he left his home at the age of thirteen

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JAMES D. BARKSDALE, D.D.

years, for the purpose of getting more knowledge. After working as a water boy for two years on the railroad and saving his money, he went to Columbia, the capital of the State, where he attended school. Being unusually apt and studious he had advanced sufficiently at the age of eighteen years, to secure a third grade teachers' certificate, and taught in the public schools of his native county, (Laurens, S. C.), for two years. He then went to Anderson, S. C., and attended Greeley Institute when not teaching. On finishing, he took the teachers' examination at Edgefield, S. C., and obtained a first-grade certificate. He intended to make teaching a life profession. In 1881 he was licensed to preach by Rev. S. H. Jefferson, and in the early part of 1882 was taken up by the presiding elder as a supply. He met the Columbia (S. C.) Conference at Spartanburg, S. C., under Bishop W. F. Dickerson in 1882, and was admitted on trial. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Dickerson at the District Conference

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. J. D. BARKSDALE.

at Manning, S. C., May, 1883. At the next session of the Conference which met at Greenwood, S. C., December, 1883, he was transferred to the Mother Conference (South Carolina). In 1884 he was ordained Elder by Bishop James A. Shorter, at the session of the South Carolina Conference, which met at Beaufort. Because of the great success he had while pastoring in Summerville, S. C., Bishop Arnett appointed him pastor of "Big Bethel," Georgetown, S. C. After three years'
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pastorate at this church, with great success, he was sent to Goodwin Circuit by Bishop Salter, and served one and a half years, when Bishop Turner transferred him to Detroit, Michigan, and assigned him to Bethel. After spending four years in the Michigan Conference, Bishop Arnett transferred him to the Indiana Conference, and assigned him to Richmond. From this charge, after one year, he was sent to Evansville, Ind., and served two years, when Bishop Grant transferred him to the Missouri Conference, where he spent less than a year, when Bishop Shaffer transferred him to the Colorado Conference, but after two years was sent back to the Missouri Conference. Rev. Barksdale has always been a close student of books, giving attention to language and science. He has a knowledge of Hebrew, Greek and Latin, but is especially well informed in astronomy and mathematics. Perhaps few average ministers have so good a knowledge of these sciences as he has, especially in astronomy. As a preacher he is rather quiet; never noisy or boisterous, but is most rigid in his reasoning. As a newspaper writer he has received many high compliments from men of letters. He has written papers on scientific and theological subjects. At present he is Presiding Elder in the Missouri Conference and has been for eleven consecutive years, save one. He is a man of modesty and fairness in dealing with men. He is a member of the Centennial General Conference.

        Barnes, Mrs. Mattie Gaston, wife of R. B. Barnes, M.D., of Cleburne, Texas, was born December 9, 1866, on the plantation of Hon. Wm. Oxshire, on Little River,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MATTIE GASTON BARNES

a tributary of Big Brazos, near Cameron, Tex. Her parents, Nathan and Elizabeth Gaston, although without school advantages, were intelligent and gave their daughter her first training. There being no school in the immediate vicinity of the Gaston residence, Mattie was sent to school at Port Sullivan, but her stay was short. She was next taught by Mr. John E. Conner and wife until she entered Prairie View Normal School, Texas, in 1881, where her stay was attended by many hardships and discouragements, owing to the work she had to do on her father's farm. She remained part of two terms. After leaving Prairie View, she taught private school. While engaged in this work she met Dr. Barnes, who was then the principal of the city school at Rockdale, Texas, at a moonlight picnic in 1886, and they were married in 1887, and taught together in the Nunn community. They have one daughter, Antionette, now Mrs. Baker, of Ft. Worth. They have also an adopted daughter, Rosa Douglass, who has lived with them twenty-three years. In 1889 Prof. Barnes was elected principal of the Gainesville city school, and in 1893, Mrs. Barnes became one of the assistants in the school. She also taught two months at Coesfield. She finished a course in kindergarten work at the Kansas State Normal Emporia, Kans., in 1894, being the only colored member of her class.

        She received a diploma in millinery from Madame Jordan's school at Nashville, Tenn., and took a course in hair manufacturing at the Reynold School, Chicago, Ill., receiving a diploma in 1909.

        After Dr. Barnes took his medical degree, the family moved to Cleburne, Tex., in 1900, and Mrs. Barnes became active in fraternal circles, having prior to this joined in Gainesville, the Court of Calanthe, the ladies' department of the K. of P. Order. In 1902 she was made deputy; in 1904 was elected president of the Endowment Board, which position she has filled with credit for twelve years.

        Mrs. Barnes has at all times placed in the front rank of her activities the work of the Master. Having been started along the right path by a Christian mother and father, she was, when a very small child, taken into the church and baptized by the Rev. Wilhite. She joined Coxe's Providence A. M. E. Church on probation, under the Rev. John Conner, and was carefully watched over by Uncle Ben Williams until she was made a full member. She attended Sunday school conventions and camp meetings where she met many prominent African Methodists, such as Bishops Grant and Cain and Prof. Kealing. She has served as superintendent of the Sunday school at Cleburne since 1902, and has shown great interest in foreign missions.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOSEPH B. BATTLE.

        Battle, Rev. Joseph Bunyan, was born in Barbour County, Ala., March 22, 1875, the son of Rev. Eugene


Page 33

and Mrs. Queen Battle. His father is a minister of the M. B. Church, and lives in Little Rock, Ark., where Joseph was brought up from about twelve years old. He attended Tuskegee Institute, Ala., and Paine College, Augusta, Ga. He entered the ministry in the year 1898, during which year he was assigned to serve at Charlestown, Ark., on the Charlestown Circuit. He has been a successful pastor and evangelist. He cannot answer all the calls to conduct revivals. He is sometimes called the "Lord's Battle Axe." He has been elected a delegate to the Centennial General Conference from the Northwest Mississippi Conference. He now pastors Jonestown Station, the seat of the first session of that Conference.

        Baxter, Daniel M., one of the six children of Aaron and Mary Webb Baxter, both of whom were members of A. M. E. Church, was born October 2, 1872, at Charleston, S. C. His father died when he was seven years of age, and his mother when he was twelve. He began school at the age of seven years, and attended about eighteen years, attending principally the Simonton School, Charleston; private preparatory school in New York. He graduated from public schools of native city and College Preparatory of New York and the theological department of Howard University. Converted

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. DANIEL MINORT BAXTER

at Charleston, S. C., and joined Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church, under Rev. (Bishop) W. H. Heard. He served as steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher, Sunday school teacher, chorister, president of Allen League. He was licensed to preach at Washington, D. C., in 1903, by Dr. D. P. Seaton.

        Was ordained deacon in 1905 at High Springs, Fla., by Bishop B. T. Tanner; was ordained Elder in 1906 at St. Petersburg, Fla., by Bishop B. T. Tanner. Joined Annual Conference in 1905, at High Springs, Fla., under Bishop B. T. Tanner.

        Has held the following appointments: Bracksville, Fla., 1905-1907; Ocala, Fla., 1907-1910; Mt. Zion, Jacksonville, Fla., 1910-1915; Presiding Elder, North Jacksonville District, 1915 to date. He renovated church and parsonage at Ocala, Fla., at a cost of $2000; made addition and purchased land at Brooksville at a cost of $800; completed Mt. Zion Church at Jacksonville at a cost of $4000; lifted mortgages on Macedonia at Brooksville, to the amount of $300; Mt. Zion at Jacksonville to the amount of $1054.39. He has taken 2010 people into the church and baptized 520 persons.

        Was a delegate to the General Conference at Kansas City, Mo., in 1912, and is a member of the Centennial General Conference of 1916. He is a member of the Board of Allen League for 1912-16.

        Received the degree of D.D. from Edward Waters College, and is treasurer of the same; a member of the Commission to Union Bishops' Council, Washington, D. C. Married in 1891 Miss Laura Anna Alston, of Charleston, S. C. They have two children, Miss Mae E. Baxter, 19 years of age, graduate of Edward Waters College in 1914, and now a sophomore at Oberlin College, and Miss Irene C. Baxter, 16 years of age, third year at Edward Waters College. He has contributed to Times Union, Florida Metropolis, Christian Recorder, A. M. E. Review, and other periodicals, and has written the following pamphlets, "Has the United States in it the Elements of Permanency," "Christian Tradition and Heathen Mythology."

        The principal addresses made were: Emancipation Address, 1912; Baccalaureate Sermon, Fessenden Academy; Commencement Address to class of 1907, Edward Waters College; Religious Societies, F. and A. M. He is connected with F. and A. M. Progressive Order of Men and Women, Good Templars, and has been treasurer of Masonic Benefit Association; Grand National Secretary Progressive Order of Men and Women; director of Masonic Temple; is a Republican, and owns several pieces of real estate.

        Beaman, Geo. W., was born at Pickens, Miss., November 10, 1867, one of the twelve children of George W. and Elizabeth Beaman.

        Dr. Beaman was converted in the year 1882, was licensed to preach at midnight on June 26, 1886, by Rev. Albert Jackson, D.D., of Friar's Point, Mississippi. Was ordained deacon in Grenada, Miss., at the court house January, 1888, by Bishop H. W. Warren of the M. E. Church, having gone to the said church to take advantage of her educational facilities. He was ordained Elder in 1892 at Crystal Springs, Miss., by Bishop Andrews.

        He began his education in the public schools of Pickens, Miss., when a boy. He also had private tutors. After finishing the common school he taught public schools in Holmes, Hinds, Pike, Pearl River and Nessha counties, in Mississippi, after which he gave himself solely to the ministry. He built two churches at Bee Lake, Miss., his first pastorate, and organized several others the same year, prior to his ordination. He also pastored successfully at Anding and Vally, Howard Station, Mt. Olive at Yazoo City, Dixon Circuit, Miss., going from this charge to New Orleans University. He advanced rapidly through the college preparatory course, when his means were too meagre for him to longer attend. He took his course in theology at Gammon Theological Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., finishing within two years, having taken one year at New Orleans University. He then pastored Laurel St. Church in Springfield, Ill.; Pittsfield and Jacksonville, Ill., and Ft. Madison, Ia. From thence he was sent to Quincy, Ill., to Bethel A. M. E. Church, a most beautiful structure, a large commodious building commanding respect with a very large audience; from thence to East St. Louis, here he bought a


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nice house from the Presbyterians and soon built up a large congregation next to Quinn Chapel, South St. Louis, Mo. Here he paid a very annoying debt and soon had things moving on toward victory.

        He next transferred to the Arkansas Conference, and was appointed by Bishop Derrick to Antioch Station. Here he built a splendid house of worship and had a great revival, paying the church out of debt the same year, and reporting the largest dollar money fund ever carried to Conference from this point. He also pastored South Hot Springs, Okalana Station, Brown Memorial of Little Rock. This church had the most successful three years during his administration, and was a leading spirit in

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. GEORGE W. BEAMAN, D.D.

securing a home for the "Old Folks" of this community; also organized the "Young People's Interdenominational Union." He was also elected one of the secretaries of the Arkansas Conference, and an alternate delegate to the General Conference at Chicago in 1904. By reason of the removal of one delegate at the General Conference, he was seated as a member of that body. Baxter, Cotton Plant and Derrick Chapel of Helena, Ark., prospered under his pastorate. Bishop Lee wanted a man for Elizabethtown, Ky., and to Embry Chapel he was sent and succeeded handsomely. Many were added to the church and it paid out of debt. He added more than one hundred souls to the church in Harrodsburg, Ky.; the church was much revived and paid out of debt. He was also dean of theology at Wayman Institute. He kept the school on the map. The last year of Bishop Shaffer's administration in Kentucky, when all the leading men in the two Conferences had decided that it was too hard for the few to carry the school, he pleaded for its continuation, and it is still operating. More than 150 persons joined the church in Richmond, his next charge. This church was revived and much paid on its bonded debt. While here he took special interest in the temperance movement, making speeches throughout the State. He took much interest in the educational advancement of our people in Jellico. Many white people joined his church there. His parents having grown aged and infirmed, asked him to come South and take care of them, so he transferred to the North Louisiana Conference, was stationed at Minden, then Shreveport (Staner Hill, Second Church), and Rayville, La. Success attended his efforts in these charges. He preached the annual sermon to the North Louisiana Conference, December, 1914, and immediately Bishop Conner sent him to St. Matthew, Greenville, Miss. He spent one year here and was sent to Shaw, Miss., where he is now doing good work.

        His wife was Miss Alberta Drew, of Lake Providence, La., who was born in Greenville, Miss., April, 1890. He has three children, William, Rosale and Tyrus Walls Beaman.

        The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Campbell College in 1914. He preached the Baccalaureate sermon at Southern University, Helena, Ark., in 1906, and the Thanksgiving sermon at Alcorn College, Miss. has made many speeches and addresses, among them one with Newman in Artillery Hall, New Orleans, 1891, at Alcorn College, 1915. He is a splendid speaker and hard worker.

        Beard, Jesse E., was born March 2, 1873, on a farm near Guyton, Effingham Co., Ga., where his mother had been a slave. The youngest child of four girls and five boys, being without the care of a father, he was soon doing such work as he could do on the farm until eleven years of age, when his mother moved to the town of Guyton. He attended the city school, working odd hours every day, which he did throughout his school life. When the State College of Georgia was established, Elder W. O. P. Sherman

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JESSE ELIJAH BEARD, D.D.

encouraged him to attend, and so he was one of the first ten young men enrolled. After three years here, he took a three-year course at Tuskegee Bible School. He next attended Gammon Theological Seminary. He also took a course in optics in the South Bend College of Optics.

        He was converted at fourteen years. Having always loved the Church and Sunday School, he early felt called to the work of the ministry, and received exhorter's license at the hands of Elder W. O. P. Sherman at seventeen years of age, receiving local license six months later. He joined the Conference under


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Bishop A. Grant at Quitman, Ga., 1894, later transferring to the then North Georgia Conference to attend school in Atlanta. Before entering the ministry he worked on the farm, drove teams, worked at the tin trade and taught school. He was ordained deacon in 1896 at Cedartown, Ga., by Bishop H. M. Turner; ordained Elder at Georgetown, S. C., by Bishop A. Grant, in 1898. He served the following appointments: Emma Lane Mission (Emanuel Co., Ga.), Moncks Corner Ct., Kingstree Ct., Beaufort, Francis Brown (Charleston), Prosperity (where the new parsonage was destroyed by fire, he losing all his effects), Clinton, Cokesbury, Greenwood (where he built a fine brick church, leaving a debt of only $5,000), Bethel (Georgetown), where in one rally his people raised nearly $4,000. Here he served five years.

        Rev. Beard taught in the Theological Department of Allen University five years, being three years dean of the department in connection with his pastorate. He has been instrumental in bringing many people into the Church. It has been his lot to pay off debts rather than to make them for others to pay. He attributes much of his success to the tireless energy, faithful prayers and loving devotion of a sainted mother.

        He was married in 1897, April 28, to Miss Leonora F. Richmond, of Charleston. To them have been born Ruth Ellen, Elbert Hooper and Samuel Adiel. At the age of ten years and seven months, 1909, August 31, Ruth departed for the rest beyond "Death's Sea."

        Some years ago, having been invited to deliver the Annual Address at Morris Brown College and the address before the religious societies of Wilberforce University, unsought, the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by each of said institutions.

        He has re-published the minutes of the first Conferences held in South Carolina, comprising the Conferences of 1865, 1866 and 1867.

        Seeing the great need of such a work, he has in course of preparation a Biographical History of the A. M. E. ministry in South Carolina.

        Beck, Joseph Brown, principal Howard School, Georgetown, S. C., eldest of eight children of Elbert and Mary Beck. Was born in Abbeville County, South Carolina, in the 70's. The remains of his sainted mother now rest under the trees of Spring Grove, in Abbeville. His father still lives, known and respected throughout his section as a preacher of holiness and an honest, Christian gentleman. Abram Brown, his maternal grandfather, was a pioneer in the A. M. E. Church in the upper part of South Carolina, the founder of Brown Church, on the Calhoun Falls Circuit, in Abbeville County. In an autobiography he said that after some trouble between the white and colored worshipers of one Salem church (white), in that settlement, where the Negroes used to occupy the rear seats, it was decided that the colored people would have to leave, for they were too zealous in their worship. A white man, Sugar Johnson, encouraged them to build a church of their own. He says: "Sugar Johnson gave me the ground. I stepped the ground and Johnson carried the stakes; and he told me that he would make to me a deeded gift of that land--two acres--on which to erect a church." Brown built an arbor here and called it "Brown Oh!" their first building. He also founded Diamond Hill Church, near Lowndesville, S. C., in much the same way.

        Joseph B. Beck pursued his studies in the city schools. His last teacher, Miss Nannie A. Wardlaw, a college graduate of Claflin University, urged him to go to college. Anxious to go to college he passed successfully the examination for teacher's certificate, and taught his first school, "The Poor House," being located

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. JOSEPH B. BECK.

near the county almshouse. He entered Allen University, Columbia, S. C., in the fall of 1889. Among the students at that time were A. J. Wilson, W. A. Fountain, S. Simmons and A. E. Peets, all now being leading African Methodist ministers, and D. J. Jordan, C. G. Garrett, E. N. Metts, leaders in the educational field. He finished in the Class of '91, as first honor man, and entered at once upon his career as a teacher. In the years 1900 and 1901, the State Board of Education of South Carolina decided to submit the leading Negro educators of the state to a rigid literary test in order to ascertain their fitness. A summer normal was accordingly planned and held in the city of Columbia, for Negro teachers, conducted by a faculty of the ablest white teachers in the state. Professor Beck attended these test normals and enjoyed the courses. At the close of these two years of work the teachers attending were classified as "Excellent, good, fair or poor," and Professor Beck was classed "Excellent." Since then he has conducted summer schools for teachers in Richland, Greenville, Beaufort, Greenwood, Abbeville and Williamsburg Counties. He was also a member of the faculty of the first state normal conducted by Negro teachers in South Carolina. He attended the National Educational Associations at Hampton, Asheville and St. Louis. At the St. Louis meeting, 1911, he was elected a member of the executive committee of that body.

        He successfully passed the United States Civil Service examination for clerk-copyist (first grade), and was offered, June 5th, 1907, an appointment at Pensacola, Fla. Again, in July, he was appointed by the government to a position in New York, and the following September was again certified for appointment


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in East St. Louis, Ill. But as he was preparing to leave for East St. Louis, the trustees of the Georgetown city schools, in a called meeting, raised his salary and prevailed upon him to remain at the head of the schools here. He yielded to their proposal, feeling that he could do more good for his people as a teacher than he could in the government service. He is still in charge of this, the Howard school, which has nearly a thousand children enrolled.

        Prof. Beck joined the St. James A. M. E. Church at Abbeville, S. C., at the age of twelve years. He was converted and received into the church in the year 1888 under the pastorate of the Rev. C. C. Dunlap. He was superintendent of the St. James S. S., and secretary of the official board of the church for some years; also district superintendent of the Abbeville district; supervising and militant secretary of the "Blue Army," one of the divisions into which Bethel Church, of Georgetown, was divided in the $3650 rally under Dr. J. E. Beard, and is now a member of the trustee board of Bethel and a teacher in the Sunday school.

        Some years ago he purchased for his parents a few acres of land on which they were enabled to spend the declining years of their life in comfort. In 1901 he married Miss E. M. Dunmore, the beautiful and accomplished daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Dunmore, of Georgetown, S. C., and they have three promising boys, Joseph, Cornelius and Roswell.

        Beckett, Jabez Campbell, oldest son of John Wesley and Catherine Stella Beckett and the grandson of Bishop Jabez P. Campbell, was born October 14, 1877, at Hagerstown, Md. Both of his parents were members of the A. M. E. Church. He was one of nine children. He entered school at the age of 6 years

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. C. BECKETT, S.T.B.

and spent twenty or more years in school, graduating from the Central High School, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania and Reformed Episcopal Seminary. He received the degree of A.B. from the High School, B.S. from the University of Pennsylvania and B.D. from the Reformed Episcopal Seminary. He was converted in 1889 and joined Union Church, Philadelphia. He has been class leader, exhorter, local preacher, Sunday School teacher and superintendent and president of Allen C. E. League.

        He was licensed to preach July 15, 1907, at Philadelphia, Pa., by Bishop B. W. Arnett; ordained deacon June 15, 1908, at Carlisle, Pa., by Bishop W. J. Gaines; ordained Elder May 16, 1909, at Milford, Del., by Bishop Gaines; joined the Annual Conference in 1908 at Carlisle, under Bishop Gaines.

        He has held the following appointments: Disney, Philadelphia, 1908; Morris Brown, 1909-1910; Campbell Church, Philadelphia, Pa., 1911, to date. He has taken 150 people into the church; baptized 70 and married 33. He is a delegate to the General Conference of 1916. In 1903 he married Miss Sidney Clifton, of Atlanta, Ga. They have five children, Mary C., age 11; Florida G., age 9; John C., age 7; Chas. C., age 4 and Francis J., age 1.

        The subject of this sketch has contributed to the Christian Recorder and has acted as private secretary to Bishops Grant, Gaines and Tyree. He has been associated with the Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital of Philadelphia. He is a modest but forceful character.

        Beckett, John Wesley, was born in Georgetown (West Washington), D. C., May 28, 1848. Received his schooling in this community, also attended Wilberforce University, from which he was graduated. Rev. Beckett was known as the sweetest singer the A. M. E. Church produced and thousands were brought to salvation through the songs he sang. He was licensed to preach by Rev. J. T. Jenifer, July 13, 1869, at Wilberforce University, Ohio, and sent as assistant supply to Lebanon Circuit, April 13, 1870. He was

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN WESLEY BECKETT.

admitted to the Ohio Conference by Bishop D. A. Payne at Toledo, Ohio, May, 1870; ordained deacon by Bishop D. A. Payne, Chillicothe, Ohio, April 25, 1872; ordained elder by Bishop D. A. Payne, Zanesville, Ohio, May 22, 1873. He held the following appointments: Lebanon Ct., Ohio Conf., 1870-1872; in September, 1872, he was appointed by Council of Bishops as endowment agent of Wilberforce to succeed Rev. Henry J. Young; resigned as agent June, 1873,
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and was appointed as supply to Mt. Pisgah, Washington, D. C., then held Greenville, S. C., 1874; Winnsboro, S. C., 1875; Hagerstown, Md., 1876-77; Bethel, Baltimore, Md., 1878-80. He served also the following churches in the order named: Union, Phila., Pa.; Wilmington, Del.; Bethel, Phila., Pa.; Union, Phila., Pa.; Metropolitan, Washngton, D. C.; Bethel, Baltimore, Md.; Trinity, Baltimore, Md.; Payne, Baltimore, Md. In 1876 married Catherine Campbell, daughter of the late Bishop Jabez Pitt Campbell. She died in 1888. As a result of this union eight children were born, five of whom are living at the present time: Jabez Campbell Beckett, a member of the Phila. Annual Conference; Mary Stella Beckett, a teacher in the schools of Phila.; William H. J. Beckett, secretary of Y. M. C. A. in Washington, D. C.; Mrs. Katherine B. Anderson, and Elvira F. Beckett, a graduate nurse. In 1890 he was married again to Mary S. Chase, of Holmesburg, Pa. Two sons were born to them, Walter Chase Beckett, now an undertaker in Germantown, Pa., and Handy Beckett, a student in Tuskegee Institute. Rev. Beckett was a familiar figure at Christian Endeavor conventions and swept audiences by song. He died in Philadelphia, May, 1906. In 1893 Rev. Beckett paid the mortgage on Bethel, Baltimore, which had stood for 48 years, since Bishop Payne was its pastor.

        Beckett, Mrs. Mary S. C., widow of Rev. John W. Beckett, D.D., (the sweet singer), and daughter of Elias and Malvina S. Chase, was born in Holmesburg, Philadelphia County, Pa. She begain her local missionary work under the direction of her mother and her aunt, Miss C. E. A. James, who would once a

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MARY S. C. BECKETT

week visit the sick and shut-ins, carrying fruit, jellies, etc., reading passages of scripture and singing songs of cheer.

        Moving to Frankford, Pa., where there are better school facilities, she graduated from the Wilmot Public School and entered Robert Vaux School, 12th and Wood streets, under the principalship of Prof. Jacob C. White. She next entered the High School.

        She married the Rev. John W. Beckett, D.D., then pastor of Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, Washington, D. C. It was then that her public missionary career began. She was president of the auxiliary and made a creditable financial showing of missionary funds. Removing to Bethel Church, Baltimore, 1893, she again resumed missionary work--her auxiliary reporting one hundred dollars, this being the first auxiliary in the connection to make so large a report in mite missionary work. Going to Trinity Church, in the same city, she was again elected president of the auxiliary and the loyal and faithful women, astonished the Connection's Mite Missionary Society by a total of $1,546.38 in five years as follows: 1898-1899, $100; 1899-1900, $125; 1900-1901, $220, 1901-1902, $353; 1902-1903, $748.33; a total of $1,546.33.

        They worked with the following motto: "The liberal soul shall be made fat."

        Mrs. Beckett has been unanimously elected four consecutive times as corresponding secretary of "The Woman's Parent Mite Missionary Society." Without salary she has written over ten thousand letters to assist, inform, inspire and encourage the twenty-two thousand women of the organization. Moving to Philadelphia, she was made treasurer of Special Fund, Philadelphia Conference Branch.

        Beckett, Lemuel M., was born in Washington, D. C., October 9, 1854. In early youth he attended what was then called "Pay School," as the public school system for colored children had not been established. He spent one year at Wayland Seminary,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. LEMUEL M. BECKETT, B.D.

Washington, D. C., and three years at Howard University. He completed his theological course at Wilberforce University in 1884, graduating as the valedictorian of his class. He was licensed to preach in 1877. He was ordained deacon in 1884, by the late Bishop R. H. Cain, and Elder by the late Bishop J. M. Brown. His parents were Clement and Mary Beckett. He is also the brother of the late Rev. J. W. Beckett, the sweet singer. Rev. L. M. Beckett has been a frequent contributor of anniversary sermons to the Christian Recorder. He married Miss Mary C. Giles, of Washington, in 1884. He is now presiding Elder of the Potomac district of the Baltimore Conference.


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        Beckett, William Wesley, 40th bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, son of Thomas and Martha Beckett, was born in 1859, at Edisto Island, S. C. He began attending school in 1866 and attended fourteen years, attending public school and later Clark University and Gammon Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., graduating from Gammon Theological Seminary. He received the degree of D.D. from Allen University, did post-graduate work at Columbia University for the Ph.D. degree. He was converted in 1870 and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1871. He has held almost all offices in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1878 at Edisto Island, S. C., by Rev. A. T. Carr. He was ordained deacon 1886 at Marion, S. C., by

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP WILLIAM WESLEY BECKETT, D.D.

Bishop Shorter and ordained Elder 1888 at Charleston, S. C., by Bishop Ward. He joined the Annual Conference at Georgetown, S. C., under Bishop Dickerson. He has held the following appointments: Union Circuit, 1884; Brunson Ct., 1885-1886; Sheldon Ct., 1887-89; Attended School, 1888-92; P. E. Beaufort Dist., S. C., 1894; Emanuel Station, 1895; P. E. Mt. Pleasant Dist., 1896-1900; Charleston Dist., 1900-'04; Morris Brown Station, 1904-'08; Secretary of Missions, 1908-'12; President of Allen University, 1912-'16. He built Ward Chapel at Brunson, S. C., at a cost of $1800 in 1885, raised $12,000 for Emanuel Station, at Charleston, S. C., in 1895, remodeled Morris Brown at Charleston at a cost of $5000, in 1905; bought parsonage of Morris Brown, $2500 in 1907. He lifted a mortgage on Emanuel Station at Charleston to the amount of $7000 in 1895. He has taken 2958 people into the church, baptized 987 people. He has been a delegate to all General Conferences from 1896 to 1916. He was a member of the Church Extension Board, 1904-1908. He was Secretary of Missions, 1908-1912 and was voted for bishopric at Kansas City. He married Mrs. Mary Beckett in 1878. Their children are: James O. Beckett, Mrs. Mattie Coasey, Mrs. Laura Lopez and Mrs. Catherine Davis, all of whom completed a common school course. He was editor of the Voice of Missions for four years, and has contributed to the Recorders and daily papers. He preached the Baccalaureate sermon at Wilberforce in 1911 and at Morris Brown, in 1915. He is connected with the Odd Fellows and Masons. He is a Republican and was a member of the South Carolina Legislature in 1882-1884; inspector of Port of Charleston, 1892-1894. He was elected the fortieth bishop of the A. M. E. Church, May 18, 1916, and assigned to West Africa.

        Bennett, Henry Ward Beecher, was born November 15, 1865, in Georgetown County, S. C. He was converted very young. His parents sent him to Charleston, S. C., where he entered the Simonton School and finished with honor. He taught school several years; was licensed to preach in 1880; joined the annual Conference in 1889 under Bishop Arnett.

        He studied theology in Gammon Theological Seminary at Atlanta, Ga., Allen University, Columbia, S. C. He also took a course in the University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. He filled the following appointments: Goose Creek Circuit, St. Peter's Circuit, Mt. Pleasant Circuit, Bethel Station, Georgetown, S. C.; Emmanuel Station, Charleston, S. C. He spent five years each at the following three appointments: St. Peter's Circuit, Mt. Pleasant Circuit, Emmanuel Station, Charleston, S. C. Spent fifteen years at three places. At Emmanuel Church he attended Sunday School when a boy and after many years, he was appointed pastor of that great church by Bishop L. J. Coppin, D.D.

        He paid off the $28,000 mortgage on Emmanuel A. M. E. Church, November 29, 1909, which set at liberty the members of the church and five officers who had their personal property mortgaged as security for the church. He built three churches, one parsonage. He was a delegate to the General Conference of 1912. Bishop Lee appointed him Presiding Elder of the Edisto District in 1912. He died 1915.

        Bentley, Daniel S., was born in Madison County, Kentucky, September 20, 1850. He attended school

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. DANIEL S. BENTLEY, D.D.

at Berea College and later studied theology under the guidance of Prof. R. W. Landis, of the Presbyterian Theological Seminary.


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        At the age of nineteen he began to preach and was received into the membership of the Kentucky Conference of the A. M. E. Church and remained in that conference fourteen years, working steadily upward from the humblest mission circuits to the prominent stations in Danville, Louisville and Frankfort. He was transferred to the Indiana Conference in 1884, and three years later to the Pittsburgh Conference and stationed at the Wylie Avenue Church, Pittsburgh. Three years later he was appointed Presiding Elder of the Pittsburgh District. Returning to the pastorate at the end of three years he served in succession the following churches: Brown Chapel, Allegheny; Washington, Scranton and St. James', Pittsburgh. In 1906 he was again appointed Presiding Elder, this time of the Allegheny District, which office he filled for five years. Returning once more to the pastorate at St. James', Pittsburgh, he has continued his ministry to Williamsport and Homestead.

        He has written considerably, both for the A. M. E. Church Review and the weekly Recorders. He published a volume in 1900 entitled, "Brief Religious Reflections." The volume is being carefully revised and enlarged with a view to a future republication.

        He received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Livingstone College. He was a vice-president of the Parliament of Religions at Chicago in 1893, an alternate delegate to the Ecumencial Conference at London in 1900, and a member of four General Conferences of the A. M. E. Church and has been a member of the Church Extension Board. Dr. Bentley is prominent in the councils of his church as a man of acknowledged ability and influence.

        Bethune, Mary McLeod, a daughter of slave parents, Samuel and Patsy McLeod, was born in a three-room log cabin on a little cotton and rice farm about three miles from Mayesville, S. C., July 10, 1875, being one of a family of seventeen children. Her education was received in the Presbyterian mission school at Mayesville, S. C.; Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C., and the Moody Bible Training School, Chicago, Ill. She was married in 1898, but soon became a widow, with one child. She founded the Daytona Educational and Industrial Training School at Daytona, Fla., October 3, 1904, an institution for the training of girls, and is doing a remarkable work in that State. She is organizer Florida Woman's Christian. Union, trustee Industrial School at Miami, Fla., and Rescue Home, Jacksonville, Fla.; member National Federation of Colored Women, Florida State Federation of Colored Women (vice-pres.), Amanda Smith Community, Married People's Council, Jennie Dean Hospital Club. Address, Daytona, Fla.

        Betts, Rev. S. H., was born in Evergreen, Conecuh County, Alabama, July 31st, 1866. At an early age was moved to Milton, Santa Rosa Co., Florida, where he began school and from there to Pensacola, where he completed his literary education. In his early manhood he was a train porter. He was converted February 8th, 1895, joined Allen Chapel A. M. E. Church, and started preaching. He studied theology under the Revs. A. H. Attaway, B. W. Roberts and James Dean, and took correspondence courses with Payne Theological Seminary, Morris Brown University and Edward Waters College. He delivered the annual address to the theological class of Edward Waters College in 1909, and received the degree of D.D. He was the leader of the West Florida conference to the general conference in 1912, one of the leading trustees of the educational work of Florida,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. H. BETTS, D.D.

and one of the best presiding elders of his state; a financier and church builder, and an able lecturer. In 1915 he delivered the literary address at Morris Brown University. He was a delegate to the Young People's Congress at Atlanta, Ga., in 1914, and is a member of the Centennial General Conference of 1916, representing the West Florida Annual Conference.

        Bianchi, Benj. A., was born at Robertsville, S. C., March 10, 1870, on the plantation of Mr. H. M. Lawton. His father was of Italian descent, his mother an American Negro. His father was a carpenter by trade, was educated before the Civil War in Charleston, S. C., and was never a slave. His mother was a house girl and dressmaker. They were married under the ceremonies which were accorded to colored people at that time.

        To the union were born eleven children, seven boys and four girls, only three of whom survive.

        When Benjamin was eight years old his father died. Then he began a life of hard toil. He worked as a herdsman for a number of years, sometimes eating roast potatoes and sucking milk from the cows for sustenance. He seldom knew the luxury of shoes, but thinly clad he cut turpentine boxes, dipped gum, ploughed on the farm behind ox, mule and horse, hoed corn, cotton, rice and thinned the cotton with his hands.

        Starting his education late in life, when he was twenty years old, he was unable to read a second reader with any intelligence. He attended the country school taught by white Southern teachers, but the facilities were very poor. Having a great craving for knowledge he matriculated at the George State Industrial College, in Savannah, Ga. Prof. R. R. Wright, A.M., Sr., was its president. Later he went to Gammon School of Theology in Atlanta and studied two


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years trying to prepare himself for the work for which God had called him. The time spent here was not thrown away. Without such preparation he says that he would not have been able to hold a decent appointment, and thanks Bishop Thirkield and the other good professors whose encouragement he had. He joined the South Carolina Conference December, 1893, under Bishop Moses B. Salter and received his first appointment from the hands of Bishop J. C. Embry, December, 1896, at Aiken, S. C.

        He has held the following charges: Estell Mission,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. BENJAMIN ABBOTT BIANCHI

Lake City, Gapway, Black River, Aiken, St. George, Holly Hill and Summerville. He was the P. E. of the Charleston District five years, and St. Luke Station, Charleston, S. C., at which place he is now. In February, 1899, he married Miss Hester E. Scott, at Mt. Pleasant, S. C. To their home were born seven children, five girls and two boys. His wife and two of his children have preceded him to the glory land.

        Billings, Rev. Charles Franklin, the son of Hezekiah and Elsie Ann Billings, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born March 9, 1873, in Adams Co., Miss. He was one of seven children. He began attending school in 1879 and spent thirteen years in school, attending schools at Church Hill and Blue Ridge, Jefferson Co., Miss. He is a graduate of Morris Brown and Campbell College. He received the degree B.D. from Campbell College and Morris Brown. He was converted in 1888 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held nearly every office in the church. He was licensed to preach 1895 at Jefferson County by Rev. J. W. Watson; was ordained deacon 1903 at Brookhaven, Miss., by Bishop Tyree, and ordained elder 1907 at Port Gibson, Miss., by Bishop M. B. Salter. He joined the annual conference 1901 at Hattiesburg, Miss., under Bishop Tyree.

        He has held the following appointments in Mississippi: Pearl Haven Mission, 1903; Rock Point Circuit, 1903-05; Bethel Circuit, 1906-09; Zion Circuit, 1910; Meridian Station, 1911-12; Laurel Station, 1913; P. E. 1913 to 1916. He built Mt. Salem, Liberty, Miss., $800, in 1907; Billings Chapel, Gloucester, Miss., $650, in 1908; in 1909 Billings Chapel rebuilt, $700.

        He lifted a mortgage of $200 on Bethel at Liberty, Miss., and on Galilee, at Caseyville, $150 in 1910. He has taken about 800 people into the church, baptized 450 and married 40 couples. He is Assistant Secretary of his conference in Mississippi. He married Rosa D. Billings, of Jefferson Co., Miss., December, 1905. They have six children, namely, Bertha C., 19 years; Hezekiah E., 17 years; Elsie A., 14 years; Marie V., 10 years; Virgie Lee, 6 years; Rosa A., 4

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. F. BILLINGS, B.D.

years. Bertha C. Billings is a graduate of Campbell College. He is a stockholder and director of the Negro State Fair of Mississippi. He owns a home and property at Brookhaven and Jackson, Miss. He is an alternate to the Centennial General Conference.

        Boddie, Francis F., one of six children of Benjamin and Sarah Boddie, his mother being a member of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Waverly Hall, Ga., February 15, 1860. He began attending school at nine years of age, attending during ten years, Mt. Zion School, Waverly, Ga.; Atlanta University and Griffin High School, and received the D.D. degree from Morris Brown University; was converted at fifteen years of age, and joined A. M. E. Church; held offices of steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher and Sunday school teacher. Was licensed to preach at Sparta, Ga., by Rev. George Coplin, in 1882; ordained deacon by Bishop Dickerson, at Sandersville, Ga., in 1883; elder at Columbus, Ga., by Bishop Shorter in 1885; joined the annual conference under Bishop Dickerson, at Augusta, Ga., in 1882; had the following appointments: Prospect Circuit, Milledgeville Station, 1888-90; Lumpkin Station, 1890-94; Eatonton Station, Fort Valley District, Americus District, Columbus District, Dublin Station, Milledgeville District; built St. Mark's Church, at Lumpkin, Ga., in 1895, at a cost of $18,000. Lifted mortgages on St. John's Church, at Eatonton, Ga., in 1898, to the amount of $600; took 1500 people into the church and baptized 800; was delegate to the general conferences of 1900, 1904, 1908 and 1912. Was a member of Sunday


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School Union Board, 1900-04, and Executive Board of Morris Brown College. He died May, 1915. His wife, Mrs. Carrie A. Boddie, was born in Sparta, Ga. They had six children: William Fisher and Julian F., both practicing physicians; Ella J., graduate of

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. FRANCIS F. BODDIE, D.D.

Morris Brown; Elwood, of Eddy High School; Sarah and Alice Boddie. Dr. Boddie was aggressive, and became an important factor in every community in which he served, and in every organization of which he was a member.

        Bowling, Alonzo J., was born at Lincoln, Ill., August 25, 1879, one of the four children of Thomas and Jane Bowling, both members of Bethel A. M. E. Church of that city. Alonzo's school life, which lasted twenty years, was spent in the grammar school of Lincoln, Ill.; the High School of Kansas City, Kan.; State Normal, University of Michigan, Ohio State University, Harvard College, being a graduate of each. He has the degree of A.B. from Michigan University, A.M. from Ohio State University and Harvard College; B.D. from Albion College, Albion, Mich., where he received his theological training, having also studied theology in Northwestern University and Boston University. Rev. Bowling was converted in 1893, joining the Methodist Church in Topeka, Kans., in 1895. He has served as class leader, exhorter, local preacher, Sunday school teacher and superintendent of the Sunday school. At present he is director of Dearborn Social Center and assistant pastor of the Institutional Church, Chicago, Ill. He was licensed to preach in 1915 by Dr. W. D. Cook, and joined the annual conference in 1915, at Wilwaukee, Wis., under Bishop B. F. Lee. His wife, Mrs. Katie M. Fowler Bowling, of Atlanta, Ga., he married January, 1916. He has served as editor of "The Conservator," Chicago, and has been a contributor to the "Northwestern Christian Recorder" and the "Broad Ax." He has written "Negro Education," Harvard, 1912; a comparison of Kansas City, Kan., and Brookline, Mass., school systems, 1912; "Elimination of Negro Children from Public Schools," Columbus, O., 1908. He is a Mason, Knight of Pythias. Odd Fellow, Elk and True Reformer. He is one of the moving picture censors of the City of Chicago. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Geographic Society, and the Royal Society Clubs of London.

        Braxton, Rev. W. H., was born in the early 70's at Port Gibson, Mississippi, the eldest son of George and Sarah Braxton, both ex-slaves. At the age of five years he was placed in the public school; at sixteen he graduated from the public schools and entered the Port Gibson Normal and Business Institute, finishing in three years, teaching school in the meantime. Prof. J. M. Taylor, the principal of the institute, recommended Mr. Braxton very highly when he entered Alcorn A. and M. College to finish his scientific course.

        He married during his junior year in college, but he

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. H. BRAXTON, D.D.

did not give up his desire to secure a college education. During vacation he taught school in Arkansas.

        He took a special correspondence course from the New York School of Science. He next took the theological course at Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga., and after four years he finished, and the next year he wrote a thesis which secured for him the degree of Doctor of Divinity.

        He has done much work both as an educator and pastor, having taught in some of the best schools, built and improved churches and parsonages. With an amiable wife and seven children, he is still happy, despite the much suffering he has undergone to make a record and to have the world to know that he lives in it.

        In 1902, while attending a quarterly Conference, he had five boy children burned to death.

        He was invited to deliver an address to the Y. M. C. A. of the Louisiana State University in 1909, and it was stated by the President that he was the only Negro that ever had that honor.

        Braswell, James S., one of the eleven children of Bird A. and Watie Braswell, was born November 20, 1865, in Leon County, Florida. He attended public schools about seven years, studied theology at Morris


Page 42

Brown College and further improved through private study. He was converted and joined St. Laurene A. M. E. Church September 3, 1886, and has held every office from Sunday-school teacher to presiding elder.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. S. BRASWELL, D.D.

In 1893 Rev. J. W. Dukes licensed him to preach at Tarpon Springs, Florida; in 1895 he was admitted into the annual conference and ordained deacon by Bishop Grant; in 1900 ordained elder by Bishop Gaines. He held the following charges: Clearwater Mission, 1894; Clearwater and Petersburg Circuit, 1895-1897; Williston Circuit, 1897-1901; High Springs, 1901-5; Ocala, 1905-6; Palatka, 1906-1910; Orlando, 1910-15. He built churches at Clearwater, Petersburg, Williston, Mt. Brook on Williston Circuit, High Springs, Palatka, the last costing $15,000, and paid mortgage of $500 on Mt. Olive, Orlando. He has taken into the church about 2000 persons and baptized about 1200. He was elected an alternate to the general conference in 1908, a delegate in 1912 and 1916, treasurer of South Florida Conference for six years. He edited "The People's Headlight" at Palatka, published pamphlets on "Baptism" and "Infant Baptism," preached baccalaureate sermon for Hungerford Industrial School, is a Mason, Odd Fellow, having held high office in each; a Republican and a house owner, and has been generally active in civic and religious affairs everywhere he has pastored. January 19, 1891, he married Miss Brilla L. Burton, of Tampa, Fla. Three children have been born to them: Birdie Arnett, who died at 21 while studying at Howard University; La Belle C., who died at 18 while at Morris Brown University, and James S., Jr., now 17 years of age, and Marion E., an adopted child of 2 years of age. Rev. Braswell received D.D. from Edward Waters, and is now presiding elder of the Palatka district, South Florida Conference, serving his second year.

        Braswell, Mrs. Brilla Launtine (Burton), was born at Tampa, Fla., April 15, 1871, seventh child of Nelson and Maria Burton. She grew up at Manatee and Cedar Key, Fla., entered Cookman Institute, Jacksonville, Fla., in 1885; after spending four terms she taught in Hillsboro County for three years. She married Mr. James S. Braswell at Tarpon Springs, Fla., where they lived until they entered the ministry at Clearwater. She was converted at the age of 14 and

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. J. S. BRASWELL.

has been helpful to her husband in all his ministerial labors, and has been especially successful in Christian Endeavor work. In 1911 she attended the Interdenominational Christian Endeavor Convention at Atlantic City, N. J., and visited many of the leading cities, of the North. Mrs. Braswell is an accomplished dressmaker and milliner and has conducted successful businesses in Ocala, Orlando and Palatka, and has taught her trade to many others who are now successfully following it.

        Brent, Rev. Geo. Wilson, son of Mary Taylor and Geo. Brent, was born March 21st, 1860, in a log cabin on the boundary line between the Taylor and Cushingberry plantations, in King George County, Va. It was said that his father (African born) was drugged, trapped, captured and sold to an English naval officer, who brought him to Virginia and sold him again for debt. His parents had a "broom stick wedding" at the marriage of Cushingberry's son to Taylor's daughter, and they respectively, as "man and maid servant," were made a present to the contracting parties. His father ran away and joined the army at the call for colored troops in '63, and for revenge the kidnappers picked his mother up on the public highway and sold her to Georgia. From 1869 to 1870 young Brent was at the colored Orphan Home in Washington, D. C. He was "bound out" to the then noted theatrical stars, Charles R. Thorne and wife, and with them went to Lexington, Mass., and was used as understudy by the young men of the family. He later served in various capacities of bell-boy, stable boy, race horse jockey, amateur pugilist, fireman and deck hand on a river steamer, and longshoreman, all of which increased his knowledge. He was converted in February, 1877, and joined Big Bethel, Baltimore, Md., Rev. J. W. Beckett, pastor. He drew up the first "constitution" for the colored Y. M. C. A., which was, however, rejected.


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        He moved to Norfolk and for many years was active in St. John A. M. E. Church, especially the Sunday school, of which he was superintendent, helping to lay the foundation for the splendid organization there today. He was also president of the Y. M. C. A. of Norfolk when the first secretary (Mr. W. A. Hunton) was called to the colored branch. In 1888 he moved to Madison, N. J., where for the past 28 years he has been an important factor in church and community life, especially in connection with Sunday school work, having been superintendent of the Madison Sunday school and district superintendent of the Newark district. He was married in 1885 to Miss

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. GEORGE W. BRENT.

Mitta M. Holt, of Raleigh, N. C. They have no children.

        Brother Brent is an interesting writer and has contributed for thirty years to the A. M. E. Review, Christian Recorder, Southern Recorder, and secular papers. He pastored and saved the church at Easton, Penna., but was refused admission to the annual conference because he was "too old" it was claimed. He is a great lover of religion, a promoter of morals and a man of ideals.

        Brinson, Jesse, was born at Summertown, Ga., March 19, 1875, son of David and Alice Brinson. In a family of seven children three were girls and four were boys. His father, who died in 1904, was for twenty-four years a steward and held other offices in the church. His mother still lives and is an active member of the church. He studied in the schools of his home and neighboring counties, and from 1897 to 1902 taught in the public schools of Emmanuel County, teaching three years of this time at Summertown.

        On account of poor health he gave up teaching and took up the business of painting, in which he has made much success as a contractor in Savannah, Georgia, to which place he moved in 1904. He was converted when only a boy, impressions having been made upon him by his Sunday School teacher, Mrs. J. T. Smith, in teaching the first Psalms, and he has become especially attached to Sunday School work. He was once connected with three Sunday Schools of different denominations, but having different hours of meeting. He was connected with Sunday School work in Dublin, Georgia, and also served as a trustee.

        October, 1898, Mr. Brinson was married to Miss Lillie Pughsley of Swainsboro, Ga. Their children are Sylvester, a girl, and Charles Luke, a boy.

        He became connected with St. Phillip's Sunday

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. JESSE BRINSON.

School, Savannah, Georgia, in 1904, soon afterwards became a teacher, and in 1909 was made assistant superintendent, and in 1910 was made superintendent and has served ever since. The school has five departments, thirty-five classes and about 600 pupils, and has been greatly improved under Mr. Brinson's administration.

        Brisbane, A. L., was born of A. M. E. parents in Columbia, S. C., March 30, 1860; emigrated to Liberia, Africa, in 1876, with his father and mother. He was converted November 24, 1884, and joined the A. M. E. Church, and has served from Steward to Presiding Elder. He was licensed to preach in 1892, joined the itinerancy in 1893 under Bishop Turner, was ordained Deacon by Bishop Turner in 1895, and Elder in 1899 by Bishop A. Grant; was delegate to the General Conference in 1908, and appointed Presiding Elder of the Monrovia District by Bishop Heard the same year. In this capacity he has served faithfully up to the present. He is also a delegate to the Centennial General Conference in 1916.

        Brookens, Jackson Andrew, son of Charles and Mary Brookens, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Yazoo County, Miss. He entered the King School in 1870; was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1876; licensed to preach in 1882 by Rev. E. R. Carter; joined the annual conference in 1886 at Greenville, Miss., under Bishop Ward; was ordained deacon in 1888, at Yazoo City, Miss., by Bishop Ward, and ordained elder in 1899, at Grenada, Miss., by Bishop Turner. He has held the following appointments: Tree Run, Miss., 1877; Yazoo City Circuit, 1889; Evans Circuit, 1892; Yazoo, 1896; Pickins, 1899; Magna Vista, 1902; Benton, in 1889; Union Paradise, at Evans, Miss., $450, in 1906; Evans Circuit, 1910; Holly Bluff, 1912; Tchula, 1914; Benton, 1915. He built Piney, at Yazoo, $600, 1892; St. Peter, at Pickens, $450, in 1899; Ebenezer, at Benton, $650, in 1906. He lifted a mortgage on


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Price Chapel, at Holly Bluff, to the amount of $182, in 1912. He has taken 682 people into the Church, baptized 358 and married about 50 couples. He was delegate to the general conferences at Norfolk, in 1908, and Philadelphia in 1916. His wife, Mrs. Georgia A. Brookens, was born in Taylor County, Miss. They were married in 1879, and have nine children: Burrell, 33 years; Mary, 35 years; Clarence, 31 years; Jackson, 29 years; Hattie, 24 years; Benjamin, 22 years; Hallie, 21 years; Beulah, 18 years; O. D. Brookens, 15 years; H. D. Brookens, 10 years. His son, Benjamin, won a scholarship at Campbell College. He has contributed to the "Recorders;" has been chaplain of the Eastern Star; has been constable; is a Republican and a home owner.

        Brookins, Mrs. M. L. Harding, was born in Nashville, Tenn., and was reared in Kansas. She was converted at the age of eight years. She obtained her education in Olathe, Kans., after which she was married to Mr. E. A. Harding, who afterward became an itinerant minister in the A. M. E. Church. They were

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. M. L. HARDING BROOKINS.

the parents of two daughters, Bertha Aurora and Mabel Eugenia. After the death of Rev. Harding she was married to Rev. M. D. Brookins, who at that time was Presiding Elder of the Guthrie District. From early youth she desired to be useful in the church. She began to furnish music for the churches and Sunday schools in the town in which she lived at the age of 14 years, also using her talent in the way of recitals and dramatic work to benefit the church. She began her work as a traveling missionary in Oklahoma, in 1901, serving as President of the W. H. & F. M. Society of the Oklahoma Conference three years, then she was elected President in the Indian Mission Conference and served three years. After the organization of the N. E. Oklahoma Conference she was elected President of the W. H. & F. M. Conference branch and served six years. She is the first one chosen and elected President of the W. H. & F. M. State Convention, which was organized April 23, 1914, at Tulsa, Okla., by Bishop W. D. Chappelle. She has made great sacrifices to build up the Missionary work of the A. M. E. Church in Oklahoma. She traveled at her own expense, lecturing and trying to teach the women how to do the work for the church, and what to do as missionaries. She held her annual executive boards, which were full of spiritual life and successful plans. Her strong appeals to the women through the church periodicals resulted in the increase numerically and financially for the Missionary Work. She is a woman of talent, industry and several trades.

        Brooks, Rev. Charles Edward, the son of W. C. and Mary Brooks, was born in New Orleans, La., Oct. 5th, 1868. He began to go to school at seven years of age and attended the public schools of his native city and the Southern University. He was apprenticed as a bricklayer and thoroughly mastered the trade at which he worked for twenty years. Becoming interested in labor organization he was one of the labor and political leaders of New Orleans and Louisiana.

        In 1893 he was converted and joined St. Peter's A. M. E. Church. He held the offices of steward, trustee, class leader, Sunday school teacher and superintendent.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. E. BROOKS, D.D.

In 1893 he was licensed to preach by Rev. Charles Augustus; in 1896 ordained deacon by Bishop Armstrong; in 1898 ordained elder by Bishop Handy. He joined the Louisiana Annual Conference in 1896 under Bishop Armstrong at Thibadaux, La., and has held the following appointments: Osyka Mission, Amite City, La., Hammond, Suddsville, Bellegrove, Thibadaux, Plaquimine, Napoleonville, Patterson, Franklin, all in the Louisiana Conference, and he is now serving his fourth year as presiding elder of the Northeast New Orleans district. He was a delegate to the general conference of 1912 and leads the delegation to the Centennial General Conference of 1916. He is a Mason, K. of P., Odd Fellow, and member of other societies. In 1911 he married Miss Addie G. Coleman. He has two children, and owns a home in Covington, La.


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        Brooks, Reuben B., the son of Daniel and Hannah Brooks. Father was a member of M. E. Church and mother of A. M. E. Church.

        Born at Greenville, Fla., December 18, 1860. Was a member of a family of 15 children.

        Began attending school at 7 years and attended in all six years. Attended public school at Greenville, Fla.

        Studied theology at Morris Brown University and took correspondence course. Received degree of D.D. from Morris Brown.

        Converted in 1882 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year.

        Has held many offices in the church, steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher, superintendent of Sunday school and district superintendent.

        Licensed to preach 1885 at Ocala, Fla., by John R. Robinson. Ordained deacon, 1892, at Sanford, by Bishop Ward.

        Ordained elder 1894 at Ocala, Fla., by Bishop Grant.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. REUBEN B. BROOKS, D.D.

        Joined Annual Conference 1889, at Gainesville, under Bishop Arnett.

        Had the following appointments:

        Boardman, Miss., 1891; Ybor City, Allen Temple, 1892; Cedar Keys, Ct., 1892-3; Micanopy Ct., 1894-5; Key West Station, 1896-7; Sandford Station, 1898; Mt. Olive Station, Jacksonville, 1899-1903; Fernandina Station, 1904-5; Presiding Elder, Jacksonville District, 1895-6; presiding elder, St. Augustine district, 1907-10; Presiding Elder, East Jacksonville District, 1911-13; Presiding Elder, Madison District, 1914-15; Pastor of St. Augustine, Florida, 1916. He has built the following churches:

        Allen Temple, Tampa, Fla., $800, 1892; Mt. Zion, Micanopy, $1000, 1895.

        Lifted mortgages on Bethel Station at Key West, $1500, 1896; Mt. Olive, Jacksonville, $500, 1899; Macedonia, Fernandina, $2000, 1904.

        Delegate to General Conferences, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912 and leads the delegates of the East Florida Annual Conference to the Centennial General Conference of 1916.

        Was a member of the Educational Board, 1904, and Church Extension 1908. Was Reading Clerk of General Conference 1904 at Chicago and Recording Secretary of General Conference at Columbus, Ohio, in 1900.

        Was voted for as Financial Secretary of A. M. E. Connection at Norfolk, Va., in 1908. Married May 28, 1885, Mrs. Janie L. Brooks, of Ocala, Fla. Had the following children: Mrs. Pansy E. Baker, Miss Connovella Brooks, Miss Polly D. Brooks; Messrs. R. B. Brooks, Jr. and Alonzo Brooks.

        He is Grand Secretary of Grand Lodge of Masons of Florida; Past Grand K. of R. & S. of Grand Lodge K. of P. and prominently identified with the Odd Fellows. He is a Republican and has been Inspector of Customs at the port of Key West, Fla. He owns a good home.

        Brooks, Robert Daniel, was born in Waymanville, Ga., March 19th, 1857, son of David and Anna Brooks, who located near the line of Upson and Monroe counties soon after emancipation, and were there converted and joined Sugar Hill A. M. E. Church. Robert first attended Sunday school here, and studied Webster's speller. Subsequently his parents moved near Forsyth, Ga., where they died. Being left alone, he wandered away and finally located at Lovejoy Station, where he was converted at the age of eleven

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ROBERT DANIEL BROOKS.

years. There being no other Methodist church near by, he joined the M. E. Church in which he grew up.

        Professing a call to the ministry, he was licensed to preach in his fifteenth year, and in the following year, was received into the Savannah Annual Conference, ordained deacon under the missionary rule, and appointed pastor of Jonesboro Church. Here the Lord blessed him and much good was done. At this point he married Miss Anna Hightower, and to them was born their only child, Robert Ernest Brooks, now Dean of Theology in Payne University. Four years later, the subject of this sketch was ordained elder by Bishop Foster. After serving several years in


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Georgia, he secured a transfer to the Central Alabama M. E. Conference. While in this conference, it was made clear to him through the Holy Spirit that the church of his parents' choice in which he first received holy impressions, was the open door to his greatest usefulness. Being thus convinced, he secured his certificate of withdrawal and joined St. John A. M. E. Church, Montgomery, Ala., through its quarterly conference, Rev. A. W. Atwater, presiding. Here he served as class leader until conference. During the session of the Alabama A. M. E. Conference, held in St. John Church, December 5th, 1885, Bishop D. A. Payne, D.D., presiding, Rev. A. W. Atwater, P. E., presented him with his certificate of standing for reception into the conference upon which Bishop Payne requested him to state to the conference his reason for the change, whereupon he stated that he "did not come for the loaves and fishes, that the mother church had treated him well, but that recognizing the fact that in every soul is the sign of human equality, he wanted to satisfy a long felt desire to be in the church of his parents' choice, where he could feel free and good--the church whose open door gives opportunity to the Negro race for the greatest display of usefulness." Following the statement, he was unanimously received, but as a verification of the honesty of his purpose, he refused to take regular work, choosing rather to aid such pastors and presiding elders as might need him during the year, so as to give time for better acquaintance. He did much varied service that year. From Bishop Payne's conference held in St. Luke Church, Opelika, Ala., December 1st, 1886, he was sent to the pastorate of Emanuel Church, Mobile, Ala. Notwithstanding the four years' limit, he was allowed to remain five years, during which he paid the church debt of $1500, bought and paid for the parsonage, erected the present brick building, and increased the membership from 127 to 480. From the Alabama Conference held in St. John, Montgomery, Ala., November, 1891, he was transferred to the North Alabama Conference and stationed at Brown Chapel, Selma, Ala., but the General Conference of 1892, having set apart the Central Alabama Conference, he, by territorial situation, became a member of the Central Conference. Remaining in charge of Brown Chapel four years, aside from the work done for Payne University, he paid $3100 on the church debt and increased the membership from 266 to 684. His humble efforts were greatly blessed in this pastorate.

        At the conference held in Brown Chapel, Nov., 1895, he was by Bishop A. Grant, D.D., appointed Presiding Elder of Selma District. During the twenty years of his service as presiding elder, he served Greensboro, Mobile and Camden Districts, and is now serving his fourth appointment to the Selma District.

        For twenty years he served his conference as Chief Secretary, and is now Secretary-Treasurer of the Central Alabama Conference.

        Elected Trustee of Payne University, he served as Secretary-Treasurer 21 years and resigned the position on account of failing health. During that time, the property titles were straightened out, the old debts paid off; 23 lots with 6 dwellings were purchased. Gaines' Hall and Coppin's Hall were built and other improvements made. He labored earnestly with head, heart and hands, and to keep the machinery together to the well being of the school, he made untold personal sacrifices.

        Brown, Daniel J., was born at Bonneau's Station, now Barkley county, South Carolina, December 8th, 1867. He received his early education in the public school of the county and was later sent to Charleston, South Carolina, where he spent several years in Mary Street Grammar School, leaving to join the family which was moving to take up work in the Columbia Annual Conference, which was just organized. His father, the late Rev. George H. Brown, was one of the pioneer ministers of the South Carolina Conference.

        For four years he was forced to accept such opportunities as the public schools afforded. In the year 1882 he entered Claflin University, Orangeburg, S. C.,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. DANIEL J. BROWN, D.D.

graduating in 1886. To better qualify himself for his life's work he later entered Drew Seminary, Madison, N. J., took the prescribed course, graduating after three years of hard work. He was converted in 1884 and became immediately active in the A. M. E. Church. Was licensed a local preacher in 1888 and was admitted to the Columbia Conference in 1889. For eleven years he both taught in the public schools and pastored the churches to which he was appointed. He has never forgotten his early experiences in his first mission charge of about ten members, which serves him now as he was permitted to observe upon the stern realities of things before him. He has often said: "It was just the proper process." He was transferred to the New Jersey Conference by Bishop Abram Grant in 1899 and stationed at Madison. Here as in other charges, he did good work, increased the membership and placed the church upon a better basis. The church in Orange, N. J., was greatly strengthened in every way during his pastorate of five fruitful years. He served for six years as Presiding Elder of the N. J. Conference, winning the esteem and affection of both ministers and laity. In the pastorate and otherwise he has exemplified those elements of efficiency so essential to success in any laudable endeavor. He has been elected three times a member of the General Conference, being honored with the leadership of his conference and of the First District delegation in 1912.

        His manner of doing things has won friends for him among all classes. He is quiet and unassuming


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and commands with dignity. He is kind at heart and generous in spirit. Many of his accomplishments are due to his unfaltering faith in the gospel of self-help, seasoned with a liberal dash of courage and perseverance. His rule is to do all the good he can and as little injury as possible. He has made many sacrifices, but without complaint.

        Dr. Brown attributes much to his wife, as he regards her help and encouragement so significant. Mrs. Brown is now the corresponding secretary of the M. M. Society of the N. J. Conference and is identified largely in all the labors of her husband.

        Brown, Howard Dennis, son of George and Martha Brown, was born in Crumpton, Md., July 18, 1874. He died Sunday, December 19, 1915, at Douglas Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. When he left his home in Maryland and came to Philadelphia, he joined Bethel A. M. E. Church and rose to the position of class leader and

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. D. BROWN.

local preacher and was recommended for admittance to the annual Conference. He was ordained Elder at Milford, Del., May, 1909, by Bishop Gaines. He married Miss Hannah Jones, a school teacher in Philadelphia, in 1907.

        He served at Disney A. M. E. Church one year and was serving his eighth year as pastor of La Mott A. M. E. Church at the time of his decease. Here he built a church and practically paid it out of debt, and so strong was his hold on the people and so excellent was his work that Bishop Tyree, in spite of the time limit, sent him back for the eighth successive year. He was afflicted for nearly two years, but in spite of this he continued to do such excellent work as to excite the admiration and commendation of his friends. On a visit to his Maryland home he finally collapsed and was brought back to Philadelphia. He was taken to the Douglas Hospital November 22, 1915, where he died December 19. Dr. Montrose Wm. Thornton, of Boston, at his request, preached at Rev. Brown's funeral, at which were present Bishops, Presiding Elders, pastors and many laymen. (For his work see "Lamott.")

        Brown, Bishop John Mifflin, was born in Canwell's Bridge, now Odessa, Delaware, September 8, 1817. He remained here until he was ten years old, then he moved to Wilmington, Delaware, where he lived in the home of a quaker, who sent him to Sunday and weekday school. He received his early education from private instructors. He declined the teaching of a Catholic priest on the ground that he would be a Methodist. He came to live in Philadelphia, where he found a

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP J. M. BROWN.

home with Dr. Emerson and Henry Chester. These proved to be staunch friends to him. They instructed him in the rudiments of education, catechised him in the principles of religion and doctrines of the church. Here he learned the barber's trade. He attended St. Thomas' P. E. Church for a while, but in 1836 he united with Bethel A. M. E. Church, attended evening school and began preparation for the ministry. In 1838 he entered the Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham, Mass., where he remained for two years. In 1840, his health failing him, he returned to Philadelphia. Later he entered Oberlin College, but did not complete the college course there. In 1844 he opened a school in Detroit, Michigan. He pastored the A. M. E. Church in that city from 1844 to 1847. He was elected principal of Union Seminary, out of which grew Wilberforce University. Later he was transferred to the Indiana Conference and stationed at New Orleans, La. After various pastorates in the Southern States, he was elected at the General Conference of 1864 as editor of the Christian Recorder, but he subsequently resigned, and was elected corresponding secretary of the Parent Home and Foreign Missionary Society, which he held for four years. (See Missionary Department).

        In 1868 he was elected Bishop of the A. M. E. Church at the General Conference meeting at Washington, D. C., and ordained May 25, 1868.

        Brown, Bishop Morris, second bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Charleston, S. C., January 9, 1770, of mixed parentage. By dint of perseverance he acquired what was in his time a good education. Being free he had little trouble in securing a license to


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preach as soon as he professed religion. In 1817 he was ordained a deacon and the next year an elder, and began traveling in 1818. In 1822 occurred the Denmark Vesey insurrection in Charleston, and the colored people were put under a ban, and in scores of instances, persecuted. Morris Brown had a prosperous business in Charleston, as a maker of boots and shoes. He assisted numbers of slaves in purchasing their

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP MORRIS BROWN.

freedom, and in various ways succored them, and for so doing was rigorously punished. Things touching the privileges of people of color grew to such a pitch that numbers of free colored people began to go to the North. Among them was Morris Brown, who had been imprisoned for one year before 1822, for too great sympathy for slaves. He succeeded, however, in reaching Philadelphia, in 1822, though suspected of complicity in the plot, and his family came to Philadelphia in 1823. He was far from being a stranger, having attended conferences in the North prior to that time. Here he was untrammeled, and entered with zest into church and every reform movement of that day. Bishop Allen was growing feeble and needed an assistant, and the great zeal and intelligence of Rev. Morris Brown were recognized and he was elected and ordained to the episcopacy, May 25, 1828. The position was no sinecure; travel was difficult, and hospitality very uncertain, but the work was prosecuted with vigor and fine results, and when Bishop Allen passed away, in 1831, Bishop Morris Brown became the sole bishop until 1836, when Edward Waters was ordained as bishop to assist. Bishop Brown had quite a family, the members of which, beginning in 1823, entered most conspicuously into the social life of Philadelphia. His son, Morris Brown, Jr., became one of Philadelphia's leading musicians. In 1844, while in Canada, on episcopal work, he suffered a stroke of paralysis, from which he never recovered, dying in Philadelphia, May 9, 1849.

        Brown, Norman Wesley, was born October 20, 1876, in Hartford County, Md.

        His mother was given away as a wedding present during the days of slavery from Ellicott City, Md., to Hartford County. Her father, Robert Johnson and Charles Bell were in the organization of the A. M. E. Church at Randall's Town, Md., about 1836. His father and his father's father were in the organization of the A. M. E. Church in Hartford County.

        At the age of seven he was librarian in the Sunday School, after which he was teacher and superintendent. He was converted November 23, 1890, under the pastorate of Rev. W. W. Wilson.

        He went to Baltimore in September, 1891, and joined

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. N. W. BROWN, D.D.

Trinity A. M. E. Church, under the pastorate of Rev. J. W. Norris, who, the following April, appointed him class leader. He was licensed to preach by Rev. J. H. Collett April, 1895; joined the Baltimore Conference in 1897, Bishop Handy presiding; was ordained deacon by Bishop Handy in 1899, and ordained elder by Bishop Lee.

        Took the normal course at Morgan College, Baltimore; theological course at Howard University, and corresponding scientific course from Chicago University. Presented a thesis upon the subject "Immortality of the Soul" to the faculty of Morris Brown College, Atlanta Ga., and received the degree of Doctor of Divinity.

        Served the following appointments: Patuxtent Circuit, Baltimore Conference, two years; Winchester four years; transferred to the Virginia Conference and stationed at Trinity Church, Norfolk, where in five years he paid $1225 more on the bonded indebtedness than six pastors had paid in ten years before, and greatly increased the membership, frescoed the church, put in new carpets, electric lights, bought a new parsonage and put $450 granolithic wall and walk around the church; spent one year at John M. Brown Church in the same city.

        Though he was out of his church nine Sundays on the account of sickness, raised $2138.10 and greatly increased the membership.

        He then served four years at Newport News, Va.; built a $2700 parsonage; added 172 members to the church; rearranged the mortgage debt and raised more than $25,000 during the four years.


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        He is now serving Bethel A. M. E. Church, Bluefield, W. Va., where up to this date he has had splendid success. He has raised during his ministry $41,919.93 and added 479 members to the A. M. E. Church. Since coming to Bluefield he has drawn into the service of the A. M. E. Church some of the most intelligent and best people of the town.

        Browne, John Andrew, one of three children of Henry and Annie Maria Brown, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in 1882, at Chestertown, Md. He attended school for fifteen years, first in the public school of Chestertown, Md.; private school, Wilmington, Del.; graduated from Payne Theological Seminary of Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio, from which he received the degree of B.D. He

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. A. BROWNE, B.D.

was converted and joined church in 1895; has held offices of class leader, local preacher, Sunday school teacher, district superintendent of Sunday school, Wilmington District, two years; was licensed to preach at Bethel, Wilmington, Del., in 1906, by Rev. P. E. Mill, P. E.; ordained deacon in 1911, at Wilberforce, Ohio, by Bishop Gaines; ordained elder in 1913, at Wilmington, Del., by Bishop Tyree. He joined the annual conference in 1906, at Bethel Church, Philadelphia, under Bishop Gaines. Held the following appointments: Edgefield Circuit, Columbia Conference, 1911-12; Harrington, Del., Philadelphia Conference, 1912-13; Bristol and Bensalem, Philadelphia Conference; 1913-16; La Mott, Pa., Philadelphia Conference, since January, 1916. He is secretary of the Interdenominational Ministerial Alliance of Philadelphia and Vicinity. Married Selia Genera McElroy, of St. Louis, Mo., December 2, 1911. He is an Odd Fellow and K. of P.; has served also on the Republican State Central Committee of Delaware; organized Negro Protective League at Bristol, Pa., and served as president of same.

        Bruce, Elijah Turner, was born January 1, 1869, at Williamsport, W. Va. His mother, Mary Jane Bruce, was a member of the Waugh M. E. Chapel. Left fatherless at the age of three, with an invalid mother, he struggled against poverty and disadvantages to gain a limited education. He was converted at the age of nine, was teaching Sunday school at twelve, and at fourteen was superintendent, and an

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. E. T. BRUCE.

exhorter at seventeen. In 1887 he came to Philadelphia and attended private schools. He became a member of Mt. Pisgah, under the pastorate of Dr. N. D. Temple. In 1893 he was united in marriage to Maggie Drummond, to which union three boys were born. He was licensed as local preacher by Rev. F. T. M. Webster, and joined the Philadelphia Conference under Bishop Tanner. His first charge was at Ward

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. E. T. BRUCE.

Mission, Philadelphia, where he was successful, having purchased the present site and built the chapel. He has served successfully the following charges: Atglen, two years; Wrightsville, two years; Chambersburg,
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five years; Devon, four years; Ward (second time), two years; Asbury, Chester, two years, where he is now the very acceptable pastor.

        Bryant, Ira Toussaint, Secretary-Treasurer of the A. M. E. Sunday School Union, Nashville, Tenn., was born at Selma, Ala., October 14, 1877, son of Mansfield Edward and Alice A. (Choice) Bryant. He was a student of Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn., a graduate of A. & M. College of Normal, Ala., during the administration of Prof. William H. Council. Mr. Bryant was once an apprentice in the same institution of which he is now head. He served as monotype

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. IRA T. BRYANT, LL.B.

operator in the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., and received the degree of LL.B. from Howard University. Has filled the position of Secretary-Treasurer of the A. M. E. Sunday School Union since 1908; business manager of the "Southern Christian Recorder;" editor of the Sunday School Publications of the A. M. E. Church; director of People's Savings Bank and Trust Company; ex-president Nashville Negro Board of Trade; trustee Wilberforce University, Payne University, Turner Normal College; Progressive; Mason; District Grand Master of the Odd Fellows, Jurisdiction Tennessee.

        Bryant, Mansfield Edward, first editor of "The Southern Christian Recorder," was born in Seales, Lee County, Ala., in December, 1853. He was educated at Atlanta University, Ga., leaving only three months before his graduation as a bachelor of arts. He was a classmate of Prof. R. R. Wright, Sr., now president of the Georgia State College, Savannah, Ga. After leaving school he was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church. Feeling the call to preach he was licensed, and joined the Alabama Annual Conference at Opelika, Ala., December, 1875, under Bishop Ward, and was elected chief secretary of the conference. He served the Church as follows: Pastor of Brown Chapel, Selma, Ala., 1876-9; Emanuel, Mobile, Ala., 1880; Florence, Ala., 1881-2; presiding elder of Florence District, 1882; presiding elder of Selma district, 1883-87, editor of "Southern Christian Recorder," 1888---. He was a forceful writer and made the "Southern Recorder," which he published at Nashville, Tenn., felt throughout the connection. In his early ministry he combined teaching and preaching, having

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. M. E. BRYANT, A.M., D.D.

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. M. E. BRYANT.

taught school at Florence, Ala. He also edited a newspaper while in Selma, called the "Southern Independent." He married Miss Alice A. Choice, in Opelika,
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Ala., September 23, 1874. They had five children: Theodore, who is a practicing physician in Texas; Ira T., secretary-treasurer of the A. M. E. Sunday School Union; Ida Mae, deceased; M. E. Bryant Jr., physician and printer; Carrie, wife of Dr. C. H. Johnson, of Atlanta, Ga. Rev. Bryant died in Mobile, Ala., and was buried in Selma, Ala.

        Bumry, Richard H., son of Richard and Mary Bumry, was born in King George County, Va., April 17, 1864, and was brought to Washington, D. C., the same year. He lost both parents before he was three years of age, and was cared for by his paternal grandmother. He attended the public schools of Washington, D. C., until the year of 1879, selling newspapers and blacking shoes between school hours. He worked

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. R. H. BUMRY.

in the United States Treasury Department under the superintendency of O. L. Pitney, during the years of 1880-81, and a part of 1882. He went to Pittsburgh, Pa., in the latter part of 1882, worked in the Black Diamond Steel Works, the Oliver Wire Mills, and drifted into the occupation of a coachman. He married his first wife, Miss Jennie Hogan, of Washington, D. C., May, 1884. He was converted January 31, 1886, and joined Brown Chapel A. M. E. Church, Pittsburgh, Rev. W. S. Lowry, pastor. He was licensed to preach under the pastorate of Rev. I. N. Ross, February, 1893; served as class leader, superintendent of Sabbath school, trustee and steward; entered the itinerancy October, 1893, under Bishop Payne, and received the last appointment given by that great educator. Was ordained deacon October, 1895, by Bishop Arnett, at Wheeling, W. Va.; ordained elder October, 1896, by Bishop Lee, at Washington, Pa. He has served the following churches in the Pittsburgh Conference: Parkersburg, W. Va., one year; Wheeling, W. Va., five years; Monongahela City, Pa., one year; Wilkes-Barre, Pa., two years; Brownsville, Pa., four years; Allen Chapel, N. S., Pittsburgh, four years; presiding elder five years, and is now in his first year at Bethel, Wylie Avenue, Pittsburgh. He cancelled the mortgage debt at Wheeling; remodeled church at Brownsville, and at Wheeling. To January, 1916, has received 787 persons into the Church; baptized 428; married 205 couples. He was a member of the general conferences of 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916, and a member of the following boards: C. C. P. A., "Western Recorder" and Publication. He married his second wife, Miss Mary Armstrong, of West Elizabeth, Pa., September 1, 1915. He has four children by his first wife--Richard, Arnold, Julia and William. Two boys, Richard and Arnold, are High School graduates. Julia is an alumnus of Wilberforce, and now teaching at the Normal and Industrial Institute, High Point, N. C. The youngest, William, is at present attending High School. Rev. Bumry has contributed constantly to the city newspapers in the towns of his pastorate, as well as his Church organs. He is the first Negro elected to office in Fayette County, having served three years as school director in Brownsville, Pa. He is a Mason and Odd Fellow, and was the chief secretary of the B. M. C., held in Washington, D. C., 1890.

        Buren, Nathaniel C., son of Isaac and Louisa Buren, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in 1859, in Van Buren County, Tenn., one of ten children. He received his education at Walden University, Banvier Theological College and Moody Bible Institute. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1873; served as steward, class leader, local

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. N. C. BUREN.

preacher, Sunday school teacher and superintendent; was licensed to preach in 1877, by Rev. Hiram Robinson, and joined the annual conference in 1880; was ordained deacon in 1882 by Bishop Campbell, and ordained elder in 1884, by Bishop Turner. He has held the following appointments: Decatursville Circuit,
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Pleasant Hill Circuit, Maurry Circuit, St. James, Nashville, Tenn.; Pulaski Station, Columbus Station, Franklin Station, Kirkwood Station, Wichita, Kan.; Lincoln, Neb.; Atchison, Kan.; Leavenworth, Kan.; Lexington, Mo.; Boonville, Mo.; St. John, Kansas City, Mo. Presiding elder in Missouri for ten years. He built St. James' Church, at Nashville, Tenn., at a cost of $2500, in 1886. He lifted mortgages on the following churches: Columbus, Ky., $500; Wichita, $800; Boonville, $850; St. James, St. Louis, $500. He has received 1875 into the Church, baptized 500 and married 200. He was delegate to the general conferences of 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916. He was a member of the Missionary Board, 1912-16, trustee of Wilberforce, 1908-1915. He married Hattie L. La Fitte, of Savannah, Ga., in 1897. He is connected with the Masonic, Royal Arch. He owns a home.

        Buren, Mrs. Hattie Lucile, was born in Savannah, Ga., the oldest child of Samuel and Rachel La Fitte. When she was still quite young her parents moved to Macon, Ga., where she attended and completed the course at Ballard Normal Institute and Fisk University, graduating from the latter with high honors, in

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. HATTIE L. BUREN.

1893. She taught at the Lincoln School, of Atchison, Kan.; in Tipton and Sedalia, Mo., and Western University, at Quindaro, Kan., in each position giving entire satisfaction. On January 7, 1897, she was married to Rev. N. C. Buren, B.D. Since that time she has been prominent both in affairs of the Church and state, being for four years treasurer of the State Federation of Women's Clubs of Missouri, and for three years president of the Mite Missionary Society of the Missouri Annual Conference. She is now serving her third year as president of this society for the St. Joseph District. She possesses a contralto voice of great sweetness. She is one of the twelve prominent women of our race consulted by Governor Hadley, of Missouri, in reference to the establishment of a home for incorrigible Negro girls. She was president of the Board of Lady Managers for the North Western Colored Orphanage, and directed the "Tag Day Rally," collecting for the orphanage $600 in a single day. She is untiring in her efforts to promote the intellectual, moral and spiritual condition of our people in the community in which she lives.

        Burgan, Isaac M., was born October 6, 1848, near Marion, McDowell county, North Carolina. Though a child of slavery, he was blessed with a mother that possessed rare Christian virtues, Sylvia Burgan, whose

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ISAAC M. BURGAN., D.D., LL.D.

piety and devotion were strongly instrumental in giving trend and impetus to his long life of noble usefulness. As a slave, young Burgan, in view of his trust-worthiness, enjoyed privileges denied his fellow-servants. Evidences of the potential brilliancy of his intellect were clearly apparent at an early age, and without a teacher he would learn the lessons assigned his white companions with such seeming ease that his owner, thinking it unsafe to have such a knowing slave about the place, offered him for sale at eight hundred dollars, but when the traders came for him, his owner refused fifteen hundred dollars for him, Isaac having manifested a disposition to use his thoughts and energy to the best advantage of his owner.

        After emancipation, he left North Carolina and worked on the railroad in Kentucky and Tennessee. It was while at work in Tennessee that he entered school for the first time, and began a battle royal for the acquisition of an education. In December, 1869, he entered a select school at Bowling Green, Ky. In October, 1870, he entered school at Evansville, Ind., under the tutorship of the Rev. J. M. Townsend, D.D. He remained here three years, being given great inspiration by Rev. Townsend. He entered the State Normal School at Terre Haute, Ind., in 1873, and at once took the lead over his classmates, most of whom


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were whites, in many branches, excelling especially in mathematics and philosophy. He left the Normal in the fall of 1875, just before graduating, to begin teaching at Lost Creek, near Terre Haute. He taught here three years and earned a reputation of being "a natural born teacher."

        While working in Tennessee he was converted in a Baptist revival, but he did not join the church at that time. He afterwards placed himself under the watch care of the M. E. Church at Bowling Green, Ky., and later he joined the A. M. E. Church at Evansville, Ind. He experienced a call to the Christian ministry early in life, and while attending the Normal at Terre Haute, he was licensed to exhort by Rev. J. M. Townsend. While teaching at Lost Creek, he was licensed to preach by Rev. John Meyers. Leaving his school work at Lost Creek, he entered the theological department

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. I. M. BURGAN.

of Wilberforce University in 1878. His college record was commendable in every respect. At the beginning of his junior year he joined the Indiana Annual Conference at New Albany, under Bishop J. A. Shorter, and was appointed pastor at the college. While in college he held charges at Maysville, Harveysburg and Troy, Ohio. He graduated with honors, and was chosen valedictorian for class day exercises. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Shorter a few weeks after graduating. While on the campus at Wilberforce he was urged upon to go to Texas and take charge of Paul Quinn College, which was then a struggling school of little consequence. He went and it was soon apparent that mountain-like difficulties would eventually be either scaled or tunneled, and that impending improbabilities would vanish. He gave nineteen of the best years of his life in developing for Texas African Methodism an institution of higher learning second to none in the Southwest. Paul Quinn College will ever stand as a fitting monument to his constructive skill, his untiring energy and patience, his undaunted courage and his sacrificing love for his church and his race.

        He was ordained elder in the West Texas Conference at Rockdale in 1884, by Bishop A. W. Wayman. He has held charges at the following places:

        Oakland, Cal.; Richmond, Ind.; Vincennes, Ind.; Little Rock (Brown Memorial), Marrellton, Batesville, Helena and Arkadelphia, Ark., and the college chapel at Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas, during the nineteen years of his presidency of that institution.

        The degree of B.D. was conferred upon him on his graduation at Wilberforce. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Philander Smith College, Little Rock, Ark., and the degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by Wilberforce University.

        At this writing he is the efficient presiding elder of the Houston district, Texas Conference, and he is meeting with the same degree and kind of success that has characterized the efforts of his previous years.

        He has published a book "Sunday, the Original Sabbath," which is commended by Bishops Lee and Coppin and Editor Wright, and others.

        Burley, John Wesley, first financial secretary A. M. E. Church, was born of free African parentage, at Baltimore, Md., in 1833. His father, one of Baltimore's most prosperous colored citizens, was able to give him

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN WESLEY BURLEY.

a thorough business education. He early entered the ministry, and was elected the first financial secretary by the general conference, at Nashville, Tenn., in 1872. He was re-elected in 1876, but died at Washingington, D. C., April 11, 1879.

        Butler, Mrs. M. J. Brockman, was born in Greenville, South Carolina, April 5, 1883. She attended the public school of Greenville, graduating in 1896. She studied at Barber Memorial Seminary in Anniston, Alabama, for several years; later attending Clark University in Atlanta.

        She served as matron and teacher at Campbell College, Jackson, Mississippi, under Dr. D. H. Butler, her husband, who was President for five years. For two years she was secretary for the Federated Clubs of the State of Mississippi and organized the first Charitable and Literary Club under the auspices of the State Federation in Jackson, Miss. At the National Temperance Union that convened in Baltimore, Md., November, 1910, she represented the State of Texas. She was leader of the Mississippi delegation to the Connectional Missionary Convention that was held in New Orleans in 1914. She was elected to represent the women at the General Conference at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1916. She served three terms as state president


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of the Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the state of Mississippi; served also a third

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MAMIE J. BROCKMAN BUTLER.

term as president of the Conference Branch of the Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the Mississippi Conference.

        Butler, William H. H., the youngest son of Israel and Catherine Butler, natives of Virginia, who moved to Ohio about 1836, being forced to leave that State because of the law against Free Negroes, was born in Seneca County, O.; reared in Barlow Township, Washington County, O., and attended the primary

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WM. H. H. BUTLER, D.D.

neighborhood school for colored children till twelve years of age, when his father died. Then he went out into the world to secure better educational advantages, leaving a widowed mother. Worked at doing "chores" for board and lodging in the home of a married sister residing at Sandusky, O., and was the first student of Negro blood to attend the high school of that city, and completed the four years' course in two years, graduating at the head of his class when under fifteen years of age. He enlisted as a private while yet under fifteen years, and was assigned to Company E, Fifth Regiment, United States Colored Troops (Infantry), and joined the regiment in September, 1864, in the trenches before Petersburg, Va., and participated in several battles--Chapin's Farm, Deep Bottom, New Market Heights, Fort Gilmore, Fort Harrison, in Virginia; and went with his regiment to North Carolina in the winter of 1864-5, and was in the attacking force at the capture of Fort Fisher, Fort Johnson, Fort Anderson, Fort Sugar Loaf, and at the battles of Cape Fear River, Faison's Station, and witnessed the surrender of Johnson's army to Sherman, at Durham, N. C., in April 1865. He was mustered out with his regiment at Morehead City, N. C., in August, 1865, and discharged at Camp Chase, near Columbus, O., in September of the same year. He matriculated in Runkle College in the autumn of 1866 and graduated with honor in 1869; was employed by the Freedmen's Bureau in 1870, in charge of Ariel Academy, at Camp Nelson, Jessamine County, Ky.; organized the Republican party in that county, and with Rev. C. O. H. Thomas, then pastor in that county, forced the election officers to permit the Negroes to vote. He was forced to go armed constantly, to guard against the Ku Klux Klan. He continued in the presidency of Ariel Academy for six years. Then followed several years as a teacher and preacher at Lebanon and Franklin, Ky. In 1880 he was admitted at Pine Bluff, Ark., to the Arkansas Conference, Bishop Turner presiding. He was assigned to St. John's A. M. E. Church, Pine Bluff. He subsequently pastored at Greenville, Miss., and was presiding elder of the Grenada (Miss.) district. He has pastored Pulaski,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. W. H. H. BUTLER.

Franklin and Fayette, in Tenn.; Newport, R. I.; Bridge Street Church, Brooklyn (two terms); Allen Chapel, Phila.; Wilmington, Del.; Bethel, Detroit, Mich.; Richmond and Terre Haute, Ind.; St. Paul, Columbus, Ohio; Brown Chapel, Pittsburgh, and St.
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Paul, Washington, Pa. He has been presiding elder over the Greensboro and Morgantown and the Wilmington districts, in North Carolina; the Michigan conference; the Harrisburg district, Philadelphia conference; the Greater New York district of the N. Y. conference; the East Pittsburgh, and the Washington districts of the Pittsburgh conference; has been a member of every General Conference except two, since 1880, and was chairman of the Episcopal Committee in 1912 and 1916. He has been legal adviser to bishops and others in some of the most important ecclesiastical actions of the church for the last twenty years. He is the author of "Ecclesiastical Judicial Practice in the A. M. E. Church," a book regarded as authority in all judicial proceedings in our Connection. Brown and Wilberforce Universities have honored him with the degrees of Doctor of Divinity. He is now serving as presiding elder of the Washington P. E. district, of the Pittsburgh conference. His wife, a lady of rare charm, was Miss Evangeline R. Brown, the daughter of Willis Brown, of Masseyville, Ross County, Ohio, who was regarded in his lifetime as a man of wonderful mental endowment. They were married at Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 19, 1905.

        Butler, James William, one of four children of Walter and Cynthia (Wilson) Butler, was born August 17, 1885, at Kalamazoo, Mich. His father died when he was two years old; received his education in the public schools of that city, and Parson's Business College, all the while supporting himself; was converted

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. J. W. BUTLER.

and joined the A. M. E. Church in January, 1904; served as steward, class leader, Sunday school teacher and superintendent and church clerk. He was a lay alternate in 1912, and a delegate to the Centennial Conference, in 1916. Mr. Butler is chief grinder of knives in one of the largest manufacturing companies in his city, and head of the only Negro shoe repairing business in Kalamazoo.

        Byas, Dr. A. D., was born on a farm, near Kosciusko, Miss., May 9, 1871. His parents being persons of thrift and economy, in spite of slavery, made great headway in accumulating much of this "world's goods." His literary training was received at Rust University, Holly Springs, Miss., and he studied medicine in Meharry Medical College, at Nashville, Tenn., graduating with honor in the Class of 1899. He is one of the leading physicians of Memphis, Tenn., and has a large practice in and out of the city. He is quiet and unassuming, yet dignified and intelligent in bearing and personality. He lives in one of the most elegant homes in the city of Memphis. His splendid wife, who was a Miss Lula McPherson before marriage, is a lady of culture and refinement. The doctor is a loyal member and honored trustee of Avery Chapel, A. M. E. Church, Memphis, Tenn. He was a delegate to the general conference in Kansas City and to the Centennial General Conference, May, 1916, in Philadelphia, Pa.

        Byrd, Elijah, was born April 2, 1849, in Wycomico county, Md., near Salisbury. His father was a slave and his mother was a free woman, and therefore it necessitated her to work very hard to raise her four children. His mother was without education, but his father obtained a meagre education enough to give him the rudiments of an education. After he arrived to seventeen years of age he came North and attended

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ELIJAH BYRD, D.D.

night school. He studied theology first under Dr. (now Bishop) L. J. Coppin, then at Miller's Bible College, Philadelphia, 1911, and received the degree from that institution. He joined the Philadelphia Annual Conference at Columbia, Pa., May, 1887. He received no work this year, next year he was appointed a missionary, and organized a mission at Fernwood, Pa., took in fifteen members and had a Sunday School of thirty pupils.

        May 22, 1889, he was appointed to Camden, Del. He found the church in bad condition and built a new one, which was dedicated by Rev. Lewis Hood, then Presiding Elder of the Wilmington District. May 19, 1891, he was appointed to Milford, Del. The people scattered on account a $500 debt made against their will. Rev. Byrd paid $420 of this that year.


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        In 1892 he was appointed to Mt. Friendship, Del., which owed $913 on the church and $75 on the Blanco School Home. All of this was paid off. May 27, 1895, he was appointed to Smyrna, Del. The church was to be sold in two weeks, but he paid the $300 and saved the church.

        May 18, 1896, he was appointed to South Chester, Pa. There was a good, nice church but with heavy debt. Two weeks after he was appointed to this church many of the people were thrown out of work on account of hard times, but Rev. Byrd paid $150 on the principal and $300 on floating debt and kept all the current expenses down.

        May 23, 1898, he was appointed to Wayne, Pa., and found an indebtedness of $2000. He remained there three years, paid $1200 of the debt and all current expenses. May 19, 1901, he was appointed to Devon, Pa., and found a church not large enough to hold the people so it was necessary to tear out and extend the building and make it large enough to accommodate the people. This was done at the cost of $1500, and all of this was paid but $252.

        May 27, 1903, he was appointed to Reading, Pa., which was in debt of $500, $125 coming due in nine days, and with less than thirty members. He preached at two of the parks for eight and ten days respectively, and in eighteen days raised $210, which was placed in the bank to the credit of the church and confidence was restored. May 20, 1907, he was appointed to Zion Chapel, Philadelphia, Pa., which had an indebtedness of $2000 principal and $500 floating debt and building too small to hold the people. He enlarged the building at a cost of $2500, paying $1000.

        June 17, 1912, he went to Morris Brown, Philadelphia, Pa. The attendance was small and the debt large, the people discouraged. He remained there three years. May 24, 1915, he went to West Chester, Pa., and June, 1916, he was appointed presiding elder of the West Philadelphia district, Philadelphia Conference.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM BYRD, D.D.

        Byrd, William, was born in Ross county, O. He was early impressed with a deep sense of his calling and began to prepare himself for the work of a gospel minister.

        In the year 1894 he was graduated from Wilber-force University. Then, for some years he labored in Ohio, going from Ohio into Tennessee, he labored there for three years in the ministry. At the expiration of this time he was called into Georgia and there he remained for seventeen years, six of which were as an itinerant minister and eleven years in Morris Brown College. He was elected Vice-President of this college and Professor of Exegetical Theology. He was also a member of the General Conference of the A. M. E. Church of 1908 and 1912, and at present a member of the Connectional Board of the A. C. E. League. He is a member of the Centennial General Conference.

        On July 15, 1914, he was elected President of Shorter College, and took charge of this institution the latter part of the same month, and is meeting with success.

        Byrd, William Paul Quinn, the son of Rev. S. W. and Sarah Ann Byrd, was born (??) His father was an A. M. E. minister for 41 years, and his mother was the daughter of Rev. Isaac Dunica, who assisted Bishop Quinn in crossing the Mississippi River and in planting the A. M. E. Church in St. Louis, Mo. W. P. Q. Byrd attended public and elementary schools, the Centennial High School, of Pueblo, Colo., and Wilberforce University, taking the degree of B.D. from Payne Seminary, June, 1901, being valedictorian of his class. He was converted May,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. P. Q. BYRD, D.D.

1896, under the preaching of Mrs. Lena Mason, at Shorter Chapel, Colorado, his father being the pastor. He was licensed to preach by Rev. P. A. Hubbard the same year; ordained deacon by Bishop Shaffer at Pueblo, September, 1901; ordained elder at Detroit, September, 1903, by Bishop Grant. He has held the following appointments: Cripple Creek, Colo., 1901 (3 months); St. Paul's Church, 1901-2 (6 months), where he did good work, and transferred to Michigan, where he held appointments at Whittaker (6 months),
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Adrian, one year, where he paid the church out of debt; St. Joe, Mich. (2 years); Bellaire, O. (10 days); Lansing, Mich. (3 years), where he remodeled the church, increased the membership and increased all reports; Ann Arbor, Mich. (1 year), where he was successful; Mound Bayou, Miss. (appointed in 1909 by Bishop Lampton while he was at Battle Creek, Mich.), where he paid all past debts, improved the church and parsonage, increased all connectional claims, bringing dollar money from $121 to $165, and pastor's salary from $300 to $610; increasing Sunday school from 30 to 150; Clarksdale, Miss. (1 year) and presiding elder of the Moorhead district since 1914. Rev. Byrd was a delegate to the general conference, 1912 and is alternate to the Centennial General Conference, 1916. Morris Brown College gave him D.D. in 1909. In Oct., 1901, he was married to Miss E. V. P. Jones, daughter of Bishop J. H. Jones. They have one child, 1 year old. Mrs. Byrd has been active in all church work, and is now president of the Northwest, Miss., Conference branch of the W. H. & F. Society, and one of the best workers in the state of Mississippi.

        CALDWELL, MR. JAMES WILSON, the son of John and Mary Ann Caldwell, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born December 8, 1872, at Elizabeth City, N. C., one of nine children. He entered school in 1878 and attended about 10 years, graduating from the Philadelphia Grammar School and Temple College. He was converted in February, 1888, and joined Union A. M. E. Church, Philadelphia, the same year. He has been steward, trustee, class leader, Sunday school teacher, president of Christian Endeavor, and president of the Literary Association.

        He was elected delegate to the general conference of 1916. He married Mrs. Marie Catherine Caldwell,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. JAMES W. CALDWELL.

of Carlisle, Pa., in 1902. He is connected with the Standard Sales Co., and has charge of electrotype plates in Jno. C. Winston Pub. Co. He is a member of the Protestant Association, O. V. Catto Regiment of the Boys' Brigade and the National Association for the Protection of Colored People. He owns a home.

        Caldwell, Julian C., the sixth child of John and Mary Caldwell, was born in Chapel Hill, N. C., November 1, 1870. His parents moved to Philadelphia, Pa., when he was very young, where he received his early training in the public schools, also the Manual Training School and National School of Elocution and Oratory, of same city.

        In 1891 he entered Wilberforce University and graduated from Payne Theological Seminary in 1896. He joined the Missouri Conference in 1896 under Bishop Tanner. He filled the following appointments:

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JULIAN C. CALDWELL.

Jefferson City, Springfield, Lexington, Independence and St. Joseph, all in Missouri.

        From the time he joined the church at the age of fifteen he became intensely interested in the Sunday School and Christian Endeavor work. He was made District Superintendent of the Sunday Schools of the Lancaster District, Philadelphia Conference, when he was sixteen years of age and was licensed to preach when he was seventeen. Perhaps his greatest power has been in the work of the Christian Endeavor Society. He joined the Society of Christian Endeavor of Union A. M. E. Church in 1886, and in 1888 was a member of the Look Out Committee of the Philadelphia Union, the largest city Union in the world. In 1891 he became one of the Vice-Presidents of the


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State of Ohio Union, and in 1893 presided at a meeting of the International C. E. Convention in Montreal, Canada, the first Negro to be honored with that distinction. It was through his efforts that Bishop Arnett and Bishop Alexander Walters, of the A. M. E. Zion Church, were elected Trustees of the United Society of Christian Endeavor.

        In 1908, at the General Conference held in Norfolk, Va., he was elected General Secretary of the Allen Christian Endeavor League of the A. M. E. Church, the young people's department of the church. When elected, the department was only in name, but by his strenuous and Herculean efforts, it has grown and developed, until to-day there are 4215 Leagues with a membership approximating 150,000.

        He has ably represented the church and race in both International and World's Christian Endeavor Conventions.

        In 1900 he was united in marriage to Miss Mattie M. Bell, of Louisville, Ky., a graduate of Wilberforce University; and like most men who have done something worth while, he has been nobly assisted by this splendid helpmeet, who side by side with him has labored faithfully for the uplift of humanity, in the pastorate or as Secretary of the Allen Christian Endeavor League, for he has often said, speaking of his wife, "I am the talking part of the League and she is the business part."

        Campbell, Jabez Pitt, eighth Bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Slaughter Neck, Sussex County, Delaware, February 5, 1815, the son of Anthony and Catharine Campbell, both of whom were born free, as was their son. His father was a regularly licensed

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP JABEZ PITT CAMPBELL.

preacher in the M. E. Church, and as such came into the A. M. E. Church, where he labored for about ten years, mostly in the itinerant service.

        He ran away from Delaware at an early age. The circumstances causing the same are thus stated in his own language. "My father was induced to give me as collateral security for debt to one of his creditors, he being finally unable to pay the debt, subjected me to the danger of being taken for the debt. This could be and was very often done in accordance with the statutes of Delaware. I ran away on account of that liability, and came to the State of Penna. After my arrival in the latter State, I was sold for a term of years, the last two of which I bought from my master, after serving him four and a half years. At eighteen years of age I became my own master. The primary object which I had in view in making this purchase was an insatiable desire for a good education." He was a constant student, rising in the early hours of the morning before the duties of the day called him elsewhere, and applying himself to study. This course of self-instruction was systematically done and continued to the closing days of his life. Many of the books left by him can be seen to contain memoranda on the margins, showing his close application to study.

        Such was his breadth and depth in the study of the Scriptures that he was known as the "theologian of the A. M. E. Church" during his day and generation.

        He was always religiously inclined and raised in a religious atmosphere. He was converted at the age of ten years and became a member of the A. M. E. Church under Rev. James Towson, of the Lewistown Circuit, Delaware; became a member of Bethel Church, Philadelphia, in 1833.

        The following in chronological order are the leading events in his ministerial career in the A. M. E. Church:

        September 10, 1839, licensed to preach in the A. M. E. Church by Rev. N. C. W. Cannon.

        April 5, 1841, license renewed by the same minister.

        June 20, 1841, ordained deacon by Bishop Morris Brown, in Providence, R. I.

        June 20, 1843, ordained Elder by Bishop Morris Brown, in New York City.

        (October 23, 1844, married to Stellar Medley in New York City by Rev. Wm. H. Bishop).

        Appointments:

        June 20, 1843, to Albany Station, by Bishop M. Brown. 1847, a teacher in colored school of Hudson, N. Y., certified by J. W. Fairfield, supt.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MARY A. CAMPBELL.

        The records show that at this period in the life of the subject of this sketch he labored in the community of Hudson, N. Y., teaching and preaching. The following is a copy of a certificate of membership in the Wesleyan Methodist Connection, where he labored a short while.

"Hudson, N. Y., May 13, 1847. To all whom it may concern: This certifies that the bearer, J. P. Campbell, is an elder of the Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America and that he is a member in good standing of the W. M. Church in this city. BENJ. WEBBER, Minister in charge."


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        April 2, 1850--Pastor Second Wesleyan Church in Albany--John D. Anthony, Recording Steward.

        June 18, 1850--To A. M. E. Church, Buffalo, N. Y., by Bishop Wm. P. Quinn.

        June 9, 1851--To Buffalo, N. Y., by Bishop W. P. Quinn.

        July 5, 1852--To Buffalo, N. Y., by Bishop W. Nazrey.

        June 15, 1853--To Flushing, L. I. Circuit, by Bishop W. Nazrey.

        June 13, 1854 to Union Church, Philadelphia, by Bishop W. Nazrey.

        June 17, 1855--To Union Church, Philadelphia, by Bishop W. Nazrey.

        (June 14, 1855--Married to Mary Ann Shire, a widow. They remained united until his death.)

        June 15, 1854--Appointed the general book steward and editor of the Christian Recorder "in accordance with the arrangements of the Philadelphia Annual Conference of 1854, the Revs. W. T. Cato and M. M. Clark having resigned their offices."

        June 12, 1860--Appointed to Trenton Circuit by Bishop W. P. Quinn.

        May 29, 1861--Appointed to Trenton Circuit by Bishop W. Nazrey.

        May 19, 1862--Appointed to Bethel, Philadelphia, by Bishop W. Nazrey.

        May 19, 1863--Appointed to Bethel, Philadelphia, by Bishop W. Nazrey.

        Oct. 26, 1863--Appointed to Waters Chapel and Ebenezer Station, Baltimore, by Bishop D. A. Payne.

        April 25, 1864--Appointed to Ebenezer Station by Bishop D. A. Payne.

        May, 1864--Elected the eighth bishop of the A. M. E. Church at Philadelphia.

        Campbell, Mary Ann, wife of Bishop Jabez Pitt Campbell, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., January 10, 1818, daughter of George and Eliza Akins. She was educated in the public schools of the city and for a short time in a school conducted by the Society of Friends. In 1836 she was married to Joseph Shire, and to them were born four children, one of whom, Joseph J. Shire, still lives in Philadelphia. Of Bishop she joined Mother Bethel, Philadelphia. Of Bishop Allen she had vivid recollections. Becoming a widow in 1849, she was wedded to Rev. Jabez P. Campbell in 1855. In 1873 she became one of the organizers of Allen Chapel. In 1874, when the Women's Parent Mite Missionary Society was organized, she was included among the promoters of the same, for a short time was president and for a decade was the treasurer, age compelling her to resign. She was a life member, with her husband, of the board of managers of the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored Persons. She died in Philadelphia January, 1910, aged 92 years.

        Canady, H. D., was born near LaGrange, Troup County, Ga., April 19, 1859, the eldest son of Phillip and Manerva Canady. He got his rudimentary education in the rural public schools, by going to school to any who came to his community and styled themselves teachers. His academic and college training was in Clark University under Dr. W. H. Crogman. He was converted and joined McGhee Chapel A. M. E. Church in Troup County near Hogansville, Ga.; was baptized and licensed to preach by Dr. J. A. Wood. He joined the conference in Augusta, Ga., under Bishop Dickerson. He studied in Meharry Medical School, Nashville, more for the knowledge of physical science than for the purpose of practicing medicine. He also attended Gammon Theological Seminary, Atlanta; was given the degree of D.D. by Turner Theological Seminary, Morris Brown College. Dr. Canady married Miss Nora L. Bryant, who also was a student at Clark University. They have reared a successful family of 5 children--3 sons and 2 daughters: H. Canady, Jr., M.D., who is a successful practicing physician in Atlanta; Joseph R. Canady; J. W. Gay Canady; Hildonia P. Canady, who is principal of the industrial department of Ingraham Institute, Sparta, Ga., and Mrs. Helen G. Penn, wife of Rev. I. Garland Penn, Jr., of Chester, Pa. Rev. Canady has made a successful record as a pastor and presiding elder. Pastored Payne Chapel, Nashville, Tenn.; Steward Chapel, Macon, Ga.; Allen Temple, Atlanta. He freed Steward Chapel of a mortgage debt of long standing. Allen Temple was also left free of debt. Many have been converted and joined the church under his preaching and ministry. He has lived for many years in Atlanta, Ga., where he is favorably known. He is at present the presiding elder of the Monticello District of the Atlanta conference.

        Capehart, William Henry, presiding elder of the Fayetteville District of the North Carolina Annual Conference, was born in Murfreesboro, Hertford Co., N. C., of Mary Ann and W. Henry Capehart. His mother was a strict member of the A. M. E. Church, his father a deacon in the Missionary Baptist Church. His mother looked carefully after young William's religious training. He was educated in the public school in Murfreesboro, and Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C., where he was converted on his return home, joining the A. M. E. Church. He was licensed to preach by Rev. Henry Epps, then presiding elder on the Weldon District; joined the North Carolina Annual Conference November, 1883, in Durham, N. C., and was sent for 3 years to St. Paul Station, Chapel Hill, N. C., where quite a number were converted and joined the church. He was ordained deacon November 29, 1886, at Company Shops, N. C., by Bishop Turner and appointed to St. James, Kinston, remaining 2 years, remodeling the church and adding quite a number of members. He was ordained elder November, 1887, by Bishop Campbell and has since held the following appointments: Washington Mission, where he found only 17 names, with not even a church building. He remained here for three years, bought a lot, built a church and added many members; Mt. Zion Church, Wilmington, N. C., two years, where he did good work and added quite a large number to the church; presiding elder of the Wilmington district five years and six months from November, 1893, during which time he surpassed for finance, conversions and accessions the records of all his predecessors; pastor of Mt. Olive, Wilmington, one year and six months; St. Stephen, Wilmington, two years, where at a spring revival more adults were converted than ever before at a revival conducted exclusively by the pastor, and all finances were increased; presiding elder of the New Bern district, two years; presiding elder of the Wilmington district the second time, three years, and he is now presiding elder of the Fayetteville district. As presiding elder his district Sabbath-school convention collected and donated to Kittrell College the largest


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amount of any S. S. convention in the state of North Carolina. He has been a delegate to all general conferences since 1896, including the Centennial General Conference of 1916. May 25, 1892, he was married to Miss Laura L. Simonson, of Washington, N. C. They have three children: Dr. Leroy G. T., and Misses Helen E. and Bessie L. Capehart.

        Carey, Archibald James, the son of Rev. Jefferson and Anna B. Carey, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born August 25, 1868, at Atlanta, Ga., one of three children. He entered school when four years of age. He has attended Atlanta University, Chicago Theological Seminary and the University of Chicago and is a graduate of Chicago Theological Seminary, and has received the honorary degrees of A.M., D.D. and Ph.D. He was converted and joined the church at nine years of age. He held nearly every office in the local church; was licensed to preach in 1888 at

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. A. J. CAREY, D.D.

Atlanta, Ga., was ordained deacon in 1889 at Washington, Ga., and elder in 1890 at Monticello, Ga., all by Bishop Gaines. He joined the North Georgia annual conference in 1888 under Bishop Gaines and has held the following appointments: Bethel, Athens, Ga., 1891-95; Mt. Zion, Jacksonville, 1895-98; Quinn Chapel, Chicago, 1898-1904; Bethel, Chicago, 1904-1909; Institutional, Chicago, 1909 to date. He built Bethel, Athens, Ga., at a cost of $2500 in 1892; lifted mortgages on Quinn Chapel to the amount of $23,000 in 1898-1904, on Bethel, Chicago, to the amount of $12,500 in 1904-1909, and has taken about 5000 people into the church. He was delegate to the general conferences of 1904, 1908, 1912, 1916. He was a member of the financial board from 1904 to 1912; member of the Commission on Federation of Methodist Churches, 1915, and was voted for for financial secretary in 1912, and for bishop in 1916. He married Miss Elizabeth Davis, daughter of Hon. Madison Davis, former postmaster of Athens, Ga., in 1890. They have five children: Eloise, 22 years; Annabel, 21 years; Madison, 19 years; Dorothy, 10 years, and Archibald, Jr., 7 years. Eloise and Annabel are graduates of Chicago University and have degrees of A.B. and Ph.B. respectively. Dr. Carey has been a frequent contributor to newspapers and has been in great demand for public addresses. He is one of the directors of the Northwestern Recorder Publishing House. He is prominently connected with the F. and A. M., G. U. O. of O. F., K. of P., Foresters, Elks and Tabors, and stands high in the councils of the Republican party of his city. He was chosen by the International Commission to deliver the oration for the Negroes on the occasion of the centennial celebration of Perry's victory on the Lakes. All states participating in the war of 1812 made appropriations and were represented on program. Other speakers were Pres. Wilson, ex-Pres. Taft, Dr. McDonald, of Montreal, and Gov. Cox, of Ohio. Dr. Carey was appointed by Gov. Dunn as Commissioner of Half-Century Negro Freedom celebration held in Chicago; appointed by Mayor Harrison member of the Chicago Board of Moving Picture Censors, and appointed by Mayor Thompson Chief Examiner of Law Claims. He was leader of his delegation to general conferences of 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916.

        Carolina, W. P., the son of Rev. F. B. Carolina, was born August 29, 1864, at Columbia, S. C. Attended the public schools and Allen University. Converted

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. P. CAROLINA, D.D.

in Brooklyn, New York, January 26, 1886. Licensed to preach in Bridge Street Church, Brooklyn, May, 17, 1887, Wm. H. Thomas, Sr., pastor.

        Appointed to the pastoral charge of Hymansville Circuit, Georgetown District, South Carolina Conference, Dr. N. B. Sterrett, P. E., to fill out the unexpired term of Rev. Abner Black, deceased, November, 1887.

        Pastored Gourdine Circuit, Aiken Station, Beaufort, during the cyclone of 1893, when more than 500 were destroyed. He is author of "The Cyclone," music to which was arranged by Bishop L. J. Coppin. He also pastored Bethel Station, Georgetown; organized St. Stephen's Church in Georgetown; pastored St. Luke Station, Charleston; thence to St. Stephen at Georgetown; Pee Dee Circuit, Orangeburg Station; Bethel Station, Columbia.

        After twenty-three years of pastoral work was appointed presiding elder of the Winnsboro District, Columbia


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Conference. At present he is presiding elder of the Marion District and President of Flegler High School, Northeast Conference. He was sixteen years member of the Dollar Money Committee, four years a trustee of Wilberforce University, twelve years trustee to Allen University. The degree of D.D. conferred by Allen University, June, 1908.

        The dollar money was more than doubled at all points he pastored except three. Many men among whom were drunkards and gamblers were brought to Christ under his administration.

        Carr, Harry Augusta, son of Primus and Martha Carr, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born February 20, 1878, at Oakwood, Texas, one of sixteen children. He entered school when ten years of age, attending the public schools and Paul Quinn College from which he graduated with the degree B.D. as the valedictorian of his class. He was converted August 13, 1889, and joined the A. M. E. Church. He was licensed to preach in 1898 at Bryan, Texas, by Rev. G. W. Anderson; joined the annual conference in 1900 at Taylor, Texas, under Bishop Salter; was ordained deacon in 1900 at Belton, Texas, and elder 1902 at

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. A. CARR, B.D.

Austin, Texas, both by Bishop Salter. He has held the following appointments: Edward Chapel, Waco, 1900; Harrison Chapel, Waco, 1903; dean of Paul Quinn College, Waco, 1903; Belton, 1904; Corsicana, 1909; Bethel, Dallas, 1914 to date. He bought Edwards Chapel, Waco, for $900 in 1900; rebuilt Belton Church for $1100 in 1908; built church at Corsicana, $7500, in 1911. He has taken 947 people into the church, baptized 324 and married 117 couples. He was delegate to the general conferences of 1908, 1912 and 1916. He married Mary S. Allen, of Waco, Tex., November 26, 1903. His first wife, Clara Shaw, died in 1898. By his first wife he has one son, William, age 19, and by his second wife he has two children: Hattie, age 10 years, and Lois, age 3 years. His son William is a senior at Wilberforce University. He has made the following addresses: "Two Knights of Destiny," "Unfettered Mechanism," "In the Beginning." He is a home owner and is connected with the F. and A. M., G. U. O. of O. F., and K. of P., also with the Negro Welfare Board and Negro Business Men's League, of Dallas, Texas.

        Carter, Jesse Benjamin, one of eight children of Junius and Maria Carter, both loyal members of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Midway, Ala., February 9, 1869, started to school at Midway in 1880, finished grammar school, and did much private study; received D.D. from Payne University, Selma, Ala., was converted August 8, 1892, joined A. M. E. Church, served as steward, class leader, exhorter, Sunday school teacher and superintendent, chorister, etc., was licensed to preach at Pratt City, Ala., December, 1892, by Rev. J. S. Shaw; joined annual conference at Pratt

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. B. CARTER, D.D.

City, November, 1893, under Bishop Grant; was ordained deacon at Columbiana, December 1, 1895, by Bishop Grant, and elder December 5, 1898, at Huntsville by Bishop Turner; has held the following charges: Jamison circuit, 1895-6; Calera circuit, 1897-1898; Hopewell circuit, 1899; Oakgrove circuit, 1900; Blossburg, 1901-5; Bethel, Ensley, 1906-10; Metropolitan, Mobile, 1911-13; Bethel, Ensley, 1914-16. He remodeled the church at Jamison at cost of $300; at Calera, cost $175; at Shelby, Ala., cost $400; at Hopewell, $200, and paid full amount; also paid $10,000 on Metropolitan church at Mobile, and $21,000 on new church at Ensley; paid mortgage of $600 at Blossburg; was delegate to general conferences of 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916; statistician for North Ala. conference 7 years; trustee of Wilberforce 8 years, and Payne University 16 years; author of "Methodistic Modes," is past master of Masons and past chancellor of Knights of Pythias. His wife is Mrs. Cora E. Carter, of Enon, Ala., to whom he was married Aug. 2, 1894. Their children are Hattie L., a graduate of Broad Street Academy, Mobile, Ala., and a teacher in Birmingham city schools, and William B., 18 years old; Festus McNeal, 16 years old. Dr. Carter owns a home and other property and has been the inspiration for scores of his people to secure homes.


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        Catto, William Thomas, first business manager of Christian Recorder, was born of free parents in Charleston, South Carolina, about 1809, and removed with his family to Philadelphia, Pa., in 1846. He was the father of Prof. O. V. Catto, who was murdered in Philadelphia during an election riot, October 10, 1871. Almost immediately on settling at Philadelphia, Mr. W. T. Catto became connected with the A. M. E. Church and because of his attainments was named book steward of the A. M. E. Church. This he held until 1852, when he was given a pastoral charge which was not to his liking, and he resigned from the church and became a Presbyterian. He died in Philadelphia in 1869.

        Certain, Rev. W. D. was born in Camden County, South Carolina, in the early sixties, and was brought to Florida by his parents, Edward R. and Elizabeth Certain, when he was seven months old. He entered school at the age of seven and received his literary training in Stanton Normal Institute, Cookman Institute, and Edward Waters College. He taught school in Duval, Putnam and Volusia counties in Florida. Later he studied Greek, Latin and Hebrew. He was

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. D. CERTAIN, D.D.

converted in 1874, during the pastorate of John R. Scott, Sr., at Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church, Jacksonville, Fla. He was licensed to exhort and preach by Rev. P. B. Braddock in Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church, Jacksonville, Fla., May, 1888. In 1882 he married Miss Alice LaRoche, of Columbia, S. C., on February 13.

        Much credit is due to his faithful companion for his attainment in the ministry. He joined the East Florida Conference in Gainesville, Fla., February, 1890, under Bishop Arnett, and was appointed to Plant City, Seffner and College Hill, by Presiding Elder T. W. Long, at the District Conference of which he was secretary-in-chief, July, 1890. February 24, 1891, he was ordained deacon by Bishop Arnett in St. Paul Church, Jacksonville, Fla., and was assigned to the Pomna, Stasuma, Circuit, which embraced five points.

        He was ordained elder by Bishop Ward, at Lake City, Fla., in Mt. Pisgah Church, February, 1894, and was appointed to East Palatka and Federal Point Circuit. After serving one year he consented to transfer to Bethel Station, Shelbyville, Kentucky, on February 25, 1895. He served this station successfully for two years nearly paying a large debt. Each year the revival efforts were attended with many conversions. He also served as secretary twice and assistant secretary once of the West Kentucky Conference. He was appointed to St. James Chapel, Louisville, Ky., October, 1897, by Bishop Salter, paying the delinquent monthly dues of four months in the Building and Loan Association, and keeping up the monthly obligations during the time of the two appointments. He entertained the West Kentucky Annual Conference, October, 1897. In February, 1898, he was transferred to East Florida conference, to St. Paul Station, St. Augustine, Fla., February 20, 1898. There was a mortgage of $3000.

        He paid $500 in ninety days and had a successful revival with thirty-five converts, renovated the church and repaired the roof. When he reported at Lake City, Fla., February, 1898, he was elected secretary of the conference and was made presiding elder of Jacksonville District to succeed the late Dr. S. H. Coleman,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MARY ALICE CERTAIN.

who was killed by the derailing of the train, December 14, 1898. He served this district for four years, making increase in all departments of the church work, many churches being built and thousands added to the membership. He was appointed to St. Paul Station 1903 by Bishop J. A. Handy. Served for three years and had the greatest revival in the history of the church, during July and August, 1903, when 120 persons were added to the church. This membership was increased from 200 to 400 in three years, and a mortgage of $400, with interest, was paid within the first thirteen months. The church was renovated and the dollar money was increased. As a result Dr. Certain was appointed presiding elder of Lake City District, by Bishop Tanner, January, 1905.

        He was again elected secretary of this Conference. He served this district with credit for four years, during which time eleven churches were built and hundreds of souls were converted. The dollar money was


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greatly increased and the educational funds were increased from $150 to $325. The Conference Territory was divided into six Presiding Elders' Districts in 1909, and he was appointed to the Suwannee District, which district he served for two years. He was needed to pay a debt incurred by the building of a parsonage, and he was assigned to St. Paul Station, St. Augustine, Fla., December, 1911, which charge he had served quite thirteen years prior to this appointment. He labored in this charge successfully for two years.

        In the revival of 1912-13, 51 persons were converted and $1100 were paid on the parsonage, which was finished and furnished at a cost of $300, and a $200 organ installed, and all general claims increased.

        He was appointed to the Suwannee District the second time December, 1913, by Bishop John Hurst, and was heartily received by the district. On his return after two years' absence and at this writing is serving his second year of the new term.

        He was a member of the following General Conferences, 1900, 1908, 1912. He has been a Mason for twenty-six years, 32°, and member of Fidelity Lodge, No. 251, Jacksonville, and Assistant Grand Chaplain Odd Fellows for thirty-four years; also a member of Amega Lodge, No. 5442, Jacksonville, Fla.; District Department Indiana of G. S. & D. of S. American Woodman, U. B. of A., Order of Progressive, Men and Women Mosaic Temple, Director of Afro-American, Progressive Stock Company, St. Augustine, Florida, and a stockholder and member, Jacksonville Loan and Industrial Company: Ex-trustee Wilberforce University; Trustee Edward Waters College; Owner of several valuable houses in Jacksonville, Fla., and is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference, 1916.

        Certain, Mary Alice, wife of Rev. W. D. Certain, was born in Winsboro, S. C., and reared in Columbia, S. C., where she received her literary training during the sixties and seventies. Her parents were Isaac and China La Roche. She was brought to Jacksonville, Fla., while in her teens by her mother. She was converted at sixteen at Gordon Chapel, Putnam county, Fla., under the pastorate of Rev. Major Johnson, while living with her grandfather, William Gordon.

        She began work as a public school teacher in 1884 and has taught in the following counties in the State of Florida: Putnam, Volusia, Hamilton, St. John, Lafayette, Suwaunee and Marion, in which county she is now engaged. She married Rev. W. D. Certain, February 13, 1882. He was himself a public school teacher.

        She has been a member of the A. M. E. Church thirty-seven years and has been active as a church worker in the Sunday School and Missionary Society. She was active in raising the first large sum of money for missions in St. Paul A. M. E. Church, St. Augustine, Fla., during the pastorate of her husband in 1898. When Mrs. Mary A. Handy accompanied her husband, Bishop James A. Handy, to Florida in 1900, to take charge of the Eleventh Episcopal District, she was the right hand supporter of Mrs. Handy in the organizing of the Women's Mite Missionary Society, acting as Secretary. She served as State Secretary of the Mite Missionary Society for twelve years, during the administrations of Bishops Handy, Tanner and Salter. She was elected Conference President of the East Florida Conference Branch of the Mite Missionary Society, served three years and declined the fourth nomination in favor of Mrs. Eddie Byrd, the present incumbent. She has been District President of the Mite Missionary Society of the Jacksonville District, Lake City District and Suwaunee District for twelve years, traveling and working among the sisters and members generally, instructing and showing the necessity of becoming active missionary workers.

        Channell, Squire, J., was born on a sugar plantation, near Napoleonville, La., in Assumption Parish on Bayou Lafouche, in the early 60's, the second son of

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. J. CHANNELL, D.D.

Mr. Solomon, a native of Kentucky, and Mrs. Rosetta Channell, a native of Virginia.

        His parents were founders of Nelson Chapel A.

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. L. M. CHANNELL.

M. E. Church at Napoleonville, which this son joined, at the age of ten or eleven years. When but a boy he felt moved to preach and when he preached his first sermon those present were astonished, some of them
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expressing themselves thus: "That boy is not going to stay here. Did you hear how he quoted the Bible?" In 1890 he entered the ministry.

        The path has not been pleasant all of the way, but he has succeeded up to now. Many persons have been saved by the gospel of Christ, preached by him; many churches and parsonages built and repaired, and many debts paid, and his life has been an example wherever his lot was cast. He has edited two newspapers, "The Louisiana Horn" and the "Louisiana African Methodist."

        He was a member of the Wilmington and Chicago General Conferences in 1896 and 1904, respectively.

        Rev. Channell has had but limited school advantages. 3 years after entering the ministry he attended New Orleans University, but stayed only a short while. He has been a hard and persistent student, doing most of his study under private teachers. He was given the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity by Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas. The doctor often commends his present wife for much of his success in these recent years. He is especially careful of his personal character. He has never left one charge owing twenty-six cents. He neither smokes nor chews tobacco and is a total abstainer.

        He owns several properties in different parts of Louisiana and an excellent home in the city of New Orleans.

        Channell, Mrs. Letitia Mae, was born in Caddo Parish, a few miles south of Shreveport, La. She grew up on the farm on which she was born. She learned first the country life, the growing of crops, the planting and harvesting of corn and cotton, etc.

        At the age of seventeen the godmother took Letitia to live with her in the city of Shreveport, La., at which place she entered the Peabody School and completed the grammar grade. After teaching two summers in the public school work, she went to Mary Allen Seminary, at Crocket, Tex., where she finished the normal course. She then taught in the public school of Shreveport about four sessions and was very proficient in her work. In 1908 she married Rev. S. J. Channell, D.D., one of Louisiana's able preachers.

        Since then she has taken her place as one of the mission workers of the State. She was Vice-President of the Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the Louisiana Conference for several years and was made President and saw the mission work double if not triple. She was president three years, then she was made state president and is holding this office at this writing.

        Mrs. L. M. Channell offered New Orleans for the Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Convention held February of 1915, which was the greatest of all conventions ever held by the race in the bounds of the city. The convention honored Mrs. Channell by electing her the secretary of that convention.

        She was converted when a child and has been a member of the African Methodist Church from her child life up to now. She has composed and published a number of beautiful poems and is called by some of the missionary sisters, "Our Little Poet." She has expressed the intention of publishing a book of poems at some time in the future.

        Chappelle, William David, was born of slave parents, Henry and Patsy Chappelle, who had eleven children, five boys and six girls. William David, the second child, was born in Fairfield Co, about eleven miles from Winnsboro, S. C., November 16, 1857. He began school in 1869. His teachers were northern

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP W. D. CHAPPELLE, A.M., D.D., LL.D.

women, who taught him the rudiments, and thus laid the foundation for him to enter the Fairfield Normal Institute. The principal of this institute, Rev. Willard Richardson, of Delaware, did more to inspire William D. Chappelle along with many others of Fairfield

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. W. D. CHAPPELLE.

County, to higher usefulness than any other man. From Fairfield Institute have come such other men as the Rev. George Dillard, Rev. M. G. Johnson, Rev. D. W. Frazier and Prof. Kelly Miller. W. D. Chappelle obtained license to teach in the public schools in 1880, and was elected to teach five miles from Winnsboro
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for seven months through the winter of 1880-81. After being converted in 1875 he was called to preach; in November, 1881, he joined the Columbia Annual Conference and was given a mission (Pine Grove) in Lexington County. In December, 1881, along with five other young men (D. T. MacDaniel, A. J. Hunter, A. J. Jamison, C. C. Dunlap and T. A. Saxon) he entered Allen University, and, for six years, struggled with a wife and one child to support, graduating in 1887 as one of the first honor students of his class. Ten years after his graduation he was called to the presidency of his alma mater and served as its head two years, at the same time having charge of one of the largest presiding elders' districts in South Carolina. He served as professor in Allen University before his election to its presidency, was secretary of the trustee board, a pastor eight years, presiding elder eleven, and in 1900 was elected as the secretary-treasurer of the Sunday School Union, Nashville, Tenn., and for 8 years edited the literature of the Sunday schools for the entire connection. Upon taking up the work at the department he found it in debt to the amount of $6000, with no machinery nor anything else which would constitute a printing plant of a publishing house. At that time the Sunday school literature was printed by the M. E. Church South. In 1908 he made his report to the general conference at Norfolk, Va.; he reported the S. S. Union out of debt and $1000 with which to lay the foundation of a new building, and a printing outfit valued at $25,000. In 1908 he returned to his home in South Carolina and was in the same year re-elected to the presidency of Allen University, which position he filled until 1912, when he was elected to the bishopric in Kansas City, Mo. W. D. Chappelle was poor for when he left Winnsboro in 1881 he had $50 with which to enter school. Being determined and persistent in the acquiring of an education, Bishop Dickerson took hold of him and assisted him, giving him a room, furnishing fuel and allowing him to use his horse to drive to his work in the country every Sunday, a distance of eight miles. Through all these years of struggle he never faltered, and today Bishop William D. Chappelle is comfortably situated in the eastern part of Columbia, S. C. He is paying tax on more than $25,000 worth of property. To him have been born five children, two girls, Lula K. and Clotelle D., and three sons, William D., Jr., LeRoy P. and Henry Talmage. The first three named children are now married. W. D. Chappelle, Jr., is a practicing physician and has a splendid infirmary, making good progress in his chosen profession. Thus it will be seen that the life of Bishop W. D. Chappelle will serve as an inspiration to other young men who are seeking to be useful in their day and generation. He was married twice, first to Miss Eliza Ayers (who died May 17, 1899) and with whom he lived for nearly 25 years. To them were born the first three children mentioned in this sketch. He was next married to Miss Rosina Palmer, of Columbia, S. C., and to them were born the two boys last named. He boasts of the fact that he was blessed with two good wives, both of whom rendered great assistance in his rise to prominence in the A. M. E. Church.

        Chrystal, Charles S., son of Alexander and Louisa Chrystal, both members of the Baptist Church, was born in 1861 at Mt. Carmel, Ky., one of four children. He has had very little schooling, but studied much at home. He was converted February 23, 1882, and joined church, and has served as steward and class leader. He was lay delegate from the Cincinnati District to the Ohio Annual Conference in September, 1915, and the general conference of 1916. He married Maggie A. Boston, of Dover, Ky., April 18, 1894, and

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. CHARLES S. CHRYSTAL.

has three children: Edward, Verna and Bertha. He has served as manager of the "Union," a weekly paper of Cincinnati, Ohio. He is a Republican, owns a home and considerable other property; is treasurer of the official board of Allen Temple; is associated with Old Folks' Home at Richmond, Va.; Orphan Asylum of Cincinnati, and N. A. A. of C. P.

        Cheeks, Robert M., former editor of Southern

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. R. M. CHEEKS, D.D. (Deceased).

Christian Recorder, was born in Amelia County, Virginia, December 28, 1859, and reared near Wytheville,
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Virginia. He was converted at an early age and entered the Virginia Conference in 1877. He studied at Howard University, Washington, D. C., and graduated from the theological department. He served the following churches: Badensburg, Md.; Chelsea, Mass.; Selma, Ala.; Greensboro, Ala.; Montgomery, Ala.; Atlanta, Ga. He was presiding elder Rome District, North Georgia Conference. He was elected editor of Southern Christian Recorder in 1896 and re-elected in 1900. He died during session of the general conference at Columbus, Ohio, May 19, 1900. His widow, Mrs. Mattie Cheeks, now resides in Washington, D. C.

        Chestnut, Rev. James Horace, son of Henry and Elizabeth Johnson, both members of the Baptist Church, was born July 24, 1873, at Faison, N. C. He was one of fourteen children. He entered school 1886. He received his education at the State College and Claflin University, from which he graduated. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1890; was licensed to preach, 1900, at Orangeburg, S. C., by Rev. S. F. Flegler. He joined the annual conference

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. H. CHESTNUT.

1901 at Manning, S. C., under Bishop W. J. Gaines. He was ordained deacon 1903 at Florence, S. C., by Bishop Gaines and ordained elder 1905 at Summerville, S. C., by Bishop L. J. Coppin. He has held the following appointments: Blackville and Williston Mission, 1905; Francis Brown Station, 1906-07; Barnwell Circuit, 1908; Holly City Circuit, 1909-12; St. Paul Circuit, 1913; Somerville, 1914-15; Bethel Station, 1916. He erected a church at Blackville, $200 in 1905, completed two churches at Holly Hill Ct., $575 in 1909, paid a debt of $175 on St. Paul Ct. in 1913, improved Somerville $375 in 1914. He lifted a mortgage of $125 at Harleyville in 1913.

        He has taken 269 people into the church, baptized 190 and married 45. He married Mrs. Mabel Chestnut, of Orangeburg, S. C., December 20, 1906. They had five children, John, James, Augustus, Alonzo and Harold. He is connected with the F. and A. M., G. U. O. of O. F., K. of P.

        Clark, Molliston Madison, first editor of Christian Recorder, 1852-4, was born of mixed parentage in Delaware in 1807, and died while in charge of the A. M. E. Church at Alton, Ill., about 1872. He graduated from Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., in October, 1835, and was one of the first college graduates in the A. M. E. ministry. In 1852 he was elected editor of the Christian Recorder, but resigned in 1854 after having gotten out fifteen issues. He was an eloquent preacher and able as a scholar.

        Clark, Thomas Garriett, son of Harry and Flora Clark, was born in Wilson county, near the town of Wilson, N. C., July 10, 1876, on the homestead place. There were nine children. Here he grew up on the farm and attended the country and also public school. He entered Lincoln University, Pa., at twenty-two years of age, was converted May 22, 1899, and connected with the Presbyterian Church; entered the Divinity School, Howard University, Fall of 1902,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. THOMAS GARRIETT CLARK.

graduating from the Classical Department May, 1905.

        He joined the A. M. E. Church in 1906, and was licensed in February, at Bethel A. M. E. Church, Sixth and Lombard Streets, Philadelphia, where he labored till the year 1908, when he received his commission to the African field under Bishop William H. Heard, D.D., December 5. He was ordained Deacon at the Philadelphia Annual Conference, June 14, 1908, at Carlisle, Pa., by Bishop Gaines, and was also transferred to the Liberian Annual Conference, West Coast Africa, June 15.

        He sailed for Africa with Bishop Heard and other missionaries December 5. He preached his first sermon in Africa January 1, 1909, Rom. 12:1. Met first Annual Conference January 27. He was ordained Elder January 31 and appointed to the Eliza Turner Memorial Church, Monrovia. He was reappointed January 26, 1910, and made Principal of the Mission School. The students enrolled numbered one hundred and thirty.

        He raised and contributed October 10 the first one hundred dollars to the "Building Fund" for re-building


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building the church at this charge. He was appointed to the Bethel A. M. E. Church, Lower Buchanan, Grand Bassa, March 20, 1911, and established a mission station among the Kroo Tribe at Kroo Town, November 26. He baptized seventy-six persons while in Africa.

        He was appointed General Missionary at the Annual Conference held at Monrovia, March 15, 1912, and returned to the United States with a native boy, "Uleh," from the mission station, for the purpose of educating him to return and teach among his tribe. He arrived in America April 10 and was married to Miss Sarah B. Wainwright April 21.

        July 1, 1912, he was appointed to Victor's Chapel A. M. E. Church at Mont Clair, N. J. He pastored St. John's A. M. E. Church, Catskill, N. Y., May 26, 1913, to May 31, 1914. Rev. Clark has written a work entitled "Liberia, the African Republic," setting forth the colonization and steady development and appalling conditions. He shows how non-recognition by foreign power forces decided action on the part of the colonist and retards the formation of a Government modeled after that of the United States.

        He was pastor Bethel A. M. E. Church, Elmira, N. Y., May 31, 1914, to May 31, 1915, and compiled a pamphlet on the fifty-first celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation held in this charge. He was appointed pastor at Middletown, N. Y., May 31, 1915.

        Clemens, William Edward, was born in Long, Darke County, O., October 15, 1865. On account of superior scholastic and social privileges the family moved to Toledo, O., in 1882, where he has since resided. He entered the Toledo grammar school, was promoted to the high school, but was compelled to leave a year before graduation on account of ill health. After a term at the Ohio Business University he entered

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. W. E. CLEMENS.

the employ of J. J. Freeman, leading jeweler, and was a valuable and trusted employee for fifteen years, resigning his position in September, 1902, to enter the county treasurer's office, where he made an enviable record for trustworthiness and ability. Mr. Clemens made a profession of Christ February 14, 1889, during the great revival under the pastorate of Rev. O. P. Ross, and joined Warren A. M. E. Church, and has been a zealous worker ever since. He has served for many years as trustee, steward and class leader and is now the efficient secretary of the trustee board and church clerk. He is also now serving his twenty-eighth consecutive year as superintendent of the Sunday school, which is thoroughly organized and one of the best managed of the country. He is a trustee of Wilberforce University and was elected lay delegate to the general conferences of 1904 and 1908. In addition to his regular work, Church and Sunday school duties, he has been actively engaged along many other lines for the betterment of his people; is prominent in Masonic circles. He was initiated in Amazon Lodge, No. 4, F. and A. M., December 7, 1887, passed February 28, 1888, and raised March 6, 1888, and has been prominent ever since. He has filled nearly every office in the local bodies with credit and for five years served as master, during which time the lodge enjoyed unprecedented prosperity. He is also a member of Maunell Chapter, No. 6, R. A. M., St. John's Commandery, No. 5, K. T., St. Mathew's Consistory, A. A. S. R. of Masonry, and Mecca Temple, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. From 1898 to 1901 he was deputy grand master. In August, 1902, when the grand lodge convened in Toledo, he was chosen grand master without opposition, being the fifteenth grand master and youngest mason elevated to the position. For seven consecutive years he served without opposition, during which time the grand lodge enjoyed great prosperity. Mr. Clemens has a pleasant and congenial wife, two bright young boys and a charming daughter, a graduate of the Toledo High School. His family home at 672 Woodland avenue is delightfully cozy and a generous hospitality graciously dispensed.

        Coffee, Rev. T. W., the eldest of nine children, was born in 1854. His mother, Mrs. Ann Coffee, was a slave and a member of the Methodist Church. Before he was a year old he was taken from his mother and given to another woman to be cared for and his mother was given a white child to nurse who was a few months younger than he. Between six and seven years of age he was taken to the house to attend his mistress' children. Because of cruel treatment he ran away at nine years and attempted to go off with the Union army, but his master begged the captain to let him take him back, promising to treat him kindly, which he says his master did till the Yankees were far away, when he punished him severely. A year later, however, he escaped. At sixteen years old he began going to night school, in Lauderdale County, but attended only a short while. At twenty he could not read and write: but he later attended school in Alabama and LeMoyne Institute, Memphis, Tenn. He was converted at the age of sixteen and he joined Avery Chapel under Rev. Hamilton in 1872 or 1873. He was licensed in 1876 to exhort; 1877 he was assigned to Decatur Mission, Decatur, Ala. The mission had six members and he served them six months and received $12 for his services. He joined the annual conference at Opelika in 1877 under Bishop Campbell and was ordained deacon the same time. In 1880 he was ordained elder at Greensboro, Ala., by Bishop Wayman. He never had local preacher's license. He was sent to Columbiana in the North Ala. conference,


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pastored here two years, having more than 100 converts and accessions. He next went to Centerville one year, received into church 116. He was sent next to Montevallo, one year, 1880-1881. Next he was sent to Huntsville for one year. In 1882 the conference met at Selma, and Elder Coffee was put in charge of Brown's Chapel, Selma, where he had many converts, and raised the dollar money from $100.50 to $165. After two years he was sent to Birmingham, where he secured a lot for $800, and erected a two-story edifice costing $8000, and added more than 100 persons to the church. Bethel, Mobile; St. Luke, Eufaula; and Tuscumbia were pastored with success, many souls being added to each church. In 1891 he was appointed by Bishop Gaines presiding elder over the Florence district and served two years, when Bishop Grant appointed him presiding elder of the Birmingham district, which he served three years and enjoyed the highest confidence of the bishop, making increases along all lines. In 1896 Bishop Turner transferred him to the Alabama conference and he presided acceptably over the Montgomery district for three years. He served as pastor one year at Eufaula, with increased reports and gave them the best parsonage in that part of the State; was sent from there to Troy for one year and thence to Prattville for two years; again appointed presiding elder of the Florence district North Alabama, serving the same successfully four years. Next he served four years six months as presiding elder of the South Birmingham district with greater success along all lines than upon any district on which he ever served. After the death of presiding elder G. W. Todd he was appointed to the Greensboro (Ala.) district which he is now serving. He has been pastor 18 years and presiding elder 20 years. He was a member of the general conferences of 1896, 1900 and 1912. He married Miss Carrie R. McGowan, of Florence, Ala., in March, 1880, and they have had four children, one deceased, and three who are graduates of the A. & M. College, Normal, Ala.

        Coker, Daniel, one of the founders of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Baltimore County, Md., 1780. His mother was a white woman and his father her slave. His full white brother took the greatest interest in him and, to screen him as much as possible from the effect of color prejudice, carried him to the North and secured for him a complete education. By reason of being born under the circumstances narrated above, he was credited as the child of a mulatto woman on the adjoining plantation and had subsequently to be registered as free to secure such a state. To accomplish this, four men of color induced John Needles, a famous Quaker abolitionist of Maryland, to buy him and later grant him emancipation. The four men of color who furnished the money necessary to secure his freedom were Charles Hackett, N. Gilliard, Wm. Watts and George Murray (the last named being the father of Daniel Murray, compiler of "Murray's Encyclopedia of the Colored Race"). The men wished him to teach school in Baltimore and when the whole was arranged, Daniel Coker opened about 1807 the first school for colored children in Baltimore taught by a colored teacher. The Rev. William Douglass, author of the "Annals of St. Thomas Church, Philadelphia," was one of Coker's pupils. Daniel Coker was one of the leaders in the Baltimore African Church and with others represented that church at Philadelphia, April, 1816, when the African Methodist Episcopal Church was organized. He was elected the first bishop, but next day resigned and was never ordained, Richard Allen being elected in his stead. In 1817 he seems to have left the A. M. E. Church, and in 1821 he joined the first party that went to Liberia. Ten days after the ship Elizabeth left New York, Daniel Coker called the 86 colonists together and formed on shipboard a religious society according to the discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Soon after arriving in Liberia, Daniel Coker and numerous following went to Freetown, Sierra Leone, and there later built a church, where he died in 1846, leaving a family of considerable size, some of whom Bishop Turner met during an episcopal visit there.

        Cole, C. P., was born March 20, 1871, at Aiken, S. C. He is the son of John and Nancy Cole. He was

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. P. COLE, D.D.

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. C. P. COLE


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baptized by the late Bishop Salter, then pastor of Cumberland A. M. E. Church, Aiken. He received his early training at the Schofield N. and I. School, of Aiken, and took his college and seminary course at Lincoln University. He won the Junior medal in oratory in 1894, and graduated from the college department in 1895 and was the valedictorian of his class, receiving the degree of B.A. Graduated from the seminary in 1898 and received the degree of M.A. In 1906 he received the degree of D.D. from Wilberforce University. In 1914 he received the degree of D.D. from Lincoln University.

        He was ordained to the deaconate and the eldership by the late Bishop Grant. He served as pastor of the following charges: Lynn, Springfield, Norwalk, Greenwich, Providence, New Bedford and Bridge Street Church, Brooklyn, where he now is. In 1901 he married Miss Brittemore A. Tobias, a teacher in the public schools of New York City, and from this union one son, Canfield Butler, was born.

        Collier, John William Porter, the third child of M. H. and Louisa Thompson Collier, was born in Marion, S. C., June 12, 1883.

        His first teaching was received from his parents; later he attended the Flegler High School, where he studied until 1900, when he left the graduating class and began teaching, in order to sustain his sister in college.

        During vacation he worked as a saw-miller, hod-carrier and gardener. He studied at night and taught others without charge. Saturday, April 6, 1901, he was converted in a revival conducted by Rev. F. R. McCay,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN WILLIAM PORTER COLLIER, B.D.

the pastor. Easter Sunday, April 7, 1901, he joined the church and was soon made a class leader. Rev. C. J. Hamilton, D.D., March 6, 1903, licensed him to preach.

        Collier entered Allen University, Columbia, S. C., October 1904, with one dollar and fifty-seven cents, and went many days until five o'clock without food.

        In June, 1906, he graduated with honors from Allen University, receiving the degree of L.I., and in the fall of the same year was ordained deacon by Bishop Coppin at Lancaster, S. C., and appointed to Camden Mission.

        He married Miss Ella N. Laboo, of Bishopville, S. C., his classmate, June 12, 1907.

        Bishop Coppin ordained him an elder at Manning, S. C., December 7, 1907, and appointed him to St. Philip Station, Eastover, S. C., where he served two years. Health failing, he was appointed to Wheeler Hill Station, Columbia, S. C., by Bishop Lee. Here his wife, a real help-mate, died.

        He was appointed to Brown Chapel Circuit, 1910. In 1911 he graduated from Allen with the degree of B.D., and was reappointed to Brown Chapel whence he transferred, January, 1912, to the New Jersey Conference. Upon his arrival he was sent to Atlantic Highlands, N. J., by Dr. A. L. Murray, P. E.

        He married Miss Annie M Poole, of Greenwood, S. C., June 5, 1912, who is now sharing his joys and sorrows.

        Rev. Collier delivered the annual sermon to the New Jersey Conference and was sent to the Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church, Plainfield, N. J., his present pastorate, the same year. He is now studying at the Theological Seminary of New Brunswick.

        Conner, Bishop James Mayer, son of William and Marie Conner, was born in Winston county, Miss., in 1863 of slave parents. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1881, and was licensed to preach by Rev. J. W. Washington, P. E. of the West Point district, North Miss. Conference, in 1882. He entered the ministry and was sent to Aberdeen Mission in 1883, where he bought and built a new church. In 1884 he was ordained a deacon and elder by Bishop T. M. D. Ward, D. D. After serving at Okolona, Stormsville, he was sent by Bishop Ward to Arkansas and stationed at Forrest City, Ark., to build a church. This done, in 1886, he was sent to Osceola, Ark., to build a church, and then at Newport, Ark., to build a new church. At all these places he gave the connection good churches and added many new members to the church and carried up excellent conference reports, excelling all previous reports. He served four years as P. E. of the Forrest City (Ark.) district, three years on the Vicksburg (Miss.) district, two years on the Jonesboro (Ark.) district and two years on the Little Rock (Ark.) district. He spent two years at Hot Springs, Ark., as pastor, six years at Bethel, Little Rock, Ark., and four years at Fort Smith, Ark. He bought the ground and built the parsonage at Little Rock, Ark., paid the church out of debt at Hot Springs and almost doubled the conference dollar money at these places, also the membership.

        His early education was obtained in the public schools fo his native State and Alabama, where he spent the early part of his life. In 1891 was graduated from the National University, of Chicago, with the degree of Bachelor of Sacred Theology; from the American Institute of Sacred Literature, University of Chicago, in 1897, and Shorter College, with the degree of Bachelor of Divinity in 1905. He was president of the executive board, president of the Alumni Association of Shorter College. Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga., conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon him, and Paul Quinn College, Waco, Tex., gave him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

        Bishop Conner is an author of several books, among


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them being "The Outlines of Christian Theology," "Doctrines of Christ" and "Elements of Success."

        For many years, in connection with his church work, he published the Little Rock Reporter, Arkansas Statesman and Conner's Magazine. For seven years he was at the head of the Business Men's League of Arkansas.

        The following are his appointments in chronological

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP J. M. CONNER.

order: Aberdeen, Miss., 1883; Okalona, Miss.,. 1884; Stormsville, Miss., 1885; Osceola, Ark., 1887; Newport, Ark., 1888-1889; Forest City, 1886.

        Was Presiding Elder of Forest City District 1893; Little Rock, 1896-97; Vicksburg District, 1897-1901; Little Rock, Ark., 1901-1905; Jonesboro District, 1908-1910; Little Rock District, 1910-12. Was elected Bishop in 1912. Built churches at Aberdeen, Miss., 1883, at a

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. JAMES M. CONNER

cost of $800; Stormsville, Miss., 1885, at a cost of $600; Forest City, Ark., 1886, at $3000; Newport, Ark., 1888, at $5000; Osceola, Ark., 1887, at $2000.

        Lifted mortgages at Hot Springs in 1895 to the amount of $1400; Little Rock in 1897 to the amount of $1200.

        Has taken five or six thousand people into the church and baptized about 1800 persons.

        Was delegate to the General Conference in 1896 at Wilmington, N. C., and to all others since then. Was member of the Financial Board for eight years, 1904 to 1912.

        Married Miss Glovenia L. Stewart, of Kentucky, in 1886. Parents of five children.

        Bishop Conner has made many addresses. He has been associated with the Progressive Party, and is owner of a home and other valuable real estate. He served as Bishop of the Eighth Episcopal District, including the States of Mississippi and Louisiana, during the quadrennium 1912-1916, presiding over five conferences in Mississippi and two in Louisiana, and created a new one in Mississippi--the Northwest Mississippi Annual Conference. He is now bishop of Arkansas and Oklahoma.

        Cook, Rev. W. D., the son of William B. and Fannie G. Cook, both of whom were African Methodists, was born February 17, 1860, at Warrenton, N. C. He was one of eight children. Began school in 1871 and attended 12 years in all, attending principally public school, Johnson High, Shaw University and Howard University.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM D. COOK.

Received a diploma from Howard University and degree of D.D. from Wilberforce. Converted in 1877 and joined Oak Chapel the same year; was steward, trustee, class leader, local preacher, usher and Sunday School teacher. He was licensed to preach 1877 at Warrenton, N. C., by Rev. G. D. Jimmerson; ordained deacon 1879 at Newbern, N. C., by Bishop Brown; ordained elder at Wilmington, N. C., by Bishop Payne.

        Joined Annual Conference in 1878 at Hillsboro, N. C., under Bishop Brown. Held following appointments: Pine Grove Circuit, N. C.; Fayetteville Mission, N. C.; P. Street Mission, Georgetown, D. C.; Durham Station, N. C.; Kinston Station, N. C.; St. John's, Norfolk, Va.; Wilmington, Del.; Bethel, Phila.; Frankford, Pa.; Bridge St., Brooklyn, N. Y.; Atlantic City, N. J.; St. Paul, St. Louis, Mo.; Quinn Chapel, Chicago; presiding elder of Chicago District, and now pastor of Bethel Church, Chicago.


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        Built the following churches: Pine Hill Church, at Pine Hill, N. C., 1879, at a cost of $500; Lincolnville Church at Wake City, N. C., 1880 at a cost of $700; completed A. M. E. Church at Durham, N. C., in 1884; St. John's Church at Norfolk, Va.,. at a cost of $48,000 in 1888, left a debt of only $18,000 and took in 1114 members. Lifted mortgages on Bethel Church, Wilmington, Del., in 1892, to the amount of $3800, and Bridge St., Brooklyn, N. Y., 1899, to the amount of $5000. He greatly reduced the debt on Mother Bethel, Philadelphia, and Bethel, New York, taking in 405 members in the three years at that charge.

        Dr. Cook has taken seven thousand people into the church, baptized one thousand and married nine hundred. Delegate to General Conference in 1884, 1896, 1900, 1908. Has been a member of Church Extension Board and Allen Endeavor. He is life member of Trustee Board of Wilberforce and was a delegate to the Federal Council of Churches of Christ that met in Philadelphia in 1908.

        Married Bertha Brooks Cook, of Harrisburg, Pa., in 1886. Two daughters, Edna H. and Frances E., are graduates of Howard University and Chicago Musical College, respectively.

        He owns his home in Chicago. During his career he has raised more than $95,000 dollar money, paid over $50,000 on mortgages, raised over $25,000 connectional claims, had over 2500 conversions and 7000 accessions. He is a member of the Centennial General Conference, being the first alternate elected by the Chicago Conference and taking the place of Rev. T. A. Smythe, deceased.

        Cooper, Allen R., was born in Quincy, Fla., September 6, 1857, the child of faithful members of the A. M. E. Church, Henry and Charity Cooper. He attended the schools of his native State for nine years;

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ALLEN R. COOPER, D.D.

he was in the class of the late Bishop M. M. Moore and after preparing himself to teach was elected to teach in the school that he attended.

        Converted at the age of fourteen years under the pastorate of Rev. T. G. Steward he united with the church; and filled the following offices: Steward, Sunday School Superintendent, Assistant Class Leader and Secretary of the church. For fourteen years he taught school in Florida and Georgia. After moving from Florida to Georgia he was elected Principal of the Intermediate Department of the Public Schools of the city of Americus, Ga., where he taught for six years. Uniting with Campbell Chapel Church, of Americus during the pastorate of the late William Bradwell, he organized the largest Sunday School in the city and was its Superintendent for a number of years. Received license as a local preacher during the pastorate of the late William C. Banton, D.D., Rev. S. B. Jones being Presiding Elder and one of the oldest at that time in Georgia.

        He joined the Macon (Ga.) Conference at Barnesville, the late Bishop W. J. Gaines presiding. At this Conference he was appointed to Mahala Chapel Mission, on the Americus District, where he beautified the church and added a great number of members to the same. His second appointment was at Ellaville Circuit, same district, where he beautified two churches and added a great number of members; after remaining on this circuit for two years he was sent to Columbus and stationed at St. Mark's Station; here he completed a splendid structure erected by Rev. M. R. Wilson. When the latter saw it after its completion as he looked at these words written in gold in the trio windows in front of the building: "Erected by Rev. M. R. Wilson completed by Rev. A. R. Cooper," tears filled his eyes as he said, "Thank God I have found one Negro preacher willing to give his brother preacher credit for his work." This is a splendid church and stands to-day a credit to the Connection. Here Rev. Cooper added over 300 to the church. His next appointment was Griffin, in the Atlanta Conference, following the late Dr. E. W. Lee. He remained in this charge two years. He was next sent to Milledgeville, in the Macon Conference, where he erected that beautiful structure, starting with about forty-five members and in three years increasing the membership to over 300. While at Milledgeville he suffered the loss of his wife, Mrs. J. Q. A. Cooper, who had been his helpful companion for eighteen years.

        The members petitioned the Conference for his return but by his request of the late Bishop H. M. Turner he was given a small district, viz.: The "Fort Valley," with only nine appointments. He remained four years, the limit at that time; leaving the district with twenty-two appointments. He next went to Macon and was stationed at Turner Chapel. Remaining two years he paid off all of the debts and increased the membership greatly. From thence was sent to Augusta, Ga., Bethel Church, where a debt was hanging over the church and creditors calling for their money. In two years he had them satisfied that the church would pay them; the lost confidence was reestablished, and everything was moving on smoothly when a telegram called him to report in New York, and at the adjournment of the Conference he was appointed to take the pastoral charge of Bridge Street Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. This church has a wonderful history; during the days of the abolitionist it was one of the stations of the "underground railroad" and from it colored persons were carried to Canada. He was the first pastor in the history of this church to remain four years. He received into the church 1092 members, and raised $48,784.54 in all departments, paid the immediate church entirely out of debt, and made thousands of dollars' worth of improvements.


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        His next appointment, the Albany District, of the New York Conference, includes all of the northwestern part of the State, starting in New York City, the circumference being about 2500 miles; at present this is his fifth year; he is the first Presiding Elder to remain on the district five years. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Morris Brown University for a thesis, "The Divinity of Christ and How Demonstrated."

        Cooper, Henry Harrison, the seventh child of Samuel and Sarah Cooper, was born in Philadelphia, Pa.; educated in the Quaker schools of Philadelphia, studied theology and the classics under Rev. Thomas H. Amos, of the Presbyterian Church, Bishop L. J. Coppin and Bishop W. R. Nicholson, of the Reformed Episcopal Church; taught school in Sussex and Kent County, Delaware, for over five years. Studied the printing art at the Industrial School of the Institute for Colored Youths, and founded and established the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. HENRY HARRISON COOPER.

printing firm of Cooper, Parker and Purnell, Philadelphia. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1886. He was licensed to exhort July 31, 1890, and to preach November 25, 1890, by Rev. C. T. Shaffer, in Bethel A. M. E. Church, Philadelphia. In May, 1891, was admitted on trial in the Philadelphia Annual Conference, and assigned to Horntown Circuit, remaining one year; was in 1892 assigned to Holmesburg Circuit, embracing Ashtonville and Tioga. In 1893 was ordained deacon by Bishop Tanner, at Chambersburg, Pa., and re-appointed to Holmesburg, with Conshohocken attached. Next year was transferred by and at the request of Bishop Tanner to Bermuda, and stationed at Crawl. The membership was increased to 135. He returned to America owing to the health of his wife and in June, 1896, was again appointed to Conshohocken, remaining one year. In May, 1897, at West Chester was elected recording secretary of conference and appointed to Norwood Circuit. In 1898 at Columbia, Pa., was elected chief secretary of the mother conference, which position he retained for ten years.

        Other points served by Rev. Cooper were Bristol, two years; Norristown, Pa., two years; La Mott, Pa., three years; Zion, Philadelphia, three years; West Chester, Pa., two years. In 1910 he was appointed presiding elder of the Philadelphia district. In 1912 he was appointed pastor of Union Church, Philadelphia, which appointment he had held successfully for four years. He represented the Philadelphia conference in the general conference at Norfolk in 1908, and also at Kansas City in 1912.

        He was twice married, first to Miss Mary P. Gibbs, who died a year after marriage; next, in 1890, to his present wife, Mrs. Mary M. Cooper. They have seven children.

        Cooper, Mrs. Mary M. Bolton, was born in Media, Penna., March 28th, 1870. Her father was a member of the Philadelphia Conference and her mother was a teacher in the Delaware county schools. Mary began school in Media at the age of six. Later she attended

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MARY M. BOLTON COOPER

the Bee Hive school and the Institute for Colored Youths, from which she graduated in 1889, and began teaching in Frankford, Delaware, where she was successful and much loved by her pupils. In 1896 she entered an industrial school in Philadelphia, completing a course in millinery in 1898.

        At the age of 12 she became a Christian and joined the A. M. E. Church at Devon, Penna., where her father was the pastor. At his death she joined Bethel, Philadelphia. She was united in marriage to Rev. H. H. Cooper and they have four boys and three girls. As a minister's wife she was ever ready to assist in all the departments of the church, and proved a faithful and willing worker in whatever field to which her husband was assigned. In 1895 she became a member of the Parent Mite Missionary Society and the following year was elected a delegate by the Bermuda Mite Missionary Society to the convention at Bethel, Philadelphia; she was one of the first members of the Philadelphia Conference Branch; also one of its first officers From this body she was elected five consecutive times as assistant secretary, four times chief secretary, four times as the president


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and filled out a half term as special fund treasurer. She was elected and attended the following biennial and quadrennial conventions of the parent body: At Baltimore, Md.; Cleveland, Ohio; Chicago, Ill.; Atlantic City, N. J., and Detroit, Mich. She organized Mite Missionary Societies at Norwood, Conshohocken, Norristown, Bristol, La Mott, Penna., and Crawl, Bermuda; also junior choirs in several places. The cradle roll was managed and successfully carried on in this same church by Mrs. Cooper bringing to the regular Sunday school treasury as high as $18 and over in one year. In Union church, where her husband now pastors, she organized a junior choir of 40 members, managed the cradle roll of the Sunday school, taught the little mothers' class for the Child's Federation, was principal of the Vacation Bible School No. 93, and other religious and charitable work. She has taken the advanced course in Sunday school work, written several poems and songs, and been generally active in social and church work.

        Cooper, John Wesley, the son of Henry and Charlotte Cooper, both members of the A. M. E. Church. Born in Burlington, N. J., 1840. Was one of six children. Entered school when about ten years of age and had about ten years schooling. Attended a country school near his home for over two years. Converted in 1858 and joined A. M. E. Church the same year.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN WESLEY COOPER, D.D.

Has held almost every office in the church. Licensed to preach at Otterville, Canada, about 1864 by Rev. George R. Blount. Ordained Deacon 1868 at Brooklyn, N. Y., by Bishop Wayman. Ordained Elder at Brooklyn, N. Y., 1870, by Bishop Campbell. Joined the Annual Conference at Brooklyn, N. Y., under Bishop A. W. Wayman.

        Held the following appointments: Oswego, N. Y., 1867-8; Freehold, 1869; Buffalo, 1871; Melrose, 1873; Coxsackie, 1875; Albany, 1878; Coxsackie, 1879; Camden, N. J., 1880-2; Salem, N. J., 1882; Princeton, Bridgeport, New Brunswick, Cape May, Trenton, Plainfield, Atlantic Highlands, South Camden, Morristown, Woodbury, Rahway, Fair Haven, Riverton, and then to Presiding Elder. Has been elected twice to the General Conference. Married Alvana Cooper, of North Carolina, in 1858, and married again in 1912 to Emma Evans.

        He is the father of six children. His sons, William and Robert, are graduates of Lincoln University, and Annie M., a graduate of Institute for Colored Youths. William W. is City Councilman of Cambridgeport, Mass. Mary M. is Vice-President of the Missionary Society, and Anna M. is a public school teacher.

        Corde, A. J., was born of poor parents, Frank and Rebecca Corde, August 1, 1860, in Winnsboro, S. C., where his boyhood days were spent. He attended the public school and afterward went to the Fairfield Normal Institute and finished the normal course. He then attended the State Normal School in Columbia, S. C., preparing to enter South Carolina College. He

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. A. J. CORDE, D.D.

passed the examination to enter college. At this time there was no difference with reference to races, but after General Hampton was elected Governor the doors were barred against colored people. While in the employ of a German he learned German and was proficient in the German language, so that he was often called as an interpreter. He taught school for twelve years in Fairfield county, being the youngest teacher in the State of South Carolina.

        He was converted when a boy. He was called to the ministry in 1880 and licensed by Rev. David Pickett, Presiding Elder of the Columbia District. He was admitted into the Columbia Annual Conference December, 1883. He pastored the following places: Blythewood Circuit, Bethlehem Circuit, Pleasant Grove Circuit and Union Circuit. He was transferred to the North Carolina Conference in 1903 and sent to the Nashville Circuit. He built the church in Nashville, which the storm had blown down. He organized the church in Rocky Mount, N. C. It was organized in the schoolhouse in the part of town that was called Raleigh then. He pastored the following places in North Carolina: Goldsboro Circuit, Bishop W. J. Gaines appointed him pastor of Kittrell College to follow


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Dr. Brockett who was transferred to Atlanta, Ga.; Milton Circuit, Pleasant Circuit, Riedsville Station, Liberty Circuit, Hickory Station, Efland Circuit. He organized a church in Efland without a member, preaching for a week under a brush arbor. Next he went to Chapel Hill, the Athens of North Carolina, next to Gailford College, then to Hillsboro, N. C. He appeared before the Board of Education there and made speeches in behalf of a building for his people and by his push and energy the people have a $2000 building. He is known as the chief promoter of Hillsboro. He raised $300 for the people to put in the benches, blackboard, charts and globe in the school-house.

        Rev. Corde married Miss Fannie Williams. They lived seventeen years together. She was a faithful wife. She died May 25, 1902, leaving him with five children to care for. This road was rough so he went into the merchandise business and kept a wholesale woodyard, shipping wood to Joplin, N. C. He later took a theological course in Morris Brown University. He married the second time to Miss S. A. Patterson, of Rock Creek, N. C. He was honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by Kittrell College. While D. H. Johnson was President of Allen University the Faculty recommended that he receive the degree of D.D.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP LEVI JENKINS COPPIN, D.D., LL.D.

        Coppin, Bishop Levi Jenkins, 30th bishop of the A. M. E. Church, whose parents, John and Jane Coppin, were both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Fredericktown, Md., December 24, 1848, one of eight children. He entered school in 1865 and attended in all five terms. He improved by private study and later attended the P. E. Divinity School, Philadelphia, Pa., from which he received a certificate of graduation. He received the degrees D.D. and LL.D. from Wilberforce Uni. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1865. He has held nearly every office in the church from sexton to bishop. He was licensed to preach in Wilmington, Del., in 1876 by Rev. John F. Thomas, was ordained deacon in 1879 at Reading, Pa., by Bishop Payne, and he was ordained elder in 1880 by Bishop J. M. Brown at Norristown, Pa.; joined Phila. annual conference in 1877 under Bishop Payne, and has served the following charges: Philadelphia City Mission, Morris Brown Mission, Phila.; Allen and Bethel, of Phila.;

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. L. J. COPPIN

Bethel, Baltimore, Md. He purchased Trinity church, Baltimore, Md., at a cost of $22,000; purchased Morris Brown, Phila., at a cost of $7000; repaired Allen church at a cost of $3500, and paid mortgage on Bethel, Phila., to the amount of $1500. He has brought many into the church. He has been a member of every general conference since 1880. He was a member of the Board of the Sunday school Union, 1884-88; president of the Educational Board, 1908-12; president of the Church Extension Board, 1912 to date. He was fraternal delegate to the M. E. Church in 1900, member of two ecumenical conferences, member of Commission on Federation with A. M. E. Z. and C. M. E. and M. E. churches, 1907 and 1911; was editor of the A. M. E. Review, 1888-96; elected bishop in 1900. He has contributed to the New York Independent and A. M. E. Review. He
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has written several books and pamphlets among which are: "In Memoriam," "Relation of Baptized Children to the Church," "The Key to Scriptural Interpretation," "Observation of Men and Things in South Africa," and "Fifty-two Sermon Syllabi," which have been well received. He has written several hymns found in our hymnal. He is one of the directors of the People's Bank in Philadelphia. He is also a Mason. He has held the offices of worshipful master, deputy grand master, district deputy grand master for south. He is a Republican and attended the Cincinnati convention that nominated Rutherford B. Hayes. He is a property owner and pays taxes in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, South Carolina, Alabama and California. He is actively associated with Home for Aged and Infirm Colored Persons; Douglass Memorial Hospital and Y. M. C. A., all of Philadelphia. He is a member of the American Academy of Political and Social Science: Society for the Advancement of Colored People. He was married to Miss Fanny M. Jackson, of Philadelphia, then and for more than twenty years thereafter principal of the Institute for Colored Youths, in 1880. She died January, 1913, and in July, 1914, Bishop Coppin was married to Miss Evelyn Melissa Thompson, M.D., a graduate of Allen University and The Women's Medical College of Philadelphia. To them has been born one daughter, Theodocia Coppin.

        Corr, Joseph M., book steward of A. M. E. Church 1832 to 1835, was born of free mixed parentage in Baltimore, Md., in 1806 and received a fair education. In 1826 he was made secretary of the Baltimore Annual Conference and held the same for two years. In 1826 he was secretary of the general conference at Philadelphia. In 1832 he was elected steward of the Book Concern, and during his incumbency issued the second discipline in 1834, and in 1835 the second hymnal of the A. M. E. Church. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., October 18, 1835.

        Cox, W. H., was born at Marion, Ala., October 1, 1870, and was brought to Edwards, Miss., in 1878,

[ILLUSTRATION]
W. H. COX.

when his parents adopted Mississippi as their home. While his education was never completed, he attended the public schools of Edwards and later polished up at the S. C. Institute, near his home. He was raised in the church, taking the traits of his mother, who is a very pious woman, with a life overflowing with Christian virtues. He took on the whole armor in 1895 under that prince of pastors, Rev. M. E. Davis, D.D., at Friar Point, Miss., and has since been very active in all parts of church work, and is now one of the foremost Allen C. E. League workers of the laymen of the A. M. E. Connection. He represented the North Mississippi Conference at the General Conference of 1908, at Norfolk, Va., being a colleague of Hon. Charles Banks and again in 1916, being so honored for Philadelphia.

        He has played a considerable part in the business enterprises of his town, two living organizations bearing record to his business sagacity. He is also active along fraternal lines, leading all organizations of which he is a member. He carries his religion into his business and his business into his religion. He has served the United States Government at Washington with credit to himself and race. For the twenty years he has lived at Friar Point, Miss., no shadow of suspicion has hung over him or his management of affairs.

        Craw, Rev. J. Logan, was born in Navasota, Tex., November 21, 1874. With his parents he left the State of Texas when scarcely 5 years of age and located in Parsons, Labette County, Kansas. Here he received a high school education and graduated as valedictorian of his class from Hobson Normal Institute May 24, 1894.

        In September, 1895, he was elected as a teacher in the McKinley School in his home town and for seven consecutive years held this position of honor and trust. In May, 1902, against the will of the Board of Education, Prof. Craw resigned as teacher to accept the higher calling of the ministry, having been thoroughly converted in the A. M. E. Church at Parsons, Kansas, with the Rev. J. R. Ransom as his pastor at the age of 19 years. Some three years were devoted to preparation for the work of the ministry and under Bishop Grant at Omaha, Neb., September, 1904, he was admitted on trial to the Kansas Annual Conference. In September, 1906, at the Kansas Annual Conference at Hutchinson, Rev. Craw was ordained deacon by Bishop Grant and began his first active work in the pastorate, being assigned to the Olathe Circuit, Topeka District, Kansas Conference.

        On October 3, 1909, Rev. Craw was ordained elder by Bishops Grant and Lee at Bethel A. M. E. Church, Leavenworth, Kansas. On July 1, 1911, Rev. Craw was married to Miss Lillian Jeltz, one of Topeka, Kansas's, most successful teachers and a consecrated Christian lady.

        After having pastored very successfully two years in Emporia, the seat of Kansas State Normal School, and two years in Lawrence, the seat of Kansas State University School, Rev. Craw was transferred by Bishop H. B. Parks, presiding bishop of the Fifth Episcopal District, in October, 1911, from the Kansas Conference to the Puget Sound Conference and stationed at Bethel A. M. E. Church, Portland, Oregon. Here Rev. Craw, aided by his brilliant wife and loyal members, paid to the Church Extension Society in October, 1913, the largest amount ever paid at any one time in cash, viz., $2085, a loan which had been standing for sixteen years. The membership was tripled during the three years of Rev. Craw's pastorate and one of the most modern and beautiful churches in the Pacific Northwest nearly completed.


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        Rev. and Mrs. Craw are now at Los Angeles, where Rev. Craw is pastor.

        He is a member of the Centennial General Conference and leader of the Puget Sound Conference.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. LOGAN CRAW.

        Mrs. Craw is an ideal minister's wife and has been president of the Puget Sound Conference Branch W. M. M. Society. Mrs. Craw is a graduate of the Topeka, Kansas, High School and a graduate of Mrs. C. F. Menninger's

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. J. LOGAN CRAW.

Bible School of Topeka. Mrs. Craw is said to have organized the first colored Bible class in Kansas, and is an enthusiastic Bible teacher wherever her lot is cast. For seven years she was a teacher in the Washington School, of Topeka, Kansas.

        Crayton, F. C., was born in Stewart county, Ga., 1860 or 1861, the son of Archie and Louise Crayton, both members of A. M. E. Church. Was one of nine children. Began attending school in 1869 and received eight years' schooling in all. Spent more than two years in the common schools of Georgia, mostly Florence, Ga. Converted in 1885 and joined A. M. E. Church same year. Has held several offices in the church such as Steward, Trustee, Class Leader, local preacher, Sunday School teacher and chorister. Licensed to preach in 1885 in Stewart county by Rev. S. B. Jones. Ordained Deacon by Bishop Gaines at Milledgeville, in 1889. Ordained Elder at Macon, Ga., in 1891, by Bishop W. J. Gaines. Joined Annual Conference in 1887 at Talbotton, Ga., under Bishop R. R. Disney. Held the following appointments: Preston Mission and Orgelthorpe Circuit, 1888; Mahaley

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. FREDERICK CHRISPIN CRAYTON, D.D.

Chapel Circuit, 1889-91; Mt. Carmel Circuit, 1892; Tabernacle Circuit, 1893-94; Buena Vista Station, 1895-98; Smithville Station, 1899; Ellaville Circuit, 1900-01; Albany Station, 1902-03; Sparta Station, 1904-06; Milledgeville Station, 1907-08; Warrenton Station, 1909-10; Norwood, 1911; St. Paul Station, East Macon, Ga., 1912-13.

        Rebuilt and remodeled church at Mahaley Chapel Circuit. Completed parsonage and church at Buena Vista, Ga. At Sparta, Ga., he built parsonage. Built church at Warrenton Station. At Mt. Carmel he paid off heavy debt. At Ellaville he lifted mortgage of several hundred dollars. Paid mortgage debt at Milledgeville. Cancelled large mortgage at St. Paul, East Macon, Ga., and built splendid parsonage.

        Dr. Crayton has taken between 1200 and 1500 people into the church, baptized hundreds and married eighty. Received degree D.D. from Morris Brown College. Dr. Crayton is a Trustee of Morris Brown College and Recording Secretary of Macon (Ga.) Conference. Married Emma Crayton, 1882, of Alabama. Owns a home in Milledegeville.

        Crews, Phillip Caswell, one of fifteen children of Jacob and Joanna Crews, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born June 4, 1850, in Howard County, Missouri. He first went to school in 1867, but made most advancement by means of private study and under good tutors. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1866, and served as steward, trustee, class leader, Sunday school teacher and superintendent, exhorter and local preacher; was


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licensed to preach by Rev. J. H. Hubbard in 1871, at Chillicothe, Missouri; joined the annual conference at Kansas City, Missouri, September, 1874, under Bishop Wayman, who ordained him deacon in 1875, at Glasgow, Missouri; was ordained elder in 1879 at Springfield, Missouri, by Bishop Shorter, and has held the following appointments, all in Missouri: Heidelburg, 1875-6; La Grange, 1877; Kirkwood, 1878-9; Moberly, 1880-2; Gallatin, 1883-5; Paris, 1886-8; Bowling Green, 1889; Palmyra, 1890-3; Clarksville, 1894; Glasgow, 1895-6; St. Charles, 1897-1900; Louisiana, 1901; Columbia, 1902-6; Macon, 1907-11; Richmond,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. P. C. CREWS.

1912; presiding elder, 1912 to date. In 1883 he built a church at Trenton at a cost of $800, and paid mortgages at Moberly, Palmyra, Glasgow and Columbia. In 1892 he was a delegate to the general conference and has been trustee of Wilberforce and Western Universities. He is a Mason and a home owner. He was twice married; first to Miss Julia Nelson, of Lafayette County, Missouri, June 29, 1871; their children are Ida B., Nettie Z., William E. and Caswell W. Prof. Caswell Crews graduated from Wilberforce and taught in Allen University; is now teaching in St. Paul School, Virginia. Rev. Crews was married to his present wife, who was Mrs. S. E. Martin, a school teacher, November 18, 1896.

        Curry, Rev. John Wesley, was born at Monticello, Ark. His opportunities for attending the public schools were very limited. His parents were blessed with sixteen children. Regardless of conditions, he kept striving to make himself a strong man. At 21 years of age he entered the Monticello Seminary, Dr. C. S. Mebane, principal. In four years he finished the teacher's course. He spent some time as teacher, business man, agent and in the fraternity world. He entered Shorter College, N. Little Rock, during the presidency of Dr. T. H. Jackson, spending five years in literary and classical courses. He visited the World's Fair Exposition, St. Louis, 1904. He entered the Theological Department of Shorter College, 1908, tutored under Dr. T. H. Jackson, dean, and Dr. A. H. Hill, president. He was graduated May, 1911, with the degree of B.D. He served two years as Deputy G. Worthy Counsellor, two years as Grand Lecturer of the Courts of Calanthe under Sir J. T. T. Warren, G. W. C. He made the annual visits one year for the G. W. C. He traversed the state from Texarkana to Memphis and from Sterlin to Fort Smith, Ark., visiting and instituting courts.

        He was licensed to preach at Maryanna, Drew County, Ark., under Rev. J. D. Dennis, P. E., then of the Monticello District. As pastor, he has served Lee's Chapel Mission, Clio Circuit, South Pine Bluff, Fordyce Station and entertained the Annual Conference, 1911. By request he was transferred from Fordyce Station, West Arkansas Conference, to Northeast Oklahoma Conference

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. W. CURRY.

and stationed at Rentiesville Circuit November, 1912.

        He married Miss C. A. Lytch, daughter of Mr. A. D. and Mrs. Amanda Lytch, in Pittsburgh, Pa., November 28, 1911. Mrs. Curry is talented in music, a graduate of the Pittsburgh High School and a college graduate of Bennett College, N. C., with the degree of A.B.

        Rev. Curry was called to take charge at Eufaula in May, 1912. He attended the General Conference, Kansas City, 1912. The same year the Annual Conference met in Muskogee and he was reassigned to Eufaula by Bishop W. D. Chappelle. At the P. E. Council held at Tulsa, April, 1914, he was assigned to Muskogee Station. At the Annual Conference at Red Bird, 1914, he was reassigned to Muskogee. On October 10, 1914, his aged father, one of the faithful pioneer preachers, died.

        Curtis, Rev. J. B., was born December 13, 1871, 12 miles north of Natchez, Miss., attended the school of that immediate vicinity for eleven years, beginning at the age of seven years, then studied privately under special instructors, and later attended Leland University, New Orleans, La. He has served entirely within the State of Mississippi--at Hesterville (Miss.) circuit (2 years), Yazoo City circuit (2 years), where he had a large revival; Flora circuit (1 year), Sweet Home Circuit, where he repaired the church and added 50 converts; Hill's chapel circuit, Sidon and Acona circuit, his present charge. In all these places revivals have resulted in large additions to the chruch, spiritual improvement of the people and financial increases. Rev. Curtis' wife was formerly Miss Ordel Banks. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Campbell College. He was elected a member of the Centennial General Conference of 1916 by East Mississippi annual Conference.


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        DAKER, REV. PARIS, joined the Philadelphia Conference at Wilmington, Delaware, in the year of 1892. He has been a successful minister for twenty-four years. Dr. Daker preached the 99th annual sermon from the book of Hebrews 12:14. He is now pastor of St. John A. M. E. Church, Paschallville, Philadelphia, Pa.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. PARIS DAKER, D.D.

        Daniels, Isaac N., was born January 3rd, 1857, in Madison County, Huntsville, Ala.; went to school two years in Gurleysville, Ala.; five years and six months in Avery, Ala. He graduated from no school; came to

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. I. N. DANIELS.

the State of Kansas in 1879, and thence to Iowa in 1880. He was converted January 23rd, 1882, and joined the M. E. Church. In 1885 he joined the African M. E. Church under Rev. Timothy Reeves in Oskaloosa, Ia. He says he has been absent only one Sabbath from church in the past 33 years. He was licensed to preach in 1888 by Rev. J. W. Malone, P. E.

        He joined the Iowa Annual Conference in 1889, under Bishop John M. Brown. The first three years of his ministry he built and paid for the church building at Clarinda, Iowa. In 1895 he bought our church property in Aurora, Ill., and paid for the same except $250. In 1897 he was at St. Peter's Mission, Chicago. Here he found 17 members. During five years he took into our church over 500 people. The first four years they worshipped in a store room, but saved $1,000 and made a first payment on a $9,500 church property in North Chicago. The church was incorporated and named Wayman Chapel. After five years' labor with this church he left 175 members and a congregation of 500. In September, 1902, he was sent to Evanston, Ill., where our church had been for more than 30 years without owning a permanent church home. Here he bought for the church its first real estate, which consisted of a fine parsonage with two lots, at the cost of $6,300, which he paid within three years and six months, and increased the membership from 130 to 240. From Evanston he was sent to St. Stephen's Church, Chicago, Ill., in 1907. Here he served one year with success. After preaching 10 years in Chicago and vicinity, he was returned to Aurora, Ill., in 1908. In September, 1910, he was stationed at Des Moines, Iowa, where he served for two years. He received into the church 203 persons and paid some debts. And in 1912 he was appointed Presiding Elder of the Keokuk District of the Chicago Conference, which position he still holds. He is happily married and since 1905 has owned a beautiful home in Evanston, Ill.

        David, George Franklin, the son of Baldwin and Hannah David, members of the M. E. Church, was born March 14, 1862, in Harrison County, Ky. His parents had 12 children. He entered school in 1870 and received

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. GEORGE FRANKLIN DAVID, D.D.

about three and one-half years' schooling. He attended later in life Payne Theological Seminary and graduated from the same in 1902; also received the degree of D.D. from Wilberforce University in 1911. He took private lessons from a Presbyterian minister, but most of his education he acquired by reading. He was converted
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December 29, 1881, and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held many offices in the church. He was licensed to preach February 6, 1886, at Covington, Ky., by Bishop Wayman. He was ordained deacon September 12, 1887, at Harrodsburg, Ky., by Bishop H. M. Turner, and ordained elder in 1889 at Covington, Ky., by Bishop Wayman. He joined the Annual Conference in 1886 at Ashland, Ky., under Bishop Turner. He has held the following appointments: Leesburg Circuit, 1886-88; Wilmore, Ky., 1888-92; Cattlesburg, Ky., 1892-95; Midway, Ky., 1895-98; Somerset, Ky., 1898-99; Mt. Vernon, Columbus, O., 1900-01; Second Church, Columbus, O., 1901-02; Frankfort, Ky., 1902-04; Presiding Elder, 1904-16.

        He built churches at Hickman, Ky., in 1890, at a cost of $800; at Sulphur Wells, Ky., in 1891, at a cost of $400; at Leesburg, Ky., in 1887, at a cost of $300. He lifted a mortgage at Frankfort, Ky., in 1903 to the amount of $1400. He has taken 3,635 members into the church, baptized 2,750 people and married 708 people.

        Rev. David has been Presiding Elder for twelve years, trustee and member of the Executive Board of Wilberforce University, trustee of Wayman Institute, and treasurer for eight years.

        He married Mrs. Rhoda David, of Cynthiana, Ky., March 19, 1885. They have two children: Charles W. A. David, aged 28, who received the A.B. degree, Magna Cum Laude, from Wilberforce University, and the Ph.B. from the University of Chicago; and George F. David, aged 24, who received B.S. as an honor graduate from Wilberforce and the Ph.B. from the University of Chicago.

        The subject of the sketch is a member of the F. & A. M., G. U. O. of O. F. and United Brothers of Friendship. He has held important offices in each. He is a Republican and has attended the State Conventions. He is a property owner to the amount of $10,000. He was appointed a member of the committee on "Church and Country Life" of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ by the Bishops' Council of February, 1915. He has also been associated with N. A. A. C. P. He was a delegate to the General Conference of 1912, and an alternate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916.

        Davidson, Henry Damon, was born on the Davidson plantation, three miles below the town of Centreville, Ala., December 16, 1869. His parents, Damon and Adaline Davidson, were pious people and well beloved by white and black for miles around. When Henry was a baby the late Captain Samuel W. Davidson, the former master, said to Henry's father: "Damon, you ought to take care of, raise and educate that boy; a dollar in his head will be worth ten dollars in his pocket."

        When Henry was five years old his parents moved across the Cahawba River nearer the town of Centreville, where he helped his father on the farm and attended the three months public schools in Centreville whenever he could be spared from the farm until the year 1888, when he entered Selma University. After his first term at Selma he went back home, took the State examination for teacher's license, passed, and taught the same school he had attended the year before. The next year he entered the A. M. E. School at Selma, Ala., Payne University, which had just thrown open her doors. His parents being too poor to help him, he had to teach in the rural schools a part of the year, go to school a part and farm the other part. However, by studying hard at night when out of school, he managed to complete the course at Payne with the first class, May 18, 1893.

        Our subject was elected when only 17 years old as Superintendent of Mt. Sinai A. M. E. Sunday School, and has held that position for nearly 30 years, "without having been absent on an average of three Sundays a year all of these years," he says.

        Mr. Davidson married Miss Lula J. Davis, a graduate of Tuskegee, in February, 1899. She died June 21, 1908.

        He founded Centreville Industrial Institute, of which he is principal, in 1900. He married his present

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. HENRY D. DAVIDSON.

wife, who was Mrs. Lizzie Campbell McClellan, the widow of Mr. J. F. McClellan, and also a graduate of the Tuskegee Institute.

        Mr. Davidson was a delegate to the National Republican Convention which nominated McKinley and Roosevelt at Philadelphia in 1900. He was elected lay delegate to the General Conferences of the A. M. E. Church which met at Columbus, Ohio, in 1900; Norfolk, Va., in 1908; Kansas City, Mo., in 1912, and in Philadelphia in 1916. He holds the office of Sunday School Superintendent, steward and trustee in the church today. He is giving his life for his Maker, church and race.

        Davis, Mrs. L. A., is president of the W. H. & F. Society of the Alabama Conference. From girlhood she seemed adapted to missionary work. She began in Brown Chapel A. M. E. Church, Selma, Ala., when a mere girl, as a Sunday school teacher, and taught up to the present time; served as Secretary of the Mite Missionary Society, and is the local secretary of the Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society, having served fifteen years; served eight years as President of the Selma District. As Conference Branch President she has served eleven years, during which time she has raised more than $6,000, having served under Bishops Coppin, Parks and Jones. She has cared for and educated three girls. With a heart full of sympathy for poor unfortunate boys, she has taken several into her home, cared for them. Mrs. Davis' efforts secured the release


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of a little boy who was guilty of murder, from prison, and had him sent to the Mt. Meigs Reformatory to be trained. Mrs. Davis is chairman of the Dallas County prison work, and for seventeen years

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. L. A. DAVIS.

has held service every Sunday afternoon with the prisoners in the county jail. Her work done in the slums and the rescuing of girls from houses of illfame stands out distinctly. She is highly respected and greatly loved.

        Davis, Rev. Marion E., was born in Ebenezer, Mississippi, January 19, 1864. He was put into the public school at the age of five, and all of his early years were spent in hard study. He was also trained in the home by a loving mother to do anything that a girl could do. In 1880 he taught school in his home county. In

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. M. E. DAVIS, D.D.

September, 1881, he entered the Central Tennessee College, now Walden University, Nashville, Tenn., and November 18th of the same year he was converted. During the five years attending Walden University he taught school in Mississippi and Tennessee during his vacation. In February, 1887, he was licensed to exhort, later to preach, and in November, 1887, joined the Mississippi Annual Conference in Yazoo City under Bishop Ward, at the same time he was teaching public school at his native home. September 4th, 1888, he entered Wilberforce University, Ohio, to further his literary course and take a course in theology. May of 1890 Bishop Payne requested him to take charge of the Second Church in Springfield, Ohio, for the vacation. The church so prospered under his administration during the vacation that Bishop Payne appointed him as pastor in connection with his school work at Wilberforce, saying to him: "I have been praying for twelve years for God to give me a man to build up that church, and it seems now that God has answered my prayer in the person of yourself." It was then that Brother Davis agreed to shoulder the responsibility of pastoring the church and carrying on his school work, and here he continued until September, 1894, after he had graduated from Payne Theological Seminary in June of the same year. During this time he was ordained deacon by Bishop Lee in June, 1892, and on September 20, 1894, was ordained elder by Bishop Arnett, at Steubenville, Ohio. Then he returned to his home conference, the North Mississippi Conference, and was on December 8, 1894, appointed pastor of Friars' Point, Miss., and president of Stringer Academy. Here he spent five successful

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. M. E. DAVIS.

years in building up the church and Academy. In November, 1900, he was appointed to Port Gibson in the Mississippi Conference, where a beautiful new church had just been completed. Here five years were spent handling successfully the congregation and the big debt on the church.

        In December, 1905, he was appointed pastor of the Natchez Station. He took hold of this historical church and went to work in earnest, paid off some of the long-standing debt, cleared the church property of all debt, increased the dollar money more than $150, improved all other interests of the church, renovated the church and parsonage at a cost of more than $3,000, paying cash for everything as the improvement went on, and closed up five years there with a glorious success, and just eight


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weeks before his conference Bishop Coppin requested him to accept Emmanuel, Portsmouth, Va., to succeed the late Dr. L. H. Reynolds. Here he spent five very successful years; in one great revival more than 500 persons were converted; the church was cleared of debt, renovated and new furniture installed at a cost of $2500; a valuable piece of property adjoining the church property was bought and the Church Extension paid in full. In Portsmouth he organized and managed a campaign to raise $5000 to save the Old Folks' Home that was purchased seven years previous to his coming to the state. He has been pastor at Bethel Church, Third Street, Richmond, Va., since April, 1916.

        Davis, Rev. William H., presiding elder of the Philadelphia District, Philadelphia Conference, was born in Augusta County, Va., near Staunton, April 23, 1843. He was converted at Mother Bethel, Philadelphia, Pa., and subsequently joined Union A. M. E. Church, 16th Street and Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia. Here he remained for a period of six years and was licensed both as exhorter and local preacher.

        In 1871 he was used as a supply at Germantown and the same year at Carlisle, Pa., was received into the itinerancy by Bishop J. A. Shorter. He was present at the conference when the Philadelphia Conference was divided and the N. J. Conference was organized. He has served the following appointments: Phoenixville Circuit, Dover, where he built a church: South Chester, Bristol, Chambersburg, Reading, Frederica, Del.; Mount Olive, Philadelphia, where he served five years; Presiding Elder of the Wilmington District for 5 years; Mt. Pisgah, West Philadelphia, four years; Media three years; Bryn Mawr, Pa., five years; Presiding Elder of the West Philadelphia District over three years, and is at present Presiding Elder of the Philadelphia District, serving his fourth year. He was a member of the general conference of 1912.

        Davis, Rev. William Oscar, son of Rev. William H. and Fannie Davis, both members of the A. M. E. Church,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. O. DAVIS.

was born December 28, 1870, at Philadelphia, Pa., one of four children. He attended school in all twenty years, chiefly at Bristol, Pa.; Fredericks, Dela., and Chambersburg, Pa. He graduated from the Institute for Colored Youths, Philadelphia; Payne Theological Seminary and Drew Theological Seminary, receiving the degree B.D. from Payne and Drew and D.D. from Payne in 1909. He was converted in 1892 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has served as class leader, steward, trustee, Sunday school teacher and superintendent, organist, etc. He was licensed to preach in 1893 at Philadelphia by Rev. J. C. Brock; was ordained deacon 1899 by Bishop Grant, and ordained elder 1901 at Harrisburg, Pa., by Bishop Derrick. He joined the annual conference in 1900 at Dover, Dela., under Bishop Grant, and has held the following appointments: La Mott, 1900-1902; Madison, N. J., 1902-04; Salem, N. J., 1904-06; Newark, N. J., 1906-08; Camden, N. J., 1908-09; Hamilton, Bermuda, 1909-12; Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 1912-13; Wheeling, W. Va., 1913-16. He has baptized 425 and married 87. He married Eliza Victoria Davis, of Antigua, B. W. I., October 16, 1902. They had two children, Lillian Victoria, 11 years, and Helen Marie, deceased, February 28, 1910. He has contributed to the Christian Recorder. He is connected with the F. and A. M., G. U. O. of O. F., K. of P. and I. B. P. O. of E. W.

        Dean, Cornelius James, the son of John T. and Hannah Ann Barrett, both members of the B. M. E. Church, was born October, 1863, at Chatham, Ontario, one of fourteen children. He entered school when very young and received about ten years' schooling. He received his theological training from Morris Brown College, was converted in 1884, and joined the B. M. E. Church the same year. He has held every office in the church from sexton to Presiding Elder save exhorter; was licensed to preach in 1895 at Detroit, Mich., by Rev. J. M. Henderson, joined the Michigan Annual Conference in 1900 at Grand Rapids, Mich.; ordained deacon in 1901 by Bishop Grant at South Bend, Ind.; ordained elder by Bishop Grant in 1903 at Detroit.

        Rev. Dean has held the following appointments: Adrian, Mich., 1899; Pontiac, Mich., 1902; Jackson, Mich., 1906; Benton Harbor, Mich., 1911, and Presiding Elder of South Bend District, 1913. He built a new church at Pontiac, Mich., at a cost of $1356.50; parsonage at Jackson, Mich., at a cost of $2450; enlarged and remodeled church at Benton Harbor at a cost of $1226; repaired church at Adrian, Mich., at cost of $350; has taken 361 people in church, baptized 86 and married 102.

        He is a trustee of Wilberforce University. He married Mary A. Whaley, of North Buxton, Ont., in 1883. They have three children: Mrs. Edith P. Tyler, Mrs. Mabel Thomas, both ministers' wives, and James A. Dean, who is now a student in dentistry in the University of Michigan. All are graduates of high schools. Mrs. Thomas is a music teacher. Mrs. Tyler is a graduate of Claryes Business College.

        Dean, Henderson, was born in Jefferson County, Miss., 1865. He was one of thirteen children, the son of George and Lucy Dean, both members of the Baptist Church. He entered school in 1875 and attended about three years. He spent over two years in the Port Gibson public schools. He was converted in 1886 and joined the A. M. E. Church at the same time. He has held the following offices in the church; Trustee, Steward, Class Leader, Exhorter, Local Preacher and Sunday School Teacher. He was licensed to preach in 1892 at Chotard,


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Miss., by E. R. Carter. He was ordained deacon in 1896 at Columbus, Miss., by Bishop W. B. Derrick. He was ordained elder in 1899 at Vicksburg, Miss., by Bishop Derrick. He joined the Annual Conference in 1894 at Durant, Miss., under Bishop H. M. Turner. He has held the following appointments: Mayersville, 1895-97; Brunswick, 1898; Leota Circuit, 1899; Anguilla Circuit,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. HENDERSON DEAN.

1900-01; Rolling Fork, 1902; Lintonia, 1903-04; Lexington Circuit, 1905; Campbellsville Circuit, 1906 to 1909; Benton Circuit, 1910; Evans Circuit, 1911-12; Sidon Circuit, 1913; appointed P. E. in 1914.

        He built a church at Mayersville at a cost of $550 in 1896 and a parsonage at Brunswick at a cost of $300 in 1893; also a parsonage at Lintonia at a cost of $400 in 1903. He lifted a mortgage at Holly Bluff to the amount of $350 in 1907. He has taken about 850 persons into the church, baptized about 600 and married about 87.

        He has been delegate to the General Conferences of 1904, 1912 and 1916. His wife is Mrs. Nannie Dean, of Marietta, Ga. He was director of an insurance and a member of the F. and A. M. He owns a home.

        Deas, Dohn Carlos, son of William and Mary Deas, was born October 23, 1875, at Kershaw county, S. C., one of thirteen children. He entered school at the age of seven and attended in all about twenty years. He graduated from Claflin University. He received a diploma in 1908 from Allen University in Theology and the degree D.D. from Allen in 1912. He took a correspondence course in theology from Morris Brown University. He was converted in 1893 and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1895. He has held several offices in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1895 at Orangeburg, S. C., by Rev. W. D. Chappelle. He was ordained deacon in 1897 at Lancaster, S. C., by Bishop Arnett, and ordained elder in 1899 at Darlington, S. C., by Bishop Grant. He joined the annual conference in 1897 at Darlington, S. C., under Bishop Arnett, and has held the following appointments: Parlorsville circuit, St. Stephen's mission, Couterboro station, Wedgefield and St. Luke circuit, Darlington station, Mt. Olive, Mt. Pleasant, Marion station, appointed presiding elder of Marion district at Florence, S. C., in 1915. He built St. Stephen church near St. Matthews, S. C., at a cost of $400 in 1899. He lifted mortgages on Bethel and Orange Hill churches at Wedgefield in 1902 and on Bethel, Darlington, S. C., at a cost of $200 in 1905. He has taken 950 into the church, baptized 200 and married 50. He was elected delegate to the general conferences of 1912 and 1916. He was recording secretary of the N. E. S. C. conference for 4 years, chief secretary for 6 years, trustee of Allen University for ten years, and a member of the Executive Board for three years. He married Mary King, of Spartansburg, in 1895 and had two children, Mattie and Dohn Carlos, Jr. In 1904 he married Ellen F. Johnson, of Newberry, S. C. He is connected with the Good Samaritan and K. of P. He has held the office of deputy in the Good Samaritan. He owns a home in Sumter, S. C.

        DeLaine, Henry Charles, son of Charles and Caroline DeLaine, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born August 4, 1859, at Manning, S. C., one of thirteen children; began attending school in 1870 and spent over nine years in the county schools. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1876 and has held nearly every office in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1880 at Manning by Rev. William M. Thomas; joined the annual conference in 1889 at Columbia, S. C., under Bishop Arnett; was ordained deacon in 1890 at Manning by Bishop Arnett, and elder in 1897 at Manning by Bishop Salter. He has held the following appointments: Manning, 1887-91;

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. C. DeLAINE.

Salem Ct., 1891-2; Friendship, 1892; Mt. Sinai, 1892-96; Mt. Pleasant, 1896-99; Statesburg Sta., 1899-1904; Liberty Hill Sta., 1904-09; P. E., 1909-13; St. James Cir., 1913-15; Liberty Hill, 1916. He built the following churches: one at Manning at a cost of $300 in 1889; DeLaine Chapel, Manning, $350 in 1890; Friendship, Silver, $250, in 1892; Mt. Sinai at Shiloh, $500, in 1893; Oak Grove, Lake City, $440, in 1895. He has lifted mortgages on the following churches: Mt. Pleasant, Elliott, S. C., $75 in 1897; Magnolia, Lynchburg, S. C., $150 in 1898; William Chapel, Statesburg, $100
Page 83

in 1900; Ebenezer, Shiloh, S. C., $100 in 1895. He has taken over 1200 people into the church, baptized 500 people and married about 200. He was a delegate to the general conferences of 1912 and 1916; he was a member of the A. C. E. League Board, 1912. He married Lisbia DeLaine, of Manning, S. C., December 24, 1885. They have fifteen children: H. C. DeLaine, Jr., 29 years; R. C. DeLaine, 27 years; Arlean, 25 years; Rowena, 23 years; Leo, 20 years; Moses, 18 years; Carrie, 16 years; Joseph, 14 years; Lewis, 13 years; Mary and Martha, 11 years; Maggie, 10 years; Allen, 7 years; Sarah, 31 years; Peter. Mrs. Sarah Coe is a graduate of Allen University, also Carrie and Rowena Two of them are teachers. He has contributed to the Samaritan Herald. He is connected with the G. U. O. of O. F., Household of Ruth, K. of P. and Samaritans, and has held prominent offices in each of them; is a Republican and has attended the state conventions. He holds a good reputation in his community and owns real estate.

        Derrick, Bishop William B., 23rd bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Antiqua, of the West Indies, on July 27, 1843. His father, Thomas J. Derrick, was said to be a planter of some means in Antiqua. In 1867 he entered the itinerant ministry; the next year he was ordained deacon, and in 1870 he was ordained elder at Norfolk, Va., by Bishop Wayman. In 1888 he

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP W. B. DERRICK, D.D.

was elected missionary secretary and established the office in Bible House, New York, giving it general prestige. In 1896 he was elected bishop at Wilmington and served in that capacity for nearly 17 years, serving as bishop of the eighth, first, third and fifteenth Episcopal districts. He was three times married; first to Miss Mary E. White, of Norfolk, Va., who lived but a short time; next to Mrs. Lillian M. Derrick, who died in 1907 and to whom he was married more than twenty-five years, and last to Mrs. Clara E. Henderson Jones, to whom he was married in 1909, and who survives him. He was educated in private schools in his native land and excelled in oratory. He was apprenticed as a blacksmith, but took to sea soon after completing his trade. He came to the United States during the Civil War and enlisted in the United States navy and served on the U. S. flagship Minnesota, and was in the famous battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac. In later years he frequently referred to his service under two flags--the British and the United States. He was converted in St. John church, Norfolk, Va., in 1864 and joined the church the same year, being licensed to preach by Rev. John M. Brown, then pastor at Norfolk. He served as pastor of Mt. Pisgah in District of Columbia. He was transferred to Virginia in 1869, elected assistant secretary of the Virginia Conference. In 1870 he was elected temporary secretary and appointed pastor of Staunton, Va., presiding elder of the Staunton district. He was elected secretary in 1872 and served until 1879. In 1872 he was elected delegate to the General Conference, and was a member of every general conference from that time till his death. In 1875 he was pastor at Richmond, Va.; in 1877 presiding elder of Richmond District; in 1879 he transferred to New York. After his transfer to New York Dr. Derrick became a powerful factor in politics. His gift of oratory made him always in demand as a campaign orator. And believing that the rights of the race were being protected by the Republican party he threw his whole soul into the success of the Republican party. He died in April, 1913, at Flushing, N. Y.

        Dickerson, John H., was born in Madison, Fla., one of four children; entered school in 1872 and attended about ten years in all. He attended Cookman Institute and Edward Waters College, graduating from the latter. He has received degrees from Wilberforce and Edward Waters College. Converted in 1882, he joined A. M. E. Church and has held almost every office in the church. He was licensed to preach at Ocala, Fla., in 1886, by Rev. J. R. Robinson; ordained deacon in 1887 at Palatka, Fla., by Bishop Payne; ordained elder 1890 at Gainesville, Fla., by Bishop Arnett; joined the annual conference in 1886 at Fernandina, Fla., under Bishop Payne, and has held the following appointments in Florida: San Mateo, 1886: East Palatka, 1887; Jacksonville, 1888; Green Cove Springs, 1889; Jacksonville, 1890; Hawthorne, 1891; Starke, 1891; Ocala, 1892; Tampa, 1893; Palatka, 1894; Citra, 1895; elected to Payne Theol. Institute 1896; appointed presiding elder 1899; built Payne Chapel, East Palatka, at a cost of $1500 in 1887; Mt. Moriah, Jacksonville, at a cost of $2000 in 1888; Mt. Zion, Ocala, at a cost of $3000 in 1892; rebuilt church at Hawthorne at a cost of $500 in 1890, and Starke at a cost of $500 in 1891; bought a church site at Tampa in 1893 at a cost of $10,000; elected delegate to general conferences of 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916. He was a member of the Educational Board in 1908-12, and of the Church Extension Board in 1904-8. Married Fannie Sims, of Newberry, S. C., in 1883. They have one daughter, Miss Minnie L. Dickerson, who is a graduate. He is a thirty-third degree Mason and has been grand master of the Freemasons of Florida for the last seventeen years. Dr. Dickerson is a Republican. He attended the national conventions in 1908 and 1912. He owns valuable property and is considered one of the substantial men of the race. He is president of the Florida Boys' Home for Colored Youth and president of the Negro Business League. Under his direction has been built in Jacksonville the finest Masonic temple owned by the race, the cost of which is said to be more than $250,000.

        Dickerson, William Fisher, thirteenth bishop of A. M. E. Church, was born in Woodbury, N. J., January


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15, 1844, the son of Rev. Henry and Sophia Dickerson, both members of the A. M. E. Church. He received a common school education in his native town. He was converted and received into the A. M. E. Church in New York in 1861. He entered Lincoln University and graduated; was licensed to preach while at Lincoln by Rev. H. J. Rhodes at Oxford, Pennsylvania, and joined the New York Annual Conference in 1870. He was ordained deacon in 1868 and elder in 1871. He received the degree

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP WM. FISHER DICKERSON.

of D.D. from Wilberforce University; was fraternal delegate of the general conference of 1876 to the M. E. general conference in Baltimore. While he was pastor of Bethel, Sullivan Street, New York, in 1880, he was elected bishop and assigned to South Carolina and Georgia and during his administration the foundations were laid for both Allen and Morris Brown Universities. He was secretary of the Council of Bishops. He died December 20, 1884, and was buried at Woodbury, N. J.

        Dixon, Marcellus Richardson, the seventh son of Benjamin and Matilda Dixon, was born in Natchez, Mississippi, December 14, 1872. His mother and grandmother were charter members of Zion Chapel A. M. E. Church of Natchez. He attended the public schools and Natchez College; was converted and joined Zion Chapel A. M. E. Church in 1897 under the pastorate of Dr. O. P. Ross and the revival meeting of Rev. R. A. Adams. He was licensed to preach by Rev. J. G. Thompson. In the fall of 1897 he matriculated at Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga., and finished his theological course in 1902. He joined the North Ga. conference November, 1899; was ordained a deacon by Bishop Turner at Newnan, Ga., November, 1901; was transferred to the Central Mississippi conference in 1902 and ordained elder by Bishop Tyree, and received his first appointment December 14, 1902. He has served the following appointments: Columbus, Miss., 1 year; St. John, West Point, Miss., 1903-4; St. Peter's, Port Gibson, Miss., 1904-09; Brookhaven, Miss., 1909-10; presiding elder of the Summit district, Miss. conference, 3 months in 1910-11. In 1911 Bishop Turner transferred him to the Louisiana conference and appointed him to historic St. James, New Orleans, La., where he served successfully five years and at the 1916 session of the Louisiana conference Bishop Connor transferred him to the North Mississippi conference and appointed him to St. Matthew's A. M. E. Church, Greenville, Miss., where he is now serving. He has served as trustee of Campbell College, Jackson, Miss., and of Lampton College, Alexandria, La. He was treasurer of the Louisiana conference and for four years led the Louisiana conference in all reports. On April 20, 1904, he was married to Miss Katie Stevens, of Natchez, Miss. Four sons were born to their union

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. M. R. DIXON, B.D., D.D.

and give great promise of usefulnesss. In 1911 Campbell College, Jackson, Miss., conferred on him the degree of D.D. He served four years in the Southern Christian Recorder office under Editor R. M. Cheeks and G. E. Taylor and later seven years as editor and manager of the "New Light," the Masonic paper of Mississippi. He was delegate to the general conferences of 1912 and 1916.

        Drummond, Rev. William Solomon, was born in Wattsville, Va., November 2, 1867, the son of William Thomas and Caroline Drummond, farmers.

        He attended public school at his birthplace during his boyhood days a few months each year, from the age of eight to sixteen. Then he was hired out on the farm. At the age of eighteen he went to Lewes, Del., where he worked for a large firm. At the age of twenty he came to Philadelphia, May 5, 1887. The following Autumn he joined Mt. Pisgah A. M. E. Church, under Rev. J. B. Stansberry, and filled the following offices:

        President of the literary association, class leader, trustee and local preacher.

        He was licensed to preach at the District Conference at Concordville in 1898. In 1894, at the age of 28, he married Henrietta Tull, of Pocomoke City, Md. To this union there are 5 children, four girls and one boy. In 1899 he joined the Philadelphia Conference under Bishop Grant. He served the following appointments:

        Pottsville, Penna., 1899-1900; Disney Chapel in Philadelphia, 1900-1902, during which time he was a private student under Dr. Solomon Porter Hood; Emmanuel, 24th & York Sts., Philadelphia, 1902-1907, during


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which time he attended Müller College for two years. The Lord wonderfully blessed his work in this charge, the membership increasing from 30 to 165; Mt. Zion, Columbia, Pa., 1907-1909, where he paid off the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM S. DRUMMOND.

last dollar on mortgage and beautified the church and increased the membership; Bethel, York, Pa., 1909-1911, where he had the church beautifully decorated and paid considerable on mortgage; St. John's A. M.

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. W. S. DRUMMOND

E. Church, Wayne, Pa., May, 1911, Nov., 1913, where he was wonderfully blessed, and more than doubled the membership and beautified the church property, which cost more than $450 and paid the same; since November, 1913, he has pastored Murphy Church, Chester, with very great success. Conversions during his pastorate have been 231, while he has taken 615 members into the church.

        He was ordained deacon at Bethel Church, Wilmington, Del., in 1902 by Bishop Coppin, and ordained elder at Mt. Pisgah in 1904 by Bishop Arnett.

        Dukes, John Walter, was born September 8, 1855, at Waccahoota, Marion Co., Fla., the son of Floyd and Sophia Dukes, and slave of Wm. Price. He was converted in May, 1867, and joined the A. M. E. Church June, 1871, under the pastorate of Rev. Limas Andrews, and joined the A. M. E. Church at Williston, Fla., now known as Grant Chapel. He was licensed to preach in 1880 by Rev. M. J. Johnson and joined the East Florida conference, February, 1883, under Bishop Wayman and was appointed to Micanopy Mission, which he pastored 4 years; ordained deacon in 1885 and elder in 1887, both by Bishop Payne; appointed to the Citra circuit in 1887 and remained 4 years, and organized the great Turner City camp meeting and succeeded in getting special recognition from the railroad. In 1890 he was appointed to Mt. Zion Church, Ocala, had a great revival, more than 250 persons being converted, and dollar money increased from $112 to $176.50. In 1891 he raised the largest amount of money ever raised in one rally in Ocala, $832, and began building Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church. In 1892 he was appointed presiding elder of the Tampa district in the newly made South Florida conference by Bishop Arnett. After 4 years, 1892-1896, he served the Gainesville district 2 years (1896-1898); Sanford district, 2 years (1898-1900), and in 1900 was appointed pastor of Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church, Ocala, Fla. Since then he has served as follows: 1901-2, DeLand Station; 1902-3, Eatonville Station; 1903-6, presiding elder of the St. Petersburg district, Central Florida conference; 1906-9, pastor of Mt. Tabor Station; 1909-10, Crystal River; 1910-11, High Springs Station; 1911-12, St. Paul Station, Leesburg; 1912-13, Apopka Station; 1913-16, Clearwater Station, where he has built one of the best A. M. E. churches in Florida. He was elected to the general conferences of 1896, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916, and was chairman of the Florida delegation in 1912. He was married in 1876 and is the father of three children, two of whom lived to be of age; his son was a physician and died in 1910 at the age of 33, and his daughter died 1903 at the age of 24. Rev. Dukes has accumulated some valuable property in Ocala, Tampa and Clearwater with a rental income of $110 per month. He was state superintendent of the A. C. E. League from 1908 to 1912 and was reappointed in 1916. He made Florida the banner state in Christian Endeavor work. While he was presiding elder of the Tampa district he organized the Ward camp meeting ground in 1894 at Lakeland, Fla., and the railroad gave another large tract of land and built a large pavilion and a church house for the ministers, and for a long time this ground was used by the church.


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        EDWARDS, PHILIP H., the president of the Bethel Church Corp., Philadelphia, Pa., was converted and received into the church during the time Bishop L. J. Coppin was pastor of Bethel Church, the fourth Sunday in March, 1896, and he has been an active member of the church since that time. He was elected a trustee in April, 1904, and served six years until April, 1910. On April 8th, 1912, he was elected president of the Corporation of Bethel A. M. E. church, defeating Mr. John R. Powell, who had led the Corporation for about sixteen years. Under his administration the church has had unusual financial success. From April 14th, 1912, to the present date, the trustee department has collected in money from all sources about $19,000, and spent about $17,700. On entering into office the trustee department owed current expenses of $1000, and the bonded indebtedness was $16,997. There was a mortgage of $1500 which had been held against the church for 26 years. The current indebtedness and the $1500 mortgage have been paid in full, and the bonded indebtedness reduced from $16,997 to $11,997. Where the old frame buildings stood, next to the church, there have been built two modern houses of twelve rooms each, at a cost of $16,000, and the church has been renovated at a cost of $2500. The church also owns the ground and properties from 535 Lombard street to the corner of Sixth and Addison streets. Col. Edwards is not only useful in church circles, but he is popular in fraternal affairs.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM EDWARDS.

        Edwards, Rev. William, was born in Brooklyn, New York, September 14, 1868. His father was Griffin Edwards, of Virginia, and his mother was Martha Edwards, of Brooklyn. Rev. Edwards received his literary education in the grammar and high schools of Brooklyn, where he also received a business course, and his theological training at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, which he attended in 1894-96. He has served as Sunday school teacher and organist; also been engaged in several law offices as clerk and stenographer. He has served several sessions as stenographer of the New York Conference. In his home town he is highly respected and was secretary for the Committee on Incorporation of the village, and in 1910 was a census enumerator. He was one of the first colored persons to purchase and own a home in Mineola, L. I. His wife, Mrs. Mary S. Edwards, was born in Keyesville, Va., in 1869, and is a trained nurse and graduate of Dixie Hospital, Hampton, Va. She is president of the New York Conference Branch Women's Mite Missionary Society and is an energetic Christian worker. Her mother, Mrs. Emeline Bailey, now deceased, was a member of the Old Third Street A. M. E. Church, Richmond, Va., under the pastorate of Bishop Wm. B. Derrick.

        Rev. Edwards has served the following charges in the African Methodist Episcopal Church: Salem, Roslyn; Bethel, Freeport; Mt. Zion, Westbury; Allen, Northport; Bishop's Chapel and Bethel Chapel, New York City, and Douglaston, Long Island, where he is now pastor. He built a neat little church at Northport, Long Island, and designed and built one of the prettiest edifices for worship in Freeport, Long Island, within the short space of three years. He is a church organizer and has also been successful in raising funds and paying off church debts. He is a member of several secret organizations, namely, the G. U. O. of O. F., and F. & A. M., and is identified with every good cause for the advancement and progress of the church or race in his community.

        Edwards, Watson Henry, presiding elder of Senatobia District, N. E. Mississippi Conference, is the son of John and Rachel Edwards, both of whom were devout members of A. M. E. Church. He was born on a farm eight miles from the Mississippi River, east of Egypt Ridge, in Boliver County, Mississippi, in February, 1865. His parents and his pastor, Rev. Lott Stirling and a white lady, named Mrs. Johnson, were his early teachers.

        He attended Southland College, Helena, Arkansas, one year; Roger Williams University, Nashville, Tennessee, one year, and three years in Fisk University, which he was forced to leave in March, 1888, on account of the death of his father, which threw the responsibility of the family support largely upon him. But he never stopped studying. He received the degree of D.D. from Campbell College, Jackson, Miss.

        He was converted in 1878 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year.

        Licensed to preach in 1880 by Rev. Albert Jackson, of the Greenville District. He joined the annual conference in 1890 at Senatobia, Mississippi, when Bishop Disney presided, was ordained deacon at Greenville, Miss., by Bishop B. T. Tanner, in 1891, and elder in 1893, at Yazoo City, Miss., by Bishop Arnett.

        Served the following places:

        Sherwood Mission, 1890; Glen Allen Circuit, 1891; Chotard, 1892; Hollandale, 1893; Vicksburg and Coahoma, 1894-5; Stovall Circuit, 1896-7; Arkabutta, 1898; Senatobia, 1899; Harrison, 1900; Tucahoma, 1901; Leland, 1902-3; Anguilla, 1904; Columbus, 1905; Coldwater, 1906; Grenada, 1907-8; presiding elder of Holly Springs District, 1909; Water Valley District, 1910-11; Senatobia District, 1912-16. He built Phillips Church at Holly Springs, 1910; cost, $850; Edwards' Chapel at McMoore, 1896; cost, $500; St. James at Duncan, 1898, cost, $725; St. James at Leland, 1904,


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cost, $2500; Payne Chapel at Bent Oak, 1905, cost $550; Hines' Chapel near Leland, 1904, cost, $450 and paid the mortgage on Powell Chapel at Grenada, 1908, to the amount of $405.

        Rev. Edwards has received about 1000 people into the church, baptized about 500 and married 150. He was delegate to General Conferences in 1904, 1908 and 1912, and was unanimously elected the leader of his delegation for 1916; was a member of the Board of the Western Recorder, 1912-1916; a trustee of Campbell College and Wilberforce University; treasurer of Northeast Mississippi Conference and its acknowledged leader, and member of the Financial Board, representing the 8th district.

        Ellis, George W., spent six years in the college and law departments of the University of Kansas, then specialized in the study of the social sciences, graduating

[ILLUSTRATION]
HON. GEORGE W. ELLIS, F.R.G.S.

from Gunton's Institute of Economics and Sociology. He was appointed clerk in the Interior Department at Washington and later as secretary of the American Legation to the Republic of Liberia, where he served for more than 8 years. While in West Africa he took up the study of African native institutions and subsequently contributed articles upon African problems and subjects to the Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.; The Independent at New York City; Journal of the African Society, London; Journal of Race Development, Worcester, Massachusetts, and similar publications in both Europe and the United States.

        However, aside from his official duties in Africa, his most important work was his study of the native institutions of the Vai Speaking Negroes, resulting in his manuscript on Negro Social Life and Culture in Africa.

        As a result of the original work and investigations of George W. Ellis into native social conditions and African problems he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain upon the proposal and nomination of Sir Harry H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., one of the greatest living African authorities in Europe, and Dr. J. Scott Keltie, author of the noted book, "The Position of Africa." Subsequently, he was elected a member of the following learned societies: African Society for the Study of Native Institutions, London; American Sociological Society; American Political Science Association; American Academy of Social and Political Science; American Society of International Law; honorary member of the Luther Burbank Society, and decorated Knight Commander of the Order of African Redemption. He is now one of the contributing editors of the Journal of Race Development of Clark University at Worcester, Mass., and the Editor of Who's Who of the Colored Race.

        It might be added that Mr. Ellis has, perhaps, the largest and most representative single ethnological African collection now in the National Museum at Washington, D. C. He has made a number of addresses in different portions of the United States and elsewhere upon African and Negro questions and was a member of the African Conference at Clark University, Worcester, Mass., in 1910.

        He is author of the new book, entitled, "Negro Culture in West Africa." He was a delegate to the General Conference of 1912, representing Liberia and is a member of the Centennial General Conference. He has also been a member of the Financial Board since 1912.

        Embry, James C., 25th bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Knox County, Ind., November 2, 1834. His parents were Baptists. He entered school when quite young and received a good common school education, and taught school prior to 1858. He was converted in 1855 in Galena, Ill., and was licensed to preach in 1856 by Rev. F. Meyers in Galena. He joined the annual conference in August, 1864, under Bishop Quinn. He was ordained deacon in 1866 and ordained elder in 1870. He held many appointments

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP J. C. EMBRY, D.D.

to his credit and to that of the church. He was financial secretary from 1876 to 1880 and general business manager from 1884 to 1896, during which time he built the present publishing house at 631 Pine St. In 1896 he was elected bishop and ordained May 19, 1896. He died August 16, 1897, and is buried at Philadelphia.


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        Evans, Dr. Elias G., is a native of Florida, where he was reared on his father's farm. He was a student three years at the Florida Baptist Institute and was an ardent worker in all of its societies. Leaving this institute he taught school for two years, and entered the State Normal College at Tallahassee, Florida, completing the four years' course. He was president of the college societies, with

[ILLUSTRATION]
DR. ELIAS G. EVANS.

which he was connected while in this institution, also for two years editor of the College News Bureau, and organized a debating society in Tallahassee; served as teacher and officer of the Sunday school, and president of the choir of the leading A. M. E. church of that city. After graduating he became a State teacher, holding the principalship of some of the best schools of the State, and was also for three years special agent for the college. He is a member of the A. M. E. Church and has been a Sunday school worker from youth, filling every position in the church save that of a preacher. His annual conference elected him trustee of Wilberforce University 1898, and he was elected first alternate to the general conference of 1904. He entered the medical department of Howard University in 1904, went through the third year course, after which circumstances compelled him to give up, as he was a night watchman in the War Department during the time. He entered the dental college of the university in 1911 and graduated June, 1913. He enjoys a good practice and has a thoroughly equipped dental office at 1113 You Street, N. W. Dr. Evans is an officer of the Robert T. Freeman Dental Society, of Washington, D. C.; has served as first vice-president of the Y. M. C. A. of Howard University and is now the fifth vice-president of the Alumni Association of the university; member of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows; of the Masonic fraternity; a trustee of Metropolitan A. M. E. church, of Washington, D. C.; first assistant superintendent of its Sunday school, and an officer of Bethel Literary and Historical Association.

        Evans, Rev. James Joshua, the son of Simon and Mary (Derricks) Evans, was born in Knoxville, Frederick County, Maryland, June 13, 1855. He attended the public schools of his native town. At the age of 16 years he entered Storer College of Harper's Ferry, West Va., and remained for two years. From here he went to Washington, D. C., and attended Wayland Theological Seminary. He was converted in 1880 and in 1883 was ordained deacon by Bishop Cain, in Brooklyn, N. Y., and in 1886 he was ordained an elder by Bishop Turner at Harrisburg, Pa. He has received into the church 635 persons and has baptized 263, married 72 couples and attended 137 funerals. He has built three new churches from the ground, rebuilt five and paid four out of debt. He has entertained the Philadelphia Conference at Chambersburg, Pa., and the Indiana Conference at Terre Haute, Ind.

        Rev. Evans was married in 1885 to Miss Lydia Samuel George, of Elizabeth, N. J. He has pastored the following charges with some degree of success: 1883-4, Elizabeth, N. J.; 1885, Bay Shore, N. Y.; 1886-88, Milton, Del.; 1889, Green Castle, Pa.; 1890-1, Zion Chapel, Phila.; 1892-3, Chambersburg, Pa.; 1894-5, Carlisle, Pa.; 1896-7, Allen Chapel, Phila.; 1898-9, Ebenezer, West, Washington, D. C.; 1900, Christfield, M. D.; 1901, St. James, Louisville, Ky.; 1902-3, Taylor Chapel, Bowling Green, Ky.; 1904, LaGrange, Ill.; 1905, Allen Temple, Marion, Ind.; 1907-8, Spruce St., Terre Haute, Ind.; 1909, Bethel, Evansville, Ind.; 1910-11, Bloomington, Ill.; 1912, Edwardsville, Ill.; 1913-4, Mound City, Ill.; 1915, Bethel, Quincy, Ill.; the last named being his present charge. He is now serving his 32d year in the itinerant ministry of the A. M. E. Church.

        Evans, Miss Mary G., was born in Washington City, D. C., January 13, 1891. Her parents died when she was a child. She was adopted by Rev. and Mrs. J. J. Evans, Mrs. Evans being her aunt and who then resided in

[ILLUSTRATION]
MISS MARY G. EVANS.

Louisville, Ky. She obtained her grammar and high school training in the schools of Chicago, Ill. At the age of twelve she felt a call to preach and then preached her first sermon. She was licensed to preach at the age of fourteen at Chicago, Ill., by Rev. Timothy. At fifteen she entered the Indiana conference of the A. M. E. church
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and was given evangelist's license by Bishop Shaffer. Feeling that her calling required the very best of training, Miss Evans entered Payne Theological Seminary, Wilberforce, Ohio. Not having the necessary money to enter and complete the course at Payne, her aunt, Mrs. Evans, the Federal Clubs of Indiana, and the conference came to her aid June, 1911. Since that time she has traveled over the entire country, north, south, east and west, and has won thousands of souls to Christ. In June, 1913, she, with a friend, sailed for Europe to attend the World's Seventh Sunday School Convention. She was the only delegate appointed by the State Association of Indiana. She visited Europe, Asia and Africa, traveling in France, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Turkey, the Holy Land and Egypt. On her return she lectured extensively on her trip. Miss Evans is one of the great evangelistic preachers of the race. Her power lies not alone in her scholastic preparation, but in her entire consecration to God.

        FELDER, REV. S. P., was born July 1, 1863, at Greensburg, La. His parents were Joseph and Susan Felder. He grew up to the age of seventeen years before he began his education. He began by attending night schools in 1879, and afterwards attended public school. He married in 1880, and desiring to continue his education he hired private teachers who continued to feed his fertile brain until he developed into a scholar of no mean ability. He joined the A. M. E. Church on probation in 1878 and was converted in 1881, was licensed as an exhorter March, 1885, licensed as a local preacher September, 1885. He studied theology under a private teacher, T. A. Wilson. He entered the ministry December, 1887, was ordained a deacon in 1888 and was ordained an elder, 1890. He is one of Mississippi's greatest preachers. More than a thousand souls have been converted by his sermons. He was a successful pastor and is an excellent presiding elder. In the latter position he is now serving his sixteenth appointment. He is a financier, builder and leader of affairs of the church and school in the State of Mississippi. His leadership is not confined to the Church and school alone, and served two years as state General Manager of the Mutual Aid Society in the State of Mississippi, and resigned the position because of his ministerial responsibilities. He was afterwards elected as Supreme Grand Master of the Independent Order of Eagles, which position he now holds. He also was the first president of the People's Saving Bank at Shaw, Miss. He resigned this position because of being over-burdened with responsibility. He has served on the Church Extension Board eight years, and was elected delegate to the Ecumenical Conference, which was held in Toronto, Canada, October, 1911. He has been elected delegate to five consecutive General Conferences, from 1900 to 1916, and has served twelve years on the Episcopal Committee. He is a trustee and manager of Campbell College farm. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Campbell College.

        He organized Log Town, Jordan River, Bay St. Louis, which was beginning of the Gulf work, while he was a local preacher, and has organized many churches since.

        Flagg, Rev. L. S., was born about fifty years ago, near Raleigh, N. C. He was converted in early youth. The first Sunday school attended was the A. M. E. His parents moved to a village in the suburbs of the city of Raleigh, where there was no A. M. E. Church and he attended the M. E. Church and Sunday school and was licensed to preach in that church and used by them as a supply while he attended school to further prepare himself for the ministry. He was often importuned to join the M. E. Conference, but true to his first love he joined the A. M. E. Conference, under Bishop Campbell, at Wilmington, N. C. While attending school he was for a time instructor in theology, but before he graduated, on account of the great demand for preachers, he was compelled to take work. Being

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. L. S. FLAGG.

however, of studious habits he prepared himself so efficiently that he has filled some of the most important charges in the connection.

        He served as presiding elder of the Morganton District of the West North Carolina Conference, and was transferred to the Baltimore Conference by Bishop J. A. Handy, where he has held important charges, among them Mother Bethel, Baltimore. During his administration, Bethel Church raised more than one thousand dollars a month for all purposes. Though deprived of the opportunity of completing his education, he is in great demand as a preacher, which shows that the A. M. E. Church recognizes work and worth.

        Fleming, James Robert, one of seven children of Robert and Annie Fleming, both members of A. M. E. Church, was born in Washington, Georgia, in 1865; attended school in Washington six years; graduated from Morris Brown University; received the degree of D.D. from Campbell College, Jackson, Miss.; was converted in 1881 and joined Woods Chapel A. M. E.


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Church; held offices of steward, class leader, local preacher, Sunday school teacher and superintendent; was licensed to preach 1887 in Allen Temple, Atlanta, Ga., by Rev. J. G. Yeiser; was ordained deacon 1890 at Cartersville by Bishop Gaines; ordained elder 1894 in Marietta, by Bishop Grant. He joined the annual conference at Washington, Ga., in 1889 under Bishop Gaines; held the following appointments, all in Georgia; Stone Mountain, 1889-1892; Jackson, 1893; Deraville, 1894; Acworth, 1895-96-97; Griffin, 1898-99; Jamesboro, 1900-1904; Madison, 1905; presiding elder twelve years; built churches at Stone Mountain at cost of $500 in 1890; Acworth at $1500 in 1895; Grant Chapel, $500 in 1896; Jamesboro, $500 in 1901. Lifted mortgages at Jackson, $300, 1893, and Griffin, $500, 1898; was delegate to general conferences of 1912 and 1916. Married in 1882 to Gussie Bailey, of Warrenton, Ga.; one child, Anna S. Fleming. Owns a home.

        Fleming, John William, was born February 14, 1871; converted in 1892; married Miss Lucina Page in 1893; was licensed to exhort December 19, 1895, by Rev. J. W. Dukes, P. E.; appointed to first pastorate 1898 by Rev. R. D. Lewis, P. E.; ordained deacon in 1900 at Tampa, Fla., by Bishop Gaines; ordained elder in 1906 at Gainesville, Fla., by Bishop Tanner; held the following appointments, all in Florida: Mulberry, where he organized the A. M. E. Church, bought a lot and built a church; Worthington Springs, where he bought land and built a church; Hopewell, where he built a parsonage; Okahumpka circuit, where he built a church; Bloomfield; Dutton, one year; Interlachen, where he remained four years, buying a lot in town and building a church; Citra, two years; Gainesville, three years, making much needed improvements to the church, and Ebenezer A. M. E. Church, Live Oak, his present pastorate. Rev. Fleming was a delegate to Centennial General Conference, Philadelphia, May, 1916, and is a trustee of Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla.

        Flipper, Joseph Simeon, 33rd bishop of the A. M. E. Church, the second of five sons of Festus and Isabella (Buckhalter) Flipper, was born February 22, 1859, in Atlanta, Georgia, a slave of Ephraim G. Ponder. In 1867 he attended a missionary school in Bethel A. M. E. church, Atlanta, and Storrs school. In October, 1869, he was numbered among the first students to enter the Atlanta University, where he remained until 1876, when he entered public life, teaching school at Thomaston, Ga. He went to Thomasville, where his parents had gone, in 1877. Here he was converted in March, 1877, and joined St. Thomas A. M. E. church under Rev. S. W. Drayton. In 1877 and 1878 he taught school in Thomas county. In 1879 he was commissioned by Governor Alfred H. Colquitt, captain of the Thomasville Independents, a colored company, forming a part of the State militia. In 1879 he taught school at Groverville, now Key, Brooks County, Georgia. Here he was licensed both as an exhorter and local preacher and recommended by the local church for admission into the Georgia annual conference of the A. M. E. church, and in January, 1880, he was received into the itinerant ministry of the Georgia conference at Americus, Georgia, by Bishop Campbell, and assigned to Groversville circuit; served Boston circuit 1881. He was ordained deacon in January, 1882, by Bishop Dickerson in St. Thomas A. M. E. church, Thomasville, Georgia. Here also he was elected secretary of the Georgia conference, and a trustee of Morris Brown College; was appointed to Darien, Georgia, in 1882. In 1883 he taught school at Cairo and Whigham, Georgia. In January, 1884, he was ordained elder at Valdosta, Georgia, by Bishop Dickerson and appointed to Quitman, Georgia, remaining there until January, 1886, when at the conference at Hawkinsville, Georgia, he was transferred from the Georgia conference to the North Georgia conference by Bishop Shorter, and appointed to Bethel A. M. E. church, Atlanta, the largest church in the State. He was the youngest man that had ever been appointed to so important a charge in the State. His mother had been a member of this church and he had attended its Sunday school when a boy, and in the old church had first learned his alphabet. He remained here four years, the full limit of the law, and raised more dollar money than had ever been raised in any church in the entire State. No other pastor exceeded his record for 25 years. From here he was appointed pastor of Pierce chapel, A. M. E.

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP J. S. FLIPPER, D.D., LL.D.

church, Athens, Georgia, in 1889, and remained three years. In 1892 he was appointed by Bishop Grant, presiding elder of the Athens district. In 1895 he was appointed pastor of St. Paul A. M. E. church, Atlanta, serving four years. In 1903 he was elected dean of the theological department of Morris Brown College and served one year. In 1904 he was elected by the Trustee Board president of Morris Brown College and enrolled the largest number of students in its history. He remained here four years. In 1908 at the general conference held in Norfolk, Virginia, he was elected one of the bishops of the African Methodist Episcopal church and assigned to the ninth episcopal district, consisting of Arkansas and Oklahoma. He traveled very extensively through these two States, going from ten to twenty-five miles from the railroad. In 1912 when the general conference met in Kansas City, Missouri, the delegation from Georgia, his native State, requested that he be sent to preside over Georgia, the sixth episcopal district, which request was granted. Since coming to Georgia he has erected the Flipper Hall, the boys' dormitory at Morris Brown College, the Central Park Normal and Industrial Institute at Savannah, bought ten acres of ground for Payne College at Cuthbert, Georgia, and united all the schools into one system known as Morris Brown University. Bishop Flipper
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received the degree of D.D. from Allen University in 1893 and LL.D. from Wilberforce University in 1906. He has been a member of every general conference since 1892, and was chairman of the Episcopal Committee of the General Conferences of 1900 and 1904. He served as a member of the Financial Board from 1900 to 1908. He was married to Miss Amanda Slater, of Thomasville, Ga., February 24, 1880. One of his sons is a minister, Rev. Carl F. Flipper, a graduate of Shaw University (A. B.), and Drew Theological Seminary (B.D.), and a member of the New Jersey annual conference. Bishop Flipper is a stockholder in the Standard Life Insurance Company, and holds the first policy, for three thousand dollars, issued by the company; a stockholder and director of the Atlanta State savings bank, a stockholder in The Independent of New York City, a member of the Southern Sociological Congress, a member of the National Geographical Society, a trustee of the World's Christian Endeavor, president of the Sunday school Union Board, and prominent in many civic and industrial movements.

        Ford, Rev. Robert E., was born at Washington, D. C., August 13, 1869. He was educated at Howard University, graduating from the Theological Department in 1897. He was converted when but twelve years old. His parents being Baptists, he joined the Vermont Avenue Baptist Church, and at 23 was licensed to preach by Rev. G. W. Lee, the pastor. However,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ROBERT E. FORD.

during his seminary course, he underwent a change of religious views, and joined Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, of which Rev. (now Bishop) J. Albert Johnson, was then pastor.

        Soon after his graduation he was sent to supply Oxford Circuit by Bishop Handy, and served successfully, at the same time marrying Miss E. V. Turner, of Washington County, Md. He entered the Baltimore Conference in 1898, and was ordained deacon in 1899 by Bishop Handy, and elder, 1901, by Bishop Lee.

        He has served with credit the following charges: Oxford Circuit, Pocomoke Station, Fruitland Circuit, Chesapeake Circuit, Carroll Circuit, Elkton and Cecilton Stations, all in the Baltimore Annual Conference. In 1911 Bishop L. J. Coppin appointed him presiding elder of the Baltimore District, and after a year of successful services, he was given charge of the Easton District, which he is now serving.

        Rev. Ford was the first secretary of the Easton District; secretary of the Baltimore District eight years, and the recording secretary of the Baltimore Annual Conference eight years.

        He enjoys the rare distinction of being both artist and poet. The walls of his comfortably furnished home are adorned with his own water color paintings, and he has also published "Brown Chapel," an epic, as well as other verse. He is at present the chairman of the committee on the Fourth Year's Studies in the Baltimore Annual Conference and a delegate to the Centennial General Conference in Philadelphia.

        Foree, Byron W., was born at Crawford, Lowndes County, Mississippi, in 1864, and has lived in West Point, Miss., over forty years. He joined the A. M. E. Church at the age of seventeen years and has been an active member of the same church for more than thirty years. He has been trustee and steward for twenty years and holds the positions of trustee, steward, class leader and superintendent of St. John's A. M. E. Sunday school, West Point, Miss. He is also superintendent of Allen C. E. L., of the North Miss.

[ILLUSTRATION]
BYRON W. FOREE.

Conference, and has been three times elected lay delegate to General Conference, including the Centennial General Conference.

        He received his education in the county and city schools, was prominent in many of the secret orders of Masons, Odd Fellows, Pythians, etc. He is a Republican in politics and has been prominent in the affairs of the party in his State, having filled positions of honor and trust.

        He is also a member of the Board of Trustees of Campbell College at Jackson, Miss., having served in that capacity for six years.

        He is a good citizen and devotes most of his time to the church and the general welfare of his race. He is married and has a prominent family, one of his daughters being a teacher in Campbell College.


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        Forniss, J. H., was born in Alabama November 19, 1883; when quite young was brought to Uniontown, Ala., by his mother, where he received his education in the public schools. In boyhood Mr. Forniss served as an apprentice in a white printing office, known as the "Cane Brake Herald" office. A few years later he decided to establish

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. J. H. FORNISS.

a business of his own, the outcome of which proved quite a success. He is editor of a popular paper, known as the Uniontown News, does job work, handles stationery, and is considered first-class in his profession as a printer. Aside from this Mr. Forniss is an active worker in the church, serving in Quinn Chapel, A. M. E. Church, of Uniontown, Ala., as class leader, trustee, Sunday school superintendent, member of the choir, and Allen League worker. So faithful is he to these duties his church sent him as a representative to the electoral college of his conference, where he was elected as lay delegate to the Centennial General Conference to be held in Philadelphia May, 1916. In the business, moral and educational life of his city he takes much interest, being a taxpayer, and enjoys the respect and confidence of both races.

        Fountain, Dr. William A., now president of Morris Brown University, is the son of Rev. Richard and Virginia Fountain, both of whom were devoted members of the A. M. E. Church. He was born October 29, 1870, at Elberton, Georgia, one of seventeen children. He entered school at the age of six and attended about sixteen years, attending Elberton public school, Morris Brown University, Allen University, Turner Theological Seminary, graduating from each and taking a post-graduate course at Chicago University, and non-resident courses in Central University. He has the following degrees:

        A.B., from Morris Brown; A.M., from Allen University: S.T.B., from Turner Seminary; B.D. and Ph.D., from Central University.

        He was converted April, 1888, and joined Allen Temple A. M. E. Church, Atlanta, Georgia, the same year.

        Has held almost every office in church.

        He was licensed to preach at Elberton, Ga., in 1893, by Rev. (now bishop) J. S. Flipper. He joined the annual conference at Marietta, Georgia, under Bishop Grant; was ordained deacon at Athens, Ga.,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM ALFRED FOUNTAIN.

by Bishop A. Grant; ordained elder at Cedartown, Ga., by Bishop Turner. Has held the following appointments:

        Prendergrass Mission; Athens-Bethel; Washington-Jackson Chapel and Pope's Chapel; Marietta, Ga., Turner Chapel; Atlanta, Ga., Allen Temple; Wilmington, N. C., St. Stephens; Macon, Ga., Steward Chapel; presiding elder of Athens District.

        He is now president of Morris Brown University, Atlanta, Georgia, having been elected to succeed president E. W. Lee, upon his death in 1911. Under his administration the university has greatly prospered. He built Pope's Chapel at Washington, Georgia, at a cost of $20,000; repaired the parsonage at Marietta, Ga., at a cost of $2000; bought lot and beautified church, paid church out of debt at Atlanta, $5000; left $500 to build a Sunday school room for St. Stephens at Wilmington, N. C.; established an Old Folks' Home and built a parsonage at cost of $4000 for Steward Chapel, Macon, Georgia. He has lifted mortgages at Athens, Marietta, Allen Temple and Steward Chapel.

        Dr. Fountain has been a delegate to the following General Conferences:

        Columbus, Ohio, in 1900; Chicago, in 1904; Norfolk, in 1908; Kansas City, in 1912, and the Centennial General Conference at Philadelphia, in 1916.


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        GAINES, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, the son of Stephen and Josephine Gaines. Both members of the A. M. E. Church. Born in Washington, Ga. Was one of nine children. Received about 18 years' schooling. Spent over two years at Knox Institute, Atlanta University, Gammon Seminary. Graduated from Atlanta University and Gammon Seminary. Studied Philosophy at Syracuse University. Converted in 1882 and joined Bethel, Atlanta, 1883. Licensed to preach in 1887 at Madison, Ga., by Rev. C. C. Cargyle. Ordained deacon, 1887, at Dalton, Ga., by Bishop Gaines. Ordained elder, 1889, at Cartersville,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ABRAHAM LINCOLN GAINES.

Ga., by Bishop Gaines. Joined the annual conference, 1887, under Bishop Gaines. He served the following places as pastor:

        Rutledge, Ga., 1887-1889; St. James, Atlanta, Ga., 1889-1892; Norfolk, Va., 1892-96; Portsmouth, Va., 1896-1900; Presiding Elder, 1900-1903; Bethel, Baltimore, 1903-1908; Trinity, Baltimore, 1908-1913; Waters Church, Baltimore, 1913.

        Built church at Rutledge, Ga., at a cost of $3500. Placed a pipe organ in church at Norfolk at a cost of $3000. Built parsonage at Portsmouth, Va., at a cost of $1200; built Old Folks' Home at Baltimore, at a cost of $2200, and repaired Trinity Church at Baltimore to the amount of $3000.

        Rev. Gaines has taken about 2500 people into the church. Has been a delegate to General Conferences in 1896, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916.

        Dr. Gaines was a member of Church Extension Board from 1896 to 1904; of the Sunday School Union Board, from 1904 to 1908; of the Educational Board, 1912 to date. He was fraternal delegate to C. M. E. General Conference and alternate to the Ecumenical Conference. Was voted for for editor of Christian Recorder in 1908 and 1912. Married Miss Minnie Lillian Plant, of Macon, Ga., in 1890. They have four daughters, all of whom are graduates of the Baltimore High School.

        He has contributed to the A. M. E. Review, Christian Recorder and was regular editorial correspondent of the Afro-American Ledger, of Baltimore.

        The principal addresses, made by Rev. Gaines, are "The Negro and the Constitution" and "Negro Revival Methods." He is a director of Virginia Beneficial Insurance Co., is a Mason, Odd Fellow and Pythian.

        Rev. Gaines has been actively associated with the Aged Home of the Baltimore Conference and associated with Afro-American Council N. A. A. of Colored People.

        Gaines, Rev. P. P., the son of Emery and Charlotte Gaines, both of whom are members of the A. M. E. Church, was born March 19, 1866, at Seaford, Del. He was one of eight children. He entered school when quite young and spent more than 12 years in school. He spent over two years in the public schools of Seaford. He has received degrees and diplomas from Morris Brown and the State Sabbath School Association. He was converted in 1887 and joined the A. M. E. Church at the same time. He has held many of the offices in the church.

        He was licensed to preach in 1891 at Union, Phila., by Rev. J. M. Palmer, P. E. He was ordained deacon,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. PAUL PRESTON GAINES.

May, 1895, at Mt. Pisgah, Philadelphia, by Bishop Tanner and was ordained elder, May 22, 1898, at Columbia, Pa., by Bishop Grant.

        He joined the Annual Conference in 1894 at Dover, Del., under Bishop Tanner.

        He has held the following appointments:

        Parkesburg, Pa., 1892; Middletown, Pa., 1895; Frederica, Del., 1896; Dover, Del., 1899; Mt. Friendship, Del., 1900; Lancaster, Pa., 1903; Bristol, Pa., 1907; Norristown, Pa., 1908; Steelton, 1910; Carlisle, 1912; Middletown, Del., 1913; Morris Brown, Philadelphia, Pa., 1915, to date.

        He lifted a mortgage of $245 at Frederica, Del.; at Mt. Friendship he lifted a mortgage of $240, and at Lancaster, Pa., to the amount of $350. He has taken 550 people into the church and baptized about 300 people.

        He is an alternate to the General Conference of 1916. In 1888 he married Mary L. Gaines, of Seaford, Del. He is a Republican and a property owner.


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        Gardner, Prof. Reuben James, is one of the A. M. E. laymen who is prominently allied with the younger business element of Mississippi. He was born to Amos and Adaline Gardner, in humble circumstances, at Wetumpka, Ala., March 30, 1871.

        In the fall of 1875 he moved with his parents to Newtown, Miss. He remained here only a few years, moving subsequently to Phalia, Bolivar Co., Miss.

        In 1886, after having completed the public schools, he entered Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College, at Rodney, Miss. He remained here four consecutive school years. Leaving this institution he matriculated in the Central Tennessee College, Nashville, Tenn., in 1890. In this college Mr. Gardner was the prize winner of his

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. REUBEN JAMES GARDNER.

class for three years. He also won the medal on class exhibit in 1903, at the World's Fair in Chicago, Ill.

        He taught a number of years in the schools of the states of Louisiana, Arkansas and Mississippi. He was a delegate from Mississippi to the National Teachers' Association at its sessions in Atlanta, Ga., and at Nashville, Tenn. He was for a number of years president of the Bolivar Co. (Miss.) Teachers' Association.

        He is a 32 degree Mason, stands high in the council of the Knights of Pythias and as an Odd Fellow has been delegate to the B. M. C. at Richmond, Va., Atlantic City, N. J., Baltimore, Md., and at Boston, Mass.

        He is a member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, where he has taken an active part in religious work. He has been corresponding secretary of the Mississippi State Christian Endeavor League, District Sunday School Superintendent of the Mound Bayou District, delegate to the General Conference at Kansas City, Kans., and is now president of the Mound Bayou District League. He is secretary of the North Mississippi Annual Conference, and delegate to the General Conference which convenes at Philadelphia, May, 1916.

        He is supervisor of the Campbell College farm and a trustee of Campbell College. Mr. Gardner was called to take charge of the Mound Bayou office of the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley Railway April, 1908, as both express and railroad agent. When on account of the volume of business it was necessary to divorce these two offices he was retained in charge of the railroad's interest as local agent. This position he still holds, rendering satisfaction to all concerned.

        Garrett, Casper George, was born near Ova, S. C., in Laurens county, September, 1865. His father, Samuel Garrett, could read and write in slavery time and hence by writing passes and reading war news to the plantation Negroes he was "marked for slaughter" by Morgan raiders, who were whipping and killing the free-feeling slaves in that section. To escape the Morgan marauders he joined Sherman's army, but soon fell a victim to the yellow fever epidemic at Memphis, Tenn. Young Garrett was left to the care of a good mother, who struggled amid the hardships of the homeless and unsettled slaves to make a living for herself and child. Her greatest

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. C. G. GARRETT, A.M., LL.B.

ambition was to educate her son. The washtub, ironing board, the kitchen and the farm were some of the means by which she used to educate him. His first teachers were Northern missionaries who came to Laurens immediately after the war. His mother brought him eight miles to school and finally moved to town to keep him in school. He passed through many hardships and but for the constant coercion of his mother and the encouragement of his teachers, Rev. B. F. McDonell and Dr. I. W. Davis, he would have given up the struggle. In 1883 he passed the county examination and for years taught in the public schools. His pastor, Rev. N. W. Edwards, carried Garrett to Allen University, where for five years he sat at the feet of Prof. J. W. Morris and finished the college and law courses at Allen with honor, passing a creditable examination before the Supreme Court of the State. After four years as principal of the Winnsboro graded school, where he brought the school up to a high standard of efficiency, he was elected in 1895 to a professorship in Allen University, where he is still teaching, and is now vice-president. Prof. Garrett has made the defense and advancement of his school the pride and purpose of his life. He has passed through many hardships for it. Prof. Garrett says Mrs. Garrett
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is the bedrock and guiding star of all his efforts and of every success in his married life. He joined Poplar Spring A. M. E. church in 1884, and has always been a loyal churchman. He has been a delegate to several general conferences and is delegate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916.

        Gibbons, Jethro T., pastor of Young Chapel A. M. E. Church, Huntington, W. Va., was born in St. Johns, Antigua, British West Indies, and was educated in that country in the cathedral school. He later spent a year in the Bishop Payne Divinity School, at Petersburg, Va., after coming to the United States; was licensed to preach by the quarterly conference of Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church, Charleston, S. C., at which time Rev. (now Bishop) W. H. Heard was pastor. For a number of years he pastored in South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia, and is now in West Virginia,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. T. GIBBONS, A.M., D.D.

where he has been for the past 14 years, and by his exemplary character he has built up a large circle of friends. He is now serving his fourth year as pastor in Huntington, where he remodeled the church at a cost of $3500. He taught school in Mercer and McDowell counties for several years, but resigned to devote his whole time to the work of the church. He is at present secretary of the Church Extension Board and of the West Virginia annual conference. Rev. Gibbons has taken an active part in many civic movements since coming to the state, and in 1904 was nominated in Mercer county for member of the House of Delegates. In 1912 he made a race for committeeman-at-large, but was defeated by a small margin. He has been married twice, marrying his present wife, who was Miss Etta A. Gorham, of Raleigh, N. C., an alumna of Shaw University, June 30, 1908. To this union were born three children. He was a member of the general conferences of 1912 and 1916.

        Gibbs, Rev. S. M., was born September 6, 1863, in Jefferson county, Fla., near Monticello, the fourteenth son of Isabella and Toney Gibbs, Sr., both of whom died during his early childhood. He was converted and called to the ministry in his fourteenth year. He attended the Jefferson county public schools and took private lessons. He was licensed to preach in Live Oak, Fla., in Ebenezer A. M. E. church by the Rev. T. C. Dunham. Three months afterwards he went to Mt. Olive circuit, Jefferson county, during the illness of his brother, B. C. Gibbs, then pastor. But he did not continue in the pastorate. In 1882 he was appointed to Kissimmee, Fla., where the uncivilized white people tried to make him dance with pistols and rifles. In 1883 he was sent to Port Orange mission, and built a church and established three preaching points. Next he went to Ormond mission and established the present church. In 1887 he was sent to Torpon Springs mission and built the present edifice. He was next sent to De Leon Springs mission, but after a short time he was transferred to the Florida Conference and stationed at West station, Pensacola, which was burned down during that year. He was ordained elder by Bishop Arnett in 1888 in Quincy, Fla., and appointed to Mt. Olive and Jerusalem circuit, and built a church at Jerusalem. He was then sent to Gum Swamp circuit and remodeled St. Paul church and completed Greensville. He next went to Bethlehem station, Jackson county. He held here as at all other places a great revival. In 1893 he was sent to Waldon county circuit, where he did a great work, both temporally and spiritually. In 1895 he returned to the East Florida Conference and went to South Jacksonville. In 1896 and 1897 to Columbia county, at Bethel and Hope Henry circuit, where he rebuilt Bethel church; in 1898 to Mt. Moriah, Brooklyn, Jacksonville; in 1899 to Mt. Zion station, Madison, Fla.; in 1900-01 to Jasper station; in 1902 he was transferred and stationed at Leesburg, Fla.; in 1903 to Dunnellon station, where he bought and paid for the foundation of the present edifice; in 1904 at Newberry and Jonesville mission, buying back the property at Newberry; in 1905 to Kindreck station, where he remodeled the church.

        Dr. Gibbs taught public school in Hillsborough and Walton counties. He has been honored to membership four consecutive times in the general conferences, being leader once. In 1906 he was appointed presiding elder of the Dunnellon district, and led his conference financially for four years. Thence, in 1910, he was appointed to the St. Petersburg district, where he served four years, leading again financially. He was then assigned to the Ocala district in 1914, where he now presides on his second year. He presided as G. M. of the M. W. Prince Hall Grand Lodge, F. and A. M., of Florida and jurisdiction for two years, refusing further election. He was elected G. R. P. of the Order Eastern Star of Royal Grand Chapter, and is now serving his second term.

        Gould, Rev. Theodore, son of Elijah and Hannah Gould, was born in Bridgeton, N. J., August 12th, 1830, united with the A. M. E. church, November, 1847, was licensed to exhort in 1851, licensed to preach in 1853, ordained deacon at Philadelphia by Bishop William Paul Quinn in 1859, ordained elder in 1862. His first appointment was in 1859. He served Danville circuit, comprising Danville, Pa.; Bloomsburg, Wilkes-Barre, Abington Centre and Mount Rose, 1 year; Princeton, N. J., circuit, 3 years; Burlington, N. J., circuit, 3 years; Zion mission, Philadelphia, 1 year; traveling agent for the Book Concern, and pastor of Macedonia, Camden, N. J., 1 year; Brooklyn, N. Y., 3 years; Union, Philadelphia, 2 years; Bethel, Philadelphia, 2 years, during which time Allen A. M. E. church was organized and property purchased for it at a cost of $8000; Harrisburg, Pa., 1 year; Allen, Philadelphia, 1 year; Chester, Pa., 2 years; Allen, Philadelphia, 1 year; manager of Book Concern, elected at St. Louis, 1880, four years; Harrisburg, 1 year; Mt. Pisgah,


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Philadelphia, 2 years; Charles Street, Boston, 3 years; Bethel, New York, 2 years; West Chester, Pa., 2 years; Frankford, Pa., 1 year; Bethel, Philadelphia, 1 year; Zion, Philadelphia, 2 years; presiding elder, Philadelphia district, 5 years; Union Bethel, Brooklyn, 1 year; Darby, Pa., 2 years; presiding elder Philadelphia district, 2 years. May, 1910, at the request of Bishop Gaines, he accepted superannuation. Rev. Gould was twice married, living 58 years with his first wife, who died in 1913, and

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. THEODORE GOULD.

marrying his brother's widow in 1915. His son, Mr. Howard D. Gould, has worked in the Book Concern for over thirty years and for many years was foreman. Rev. Gould has been for many years treasurer of the Philadelphia annual conference. He now spends most of his time near the scene of his birth, among hosts of relatives at Gouldtown, N. J., where he has property interests. During his more than fifty years of active service he has taken many thousands of persons into the church.

        Graham, D. A., the son of Washington and Lucy Graham, was born in Princeton, Ind., January 11th, 1861. He was the first colored graduate of the high school of his native city, completing the course in 1880 with the second honors of his class, all of whom were white but himself.

        He was admitted to the Indiana Conference at New Albany, Ind., in September, 1882, Bishop James A. Shorter presiding; ordained deacon the next year in Allen Chapel, Indianapolis, by the same bishop, and elder at Terre Haute, Ind., in 1885 by Bishop Jabez P. Campbell. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him, unsolicited, by Paul Quinn College in 1901.

        Since joining the conference he has successfully pastored the following points: Washington, Ind., where he built a brick church; Bloomington and Greencastle, Ind.; Flint and Kalamazoo, Mich. (building and paying for a six-room parsonage at Flint); St. Peter, Minneapolis; Bethel, Chicago; Bethel, Indianapolis; St. James, New Orleans; Bethel, Detroit; Salem, Nashville; Clarksville, Tenn., and is now (1914) meeting with great success at Payne Chapel, Colorado Springs.

        At New Orleans he rebuilt the old historic St. James and gave us a modern church of great beauty.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. D. A. GRAHAM, D.D.

        While holding up all the interests of the church, his forte is along spiritual lines and great revivals are most sure to accompany his pastorate. More than twelve

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. D. A. GRAHAM.

hundred were received into the church during his four years at Bethel, Chicago.

        The first Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor in the A. M. E. Church was organized by him in Washington, Ind., in May, 1882. The prayer meeting


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pledge was almost identical with that of the society organized by Francis Clark in Portland, Maine, in February of the same year, though our subject had not heard of Clark's Society. He was on the program of the international convention of the Y. P. S. C. E. in Minneapolis in 1891. He wrote the pledge and constitution of the Allen C. E. League, which was submitted by Bishop Smith to the Bishop's Council at Mobile in January, 1904, endorsed by the same and adopted by the General Conference at Chicago, May, 1904.

        He has been married twice. His first wife, Lorena Mason Graham, died in Chicago, June 19th, 1894. In November, 1905, he was married to Elizabeth Etta Bell, an accomplished young lady, in St. Paul, Minn., who has proven a valuable helpmeet to him and a great leader among the women of the church. He has an interesting family of five children.

        Graham, Noah Z., was born in Jefferson County, Fla., May 31, 1877, one of the eight children of Noah and Parthenia Graham, members of the A. M. E. Church. His schooling of ten years' duration was acquired in the public school and by correspondence courses; at Paine School; besides this he has tutored

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. NOAH Z. GRAHAM.

himself privately. He was converted in Florida in 1895, joining the A. M. E. Church, and has held nearly every office in the local church. He was licensed to preach by Rev. C. F. Brown in 1896, and was ordained deacon at Tallahassee, Fla., in 1905 by Bishop Tanner, and elder at Marianna in 1908 by Bishop Tanner. He joined the annual conference at Monticello, Fla., in 1900, Bishop Handy presiding. He has held the following appointments: Birds Mission, 1904; Branch Mission, 1905; St. Andrew circuit, 1906-1907; Ponce de Leon, 1908-1909; Milton, 1910; DeFuniak Springs, 1911-12; Chattahoochee circuit, 1913; Marianna, 1914-5. In 1905 he built a church at Buckhorn at a cost of $150; in 1907 at St. Andrews at a cost of $1200; in 1910 at Milton at a cost of $2000. In 1911 he lifted a mortgage of $276.86 on St. Joseph Church, DeFuniak Springs. Rev. Graham has received 500 people into the church, baptized 168 and married 98. He was a delegate to the general conference of 1912. His wife, Mrs. Mary J. Graham, he married in Florida in 1898. They have two children, Noah W., aged 17, and John L., aged 13. Rev. Graham has made, addresses on many different church occasions, among them the precentennial educational rally of Florida in 1915. He is a home owner and prominent in Masonry.

        Grant, John H., only child of John H. and Polly C. Grant, his mother a member of the A. M. E. Church, was born December 11, 1865, in Frankfort, Ky. He entered school at the age of six and spent 17 years in school, attending chiefly Samuels Grammar School, Miami University,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN HENRY GRANT, D.D.

Findley College and Lane College. He received the degree of D.D. from Shorter College, B.D. from Findley College, and LL.B. from Lane College. He was converted March, 1889, and joined A. M. E. church the same year. He has held offices of steward and class leader. He was licensed to preach 1889 at Frankfort, Ky., by George H. Burks; joined the Mississippi Annual Conference December, 1892, under Bishop Arnett, and was ordained deacon at the same conference at Port Gibson, Miss. Ordained elder 1894 at Springfield, Ohio, by Bishop Arnett.

        He has held the following appointments: Raymond, Summit and Kessiesco, all of Mississippi; in Ohio, London, Oxford, Lebanon, Findley and Toledo; Wilkes-Barre, Pa.; Jackson, Tenn.; St. James, Avery Chapel and Bethel, of Memphis, Tenn. He is now Presiding Elder of the Memphis District of Western Tennessee.

        He has lifted mortgages on the following churches: Bethel, Raymond, Miss., to the amount of $700 in 1892; at Summit, Miss., to the amount of $300 in 1893; at London, Ohio, to the amount of $500 in 1895; at Oxford, Ohio, to the amount of $1,000 in 1896; Avery Chapel, Memphis, to the amount of $6,585 in 1903-05; Bethel, Memphis, to the amount of $1200 in 1907-09.


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        Dr. Grant has taken about 2400 people into the church, baptized 683 and married 203. Was delegate to General Conferences in 1908 and 1912, at both of which he was voted for for business manager of the Book Concern. He married Miss Elizabeth Grant, of Paris, Ky., first; then Mary Low Kirk, of Memphis, Tenn., in 1904. Had two children, Benjamin A. and Roscoe Conkling, by his first wife, and three children, John H., 8 years; Marguerite, 5 years; Dewitt Cromwell, 2 years, by his second wife. He has contributed to the several Recorders, Commercial Appeal, Memphis, and Voice of the People, Atlanta. Has written the following pamphlets: "Defense of the Negro" and "The Way to Make Places for Our Young People."

        Grantt, Miss C. A. R., spent her earliest life at Chapel Hill, Washington County, Texas. Afterwards her parents moved to Bryan, Texas, where she attended private school and the Bryan City school.

        She became a member of Allen Chapel A. M. E. Sunday school at Bryan and since then has creditably filled every office in the school.

        About the age of 15 years she professed Christ, and became a member of the church. Her pastors always found her a vigilant worker, regardless of reward.

        Being an expert needle-worker she won a number of first and second premiums from different state and local fairs. She was a member of the Ladies' Advisory

[ILLUSTRATION]
MISS C. A. R. GRANTT, B.S.

Board of the Colored Department of the Texas State Fair and Dallas Exposition. She has been a delegate a number of times for the Sunday school, church and fraternities; also served as deputy and grand officer of Court of Calanthe. Besides being a member of Allen Chapel A. M. E. Church, Bryan, Texas, she is identified with Olive Temple (S. M. T.), No. 13; Harmony Court (Calanthe), No. 20, and an insurance company.

        In 1899 she won a scholarship and entered Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas. In January, 1900, she was compelled to be absent three months to teach public school, but on her return she passed the examinations, and in 1902 graduated with her class, in which were four members, each representing one of the four Annual Conferences of Texas.

        She returned home June, 1902, greatly inspired, but lost her mother, who died April 23, 1903.

        Miss Grantt was elected president of the Conference Branch of Women's Mite Missionary Society of the Texas Conference, and as such she travelled, lectured and organized societies for four years.

        September 3, 1907, her brother died at St. Louis, Mo., and she resigned the presidency of the Missionary Work and went to Oklahoma to teach school. She taught five terms in Platter, Oklahoma, and held important offices in the State Teachers' Association of Oklahoma. In the summer and fall of 1914 she made a three months' tour in the north and east, visiting most of the leading cities from New York to St. Louis, and the tomb of Richard Allen in Mother Bethel, Philadelphia.

        Gray, Anderson Plummer, was born in Davidson County, Tenn., in 1868, the son of Alfred and Mary Jane Gray, both members of the A. M. E. Church. He was one of eleven children. He began attending school in 1876 and remained in school about sixteen years. He attended the Nashville Public Schools and

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ANDERSON PLUMMER GRAY, D.D.

graduated from Walden University. He received the Degree D.D. from Morris Brown College. He was converted in 1886 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held nearly every office in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1886 by Rev. J. W. Early. He was ordained deacon in 1893 at Chattanooga by Bishop Salter and ordained elder by Bishop Salter in 1895 at Nashville. He joined the Annual Conference in 1891 at Fayetteville, Tenn., under Bishop Wayman.

        He has held the following appointments: Portland Mission, 1891; N. Nashville Mission, 1892; Riddleton Ct., 1893; Gallatin Ct., 1896; Huntland Ct., 1897; McMinnville Sta., 1898; Ebenezer Sta., 1899; Hartsville Cir., 1902; Pulaski Sta., 1903; Mt. Pleasant Sta., 1907; Canaan Sta., 1908; Bellbuckle Sta., 1910;


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P. E., 1911. He built a church at McMinnville at a cost of $650 in 1898. He lifted the mortgages on Jones' Chapel at Mt. Pleasant to the amount of $275 in 1907 and Campbell Chapel at Pulaski to the amount of $680 in 1903. He has taken about 800 people into the church, baptized about 475 and married about 60 couples. He was delegate to the General Conferences of 1908, 1912 and 1916. He was a member of the Western Recorder Board 1908-12 and Sunday School Union 1912-16.

        He was a Trustee of Wilberforce in 1912, Turner College 1897 to date, Treasurer of Tennessee Annual Conference 1912-15. He married Mrs. Sarah Gray, of Davidson County, June 17, 1885. He has contributed to A. M. E. Recorders, Voice of Missions, Sunday School Monitor. He is connected with the F. and A. M., K. of P., G. U. O. of O. F. He is a member of the Republican Party and has attended several State Conventions. He owns a home. He has been associated with the Nashville Negro Board of Trade. He is a natural leader.

        Greene, Sherman Lawrence, was born near Vicksburg, Mississippi, June 15, 1880. His father, Rev. Henry Greene, was an itinerant African Methodist preacher, and his mother, Mrs. Delia Greene, was a devout Christian of the same denomination. There were seven sons, two of whom became preachers in the African Methodist Episcopal Church.

        After spending several years in the public schools of the County Sherman Lawrence was sent to Alcorn

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. L. GREENE, A.M., D.D.

College, where he completed the sophomore year of the scientific course. He then taught school in Arkansas and Mississippi until 1904 when he was admitted to the South Arkansas Annual Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. During this period he was married to Miss Pinkie B. Spencer, of Lacey, Arkansas, and two fine children have been born of this happy union, Sherman Lawrence, Jr., and Lillian Verneeda.

        The first two years of his ministry he built two fine churches, costing over fifteen hundred dollars each, at Sherril and Tucker, Arkansas. He thereafter pastored at Ains, Wilmar, Little Rock and Forrest City, when he was transferred to the North Louisiana Conference and appointed to St. Matthew Station, Shreveport, La., where he paid the mortgage debt of our church in one year, and was appointed presiding elder of the Monroe District, by Bishop J. M. Conner, and elected president of Hampton College in 1914. In 1915 he was appointed presiding elder of the Greenville, Miss., District and in 1916 pastor of St. James, New Orleans, La.

        He has studied in Howard and Wilberforce Universities and is a graduate (regular course) of the Theological Department of Shorter College.

        Dr. Greene is of the vigorous and aggressive type, a church builder, organizer and financier. He is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference, representing the North Mississippi Annual Conference.

        Gregg, Rev. John A., president of Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla., was born in Eureka, Kans., February 18, 1877. He attended the public schools of that city, graduating from the high school in 1896. He then attended the Southern Kansas Academy, graduating from the scientific department of that institution in 1897.

        In the fall of 1897 he went to Lawrence, Kans., and entered Kansas State University. In June of 1898, when Kansas was calling for volunteers to go into

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN A. GREGG, B.A., D.D.

service in the Spanish-American War, Rev. Gregg, with a number of Lawrence young men, was among the first to enlist. His regiment was sent to Santiago, Cuba, where, as quartermaster-sergeant of his company, he served during the war. On being mustered out, he re-entered school and remained until his graduation, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in the spring of 1902. He has the distinction of making a high record and of being the only Negro in a class of 215.

        Rev. Gregg received his license to preach in 1899, and during his university career, served as chorister, Sunday school superintendent and local preacher in St. Luke A. M. E. Church at Lawrence, Kans. Born in the church and being received into full membership at the early age of twelve, he has been actively engaged in church work since that time.


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        At the close of his first year as a school teacher, Bishop Shaffer sent him to pastor our church at Emporia, Kans. From this charge he went as a missionary to South Africa, where he served two and a half years. On his return from Africa Bishop Grant sent Rev. Gregg to Leavenworth, Kans., and from that point to St. Joseph, Mo., where he served five years. From St. Joseph, Mo., Rev. Gregg was called to the presidency of Edward Waters College, and it is said that the school has done better under his guidance than at any time during its history.

        Rev. Gregg was ordained a deacon in 1903 and an elder in 1906. Wilberforce University honored him with the degree of Doctor of Divinity in June, 1915. He has traveled much, having been in 32 of our own states, on the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and in Europe and Africa.

        Rev. Gregg was married to Miss Celia Ann Nelson, of Lawrence, Kans., August 21, 1900. Mrs. Gregg, who is an educated woman, has been a great inspiration to her husband in all his endeavors. She went with him to Africa, has been his help-meet indeed in his pastorate and with an ever-ready encouragement, has meant much to him in his progress in the church of Allen.

        Green, Charles Henry, was born at Newark, New Castle county, Delaware, November 13, 1834. His parents had four other children. He never enjoyed any schooling; was converted and joined the church in November, 1853; served as steward, trustee, class leader, local preacher and Sunday school teacher. In 1863 he was licensed to preach in Syracuse, N. Y. In

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. CHARLES HENRY GREEN.

1875 in New York City he was ordained deacon by Bishop Shorter. Bishop Daniel A. Payne ordained him elder at Bethel church, Philadelphia, Pa., May, 1878. He joined the annual conference under Bishop Shorter at Binghamton, N. Y., in 1874. He has held the following appointments: Rochester, N. Y., 1872-4; Jamaica, N. Y., 1874-5; Glen Cove, N. Y., 1876; Friendship circuit, Del., 1877; Smyrna, Del., 1878; Reading, Pa., 1879-80; Burlington, N. J., 1881-2; Long Branch, N. J., 1885-87; East Camden circuit, N. J., 1888; presiding elder, Newark district, New Jersey conference, 1889; Fairhaven, N. J., 1890; Bethel, So. Camden, N. J., 1891; Orange, N. J., 1882; Rahway, N. J., 1893-4; Woodbury, N. J., 1895; Swedesboro, N. J., 1896; Washington, N. J., 1897-99; Hightstown, 1900; Pleasantville, N. J., 1901; Middlebush circuit, 1902; Elizabeth, N. J., 1903-5; Beverly, N. J., 1906; Yorktown, N. J., 1907; Crosswicks, N. J., 1908-10; New Jersey conference missionary, 1911-15. He served as agent for Paul Quinn College 1883-4. In 1877 Rev. Green built a church at Blanco, Del., at a cost of $800, and one at Carrolton, Del., the same year at a cost of $300. He has raised the following mortgages: Smyrna, Del., $3000; Bethel, Reading, Pa., $1356.25; Bethel, Burlington, N. J., $300; Trinity, Long Branch, N. J., $800. His wife, Catherine Grace Green, whose home was in Maryland, he married in November, 1854. The following children have blessed their union: Mary, Francis, Oliver A., Albert L., and John H.

        Gullins, William Richard, the seventh son of Rev. John and Catherine Gullins, was born in Eatonton, Georgia, June 9, 1864. His father, a minister and a wealthy cotton planter, hired private teachers from the North, under whom William made rapid progress. When sixteen he prepared a manuscript for publication on "The History of the Treatment of Negro Slaves in the South." He was licensed to exhort May, 1884, and to preach September, 1884, by Rev. S. H. Robertson, at Eatonton, Ga. In November, 1884, he was admitted to the Macon, Georgia, Annual Conference under Bishop Shorter, was ordained

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. R. GULLINS, D.D.

deacon by Bishop Shorter at Barnesville, Ga., November, 1886, and elder by Bishop Gaines at Americus, Ga., November, 1888. He served Louisville (Ga.) circuit 2 years, having to walk 46 miles. Next he served Bastow 2 years, then Perry 2 years, and Powersville and Milledgeville, teaching in each of these places as well as acting as pastor. In 1892 he was appointed to Danville, Va., where he filled the church, raised $4,000 in eighteen months and paid the church debt; in 1894 he was at Roanoke, paid $2000 on debt; 1895-7, at Richmond, paid balance on the mortgage; 1897 at Farmville. He then served a second term in Richmond, then in
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Smithfield and Berkly, Va., transferred to Philadelphia and served five years at Steelton, Pa., building a large stone and brick church. He then spent 3 years at Germantown, Pa.; 2 years at Princeton, N. J.; 2 years at Providence, R. I.; 1 year at Washington, D. C., and is now pastor at the First church in Raleigh, N. C. He was married twice, his first wife being Miss Queen Emma Hardy, of Georgia, whom he married June, 1882, and who died October, 1897. Her son, Rev. W. R. Gullins, Jr., is a member of the Philadelphia Annual Conference. Rev. Gullins, Sr., had the degree of D.D. conferred upon him in 1901 by Kittrell College. He is a forceful speaker, a stenographer, bookkeeper and hard worker.

        Gunby, Noah, was born in Pocomoke City, Worcester county, Maryland, August 11, 1875, the seventh son of Henry and Amelia Gunby, who were among the first agitators for the A. M. E. Church in that community, having helped to hew the sills of which the first church was built. His first employment was as house boy, during which time he was permitted to attend the public school, very soon winning for himself a good name in the community for industry and honest work. He was converted in 1903 and joined the church under the admnistration of Rev. C. E. Herbert, at which time he was made a trustee and has served in this capacity up to the present. From a business standpoint he ranks well among the merchants of his city, having conducted a bicycle establishment for the past 15 years. The local church has been represented by him at the district and annual conferences, and while a delegate at the electoral college, he was elected a delegate to the Centennial General

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. NOAH GUNBY.

Conference. He is also trustee of the public school of Pocomoke City and member of the G. U. O. of Odd Fellows, A. F. and A. M., and a loyal churchman.

        HADLEY, JAMES A., was born in Thomasville, Ga., March 8, 1867, the son of Spencer and Fannie Hadley. His father purchased his freedom before the Civil War and his mother was never a slave. At an early age he entered the common schools of his native city and remained through the grades. He was converted and joined St. Thomas

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. A. HADLEY, D.D.

A. M. E. Church on March 28, 1884, entered the ministry January, 1886, under Bishop Shorter. He is a hard student and an untiring worker for his church and race. He is a graduate of Turner Theological Seminary, a member of the executive and general board

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. FLORENCE L. HADLEY.

of trustees of Morris Brown College; a trustee of the University System of Georgia; a trustee of Wilberforce
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University. The faculty and board of trustees of his alma mater honored him with the degree of D.D. He has been a member of the general conference for five consecutive times and served on important committees. He is now a member of the Sunday School Union Board, Nashville, Tenn., and a stockholder and member of the board of directors of the Washington Drug Co., Waycross, Ga. He has served the following appointments: Scotland, Ga.; Cochran, Ga.; Powersville, Ga.; Milledgeville, Ga.; Swainsboro, Ga.; McIntosh, Ga.; Brunswick, Ga.; Waycross, Ga.; St. James, Savannah, Ga.; Marietta, Ga. From this point he was made presiding elder over the Washington district, where he remained for five years. He is now serving his fifth year on the Atlanta district. Filling both ranks as pastor and presiding elder, he is tactful and methodical and has never failed in his work. In 1889 he married Miss Florence L. Quo, a highly cultured and refined daughter of John W. Quo, Valdosta, Ga.; from which union four children were born. She, like her husband, is fully imbued with the "spirit of missions" and has rendered her husband an immeasurable amount of help, both in the charges and state and connectional work. Dr. Hadley occupies an important place in the hearts of the brethren and his church.

        Hadley, Florence L., wife of Rev. J. A. Hadley, D.D., is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John W. Quo, was born in Valdosta, Ga. She was reared under religious influences and early in life was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church. As long as she can remember she has been identified with the Sunday school and has been an ardent worker. She was educated in the public schools of Valdosta and in Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga. She spent several years as a successful teacher among her people, her intellectual fitness having always been conceded to be of a very high order. She is an earnest and able missionary worker and has been identified with the Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society in many capacities from president of a local society up to that of an officer in the connectional society. She was the first general secretary of that organization and filled the office with credit to herself and church. she has contributed many articles to the church periodicals and other papers and is a writer of ability. She keeps in close touch with all matters pertaining to missionary work. She was appointed a delegate to the world's missionary conference in Edinburgh, Scotland, June, 1910, by the Parent Home and Foreign Missionary Board of the A. M. E. Church, New York City, N. Y.

        Hair, Rev. J. W., was born in Sumter county, Alabama, April 7, 1874, of slave parents. His father, Ned Hair, who was born in North Carolina, was well educated, and was a power in politics in those days. His mother, Hester Hair, was born in South Carolina, and was a great lover of education. In his early boyhood days young Hair showed signs of leadership. His parents immigrated to the Mississippi "Bottoms" in November, 1881, and settled in Swedes, Sharkey county. In 1883 his parents moved to Hinds county and settled in Edwards, Miss. In 1884 his parents registered him in the public school of Hinds county, Miss. In 1887 his parents returned to the Delta and settled at Rolling Fork, Sharkey county. He entered the public schools of this county and town and won the reputation of being the most brilliant student in school. His parents were poor, but his mother would not consent for him to lose a day in school unless absolutely necessary. She washed and ironed to keep him in school and supply him with books. In 1889 he was converted and became teacher in the Sunday school in New Hope A. M. E. church, Rolling Fork. In 1890 he finished the county public schools. His parents not being able to send him off to school and having a desire to finish his education, he hired out for $10 a month and four pounds of meat and a pack of meal. In 1892 he took the examination and made the second grade and began teaching in Sharkey county. In 1893 he matriculated at Alcorn A. and M. College, where he completed his education. He was a public school teacher for fifteen years and was an exempt teacher in the State. He finished the correspondence course of theology from Morris Brown College and regular course at Campbell College in 1913.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. W. HAIR, D.D.

He was also under private instructions of the Episcopal rector at Indianola, Miss. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Campbell College, Jackson, Miss. He was licensed to exhort 1895 and to preach in 1898; was district superintendent of Sunday schools in 1897 and 1898; admitted to conference in 1899; ordained deacon 1901; ordained elder in 1903. First charge Indianola in 1901 and served it five years. Then to Yazoo City in 1906 and served one year and paid an indebtedness of $600 and added 84 members to the church and reported $120 of dollar money. From Yazoo City he was appointed to Jackson, Miss., to save the church. He reduced the debt from $5000 in five years to $1400, and kept up the interest and current expenses of the same, and increased the membership from 135 to 350 in five years. He reported dollar money in the five years to the amount of $1025. At Indianola mission he found five members. The first year he built a church at a cost of $2500; paid it out of debt in five years; reported more than $400 dollar money and increased the membership from 5 to 120, and left it a first-class station. He was appointed presiding
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elder of Jackson district in 1913, where he is serving at present. He was a delegate to the general conference of 1912 and was elected chairman of the delegation of the eighth episcopal district. He is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference, and was elected the leader of the delegation of the East Mississippi conference by unanimous vote.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. JOHN W. HALE.

        Hale, Jno. W., superintendent of the First A. M. E. Sunday school, of Los Angeles, Cal., was born in Henderson, Rusk county, Texas, April 4, 1873, graduated from Prairie View Normal and Industrial School in 1900, came to California in 1902, and for the past ten years has had charge of the above-named Sunday school, which is the largest colored one on the Pacific coast.

        Hall, Abraham Thomson, was born near Mifflinton, Pa., January 17, 1822, the third of four sons of John and Mary Hall, pioneer settlers in that region. His early life was the usual round of chores, work, in the clearing, cropping and winter schooling. While in his 'teens he was apprenticed to a barber in Lewiston, Pa., and it was there that he gained his first vision of the larger horizon which awaited him. He worked his way west in 1841 by canal and portage to Pittsburgh, thence on foot to Erie, Pa., where he remained three years, and in the home of one Alexander Simms organized the A. M. E. church with 21 members. In the summer of 1845 he went by boat to Chicago. Here he decided to locate, began business as a barber, met with Madison Patterson, a local A. M. E. preacher; John Day and four others, and in October of that year began to hold prayer and praise meetings from house to house. Here, too, in 1846, he met, loved, wooed and was married to Joanna Huss, the sixteen-year-old daughter of Mrs. Adelphia Stewart, who until her death December, 1890, was his devoted life partner. In 1847 Philip Ward, a traveling A. M. E. preacher, arrived in Chicago, met Hall and his little band of praying people, and organized them into Quinn chapel, which has become one of the largest A. M. E. congregations in the country, and Abraham T. Hall was its first steward, class leader and trustee. From 1848 to 1850 he conducted meetings as an exhorter, when he was given license to preach, the first man of Negro origin in Chicago to be given such authority, and at the A. M. E. conference, held that year, Bishop Paul Quinn ordained Hall a local deacon.

        In 1852 he was a local delegate to the general conference held in New York City, and on returning to Chicago, as chairman of the Building Committee, under the pastorate of Rev. John A. Warren, he superintended the erection of a capacious house of worship and a parsonage

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ABRAM T. HALL.

at the corner of Jackson and Buffalo streets, which, until the big fire of 1871, was pointed to with pride by bishops, clergy, laity and members of the race all over the country.

        Joining the Indiana Conference in 1856 Bishop Payne ordained him an elder and started him at work in what was then called "The Blue River Circuit"--a round of churches in Indiana, where the people were "long on hog and hominy, but very short on the circulating medium." Undaunted, Rev. Hall stuck to his post, doing his work well, and was consequently sent to larger and more important stations. He took a prominent part in the formation of both the Illinois and the Iowa conferences; was hailed as "The Father" of the former, and pastored at various times most of their important stations, including Chicago. In 1866 he moved his large and growing family to Batavia, Ill., where, twenty years ago, he retired from the active ministry to spend the evening of his life amid such scenes as his youth had cherished, and here, having outlived all his compeers, in 1916, aged and spent in the Master's service, with all his mental faculties well preserved, and still keenly alive to current events, he awaits the summons "Come home." His son, Abram T. Hall, Jr., has been connected for many years with the treasury department of Pittsburgh, Pa., while another son, Charles E. Hall, is connected with the U. S. Census Bureau, at Washington.

        Hall, Jackson Thomas, son of Anthony and Harriet Hall, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born April 16, 1869, at Brooks Co., Ga. His parents


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had two other children. He began attending school when six years of age and attended about 10 years in all, receiving his education from Grovesville public schools and Morris Brown College, receiving the degree of D.D. from the latter. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1895, and has held nearly every office in the local church. He was licensed to preach 1895 at Groverville, Ga., by Dr. W. O. P. Sherman; joined the annual conference in 1896 at Bainbridge, Ga., under Bishop Turner, who ordained him deacon in 1897 at Waycross, Ga., and elder in 1899 at St. John, Columbus, Ga. He has held the following appointments, all in Georgia: Faulstown, 1896-98; Donalsville, 1899-1900; Thomasville, 1901; Cairo, 1902; Americus, 1903; Talbotton, 1904-5; Columbus, 1906-8; Thomasville, 1909-11; Americus, 1912-15; Steward, Macon, 1916. He built churches at Faulstown, $800, in 1897; church and parsonage at Iron City, $2500, in 1899; bought lot at Thomasville, $50, in 1901; built parsonage at Cairo, $800, in 1902.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. T. HALL, D.D.

He has taken about 2000 into the church and baptized about 1200 people. He was a delegate to the general conferences of 1908, 1912 and of 1916. His first wife was Mrs. Mary Jane Hall, of Groverville, Ga., whom he married November 18, 1889. His present wife is Mrs. Josie W. Hall, of Albany, Ga., whom he married February 14, 1912. He has six children: James, Alfred, Harriet, Jackson, Thomas, Jr., Rosetta and Rachel. Jackson, Thomas, Jr., and Harriet Hall are graduates of McKay Hill School and Allen Normal, respectively. He has contributed to the connectional church papers and is editor of his local church paper. He delivered the emancipation address at Columbus, Ga., 1906, addressed the literary society of Payne College, 1907; the baccalaureate sermon at Morris Brown University, 1914. He is connected with the F. and A. M., K. of P., G. U. O. of O. F., Supreme Circle of Benevolence, Court of Calanthe, Sons and Daughters of Conference. He has been a member of the executive board of Morris Brown, member of the Supreme Cabinet and chancellor commander in K. of P. He owns several pieces of real estate, and is a member of the Church Extension Board.

        Hall, Daniel H., a prominent layman, an official of Warren chapel, A. M. E. church, Chattanooga, Tenn., and lay delegate to the general conference, 1912-1916.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
DANIEL H. HALL.

        Hall, James William, son of James and Mary Hall, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born January 20, 1867, in Trousdale Co., Tenn., one of 13 children. He began attending school at the age of 7 years; received his education at Steward's Industrial Academy, State University, Louisville, Ky., and graduated from the State College. He was converted November 2, 1882, and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1883. He was licensed to preach in 1888 at Lafayette, Tenn., by Rev. J. L. Jackson; joined the annual conference

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. W. HALL, D.D.

in 1893 at Chattanooga, Tenn., under Bishop Salter, who ordained him deacon in 1895 at Nashville, Tenn., and elder 1897 at Columbia, Tenn. He has held the following appointments: Lafayette Ct., 1891-93; district missionary, 1894; Gallatin, 1895; evangelist, W. Ky. conference, 1897-99; Asbury, Louisville, Ky., 1899-1901; St. Peter, Harrodsburg, Ky., 1901-3; presiding elder, Bowling Green district, W. Ky., 1903-1908;
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Louisville district, 1908-13; Burks Chapel, Paducah, Ky., 1913-16. He built a church at Lafayette, Tenn., at a cost of $1000 in 1892. He has taken about 2000 into the church and baptized about 500. He was delegate to the general conferences of 1908, 1912 and 1916, leading his delegation in 1916. He was vice-president of Wayman Institute and teacher, 1901-03. He was secretary of the W. Kentucky conference in 1900, chairman of finance committee of W. Kentucky conference in 1903-15. His wife is Mrs. Henrietta Hall, of Franklin, Ky., whom he married in 1896. He has contributed to the several Recorders and A. M. E. Review. He has written "Plain Talk on Church Entertainment," "Paul's Thorn in the Flesh," "Divine and Human Baptism." He is a Republican and a home owner.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP JAMES A. HANDY, D.D.

        Handy, James Anderson, 22nd bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Baltimore, Md., December 22, 1826, son of Ishmael and Nancy Handy, his father a slave and mother a free person. His mother died when he was six years old. He attended school only three months in his life, but was an ardent student all of his long life; attended Bethel Sunday School at 5 years of age; was baptized April, 1833; joined the church in 1852 and held every office in it except exhorter; was licensed to preach in 1860 by Rev. J. M. Brown; began traveling in 1861; was ordained deacon in 1864 and elder in 1865; served Baltimore County circuit; Union Bethel, Washington (three times); Emanuel, Portsmouth, Va.; St. Stephens, Wilmington, N. C.; Israel, Washington; Ebenezer, Baltimore; St. James, New Orleans; Bethel, Baltimore; presiding elder Baltimore district; presiding elder Potomac district; missionary secretary (1868-1872); financial secretary, 1888-1892; bishop, 1892-1911. He died October, 1911, and is buried at Baltimore. His widow, Mrs. Mary F. Handy survives him.

        Handy, Mrs. Mary F., was born in Baltimore, Md., daughter of John and Matilda Nichols. She secured her early training under Miss Mary F. Harding, a private school teacher in East Baltimore. Her early religious training was secured at Waters A. M. E. and Asbury M. E. Sunday Schools. Her mother died when she was sixteen years old. At the age of seventeen, she left Baltimore for New Jersey, where she took up the trade of tailoring; locating later in Philadelphia she met Dr. S. Clark Frisby, to whom she was happily married, the ceremony being performed by Rev. Henry L. Phillips. At the expiration of six and a half years of happy wedded life, her husband died, but at the end of four years of widowhood, she met and married Presiding Elder James A. Handy, the ceremony being performed by Rev. L. J. Coppin, in old Allen Chapel, Philadelphia.

        Rev. James A. Handy afterwards became financial secretary and was later elevated to the Bishopric of the A. M. E. Church. They were married for twenty-four years and eleven months, till the time of his death, October, 1911.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MARY F. HANDY.

        Mrs. Handy has been identified with the Women's Mite Missionary Society and the Parent Mite Society for many years. She was elected president of the Parent Body when the Quadrennial Session was held in Trinity A. M. E. Church, Baltimore and she has been re-elected ever since. She now lives in Baltimore, the city in which she was born, and enjoys the high esteem of her neighbors and the A. M. E. Church in general for her purity of character and her unselfish devotion to all good works.

        Hardy, Houston Danzie, one of the 16 children of Watson and Mary V. Hardy, was born September 7, 1860, at Pocahontas, Miss. His education began at about the age of eight and was principally in the public schools, and in Tougaloo University. In the year 1877 he was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church, in which as a layman he held offices of steward, trustee, class leader, Sunday school teacher and superintendent, exhorter and local preacher. He was always serviceable. He started life as a school teacher and won a life certificate to teach in the schools of Mississippi. In 1883 he was licensed to preach by Rev. E. R. Carter, at Yazoo City, Miss. In 1885 he joined the conference at Greenville, Miss., under Bishop Ward; in 1888 Bishop Wayman ordained him at Vicksburg by Bishop Disney. His appointments have


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all been in Mississippi and have been as follows: Yazoo Mission, 1885-89; Lexington Circuit, 1890-92; Bellprairie Circuit, 1893-4; Benton Circuit, 1895-7; president Laws High School, 1898; China Grove, 1900-1902; Plainville Circuit, 1903-6; Brookhaven, 1907; Brownsville Circuit, 1908; Grace Circuit, 1909; Leland, 1910; Anguilla, 1911-12; presiding elder Belzoni District, Central Mississippi Conference, 1913-16. In 1886 he built Eden chapel, costing $600; in 1901, he built Cypress Chapel at a cost of $900. He paid mortgages as follows: $127 at Pickens, in 1891; $206 at Benton, in 1895; $78 at Plainville, in

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. D. HARDY.

1894; $400 at Brookhaven, in 1907; $400 at Leland, in 1910. He has taken into the church upwards of 800 people, baptized about 500 and married about 150. He has frequently been called to act as secretary of various church meetings, district conferences, Sunday school conventions, etc., and was for fifteen years secretary of his annual conference. Rev. Hardy's wife is Mrs. Melvina Hardy, who was born in Deasonville, Miss., to whom he was married in 1883. They have four children living, Miss Mary V., 30 years of age; Miss Hally B., aged 22; Gladys K., aged 19, and Bishop Hardy, aged 25. Rev. Hardy is a successful farmer, and has taught public school in connection with his ministry for thirty years. He owns two plantations and is a substantial citizen of both moral and financial worth. He is a Mason and a member of the order of Jacobs, but takes no active part in politics. He is an alternate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916.

        Hardy, Burvin, was born in Phila. in 1871 and comes of old African Methodist stock, his parents both having been members of Bethel church, his father being a trustee, his grandmother having been a stewardess, and his great-grandmother having been a member during the lifetime of Bishop Richard Allen. Mr. Hardy began attending Bethel Sunday school at the age of five and was converted and joined Bethel church in 1895. He has been a trustee for a number of years, and in 1911-1912 was treasurer of the Bethel Church Corporation. He is now president of the Bible class and an active worker.

        His profession is that of a licensed chiropodist and masseur and he lives at 1811 Reed street, Philadelphia, Pa.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. BURVIN HARDY.

        Harewood, Rev. J. B., was born and educated in the island of Barbados, B. W. I. He is the son of Alexander William and Laura Jane Harewood. His father was a public school teacher, salaried Methodist local preacher and class leader, and his mother was also a class leader. He started life as a certificated government teacher, and pursued that calling successfully. Whilst teaching he attended the training school at Codrington College for Special Studies in English, and also spent several years' preparation in the study of medicines, languages, theology, etc. He joined the A. M. E. church April 12, 1899, at Collymore Rock, Barbados, and was appointed licentiate to Rouen Mission April 30, 1901. Here he remained seven months, increasing the membership and leaving the church free of debt with money to purchase a new organ. He next pastored successfully for four years Port Royal and Somerset, Bermuda, B. W. I., increasing the membership and making improvements at Port Royal. At Somerset a beautiful structure was erected. He was ordained deacon October 30, 1904, by Bishop Handy and elder May 28, 1905, by Bishop Derrick, both ordinations taking place at St. Paul's, Hamilton, Bermuda. He was appointed in 1905 to Port Royal and the Light House Mission, and sent to build a church at the latter place. The corner-stone of the building was laid at the next conference. He was transferred to the Ohio Conference in 1906, but was sent as a supply to the charge of Tucker's Town and Bailey's Bay, where there was a great revival, resulting in 164 conversions: 72 at the former and 92 at the latter place in three and two weeks, respectively. The first parsonage in the circuit was secured and beautifully furnished by the trustees at Tucker's Town and at Bailey's Bay the church was thoroughly renovated, new seats placed in the rear, and a stone vestry built. He met the Ohio Conference September 7, 1907, at Columbus, O., as a transfer from the Bermuda Conference, and a delegate to the general conference to meet at Norfolk, Va., in 1908. He was appointed


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to Washington Court House, where he pastored successfully for one year. A new pulpit set was secured, a new pulpit Bible donated to the church, many debts cancelled, and other improvements made. His next appointment was at Cambridge, O., where he pastored for two years,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. B. HAREWOOD.

increasing the membership, remodeling the altar and making other improvements. His next charge was the Lancaster and Nelsonville Circuit; at Lancaster the church was papered and many old debts cancelled; at Nelsonville many heavy and long-standing debts were cancelled, the entertainment hall roofed, and a silver communion set, which had been removed by the creditor during a previous administration was redeemed and brought back to the church. He pastored these charges for three years successfully. He is now pastoring at Gallipolis, O., where to the present his administration has been very successful. He was appointed to this charge September 25, 1913. The church has been remodeled, the parsonage painted and papered, and many long-standing debts cancelled. He enjoys the good will of the community.

        Harmon, Rev. John, was born of humble parents in Smithville, Lee county, Georgia, October 1, 1861. He joined the church in his childhood and was an active worker. At the age of fifteen he was elected superintendent of the Sunday school of New Hope A. M. E. church. In 1881 he was baptized and received into the St. John A. M. E. church, Montgomery, Alabama, as a full member, and the same year was elected a steward and trustee, in which positions he served until his call to the ministry, April, 1893. He was superintendent of St. John Sunday school for four years, and a trustee of Payne and Wilberforce universities. April, 1893, he was licensed to preach and gave the A. M. E. connection the second church in Montgomery, Alabama, now known as St. Stephen's A. M. E. church. He was admitted to the conference in Troy, Alabama, in 1893. His next appointment was White Hall, where he improved the church, and in two weeks received 157 converts to it. At Union Springs, Ala., he was ordained a deacon by Bishop Grant and appointed to Abbeville Station, where he built a parsonage and increased the membership from 61 to 149. He was given a neglected mission twelve miles out from Abbeville, where he finished a church building and gave it a good membership. At Wells, Alabama, the same year, he bought and paid for a church lot and the lumber with which to build. He next went to Eufaula and completed St. John. In January, 1898, Bishop Turner transferred him to Georgia, ordained him an elder at Griffin, Georgia, and assigned him to Palmetto Circuit; then to Newnan, Thomaston, where he repaired the parsonage. After two years' service Bishop Turner appointed

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN HARMON, D.D.

him presiding elder of the Newnan District, in which he organized the following churches: Fairburn, Union Grove, Sargent, Kelley Chapel and New Zion, besides planting fifteen missions. After four years of service he was appointed presiding elder of the Atlanta District, and gave the connection the following new churches: Turner Monumental, Locust Grove and Pleasant Hill, besides twenty new missions. After two years on this district he resigned and was appointed to the Griffin District for 1 year; then to Douglasville Circuit, and after nine months he was transferred and appointed pastor of Turner Tabernacle, Macon, Georgia. He sold the old site in the "red light district" and purchased a lot in another neighborhood, and built the basement of one of the best constructed churches in the city, increasing the membership 223. Next he was appointed presiding elder of the Augusta District, over which he now presides. He is a trustee and member of the Executive Board of Morris Brown University, which conferred upon him the degree of D.D. in 1907. He was a delegate to the general conference in 1904, at Chicago, Illinois; in 1908, at Norfolk, Virginia; in 1912, at Kansas City, and to the Centennial General Conference in Philadelphia in 1916. Dr. Harmon is an ambitious and aggressive leader and one of the best debaters in the A. M. E. Church. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention in St. Louis, Mo., July, 1896. He canvassed Alabama for both Harrison and McKinley. Dr. Harmon is a Mason, an Odd Fellow, a K. of P., and a member of the Supreme Circle. He has been the editor of a number of newspapers and today is regarded as one of the most
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forceful writers in his church. He has delivered addresses from Boston to New Orleans, from Charleston to Chicago. He owns a beautiful home at 166 Howell Street, Atlanta, Georgia, and other property in Atlanta and Newnan.

        Harris, F. L., is the son of Joseph and Mary Harris. His mother was a member of the A. M. E. Church. He was born November 2, 1863, at Titusville, Pa. Entered school in 1870, receiving about five years' schooling. He was converted in 1884 and joined the A. M. E. Church at Harrisburg the same year. He has held almost every office in the Church. He was licensed to preach in 1896, at York, Pa., by Rev. Theodore Gould; joined the Philadelphia Annual Conference, and was ordained deacon in 1902, at Harrisburg, by Bishop W. B. Derrick, and elder in 1905, at Philadelphia by Bishop B. W. Arnett. He served the following appointments: Pottstown, 1901-1904; Concordville, 1904-1909; Reading, 1909-1912;

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. FAREDON LINCOLN HARRIS.

Kennett Square, 1912 to date. He remodeled the church at Atglen, at a cost of $680, in 1907; Concordville, Pa., at a cost of $900, in 1911; Pottstown, at a cost of $185, in 1902; Spring Valley, at a cost of $100, in 1910; Reading, at a cost of $151, in 1913. He lifted a mortgage at Atglen, amounting to $100.02, in the year 1908. He has taken about 500 people into the Church, baptized 97 and married about 43. He married Mamie Cannon Harris, of Harrisburg, in May, 1907. His children were Myrtle, Beaver, Mabel, Charles and Estella. Two of these were by his first wife. He has contributed to the York Gazette. He has read many papers before audiences of both races. He is connected with the F. and A. M. and G. U. O. of O. F. He has held prominent offices in each; is a Republican and a home owner. He was actively associated with Hope Rescue Mission at Reading. He has been associated with the Society for the Advancement of Colored People.

        Harris, Rev. V. H., the son of Joseph and Mary Harris, was born November 2, 1863, at Titusville, Pa. He is a twin brother to Rev. F. L. Harris. He entered school at the age of seven years and attended about five years. He spent over two years at West Point Grammar School. He was converted in 1886, and

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. VENANDO HENRY HARRIS.

joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He held the following offices in the Church: steward, trustee, class leader, local preacher, Sunday school teacher, organist and chorister. He was licensed to preach in 1893, at York, Pa., by Rev. J. P. Sampson. Joined. Philadelphia Conference in 1898, at Harrisburg, under Bishop Derrick. He was ordained deacon in 1897 at York, by Bishop A. Grant, and ordained elder in 1903, at Mt. Pisgah, Philadelphia, by Bishop Arnett. He has had the following appointments: Welsh Mountain Circuit, 1898-1901; Marietta Circuit, 1902-1904; Parkesburg, 1904-1909; Middletown Circuit, 1909-1910; Moore's Chapel, Wilmington, Del., 1911; Burlington, N. J., 1911-16.

        He lifted a mortgage of $800 in 1906, at Parkesburg. He has taken about 380 people into the Church, baptized 27 and married 62. He married Mrs. Bertha Harris, of Front Royal, Va., May 13, 1889. They were parents of three children--Allen, Mary and Emma. Mary is a graduate of the grammar school, the others are dead. He addressed the G. A. R. at Parkesburg. He is a member of the Enterprise Business League. He is a member of the G. U. O. of O. F. and the F. and A. M. He has held the office of P. N. F. in G. U. O. of O. F. and W. M. of the F. and A. M. He is a member of the Republican party. He owns a home. He built a parsonage at Parkesburg, at a cost of $2800, and has repaired three churches. He is a member of the County Committee of the Bordentown Industrial School.

        Harris, William, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., December 5, 1820, the son of Richard and Hannah Harris. At an early age he was sent to a Quaker family of "Hooper" in Chester County, Pa., where he was to work for an education. Having reached his majority, he returned to his home in Philadelphia and soon affiliated himself with the Christian activities of


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a faithful band that was then worshipping in a frame structure where the present edifice of Mt. Pisgah Church, Philadelphia, stands. During the Civil War he enlisted in Company "C," 24th Regt. of Colored Troops, fighting for the cause of the Union, and was honorably discharged at the close of the said war. He was the first superintendent of Mt. Pisgah A. M. E. Sunday school, Philadelphia, and served also as sexton,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. WILLIAM HARRIS.

class leader, trustee, local preacher and local deacon in the above named church. His life was one of many sacrifices for the Church of his choice and was brought to a close at the age of 85, October 16, 1905, during the pastorate of Rev. W. H. Hoxter, D.D., at Mount Pisgah. Mrs. Clara Harris-Downer, the chorister of Mount Pisgah and one of Philadelphia's sweetest singers, is a daughter of Mr. Harris.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. McKENZIE HARRISON, D.D.

        Harrison, J. McKenzie, was born April 6, 1864 at Statesburg, Sumter County, S. C., and has done much for his race in that part of the country. In 1877, after he had come out of school, he accepted a position in the "Watchman and Southern" printing office. In 1876 he managed a mercantile business for McCoy & Co., Statesburg, S. C. In 1881 he was connected with the business firm of Brown & Harrison. On January 15, 1882, he established the first public school, known as the "Harrison School," in that town, and taught the same for ten years. He joined the Columbia conference in December, 1889, and has served at the following charges: 1889, Camden Mission; 1892, Salem Ct.; 1893, Friendship Station; 1894, Reeseville Ct.; 1897-8, Legare Ct., and organized the first public school; 1899-1900, St. Phillip's Station, Eastover, S. C.; 1901, Bishopville; 1902, Mt. Olive Station, Providence, S. C.; 1904-5, St. Paul Ct., Sumter, S. C.; 1906-1908, St. Paul Station, Creston, S. C.; 1909-11, Biggers and Providence churches, Wilson, S. C.; 1912, Floydal Ct., Zion, S. C.; 1913-14, Mt. Pleasant Station; 1915, St. Paul Station, the second time within nine years. He was elected a delegate to the Centennial General Conference in 1916.

        Hawkins, Rev. George W., was born August 29, 1870, at Miccosukie, Leon County, Fla. He is the son of Rev. G. W. Hawkins, Sr., and Emma Hawkins. His

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. GEORGE W. HAWKINS, D.D.

father was ordained in 1873, by the side of the late Bishop A. Grant and Drs. J. I. Lowe and A. B. Dudley. His mother was a pious Christian woman for more than fifty years. She died in Orlando, Fla., February 17, 1907, at the age of 70.

        George attended the common schools of Leon, Duval and Orange Counties. He joined Mt. Olive A. M. E. Church, Orlando, Fla., in 1886, on probation, Rev. S. H. Coleman, pastor. He was converted July, 1888, under Rev. T. W. Long, pastor of Mt. Olive. In September, 1890, he was licensed exhorter. In April, 1891, he was licensed a local preacher by Rev. M. M. Moore. In September, 1891, he taught school one term at Ft. Myers, and in June, 1892, he was appointed pastor of Monatee Mission, Rev. John W. Dukes, P.E. Here he remodeled the church and increased the membership from 6 to 50. In 1894 he pastored


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Tarpon Springs, cared for the district conference, improved the church and increased the membership. In 1895 and 1896, at Kissimmee, he built a church and held a great revival. In 1897 he pastored Eatonville and Longwood, and had a great revival, in which every unconverted person in Eatonville was converted. He improved the church. In 1898 and 1899 he pastored Lakeland, and by paying from his personal funds he saved the church. In 1900 he was at Key West and seated the church and made a large increase in dollar money. In 1901 he was appointed presiding elder of the Leesburg District; in 1905, of the Gainesville District; in 1907, of the Ocala District; in 1910, of the Dunnellon District. At the St. Petersburg Conference, in 1912, he reported for Edward Waters College, $200; at the Gainesville Conference, February, 1913, he reported having collected for Edward Waters College, $270. February, 1914, Bishop John Hurst, D.D., appointed him over the St. Petersburg District, over which he now serves. He has been elected delegate to the following general conferences: Norfolk, Va., 1908; Kansas City, Mo., 1912; Philadelphia, Pa., 1916.

        Hawkins, Prof. John Russell, financial secretary of the A. M. E. Church, the oldest son of Ossian and Christiana Hawkins, was born in Warrenton, N. C., May 31, 1862. He received his training in the schools of Warrenton, N. C.; Hampton Institute, Hampton,

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. JOHN RUSSELL HAWKINS, LL.B.

Va.; Boston, Mass., and the Law Department of Howard University, Washington, D. C., from which he graduated in 1915.

        Professor Hawkins began his career as a teacher in the public schools of Warren County, N. C., and soon worked up to the principalship of the Graded School of his home town. From 1882-1884 he served as railway postal clerk in the Government service. When Kittrell College was founded he became connected with it as business manager and professor of mathematics. In 1890 he was elected to the presidency of Kittrell College, which position he held till 1896, when he was elected by the general conference, in session at Wilmington, N. C., as Secretary of the Department of Education.

        He held the position of Secretary of Education for sixteen years, till 1912, when the general conference, in session at Kansas City, Mo., elected him as financial secretary of the A. M. E. Church, which position he now holds.

        In 1892 he married Miss Lillian Marie Kennedy, the youngest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George Kennedy, of Sioux Falls, S. D. This union has been blessed with two children, Esther K. and John R., Jr. Miss Esther is a graduate of the Moody School, at Northfield, and like her mother, is now specializing in music. John R., Jr., is making a splendid record in college.

        Hawkins, Mrs. Lillian Marie, wife of Prof. John R. Hawkins, financial secretary of the A. M. E. Church, the youngest daughter of George and Sarah J. Kennedy, was born in Decorah, Iowa. In her early

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. LILLIAN MARIE HAWKINS.

childhood her parents moved to Sioux Falls, S. D., where they lived for several years. After graduating from All Saints College, Sioux Falls, Miss Kennedy came East to specialize in music, and graduated with honors from the Conservatory of Music, Philadelphia, Pa.

        In September, 1888, she went South, to take charge of the Department of Music in Kittrell College, Kittrell, N. C. It was here she met Prof. J. R. Hawkins, to whom she was afterwards married, on December 28, 1892. Mrs. Hawkins is loved for her exemplary Christian character, and has been of incalculable value to her husband in the various responsible positions he has been called to fill.

        She is the great granddaughter of Bishop Richard Allen, and takes special pride in helping to develop the many interests of the Church, of which her illustrious grandfather was founder and first bishop.

        She is a devoted wife and the loving mother of two children.


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        Hawkins, L. Estelle Spiller, was born in Norfolk, Va. She is the great granddaughter of Charity Still, niece of William Still, of "Underground Railroad" fame, and of Dr. Joseph Thompson, of Philadelphia, Pa. Her mother, Mrs. Mary Still Thompson-Spiller, was among the first teachers sent South by the United Presbyterian Board to instruct the children of her race. Her father, Rev. Richard Spiller, D.D., LL.D.,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. L. E. SPILLER HAWKINS.

is a prominent Baptist minister. She was educated in Spiller Academy, Wayland Seminary, Hartshorne Memorial College and Shaw University. Madame Hawkins is a woman of talent. She possesses a rich contralto voice; she taught music at Spiller Academy for three years. In 1901 she taught music and kindergarten at the Summer School of Hampton Institute. She has written many themes and addressed many audiences. In 1915 she conducted social settlement work in Columbia S. C. At the Emancipation Celebration, January 1, 1915, at St. Matthew, S. C., she was the orator of the day. She has been a successful evangelist and Christian Endeavor worker, and hundreds have been brought to Christ through her instrumentality.

        Heard, Bishop William H., thirty-fifth bishop of the A. M. E. Church, the son of George W. and Parthenia Heard, was born in Elbert County, Ga., June 25, 1850. His father was a Baptist and his mother a Methodist. He was one of six children of his parents. He began attending school in 1866, and attended common schools and Atlanta University and the Reformed Episcopal School and the University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. He received the degree of D.D. from Allen University. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1878, and has held nearly every office in the Church. He was licensed to preach at Athens, Ga., in 1879, by Rev. P. McClain; ordained deacon in 1881, at Atlanta, Ga., by Bishop Dickerson; ordained elder in 1883, at Washington, Ga., by Bishop Dickerson; has held the following appointments: Johnstown Mission, 1880-1881; Markham Station, 1882; Aiken Station, 1883-1884; Mt. Zion, Charleston, 1885-1888; Allen Chapel, Philadelphia, 1888-1889; presiding elder, 1889-1890; Bethel Philadelphia, 1890-1892; Wilmington, Del., 1892-1894; Harrisburg, 1895; United States Minister to Liberia, 1895-1899; Zion Mission, 1899; secretary of the Connectional Preachers' Association, 1904-1908. He built a church at Johnstown, in 1880, at a cost of $500, and a parsonage at Aiken, S. C., in 1883, at $1000. He paid off mortgages on the following: Mt. Zion, Charleston, S. C., $4000, in 1885-1888; Allen Chapel, Philadelphia, $1000, in 1888; Wilmington, Del., $3000, in 1892-1894; Harrisburg, Pa., $1500, in 1895; Zion Mission, Philadelphia, $1000, in 1899; Bethel, Philadelphia, $15,000, in 1890-1892. He has baptized 1848, married 360. Has been a delegate to all general conferences since 1888. He was a general officer from 1904 to 1908, and was elected Bishop in 1908, and has served since that time in West Africa. He married Josephine Delphine Henderson, of Salisbury, N. C., in 1882.

        Wrote "Bright Side of Africa." He is actively associated with Masons, G. U. O. of O. F., True Reformers and Good Templars. In 1876 he was a member of the South Carolina Legislature, and from 1880 to 1882 was connected with the United States mail service.

        Henderson, Rev. James M., was born at Evansville, Ind., September 19, 1859. His parents were James M. and Martha Henderson. He completed the course of study in the public schools of his native city, and in September, 1875, he entered Oberlin College and graduated from the classical department with the degree of A.B. in June, 1881. He returned to Evansville, Ind., and taught in the public schools.

        December 29, 1884, he married Miss Cornelia L. Langston, of Detroit, Mich. Six children were born to this union, three boys and three girls--James Cornelius, Ethwald, Lorainetta, Monrovia, who died in infancy, and Deborah.

        In 1885 he entered the ministry of the A. M. E. Church, and was appointed to Bloomington, Ind., where he served one year, and in 1886 was appointed to Bethel Church, Detroit, where he built a new church. He remained in Detroit as pastor and presiding elder of the Michigan Conference ten years. While in Detroit he completed the course of study in the Detroit College of Law, and was admitted to the Michigan Bar.

        In 1896 he was elected president of Morris Brown College, at Atlanta, Ga., where he remained eight years. During his administration Morris Brown College had a phenomenal growth, and was raised to first rank among the Negro institutions of learning. On retiring from the presidency of Morris Brown College he was elected dean of Turner Theological Seminary, but resigned to accept the presidency of Payne University, at Selma, Ala., where he remained five years. During his administration a large tract of land was purchased by the University, a new girls' dormitory was built, and the curriculum was raised on a par with the other connectional schools.

        In 1909 he resigned and returned to Detroit and engaged in the practice of law. In 1911 he re-entered the Michigan Conference, and is serving his fifth year as pastor of Ebenezer Church, Detroit. Dr. Henderson has a very interesting and talented family. His oldest son, Dr. J. Langston Henderson, is a graduate of Detroit Medical College, and is a prominent physician


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of Detroit. Cornelius L. Henderson is a graduate in civil engineering from Michigan University, and is draughtsman in the Canadian Bridge Construction Company. Lorainetta L. Henderson is a graduate of the Detroit Conservatory of Music, and is a prominent music teacher. Ethwald L. Henderson, graduated from Payne University, and is a public school teacher. Deborah L. Henderson, the youngest member of the family, graduates from the Central High School in June, 1916. Dr. Henderson has received several honorary degrees.

        Henderson, Conley Lincoln, son of Caroline Henderson (Meadows), a member of the A. M. E. Church, was born October 11, 1867, at Laurens Co., S. C., one of eleven children; entered school in 1874, receiving his education in the public schools and Allen University, and adding to his information through several correspondence courses. He joined the A. M. E. Church in 1875, and was converted in 1888; was licensed

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. L. HENDERSON.

to preach May 24, 1890, at Laurens Co., S. C., by Rev. Hiram Young; joined the annual conference at Winnsboro in 1893 under Bishop Salter; was ordained deacon December 8, 1895, at Columbia, S. C., by Bishop Salter; elder, December 15, 1897, at Clinton, S. C., by Bishop Arnett. He has held the following appointments: Woodruff Mission, 1894; Wateree Mission, 1895; Ridgeway Mission, 1896; Mt. Nebo Mission, 1897; Enoree Ct., 1898-99; Promised Land Sta., 1900-4; Greenwood Sta., 1905-9; Bradley Ct., 1910-14; P. E., Greenville district, 1915 to date. He built Mt. Carmel at Newberry, S. C., 1897, and organized Mt. Pisgah, Greenwood City, S. C., 1907. He lifted mortgages on Weston Chapel at Greenwood, S. C., $250, in 1905, and on Mt. Sinai at Bradley, S. C., $500 in 1913. He has taken 500 into the church, baptized 275 and married 85 couples. He was delegate to the 23rd and 25th general conferences, in 1908 and 1916. He married Mary J. Bell, of Laurens, S. C., August 7, 1890. They have eleven children: John, Carrie, Talmage, Daisy, Beulah, Thomas, Conley, Pearl, Burnetta, Mary and Ruby. The following are graduates: Carrie, Talmage, Daisy and Beulah. He has contributed to several papers and was editor of "The Dial." He delivered the commencement address at Allen University

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. C. L. HENDERSON.

to the literary societies in 1905. He is a member of the G. U. O. of O. F. and F. and A. M., and is a Republican. He taught school from 1888 to 1904, was secretary of the Columbia conference from 1900 to 1909, and of the Piedmont conference from 1909 to the present.

        Henderson, Rev. Thomas W., former business manager of the Book Concern, was born October 12, 1845, in Greensboro, N. C. He was the son of Horace and Love Ann Henderson. He received a common school education; was converted at the age of eleven years; went to Hannibal, Mo., and was received into the A. M. E. Church in 1865, by Rev. W. A. Dove. In 1866 was received into the itinerancy and ordained deacon by Bishop Campbell. He was editor of several newspapers. He was chaplain of the House of Representatives of Kansas. He was delegate to many national and state conventions. He pastored many churches in various sections of the South and West. In 1896 he was elected general business manager and served till 1900. He served subsequently as pastor of Bethel, Philadelphia; Bethel, New York; Bethel, Charles Street, Boston, and Newport, R. I. He died June, 1915.

        Hill, Rev. Andrew Henry, was born June 7, 1870. He was reared in Arkansas County, Ark. Converted at twelve years old he joined the A. M. E. Church, and was licensed to preach the Gospel in his eighteenth year, pastoring his first church in his nineteenth year.

        He received his early education in the public schools of Arkansas County. Entering the Branch Normal College in 1892, he was graduated with honors in 1896. In 1898 he entered Wilberforce University, graduating from Payne Seminary, in 1901, with honors.

        He has spent eighteen years in the pastorate, eight years as president of Shorter College, Argenta,


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Ark., and a short while presiding elder of the Newport District, Arkansas Conference.

        He rebuilt Bethel Church, Little Rock, Ark., having added several hundred members to the church and raised thousands of dollars. At present he is pastoring at Bethel A. M. E. Church, Little Rock, Ark. Mr. Nelson H. Nichols, attorney-at-law, of Little Rock, ranks him among the scholars of the race.

        He is a Mason, and also a member of the International

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. A. H. HILL, D.D.

Order of Twelve, Knights and Daughters of Tabor. He married Hannah Augusta Dickson, of Springfield, Ohio, and has three sons, viz., William A., Andrew D. and Henry S. Hill.

        Hill, Rev. Daniel G., was born in Washington County, Md., the son of Richard and Demius Hill, typical farmers and members of Ebenezer A. M. E. Church, at Hagerstown, Md. He embraced religion and joined the church of his parents in early life. He attended the public school of Hagerstown, and for a season attended Storer College, Harper's Ferry, W. Va., and in 1881 entered Lincoln University, Chester County, Pa., graduating from the collegiate department in 1886, and from the theological department in 1899.

        While studying theology at Lincoln University, in 1887, he joined the Baltimore A. M. E. Conference, and in 1889 was assigned by Bishop Campbell to Elkton Mission, Maryland, where for one year he worked, improving conditions generally. January 1, 1890, he was married to Miss Margaret P. Peck, daughter of Rev. Francis J. and Esther Ann Peck, and was assigned to Ebenezer A. M. E. Church, West Washington, D. C., by Bishop Tanner, serving three years, remodeling the church, at a cost of $2800 and paying off the same. Bishop Gaines then appointed him to Mt. Moriah Church, Annapolis, Md., where he labored for two years, paying off the balance of $2000 of an old mortgage on the church. From Annapolis he was sent to Trinity A. M. E. Church, Baltimore City, where he served two successive terms of three and five years each, paying a $2000 mortgage, repairing the church, at a cost of $1000, installing a $2000 organ, and freeing the church of all incumbrances. In 1899 he was appointed presiding elder over the Hagerstown District by Bishop Handy, serving three years. Bishop Lee then appointed him to Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, Washington, D. C., where he spent two years of faithful and acceptable service.

        It was while serving Mother Bethel, Baltimore, Md., that Rev. Hill succeeded, with the aid of Bishop Coppin, in making the arrangements for the present beautiful edifice, on the corner of Druid Hill avenue

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. DANIEL G. HILL, D.D.

and Lanvale street, which was purchased at a cost of $90,000, and one of the most beautiful owned by the race in any denomination anywhere in the country.

        He is now serving the third year as presiding elder of the Baltimore District. He has been for fifteen years treasurer of the Baltimore Conference, and has been for eight years superintendent of the Home for the Aged of the Baltimore Annual Conference, and more than two years president of the Mt. Zion Cemetery Association.

        Hill, J. B., the son of Thomas and Hannah Hill, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Columbia, Pa. He entered school when about five years of age, and attended in all about ten years. He attended Shiloh and Forten School, but he was largely self-taught. He was converted in 1867, and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He was licensed to preach in 1873, in Boston, Mass., by Rev. J. P. Shrews. In 1883 he was ordained deacon at Bridgeton, N. J., by Bishop J. M. Brown, and ordained elder in 1885, at Wilmington, Del., by Bishop Cain. He held the following appointments: Plymouth, 1880-1881; Washington, N. J., 1882; Langhorn, 1883-1884; Oxford, 1885; Centreville, 1886; Steelton, 1889; Chamersburg, 1890; Atglen, 1891; Wrightsville, 1893; Huntington, N. Y., 1898; Binghamton, 1899; Owego, 1900;


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Kingston and Middleton, 1902; Georgetown, 1904; Milton Circuit, 1907; West Dover, 1909. He built a church at Oxford, at Bryn Mawr, at a cost of $4000, and at York, at a cost of $2585, in 1886. He lifted the mortgage on the churches at Georgetown and York. He took about 1500 people into the Church, baptized about 135 and has married 52 people. His first wife was Evelyn Johnson, who was born in Dinwiddie

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JEREMIAH B. HILL.

County, Va. She died in 1893. He then married Mary E. Hill, of Philadelphia, June 29, 1898. The children by his first wife were Anna, Jeremiah, Josephine, William, John, Charles, Evelena, Almira and Nellie. The children by his second wife are Francina, Theodore, Stephen, Sarah and Cornelius. He contributed to the Christian Recorder, Voice of Missions and Southern Christian Recorder, and was a Mason. He died March 28, 1910, aged 63.

        Hogarth, George, general book steward A. M. E. Church from 1836 to 1848, was born in New York about 1790 and died in Brooklyn in the summer of 1850. He had a fair education and was sent in 1827 to Haiti as a missionary and steward to assist in building up the A. M. E. Church there. It seems that in 1824 there was a very large exodus of the free people of color from the border states to Haiti, who emigrated there on the invitation of President Boyer. And as many of them were Methodists, they wished to continue their religious connection though they had left their native land. It was in response to this call that Scipio Beanes was sent in 1826 to Haiti. His health failed and Mr. Hogarth was named as his successor. The first printed mention of Mr. Hogarth as a minister is found in the minutes of the Baltimore conference, April, 1828. He had just returned after a year's work in Haiti. In 1832 he was one of the secretaries of the Baltimore annual conference. He was a successful merchant in New York City. October 18, 1835, Joseph M. Corr, general book steward, died, and at the general conference of 1836 the Rev. George Hogarth was elected to the office. Mr. Hogarth was ordained, it is supposed, some time before 1824. Though he was highly endowed with fine business qualifications, he failed to make the Book Concern a financial success. Mr. Hogarth in his report on Haiti, made in 1831, stated that the mission then had 72 members. On assuming the duties of book steward in 1836 he took the work of his predecessor of revising the hymnal of 1818, which Bishop Allen and Rev. James Champion had prepared. He brought out a new edition in 1837, containing 508 hymns and 512 pages. He had completed it in 1836 since it was entered for copyright November 5, 1836.

        Hollings, M. A., was born at St. George, S. C., March 7, 1861, the son of Harry and Celia Hollings. His father died when he was 15 years old, leaving the mother with 6 children, of whom M. A. was the oldest. He did not have the opportunity of attending school in his early days, but was taught by some white friends at night. Later he attended Allen University

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. M. A. HOLLINGS, D.D.

and the Charleston Divinity School, and took a correspondence course from Morris Brown College. He joined the A. M. E. Church when he was twelve years old, joined the South Carolina conference in 1896, and was sent by Bishop Salter to the Maryville and James Island circuit, remaining four years, was then sent by Bishop Grant to the Olive Branch circuit, staying four years, building Goodvill Church at a cost of $2500 and remodeling the Olive Branch church. Then he was sent to Ebenezer Church, Charleston, which had been bought for $2500, with a membership of 37. He stayed here five years, paid most of the debt and left a membership of 700. He was then sent by Bishop Lee to St. Stephen's station, Georgetown, where he rebuilt the church and remained five years, and was cuit 25 miles in the woods, and stayed two years and rebuilt and built 3 churches. He is now at Bethel church, Summerville, S. C. He was a delegate to the general conferences of 1908, 1912 and 1916, has been a member of the trustee board of Allen University for 20 years, and has raised over $1000 for that institution.


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        Holt, K. Charles, son of Pleasant and Viney Holt, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born November 8, 1869, at Mebane, N. C.; began attending school when about eight years of age, receiving his education in the rural schools, Shaw University and St. Augustine. He received the degree of D.D. from Kittrell College. He was converted in 1881 and joined the A. M. E. Church; was licensed to preach at Hillsboro, N. C., in 1886 by Rev. Robert Lucas; joined the annual conference 1888 at Greensboro, N. C., under Bishop J. P. Campbell; was ordained deacon November 24, 1889, at Wilmington, N. C., and elder November 27, 1892, at Kingston, N. C., both by Bishop Gaines; has held the following appointments: Fayetteville, N. C., 1888; St. Mathew, Raleigh, 1889-90; Laurinburg, 1891; St. James, Winston, 1892-93; Morganton, 1894-5; Kinston, 1896; Rue Chapel, Newberne, N. C., 1897-9; P. E. of Raleigh, Morganton, Greenboro and Durham each four years. In 1893 he built St. James, Winston, at a cost of $1800; lifted $500 mortgage on Rue Chapel at Newberne in 1898 and built $1800 parsonage at Newberne in 1899; was delegate to the general conferences of 1904, 1908 and 1916, leading his delegation to the last; was a member of the educational board, 1904 to 1908. His wife is Mrs. Vera L. Holt, of Dudley, N. C., whom he married October 26, 1904. He is author of a pamphlet, "The Broad Axe," and has made many annual addresses to fraternal organizations. He is an Odd Fellow, a Mason, and owns considerable real estate.

        Hood, Solomon Porter, the son of Lewis and Matilda Hood, both members of African Union Methodist Church, was born in 1853 at Lancaster, Pa., one of eight children; entered school when eight years of age and attended the common schools and Lincoln University; received the degree of A.M. from Lincoln

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. SOLOMON PORTER HOOD, D.D.

University and D.D. from Livingstone College; studied at Princeton University and took lectures at Columbia University. He was converted and joined the Presbyterian Church in 1869; was licensed to preach in 1880 at Lincoln University by the Presbytery of Chester and ordained deacon at the same time. He joined the annual conference of the A. M. E. Church in 1887 at Georgetown, S. C., under Bishop Arnett; has received the following appointments in the A. M. E. Church: Port au Prince, Haiti, 1889; Morris Brown, Phila., 1893; Lamott, Pa., 1895; Reading, Pa., 1896; Frankford, 1900; Harrisburg, Pa., 1904; Orange, N. J., 1907; Trenton since 1911. He remodeled church and built parsonage at Reading at a cost of $5000 in 1897 and 1898; remodeled the church at Frankford at a cost of $3000 in 1901 and 1902; has taken about 400 people into the church. He has been delegate to one general conference in 1904. He was a member of the educational board from 1904 to 1908. He married Mary Davis Hood, of Providence, R. I., in 1881, and has an adopted daughter. He has contributed to the Christian Recorder, Southern Recorder, A. M. E. Review, Trenton Daily Times, etc. He wrote "Life of Thaddeus Stevens," "What Every African Methodist Should Know." He addressed the Pan-Presbyterian Council at Academy of Music in Philadelphia, delivered the baccalaureate sermon at Allen University, Memorial Day address to colored regiments of South Carolina, baccalaureate sermon at Petersburg Normal School at Petersburg, Va., and at the State College of South Carolina, and has been for several years one of the editors of the Sunday school literature of the A. M. E. Church, and a leader in advanced Sunday school movements. He was an attache of the U. S. legation while in Haiti, and chief organizer and director of the Semi-Centennial Emancipation Exposition of New Jersey in 1913. He is associated with the Equal Rights and State League of Pennsylvania and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

        Hooper, Thomas H., was born in Wilmington, N. C., July 23, 1869. In 1869 he was converted and joined St. Stephen A. M. E. Church, Wilmington. One year later he was appointed class-leader and gave faithful service. He was next made a steward a few years later and has served as secretary of the stewards' board up to the present time. He has always been loyal to the church and has never been known to oppose a single pastor.

        He has served as District Superintendent of Sunday schools for seven successive years; has been elected to every annual conference ever since the laymen have been eligible, and was elected delegate to the general conferences of 1904, 1908, 1912 and the Centennial General Conference of 1916. He was chosen superintendent of the Sunday school in 1914 and has thoroughly reorganized the school. In six months the teaching force increased from 23 to 50 and the scholars from 400 to 700. He is prominent in the local affairs among the citizens of Wilmington, and is lumber inspector for one of the leading firms in the State of North Carolina, and also numbered among the leading colored real estate owners of his part of the State.

        Horry, Albert Franklin Bassard, one of the five children of Joseph Napoleon and Sarah Horry, who were both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Georgetown, S. C., December 12, 1879; began school at the age of six, attending twelve years in all. He was graduated from the Howard High School of his native town, being valedictorian of his class. Although


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he denied himself a college education in order to support his mother and sister, yet he took a postgraduate course of one year under Prof. A. E. Peets, studied rhetoric, Latin and Greek under Profs. J. B. Beck and J. P. Golder, and took an English theological course in the University of Chicago. While the support of the family, he taught in the rural and graded schools, clerked and kept books in his uncle's grocery store, worked at a mill and from 1899 to 1902 was assistant postmaster at Georgetown, S. C. He was converted in 1895, having joined Bethel A. M. E. Church in his home town in 1894. He has been class leader, local preacher, Sunday school teacher, Sunday school superintendent and president of the Allen Christian Endeavor League. He was licensed to preach in September, 1904, by Rev. P. J. Chavis; was ordained deacon at St. George, S. C., in December, 1906, by Bishop Coppin; elder in September, 1909, at Charleston, S. C., by Bishop Lee; joined the South Carolina annual conference at Summerville, S. C., December, 1905, under Bishop Coppin, and has held the following appointments: Graves Mission, Graves, S. C., 2 months; Kingstree circuit, Kingstree, S. C., five years; Gapway circuit, Bryan, S. C., five years; Lake City circuit, Lake City, S. C., since October 30, 1915. In 1910 he built a parsonage at Kingstree, S. C., at a cost of $1200. He lifted a mortgage of $220 on St. Mary, Bryan, S. C., in 1912; a mortgage of $350 on St. John, Trio, S. C., in 1913; a mortgage of $916.49 on St. Philip, Bryan, S. C., in 1915; finished St. Mary, Bryan, S. C., at a cost of $300 in 1915. He has taken into the church about 500 and baptized 100. Rev. Horry was an alternate delegate to the general conference of 1916. He has served as historical and recording secretary of the Palmetto conference since 1911; as secretary of the conference church extension committee; secretary of state of country committee since 1913; trustee Allen University; conference superintendent of A. C. E. League; preached the annual sermon in 1914. He married Miss Sarah Woodbury, of Georgetown, S. C., in 1904. Their children are Sarah Magdalene, Evelyn Cornelia, Albert F. B., Jr., Jas. Woodbury, age 2; Ruth Naomi, Catherine Rebecca and Mary Louise, deceased. He has contributed to the South Carolina Methodist and the Georgetown Advocate. He stands high as a Mason and an Odd Fellow. He has served as president of the People's Improvement League of Taft, S. C. He is a Republican and owns his home.

        Horry, Mrs. Sarah Opeter (Woodbury), daughter of Rev. Frank and Mrs. Chloe Woodbury, of Georgetown, S. C., was born at Georgetown, S. C., April 4, 1881. She is a graduate of the Howard High School, with second honors, and a graduate of Allen University, scientific course, 1903, with first honors. She taught in the Howard High School, Georgetown, S. C., and in rural schools. She was for several years district missionary president of the Palmetto (S. C.) conference branch, and is now one of the vice-presidents of the state missionary association; was elected to go to the general conference of 1916. She is a contributor to the Women's Missionary Recorder.

        Houston, Joseph Silas, was born in Lexington County, South Carolina. He was brought up under the Christian influence of godly parents, and nurtured by the grand old A. M. E. Church. At the age of fifteen years he was happily converted to God, and was selected as the superintendent of his Sunday school. Ever since that time he has found it a source of pleasure to work in the Sunday school.

        He has served as superintendent in the following places: Piny Grove A. M. E. Sunday school, Lexington County, South Carolina; St. John A. M. E. Sunday school, Emanuel County, Ga.; St. James A. M. E. Sunday school, Bruton, Ga. At present he is superintendent

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. JOSEPH SILAS HOUSTON.

of Ward's Chapel A. M. E. Sunday school, Winter Park, Fla. He also served as superintendent of the Standford District. For twenty-five years he has been engaged in Sunday school work. From the farm to the school room, where it was his lot to be a public school teacher in the public school of Laurense County, Ga., for eight consecutive years, still he delighted to attend the Sunday school regularly.

        Howard, Charles Fuller, was born in Marietta. Pa., August 28, 1866. He was the only child of Lewis and Mary M. Howard, who were both members of the A. M. E. Church. He received his early education in the public schools of Steelton and Marietta, Pa. Later he was graduated from the Patridge School of Methods Besides a course in Assyriology in the Pennsylvania Chautauqua at Mt. Gretna and a Teachers' Training Course in Pedagogy and Psychology in the Pennsylvania Sabbath School Association, he has taken university extension work at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Pittsburgh.

        Mr. Howard was converted December 20, 1890, and joined the A. M. E. Church. He has served his church as trustee, class leader, Sunday school superintendent for twenty-four years, president of the Christian Endeavor Society, church organist for thirty-four years, refusing compensation, and district Sunday school superintendent.

        In November, 1892, he married a young woman of Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Five children were born to them: Louis A., Emily E., Mary M., Eleora L., and Charline F. His oldest son is a graduate of the Steelton


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High School and a college graduate of Howard University, and is now a student in the Dickinson Law School. While in the high school he won the Princeton banner in debate and was voted the orator of his class. His oldest daughter is a graduate of the Harrisburg Conservatory of Music.

        Mr. Howard's career as a public school teacher began in 1886. He has often delivered lectures, especially on Sunday school efficiency to Sunday school associations and institutes, forums, lyceums, etc. He is a worker for civic righteousness, a militant temperance worker, an

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. CHARLES FULLER HOWARD.

active member of the laymen's movement of the Philadelphia Conference, and an experienced Sunday school worker. He has worked as choir director, director of choral societies, music teacher, and director of brass and reed bands.

        In politics he is an Independent Republican, having held the office of real estate assessor. He owns his own home. He is active in the N. A. A. C. P., and the Booker T. Washington Civic League of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. He ranks high as a Mason and an Odd Fellow.

        Howard, Prof. G. W., the son of Eli and Estella Howard, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Georgetown, S. C., 1878, one of seven children. He entered school at seven years of age and attended school about fourteen years. He graduated from the Howard High School of his native town, and Allen University, from which he received B.S. degree. He also attended the State College. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1895. He has been steward, Sunday school teacher and superintendent of Sunday school. He was delegate to the general conferences of 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916. He has been delegate to the Young People's Congress at Atlanta, trustee of Allen University, district superintendent of Sunday schools, several times lay delegate to annual conferences and he is a member of the Federal Council of Church of Christ. He has contributed to the Christian and Southern Christian Recorders, Sunday School Times and the Southern Uplift. He made the emancipation address, Marion City School Commencement Address and State Summer School address. He has been director of the Progressive Building and Loan Association and vice principal of the Howard Graded School. He is connected with the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Good Samaritan, Eastern Star and Household of Ruth. He has held the following offices: Secretary of Masons, N. G. of Odd Fellows, K. of R. and S. of K. of P., Recording

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. GEORGE WASHINGTON HOWARD.

Secretary of Samaritan, W. P. of Eastern Star, W. R. of Eureka Household. He is a Republican and has attended several County conventions. He owns several homes and his property is considered valuable. He was valedictorian of his class, and has taught many years in Georgetown, his home town. He has been actively associated with the Auxiliary Society of his city organized by his mother.

        Hoxter, Prof. W. Franklin, was born in Lamotte, Montgomery County, Penn., on January 3, 1892, the son of Rev. Wilbert Henry and Sadie Elizabeth (Armstrong) Hoxter. His father is a prominent minister of the A. M. E. Church. (See W. H. Hoxter.) His talent for music made itself apparent at an early age, and his father placed him under competent instructors in the several cities in which he has been a pastor. Locating finally in Philadelphia, he chose to make music his life work, and entered the Music Department of the University of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1913. He was appointed teacher of music at the Berean Manual Training and Industrial School in 1913, and is now director of the Music Department of that institution. He was one of the pianists selected to play for the Grand Chorus that sang at the Pennsylvania Emancipation Celebration, held in 1913. He has contributed articles on musical subjects to the Christian Recorder, the official organ of the A. M. E. Church, and in 1915 he was appointed to be Musical Editor of the American Journal. He is the organist of Mt. Pisgah A. M. E. Church, Philadelphia, Penna., and has published several of his own compositions and composed the special Easter Day music for the Missionary


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Department of the A. M. E. Church for the centennial year, 1916.

        He was one of the organizers of the Olymthian Literary Club of Philadelphia; is a member of the People's Choral Society of Philadelphia, the Philadelphia

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. W. FRANKLIN HOXTER.

Organists' Alliance, Saint Joseph's Lodge, No. 8293, G. U. O. of O. F., the Society of Musical Alumni of the University of Pennsylvania, and other well known organizations.

        Hoxter, W. H., was born January 24, 1868, near Frederica, Dela. He is the son of Mary A. and Benjamin Hoxter, who were blessed with fourteen children. He attended the rural public schools, Howard School, at Wilmington, Del., and later on took a theological course at Howard University, Washington, D. C. He was converted when fifteen years of age, and joined the Union Church, Frederica. In a few years he went to Wilmington and joined Bethel Church. He was licensed to preach by Rev. G. W. Brodie, then pastor of the church. In 1889 he joined the Philadelphia Annual Conference under Bishop Turner, and was ordained deacon May 19, 1891, by Bishop Turner, and elder, May 22, 1893, by Bishop Tanner, at Chambersburg, Pa.

        His first appointment was to Lamotte, Pa. This mission had six members, and an indebtedness of $1800. During his pastorate there the membership was increased to 45, and the debt reduced to $575. He was then appointed to Paschall, Pa., where he served for one year with marked success. He was then appointed to Frederica, Del., where his mother, father, grandmother and grandfather held their membership, and were officers in his church. He served this church two years, renovating the churches on this circuit and paying for the same. He was then appointed to Mt. Friendship, Del., where he was greatly successful. His next appointment was to Darby, Pa., where he remained for four years, paying off the entire indebtedness of the church, and purchasing a parsonage. His next appointment was Bristol, Pa., where he remained for two years, repairing the church and freeing it entirely from debt. He was then transferred to the New England Conference and appointed to New Haven, Conn., by Bishop Derrick, and put our church on a good financial basis. After two years of faithful service at this point, was transferred back to the Philadelphia Conference by Bishop B. W. Arnett, and appointed to Mt. Pisgah, West Philadelphia, where he remained for five years. This church was renovated, made larger, refurnished, a new pipe organ was placed in the church at

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. H. HOXTER, D.D.

a cost of $7,500.56. This was all paid off and the church entirely freed fom debt. He was then appointed to West Chester, and served this church for two years and a half very successfully. On November 23, 1912, was appointed to Bethel Church, Wilmington, Del., by Bishop Tyree, the church in which he was licensed to preach, and out from which he had gone twenty-five years before. During his pastorate in this church he has received, to date, 153 persons into the church, and has baptized 21 children. He has reduced the mortgage debt each year, kept up the current expenses, and has paid over $1,000 for repairing church property. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga., in June, 1908.

        Hubbard, Rev. P. A., was born in Kentucky, August 14, 1845, the youngest child of Phillip and Rosanna Hubbard, who were slaves. They were brought by their owners to Missouri in 1850. He was converted when about 16 years of age and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1867. He enlisted in the United States Army, February 7, 1863, and served until December 31, 1865, receiving an honorable discharge. Was a corporal in Company B, 67th U. S. Colored Infantry; was transferred to the 92nd U. S. Colored Infantry, and there held the office of corporal in Company A. Returning to his home, after the war, at Columbia, Mo., he attended school for a short time under that eminent teacher, Prof. Charles E. Cummings. He was elected chairman of the first Republican convention held in Boone County, Mo., and represented Boone County in two State conventions, heading the delegations each time; was district elector for the Eleventh Congressional District in 1872. Was licensed


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to preach in 1872, by Rev. W. B. Ousley, at Columbia, Mo. He entered the itinerant ministry of the A. M. E. Church, March 3, 1873; was received on trial in the Missouri Conference, at St. Louis, Mo., September 14, 1873, by Bishop A. W. Wayman; was ordained deacon by the same bishop in Allen A. M. E. Church, Kansas City, Mo., September 22, 1874; ordained an elder by Bishop James A. Shorter, in Wayman's Chapel A. M. E. Church, Fort Scott, Kans., October 9, 1879. He served most efficiently the following charges: Mobery, Mo., two years; Fort Scott, Kans., three years; St. Joseph, Mo., four years; Omaha, Neb., five years. At this point he completed the church, built a parsonage at a cost of fourteen thousand dollars, paid all but three thousand,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. PHILLIP A. HUBBARD, D.D.

found a membership of 30 and left a membership of 160 members. In 1889 was appointed pastor of Shorter A. M. E. Church, Denver, Colo. The dollar report was less than three hundred dollars; in 1898 it was more than one thousand dollars for the same territory. Such work had a church-wide effect throughout African Methodism. After a successful pastorate of four years at Denver, Colo., where he raised $29,744.40, he was appointed presiding elder over the "largest presiding elder district in the world," 670,920 square miles. He established many missions through this vast and sparsely settled western country, which today are towering beacons of hope, courage and Christianity. He was a member of the general conference from 1880 to 1900. He was a Mason and a member of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. He married in early life Miss Hannah J. Lucas, united in December, 1863; was re-married by Rev. Isaac Jones, January 28, 1866, because slave marriages were not legal. They lived happily until his death. In 1900 at the general conference, in Columbus, O., he was elected financial secretary. His financial record had won for him the title "Dollar Money King." On July 20, 1901, he went as a delegate to the Ecumenical Conference, which met in London. He traveled in England, Holland, Switzerland, Germany and France, and was the recipient of many distinguished honors. Preached September 3, 1901, in the Jubilee Bible Christian Methodist Chapel, in London. About September 10, 1901, in one of London's most prominent hotels, he was taken ill, compelling him to give up his work in this great conference. September 17, he sailed for home. In his "Word to the Church" he describes most vividly the horrors of that rough voyage. On reaching New York City, September 26, he found his loving wife and close friends, who sped with haste on to Washington, D. C., for medical attention. For some time he rallied as hundreds asked God to spare him to his church, nation, family and race. Died January 14, 1902. The history of this A. M. E. Church cannot be written and leave out the name of P. A. Hubbard. He was for many years trustee of Wilberforce, having the degree D.D. conferred by that seminary. He acquired

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. HANNAH J. HUBBARD.

from Lincoln, LL.B. and LL.M. from Howard. He also had some comforts of this world, leaving an estate valued at fifteen thousand dollars. He was laid to rest at Macon, Mo., beside his mother. He left a wife and daughter.

        Hubbard (Lucas), Hannah J., was born of slave parents in Georgetown, Scott County, Ky., March 25, 1845, being the youngest of six children of Stephen and Phoebe Lucas. At the age of seven their owners moved them to Boone County, Mo. In 1863 she was happily united in marriage to Phillip Alexander Hubbard. Three weeks afterwards her husband enlisted in the army. When Lincoln's proclamation declared freedom they moved to Columbia, Mo., and there eagerly awaited the return of her husband. With efficient teachers she acquired a fair education. She was her husband's most worthy asset in his life's work and brilliant career.

        She became a Christian early in life and taught Sunday school. Rev. J. F. C. Taylor, an able A. M. E. minister, now in the Kansas Conference, was brought to the saving knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ through her influence and advice. She was her husband's confidential counsellor in every undertaking in life. Having no children of her own, in October, 1883, she adopted Pearl Opal Hubbard, whom she educated. When her husband organized Embry Mission, in Manitou, Colo., she became class leader, trustee, Sunday school teacher, treasurer of the church and Tanner Lyceum, the mission's auxiliary. She was a factor in the official life of Washington, D. C.,


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in its religious and social circles. After the death of her husband, she built a beautiful modern home in Manitou, where she now resides.

        Hudson, Mrs. D. D., president W. H. & F. M. Society, S. Arkansas Conference Branch, was born June 27, 1875, near Greery, Ark. Her parents were John and Annie Russell. She attended the public schools in that section until thirteen years of age, at which time her parents sent her to Mary Allen Seminary, Crockett, Tex. She graduated at sixteen, and began teaching. In 1895 she married an African Methodist minister, Rev. A. A. Hudson, and, though she still taught school, she soon became devoted to the missionary work and in 1912 was elected conference branch president of the South Arkansas Conference, which position she now holds, and presides over the following named officers: Sister Annie Crook, president Hamburg District; Sister Bertie L. Delyles, president Pine Bluff District; Sister Eliza J. Wheeler, president Domas District; Sister Minnie Greer, president Monticello District; Sister Mollie Burks, president Dermott District; Sister Frances Jones, conference secretary; Sister Mattie L. Smith, corresponding secretary; Sister Katie Young, conference treasurer; Mrs. D. D. Hudson, conference president.

        Hunt, Phillip C., son of Jasper and Matilda Hunt, members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in 1865 at Grand Junction, Tenn., one of eleven children; entered school in 1870 and spent twelve years in the public schools and Tougoloo University of Mississippi; received the degree of D.D. from Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas; was converted and joined the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. P. C. HUNT, D.D.

A. M. E. Church in 1876; held nearly every office in the local church; was licensed to preach in 1882 at Grand Junction, Tenn., by Rev. A. A. W. Hill; joined the annual conference 1883 at. San Antonio, Texas, under Bishop Cain; was ordained deacon in 1884 at Rockdale, Texas, and elder in 1886 at Austin, Texas, both by Bishop Wayman. He has held the following appointments: Brayaria, 1884-88; Georgetown Ct., 1888-90; St. James, Dallas, 1890-92; Tyler district, 1892-96; St. Paul, Houston, 1896-98; Wesley, Houston, 1898-1902; Houston district, 1902-5; Palestine district, 1908-10; Beaumont Sta., 1911; Brown Chapel, Houston, 1911-15; Beaumont district, 1916. He built the following churches: Luling, Texas, $500 in 1884; Columbia, $900 in 1886; Georgetown, $1200 in 1888; Round Rock, $1300 in 1889; parsonage at Beaumont, $900 in 1911. He has lifted mortgages on St. James at Dallas, $900 in 1891; St. Paul, Houston, $900 in 1897; Brown Chapel, Houston, $950 in 1914. He has taken over 1525 into the church and baptized 1250. He has been delegate to six general conferences. He was a member of the financial board 1908-12. He was a delegate to the ecumenical conference at Toronto, Canada, in 1911. He was voted for for the bishopric in 1900 and 1908. His wife is Mrs. Hattie B. Hunt, of Elinger, Texas, to whom he was married in 1884. He has contributed to the several Recorders and local papers. His principal address was on the "Rise and Progress of the Negro." He is a Mason and has held prominent offices; is a Republican and home owner.

        Hunter, Rev. E. H., whose mother, Mrs. Harriet Hunter, was a devout member of the A. M. E. Church, was born November 13, 1865, at Raleigh, N. C. Entering school at the age of six years, he spent about sixteen years in school, graduating from Howard and Lincoln Universities, receiving the degrees of A.B. and A.M. from Lincoln, LL.B. and LL.M. form Howard. He also took a special course in theology at Howard University, and was the recipient of the degree of D.D. from Kittrell College.

        He was converted in 1882 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held almost every office in the local church, having been class leader, steward, trustee, Sunday school superintendent, chorister, president young people's society, etc. He was licensed to preach March 10, 1902, at Washington, D. C., by Rev. William H. Hunter, D.D., and joined the Baltimore Conference, May, 1903, at Baltimore, Md., and was ordained deacon at that session by Bishop Lee. He was ordained elder by Bishop Lee, May 7, 1905, at Cumberland, Md. Dr. Hunter has held the following appointments: Sandy Mission, Md., 1902-03; Washington City Mission, D. C., 1903-04; assistant pastor of Metropolitan, Washington, D. C., 1904-05; State superintendent A. C. E. League, Baltimore Conference, 1905-09; Third Street, Richmond, Va., 1909-11; St. John's, Norfolk, Va., 1911 to date. In Richmond he paid a debt of $1,000 in 1909-10. In Norfolk he paid mortgage of $10,000, freeing this historic church from all indebtedness. He was voted for for the office of financial secretary at Kansas City, in 1912. Rev. Hunter was twice married, his first wife was Miss Mary L. Russell, to whom he was married December 26, 1889. After her death he was married a second time, June 18, 1903, to Miss Jennie M. Spears, of Memphis, Tenn. He has a daughter, Miss Evangeline Hunter, who is deaf and blind, but who is quite an accomplished young woman, a devout Christian and a source of inspiration in spite of her affliction. He has contributed to many papers and magazines, as local papers of Raleigh, Washington, D. C. Richmond, Norfolk, A. M. E. Review, New York Evening Post and New York Tribune, etc., and has made addresses on many important occasions. He is a member of the Masons and Odd Fellows. He attended the national Republican convention


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in 1900. Before entering the active ministry he taught school and became principal of school in Raleigh, spent 19 years in civil service, practiced law in the courts of Washington, D. C., and is now eligible to practice in U. S. Supreme Court. He was actively associated with the Charities of D. C., and was one of the founders of the social settlement organization of Washington, D. C. He was very active in the fight against tuberculosis in Washington, D. C., which gave impetus to the organized national crusade against this dreaded disease. He has always been prominently identified with the Christian

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. EDWARD HUGHES HUNTER, D.D.

Endeavor work, both nationally and locally. He was at one time vice president of the Union of Christian Endeavor Societies of the District of Columbia, which included all societies, without regard to race.

        Rev. Hunter is a good example of a successful earnest minister of the Gospel, who is able to take his proper place of leadership in any community to which he is sent.

        Hunter, Mrs. Jennie M. (Spears), wife of Rev. E. H. Hunter, pastor St. John's A. M. E. Church, Norfolk, Va., was born November 17, 1865, in Memphis, Tenn., and went to Washington, D. C., when a small child, under the care of her elder sister, Mrs. Amelia Bennett; was educated in the public schools of Washington, Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute, Virginia, and the Spencerian Business College, Washington, taking high rank for scholarship in all, and winning honors. She has added to her academic training by private instruction, correspondence courses and large literary research.

        She began teaching at seventeen years of age and taught twenty-one years, nineteen of which were in the school system of Washington, D. C., where she won distinction and became a blessing during all those years, because of the self-sacrificing, intelligent, effective work done in starting and shaping the lives of hundreds. She served in every grade of the educational work, closing her teaching career in 1903, as Principal of one of the largest and most important of the public schools of Washington, the Mott School, by her marriage.

        Mrs. Hunter accepted Christ at nine years of age, and joined the M. E. Church. She has always been active in Sunday School and the other auxiliary branches of church work. Her missionary zeal seems most intense, as if born of an unsatisfied desire to give herself to foreign work. She has, however, wisely harnessed that zeal and through the years of her life turned it into practical channels on the great missionary fields about her door. She works modestly but most effectively, everywhere; and is consequently

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. JENNIE M. HUNTER.

more loved and honored by the humble, poor and ignorant than the ambitious great, who fail to understand and often question her motives. Though often called to positions of command and executive management in her work, she never seeks office and frequently shuns it. For this reason her career is not so generally known along missionary lines, as it should be and is, in the particular localities where she has labored.

        In 1890, believing that her best opportunity for service was in the church of Richard Allen, she joined Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, Washington, D. C., becoming immediately one of its most active workers, began her career as a strong but quiet force in African Methodism. Since her marriage in 1903, it has been discovered that her career as a pastor's wife has been the crowning work of her life. She is filling this, probably the most delicate and difficult of all relations in life, in a way that not only does credit to her fine intellect, broad experience, keen judgment, good sense and loving heart, but makes her a blessing to every community, so fortunate as to have the pastoral services of her husband. She really becomes an example to the other women of the flock and stirs in them such missionary zeal as they in many cases have not known before.

        Through her leadership, both the Richmond and Norfolk Mite Societies more than doubled their annual contributions to missionary work. St. John's Society furnished $150, three-fourths of the scholarship fund required to prepare a South African girl, who is


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now teaching under Bishop Johnson. A native girl of West Africa is also being trained at Kittrell, through the efforts of this Society. Other educational efforts at Kittrell, South and West Africa have also received generous aid from this Society, all under the leadership and direction of this wide-awake woman.

        Hunter, William Hammett, business manager of the Book Concern 1872-1876, was born in Raleigh, N. C., June 21, 1831, of slave parents, but became free in early childhood, his father purchasing his family and removing to Brooklyn, N. Y., where William received his elementary education. In the meantime he worked in a jewelry establishment in Newark, N. J., assisting in smelting and refining. Not satisfied with his limited education, he entered Wilberforce University, where he remained three years, and later was ordained as a minister of the A. M. E. Church. In September, 1863, while filling the charge at Water's Chapel, Baltimore, he was appointed by President Lincoln, chaplain of the Fourth U. S. Colored Troops, Colonel Samuel Duncan, the second colored chaplain commissioned in the United States. He served until the end of the war, being mustered out in May, 1866, and then resumed his ministerial duties, first in Washington, D. C., and later in many important charges of his church. In 1872 he was elected manager of the Book Concern and served until 1876. At the close of the war he married Miss Henrietta, daughter of Rev. John Jordan, of Baltimore. He died at Hunter's Heights, Anacostia, D. C., October 16, 1908. His widow died July 9, 1912.

        Hurley, Rev. Robert French, was born at Gainesville, Prince William County, Va., September 16, 1846. His father's name was Rubin Hurley and his mother's, Catherine Lambert. His father was killed by two slave men in 1859. His mother died a member of the South Street A. M. E. Church, Zanesville, O., October 1, 1908, aged 96 years.

        At the age of seven years the family moved to Louden County, near Leesburg, where he lived until he was sixteen years of age. Then he left home with the 2nd N. Y. Cavalry, with which he remained about 9 months. He enlisted in the 1st U. S. Co. Infantry and was assigned to Company B., June 21, 1863, at Washington, D. C. He was honorably discharged, September 29, 1865. During his absence from his Virginia home his people moved to the State of Ohio, and located in Zanesville. On being mustered out of the service, he joined them at their Ohio home.

        He was converted in November 1865, and united with the A. M. E. Church at Zanesville. He was married to Rosa Ann Tate, April 25, 1867, at Zanesville; was licensed to preach April 25, 1868; admitted on trial in the Ohio Conference and was appointed to Delaware Station, Delaware, Ohio, April 25, 1869. His appointment to Delaware was designed to give him the benefit of the Ohio Wesleyan University. This he had for two years only, but kept himself under the instruction of private masters wherever he was sent for many years. He has served as pastor of several of the most important churches in the connection. Among them are Avery Chapel, Memphis, Tenn.; St. James, New Orleans; Bethel, New York; Charles Street, Boston; New Bedford, Mass.; Springfield, Ill.; Bethel, Detroit; Allen Chapel, Indianapolis; Trenton, Camden, and Newark, N. J., and Wylie Ave., Pittsburgh. He served several districts as presiding elder.

        He was a delegate to the general conference from 1880 to 1904. He has served as a member of the educational, missionary and C. P. A. boards. He has been a trustee of Wilberforce University for over forty years, and was a trustee of Paul Quinn College, Waco, Tex., for several years. He was honored by the above named college with the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He has

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ROBERT FRENCH HURLEY.

been a contributor to the Christian Recorder for more than forty-five years, also to other race papers. He is the author of two publications, "The Negro in America," and "The Church and Politics, or Practical Christianity." He also has quite a list of lectures which he has delivered at various times and places.

        He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and a past department chaplain of the department of New York, and served as aide-de-camp on the staff of both department commanders and commanders-in-Chief. He was presidential elector for the Tenth Congressional District of Tennessee on the Garfield ticket, in 1880. He was selected to open the United States Circuit Court in Boston by prayer.

        He is a prominent Mason. He is now serving his third year as pastor of the A. M. E. Church at Clarksburg, W. Va. Of his nine children, seven have died. He buried his wife at Trenton, N. J., in January, 1909.

        Hurst, Bishop John, thirty-sixth bishop of the A. M. E. Church, the son of Thomas and Sylvanie Hurst, was born May 10, 1863, at Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He was one of five children of his parents, who were both members of the A. M. E. Church. He began attending school when six years of age and spent about sixteen years in school, attending chiefly the combined primary and grammar, high school, Lycee National, Port-au-Prince, and Wilberforce University. He is a graduate


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of the Lycee National and Wilberforce University, having received the degree B.D. from Wilberforce in 1886. He was converted in 1877 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He was licensed to preach in 1883 at Wilberforce, O., by Bishop B. F. Lee; was ordained deacon in 1886 at Baltimore, Md., by Bishop Wayman, and ordained elder in 1887 at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, by Bishop Campbell. He joined the annual conference in 1882 at Baltimore, Md., under Bishop Payne, and had the following appointments: St. Paul's A. M. E. Church, 1886-89; Superintendent of Missions in Haiti; Crowdensville Circuit, Md.; Baltimore Conference, 1893-1894; Waters A. M. E., Baltimore, Md., 1894-1898;

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP JOHN HURST.

Bethel, Baltimore, 1898-1903; Waters, 1903-1908; St. John's, 1908. He built Gaines Chapel, Md., at a cost of $1,200, in 1893; Home for Aged, at Baltimore, at a cost of $12,000, in 1902. He reduced the mortgage on Waters from $24,000 to $14,000. He has taken about 645 people into the church, baptized about 280 and married about 300. He has been delegate to all general conferences from 1892 to 1916; was a member of the financial board, 1901 to 1908, and financial secretary, 1908 to 1912; was recording secretary of the financial board, 1904-1908; delegate to Ecumenical Conference, 1901, London, Eng., and Ecumenical Conference, 1911, at Toronto, Canada; secretary of Bishops' Council; member of Commission on Federation of Methodism; member of Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. He was elected financial secretary of A. M. E. Church, 1908, and bishop, 1912, and assigned to the eleventh episcopal district, embracing the State of Florida. Upon the death of Bishop Derrick he was given the supervision of the West Indian field and of British and Dutch Guiana. He organized the A. M. E. Church in Jamaica, receiving 9 congregations with 1100 members and property valued at $10,000. The general conference of 1916 reassigned him to Florida.

        He married Mrs. K. Bertha Hurst, of Abbeville, S. C., in 1890. Their son, Benoni Price Hurst, age 23, is a

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. K. BERTHA HURST.

graduate of Amherst College and also of the Medical Department, Harvard University. He has contributed to many periodicals. He made an address at the Anniversary of the Bible Society, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and before the Literary Society, Wilberforce University. He is a member of the F. and A. M., Epsilon Boule, Sigma Pi Phi. He is independent in politics. He was secretary of the Haitian Legation, Washington, D. C., 1889-92. He was president North Eastern Board, Federated Charities, Baltimore, Md., for twelve years. He is associated with National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Academy Social and Political Science, and National Kindergarten Association.

        IVERSON, J. OSCAR, was born forty-six years ago in Barbour County, Ala. His mother was a devoted Christian. He was educated in the public and graded schools of Georgia. Took special courses under private teachers. R. R. Wright, Sr., was his second teacher; converted in 1886; has been preaching ever since he was a boy. He has built several churches, among them Bethel, at Little Rock, Ark., which will forever speak for him. D.D. conferred by Payne University, Ala.; has been a member to two general conferences and was voted for the bishopric without any efforts on his part. Read New Testament Greek under Prof. Alfred A. Wright, of Boston University. He is gifted in song. "Whatsoever ye would that men would do to you, do ye even so to them," is his motto. His family consist of a wife and four children. He is now presiding elder, and a member of the Centennial General Conference.


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        JACKSON, ARTHUR SMITH, son of Smith Jackson and Amanda (Brown) Jackson, was born at Waco, Texas, January 1, 1873, the only boy and youngest of four children of his parents. He attended the public schools of his native town and showed desire and ability for learning. He was a youthful leader among, his schoolmates. Early in young Jackson's school life he manifested marked ability for science and mathematics, and became schoolyard authority upon problems in these branches. In 1888 he finished the grammar

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. A. S. JACKSON, LL.D.

school course under Prof. A. J. Moore, at that time principal of the Waco city schools. In 1890 Arthur's mother died and then the struggle began. His first occupation was bootblacking, which he followed for two or three years, and finally was persuaded by a

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. A. S JACKSON

Methodist preacher, the late Dr. B. W. Roberts, to enter Paul Quinn College. Auctioning off his boot-black outfit, our subject crossed the river and matriculated in Paul Quinn and graduated at the head of his class in 1895. After teaching in the rural districts for six years, he was called to the chair of mathematics in his alma mater, which he held for twelve years. On the death of Dr. T. C. Denham he was appointed by Bishop Tyree treasurer of the institution and held this position six years in conjunction with his professorship. He has been frequently honored by his associates, having been president of the Texas State Teachers' Association, grand officer in Knights of Pythias, supreme representative for six terms of the Supreme Court of Calanthe. The following degrees have been conferred upon him: Paul Quinn College, LL.D.; Wilberforce University, M.S. and LL.D. In 1912 he was elected by the general conference convening in Kansas City as secretary of education to succeed Prof. John R. Hawkins. He is a pleasing speaker and ranks among the best thinkers of the race. The conduct of the educational department was so satisfactory during his first term that the Centennial General Conference suspended the rule and elected him to succeed himself by acclamation. In 1897 he was married to Miss M. C. Denham, daughter of the late Rev. T. C. Denham. To them one child was born, Louise. He, his wife and baby live happily at Waco, Texas.

        Jackson, Edward G., was born in Racine, Wis., October 3, 1858. His father, Wesley Jackson, was pastor of the A. M. E. Church from 1857 to 1861. After the death of his father the family moved to Chicago, Ill. He was educated in the public schools and graduated from the high school, Class of 1877.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. E. G. JACKSON.

For seventeen years after graduation he was employed as clerk with the tea and coffee importing firm of Fitch & Howland. The quarterly conference of St. John's A. M. E. Church granted him a local preacher's license in 1895, under Rev. F. J. Peterson, presiding elder, at Aurora, Ill. He was ordained deacon at Mt. Pleasant, Ia., September, 1897, and elder at
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Chicago, Ill., September, 1899, both by Bishop Arnett. He has served the Iowa (now Chicago) Conference at Marshall, as recording secretary and chief secretary at different times. He entered the traveling ministry and was sent to Superior, Wis., by Bishop Arnett. Here he served five years, being the first five-year pastor in the Iowa Conference. He was then assigned to Albia, Ia., where he served one year, and then two years at Sioux City, Ia. He was then assigned to Buxton, Ia., from 1904 to 1907, inclusive. His next assignment was Burlington, Ia., 1908. Bishop C. T. Shaffer appointed him as presiding elder of the St. Paul district of the Iowa Conference in 1908, which position he filled for five years. He was then assigned to St. Peter's Church, Minneapolis, Minn., and the next year was assigned to Des Moines, Ia. In 1915 he was transferred from the Iowa Conference to the Illinois Conference, and assigned to Champaign, Ill. He was married to Miss Josephine R. Hodges, of Aurora, Ill., in December, 1891. Two children were the fruit of this marriage. He has been identified with Sunday school and church work from childhood, and has been active also as a race man, holding various positions of honor from time to time, and is widely known because of his loyalty to all that pertains to the race and to the Church.

        Jackson, G. L., is one of the pioneers of the Tennessee annual conference and one of the leading ministers of the same. He has served acceptably as pastor from the smallest to the largest and most important

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. G. L. JACKSON, D.D.

charges in the conference and has been a presiding elder, which office he now holds, for a number of years, giving faithful and satisfactory service. He has helped to receive into the traveling connection of the conference every active minister now in it but one. He has received two of his own sons into the church and helped to receive them into the Tennessee conference and assisted in their ordination, one of whom, Rev. G. L. Jackson, Jr., is a graduate of Talladega College, Talladega, Ala., and a graduate of Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn., and is now pastor of Trinity A. M. E. Church, Nashville, Tenn. The other son, Rev. M. E. Jackson, was graduated from Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn., and from Payne Theological Seminary, Wilberforce, Ohio. Rev. G. L. Jackson has been a member of the general conferences for many years, beginning in 1884, and has served on some of the important committees. He was one of the founders of the Sunday School Union, Nashville, Tenn., and a trustee of the same for many years. He received his educational training at Fisk University and graduated from theology at Walden University, known then as Central Tennessee College, Nashville, Tenn. He received the degree of D.D. from Turner College, Shelbyville, Tenn. His wife is a graduate of Talladega College and a great and earnest church worker.

        Jackson, Mrs. G. L., corresponding secretary of the Connectional W. H. and F. Missionary Society of the A. M. E. Church. Mrs. Jackson is a graduate of Talladega College, Talladega, Ala., the wife of Rev. G. L. Jackson, D.D., who is one of the leaders and pioneers

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. G. L. JACKSON.

of the Tennessee Conference. She is president of the Tennessee Conference Missionary Society; she has been twice elected corresponding secretary of the Connectional Society; she is a woman of great influence and a leader among women in all things pertaining to the uplift of her people.

        Jackson, Rev. James Denham, was born February 23, 1865, at Washington, D. C., the son of William F. and Annie E. Jackson. He attended the public school of the city until 14 years of age; was converted in January,


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1873, at Israel Bethel A. M. E. Church, under the pastorate of Rev. Dr. George T. Watkins. He was sent as messenger and sword-bearer to General U. S. Grant during his famous tour around the world. On his return home, he went to Brooklyn, N. Y., connected himself with Bridge Street A. M. E. Church, Rev. J. B. Stansberry, pastor. Having discovered some gifts and grace in him, the pastor and his good wife persuaded him to enter Wilberforce University and prepare for his calling. In 1884 he entered; was licensed to preach by Dr. (now Bishop) B. F. Lee, who was then pastor of Holy Trinity A. M. E. Church, presiding elder and president of the college. During his years in school, he served at Cedarville, Ohio; South Charleston, Ohio, and finished the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JAMES DENHAM JACKSON.

church building at Jeffersonville, Ohio. He came out with the class of 1892; was sent by Bishop D. A. Payne to the charge at Parkersburg, W. Va. At the close of that year, by request of Bishop B. T. Tanner, transferred to the New York Annual Conference. He served and built churches at the following named places in New York: Cosmopolitan Mission; Huntington Station; Bay Shore Station (built new church); St. Johns, Brooklyn; Oswego and Richfield Springs; Elmira Station (entertained the annual conference, 1900, Bishop W. B. Derrick, presiding); Olean Station (built new church); Westbury, L. I., Station; Setauket Station; Port Jefferson (built new church); Elmhurst Station (here finished a fine edifice in 1911-12, the dedication of which was the last official work done in the district by the late Bishop W. J. Gaines, November 5, 1912). He transferred to the Baltimore Annual Conference, April 17, 1912, and served two years at Cumberland; went to Baltimore, rebuilding Wayman Memorial A. M. E. Church.

        Jackson, John Edgar, son of Zachariah and Priscilla Jackson, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born October 15, 1874, at Pittsboro, N. C., one of eight children; began attending school at six years of age and received his education in the public schools, P. E. parochial school and Hampton Institute; received degrees from Kittrell and Livingston Colleges; was converted in 1890 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year, and has held nearly every office in the church; was licensed to preach May, 1896, at Pittsboro, N. C., by Rev. J. S. Derry and joined the annual conference the same year at Morganton, N. C., under Bishop Handy; was ordained deacon November, 1899, at Durham, N. C., by Bishop Handy; elder, November, 1901, at Lenoir, N. C., by Bishop Lee; has held

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. E. JACKSON, D.D.

the following appointments: St. Paul, Chapel Hill, 1896; High Point, 1896-98; Guilford College Ct., 1898-1901; Emanuel, Durham, 1901-2; St. Stephen's, Wilmington, N. C., 1902-7; St. Joseph, Durham, 1907-12; P. E., Raleigh district, 1912-14; Greensboro district, 1914 to date. He rebuilt St. Joseph at Durham at a cost of $15,000 in 1909-11 and remodeled St. Stephens at Wilmington, N. C., at a cost of $3000 in 1905. He lifted a mortgage on St. Stephens at Wilmington, N. C., to the amount of $1200 in 1903. He has taken about 1500 into the church, baptized 1200 and married 150. He was delegate to the general conferences of 1908, 1912 and 1916. He was a member of the publication board 1908-1912, and A. C. E. board 1912-16. He married Maria Womack, of Pittsboro, N. C., May 5, 1899. He addressed the literary society at Kittrell in 1904 and made the commencement address at Kittrell in 1911. He is connected with the F. and A. M. and Noble of the Mystic Shrine; has held offices in each of these, and is a home owner.

        Jackson, Thomas H., was born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 13, 1844. His father, George Jackson, was lost at sea. His mother, Elizabeth Williams Jackson, was of Wrightville, Pa.

        In the early 50's the mother and son went West, living for a time in St. Louis, Mo., and East Alton, Ill. From thence they moved to New Orleans, La., where Thomas H. began to attend school. Rev. John M. Brown, afterward bishop, who was then pastor of St. James A. M. E. Church, was one of his teachers. From New Orleans,


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in 1852 he moved to Louisville, Ky., and continued in school. In 1857-58 he attended Wilberforce University. From the fall of 1858 through to 1864 he worked on the river, steamboating from Louisville, Ky., to New Orleans, from St. Louis to Memphis, up the Missouri and Illinois rivers. In the fall of 1864 returned to Wilberforce University. He was converted January 28, 1865, and joined the church next day. When the main building of Wilberforce burned down in 1865, he brought in the first $100 to help rebuild it. He also assisted J. P. Shorter in teaching. As a teacher he taught Bishops Lee, Salter, Jones, Hurst, at Wilberforce, and Conner, at Shorter College; general officers R. C. Ransom and J. C. Caldwell, and hundreds of others. In June, 1865, he was licensed to exhort. On March 23, 1866, he was licensed to preach by Rev. E. D. Davis. He received the first appointment to preach

[ILLUSTRATION]
DR. T. H. JACKSON.

as an itinerant preacher under Bishop W. P. Quinn, in April, 1868, and was sent to Danville, Ky., from Columbus, O., that part of Kentucky then being in the jurisdiction of the Ohio Conference. In September, 1868, the first session of the Kentucky Annual Conference was held in the city of Louisville, Ky., in Quinn Chapel, Bishop Daniel A. Payne presiding, assisted by Bishops Campbell and Shorter. Rev. T. H. Jackson was elected the first secretary of this conference and was regularly admitted on trial with Daniel Tucker and George Meaux, and was returned to Danville, Ky., as pastor. At the second session of the Kentucky Conference, at Lexington, Ky., he was continued secretary, and was elected and ordained a deacon, with Brother Robt. Johnson. At the third session of the Kentucky Conference, in Bowling Green, August, 1870, he was re-elected secretary and he was elected and ordained elder with George H. Shaffer and J. Gilson Francis, and received into full membership with Revs. (now Bishop) B. F. Lee and George Parker, Rev. B. F. Lee being ordained deacon at this session. In June, 1870, he graduated from the Theological Department of Wilberforce University, and was married the evening of graduation to Miss Julia Frances Early, of St. Louis, Mo., a niece of the wife of Bishop Shorter.

        Was elected by the Trustee Board of Wilberforce in 1870 to the chair of Hebrew and the general oversight of the Theological Department in connection with the pastorate of St. John A. M. E. Church in Xenia, Ohio. In 1871 he was professor at Wilberforce University and assistant secretary to the Ohio Conference to which he had been transferred from the Kentucky Conference. In the conference of 1872, was continued assistant secretary and as professor at Wilberforce University. In 1873 transferred to the South Carolina Conference and stationed at Bethel Church, Columbia, S. C., and elected secretary for three consecutive sessions, remaining there until 1876, when he was transferred to the Ohio Conference, stationed at Allen Temple, at Cincinnati, Ohio.

        He has been elected to every general conference since 1872, as follows: 1872, Nashville, Tenn., from the Ohio Conference; 1876, Atlanta, Ga., from the Ohio Conference; 1880, St. Louis, Mo., from the N. Ohio Conference; 1884, Baltimore, Md., from the N. Ohio Conference; 1888, Indianapolis, Ind., from the N. Ohio Conference; 1892, Philadelphia, Pa., from the N. Ohio Conference; 1896, Wilmington, Del., from the W. Arkansas Conference; 1900, Columbus, Ohio, from the S. Arkansas Conference; 1904, Chicago, Ill., from the Arkansas Conference; 1908, Norfolk, Va., from the Arkansas Conference; 1912, Kansas City, Mo., from the Arkansas Conference; 1916, Philadelphia, from the North Ohio Conference. Dr. Jackson was a member of the educational board 16 years and trustee of Wilberforce University since 1871, and was elected a member by the executive board of the Combined Normal and Industrial Board, February, 1915.

        Dr. Jackson was a delegate to the Ecumenical Conference in London, England, leaving this country early in August, 1901, going up through France, Belgium, London and Scotland, attending the Ecumenical Conference in September, returning home about the middle of October.

        Served the following churches in Ohio: Xenia, 1871-1872; Cincinnati, Allen Temple, April, 1876, to September, 1878; Cleveland, 1878 to 1881; Toledo, 1881 to 1883; Springfield, Ohio, 1883 to 1884. Then he returned to Wilberforce as professor of theology, where he served until 1892, when he was transferred to the Arkansas Conference and stationed at Bethel Church, Little Rock, Ark., 1895. From 1895 to 1898 Visitor's Chapel, Hot Springs, Ark. Was elected president of Shorter College, going to Arkadelphia on Tuesdays and returning to Hot Springs on Saturday afternoons. Resigned the presidency of Shorter College, 1898. 1898-1900 transferred to the South Arkansas Conference and stationed at St. John's A. M. E. Church, where he remained for two years, when he was again elected president of Shorter College, which position he filled until 1904, during which time Tyree Hall was built. He also spent three months as lecturer on John C. Martin Educational Course for the State of Arkansas.

        Served as dean of the Theological Department and vice president of Shorter College until 1912, having served in the meanwhile at Quinn Chapel at Fort Smith, Ark., a few months. In 1912 at the meeting of the board of directors of Payne Theological Seminary, at Wilberforce, he was elected one of the professors in Payne Seminary, and is now serving his fourth year.


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        Jacobs, Isaiah Daniel, one of five children of John Allen and Mary Margaret Jacobs, both members of the Moravian Church in the British West Indies, was born in Newfield, Antigua, B. W. I., March 7, 1850. He received his education in Buxton Grove College, Antigua, and the honorary degree of D. D. from Morris

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ISAIAH D. JACOBS, D.D.

Brown College, Atlanta, Ga., in 1907. Converted in 1862, he joined the Moravian Church and later prepared for its ministry, being licensed to preach in 1874 by the Moravians in Lebanon, Antigua; ordained deacon in 1883 and elder in 1885 at St. Johns, Antigua, by Bishop G. W. Westerby. Coming to this country in 1892 he joined the A. M. E. Church and was admitted to the New England conference in 1893 at Springfield, Mass., Bishop Turner presiding. From 1875 to 1892 he held the appointments under the Moravian Church; since then the following in the New England conference of the A. M. E. Church: Norwalk, Conn., August, 1892, to June, 1893; Lynn, Mass., 1893-95; Worcester, Mass., 1895-8; Greenwich, Conn., 1898-1900; Bridgeport, Conn., 1900-2; presiding elder, 1902-1905; Bridgeport, 1905-7; Greenwich, 1907-10; St. Paul, Cambridge, 1910-13. Dr. Jacobs was an alternate to the general conference in 1908. Two of his sons, Revs. Ira S. and Rev. Burchell G. Jacogs, are members of the New England conference. He has been interested in the young people's society work, temperance and other organizations for moral and spiritual improvement. He is a Mason and a K. of P., but not active in politics.

        Jacobs, Ira Stanley, son of Rev. Isaiah and Mary Somers Jacob, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born February 21, 1890, at Antigua, B. W. I., one of nine children. He entered school in 1895 and spent seventeen years in school, receiving his education in the grammar schools of Greenwich, Conn., high schools of Bridgeport, Conn., and Cambridge, Mass., and Wilberforce, receiving the degree of B. D. from Wilberforce. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church at Bridgeport, Conn., in 1902, served as steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher and Sunday school teacher; was licensed to preach in 1908 at Greenwich, Conn., by Rev. W. H. Burrell and joined the annual conference, July, 1908, at New Bedford, Mass., under Bishop Gaines; was ordained deacon in 1911 at Wilberforce University by Bishop Gaines and elder, July, 1912, at Providence, R. I., by Bishop Tyree. He has held the following appointments:

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. IRA S. JACOBS, B.D.

Fall River, Mass., 1911; Lynn, Mass., 1912, and Bridgeport, Conn., 1913. He made an addition to the church at Lynn, Mass., at a cost of $600 in 1913. He was an alternate delegate to the general conference of 1916. His wife, Mrs. Blanche Lelia Jacobs, was born in Lynchburg, Va. They were married in 1914 and have one child, Morris. Rev. Jacobs won the Rush prize at Wilberforce in June, 1910.

        Jarvis, Rev. Joseph Wentworth, was born July 11, 1873, in St. Johns, Antigua, B. W. I., of Mary Parker, daughter of Alexander Parker, shipbuilder, and Alexander M. Jarvis, one of the pioneer Mico teachers. His early life was spent in St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Tobago, Trinidad and Grenada, where his father was a school teacher with a wide reputation. His father died in Grenada, October 13, 1883. The family returned to Antigua, where Joseph continued his schooling at Spring Gardens and All Saints. He passed the pupil teachers' examination and then went to learn the art of seamanship. One year abroad, in South America, satisfied his wanderlust, and he returned home, finished his trade of shoe-making and started in business.

        In 1893 he was converted and immediately began a systematic study of the Bible and took two years of theology, working in the meantime to support his mother, preaching the Gospel in all parts of his home; in 1898 he was led to Porto Rico. With the Rev. G. S. Swenson, he opened the first Protestant Mission at the close of the war. The Christian Herald of October, 1899, published this fact. Owing to his travel in early childhood, he had a working knowledge of various languages and became an economic quantity in the religious life of Porto


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Rico. The American Bible Society immediately asked for his services as Colporteur. He served this Society for two years. The demand for missionaries grew and he was called upon to accept a church in the Marina, of San Juan. His life was a busy one, as he was Spanish principal of the Presbyterian school at the same place, was English teacher at Rio Piedras; was interpreter, the meantime, for the Christian Church and had a lucrative position as private teacher between times. Owing to his general fitness the Presbyterians arranged for the completion of his theological training and for meritorious service he was granted S. T. B., on the field.

        He came to the United States in 1903 and located in Boston. He has been a consistent minister of the A. M. E. Church, a missionary of some ability and at present is band master of the Cartagenian Cadets of Lansing, an organization organized by him in 1913, which is doing

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOSEPH WENTWORTH JARVIS, D.D.

effective work. Bishop C. S. Smith, in 1914, commended him in open conference for his work among the boys. At the general conference of 1912, Kansas City, he was elected member of the board of education for the 15th District. He was private secretary to Bishop Derrick, who was his cousin. During his travels South he spoke at Allen, Georgia State College, Morris Brown and Edward Waters University. Morris Brown conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1915. Dr. Jarvis attended the Escuela Normal of San Juan and taught in one of the Presbyterian Colleges of Mayaguez, P. R.

        He is now serving his fourth year at Lansing, Mich. He has served under Bishops Handy, Shaffer, Derrick, Turner and Smith. He writes under the caption, "Minerals from Michigan."

        Jenifer, Rev. B. J., was licensed to preach on April 4, 1899, by Rev. P. H. Fisher, presiding elder on the Chatard Circuit, Ossaquira County, Miss. He was ordained a deacon by Bishop M. B. Salter, January 21, 1906, at Leland, Miss. He held the appointment at Laringer, Miss., from 1904 to 1905. He next received an appointment to serve under Bishop Lampton, which he held from November 27, 1908, to 1909. Here he built a church which was named Jenifer's Chapel. His next appointment, from Bishop H. M. Turner, was to the Vicksburg Circuit. In 1911 Bishop J. M. Conner appointed him to the U. B. Circuit. He was ordained elder December

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. B. J. JENIFER.

7, 1912, by Bishop Conner, at Indianola, Miss., and was sent to St. James in Vicksburg, Miss., where he now is. In 1912 Rev. Jenifer built a church at Shiloh on the Vicksburg Circuit.

        Jenifer, Rev. John Thomas, the son of Catherine and John H. Jenifer, was born a slave at Upper Marlborough, Prince George County, Maryland, March 10, 1835. He went with his owners to Baltimore in 1853, and there worked as porter for a period of five years in the store of his young master, Truman Dorsey, who was in the dry goods business. For two years he then worked as receiving and shipping clerk in the dry goods house of J. Edward Bird & Bros., for the sum of $16 and board.

        He was converted in Sharp Street M. E. Church, April 4, 1856, and in October 1859 he went to New Bedford, Mass., in search of freedom and education. He joined the A. M. E. Church, under Rev. Henry J. Young. He studied at Taylor's Commercial College, in New Bedford, with the aim of going into the dry goods business. But he was licensed by Rev. William W. Grimes, pastor of Kempton Street A. M. E. Church, on February 5, 1862. He set sail for California on July 21, 1862, and was appointed by Missionary Elder T. M. D. Ward to Sacramento City Station, October 8, 1862. In 1863 he was assigned to Placerville Circuit, Eldorado County, having six preaching points, including the town of Coloma, where the first nugget of gold was discovered in Suter's mill race in 1848. At Placerville, he purchased a lot for a parsonage, also a lot upon which he built a church at a cost of $2,500, leaving only an indebtedness of $80 when he left. During this time he taught the city school for colored children. Bishop J. P. Campbell organized the California Conference, April 10, 1865, at San Francisco, Rev. Jeremiah B. Sampson, secretary; J. T. Jenifer, assistant. At that session, on April 13, Rev. J. T. Jenifer was ordained deacon.

        From this conference he was transferred to the Ohio


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Conference, having saved $1,000 in order to enter Wilberforce University. After supplying Virginia City Station four months, he entered Wilberforce University, January 22, 1866. He studied under Bishop Payne for five years, by whom he was ordained elder on April 22, 1869. While at Wilberforce, he served as pastor of Selma Circuit, Lebanon Circuit, the College Church, Secretary of the Trustee and Executive Boards, and has been permanent trustee since 1874. From Ohio he was transferred to Arkansas and stationed at Bethel Church, Little Rock, serving two terms, of four years each; next to St. John A. M. E. Church, Pine Bluff, two years between. At Little Rock, he built a new brick church costing $22,000, leaving only $1,500; and gathered in many souls. He served as a member of the board of examiners for

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN THOMAS JENIFER.

the public schools of the city and secured the appointment of colored teachers. He served as secretary of the Arkansas Conference for eight years.

        In 1880 he was transferred to Charles Street, Boston, Mass., where he found a mortgage of $32,000 and a floating debt of $1,700, with a membership of about 300. He served this charge for six consecutive years, built it up and collected $48,000 for all purposes, and in 1883 collected $21,115 in one year, paid $7,000 interest on the mortgage debt, leaving on $9,300 to be paid at three per cent interest. While he was in Boston, Wilberforce University conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity.

        He was next appointed to Meeting Street Station, at Providence, serving one year, during which he was elected financial agent for Wilberforce University, and was appointed presiding elder of the New England Conference. After serving in this capacity, he was appointed to Turo Chapel, Newport, R. I., where in six weeks he raised $741.41, and paid off all the floating debts. After three months at Newport, he was transferred to take charge of Quinn Chapel at Chicago, Ill. Here he sold the old property on Fourth Avenue for $50,000 cash, paid off $11,000 mortgage, purchased lots upon which he had erected the present magnificent stone edifice at a cost of $70,000, leaving an enrolment of 1,500 members and 1,100 Sunday school scholars, and a property value of $100,000, putting African Methodism in a representative position for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. After serving here for four years, he was selected by the bishops for the Metropolitan Church, at Washington, D. C., where he served four years with success. His next charges were in Baltimore at St. John's Church and Waters Chapel, which he served two years respectively.

        About this time he was chosen by the Council of Bishops as secretary of the Connectional Preachers' Aid; wrote its constitution and certificates and had it chartered and organized October 4, 1897, in St. John's A. M. E. Church, Baltimore, of which he was then pastor, Bishop James A. Handy, presiding, John W. Beckett, secretary.

        Rev. Jenifer served the C. P. A. as secretary for six years, without salary from the connectional treasury, visited 27 annual conferences in one year and 17 during the succeeding year, collected $3,200 during his term, in aid of the families of deceased itinerant preachers. At the general conference at Chicago, he gave up the C. P. A., and was appointed by Bishop B. F. Lee as presiding elder of the Eastern District of the Baltimore Conference, which he served two years, and served five years over the Baltimore District. At the expiration of his term he was assigned to Mt. Moriah A. M. E. Church, Annapolis, Md.

        During his 47 years of active service he has secured $250,000 in cash and property to the A. M. E. Connection, traveled 200,000 miles and has been in every State in the Union except eight; in Canada and Central America; has preached more than six thousand sermons, held revivals in each charge and has gathered hundreds of souls into the church. He has served in seven conferences and under thirteen bishops, and never marked. He has been a member of the general conference since 1872.

        He has served as chairman of the executive committee from the Arkansas Conference, in the erection of the monument in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, in memory of Bishop Allen, at the Centennial in 1876, and on this occasion he delivered the address. He was secretary of Commission of 1880 on organic union with the B. M. E. Church; was chairman of the Commission upon organic union with the A. M. E. Zion Church; was a member of the advisory board of the Auxiliary Congress of African Ethnology of the World's Fair in 1893 at Chicago.

        The general conference of 1912, at Kansas City, elected him historiographer of the A. M. E. Church, since which time he has prepared and published the Centennial Retrospect History of African Methodism.

        Jennifer, William, was born in Cambridge, Maryland, but knows little or nothing of his birthplace as he was carried further south during infancy by his parents, James and Henrietta Jennifer. Much of his childhood life was spent at and near Chotard, Miss. He entered the Christian fold in his teens, joining the A. M. E. Church, of which he has been a faithful member ever since. Early in his career and while teaching in the town of Lake Providence, La., he was induced by Bishop Grant to accept the principalship of the Delhi Normal School and Agricultural Institute, at Delhi, La. Nearing the end of his six years' pedagogic work in this town he met and married Miss Syme Louis Jones, an accomplished and beautiful young woman of Mt. Herman Seminary, Clinton, Miss. Five children have blessed this union, four of whom are still living and have won distinction in the schools of Washington, D. C. On account of the superior inducement for school work in Texas Prof. Jennifer afterwards went to that State, where he became principal of the school at Milford. Soon after his arrival in the State he was elected president of the Colored Teachers' County Association. In 1900 he took the examination in New Orleans, La., for a clerkship in the Twelfth U. S. census and passed with an exceptionally high average, and was subsequently


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appointed to the position he now holds at Washington, D. C. In two years after entering the Census Bureau as clerk, he held the record in his section for "quality work," having tabulated 600 schedules in one day without an error. In 1903 he matriculated in the medical department of Howard University. After three years he was interrupted in his studies there by his detail to field work for the U. S. Census Bureau in connection with the census of religious bodies. In 1907 he received the honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Paul Quinn College at Waco, Tex. In 1914 he was given supervisory work in the U. S. Census Bureau, being one of the clerks selected to do the tabular work for the "Negro Bulletin" and for the subsequent "Report on Negroes in the United States and its Outlying Possessions." He was ordained to the deaconate by Bishop Salter, and is an eloquent pulpit and platform orator and a versatile writer and essayist. He was a lay delegate to the general conferences of 1904 and 1908, and in 1916 was favorably mentioned for connectional statistician.

        Johnson, Andrew Jackson, son of Andrew and Mattie Johnson, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born January 31, 1876, at Thomasville, Ga., one of six children. He received his education in the public schools of Thomasville and Morris Brown University, receiving degrees A.B. and A.M. from the latter. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1894; has served as steward, trustee, class leader, Sunday school teacher and superintendent. He was lay delegate to the general conferences of 1904 and 1916. He married Miss Mattie J. Smith, daughter of Rev. L. H. Smith, Sr., September 9, 1902. They had four children: Harold, Agell, Minnie and Mattie. He has contributed to the Atlanta (Ga.) Independent; is author of "International Law" and "The Law of Social Problems." Addressed the Alumni Association of Morris Brown University and Y. M. C. A. of Charleston, S. C.; was editor of the East Coast Herald, of St. Augustine, Fla., and principal of the Junior High School. He is connected with the G. U. O. of O. F., Masons, K. of P., Court of Calanthe and Sublime Order of Archery, and has held the office of chancellor commander in the K. of P., Banking Archer in the S. O. of A., and is actively associated with Johnson Home Industrial College, Plains, Ga., and owns real estate.

        Johnson, Prof. Charles Henry, was born in Ashland, Ohio, 1874. He attended Wilberforce University from which he graduated in 1893. He received the degree A.M. from Morris Brown University. He graduated from the Art Institution of Chicago in 1900. He was converted in 1887 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He taught Sunday school at Wilberforce for ten years. Taught at State College, Normal, Ala., one year; taught five years at Kittrell College, and at Wilberforce since 1900. He was elected in 1912 at Kansas City, general secretary of the Laymen's Missionary Movement of the A. M. E. Church. He married Miss Costello Carr, of Kentucky, who was born in Abingdon, Ohio, in 1915. Mrs. Johnson was principal of the Kirksville, Ky., school before marriage. He has contributed to the church papers and the local papers of Green County, Ohio. He wrote the pamphlet, "Men at Work," and "Laymen Missionary Movement." He campaigned in the Laymen's Movement in Memphis and Nashville, Tenn., Little Rock, Ark., New Orleans, La., Jackson, Miss., Birmingham and Huntsville, Ala., Atlanta, Columbus, Americus, Savannah, Millen, Thomasville, Haharra and Bainbridge, Ga., Louisville and Paducah, Ky., Metropolis, Springfield, and Chicago, Ill., Indianapolis, Ind., Cleveland, Toledo, Cincinnati, Dayton and Columbus, Ohio, and Charleston, West Virginia. He was government official at Jamestown Exposition, 1907, custodian of Ohio Exhibit at Lincoln Jubilee in Chicago, 1915. He is associated with the Teachers' Association of Western Drawing and Art Teachers' Association.

        Johnson, Rev. David Templeton, was born in Morristown, N. J., November 29, 1867. He was educated in the public schools of New York, and returned to his native town in 1884, at which time he entered the employ of W. F. Day, one of Morristown's most prominent business men, and learned the catering

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. DAVID T. JOHNSON.

business, himself becoming a popular caterer and successful restauranteur. In 1892 he married Miss Mary V. Smith, of Virginia.

        In 1897 he was converted and became an active member of Bethel A. M. E. Church, Morristown. In 1904 he became totally blind, and has since mastered the letter system. In 1913 he was ordained deacon by Bishop Evans Tyree. He is a Sunday school teacher of ability and a good preacher, and possesses a good library.

        His great grandfather, with his two brothers, was brought to New York direct from Africa. His own father was a veteran of the Civil War, being honorably discharged and pensioned by the Government. His mother was a member of the A. M. E. Church until her death.

        Johnson, Rev. David Henry, the eldest son of the late Griffin C. Johnson and Henrietta Johnson, was


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born five or six years before the Civil War, in Jacks township, Laurens County, S. C.

        His educational advantages were limited, in early life, to attendance for three weeks in the settlement school and to home instructions by his father, and such information as he could pick up from time to

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. DAVID HENRY JOHNSON, D.D.

time until after the death of his father, when he began the struggle in life for himself. He went to town, worked in the office of the clerk of the court, who was a cousin, Ira W. Rice, working mornings and afternoons

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. D. H. JOHNSON.

and attending school of the city, of which Rev. Benjamin F. McDowell was principal.

        At the close of the term young Johnson received a certificate and taught in the public school during the summer of 1873; in the fall he entered the normal department of the then South Carolina College, and continued in this department until the spring of 1877, when the Democrats took the Government and turned colored students out of the institution. David Henry continued to teach and study under the direction of private schools and teachers. He studied Greek and theology under the direction of Rev. Alfred A. Wright.

        He was taken early and given work in the Church as clerk to the stewards, while he was yet in his teens, then was placed on the steward board to fill a vacancy caused by death; was made superintendent of the Sunday school, leader of the choir, class leader, local preacher; taken up and appointed to Kelton Mission in 1881; was admitted into the Columbia Conference, in 1882, and served Sandy Run Circuit three years; St. Matthew's Station, three years; Cokesbury, four years; Abbeville, five years; Warrenton Circuit, one year; president Allen University, five years; Sumter Station, one year; Spartanburg Station, four years; Abbeville District, four years; Greenwood District, one year; Greenville Station present charge.

        He is a Republican, and has filled such positions as manager, commissioner and supervisor of county elections. Member of the General Conference of 1892, Philadelphia; 1904, Chicago; 1908, Norfolk, and 1912, Kansas City, and the Centennial General Conference of 1916. Trustee for years of Allen University and treasurer of the same from 1913 to 1916. When the Piedmont negotiated for the Sterling College property he was selected the acting president and treasurer of same.

        In 1896 Allen University conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon him. Rev. F. Y. Dendy writes of him: "Dr. Johnson is one of the most pious and scholarly men of the A. M. E. Church in South Carolina, and has the respect and confidence of all who know him."

        Johnson, Rev. George Clyde, is the son of Rev. Ivory and Laura Johnson, both members of the A. M. E. Church, Rev. Ivory Johnson being one of the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. GEORGE CLYDE JOHNSON.

pioneer preachers of South Carolina. He was born September 7, 1877, at Helena, S. C., and was one of eight children. He attended the public schools, and
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in 1892 entered Allen University, where he spent four years, graduating in 1896. He was converted in 1892, joining the A. M. E. Church the same year. He was licensed to preach in 1900, at Sumter, S. C.; was ordained deacon in 1901, at Minning, S. C., by Bishop Gaines, and elder in 1904, at Marion, by Bishop Coppin. He joined the annual conference in 1900, at Sumter, under Bishop W. J. Gaines, and has held the following appointments: Zion Hill Mission, 1901; Russell Mission, 1902-1904; Faneston Circuit, 1905; Good Hope Circuit, 1906; St. Peter's Station, 1907-10; Feldenville, 1911-1914; presiding elder of Columbia District, 1915 to date.

        He built Alderman's Chapel, Alcoln, at a cost of $5000, in 1904; lifted a mortgage on St. Peter's Church, at Cameron, to the amount of $200, in 1908. He has been secretary of the Northern and Southern Conferences, and treasurer of the Missionary Board of the Columbia Conference.

        He married Mrs. Emma Lela Johnson, of Bishopville, S. C., in 1901. He has contributed to the several Recorders, and wrote the "History of the Life of the late Nathaniel Chiles." He is connected with the K. of P., F. and A. M., Knights of King David, Eastern Star and Calantha. He has held prominent offices in each. He is a property owner. Rev. Johnson is a member of the Centennial General Conference.

        Johnson, George F., was born in Elizabethtown, N. J., March 15, 1842. His childhood days were spent in Williamsburg, L. I., N. Y. Through the Christian influence of his mother he became a preacher, and has been the means of bringing many souls to Christ. He served in the U. S. Army during the Civil War as second sergeant of Company C., Fourteenth Rhode

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. GEORGE F. JOHNSON

Island Heavy Artillery; Eleventh Regiment United States Colored Troops. He is past commander and adjutant of I. M. Tucker Post, G. A. R., and past chaplain of the Morning Star Lodge, No. 15, F. and A. M. He was converted in 1867 and joined the U. A. M. E. Church; he was called to the ministry in 1869. In 1877 he was licensed to preach; ordained deacon in 1880, and ordained elder in 1888. He held many appointments in the U. A. M. E. Church in New York. In 1902, while president of the second Episcopal district, he withdrew from that Church and joined the Baptist Church. In 1909 he joined the A. M. E. Church, at Asbury Park, and joined the annual conference the following year, and has pastored Mt. Teman, Elizabeth, N. J.; Greenfield, Mass.. He was sent back to New Jersey by the annual conference, in 1915, because of ill health.

        Johnson, Bishop John Albert, son of John and Mary Johnson, both members of the Church in their community, was born October 29. 1857, at Oakville, Ont., Canada. He was one of four children. Began

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP J. ALBERT JOHNSON.

attending school at four years of age, and spent in all, sixteen years in school, receiving his education at the High School, Hamilton Institute and Upper Canada College. He was converted, and joined the British M. E. Church, in 1874. He was licensed to

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. J. ALBERT JOHNSON.

preach in 1874, at Toronto, by Rev. S. D. Smith, and joined the annual conference in 1875, under Bishop Nazrey; was ordained deacon in 1876, at Halifax, N. S., by Bishop Disney, and elder in 1880 by Bishop Disney.
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He has been a delegate to every general conference since 1880; was a fraternal delegate to the M. E. General Conference, Cleveland, 1896, and delegate to two ecumenical conferences of 1891 and 1901. He was voted for the bishopric in 1908, in Norfolk, Va., and elected bishop for South Africa, where he has served very successfully for eight years, coming to America only twice in that time to attend the general conferences of 1912 and 1916. He is now presiding bishop of the second episcopal district. He was a member of two ecumenical conferences.

        He married Minnie S. Goosley, of Liverpool, N. S., in the Dominion of Canada, in 1880. They have two children--Roland R. and Percival Courtland Johnson. The elder, Roland R., is a successful physician in New York, while the younger practices dentistry in Philadelphia, Pa. He owns a home.

        Johnson, Rev. John Quincy, whose father, Andrew Johnson, was a member of the Catholic Church, and whose mother, Jackette Johnson, was a member of the Christian Church; was born May 30, 1870, at Nashville, Tenn., one of eleven children. He began school at the age of six and attended until the age of twenty-five, going principally to the Keys School, Belleview School and Fisk University, in Nashville; Princeton University, N. J., and Hartford Divinity School, Hartford, Conn. He received B.A. degree

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN QUINCY JOHNSON, D.D.

from Fisk; B.D. from Hartford, and D.D. from Morris Brown, and took two years' post-graduate work in the Princeton Theological Seminary. He joined St. John's Church, Nashville, in 1878, and has, therefore, been an African Methodist nearly all of his life. In his Church he served as trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacer, and Sunday school teacher. Held appointments at the following places: Mt. Pisgah, Princeton, N. J.; St. John's, Montgomery, Ala., 1895-1898; St. John's, Birmingham, Ala., 1898-1900; St. Paul's, Nashville, Tenn., 1900-1903; presiding elder of Columbia District, 1905-1910; pastor at Woodfork Chapel, Shelbyville, 1910-1911; presiding Elder of North Nashville District, 1911 to date, and dean of theology, Turner College, since 1914. Was delegate to general conference at Columbia, O., 1900; Chicago, 1904; Norfolk, 1908, and is a member of the Centennial General Conference of 1916; was a member of the Education Board, 1904 to 1908, and president of Allen University, Columbia, S. C., 1894-5; fraternal delegate to C. M. E. General Conference, at Nashville, 1902.

        Married Miss Hallie Tanner, daughter of Bishop Tanner, in 1894, and their children were four--John Q., Jr., Benjamin T., Henry T., Sadie T. Miss Sadie T. Johnson is a graduate of Fisk University. Benjamin T. Johnson is a graduate of West High School, Pennsylvania. After the death of Mrs. Hallie T. Johnson, Dr. Johnson married Miss Quintella Hall, the daughter of J. Q. Hall and Mrs. Priscilla Hall of Mt. Pleasant, Tenn., and they had one daughter, Ruth Johnson. Dr. Johnson has been a newspaper correspondent for twenty-five years. He wrote "The Fifth Tuskegee Negro Conference" for the John F. Slater Fund; delivered an address, "The New Emancipation," at Alabama State Normal School, Morris Brown College, Fisk University, and Meharry Medical College, and at one time taught mathematics at Tuskegee Institute. He is a member of G. U. O. of O. F., F. and A. M., K. of P. Has been more or less connected with politics, and has been independent. Owns his home. He is a trustee of Wilberforce University, of Turner College and a member of Southern Sociological Congress.

        Johnson, King S., son of Pendleton and Rebecca Johnson, was born less than 40 years ago in the State of Texas, attended the public schools of his home town, Brazoria, graduated from Tuskegee Normal School in 1903; taught a year in Hungerford Industrial School, Eatonville, Fla. He had a desire to try the business field and went to Sanford, Fla., and opened a general merchandise store, which after working five years was destroyed by fire. He then opened an undertaking establishment, and at the same time took a course in theology, entered the ministry, and was appointed to Stone Bridge mission near Sanford, Fla. His wife was Miss Lizzie Johnson, of Sanford, Fla. They have five children. Brother Johnson was a lay delegate to the general conference of 1916, elected from the South Florida Conference.

        Johnson, Rev. L. J., was born in Vicksburg, Miss., April 1, 1865; was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church, at Burlington, Kan., in 1886; was admitted into the itinerancy in 1890, at Wichita, Kan. He has served the following named places: Elwood and Tracy, White Cloud and Highland, Ellsworth, Kan.; Beatrice, Neb.; Quindaro, Kan.; St. James, Lawrence, Kan.; was manager of the boarding department of Quindaro, Kan., for three years; Cheyenne, Wyoming; Jackson, Mo.; Perry, Okla.; El Reno, Okla; Enid, Okla., six years, at which place a neat, modern church was built and paid for during his jurisdiction. He is now serving the third year as presiding elder of the Guthrie District. Faithful service has been rendered at all of the afore-named places, and much good was accomplished for the Church. In the meantime he has secured four houses and ten lots in the beautiful little city of Enid, at which place he has resided for the past ten years. He is blessed by having for his companion


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a cultured lady, Mrs. Lalla M. Johnson, a teacher for several years in the public schools of the state. He studied for the ministry at Western University, Quindaro,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. L. J. JOHNSON, B.D.

Kan. He served in the Kansas Conference eleven years; Colorado Conference, one year; Missouri Conference, two years; Oklahoma Conference, ten years.

        Johnson, Moses G., a steward in Mother Bethel A. M. E. Church, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., June 9, 1855. His parents, Mr. George and Mrs. Mary Ann Johnson, were both members of Mother Bethel Church, and his grandmother was a member of the

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. MOSES G. JOHNSON.

first Bethel A. M. E. Church during the days of Bishop Richard Allen, hence he has more than ordinary attachment to this cradle of African Methodism. He attended school from the age of seven for about nine years, attending principally Bird's School, at Sixth, above Lombard street, Philadelphia. He was converted in January, 1897, and joined Bethel Church, in which he is steward, Sunday school teacher and church marshal. His wife is Mrs. Rosa E. Johnson, to whom he was married, in 1908. He is founder and president of Bethel Historical Commission, and author of the centennial souvenir of Mother Bethel; a charter member and secretary of Allen Guards, the custodian of Bishop Allen's tomb, charter member of Sarah Allen League, founder of Bethel's Young People's Association, former president of Bethel A. C. E. League. Mr. Johnson has been a member of the Central Committee of Colored Republicans, a contributor to several periodicals and is a lay delegate to the Centennial General Conference, representing the Philadelphia Conference.

        Johnson, Mrs. Rosa, was born in 1861, in Washington, D. C., the seventh of twelve children of William and Jane Budd. She was educated in the public schools of Washington, D. C., graduating from the High School in 1879, and taught for awhile in the public schools of Washington. She was married to Mr. James Johnson, and moved to Cleveland, O., where she continued to reside.

        In 1897 she received a definite call to the missionary work, and offered herself to her Church as a missionary

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. ROSA JOHNSON.

to Africa, but the thought that her health would not permit the test of the African climate prevented this much coveted service. Since the death of Mr. Johnson, in 1905, she has given her entire time to the missionary work of the A. M. E. Church. She gave ten years of service in the slums of Cleveland, and scores of young men and women are now living strong Christian lives, who were rescued from the thraldom of sin through her efforts. She has been elected president of the Woman's Mite Missionary Society of the North Ohio Conference for twenty-five consecutive years, and has traveled constantly through the conference organizing and strengthening the Junior and Woman's Mite Missionary Societies. In 1903, at Pittsburgh, she was elected field agent for the parent body, and traveled extensively when in that office, lecturing on various topics relative to the missionary work. She has been elected for the third term first vice-president of the parent Mite Society. She
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edited the Missionary Circular for the North Ohio missionary societies. When the Woman's Missionary Recorder was issued the Circular was abolished, and she is now a constant contributor to this journal.

        She is also interested in the temperance work, having served as president for eight years of the Thurman Union, of Cleveland, O., and also as county evangelist. At the annual conference, held at Oxford, O., Bishop Arnett requested her to deliver an address on temperance to the students of Miami College, of that town, during this session of conference, and when the appointments were given he said to her, "Take this," and it was her evangelistic license, so that with her other duties, she entered the field as an evangelist, and has held meetings in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Tennessee and North Carolina, winning hundreds of souls for the Master.

        Johnson, Samuel James, one of nine children of Green and Sarah Johnson, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born February 22, 1877, at Nelsonville, Tex.; began attending school in 1885; received degree of D.D. from Campbell College, Jackson, Miss.; attended Bible school at Tillottson College, at Austin, Tex., two years; was converted April 28, 1895; joined Sealine Chapel A. M. E. Church 1895; held offices of steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher, Sunday school teacher, Sunday school superintendent; was licensed to preach 1899 at Chapel

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. J. JOHNSON, D.D.

Hill, Tex., by Rev. G. E. Taylor; was ordained deacon 1902 in Victoria, Tex., by Bishop Salters; ordained elder 1904 at Smithville, Tex., by Bishop Tyree; joined the annual conference 1901 at Bostrop, Tex., under Bishop Salter; held the following appointments, all in Texas: Colvin mission, 1901; Somerville mission, three years; Bostrop station, two years; Tunis mission, one year; Samey Chapel circuit, two years; Chapel Hill station, three years; now in his fourth year at Metropolitan station, Austin; built churches at King Chapel, at Colvin, Tex., $200, 1901; Chapel Hill, $2000, 1906; Samuel Chapel, Buckhorn, $200, 1907; parsonage, Chapel Hill, $1200, 1912; has taken over 700 people into church; baptized 259; was delegate to general conferences of 1908, 1912, 1916; member educational board 1908-1912; secretary West Texas Conference four years; trustee of Paul Quinn College six years; member of executive board of Paul Quinn College four years; chairman of the general conference delegation of Tenth Episcopal District, 1916. He was twice married, first in 1899 and second in 1912, his first wife having died. He has had three children: Roberta Camoler, Bessie Burgan (deceased), Coppin Roosevelt. Dr. Johnson is a member of the following secret orders: K. of P., G. U. O. O. F., A. O. O. P., I. O. O. C., F. and A. M.; held offices of junior grand warden of G. L. F. and A. Masons of Texas; past grand chaplain, past grand Joshua Heroines of Jericho, of Texas. He owns his home.

        Johnson, Rev. Samuel M., was born July 7, 1857, in Burkettsville, Md., the son of Mr. and Mrs. James Johnson. He was reared in a mountain valley, in pure atmosphere and picturesque scenes, amidst beautiful landscapes. His father and mother nourished his mind with the milk of Gospel grace, and taught him that by humility and fear of the Lord were riches,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. SAMUEL M. JOHNSON, D.D.

honor and life. In the year 1872 he was converted, and joined "Serious" Bethel Church, a church in the Petersville Circuit, in the Baltimore Conference of the A. M. E. Church. He was licensed to preach in 1876, by Rev. J. R. Henry; admitted into the itinerancy in 1879, at Washington, D. C.; ordained deacon at Hagerstown, Md., in 1883; ordained elder at Havre de Grace, Md., in 1885; entered Howard University, Washington, D. C., in 1880, graduating from the preparatory and theological departments. For twenty-five years he served in the state of his nativity acceptably and successfully. He was one of those faithful men who never had to explain why he did not have conference claims or neglected other things in his pastoral work. Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga., conferred upon him the degree of doctor of divinity in 1904. He
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Bishop Lee, and appointed presiding elder of the was transferred to the Virginia Conference in 1903 by Portsmouth District, and served five years. Bishop Gaines appointed him presiding elder of the Norfolk District, and he served one year. He was then appointed to St. John's Church, Norfolk, Va., and served two years, and was transferred back to the Baltimore Conference in 1911 by Bishop Coppin, and appointed presiding elder of the Hagerstown district, and served three years; then sent to his present charge, Trinty A. M. E. Church, Baltimore, Md. Dr. Johnson was a delegate to the general conference of 1912, and is an alternate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916.

        Johnson, W. B., was born of Christian parents at Cheshire, Ohio. He graduated from the High School of Middleport, Ohio. After having taught four years in Ohio and one year in West Virginia he entered Wilberforce University, graduated from this institution with the degree of Bachelor of Science and with first honors. After serving as principal of Tullibody Academy, Greensboro, Ala., for one year, he resigned to become the first president of our school work at

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. B. JOHNSON, B.S., D.D.

Selma, Ala., Payne University, which position he creditably filled for seven years. He entered the ministry in 1889, under Bishop Gaines and was ordained by Bishop Grant at Mobile, Ala. He has been elected as a ministerial delegate to five consecutive general conferences. He has pastored for the full time the leading charges of Alabama, and has served as presiding elder for seven years; first the Birmingham District and now the South Birmingham District. He received the master's degree from his Alma Mater in 1900, and the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him in 1903 by Allen University. Dr. Johnson is earnest and convincing in argument and is much in demand as a platform speaker. He has an exemplary wife and three children and a nice home.

        Johnson, Rev. William Decker, former commissioner and secretary of education of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Calvert County, Md., March 19, 1842. He was the son of George Hamilton and Elizabeth Johnson. He attended both private and public school. He was converted in 1861. He entered Lincoln University in 1862, and graduated in 1868, receiving the degree of A.B. In 1871 Lincoln conferred upon him A.M., and in 1880 D.D. He was always a student. He was a member of the general conferences since 1876. He was licensed to preach at Oxford, Pa., in 1863, by Rev. Andrew Till. He was ordained deacon in Philadelphia, in 1867, by Bishop Wayman, and ordained elder by Bishop Brown, in 1872. He held appointments at St. Paul's, Washington, D. C.; Tallahassee, Fla.; Apalachicola, Fla.; Eatonton, Ga.; Atlanta, Savannah, Macon, Columbus, Athens, and was presiding elder of Marietta and Griffin Districts. He was commissioner of education of the A. M. E. Church from 1884 to 1896, and president of Allen University from 1904 to 1908. He was several times voted for the bishopric, and came within a very few votes of election. He died at Athens, Ga., April 10, 1909.

        Johnson, Rev. William Decker, was born at Glasgow, Thomas County, Ga., November 15, 1869. His father, Rev. A. J. Johnson, was one of the pioneers of the A. M. E. Church in South Georgia. His mother, Mattie McCullough Johnson, was of good old Methodist parentage. William was placed in school at the age of four, and always had good teachers. He was an apt

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM DECKER JOHNSON, D.D.

student. At the age of fourteen years he was granted a first grade certificate to teach in the public schools, and began teaching in Ware County, Ga. It was while teaching in this county that his father died, leaving to his care a mother and five young children.

        In 1879 he was converted, and united with the church at Whigham, Ga. He was licensed to exhort in 1887, by Rev. W. H. Powell, and in October of the same year he was granted a license to preach by Dr. J. B. Lofton. In July, 1889, he was assigned by Rev. W. O. P. Sherman to the pastoral charge of Westonia


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Mission, and was admitted into the Georgia Conference in December of the same year, at Brunswick, Ga. During the year 1890 he served as district Sunday school superintendent of the Thomasville District.

        The Conference of 1890 met in Dawson, Ga., and here Rev. Johnson was assigned to the pastoral charge of Dawson Mission. Here he built the church at Graves Station, teaching school for the money to pay for the same. Here also he met Miss Winnifred E. Simon, a young lady of ability and culture, to whom he was married, December 3, 1891, by Rev. A. W. Lowe. In 1893 he was assigned to the Cuthbert Circuit; in 1894-95, Blakely Station; 1896-97, Arlington Circuit; 1898-99, Albany Station; 1900-1903, presiding elder of the Bainbridge District. In three years he had so developed the work that it became necessary to form a new district, the Blakely District. Rev. Johnson would often walk to his appointments, regardless of distance, would lift collections, giving all to the pastors and then walk home again. During 1904-05 he served as pastor of Americus Station; 1906-07, presiding elder of the Thomasville District; 1908, presiding elder of the Columbus District; 1909-11, was pastor of St. James Station, one of the largest in the state; 1912-16, presiding elder of the Cuthbert District.

        Rev. Johnson served as secretary of the Georgia Conference for three years; has served the Southwest Georgia Conference in a like capacity for nineteen years; has served as secretary of the trustee board of Morris Brown University for twelve years. The degree of doctor of divinity was conferred upon him by Morris Brown College in 1904.

        He is a prominent Mason, Odd Fellow, Pythian, Circler, Archer (being the founder of the Order), and in many other organizations of his state. He is the founder of Johnson Home-Industrial College, located at Archery, Ga., a little village founded by him for the education of the poorest of the poor. He is a fluent and interesting speaker, and a hard student and worker. He has kept abreast with the times by private study and wide reading, having taken several correspondence courses.

        He was a member of the general conferences of 1900, 1904, 1908 and 1912, and served as chief secretary of the last two sessions. He was a delegate to the Ecumenical Conference of 1911, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916. He is the recognized leader of the Southwest Georgia Conference.

        Johnson, W. T., was born August 4, 1881, in Tallahachic County, Miss.; joined the A. M. E. Church in 1898; was ordained elder by Bishop Derrick, at Greenville, Miss., in 1900. He attended public school of his home and Zion College, Winona, Miss.; Rust University, Holly Springs, Miss.; Baptist College, Muskogee, Okla., and Campbell College, Jackson, Miss.; traveled 13 years as pastor, and is now serving as presiding elder of Yazoo City (Miss.) District of East Mississippi Conference. The degree of D.D. was conferred by Campbell College in 1915. He was a delegate to the general conference of 1916.

        Joiner, Edwin Carrol, was born April 14, 1841, in St. Clair County, Ill., and died at Springfield, Ill., January 26, 1888. He was one of six children. He entered school in 1848 and received about eight years' schooling. After he became of age he entered the ministry and taught in evening classes and to private students, always being very studious and ambitious, not only to help others, but also to advance himself intellectually as well as spiritually. He was converted in 1853 and joined the A. M. E. Church at Bloomington, Ill., the same year. He held almost every office in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1858 at Peoria, Ill., by J. W. Davis, joined the Annual Conference in 1858, and was often called the "Boy Preacher." He held appointments at Richmond, Ind.; Des

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. E. C. JOINER.

Moines, Ia.; Muscatine, Keokuk, Bloomington, Lincoln, Decatur, Bellville, Alton, Cairo, Springfield, Quincy, Metropolis, Peoria, Danville, Pontiac, East St. Louis and Chicago. He built the following churches: Quinn Chapel, Chicago, at a cost of $50,000, in 1876-7; St. John, at Springfield; one church at Decatur and one at Bellville.

        He paid off many church debts. He took over 2500 people into the church, baptized about 2,000 and married 550. He was delegate to the General Conferences of 1880 and '84. He married Francis Badgett, of Muscatine, Ia., July 1862. They had four children: Laura, William, Ida and Harry. Laura E. Joiner is a graduate of Springfield High School and Howard University Medical School. William A. Joiner is a graduate of High School, Wilberforce and Howard Universities. Rev. E. C. Joiner was a Mason and a Republican and property owner. He was one of the pioneers in the A. M. E. Church.

        Joiner, William A., the son of Rev. E. C. and Frances E. (Badgett) Joiner, both of whom were members of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Alton, Ill., July, 1867, the second of seven children, all of whom died before reaching maturity except himself and one sister, Dr. Laura E. Joiner, now residing in Washington, D. C.

        William A. Joiner completed the common schools of Illinois, attending in many cities as is the lot of a


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Methodist minister's children. In the high school at Springfield, Ill., he showed evidence of superior ability. During three years of the course he worked on a newspaper, reporting at 3 A. M. for duty; waiting two meals a day at a hotel for his board and the extra he could make, at the same time learning the photographer's trade, doing this to save money with a view of going to college. Notwithstanding these six to seven teams of the school, and graduated third in a large class, all white, except himself and sister.

        Winning a scholarship on the George Washington fund, out of a half dozen colleges (including Harvard,

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. WILLIAM A. JOINER, LL.M.

Michigan, Oberlin and University of Illinois), he chose Wilberforce, and entered scientific course with advanced standing. Not finding enough work in this course he took studies in the normal department, completed both courses, graduating with B.S. and a Normal diploma, 1888, being the first student to take both these courses at one time. He taught school at Jerseyville, Ill., two and a half years. In 1890 he entered a competitive examination with 600 applicants, in Sangamon County, and with his sister, passed at the head of the list, both being appointed to clerkships in Washington. Entered Howard University Law School, 1891; again demonstrated exceptional ability by completing the two year law course in one year, graduating in 1892 as valedictorian in class of thirty-three; took post course next year, graduating LL.M cum laude. Passed bar examination; was admitted to practice before Supreme Court, District of Columbia; admitted to bar of Illinois, 1894.

        Was in great Ford Theatre disaster; escaped unhurt. Went out of office under Cleveland administration. Opened and successfully managed confectionery business for four years, while studying in Teachers' College, Howard University. Taught Latin, M Street High School, Washington, D. C., 1898 to 1904; Supervisor of Training School, Teachers' College, Howard University, 1904 to 1910. Superintendent combined normal and industrial department Wilberforce University, since 1910.

        Converted in childhood, he has been a member of A. M. E. Church ever since. Has been steward, trustee, Sunday school teacher and superintendent; served on building committee, and raised large part of funds for building church at Jerseyville, Ill; served several years on educational and examining committee of the Illinois Annual Conference, rendering good service in interest of an educated ministry. Permanent aluminal trustee of Wilberforce. Organized Wilbeforcian Society of Washington; was twelve years its president. Projected and presided at the great national meeting for Wilberforce, March 8, 1910, President Taft being the principal speaker, with Justice John M. Harlan, Senator Dick, Bishop Hurst, Dr. Scarborough and W. T. Vernon.

        In interest of purer athletics among Negro schools he organized the Interscholastic Athletic Association and as the president of that organization he edited the first Spaulding Guide giving athletic records and accomplishments of Negro youth. Took a year's post-graduate work in School of Education, University of Chicago, where he is, credited with degree of Ph.B. in education. His best work has probably been done as superintendent and financial officer of Normal and Industrial Departments of Wilberforce University, where he now is. In six years he added two years to the Normal Course, standardized the work, accrediting the department so that graduates may now receive lite certificates in the state without examination; increased the salaries of all instructors 40 to 60 per cent.; added new positions; revolutionized processes of the library, placed trained librarian in charge; completed senior girls' home where girls with trained nurse in charge, to care for sick students; placed physical training under medical director; secured preceptress for social instruction of girls; improved living conditions of teachers by building model homes with all modern improvements; secured legislation permitting buildings to be erected with student labor, thus paying out to students about ten thousand dollars annually and enabling them to learn trades under working conditions, at the same time supporting themselves; secured up-to-date equipment for all departments; installed a wireless station, the only radio station controlled by a Negro institution; induced Legislature to appropriate funds to complete $42,000 girls' dormitory, and to construct mechanic arts building, a $40,000 gymnasium, a $60,000 recitation building, an adequate water system, hospital building, five teachers' residences and generally improve buildings and grounds. He secured in less than state. (See Auditor's report, 1914 and 1915.) He established the first summer school at Wilberforce in 1916.

        Teachers are required to take one month each year on pay for self-improvement. The compensation paid to the college department of Wilberforce University for teaching service was increased from $3500 to $5000 annually, and the University now shares benefits directly and indirectly amounting to from $15,000 to $20,000 a year, and Mr. Joiner is making the attempt to organize his teaching force in such manner as to help the University secure such collegiate recognition in the state as the normal department now has. His vision for Wilberforce is that of the greatest negro educational center in the country, with higher education and vocational training working hand in hand. He spent summer of 1913 in Europe studying school


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systems of France, Germany, Belgium and England. He has published "Brief History Development of Negro Schools of the District of Columbia," "Half Century of Freedom of Negro in Ohio," a middle epic on Frederick Douglas, and much other readable verse, Class Song of '88, and School Song, "Dear Old Wilberforce." He is a Mason, Knight templar degree, member of National Educational Association, National Geographic Society, Ohio State Superintendents' Association, I. S. A. A.

        Jones, G. W., was born February 4, 1870, near Alton, in Madison County, Ill. He received his education in the public schools of this county and Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. He was converted in 1894 in Edwardsville, Ill., and licensed to preach and entered the itinerate work in 1895. He married in 1898 and was transferred the same year to the Iowa Conference,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. G. W. JONES.

now known as the Chicago Conference, where he pastored eight years very successfully. In 1908 he was transferred back to the Illinois Conference, of which he is now a member, and for seven years pastored some of the leading charges in his conference. He is now serving his third year as presiding elder of the Quincy District and was a delegate to the Centennial General Conference, at Philadelphia, May, 1916.

        Jones, H. L. P., was born June 21, 1874, in Giles County, near Pulaski, Tenn.; was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church at Boone Hill, Lincoln County, Tenn., in 1893; was licensed to preach under Dr. G. L. Jackson, then presiding elder of the North Nashville District; joined the Tennessee Conference at Chattanooga, Tenn., under Bishop Salter in 1893, and was ordained deacon under the missionary rule the same year. He was married to Miss Mary Bobbin Fannon, of Fayetteville, Tenn., January 9, 1895. He has pastored successfully the following charges: Belleview, Delbrose, Aspen Hill, Hartsville, Mt. Pleasant station, Payne chapel, Nashville Tenn., and is now the pastor of St. Paul, Nashville, Tenn., one of the largest churches of the connection. He was presiding elder of Shelbyville and Columbia districts six years. He built Payne chapel, Nashville, one of the most modern church edifices in Tennessee,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. L. P. JONES,. D.D.

at a cost of $20,000. He is a graduate of Turner College, Shelbyville, Tenn., of which he is now a trustee; he is also chief secretary of the Tennessee Conference, and delegate to general conference, 1916. 1860, in Maury County, near Mt. Pleasant, Tenn.

        Jones, James A., was born of humble parents in His father was a North Carolinian, having come to Tennessee with his owners when quite a young man. His mother was the daughter of a half-breed Indian, her mother having died while she was quite a child. Dr. Jones was the fourth child born into a family of thirteen children. Early in life he imbibed a strong desire to learn to read and write. His mother was his first teacher. He attended such schools as were available during that early period of freedom, the teachers, for the most part, being scarcely above the third grade themselves. He would walk ten miles a day, going to and from school through a period of five months, and many a day rode twenty miles on horseback. He entered Fisk University at the age of 12 years and during his whole career in school, was regarded as a brilliant student. He was converted at the age of 17 while in college, and immediately joined St. John A. M. E. Church, where he was at that time a member of the Sunday school. He was licensed to exhort and preach by Rev. George H. Shaffer, who was pastoring the church in 1880. In 1881 he joined the Tennessee annual conference at Payne Chapel, Nashville, Bishop Campbell presiding. His first charge was Mt. Pleasant circuit, which was in reality a mission, for the congregation had no property of its own. In the second year of his administration, he bought the lot and church building in which his congregation had been worshipping alternately,


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or in partnership with another denomination for a number of years. This is now one of the most important charges in the conference. He afterwards served the following charges: Tullahoma, Murfreesboro, Shelbyville, Fayetteville, Chattanooga, Pulaski and St. Paul, Nashville. From St. Paul he was elected president of Turner College, located at Shelbyville. His appointment to Shelbyville the first time had a twofold meaning--to pastor the church and serve as second principal of the school under Dr. B. A. J. Nixon. The following year he was promoted to the principalship, in which position he served acceptably. He built Warren Chapel A. M. E. Church, Chattanooga, during his four years' pastorate in that city, and dedicated the building. He has been serving Turner College as its president for

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JAMES A. JONES, A.M., D.D.

eleven years, and during that period, the property valuation has increased from about $1000 to about $40,000; and a student body from not more than 25, all-day students, to an enrollment of 150, 40 per cent. of whom are boarders in the buildings of the institution, representing several different States. Dr. Jones is frequently in demand to address public gatherings. He has twice delivered commencement addresses at the A. and M. College, Normal, Ala., and delivered a course of lectures at the same institution. He has preached baccalaureate sermons at Morris Brown and Payne Universities. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by Turner College, and the degree of Master of Arts by Morris Brown. He has been a prominent candidate for the editorship of the Southern Christian Recorder for the last three general conferences. He was assistant editor of this journal under Dr. M. E. Bryant. Dr. Jones married in 1880 to Miss Gazella C. Roberts, of Memphis, Tenn., and from that union eight children were born, five of whom are living. His wife has been a constant support to him in all his labors both in the pastorate and in his school work. She now serves as matron of Turner College.

        Jones, Bishop Joshua H., 38th bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Lexington County, South Carolina, June 15, 1856. He was converted at the age of ten years and immediately joined the Shady Grove A. M. E. Church of the Bull Swamp Circuit, Columbia Annual Conference, South Carolina. At the age of fourteen years he was made Sunday school teacher, and at the age of sixteen years he was made superintendent.

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP JOSHUA H. JONES, D.D., LL.D.

By the time he was eighteen years old he had served in all of the local spiritual and temporal offices of his church and was then licensed as a local preacher. He was a hard student, pursuing his studies into the late hours of the night by the pine-torchlight.

        At the age of twenty-one years, he entered the Normal and College Preparatory Course of Claflin University, Orangeburg, South Carolina, finishing the course in 1880. He then went out to teach and preach one year; returning to Claflin he entered the College Course in 1881, graduating with the degree B.A. in 1885. He then entered Howard University, Washington, D. C., and studied for awhile, leaving to enter Wilberforce University, from which he was graduated in 1887, receiving the degree B.D. And after leaving the university walls he still prosecuted his studies. He served eight years on the School Board of Columbus, Ohio, where he acquired a large experience in school management. In 1900 he was elected president of Wilberforce University, where he served for eight years. Thence he returned to the pastorate and presiding eldership for four years. At the general conference at Kansas City, Mo., he was elected one of the bishops of the A. M. E. Church, and was assigned to the Ninth Episcopal District, including Tennessee and Alabama. He now is bishop of Texas.

        Jones, J. J., was born July, 1867; attended the public school in North Carolina and the Christian Theological Seminary in Franklin, N. C.; went to Boston, Mass., and was at the unveiling of Crispus Attucks' monument; joined the church August 15, 1881, and was licensed to preach March, 1900; ordained elder May 20, 1907; transferred to Virginia and stationed at Bedford City, and paid a large part of the debt; was appointed to New Bethel circuit,


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sold the old church, bought two lots in the town of South Hill and had the church rebuilt at a cost of

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. J. JONES.

$1325 in three months, and was transferred back to the Baltimore conference, where he now is.

        Jones, Otho Eli, one of three children of Philip and Esther Elizabeth Jones, was born April 20, 1870, at Winton Place, Cincinnati, Ohio; began attending school at the age of seven, and attended Winton Place Grammar School, Gaines High, Wilberforce University and Payne Theological Seminary; received normal and industrial diplomas, Wilberforce; the degrees of B. D. and D. D. from Payne Theological Seminary; also teacher's diploma from Kentucky Reading Circle; was converted in 1888 and joined A. M. E. Church, Wilberforce, 1890; held offce of steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher and Sunday school teacher; was licensed to preach in 1894, at Elmwood Place Mission, Rev. W. J. Johnson, pastor; Chas. Bundy, P. E.; was ordained deacon in 1897 at Columbus, Ohio, by Bishop Lee; ordained elder 1899 at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, by Bishop Lee; joined the annual conference in 1895 at Washington C. H., Ohio, under Bishop Arnett; held the following appointments: South Charleston Mission, Ohio, 1895-98; Toledo Station, Ohio, 1898-99; Cedarville, Ohio, 1900-1901; Oakland, Cal., 1901-1907; Kansas City, Kansas, 1907-13; presiding elder Hannibal district, North Missouri conference, 1913; pastor, Lexington, Ky., 1913 to date; also professor at Payne Theological Seminary, 1898-1901; at present chairman of board of examiners of Kentucky conference; taught in district and city schools of Kentucky; remodeled Fifteenth Street church, Oakland, Cal., at cost of $8000 in 1906; lifted mortgage on Fifteenth Street church, Oakland, Cal.; also on First A. M. E. church, Kansas City, Kansas. Dr. Jones is a member of Federal Council of Churches of Christ, of America. He married Miss Susannah Wesley Coleman, daughter of Rev. John Coleman, of Wilberforce, Ohio, in 1905. They have four children: Julia Esther, Kathryn L. Lorence (deceased), Otho Eli, Jr., and John Gazaway Jones. He has contributed to the Recorder, Review and many secular papers; made many addresses to fraternities and missionary societies (one time member of Western Federation of Missions as lecturer), and chautauqua addresses at various places, alumni address of Wilberforce University; addresses school commencements, emancipation addresses, etc. He was one of the committee in the erection of a monument to Jno. Brown on the campus of Western University, Quindaro, Kansas; was treasurer of Douglas hospital, Kansas, Mo., for several years; a member of Emancipation Organization, at Lexington, Kentucky, and active in charitable work. Was a member of the general conferences of 1912 and 1916.

        Jones, Scott B., one of ten children of James and Elizabeth Brown, both members of the A. M. E. church; was born in Huntsville, Alabama, September 2, 1870. He began school at the age of eight years and was for some time a student at the Cook county normal school, Chicago; the State University, St. Paul, Minn., and Beloit (Wis.) College. In 1882 he was converted and joined Allen Temple, Cincinnati, Ohio. He held offices as steward, class leader, trustee, Sunday school teacher, exhorter, and was licensed to preach in 1886 at St. Mary's church, Chicago, by Rev. J. M. Henderson. In 1887 he joined the annual conference at Chicago under Bishop J. M. Brown, who ordained him deacon in 1888 at Oskaloosa, Iowa. In 1892 he was ordained elder by Bishop Wayman at St. Paul, Minn. He has held the following appointments: Helena, Mont., 1889; Macomb, Ill., 1890; Rockford, Ill., 1891; Ottumwa, Iowa, 1892-3; Oskaloosa, 1894; St. Paul, Minn., 1895-6; Quinn Chapel, Louisville, Ky., 1900-01; presiding elder Bowling Green district, W. Kentucky conference, 1902-3; Versailles, Ky., 1904; Paris, Ill., 1905; Mattson, Ill., 1906; Decatur, Ill., 1907-08; E. St. Louis, 1909-12; Peoria, Ill., Ward Chapel, 1912 to present. He built St. James at Helena, Mont., at a cost of $4000; St. Peter's, Ottumwa, $6000; Allen Chapel, Rockford, Ill., $3000; and paid mortgages at Decatur ($900), Oskaloosa ($800), Terre Haute, Ind. ($1000), St. Paul, Minn. ($1200), and Louisville, Ky. ($800); has received into the church about 1000 people and baptized about 300; was leader of delegation to the general conference of 1912 and appointed on the Allen League Connectional Board (1912-16). He was married in 1891. His wife, Mrs. Sarah A. Jones, was born in Frederick, Md. He has been a frequent contributor to the daily papers in the cities in which he has resided. He wrote "An Appeal to President Taft in Reference to the Exposition;" has delivered many important addresses on public occasions; is a Mason, Odd Fellow, K. of P. and K. of T., a Republican and home owner and was financial agent of the Negro exposition at Chicago in 1915.

        Jordan, Augustus Moses, son of Robert and Amy Jordan, was born in 1865 in Wilberforce county, Ga., one of five children. He began to attend school when six years of age, receiving his education in the public schools and Morris Brown University. He took a correspondence course from Professor Wright and also from Boston School of Correspondence, from


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which he received a diploma. He was converted in 1882 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held nearly every office in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1883 by Rev. A. W. Lowe; joined the annual conference in 1891 at Macon, Ga., under Bishop Gaines; was ordained deacon in 1892 at Forsyth, Ga., by Bishop Grant; ordained elder in 1894 at Eatonton, Ga., by Bishop Grant; has held the following appointments: St. James', Holly Bluff, Ocmulgee Circuit, Haddox Circuit, Tennille Circuit,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. A. M. JORDAN, D.D.

Dublin, Monticello, Griffin, Cosmopolitan, Atlanta, Milledgeville, Bethel, Augusta; P. E. of Sandersville District. He built churches at Dublin and Haddox at a cost of $500 each, a small church at Holly Bluff at a cost of $100; has taken over 1300 people into the church; was delegate to the general conferences of 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1916. He married Nancy Jordan, of Jasper Co., Ga., in 1886. They have eight children, two of them graduates. He has made many Emancipation Day addresses and addresses to many schools and societies. He is connected with the G. U. O. of O. F. and I. B. O. and owns his home.

        Jordan, Prof. D. J., was born October 18, 1866, at Cuthbert, Ga. His father, Rev. Giles D. Jordan, was a well known and highly respected minister of the A. M. E. Church in the Georgia Conference for twenty-four years. His mother, Julia White-Jordan, is a woman of strong personality and marked Christian piety.

        Prof. Jordan was educated at Payne High School (now Payne College), Cuthbert, Ga., and Allen University, Columbia, S. C. He has earned the degrees of B.S., M.S., LL.B. Was admitted to the bar in South Carolina in 1892, and in Georgia in 1904. His life has been given to teaching and he has held numerous important positions in the line of his profession. Among these may be mentioned the following: Twelve years a professor in Morris Brown College (now Morris Brown University), Atlanta, Ga., serving much of that time as vice president also; president of Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla., and of Kittrell College, Kittrell, N. C.; for several years president State Teachers' Association of Georgia; now director of the teacher training department of the Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina, at Greensboro.

        Has always taken a keen interest in all affairs of his church, and was a member of the General Conferences of 1896, 1904 and 1912. Enjoys the distinction of being the author of the law providing for lay representation in annual conferences, which was passed at Chicago in 1904. Was strongly supported for secretary of education at the general conference at Kansas City, in 1912. He represented the church at the Fourth Ecumenical Conference of Methodism held in 1911 at Toronto, Canada, and was honored with a prominent place on the official program. He addressed the conference on the subject, "The Work of the Young People of the Church," and the effort was highly spoken of. Dr. J. A. Bray, of the C. M. E. Church, said in a note to the speaker:

"My dear Prof. Jordan:-- "Your address last night was up to the demand of the occasion. It was a splendid address splendidly delivered and every Afro-American felt proud of you. It was good--not good as a Negro production, but good as the production of a man. I hear only praise on every side. Congratulations. "Yours sincerely, J. A. Bray."

        Prof. Jordan married, December 31, 1895, Miss Carrie J. Thomas, daughter of Rev. Lawrence Thomas (see sketch), one of the most prominent ministers of the A. M. E. Church in Georgia. She was at the time principal of one of the city schools of Atlanta. They have four promising children: Edwin Adolphus, Frederick Douglass, Frances Marie and Alice Julia, to all of whom the parents are most fondly devoted.

        Jordan, Rev. Patrick James, the son of Willis and Frances Jordan, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in 1862 near Wilmington, N. C. His parents had eleven children. He spent several years at Shaw University, but is largely self-made, so far as education is concerned. He received D.D. from Kittrell College, North Carolina. He was converted when quite a boy and joined the A. M. E. Church. In his local church he was always active, serving as steward, trustee, class leader, Sunday school teacher, exhorter, etc. He was licensed to preach in 1885 at Wilmington, N. C., by Dr. J. G. Fry; joined the North Carolina Conference in 1886, at Newburn; was ordained deacon in 1888, by Bishop Campbell, at Greensboro, N. C.; ordained elder in 1892, at Kinston, N. C., by Bishop W. J. Gaines. He has held the following appointments in North Carolina: South Port, Richlands, Lincolnville, Hillsboro, Fayetteville, Greensboro, Ashville and Washington, D. C. Built churches at Lincolnville, at cost of $350; Fayetteville, at a cost of $4,000; at Ashville, at a cost of $5,000. Remodeled churches at Hillsboro, at a cost of $1,500; at Washington, D. C., at a cost of $2,000. Lifted mortgages on churches at Fayetteville, Hillsboro and at Greensboro to the amount of $500. He has taken hundreds of people into the church. Was delegate to the general conference at Kansas City, Mo., in 1912. Married Mrs. L. A. Jordan, of Newbern, N. C., in 1888. He is a property owner, and a substantial and highly respected citizen, always to be counted with the progressive forces in any community in which he is located.


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        KEALING, PROF. H. T., president Western University, Quindaro, Kansas, was born 1859 at Austin, Tex., educated in Austin public schools, Straight University, New Orleans, La., and Tabor College, Tabor, Iowa. He was converted in New Orleans in 1875; joined the church and served as Sunday school superintendent; secretary to presiding elder in Texas, and assistant in church pastorates. He was principal of Paul Quinn College from the beginning in 1881 to 1883; assistant principal of Prairie View State Normal School, 1883 to 1886; principal grammar school, Austin, Tex., and organized the colored high school of Austin in 1887; was supervisor all colored schools from 1890 to 1892; president of Paul Quinn College from 1892 to 1896, and at the general conference at Wilmington, N. C., in 1896, was elected editor of the A. M. E. Review, serving till 1912. In 1910 he was chosen president of Western University, Quindaro, Kansas, which position he now holds.

        He has been a member of all general conferences since 1884; was a member of Ecumenical Conference in

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. H. T. KEALING, LL.D.

London, England, in 1901, and elected spokesman of the delegation of the A. M. E. Church, and delivered one of the principal addresses; member Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, fraternal delegate to M. E. Church, South, Dallas, Texas. Member National Educational Association, American Academy of Social and Political Science, American Negro Academy, National Negro Business League, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Author of "Hosea;' and editor of "Minor Prophets," "How to Live Longer," "Church Problems" and numerous pamphlets.

        He has been married twice: first to Miss Selina Saucier, of New Orleans, in 1887; last, in Austin, Tex., in 1891, to Miss Celia G. Shaw. They have six children, five girls, one boy. Miss Goldie E. Kealing attended Fisk University, and graduated from the Philadelphia Girls' High School, the Philadelphia Normal School, specializing in kindergarten work, in 1916. Miss Frances F. Kealing attended Fisk University, graduated from Kansas State University, Lawrence, Kansas, majoring in mathematics, 1915, and now teaches in Tuskegee Institute. Miss Carrie I. Kealing graduated from Western University, in 1916. Prof. Kealing was ordained elder in Nashville, Tenn., by Bishop Parks, assisted by Bishop Tyree, in 1909. He received the A.M. degree from Tabor college, 1904; Ph.D. from Morris Brown College, Atlanta; LL.D. from Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio, 1911.

        Kinch, Emily Christmas, daughter of Rev. Jordan C. H. Christmas, was born in Orange, N. J.; educated in public schools of New Jersey and Pennsylvania and is an undergraduate of the Institute for Colored Youth, of Philadelphia. She is a pioneer Sunday school worker in the advance movement of later methods, the first graduated colored Sunday school teacher in N. J., founder and first president of the New Jersey conference Sunday school institute. She was the only colored delegate elected to represent the State of New Jersey, with 48 whites, in 1905 to the International Sunday School Convention in Toronto, Canada. She has been identified with the missionary

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. E. C. KINCH.

work in New Jersey ever since its organization, served as organizer for four years, organizing an auxiliary in every charge in the New Jersey conference; served as secretary of the New Jersey conference branch three years and president of the New Jersey conference Sunday school institute 1906-08. In December, 1908, she sailed as missionary to West Africa and began the work of the Eliza Turner primary school at Monrovia with 20 pupils, which grew to be one of the acknowledged educational forces of the Liberian Republic. She is a trained musician, popular lecturer, correspondent and writes for the different church periodicals, which she frequently represents before the different conferences.

        Kincheon, Lula Brackett, was born in Kincheonville, Texas, in 1876, the son of Francis Marion and Emily Wiley Kincheon, both members of the A. M. E. Church. There were three other children. Lula began attending school at the age of nine and continued till 1892 when he was compelled to leave Paul Quinn College in his senior year on account of the death of his father. He received the degree of A.M. from Paul Quinn and holds a first grade state certificate to teach


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in Texas. He takes pride in his well-read library. He has read courses in law and in business, having also taught the latter. In 1889 Mr. Kincheon was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in Buda, Texas. He has served his church as steward, trustee, class leader, Sunday school teacher and secretary. He was a delegate to the general conferences in 1912 and 1916; a member of the Western Christian Recorder board 1912-1916; is a trustee of Paul Quinn College and has frequently represented the church at conventions. His wife, Mrs. Necia Luline Gramlin Kincheon, whom he married in 1896, is a native of Beaumont, Texas. The children are: L. B., Jr., Ian Brackett, Francis Gramlin, Alexander Johnson Moore, Edna Marguerite, and Ollie Harris Kincheon. L. B. Kincheon, Jr., has finished the high school and is pursuing the scientific course at Paul Quinn College. All of Mr. Kincheon's children have been given places of honor in Sunday school and church work. He has contributed to the ian Journal, besides writing several pamphlets. Among his public addresses are one delivered at the emancipation celebration in Austin, Texas, in 1900; and one delivered at Columbus, Ohio, entitled "Delivered From Bondage." He is a pleasing speaker. He belongs to the Knights of Pythias, Odd Fellows, Masons, Friends-In-Need, American Woodmen. For eight years he was supreme deputy chancellor; for sixteen years grand lecturer, jurisdiction of Texas; supreme recorder of D. O. D. O. of Knights of Pythias. He is connected with the Texas State Teachers' Association and the American Civic League. He was in politics, at one time associated with the late Norris Wright Cuney.

        King, Rev. C. H., was born in Georgia over fifty years ago, was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1874; licensed to exhort in 1875; licensed to preach in 1877. He attended the public schools of Georgia and studied theology under Dr. Ashley, a Northern minister, and under Rev. R. A. Hall, in Atlanta, Ga. He served successfully his church as Sunday school teacher, class leader, steward and trustee.

        At the request of Bethel Church, Atlanta, Ga., Rev. (later Bishop) W. J. Gaines, pastor, he was ordained a deacon by Rt. Rev. William F. Dickerson, January 15, 1882. He joined the Tennessee Conference in 1884 under Bishop Turner. His first charge was at Knoxville, Tenn., where he served for two years, and built a church valued at $6,000.00, which was the first A. M. E. church built in that city. It is said he constructed most of the building with his own hands. He was ordained elder, by Bishop Turner, in Pulaski, Tenn., Nov. 1, 1885, and transferred to the North Carolina Conference, succeeding Rev. W. H. H. Butler as presiding elder of the Wilmington District. He has since remained in North Carolina, where he has attained a high place among his brethren. He has served also as presiding elder of the Raleigh, Greensboro, Durham and Morganton Districts. During this long service as presiding elder a number of new churches were built, and many old ones were remodelled.

        He pastored at Greensboro, N. C., where he built the present brick church, during the panic in 1893, which caused the entire community to marvel. He pastored four years at St. Joseph Church, Durham, N. C., and remodeled the church. He was a member of the general

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. H. KING, D.D.

conferences in 1888, 1892, 1896 and 1912. He has been a trustee of Kittrell College for over twenty-five years. Kittrell conferred the degree of D.D. upon him in 1901. Dr. King is one of the leading officers of the Independent Order of St. Luke, having served the Order in the capacity of Right Worthy Grand Chief, and is now a member of its executive board.

        In 1907 he was elected a delegate to the World's Sunday school Convention, Rome, Italy, by the National Sunday school Convention. He was the only member of the A. M. E. Church who was elected and was present at this great gathering of Sunday school workers from all parts of the world. During Dr. King's trip abroad he visited Italy, Switzerland, France, England and Ireland, and other countries of the Old World, being cordially received everywhere. In 1887 he was married to Miss Ella M. Pope, the ceremony being performed by Rev. (now bishop) J. S. Flipper.


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        LACEY, REV. WILLIAM, was born in Nashville, Tenn., October 7, 1869. He attended several schools in his native city. At the early age of 12 he went with his parents to Topeka, Kans., where he continued his schooling until he had spent a year in high school, then worked a year and saved money with which to go to college. He completed the normal course in Clark University, Atlanta, Ga., pursued the classical course and graduated in theology from Gammon Theological Seminary in May, 1895. He was converted when sixteen years of age under Evangelist Fields, during the pastorate of Rev. J. F. Peck, in 1886, in Topeka, Kans. While in Atlanta, Ga., he was licensed to preach in Big Bethel Church, under Rev. L. Thomas, pastor, and R. A. Hall, presiding elder, in 1892, and admitted to the North Georgia Conference the following year, after he had pastored several months. His second charge was Moor's Mill, some ten miles below

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM H. LACEY, D.D.

South Atlanta, and from which he usually walked. He declined to take another charge till he had finished college, but taught school during the vacation and one month during the winter. In December, 1895, he was chosen president of the Wayman Institute, at Harrodsburg, Ky., and served two years. He resigned the presidency to accept mission work in the Sommer's Islands, where he spent five years, and was married to Miss Ada A. Parker, the eldest daughter of John James Parker, who published "The People's Journal," of Hamilton, Bermuda. The great debt for erecting the new church at Southampton was nearly cleared; a lot purchased and nearly enough stone cut and paid for with which to build a new church at Somerset, Sandy's Parish.

        On returning to America he entered the New York Conference and was stationed at Olean. He subsequently pastored at Glen Cove, Flushing, Brooklyn and Chatham, N. Y. In Glen Cove he improved the church and parsonage; paid off the standing debt. At Flushing he put in new pews; paid for the same; painted the church, and did much carpentry work himself. In Brooklyn he paid $200.00 on the mortgage of Bethel, which was the first amount ever paid on the principal. The church was renovated and beautified inside and outside; side-walk put in by himself; new lights, etc. Sickness and death entered his family during the year of his Chatham pastorate. He was then transferred to New England Conference, and stationed at New Haven, where he has been three years. Here he has beautified the church; put in new lights; added quite a few members, and is arranging to complete the church. He is also taking a course in the Yale School of Religion. Dr. Lacey received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Morris Brown College in 1904.

        Lampton, Bishop Edward Wilkinson, thirty-first bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Hopkinsville, Ky., October 21, 1857, the son of Albert R. Lampton, who lived at Bowling Green, Ky., for some time before moving to Miliken's Bend, La. Bishop Lampton was converted September 18, 1874. He was admitted into the conference in 1886; ordained deacon by Bishop Ward in 1886; and ordained elder by the same bishop in 1888. He was a delegate to every general conference from 1892 to 1908. Upon the death of Dr. P. A. Hubbard, Rev.

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP E. W. LAMPTON.

Lampton was made financial secretary of the A. M. E. Church. His secular education was acquired at Bowling Green, Ky. He received D.D. from Shorter College, and LL.D. from Alcorn State College, Miss. His works, "Analysis on Baptism" and "Digest and Decisions of the Bishops of A. M. E. Church," have had a wide circulation.

        Elected bishop, May, 1908, Norfolk, Va., and assigned to the Eighth Episcopal District, comprising Mississippi and Louisiana. He died in 1910 in Michigan, and is buried in Mississippi. He was Grand Master of the Masons of Mississippi for many years. He was twice married and had four daughters. When he died he was rated very high financially.

        Lawrence, Theodore Houston, son of Peter W. and Harriet Lawrence, was born in N. Y. City, N. Y., December 27th, 1889; he grew up in Bethel A. M. E. Sunday school, his parents being members of that church, and was converted in 1877. He entered the public school of New York at the age of 9 years,


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graduated at the age of 17, and entered the College of the City of New York, remaining three years; studied medicine two years under Dr. William M. Liveley, of New York; then began in Salem county, N. J., a successful career as a public school teacher for twenty years, teaching during this time at Fenwick, N. J.; Yorktown, N. J.; at Hendon Hill, Md.; Belair, Md.; Freehold, N. J.; Havre de Grace, Md.; Ellicott City, Md.; Frederick, Md. While teaching in Ellicott City in 1897 he was licensed to preach by Rev. L. M. Beckett. He was admitted to the Baltimore conference at Cambridge, Md., in 1898, and received his first appointment from Bishop James A. Handy to St. Mark's A. M. E. church, Baltimore, in 1899. During

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. T. H. LAWRENCE.

that year he attended the theological school of Morgan College. At the annual conference sitting in St. John's A. M. E. church, Baltimore, he was ordained deacon April 22nd by Bishop James A. Handy and on May 3rd, 1903, was ordained elder in Allen A. M. E. church, Baltimore, by Bishop B. F. Lee. During his pastorate at Galesville, West River, at the request of the county superintendent he organized and taught the school at Tracey's Landing, Anne Arundel county, Md., and later took charge of the school at Galesville. In the church he has served as Sunday school superintendent, local preacher, steward, district Sunday school superintendent, of both the Hagerstown and Baltimore districts. As a young man in New York he was always active in literary circles and was one of the founders of St. Mark's Lyceum, of St. Mark's M. E. church, which has become the leading literary organization of the city; while pastor at Amityville, N. Y., he organized Zohar Lodge, G. U. O. of O. F. He is a Master Mason, was recording secretary of the Philadelphia annual conference two years and has been chief secretary of the New York annual conference for five years. In 1890 he was married to Miss Ophelia Williams, of Freehold, N. J., who is one of the prominent women of the Women's Mite Missionary Society, having been corresponding secretary of the New York conference branch for five years. Three children have resulted from their union: Misses Ethel B., Maud E. and Peter S. Rev. Lawrence has successfully pastored the following charges: St. Mark, Baltimore, 1899; West River Circuit, Md., 1900-01; Crisfield, Md., 1902-03; Elkton, Md., 1904-05; Pottstown, Pa., 1906; Elmwood, Philadelphia, 1907; Shippensburg, Pa., 1908; Malvern Circuit, Pa., 1908-09; Amityville, N. Y., 1910-14; Glen Cove, N. Y., 1915-16.

        Laws, William Joseph, son of John and Anna Laws, both members of Bethel A. M. E., Philadelphia, was born in Frederica, Delaware, one of four children. He entered school in 1859, receiving his education in the public schools and Lincoln University, from which he graduated. He received the degree of D.D. from Lincoln University and Guadalupe College, Sequin, Texas. He was converted in 1864 and joined the A. M. E. church; was licensed to preach in 1868 at Oxford, Pa., by Rev. Cuff; joined the annual Conference in 1871 at Boston, Mass., under Bishop

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WM. J. LAWS, D.D.

Campbell; was ordained deacon in 1871 in New York by Bishop Campbell, and ordained elder in 1872 at Lynn, Mass., by Bishop Shorter. He has held the following appointments: New Haven, Conn., 1873-75; Lynn, Mass., 1871-72; Providence, R. I., 1875-77; New Bedford, Mass., 1877-79; Albany, 1870; Keokuk, Iowa, 1879-83; Chicago, 1884-86; Galesburg, Ill., 1887-89; Minneapolis, Minn., 1890; Des Moines, Ia., 1891-92; Oswego, N. Y., one year; Dallas, Texas, 1894-98; Corsicana, Texas, 1899-1901; Austin, Texas, 1902-03; president of Paul Quinn College, five years; P. E. Beaumont district, two years; pastor Beaumont, Texas, one year, and San Antonio, Texas, two years. He remodeled churches at New Bedford, Mass., $2000 in 1878; New Haven, Conn., $3000 in 1874; Galesburg, Ill., $2500 in 1884, and Dallas, Texas, $3800 in 1894. He lifted mortgages on Bethel church, Providence, R. I., to the amount of $1500 in 1876, and on St. Paul, at Minneapolis, Minn., to the amount of $1000 in 1890. He has taken 5000 into the church and baptized 2500. He was delegate to the general conferences at St. Louis, Indianapolis, Norfolk, Chicago and Philadelphia
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(1916); was a member of the financial board in 1888; was voted for for the Bishopric at Norfolk and Kansas City. His wife is Mrs. Marguerite Amelia Laws, who was born in New York in 1871. He has contributed to the church and secular press, and made many addresses on different occasions. He is connected with the F. and A. M. and G. U. O. of O. F. and has held important offices in each; is Republican, and has been interested in all movements for social and religious improvement wherever his lot has been cast.

        Lawyer, Rev. Cornelius Broughton, was born May 9, 1882, at Lorenzen, Sharkey County, Mississippi. His parents, who had four other children, were both members of the A. M. E. Church.

        Cornelius entered school in 1888, attending fifteen years in all. He was graduated from Lampton Theological Seminary, Campbell College, Jackson, Miss., and from the English and Normal Department of Alcorn H. and M. College, Alcorn, Miss. Besides this he took a post English and Normal course at Campbell College.

        Converted in 1892, he joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held the offices of steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher, Sunday school

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. CORNELIUS BROUGHTON LAWYER, D.D

teacher, Sunday school secretary and district Sunday school superintendent. He was licensed to preach in 1901, at Rolling Fork, Miss., by Rev. W. F. Dangerfield. In 1905 Bishop Salter ordained him deacon, at Leland, Miss., and in 1910 Bishop Turner ordained him elder at Hollandale, Miss. He joined the annual conference in 1903 at Jackson, Miss., under Bishop Tyree.

        Rev. Lawyer has held the following appointments in Mississippi: Edwards Mission, St. James, Indianola Station, and Leland Station, where he is serving his fourth year. He built Bekingham A. M. E. Church, at Edwards, Miss., at a cost of $400; remodeled Bryant, Indianola, at a cost of $3,000; lifted a mortgage of $100 on St. James, Vicksburg; a mortgage of $700 on Bryant Chapel, Indianola, and a mortgage of $900 on St. James, Leland, Miss. He has received into the church 250 persons, has baptized 100 and married 100. He has been secretary of the Central Mississippi Conference since 1912; was delegate to the Young People's Congress, Atlanta, Ga., in 1914, and a delegate to the Centennial General Conference in 1916.

        His wife is Mrs. Susie E. Lawyer, to whom he was married December 31, 1912. He has contributed to many newspapers, edited the "Leland Bee," "Jackson Record," and "Theological Journal," and written a pamphlet "The Aim and Object of the Sunday school." He wrote the class song for Campbell College in 1910; delivered the commencement oration at Greenwood Academy, and preached the annual sermon at Campbell College. He manages a 100-acre farm of his father's estate.

        Leak, Rev. R. H. W., former business manager of Book Concern, was born in Richmond, N. C., about 1842. He was the son of Richmond and Hannah Leak. He received no other training except in the Sunday school and is largely self-made, so far as education goes. He was always a hard student. He was converted in 1862, was licensed to preach in Wilmington, N. C., April 10, 1868; was received into the itinerancy in 1874. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Campbell and ordained elder by Bishop J. M. Brown. He held the following charges: Kenansville, Magnolia Circuit, Scott's Hill Circuit, Kinston Station and was presiding elder of the Morganton District and Raleigh Station, and other important points. He was a delegate to every general conference since 1884, and in 1900 he was elected general business manager of the Book Concern. He is now presiding elder in the Western North Carolina Conference.

        Lebala, John Metiro Pangone, presiding elder, prince of the Matseke Tribe, was born in 1863 at Hutwene, Kraal, Spelonken, Zoutpansburg, District Transvaal, South Africa, and converted July, 1887, in the Wesleyan church, Pretoria. He was first steward and superintendent of the Sunday school of the Ethiopian church, founded by Rev. Mangena Make Mokone in November, 1892, at Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa, which church was amalgamated with the African Methodist Episcopal church in 1896; ordained deacon by Bishop Turner April 8, 1898, at Pretoria; ordained elder by Bishop Coppin February 27, 1903, at Bruhgersdorp, and appointed presiding elder of the Pretoria District by the Bishop Johnson November 10, 1910. He is a member of the Trustee Board of the Wilberforce institution, Evaton, Transvaal, and is ministerial book steward of the Transvaal and Natal Annual Conferences. He was a delegate to the Centennial General Conference May, 1916, held in Philadelphia, Pa., and while in United States of America he visited many places of interest, and was well received by the people.

        Lee, Benjamin Franklin, twentieth bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born September 18, 1841, near Bridgeton, N. J. He studied at Wilberforce University, graduating A.B., in 1872. He was converted in 1865, at Wilberforce, licensed in 1868, at Xenia, Ohio, by Rev. J. P. Underwood, ordained deacon in 1870 and elder in 1872. He married Miss Mary E. Ashe, a graduate of Wilberforce, December 30, 1872. He taught in his Alma Mater as professor of homiletics, etc., 1873 to 1875. In 1876 he succeeded Bishop Payne


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as president of Wilberforce, remaining in this position until 1883, when he was elected editor of the "Christian Recorder," which he served until 1892, when he was elected bishop at the general conference in Philadelphia.

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP B. F. LEE, D.D., LL.D.

He has served over the tenth Episcopal district, the third, the twelfth, the seventh, the second, the fourth, and is now Bishop of Alabama and Tennessee, the ninth district. Upon the death of Bishop Arnett, 1906, he was elected secretary of the Bishops' Council, and served till the death of Bishop Turner,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. MARY E. LEE

1915, when he became senior bishop of the A. M. E. Church. He is the author of "Wesley, the Worker" and "Causes of Success of Methodism." He lives in his home at Wilberforce University. Of his children, B. F. Lee, Jr., is a teacher in the high school at Gallipolis, Ohio; Addie for a long time taught Latin and French in Wilberforce, and is now Mrs. S. W. Thomas, wife of Professor Thomas, of Payne Seminary; Sarah is a teacher in Kansas City.

        Lee, Israel S., son of Charles and Ellen Lee, both members of the Presbyterian church, was born in Walterboro, Colleton County, S. C., September 26, 1852, one of seven children. He did not begin to attend school until he was 12 years of age. He attended Howard University. He was converted at 20 years of age and joined the Presbyterian church in that year. He later joined the A. M. E. Church. He was licensed to preach in 1876 in Fairfield, S. C., by Rev. Hiram Young; was ordained deacon in 1882 in St. Matthews, S. C., and elder in 1884, both by Bishop Dickerson. He joined the annual conference at Columbia, S. C., in 1878 under Bishop John M. Brown. He has built several churches, taken about 2500 people into the church; baptized about 500 persons. Has been a delegate to general conferences of 1884, 1888, 1892 and 1896, and has been a member of the Missionary Board, as well as serving as a trustee of both Allen and Wilberforce Universities. He has represented the church as fraternal delegate to the M. E. church, and member of the commission appointed for organic union of colored Methodists. He married Miss Harriet A. Duffield in 1881. Six children have blessed their union. Wilberforce University conferred the degree of D.D. upon him.

        Lee, Mrs. Harriet A. (Duffield), was born at Martin's Ferry, Ohio, and was educated in Oberlin, Ohio, and Washington, D. C. She is the daughter of Major and Mrs. Milton B. Duffield, her father having served under Gen. Freemont, and her mother being among the first graduates of Oberlin. She married

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. I. S. LEE.

Rev. I. S. Lee in 1881 and is the joyful mother of six sons and daughters. Mrs. Lee has faithfully assisted her husband in every department of his church work and has been active in club work, having had the honor of organizing and becoming the president of the first Woman's Suffrage Club in Pennsylvania, and having been sent as delegate to the national convention. She is at present librarian of the Colored School Department of the City Library, of Memphis, Tenn.


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        Lewis, W. Benjamin, was born in Louisiana, October 25, 1856; joined the A. M. E. Conference in 1891, in Greenville, Miss., under Bishop Tanner; has pastored most of the larger charges of the North Mississippi and East Mississippi Conferences; was appointed

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. B. LEWIS.

presiding elder by Bishop Derrick, in 1899, at Grenada, Miss.; assigned by Bishop Conner in 1914 to St. Matthew's Church, Greenville; at present pastor of Bethel A. M. E. Church, Mound Bayou, Miss.

        Lewis, Rev. Jeremiah, was born a slave, February 11th, 1811, in Caroline county, Virginia, his parents belonging to Judge Pendleton, of that county. When the judge died all his slaves fell into the hands of his brothers and sisters. He lived in Virginia until 1825, when he was sold to a slave trader, who took him to Alabama, where he was sold to one Mr. Leach. Soon afterwards Mr. Leach became a Christian, and believing that slavery was wrong, freed all of his slaves and removed to Indiana. Though his master had given him his freedom, yet he had to pay him $400. He remained in Alabama two years when he, too, went to Indiana, but he found that all was still dark and gloomy--freedom was not all that he thought it was, but he never gave up hope. In the year 1833 he became a Christian and united with the Methodist Episcopal Church; in 1836 he moved to Oxford, Ohio, where the greater part of his life was spent. Here he joined the African Methodist Episcopal Church, which was organized by Robert Johnson, of Hillsboro, in 1842. In speaking of this organization he once said that he never felt as much like a man as he did there. In 1847 he heard the call to preach and was licensed to exhort. In 1849 he entered the itinerant service and labored for the Master until 1881. He was one of the pioneers of African Methodism in the middle west, going from place to place in all kinds of weather, on horse-back or by stage, preaching the unsearchable riches of Jesus Christ. He first served in the Indiana Conference and afterwards the Ohio Conference. He served acceptably churches in Urbana, Bellefontaine, Xenia (where he built a new church), Walnut Hills, Jonesville, Oxford, Hamilton, Cambridge, New Richmond, Troy, Piqua, in Ohio, and Brownsville, Washington, Pittsburgh and Uniontown, in Pennsylvania. At one of his revivals in Brownsville, the late Bishop Arnett was converted. Many were the souls that were added to the church during his ministerial service. He was no eloquent speaker, but a plain preacher of the gospel, preaching it in its simplicity and purity. He was well liked by his brethren and counted among his friends, Bishops Nazrey, Paul Quinn, Payne and Shorter, Revs. Underwood, Johnson, Tolliver and many others. He was a member of the general conferences of 1856 and 1892. For a number of years he was a trustee of Wilberforce

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JEREMIAH LEWIS.

University. He was twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth Shores, of Hanover, Md. Of this union there were three girls, only one of whom reached the age of maturity. Two of her children are living in Indianapolis, Md. In 1857 he married Mary C. King, of Brownsville, Penn., who survived him thirteen years. Of this union there were three children, two daughters and a son, all of whom are living today. They are Mrs. A. L. Anderson, wife of Dr. H. P. Anderson, of the New Jersey Conference; Miss Hattie F. Lewis and Prof. G. S. Lewis, a teacher in the public schools of Birmingham, Ala. He died in February, 1895, at 84 years of age. For several years before his death he was blind, but bore his affliction with patience, and without complaint.

        Lewis, Theodore Wright, the son of Isum and Delia Lewis, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born March 5, 1853, in Iroquois County, Illinois. He was one of eleven children. He entered school at the age of 7 years and remained for 7 or 8 years. He was converted at the age of twenty. He has held several offices in the church. He was licensed to preach 1886 at Great Bend, Kansas, by Rev. B. F. Watson. He was ordained deacon in 1886 at Great Bend by Rev. B. F. Watson and ordained elder in 1891 at Chicago, Ill., by Bishop Brown. He joined the Annual Conference 1887 at Emporia, Kansas, under Bishop Brown.

        He held the following appointments: Great Bend, 1886; Arkansas City, Kansas, 1887; Olathe, Kansas,


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1888; Albia, Ia., 1891; Washington, Ia., 1892; Mt. Pleasant, Ia., 1893-94; Oskaloosa, Ia., 1895; Princeton, Ill., 1896; Newton, Ia., 1897; Monmouth, Ill., 1898-99; Milwaukee, Wis., 1900-01; Keokuk, Ia., 1902-06; Moline, Ill., 1907-09; Minneapolis, Minn., 1910-12; P. E. St. Paul District, 1913-14; Davenport, Ia., 1915.

        He built a parsonage at Arkansas City. He lifted

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. THEODORE W. LEWIS.

mortgages on Arkansas City $175 in 1887; Albia, Ia., $75 in 1891; Monmouth, $110 in 1898.

        He married Anna Lewis September 20, 1903. He was editor of a local church paper. He is a member of the F. and A. M. and Mystic Shrine. He has held offices in them. He is a property owner.

        Lindsay, Rev. James A., is a South Carolinian by birth, and spent his boyhood days on the farm in Union County. His parents were humble Christian people, who put God above everything else. He was converted and joined Ebenezer A. M. E. Church, in his native state, September, 1878, during the "big camp-meeting" conducted by Rev. George Dardis and I. S. Grant--both powerful preachers in their day. He began school at the age of six, under the instruction of Joseph Bailey, who prophesied a great future for "Jim" who always stood "head of his class." The instructions received from the public schools simply sharpened his educational appetite for more, so he decided to go up higher. Realizing that his qualification was not sufficient to meet the demands of his aspirations he entered Clark University, and while there pursued also the course of theology in Gammon Theological Seminary, graduating from the latter in June, 1888.

        He taught school ten years in South Carolina and Georgia, and refers with great pride and delight to his labors at Etta Jane and Lawn, South Carolina; Ben Hill, Woodbury, and Hampton, in Georgia.

        He was admitted to the North Georgia Conference, at Dalton, Ga., November, 1888, under Bishop W. J. Gaines; ordained deacon under the missionary rule, and assigned to the Jonesboro Circuit, where he labored successfully for three years. He bought the lot and erected a new church at Hampton, renovating the churches at Love Joy and Jonesboro during his three years pastorate on the circuit. In November, 1891, he was married to Miss Pearl Slade, who has been a great power for good in his ministerial career. His four years pastorate at Monticello and Shady Dale were crowned with success, two hundred and thirty-five members were added to the church, and a mortgage debt of $1400 on the new brick church in Monticello was paid during his administration. He went from Monticello to Griffin, Ga., where he erected a neat, six-room parsonage, paying for it in full, and greatly strengthened African Methodism in that city. He was presiding elder eight years, having jurisdiction over the Marietta and Macon Districts in the state of Georgia. He was chief secretary of the North

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. A. LINDSAY, D.D.

Georgia Conference, trustee and member of the Executive Board, Morris Brown College, for many years. In 1902 he was elected dean in Morris Brown College, but declined the honor, preferring to remain in his favorite work--the pastorate. His four years' stay at St. Philip's, West Broad and Charles streets, Savannah, Ga., was the most successful in his career up to this time. Great revivals crowned his labors at St. Philip's. On Easter morning, 1908, more than one hundred converts were baptized and added to the church. During his pastorate at St. Philip's he broke the financial record in the state by raising three thousand dollars in one day. He also had wonderful success at Bethel A. M. E. Church, Augusta, Ga.

        Since leaving school Rev. Lindsay has taken special courses in French, Greek, Hebrew, literature and philosophy. He is a printer by trade. He contributes from time to time to several papers.

        He has been a delegate to every general conference since 1896. He is at present the recording secretary of the Board of Missions, New York City. He received his honorary degree of doctor of divinity from Paul Quinn College and Payne Theological Seminary, Wilberforce University. After five years pastorate of Avery Chapel A. M. E. Church, Memphis, Tenn., he


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was appointed, November, 1915, as pastor of St. John's Church, Birmingham, Ala., where he is having his usual success.

        Link, John Lewis, the son of Stephen and Susan Link, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in 1884 in Milton, N. C., one of nine children. He entered school in 1889. He graduated from Kittrell College and Lincoln University. He received from the latter institutuion the degrees of A.B., S.T.B.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN LEWIS LINK.

and A.M. He was converted in 1902 and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1903. He has held the following offices: Steward, Trustee, Class Leader, Local Preacher and Sunday School Teacher. He was licensed to preach in 1910 at Oxford, Pa., by Rev. F. T. M. Webster, joined the Philadelphia Annual Conference in 1912, at Chester, Pa., was ordained deacon at Wilmington, Del., in 1913 by Bishop Tyree, and ordained elder at Dover, Del., in 1915 by Bishop Evans Tyree. He has held appointments at Shippensburg, Pa., 1913-14, and Downingtown, Pa., 1914-15.

        Logan, Lee Andrew, son of James and Adelina Logan, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born 1877 at Spartansburg, S. C. He was one of 14 children. He received his education in the graded schools of Spartansburg and Allen University, from which he graduated and received degree of B.D. He was converted in 1900 and joined the A. M. E. Church, serving as class leader, local preacher, Sunday school teacher and superintendent. He was licensed to preach in 1903 at Spartansburg by Rev. W. H. Clark and joined the Columbia annual conference the same year at Newberry, S. C., under Bishop Gaines; was ordained deacon in 1906 at Winnsboro, S. C., by Bishop Coppin, and elder in 1908 at Abbeville, S. C., by Bishop Lee. He has held the following appointments, all in the Columbia conference: Johnston, Miss.; Hopkins, Leesville, Hyatt Park, Carlisle Ct., Taylor Chapel Circuit, Shiloh Circuit, Antioch Station and presiding elder of the Winnsboro District. He built a church at Leesville, S. C., in 1908 and Cedar Creek at Bookman, S. C., in 1911. He was the leader of the Columbia annual conference delegation to the general conference of 1916. He is secretary of his conference. He was married to his wife, Mrs. Lois Ethel Logan,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. LEE A. LOGAN, B.D.

of Ridgeway, S. C., January 16, 1906. He has contributed to the several Recorders and is editor of the Southern Monitor and is a home owner. He is connected with the K. of P. and has been prelate of the same.

        Lomax, John Thomas, son of Thomas and Charlotte Lomax, both members of the A. M. E. church, was born in 1872 at Abbeville County, S. C., one of two children; attended school at Sterling College and

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. T. LOMAX, D.D.

Allen University. He was converted in 1888 and joined the A. M. E. Church; held many offices in the local church; was licensed to preach 1891 by Rev. William Thomas; joined the annual conference in 1899 at
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Columbia, S. C., under Bishop Grant; was ordained deacon in 1901 at Newberry, S. C., and elder in 1903 at Greenville, S. C., both by Bishop Gaines; held the following appointments: Seneca City, Greenville Circuit, Wood Ruff, St. Pave Ct., Edgefield Station, Sandy Run Circuit, Salada Circuit, Mt. Pisgah Station. He built a church at Wood Ruff at a cost of $800. He lifted a mortgage of $1200 on Mt. Pisgah at Sumter, S. C., in 1912. He has taken 969 members into the church and baptized 468; was delegate to the general conference of 1916. He is now presiding elder of the Manning District. His wife is Mrs. Minnie Lomax, of Abbeville, S. C. He owns several pieces of real estate and is held in high esteem.

        Lowe, J. I., the son of Mathew and Deborah Lowe, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in the Bahama Islands. He was one of twelve children. He entered school in 1856 and attended in all about seven years. He graduated from the Bahama High School at Harbour Island, Bahama. He was converted in 1859 and joined the Wesleyan Methodist Church. He was in the local church: steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher and Sunday school teacher.

        He was licensed to preach in 1871 at Key West, Fla., by Rev. T. W. Long. He joined the Conference in 1872 at Gainesville, Fla., and was ordained deacon the same year by Bishop T. M. D. Ward and ordained elder in 1876 at Jacksonville, Fla., by Bishop T. M. D. Ward.

        He has held the following appointments: St. Salvador, Bahamas, 1872; Fernandina, Fla., 1876; Vicksburg,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JACOB ISRAEL LOWE, D.D.

Miss., 1879; St. Stephen's, St. Louis, 1882; Arkadelphia, Ark., 1883; Forest City, Ark., 1885; Magnolia, Ark., 1887; P. E. of Arkadelphia District, 1889; Arkansas City District, 1892; Claredon District, 1904; Forest City District, 1908; elected General Manager of Book Concern, 1912; built church at Vicksburg, Miss., at a cost of $12,000 in 1881-83. He has been delegate to all General Conferences from 1880 to 1916, several times a member of the Episcopal Committee and once its chairman. He was a member of the Church Extension Board for twelve years. He is a power in debates in the General Conference.

        Luckie, Rev. Peter Alpheus, pastor St. Peter's A. M. E. Church and principal of the A. M. E. Normal and Industrial Institute, at Georgetown, British Guiana, South America, was born forty-three years ago--born in dire poverty. In December, 1899, Bishop Lee discovered and sent him to Wilberforce University, Ohio, where he remained four years, graduating in June, 1904, and returning to South America in July, 1904, to re-establish the A. M. E. Church. The work here was started by Bishop Nazery, in 1874, as a part of the B. M. E. Church, which was united with the A. M. E. Church, in 1884. Since that period the Church had had a rather precarious existence till Mr. Luckie returned to take charge.

        In September, 1905, a $3000 building was erected. In October, 1909, the second building, costing $2500, was erected, and July, 1913, the third one, of $1500, was in order. These buildings are situated in the most popular and healthful section of the city, upon our own properties, consisting of a whole city block.

        But not only has the work made progress materially, but more so spiritually. Since Rev. Luckie has had charge over 800 persons have accepted the Gospel, partly through his pulpit work and partly through his faithful assistants. He organized the Woman's Mite Missionary Society, five missionary bands, to do yard work, a Sunday school of over 100 scholars, a dramatic club, to minister to the social side of the young people. He also organized the normal and industrial institute, and Rankin Theological Seminary, to perpetuate our ministry in South America.

        In 1902 he visited Great Britain and France. He saw the coronation of King Edward. In 1906 he made a wedding trip to England, which was the present of his wife's father. In 1911 he was in England again, when his Majesty, King George, honored him with a seat in Carlton Gardens, "The Mall," to view the Royal Progress of June 23, 1911.

        Lynch, James, editor of the Christian Recorder 1866-67, was born in Baltimore, January 8, 1839. After a thorough course of study, joined in 1858 the Presbyterian Church in New York, but soon after the A. M. E. Church conference in Indiana. He transfered to Baltimore and in May, 1863, went to South Carolina with Rev. J. D. S. Hall as the first African Methodist preacher to that part of the South. He labored at Port Royal, Beaufort and Charleston, S. C., and Savannah, Ga., and was one of the original members of the first South Carolina conference in 1865. From February 24, 1866, to June 15, 1867, he was editor of the Christian Recorder. Later he was connected with the Freedmen's Bureau under General Howard in the State of Mississippi and in that relation became also active in politics. He was elected in 1871 Secretary of State for a two-year term. Early in 1872 Mr. Lynch, by reason of the severe strain of the political campaign of 1871, manifested symptoms of nervous prostration and died December 18, 1872.


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        MACKALL, JAMES OGLE, the son of Joseph and Cathrine M. Mackall, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Prince George's County, Md., in August, 1858, one of six children. He entered school in 1868 and attended about five years. He spent over two years in the rural schools in Montgomery County, Md., and received the rest of his education chiefly from private instructors. He was converted in 1884 and joined Charles Street church, Boston, Mass., the same year. He has held the offices of trustee, exhorter, local preacher and superintendent of Sunday school. He was licensed to

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JAMES OGLE MACKALL.

preach in 1892 at Asbury, Chester, by Rev. C. T. Shaffer. He joined the Philadelphia annual conference at Dover, Del., in 1894, under Bishop Tanner, was ordained deacon in 1896 at Reading, Pa., by Bishop Grant, ordained elder in 1900 at Bethel, Philadelphia, by Bishop Grant.

        He has held the following appointments: Paschall, Philadelphia, 1895-1900; Linwood, 1900-01; Atglen, 1901-04; Concord Ct., 1904-09; Columbia, Pa., 1909-12; Phoenixville, 1912-13; Wayne, 1913 to date.

        He built an annex at Concordville at a cost of $200 in 1907, remodeled church at Thornbury to the amount of $200 in 1909. He has taken about 125 people into the church. He married Mrs. Addie Mackall, of Lancaster County, Pa., November 23, 1881, at Attleboro, Mass. He has contributed to the Christian Recorder, Quarterly Review, Voice of Missions and Twentieth Century Pastor. He is connected with the Masons and Odd Fellows. He has held the office of W. C. in Masons and N. G. and Secretary in Odd Fellows.

        He owns a home and is held in high esteem for his sterling manhood.

        Makel, Mrs. Flora Lewis, was born in Philadelphia, and a true product of African Methodism. She was converted in 1892, and joined Bethel A. M. E. Church; in 1895 she became a member of the choir, and in 1897 its leading soprano, which she has been for nineteen years. She is an accomplished vocalist, and has appeared in a number of concerts before large and cultured audiences of both races. She is a singer of rare and exceptional ability, possessing a voice of great clearness and flexibility. She will sing at the Centennial General Conference.

        She taught Sunday school in Bethel Church for ten years, and attended the post office for the General

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. FLORA LEWIS MAKEL.

Conference of 1892. In 1907 she married Mr. Alexander E. Makel, a prominent young business man in Philadelphia, and has been a partner with him in conducting a good-sized men's furnishing store. Mr. and Mrs. Makel have three children--Alexander, Jr., aged 8; Marion, aged 6, and Elanor, aged 2. Notwithstanding the care of her family and the demands of her business, Mrs. Makel is active in church work and devoted to her art.

        Malone, G. W., was born in Butler, Choctaw County, Ala., in 1872, and was taken to Mississippi when only two years old. He attended the public schools of Sharkey and Washington Counties. When only thirteen years old he matriculated in Alcorn University, and completed the scientific, preparatory course in 1887. He entered Allen High School in 1892, and graduated with honors the same year.

        He now began teaching in the public schools of Coahoma County until the summer of 1892. He secured a first grade state license in 1897, having taken examination at the close of the State Normal in Greenville, Miss. He received exemption papers, having made three First Grade State Licenses in 1903.

        He entered Walden University Law School in 1907, and graduated with the degree LL.B. in 1910. In the fall of 1910 he was admitted to the Mississippi Bar, after passing a very rigid examination. He has practiced continually before all the courts of Mississippi.

        Mr. Malone joined the A. M. E. Church when only eight years old. He grew up in the Sunday


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school and church work, and has filled every office in the Sunday school and local church open to a layman.

[ILLUSTRATION]
HON. G. W. MALONE.

He is lay delegate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916.

        Mance, Rev. Robert Weston, was born September 27, 1876, at Cokesbury, S. C. His father was Rev. Montgomery Mercer Mance, of the South Carolina Conference, and a charter trustee of Allen University, Columbia, S. C. His mother was Charity A. Nash, of the well-known Nash family, of Abbeville County, whose father was a prominent political leader during and just after the Reconstruction period in South Carolina. This subject was born in Cokesbury, in the old Paine College building, where his father was attending school, and in which village he was the station pastor of the A. M. E. Church. He attended several private schools and the Hoge High School, in Newberry, S. C., and Claflin University, Orangeburg, N. C., completing the college preparatory and college courses, and received the degree of bachelor of arts from this last school, May, 1899. He was principal of the Hoge High School, Newberry, S. C., from 1899 to 1907, when he resigned to serve Bethel Church, Georgetown, S. C.

        Rev. Mance was converted in 1889, and joined Miller Chapel, A. M. E. Church, at Newberry, S. C., where he served as local preacher, steward and Sunday school superintendent. He was licensed to preach July, 1901, by Rev. Hiram Young; was admitted to the Columbia Conference the same year, at Greenville, S. C.; was ordained deacon November 29, 1903, at Newberry, S. C., by Bishop Gaines, and elder by Bishop Coppin, December 3, 1905, and held the following appointments in the Columbia Conference: New Miller Mission, Saluda, S. C., 1904; Enoree Circuit, Jalapa, S. C., 1905; St. Paul Circuit, Chapin, S. C., 1906-1907. In the South Carolina Conference: Bethel Station, Georgetown, S. C., 1907-1909; presiding elder, Beaufort District, 1910-1914; Mount Zion Station, Charleston, S. C., 1914-16; president of Allen University, Columbia, S. C., since June, 1916.

        At Georgetown he remodeled Bethel Church, at a cost of more than $14,000; paid $7000 on the indebtedness of the trustees in less than one year, raising over $1000 in one set collection. He has taken 400 persons into the church and baptized 150. He was elected leader of the South Carolina Conference delegation to the General Conference of 1912, Kansas City, Mo., and a delegate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916, and has been a member of the Financial Board since 1912. He has also served as trustee of

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ROBERT W. MANCE.

Allen University and of Wilberforce University, and contributed to all the A. M. E. Church and many secular papers. He is Past Master of Meridian Lodge of Free Masonry, and Grand Prelate of the Grand Lodge of Knights of Pythias, South Carolina jurisdiction. He has delivered addresses on "The Aristocracy of Youth." "The Black Man's Burden," "Democracy in America," "The Standard of Good Citizenship" and "Our Modernized Church System." He was married in 1902, and is the father of two boys and three girls.

        Manning, Rev. Cornelius Maxwell, son of Moses and Millie Manning, both members of the A. M. E. Zion Church, was born December 8, 1845, at Edenton, N. C. He was one of six children. He began attending school in 1857. He attended Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, until the senior year. He received the degree of A.M. and D.D. from Morris Brown College. He was converted in October, 1867, and joined the A. M. E. Zion Church the same year. He has held nearly every local office in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1873, at Philadelphia, Pa., by Rev. J. E. Price; ordained deacon in December, 1878, at Montgomery, Ala., by Bishop Thompson, and ordained elder November 30, 1879, at Athens, Ga., by Bishop Thompson. He joined the Annual Conference of the A. M. E. Zion Church, in 1875, at Harrisburg, Pa., under Rev. J. J. Moore. He has held the following appointments: Clinton Chapel, A. M. E. Zion, 1875; Mt. Zion, A. M. E. Zion, 1878-80, and the following A. M. E. churches: Bethel A. M. E., 1881-82; Rocky Hill,


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1883; Cartersville; Swidid Acworth, 1887-88; Madison, 1889; Palmetto, 1890-91; Lexington, 1892-94; Washington, Ga., 1896; Flovillo, 1895; Monrovia, Liberia, 1897-98; Gaines Chapel, Savannah, 1899-1900; presiding elder, Hawkinsville District, 1901; Valdosta District, 1902; St. John's, Columbus, Ga., 1903-04; principal of Normal department A. and M. College, Normal, Ala., 1905-06; professor homiletics, Morris Brown College, 1907-1914; pastor Pierce Chapel, 1915 to date.

        He built Clinton Chapel, at Frankford, at a cost of $1800, in 1875; Mt. Zion, Augusta, Ga., $2000, in 1879-80; Bethel, Savannah, Ga., $3000, in 1882; Mt. Zion, Coweta County, at a cost of $1500, in 1883; Pierce Chapel and parsonage, at Athens, Ga., $10,000, in 1916. He lifted the mortgage on Gaines Chapel, at Savannah, $1800, in 1899-1900. He has taken about 3500 people into the church, and baptized about 3000 people. He was a delegate to the general conferences of 1892, 1896, 1900, 1908 and 1916. He was

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. MAX MANNING, D.D.

voted for the bishopric in 1900. He married Mary Ann Manning, February 19, 1884. They had four children--Lorenzo, Robert, Louise and Sarah. Two have graduated, Robert and Louise (deceased). He has contributed to the Christian and Southern Recorders and New York Weekly Witness. He wrote "Is God Knowable" and "Creative Week." He delivered the Emancipation Address in 1889 at Madison; 1915, Athens; Memorial Day Address at Marietta, 1891. He owns a home. He is a member of the Masons, Odd Fellows and Samaritans. He has held the offices of Deputy Grand Master of Masons, Georgia; W. M. in Odd Fellows. He is a member of the Republican party. He attended the Constitutional Convention, North Carolina, 1867; Secretary of the United States Legation, Monrovia, Liberia, west coast Africa. He was Honorary Commissioner of World's Fair, at New Orleans, 1884, and is actively associated with the Y. M. C. A.

        Marshall, Cornelia, was born in Accomac county, Virginia, March 26, 1865; converted in 1877, and joined Friendship M. E. church; was a member there for 11 years; came to Philadelphia, Penna., in 1888, and joined Mt. Pisgah A. M. E. church in 1889, and has

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. CORNELIA MARSHALL.

served as stewardess, member of the Ladies' Auxiliary, and class leader of Class "B" of No. 4, the first woman class leader ever appointed in Mt. Pisgah church, Philadelphia, Pa.

        Martin, Rev. James Glover, was born in Charleston, S. C. His grandparents were among the first to assist in forming the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston. Robert Scott, whose picture now hangs in Emmanuel Church, is his uncle. In 1883

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JAMES GLOVER MARTIN.

he became a member of Emmanuel Church, Charleston, under Dr. L. R. Nichols. He was licensed to preach by Dr. Paul H. Johnson, at Emmanuel Church. From Charleston he went to Allen University, in 1894, and graduated in 1887. In the fall of 1887 he entered
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Howard University, Washington, D. C. He was appointed chaplain of the Freedman Hospital, in the city of Washington, and remained there three years. Joined the Baltimore Conference, under Bishop Campbell, and served his first appointment at West River Circuit, in 1890. He was ordained deacon at Trinity A. M. E. Church, Baltimore, Md., 1890, by Bishop Tanner, and ordained elder, 1892, by Bishop Arnett, at Elkton, Md. After pastoring on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, remodeling churches, building parsonages and adding members to the church, he was appointed to Allen, Baltimore, to succeed Doctor, now Bishop J. Albert Johnson, where he remained for five years. He is now serving his fourth year at Payne Memorial Church, Baltimore. His married life has been successful and happy; a large family is being reared with bright prospects for useful careers.

        Martin, Rev. Joseph Henry, is the son of John Henry and Lorianna Martin. He was born in St. Crouix, West Indian Islands, on September 18, 1864. When a boy he was sent to school, according to the laws of the island. He attended school in the country while his father was employed at the King's estate. In 1879 his father was selected coachman to the governor-general, and moved to St. Thomas, where John Henry, Jr., entered the Moravian School. His mother having died while he was a small boy, his father took excellent care of him. It was his duty to attend the governor's daughters after school and take their riding horses to the mansion every afternoon. When Prince Waldemar visited the Island John was

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. H. A. MARTIN.

his horse boy from 1879 to 1880. In 1884 he left the island of St. Thomas for Santo Domingo, where he spent five years, part of that time working as a carpenter's apprentice in San Padro de Macoris, then in Santo Domingo City. The last three years were spent on the Bay State fruit farm, near Samana. At this place, which belongs to a Boston Company, he acted as overseer and interpreter, and it was here, on January 1, 1887, that he received the glorious light of salvation, and soon thereafter began to preach. He organized a Sabbath school by the help of a local preacher by the name of John Smith, of St. Thomas A. M. E. Church, of which Rev. E. M. Harper was builder and pastor. The Rev. James, Sr., of Samana, often visited them and gave them great help.

        He left Santo Domingo, March 29, 1888, for Boston, to complete his education. However, he landed in Baltimore, April 21 of said year; he was robbed of all he had except the suit he wore. This proved a great drawback to him, so he went to sea until he got some money and clothes. Not being able to go to Boston, he settled in Baltimore, Md., and joined St. Peter's Mission, in the spring of 1890, under the pastorate of Rev. D. J. Bryan. On November 17, 1890, he was licensed to exhort, by Rev. R. F. Wayman, presiding elder. On June 2 he was licensed to preach by Rev. W. R. Arnold, presiding elder. He entered the itinerancy of the Baltimore Annual Conference, April, 1895, under Bishop W. J. Gaines; he was ordained deacon May 5, 1897 and ordained elder May 14, 1899, under Bishop James A. Handy. On May 1, 1900, he was transferred and appointed as missionary to Santo Domingo by Bishop James A. Handy, but the Missionary Department being without funds, he was not sent. The following year he was transferred back to the Baltimore Conference by Bishop C. S. Smith to Bishop Lee. On April 30, 1911, Bishop L. J. Coppin transferred him to the Virginia Conference, and stationed him at Blacksburg, Va. After two years in Blacksburg he was sent to Waynesboro Circuit, where he is now completing his third year, and his twenty-first in the ministry of the A. M. E. Church. His life has been very checkered and of varied experience, but he says that nothing brings such joy and satisfaction as the ministry, with all of its hardships and complexities. His wife, Mrs. Gertrude E. Martin, is a great help and comfort to him.

        Mason, D. James, superintendent of Bethel A. M. E. Sunday school, Philadelphia, is the only son of

[ILLUSTRATION]
D. JAMES MASON.

Robert James and Margaret Shorts Mason. He was born in Philadelphia, March 19, 1862. His parents died when he was quite young and he was reared by
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his aunt, Phoebe A. Mason. He attended the James Forten Grammar School, and received a good scholastic training.

        At the age of five years he was enrolled as a scholar in Bethel A. M. E. Sunday School, was converted January 19, 1880, at a revival service, under the pastorate of Rev. Levi J. Coppin, joined the church and has ever since remained therein. He has served three terms as superintendent. First term, three years; second, four; and the third, fourteen consecutive years, in which he has earnestly and faithfully performed the duties of the office which has won for him the esteem of his school. He has served longer than any superintendent of the school. He also holds the offices of church clerk, secretary of the stewards' board, secretary of the quarterly conference, class leader and a member of the choir. He was married to Miss Henrietta Fassitt, of Philadelphia, January 25, 1893, by Rev. William D. Cook. This happy union was severed by the death of Mrs. Mason, August 22, 1906, leaving four children--J. Winsmore, Henrietta C., George A. and Evelyn K., who have been in the care of their father, and are active in Mother Bethel Church and Sunday school, Philadelphia.

        Means, Rev. Samuel George, the son of Thomas and Elizabeth Means, both African Methodists, was born November 8, 1873, in Early County, Ga. He joined the A. M. E. Church on probation, September

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. SAMUEL GEORGE MEANS.

16, 1883. He was converted and became a full member August 28, 1889. He was licensed to exhort February 9, 1894.

        He joined the North Georgia Conference, November 12, 1895, and was appointed pastor of the Canton (Ga.) Mission, November 18, 1895; three years were spent on said Mission, during which time he built it from a small mission to a circuit of more than 350 members, and five preaching points. At the end of the three years the conference moved him from the circuit and appointed two pastors to take charge of the work he had given the Church where it had none before.

        He was ordained deacon November 7, 1897; he was ordained elder November 13, 1899. He has pastored with success many large charges in the State of Georgia. He was presiding elder two years on the South Atlanta District under Bishop Smith. His district was a success. He is now finishing up his fourth year at St. James' Church, at Columbus, Ga.

        He finished from the correspondence course of theology at Morris Brown University, June, 1908, and was that same year given the degree of doctor of divinity by Campbell College, Jackson, Miss. He has engaged extensively in evangelistic work, having in the last twenty years added to the Church more than 18,000 souls. He was a member of the general conference of 1912. Dr. Means has many more calls than he is able to fill.

        Merrick, John, was born in Clinton, Sampson County, N. C., September 7, 1859. When a boy the family moved to Chapel Hill and then to Raleigh, where he grew to manhood. He began life as a brick mason, but afterwards became a barber. In this capacity signal success has attended him. When twenty-two years of age, Mr. Merrick moved to Durham with his bride of two years, Mrs. Martha Hunter Merrick. When he retired from the barber business a few

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. JOHN MERRICK.

years ago, it had grown to be one of the finest and most successful in the state. To his success in this business is possibly due the nucleus of his fortune.

        The North Carolina Mutual and Provident Association was founded by Mr. Merrick in 1899, and since its organization he has been of invaluable assistance in its growth and management. He is president of the Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank, the S. G. Treasurer of the Royal Knights of King David, director and president of the Board of Lincoln Hospital, and an influential member of St. Joseph's A. M. E. Church, being a trustee and president of the A. C. E. League of the same. Indeed, his activity has made the League probably the best in the South. Mr. Merrick has two


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boys and three girls; a very happy and delightful family, and he is a large property holder, being highly respected by all classes of citizens.

        Michell, James Mathew Benjamin, son of Andrew and Ellen Michell, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Hickman, Ark., one of eight children. He began attending school at the age of seven years; received his education from Wilberforce, Helena Normal, graduating from the same. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1894; was licensed to preach in 1896 at Hickman, Ark., by Rev. J. E. Neal; joined the annual conference in 1897 at Argenta, Ark., under Bishop Derrick, who ordained him deacon in 1898 at Fort Smith, Ark.; was ordained elder in 1901 at Redfield, Ark., by Bishop Tyree; has held appointments at Madison, Miss., 1897; Wyome Station, 1898; 'Caldwell Circuit,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. M. B. MICHELL.

1899; Dewitt Circuit, 1900; Helena, 1901; Marvel Circuit, 1902-03; Westover Circuit, 1904; Payne Theological Institute, 1905-07; Brookley Station, 1907-08; Newport Station, 1909-10; Batesville Station, 1911-12; presiding elder of Jonesboro District, 1913-16. He built St. Paul church at Marvel, Ark. at a cost of $1,200 in 1902; lifted $350 mortgage on St. Paul church at Newport, Ark., in 1909; a delegate to the general conference of 1916; is a trustee of Shorter College. His wife to whom he was married in 1908 is Mrs. Ardelia Michell of Edmondson, Ark. They have three children: Charles, Catharine and Ellen Louise. He is connected with the International Order of Travelers and the F. and A. M. He has held the office of W. M. in the Masons. He owns a home at Jonesboro, Ark.

        Mickens, Milton H., was born about thirty-eight years ago; was given by holy baptism to the church when a babe of thirty days, and at eleven years of age experienced sound conversion. He passed through the graded and high schools and studied at Chicago and Yale Universities. He holds the degree of A.M. He was for some time a public school teacher, and in 1904 was principal of Delhi, (La.) Institute (now Lampton College). He founded and edited the "Negro Lamp." He has repaired, completed and beautified church buildings, paid debts, burnt mortgages and has received more than one thousand persons into the church. He filled from the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. MILTON H. MICKENS, A.M.

humblest backwoods mission to the presiding eldership, and from the "little" mission station to the metropolitan charge. At this time he is pastoring at Seattle, Wash., one of the largest and most important charges in the Puget Sound conference, serving his second year. He has added nearly two hundred persons to this church, and has broken the record for converts and dollar money in the Northwest.

        Mills, Rev. Peter Emanuel, was born in the Island of St. Christopher, British West Indies, of Christian parents, devout members of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, his father, Benjamin L. Mills, being a class leader. At an early age he became the subject of serious impressions, and while yet a boy showed marked signs of his future life's work. At the age of twelve he gave his heart to God, joined the Wesleyan Methodist Church and soon after was appointed leader of the children's (catachumen's) class.

        After graduating from school he was licensed to preach in the Wesleyan Methodist Church. At this time Rev. David Wright, of England, superintendent of the Wesleyan Church in the Island of St. Vincent invited him to attend his theological seminary, where he studied for four consecutive years, and graduated with high honors, after having been ordained to the Wesleyan Methodist ministry.

        He then made an extensive tour of the United States and Europe, visiting the chief points of interest in several states and all the principal cities and points of interest in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; also Paris and other points in France. Being under the direction of the missionary office in


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London, he preached in City Road Chapel, and a score of other churches, and made addresses at Richmond Wesleyan College and other institutions. He visited the Wesleyan Methodist Conference, in the city of Hull, and it appointed him to the superintendency of Bath Circuit, Jamaica, West Indies. The degree of A.M. was conferred upon him while in England, and that of D.D. in America, by Shorter University in Arkansas.

        In 1885 the subject of this sketch returned to the United States and joined the A. M. E. connection, in Buffalo, N. Y., under Bishop Cain. Since then he has

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. P. E. MILLS, A.M., D.D.

held the following charges: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Princeton, New Jersey, Union Bethel, Brooklyn, New York; Coxsackie, New York; Lockport, New York; Bethel, New Haven, Conn. (which he recovered from the M. E. Church of that city and restored it back to the A. M. E. Church, after it had been out of our connection seven (7) years); Narragansett, R. I.; Bethel, Vicksburg, Miss.; Bethel, West Chester, Pa.; Mt. Pisgah, Philadelphia, Pa.; Media, Pa.; Bethel, Wiley Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. (which he completed and dedicated), and Brown Chapel, Cincinnati, O. He has paid off debts on churches in different parts of the connection, and has taken about one thousand persons into the Church.

        He served as presiding elder under Bishop Tyree, in the Mississippi Conference; under Bishop Derrick, Bishop Arnett and Bishop Gaines, in the Philadelphia Conference, and under Bishop Shaffer in the Ohio Conference.

        He was elected delegate to the general conference of 1900. He has contributed articles to the Christian Recorder and Southern Recorder, Voice of Missions and to the A. M. E. Review. He is an Odd Fellow and owns his own home.

        Mills, Victoria H., was born in Plaquemine, La.; attended and graduated from the public schools of that town; attended New Orleans University, and graduated with honor in 1900; in 1901 was married to Rev. Dr. P. E. Mills, then pastor at West Chester, Pa. When a girl she was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church, at Plaquemine. She is in her native sphere when doing work for the Church. In testimony of her church devotion she has several times received gold medals. In 1892 she received a gold medal from Bethel A. M. E. Church, in Plaquemine, La.; in 1908 another medal was given her by the members of the Philadelphia

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. P. E. MILLS.

Conference Branch Mite Missionary Society, and in 1909 a third medal was presented her for faithful service by the members of Bethel A. M. E. Church, Wylie Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. Mrs. Mills makes an ideal minister's wife.

        Mixon, Rev. W. H., the son of Andrew J. and Maria Mixon, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born about 1859 or 1860, at Dallas County, Ala., one of thirteen children. He spent a very short time in school, and is largely a self-made man, though he attended Selma University for a short time. He received the degree of D.D. from Wilberforce University. In 1876 he was converted, and joined the A. M. E. Church, in which he served as steward, trustee, class leader and exhorter before he was licensed to preach. In 1876 he was licensed to preach at Pea Ridge, by Rev. W. D. Morton; joined the annual conference in 1879, at Huntsville, Ala.; was ordained deacon in 1881, by Bishop A. W. Wayman, at Greensboro, and elder, in 1882, at Selma, Ala., by Bishop Wayman. He has had the following appointments: Decatur, Pratt City, Bailey's Chapel, Star of the East. Brown Chapel, St. John, Columbiana and Rosebud. He has presided over the following districts: Birmingham, Selma, Greensboro, Montgomery, Ivory, Camden and Huntsville. Built churches at Rosedale, at a cost of $500; Fachler, at $1000; at Meltonville, Marion and Andalusia. He lifted the mortgages on Montgomery, Columbiana and parsonage. He has taken 10,000 people into the Church; has been elected delegate to the general conferences of the following years: 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904, 1908 and 1916. Was a member of the Educational Board in 1892; is the historian of the A. M. E. Church in Alabama; was voted for general office in 1900 and 1904. Married Miss Elizabeth Jackson,


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of Wilberforce, in 1898. Has contributed to the Christian Recorder, Selma News, Dallas Post. Wrote the following pamphlets and books: "History of African Methodism in Alabama," "Methodist Seminary," "Broken Chain." Made addresses for Theodore Roosevelt in 1912; the G. U. O. of O. F., at Atlanta, Ga.; Washington, D. C.; Chattanooga, Tenn., and Indianapolis, Ind. He is a director of K. of P., G. C. Mason, national auditor of the G. U. O. of O. F. Dr. Mixon is connected with the F. and A. M., G. U. O. of O. F., K. of P., I. O. B. and S. of C., Supreme Master. He has held the offices of Deputy G. M. Grand Director, Supreme Master, G. C. Grand Auditor. Member of Republican and Progressive Parties. Owns a home at Selma, Ala. He is now presiding elder of Huntsville District, and financial agent of Payne University.

        Moore, Morris Marcellus, twenty-seventh bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born November 15, 1856, in Quincy, Fla., and was converted in 1861, and licensed to preach in 1876, by Rev. J. H. Armstrong, in the same city. He commenced traveling in 1878; was

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP M. M. MOORE.

ordained deacon in 1880, and elder in 1881; he was elected financial secretary of the A. M. E. Church in 1896, and was elected bishop May --, 1900. He died November 23, 1900, serving as bishop only six months. He was buried in Jacksonville, Fla., where his widow now lives.

        Moore, Thomas Y., was born in Shelbyville, Tenn., August 31, 1862; attended the city school there, also Central Tennessee College, now Walden University; was converted in August, 1885; was licensed to preach in 1886; joined the Tennessee conference in 1889, and has pastored some the largest churches in the Tennessee conference. In the organization of the East Tennessee conference he took a prominent part, and has been presiding elder almost ever since it was set apart. He has been a member of four general conferences--1904 to 1916 inclusive, leading his delegation in 1904, 1912 and 1916. Rev. Moore also has a prosperous undertaking business in Huntsville, Ala. He graduated from Cincinnati College of Embalming.

        Morant, Asbury Benjamin, son of Charles and Phoebe Morant, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born February 14, 1874, at Fort Long, Miss., one of twelve children. He spent twelve years in school, receiving his education in Avoca public schools and Lakes' graded school. He was converted in 1890 and joined the A. M. E. Church, and has served as steward, trustee, class leader, Sunday school teacher, organist and district superintendent of Sunday schools. He has been a lay delegate to the Central Mississippi Annual Conference since 1906, and has been secretary of the same for ten consecutive years. He is delegate to the general conference of 1916. He was editor of the "Signal (Miss.) American" for two years; is postmaster at Signal, Miss., and is connected with the Knights of Honor and K. of P., and is a home owner. He was grand secretary of the Knights of Honor for twelve years.

        Morant, D. R., an elder of the Central Mississippi Annual Conference, the elder son of Charles and Phoebe Morant. He was born in Selma, Ala., February 16, 1867, and was converted at Signal, near Vicksburg, Miss., September 17, 1891. He obtained his education in the public schools of Yazoo County, and by

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. D. R. MORANT.

persistent study in night school, under Prof. C. R. Custard, of Vicksburg, Miss., he was admitted into conference by Bishop H. M. Turner, December, 1897. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Derrick, January 26, 1898; ordained elder by Bishop Tyree, December 23, 1900. During the period of twenty years which marks his ministerial career, he has made splendid success. He succeeds where others fail, and is classed among the best preachers of the state. He was a delegate to the general conference in Kansas City, Mo., in 1912, and is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference in Philadelphia. He has held the following churches: Valley Park Mission, served eight months, had three converts; Flower Hill Mission, served one year, had two converts, built one new church; Warren
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Circuit, served three years, had thirty-five converts, two churches remodeled; Anguilla Circuit, served three years, had twenty-seven converts, built one new church; Signal Circuit, served four years, had fifty-eight converts, built one new church; Hollandale Circuit, served three years, had seventy-five converts, built one new parsonage; Grenada Station, served one year, had seven converts, built one new parsonage; Glen Allen Circuit, served three years, had forty converts, built one new church. He has raised for building and repairs, $4008; for dollar money, $1628; built and paid for four new churches, remodeled two and built and laid the foundations for two parsonages. He is married and his wife is a great aid to him, and is now president of the Conference Branch of the W. H. and F. M. Society of the Central Mississippi Conference. He owns property in the city of Vicksburg. He is highly respected in every community to which he goes.

        Morant, Rev. John James, son of Charles and Phoebe Morant, both loyal members of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Selma, Ala., in 1873. His parents had six children. Entered school in 1879, and spent about eleven years in all. Spent over two years in each of the following: public schools, Wilberforce and Payne Seminary. Received B.D., D.D. from Wilberforce.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN JAMES MORANT.

Converted in 1884 and joined the A. M. E. Church in the same year; has held several offices in the Church. Licensed to preach in 1888 at Vicksburg Circuit, by Rev. Thomas W. Stringer; ordained deacon in 1890, at Grenada, Miss., by Bishop A. R. Disney; ordained elder by Bishop Arnett, at West Point, Miss., in 1893. Joined the annual conference in 1891, at Vicksburg, Miss., under Bishop Disney. He held the following appointments: Corinth Mission, 1890-91; West Point, 1891-92; Winterville, 1892; Stonesville Circuit, 1893; Oklahoma Mission, 1894; Tunica, 1895; Piqua, O., 1896; Dayton, O., 1897-99; Brookhaven, Miss., 1899; Greenwood, Miss., 1900-01; Rosedale, Miss., 1902-03; Greenville Station, 1904-05; Vicksburg, Bethel, 1906-12. Built St. Paul's, at Stoneville Circuit, at a cost of $500, in 1892; Bethel, Rosedale, Miss., at a cost of $2000, in 1902; Mother Bethel, at Vicksburg, Miss., at a cost of $21,000, in 1912. He has received about 2000 into the Church, baptized 8000 people and married 250. Was delegate to general conference in 1904, 1908, 1912. He was a member of the Educational Board in 1908-12. Appointed presiding elder in 1913-14. Endorsed unanimously by Central Mississippi Conference for the Episcopacy, December 8, 1904. Dr. Morant, in 1912, was the most formidable ministerial aspirant for Secretary of Education, and withdrew in the interest of Prof. A. S. Jackson, the present incumbent. Married Mary Jean Morant, of Ebenezer, Miss., in 1903. They had four children, John V. Morant, Jr., Christa B., Richard L. and Edward A. Has contributed to Commercial Appeal, Christian and Southern Recorders, and Vicksburg Herald. He has made several addresses, and was editor of Monitor in 1900. Dr. Morant made the following addresses: National Decoration, 1913; Commencement Address, at Campbell College, in 1906; Address to Farmers' Conference, 1910; Emancipation address, 1898, at Dayton, O. He is connected with the Masons, Odd Fellows, K. of P. and others. Member of Republican party, and attended convention in 1908. Owns a home.

        Morris, Rev. S. S., was born in Portsmouth, Va., in 1878. His parents were among the first families of Tidewater, Va. His mother has been a Sunday school teacher for fifty years in Emanuel A. M. E. Church. Rev. Morris was converted at the aged of fourteen,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. S. MORRIS, A.M., B.D.

and became an energetic Christian worker as a Sunday school teacher and Allen League official. He received his elementary education in the public schools of Norfolk County, Va.; Providence, R. I., and Washington
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[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. P. FELDER (See sketch Page 89)
BISHOP WM. H. HEARD (See sketch Page 111)
MRS. WM. H. HEARD (See sketch Page 111)

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. D. J. JORDAN (See sketch Page 143)
W. H. DAVIS (See sketch Page 81)
REV. D. C. DEAS (See sketch Page 82)
REV. WATSON H. EDWARDS (See sketch Page 86)

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. M. M. BETHUNE (See sketch Page 39)
MRS. R. W. MANCE (See sketch Page 155)
MRS. J. A. LINDSAY (See sketch Page 151)


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[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP B. W. ARNETT (See sketch Page 25)

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. K. C. HOLT (See sketch Page 115)

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP J. H. ARMSTRONG (See sketch Page 25)

[ILLUSTRATION]
DR. A. D. BYAS (See sketch Page 55)

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. T. H. HOOPER (See sketch Page 115)

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. A. L. BRISBANE (See sketch Page 43)

[ILLUSTRATION]
COL. PHILLIP H. EDWARDS (See sketch Page 86)

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. P. A. LUCKIE (See sketch Page 153)

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. O. IVERSON (See sketch Page 123)


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D. C., and later graduated from the classical course of Morris Brown College and from Gammon Theological Seminary.

        Rev. Morris was licensed as a local preacher in 1899, and joined the Virginia Conference of the African Methodist Church in April, 1901. He was transferred later to the Atlanta (Ga.) Conference, and in December, 1901, received his first appointment as pastor of West End Church, Atlanta. In 1903 he was appointed to Thomasville Station, Fulton County, Ga., and the same year became superintendent of the Industrial Department of Morris Brown College. He returned to Virginia in 1905, and has served the following charges: Tanner's Creek Circuit, three years (debt reduced); Suffolk Station, three years (mortgage burned); Third Street Bethel A. M. E. Church, Richmond, for a term of five years. This church was remodeled at a cost of $15,000, and is one of the most modern and beautiful of the state. He is now serving his first year at St. John's, Norfolk, Va., succeeding Rev. E. H. Hunter.

        Rev. Morris is president of the Civic League of Richmond; secretary of the Social Study Club and Interdenominational Ministers' Union; executive member of the Neighborhood Club and Negro Welfare League; trustee of Kittrell College; member of Missionary Board A. M. E. Church, member of general conference, 1912 and 1916, and Grand Worthy Master, Grand Fountain U. of True Reformers. He has served for ten years at the head of the League work in the state.

        In 1912 he was united in matrimony to Miss Mary H. Lawson, of Danville, and a son, William Lawson, has blessed the union.

        Moseley, Mrs. Nannie, born in Columbia, Tenn. After finishing public school she attended Mt. Tabor Academy, a Presbyterian school of that town. Her mother being a widow, and in order that her daughter

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. NANNIE W. E. MOSELEY.

might have better advantages for the study of music, she moved to Nashville, in 1881, where she studied with some of the best teachers. By hard work and close application she met with success, and went back to her home town. She began teaching music, and was elected organist for St. Paul's A. M. E. Church. During this time she was married, and in 1892 she, with her husband, moved to Birmingham, Ala., and joined St. John's Church. She entered into the musical work and has been a successful teacher and organist. She also directed the musical department at Campbell College, Jackson, Miss., and St. Mark's Industrial School, of Birmingham, Ala., for a while. She was president of St. John's W. H. and F. local society five years. She resigned that office because she was elected president of the District Missionary Society, in which capacity she now is still serving. She is also superintendent of the women's missionary work of the Ninth Episcopal District.

        Murcherson, Rev. A. R., was born in East Carroll Parish, La., November 25, 1858. After the war he attended private and public school until 1875. His parents sent him to New Orleans, where he entered the Sumner Boys' High School. After finishing the eighth grade he returned to the farm to assist his parents, but continued in night school under Mr. F. R. Bartholomue. He was known by all from boyhood to be a pious and sober young man, and on account of his Christian training he does not know of any time in his

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. A. R. MURCHERSON.

life when he was not a Christian, but he came into a full confession of Jesus August 27, 1878. He felt called to the ministry for some time before he entered upon that work. He married Miss Olley Amelia Murphy, of Madison Parish, La., December 18, 1878. A baby boy was born to their union, but lived to be only four and a half months old.

        He became a member of the Order of K. of P., in 1883, and rose to the rank of Past District Deputy Grand Chancellor. He was elected, in 1884, constable of his ward, and was twice appointed deputy sheriff, and once appointed constable to fill a vacancy. In December, 1884, he was appointed by the Clyde Detective Agency of Kansas, as detective for the northern part of the State of Louisiana, and served until


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October, 1886, when he was forced to surrender by an armed force of lawless white men. He was always appointed either a commissioner or supervisor of election for thirty years, and was shot at many times while counting votes and forced to take refuge in the swamps.

        For some time Brother Murcherson followed the sea, but became convinced that he must enter the active itinerancy (he had been a local preacher nearly thirty years). He did so in 1906. His first charge was at Clear Creek, La., in 1906, and the membership increased from 42 to 92 members. He was transferred at his request to New York Conference by Bishop Salter. He served the following charges in New York: Kinderbrook, 1907-9; Albion, 1909-10; Babylon, 1910-13; Payne Memorial, 1913-15; Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, New York, 1915 to date. He is now statistical secretary of the New York Conference.

        Murray, Charles H., was born about fifty years ago, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, a few miles from the birthplace of Bishop Wayman and Frederick Douglass. He is the son of Mary C. and Joseph Murray, whose ancestors, without a missing link, have been identified with the A. M. E. Church for the last seventy-five years. Before entering the ministry he was a member of the Mother Bethel, Baltimore, at six

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. H. MURRAY, D.D.

years old joining the Sunday school, being converted at ten years of age. He was educated in the public schools of Baltimore and New Jersey, studied in Douglass Institute two years, studied also under Prof. S. Ulelings, of New Jersey; Drs. F. J. Peck, J. H. A. Johnson, J. W. Beckett, J. F. Lane, of Baltimore; Dr. G. J. G. Webster (white), of M. E. Church and Professor Moor; was admitted into the Baltimore Conference, 1893, under Bishop Gaines, and served Keedysville, one year; Carroll, three years; Frederick City, five years; Randallstown, two years; Port Deposit, one year; presiding elder five years; Catonsville Station, six years; served as trustee of Kittrell College and Wilberforce; elected delegate to the general conferences of 1908, 1912 and 1916, and was chairman of the Baltimore Conference delegation in 1912.

        Myers, Prof. I. M. A., was born in Sandy Run township, Lexington County, near Columbia, S. C., in 1880. He attended the country schools of Orangeburg and Lexington Counties, where he received his grammar school training. He attended Allen University for seven years, graduated and spent there three years as a teacher. Prof. Myers also attended the state summer schools in Benedict College, Columbia, several sessions. In the summer of 1910, he conducted the summer school for Negro

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. I. M. A. MYERS.

teachers in Clarendon County, with credit. For six years Prof. Myers was news and city editor of the Southern Sun, a widely read paper published at Columbia, S. C., and in this capacity he traveled over the State and wrote a number of interesting articles on the progress of the colored people. He also has contributed to the white papers in South Carolina pertaining to the conventions and other gatherings of colored people.

        In 1908 Prof. Myers went to Manning, S. C., to take charge of the colored graded school of that city. The school, when he took charge, had only four teachers and lived out of an annual income of $600. The school has now ten full grades, with three years of credited high school work, a first-class domestic art and science department, an $8,000 school building with seven teachers added, and lives out of an annual income of $2,000, receiving annuities from both the Jeanes and John F. Slater funds. The county teachers' monthly meetings inaugurated by Prof. Myers are attended each month by scores of rural teachers, who meet for institute work and conference, and the annual field day celebrations bring thousands of people to the county seat to see the demonstrations of the school fair and the exhibition of what is being done in the rural schools of the county. Prof. Myers is also one of the strongest laymen in the church in South Carolina. He was elected on the first ballot to the general conference in the electoral college of the Northeast South Carolina Conference last summer. His great grandparents were members of the A. M. E. Church. He has been a Sunday school teacher


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for 16 years, is a steward in his church, and for the past eight years has served on the board of trustees of Allen University.

        Myers, Joshua H., son of Moses and Oleania Myers, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born December 27, 1865, at Decatur County, Ga. He received his education at Beach School and Morris Brown College. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1880, and held every office in the local church except trustee; he was licensed to preach in 1893, at Savannah, Ga., by Rev. J. B. Lofton, and joined the annual conference the same year at Albany, Ga., under Bishop Grant, who ordained him deacon in 1895, at Savannah. He was ordained elder in 1897, at Atlanta, Ga., by Bishop Turner, and has held the following appointments: Old St. Philip, Savannah; Chapel Street, Atlanta; Jackson Station, Conyers Station, St. James, Altanta; North Street Church, Macon; Jackson Chapel, Washington, Ga.; St. Paul, Rome, Ga.; Wesley Chapel, Rockmart, Ga.; presiding elder of Athens District. He bought the parsonage of North Street Church, Macon, Ga., at a cost of $550; lifted the mortgage at Jackson, Ga., to the amount of $47, and Conyers, to the amount of $593. He was delegate to the general conferences of 1912 and 1916. He married Mrs. Selena C. Myers, of Macon, Ga., in 1885. He has contributed to the several "Recorders," "A. M. E. Review" and "Voice of Missions." He is connected with the G. U. O. of O. F., A. F. and A. M. and F. C. B., the G. O. P. and is a home owner.

        McClendon, Rev. William Anderson, son of Anderson and Rosina McClendon, was born at Columbus, Ga., February 19, 1880. His father was a member

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM A. McCLENDON, B.D.

of the Baptist Church and his mother a member of the A. M. E. Church. His parents had twelve children. He entered school in 1886. He is a graduate of the public schools and Turner Theological Seminary, Atlanta, Ga.; received his degree from the latter. He was converted in Aug., 1898, and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held nearly every office in the Church. He was licensed to preach September, 1899, at Union Springs, Ala., by Rev. Calhoun. He was ordained deacon in 1906, at Atlanta, Ga., by Bishop Turner, and ordained elder in 1908 at Griffin, Ga., by Bishop Smith. He joined the Annual Conference of 1904 at Bainbridge, Ga., under Bishop Turner.

        He has held the following appointments: Mt. Airy Mission, 1902; Waverly Hall Mission, 1903; Ellsley Circuit, 1904; Rice, Cussette and Jackson End Mission, 1906-7; St. James' Station, 1908-9; Pleasant Grove, 1908; Barnesville, 1910-11; Warrenton, Ga., 1912-14; St. Paul, Atlanta, Ga., 1915-16.

        He built a church at Pleasant Grove. He lifted a mortgage on Trinity, at Warrenton, Ga., to the amount of $110, in 1912. He has received over 500 into the church, baptized 320 and married 40. He has been elected delegate to the General Conference of 1916.

        He married Mattie B. Owens, of Barnesville, Ga., December 7, 1911. He delivered the Emancipation Address at Warrenton, Ga., in 1914, and Commencement Oration to Sparta Normal School, in 1914. He is a member of the F. and A. M., K. of P., and G. U. O. of O. F.

        McDonald, J. Frank, editor of Western Christian Recorder, was born in Lafayette County, Mo., five miles south of Dover, during the dark days of slavery. At the age of twelve he escaped to Lexington, Mo., a distance of fifteen miles through the woods. Upon reaching the fort, where Colonel Mulligan surrendered to General Price, the Confederate chieftain, he found scores of fugitive slaves from all parts of the state who were enlisting in the United States Army. He presented

[ILLUSTRATION]
DR. J. FRANK McDONALD.

himself for enlistment, but on account of his youth, weight and height, he was rejected. He remained at the fort from September, 1862, until January, 1863, when he left for Kansas. There was a deep snow which had fallen in December which made passage
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very difficult. In passing through Fire Prairie Bottom, young Mat, with frozen feet, strength exhausted, hungry, chilled through and through, was left behind, but afterwards made his way to Independence, Mo., riding behind a soldier who picked him up. He tried to enlist again but was rejected. After a dozen or more attempts, at different times, and under as many aliases, he finally hired himself to a captain of the Second Colorado Regiment, as a body servant, and "he loyally followed through the smoke of battle, unterrified by the scream of shell or shower of bullets and shot that fell around him." On Mr. Lincoln's last call for volunteers he was enlisted.

        He learned his A B C's forward and backward with his eyes shut during the dark days of his youth (not knowing them when he looked at them with his eyes open). A missionary teacher from Iowa taught him to read. Upon his discharge from the army at Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., he returned to Independence, Mo., where he entered school and remained several terms, working at odd jobs to buy books, etc. For several years he traveled from place to place visiting nearly every large city in the South, East and North, and locating finally in Kansas City, Mo., where, in a revival conducted by Rev. T. Wellington Henderson, he was happily converted and joined Allen Chapel. His mind at once reverted to his books, and he returned to Lexington, Mo., near the old homestead, entered school and applied himself diligently to his books. He was licensed as a local preacher, and at the same time he became a public school teacher.

        September 25, 1876, in Columbia, Mo., he was admitted to the annual conference, and served as missionary, circuit rider, pastor, and presiding elder, building churches, paying off debts, raising connectional claims, and at the same time serving as an educator. Wilberforce University conferred upon him the degree of D.D., and Paul Quinn College, Ph.D. Dr. McDonald has served on all the important committees in the three conferences in Missouri, also chief secretary of the North Missouri Conference and the Missouri Conference, and has represented these conferences a number of times in the general conference.

        In 1878 he was married to Miss L. Louise Sanford, of Macon, Mo., at that time a teacher in the public schools. Dr. McDonald studied the dead languages at St. Vincent College, Cape Girardeau, Mo., for two years. He still spends from three to five hours a day with the Bible, philosophy, history and science. He established the Western Christian Recorder, in 1891, with no funds save what he, his wife and friends raised. In 1904 he was put on a salary by the general conference, and has been continued ever since, being elected by acclamation in 1912.

        In the year 1904 Dr. McDonald took up the study of law. He has traveled extensively through the United States and Canada, and in 1901 was an alternate to the Ecumenical Conference, in London, England.

        In his younger days he devoted a great deal of his time to secret societies, and now carries the honors of past master, past grand master and other titles in the various benevolent orders to which he belongs. He is a Thirty-second Degree Mason.

        He owns property at Macon, Lexington and Kansas City, Mo., where he now resides.

        McEaddy, Rev. J. C., pastor of Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, Cumberland, Md., was born in Florence County, S. C. He was converted in St. Luke's A. M. E. Church of that place. Attending Allen University,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. C. McEADDY, B.D.

he was graduated in the Class of 1889, and taught school in the state for a few years. He entered Howard University, being graduated in the Class of 1893, from the theological department, having also taken special studies in the college department.

        He joined the Baltimore Annual Conference, and was appointed pastor of Mt. Pisgah A. M. E. Church, Washington, D. C. He has pastored churches in the District of Columbia, in Baltimore, on the Eastern Shore, Md., and in North Carolina. He was married to Miss Laura V. Seldon, of Washington, D. C., March 16, 1897. She departed this life August 28, 1912, at Newbern, N. C.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. CHARLES A. McGEE.

        McGee, Charles A., was born of slave parents in the State of Virginia. He has never attended public


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school or college, but studied diligently on the farm all day. He was converted in 1876 and joined the church the same year. He has served in every capacity in the church from janitor to presiding elder. He was ordained deacon in 1886 at Meadville, Pa., by Bishop Campbell, and elder in 1888 at Brownsville, Pa., by Bishop Payne. He joined the annual conference in 1885 at Pittsburgh, Pa., under Bishop Campbell. He has held the following appointments: Parkersburg, W. Va., 1885; Monongahela City, Pa., 1887; presiding elder of the Wheeling district, 1888; Scranton, Pa., 1892; Bradford, Pa., 1896; Brownsville, Pa., 1897; presiding elder Wheeling district, 1899; Uniontown, 1904; Canonsburg, 1908; St. James, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1912. At Parkersburg, W. Va., he built a church at a cost of $3,000, and one at Pike Run, Pa., at a cost of $300. He lifted a mortgage of $2,500 at St. James church, Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1915.

        NELSON, REV. L. E., was born to Rev. B. J. and Enthia Nelson, near Columbiana, Ala., August 31, 1867, one of sixteen children. He was baptized 1878, while a child, by Rev. J. H. Henderson, presiding elder of the Selma District. Was converted at Pratt City, Alabama, May 7, 1891; licensed to preach at Milldale, Ala., by Rev. J. S. Shaw, presiding elder of the Birmingham District, April 20, 1892; received his first appointment from Rev. T. M. Coffee, presiding elder, Birmingham District, May 18, 1895; joined the conference, November 28, 1895, at his home town, under Bishop A. Grant. He has served the following charges in Alabama: Oakman, 1895-6;

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. L. E. NELSON.

Palos, 1897; Bankston, 1898; Jasper, 1899; Mapleville, 1900; Blossburg, No. 2, 1901; Kingston, 48th Street, Birmingham, 1902-3; S. Ensley, 1904.

        He was ordained deacon October 4, 1898, by Bishop H. M. Turner, at Huntsville, Ala.; ordained elder November 8, 1903, at Birmingham, Ala., by Bishop W. J. Gaines; was transferred to the Indian Mission Conference, November 14, 1914, by Bishop L. J. Coppin, and has served the following charges in Oklahoma: Coalgate, the first six months of 1905; and Huttonville the balance of the year; Alderson, 1906; Sutler, 1907; Big Creek, 1908; Ft. Gibson, 1909; Redland, October, 1909-April, 1910; and presiding elder of the Ft. Gibson District from April 1910 to date. Rev. Nelson has paid mortgages at Oakman, Ala., $300; at Fort Gibson, $200. He built parsonages at Big Creek and Alderson, Okla. He married Lilly Pearl Nelson, of Opelika, Ala., in 1905. Owns a home in Fort Gibson, Okla. He was a member of the general conference of 1912 and is a member of the Centennial General Conference of 1916, representing the Northeast Oklahoma Annual Conference.

        Nelson, Mrs. M. V., was born January 3, 1865, in Austin, Travis County, Texas; attended school in Austin and Brenham, Texas; was converted and joined Reedy Chapel A. M. E. Church, Galveston, Texas, in 1895, under the pastorate of Rev. L. H. Reynolds; was appointed a stewardess by Rev. M. D. Moody, in 1897, and has served continuously up to the present; was appointed

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. M. V. NELSON.

leader of class No. 3, by Rev. G. W. Hamilton, in 1910, and has proven a faithful leader and worker in almost every department of the church. From 1906 to 1909, under Rev. D. B. Stovall, presiding elder, she served as district missionary. She was appointed March, 1910, by Bishop Tyree, as president of the conference branch missionary society of the Texas Annual Conference. She organized a society based on love and charity known as the Independent Order of Good Shepherds. This society cares for the poor and aged, aiding them with clothing and money when possible. In July, 1902, she also organized the Juvenile of the Sons and Daughters of Bethlehem, of which she was member. She is also president of several church and social clubs; the M. V. Nelson Tabernacle, No. 526, Daughters of Tabor, was organized in her home, of which she is the Chief Preceptress. She is also a member of the State Grand Tabernacle of Knights and Daughters of Tabor.


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        Newton, Rev. Alexander H., was born in Newbern, N. C., November 5, 1837. His parents were Thaddeus A. and Mary Newton. His father was a slave, owned by Mrs. Kittie Custis, but bought his freedom by paying $1,000, and moved the family with him to Brooklyn, N. Y., in the year 1857.

        Alexander Newton was married June 28, 1859, to Miss Olivia Augusta Hamilton, daughter of Robert and Adeline Hamilton, at Brooklyn, N. Y.; was converted March 15, 1869, and later joined on six months' probation Fleet Street A. M. E. Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., Sunday, March 20, 1869; Elder Theo. Gould, pastor, and was received into full membership September, 1869; June 10, 1870, he was licensed to preach at quarterly conference, Fleet Street Church. Bishop Jabez P. Campbell appointed him to Pennington Circuit, N. J., in the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ALEXANDER H. NEWTON.

interval of conference; he was received by Bishop William Paul Quinn into the Philadelphia Conference at the Union Church, Coates Street, Philadelphia, Pa., May, 1871; was ordained deacon October 25, 1873, St. John Chapel, Nashville, Tenn., by Bishop J. M. Brown; ordained elder November 1, 1875, at Pine Bluff, Ark., by Bishop John M. Brown. D.D.

        He has served the following charges: Pennington Circuit, N. J.; Oxford, Pa.; Warren Chapel, Chattanooga, Tenn.; Little Rock, Ala.; Algiers, La.; St. Paul, Raleigh, N. C.; Rues Chapel, Newbern, N. C.; Hillsboro, N. C.; since 1880 in the New Jersey conference: Morristown, Madison, Trenton, Camden (Macedonia), Bridgeton, Vineland and Millville Circuit, New Brunswick, Cape May, presiding elder Trenton District, Woodbury, Burlington, Camden (Hosanna church), Beverly, Bordentown, Haddonfield, Mt. Holly and Hosanna, Camden, where he is now serving his eighth year. He was a delegate to the general conference four times, and opened the Legislature of New Jersey with prayer March 29-April 3, 1886. During his pastoral career he has built and repaired 15 churches, repaired and furnished 4 parsonages, and received into the church 2310 members.

        He is the author of "Out of the Briars," a handsomely illustrated book containing 269 pages, printed by the A. M. E. Book Concern, telling of events of antebellum days and of the Civil War, in which Rev. Newton was a soldier, a member of the 29th Regiment Connecticut Volunteers. Rev. Newton has been a member of the Masonic Fraternity since 1859; was 20 years Grand Chaplain of Grand Lodge, F. and A. M., State of New Jersey; Eminent Grand Prelate of the Grand Commandary, K. T., State of New Jersey; 33d degree Mason of the A. A. Scottish Rite, and Treasurer General Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction U. S. A. He is also a member of Knights of Pythias, N. A., S. A., E., A. A. & A.; Past Chaplain-in-chief of Uniform Rank, and six years Supreme Prelate of the Supreme Lodge of K. P.

        Nichols, Rev. James H., was born in Binghamton, N. Y., 1842, the son of Henry and Mary Nichols. Married Prudence A. Brown; was licensed to preach at Owego, October, 1869, by Rev. Edward Thompson; ordained local deacon by Bishop Payne, in 1872; ordained elder by Bishop Payne, 1878, and joined the annual conference

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JAMES H. NICHOLS.

in 1878. He has held the following appointments in New York: Setauket, Coxsackie, Lockport, Amityville Circuit, Albion Mission, Middletown, Owego, Chatham Station, Jamestown, Rochester, Glencove and was missionary agent, appointed by Bishop Derrick, of the New York Conference. Died at Setauket, N. Y., 1899.

        Nichols, Rev. L. R., was born in Raleigh, N. C., in January, 1857, and was educated in the public schools of that city, having attended the Johnson school, and a school taught by a Mr. Harris Lealand, from Boston, Mass. He joined St. Paul's A. M. E. Church in 1868, under the Rev. W. W. Morgan, and was happily converted in 1869, and fellowshipped by the Rev. Joseph Nicholas.

        He was licensed to exhort by the Rev. George W. Brodie, and in May of that year (1872) was sent as an aid to the Rev. Samuel Brown, at Greensboro & Company Shops, North Carolina; from here he was appointed to


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the Pittsboro Circuit, where he remained for three years. Next he was sent by Bishop Campbell to Halifax, N. C., where he labored for two years, and from here was sent to a place in lower North Carolina called Magnolia. He remained here for only three months, being transferred by Bishop J. M. Brown to the South Carolina Conference and stationed at St. John's Church, Marion, which he served for three years, going from here to the Marion District; to the Charleston District for one year; then to Emanuel Church, Charleston, for four years. From Emanuel he was appointed to the Edisto District, of

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. LEWIS RUFFIN NICHOLS, D.D.

which Emanuel Church was the head. After serving the Edisto District for a term, Bishop Arnett sent him back to Emanuel, and he built a brick church at a cost of $60,000, leaving only the steeple to be finished. From Emanuel he was appointed to the Georgetown District, where he served for five years, increased the dollar money from about $750 to over $1,600. From the Georgetown District he was appointed by Bishop Grant to Morris Brown Church, Charleston, where he served for four years, doubling the membership. Bishop Gaines sent him back to the Charleston District, which he served for five years, and made it a first-class district. Bishop Lee returned him to Morris Brown, and he succeeded in building up the total membership to over 3,000 persons. After serving Morris Brown for the second time, he was sent back to the Georgetown District by Bishop Coppin, where he is now doing heroic work for Christ and African Methodism. He has held every office in the church save that of a general officer and bishop, and his highest aim in life is to be an evangelic gospel minister of Jesus Christ.

        Nichols, Rev. Pleasant Augustus, Secretary Wilberforce University, was born near Leesburg, Harrison County, Kentucky, December 24, 1863. Was the son of William and Pliny Nichols, who were the proud possessors of a family of fourteen children, only four of whom are now living.

        At the age of six years he began his education in the district public schools, which he attended continuously until old enough to make a work-hand on the farm. During the winter months, when farm work was slack, he attended school. In spring, summer and fall, when called to the farm, he studied at night, under private instructors, and at spare times, until he was able to secure a county teacher's certificate, and for fourteen years taught in the public schools of Kentucky, becoming principal of the Newport City school, being rated as one of the most efficient and progressive teachers in the State.

        He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church, at Leesburg, Kentucky, May 14, 1884, under the pastorate of Rev. C. G. Cannon, and was licensed as a local preacher by Rev. J. F. Thomas, P. E., March 5, 1885, and joined the Kentucky Conference, at Ashland, September, 1886, under Bishop H. M. Turner; was ordained deacon at Harrodsburg, by Bishop Turner, September, 1888, and elder, at Covington, by Bishop Wayman, September, 1889. He has pastored the following charges: Beattyville, 3 years; Newport, 2 years; Mackville, 2 years; Richmond, 2 years; Nicholasville, 3 years; Frankfort,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. P. A. NICHOLS.

3 years; Covington, 2 years; Midway, 2 years; Danville, 2 years; Paducah, 3 years, and presiding elder, 5 years, at Willisburg, one of the points on the Mackville Circuit; he built a large frame church; at Richmond he paid a long standing debt on the old church, purchased and paid for a lot and laid the foundation for the commodious brick church, which was afterwards erected by Rev. J. W. Caldwell; at Frankfort he reduced the mortgage debt from $3,500 to $1,400 in two years; at Midway he paid a $400 debt of 20 years standing; at Danville he remodeled the parsonage at a cost of $600, paying cash for the work when finished; laid the foundation and began the erection of a lecture room adjoining the church; was transferred to the West Kentucky Conference by Bishop Shaffer, and stationed at Paducah, where he built Burks Chapel, said to be one of the most beautiful church buildings owned by the African Methodists in the State, at a cost of $2,600.

        He was delegate to the general conferences of 1908


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and 1912 and served as assistant secretary of the latter. He has contributed to some of the leading magazines and newspapers of the country on some phase of politics, civics, sociology and religion. His pamphlets: "Five Years Under Trial" and "The Priesthood of Melchisdeck," excited favorable comment by the press of the country. He was appointed by Governor J. B. McCreary as a delegate to represent the State at the fiftieth anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation held at Atlantic City, New Jersey, October, 1913. For three years he owned and edited "The Negro Citizen," a weekly newspaper, at Paducah, Ky., and his editorials on the race problem, politics and economics were the means of placing a trained Negro nurse in the city hospital and securing the appointment of a Negro assistant city physician.

        In 1887 he married Miss Dovie Candaca Haddox, of Beattyville, Ky., whose love for and fidelity to the cause of the ministry have contributed largely to whatever success has attended his work. They are blessed with two children: Leota I. Nichols, who is a graduate of Wayman Institute and Wilberforce University, and is the wife of Dr. R. B. Hamilton, of Danville, Ky., and Roscoe G. Nichols, who, at this writing, is an insurance solicitor at Louisville, Ky.

        As a preacher, orator and pastor, Rev. Nichols takes high rank among his brethren of Kentucky, who are proud of him and delight to do him honor because of his sterling character, honesty and worth. He is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference representing the West Kentucky Conference. He is now secretary of Wilberforce University since February, 1916.

        Nottingham, Rev. A. J., was born at Eastville, Northampton County, Va., August 18th, 1868, of A. M. E. parentage. He was converted at the age of fifteen years, and baptized by Rev. J. E. W. Moore. He attended the public schools of Lynn, Mass., and of his native county. He graduated from the Hampton Normal School in 1891, after which he taught in the public schools seven years. He studied theology under private tutors, and took a partial correspondence course from Morris Brown College. He was licensed to preach in 1895, and entered the itinerant ministry in 1896, was ordained deacon 1898, and elder in 1900 by Bishop James A. Handy.

        Pastored the following charges in the Virginia Annual Conference: Tanner's Creek, 3 years; Oceana Circuit, 2 years, and built parsonage; St. James Station, Berkley, 5 years, built parsonage and paid for same; reduced mortgage debt on church; Third Street, Richmond, 2 years, reduced mortgage debt; Roanoke Station, 3 years, renovated church and parsonage; now serving fourth year at Hampton with success where he has renovated church and parsonage, and almost doubled the membership.

        He served as recording secretary of his conference four years and chief secretary four years. He has been serving as secretary of the Finance Committee of the Virginia Conference for nine years; secretary of the Norfolk A. M. E. Preachers' Meeting eight years; a member of the General Conference of 1912, and was appointed first assistant recording secretary.

        He married Miss Mattie J. C. Robins, a classmate of his, in 1893, who has shared his ministerial labors all these years. She served two years as State President of the W. M. M. Society of Virginia, and succeeded in raising

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. A. J. NOTTINGHAM, D.D.

more money for the mission field than was raised before or since.

        The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon Rev. Nottingham in 1908 by Morris Brown College.

        Nutter, Isaac Henry, lay delegate, lawyer; born at Princess Anne, Md., August 20, 1878; son of William and Emma (Henry) Nutter; LL.B. Howard University School of Law, Washington, D. C., 1901; honorary LL.D. Wilberforce University, 1913; married Alice E. Reed, of Coatesville, Pa., April 27, 1904; admitted to the New Jersey bar, 1905; practiced in Atlantic City since June, 1905; was for some time associated with ex-Judge John J. Crandall; court practice averages about 20 civil and criminal cases a month; defended in 30 murder cases, 1 of which was convicted in second degree, 4 sentenced for manslaughter and 25 acquitted; in the County Court at Mays Landing, N. J.; in less than four days, February 23-27, 1915, he secured acquittals in two murder cases, and in the middle of the trial of the third client had a "not guilty" of murder plea changed to "guilty" of manslaughter, with imprisonment for one year; solicitor and general advisor New Jersey State Republican League, solicitor of Atlantic County Republican League; president Nutter Real Estate Co., Mason, member Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Elks. Mr. Nutter is a member and an officer in St. James A. M. E. Church, Atlantic City, and the legal adviser of the church. He is a lay delegate to the Centennial General Conference, representing the New Jersey Conference.


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        OSBORNE, REV. W. T., A.M., was born near Monroeville, Monroe County, Alabama. At the age of ten years he was brought to Illinois by Colonel Jonathan Merriam, Colonel of the 117th Illinois Regiment, and reared by him on a farm in Logan County near Atlanta, Ill.

        He graduated at Wheaton College, Wheaton, Ill., in 1876, with the degree of A.B., being the only colored person in his class. In 1879 the degree of A.M. was conferred upon him by the institution. He taught in the public schools of Missouri for a number of years. He then entered the ministry, joining the North Missouri Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, under the late Bishop Ward in 1883. He was ordained

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. T. OSBORNE.

deacon in 1884, and elder by the late Bishop J. M. Brown in 1888. He pastored with great success the leading churches in the North Missouri conference. He was conference trustee of Wilberforce for a number of years. In 1906 he was transferred to the Colorado conference by the late Bishop Grant and stationed at Helena, Montana. He made the speech that detached Helena from the Colorado conference and attached it to the Puget Sound conference. He went from Helena to Seattle, Wash. There he erected a magnificent church, the finest and most modern in the northwest, which raised high the standard of African Methodism in the far west.

        He was leader of the delegation to the general conference at Kansas City, Mo., in 1912. He was known in the North Missouri Conference and on the coast, as the "Little Giant" and "Gospel Preacher." He built, completed and improved a number of churches and parsonages, and added thousands of members to the church.

        His amiable wife, Pinkie Jackson Osborne, a graduate of the public school of Glasgow, Mo.; Walden University, Nashville, Tenn.; Western University, Macon, Mo.; a post-graduate student of Dixon College, Dixon, Ill., and a teacher in the public schools of Missouri, has been a great power behind the throne in his successes. She made the Mite Missionary work in the Puget Sound Conference a success.

        Overall, Rev. L. S., the leader of the delegation of the East Arkansas conference to the Centennial General Conference at Philadelphia, Pa., is one of the products of the A. M. E. Church in Arkansas, a graduate of Shorter College, and an aggressive and progressive

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. L. S. OVERALL, B.D.

young minister who by superior ability has worked his way to the top in his state, where he enjoys the confidence of ministry and laity, of white as well as colored citizens.

        PALMER, REV. JOHN MOORE, was born at Lewistown, Mifflin County, Pa., April 15, 1854.

        He was converted in Wayman A. M. E. Church of his native-town, Rev. William P. Ross, pastor, in October, 1876, and was licensed to preach July, 1877, by Rev. Cornelius Asbury. He was admitted with his brother to the Pittsburgh conference under Bishop Wayman at Salem, Ohio, October, 1878.

        His first appointment was in 1878 to the Bellefonte Circuit. He has pastored the following charges in the Pittsburgh Conference: Meadville, Crawford County, Pa.; Williamsport Station, Williamsport City, Pa.; Elizabeth Circuit, composing Elizabeth, West Elizabeth and West Newton, Pa.; Uniontown, Fayette County, from which charge he was transferred to the Philadelphia Conference, where he served as pastor of the Campbell A. M. E. Church, Frankford, followed by a period of three years' service as presiding elder of the then Lancaster District, under Bishop H. M. Turner. He was sent to Germantown and built the present church. He was sent next to Union A. M. E. Church, Philadelphia,


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and after a period of two years he was sent to Allen A. M. E. Chapel in the same city. Remaining here three years he was sent to Smyrna, Delaware, where he remained for but one year and was transferred to the New York Conference by Bishop Derrick and stationed at St. John's Church, Brooklyn, where he remained for two years and was transferred back to the Philadelphia Conference by Bishop Derrick to save the church at Germantown. Here he remained five years and was then sent to Asbury Church, Chester, Pa., by Bishop Gaines and remained for six years, at which time he was sent to his present charge, Mt. Olive, Philadelphia.

        Nothing but success has followed his ministry. Many churches have been remodeled, at least 4000 souls converted and not a single church divided, disrupted or lost, debts, mortgages, etc., cancelled.

        He was a party Prohibitionist in 1888 and was the first colored man in Pennsylvania to run on a ticket for Congressman-at-large. He stumped the state with the late Hon. Chas. S. Wolfe, of Union County, who ran for Governor of Pennsylvania, and also with Governor John P. St. John, of Kansas, for President of the U. S., and received 30,675 votes in the election.

        He has served as the official stenographer of three general conferences, '92, '96 and 1912. He was father of the Connectional Preachers' Aid. Much of the success of the reform movement in Philadelphia and Pennsylvania is declared to have been due to his effectual work since 1905.

        He married Miss Jennie Weaver, of Harrisburg, in May, 1881. They have had ten children, six of whom are living.

        He received his training in his home school, at the Bellefonte Academy, the Allegheny College, and, lastly, the Philadelphia Divinity College.

        Parker, H. H., lay delegate; one of eight children of I. L. and Adaline Parker, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born December 4, 1867, at Richlands,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. H. H. PARKER.

N. C., and was educated in the public schools. He was converted in 1885, having joined the church the year before. He has been steward, trustee, class leader for fifteen years, Sunday school teacher and superintendent for twenty years and district superintendent for eight years. He was elected lay delegate to the general conferences, 1896, 1900 and 1916. His wife is Mrs. Inda L. Parker, a native of Richlands, to whom he was married December 19, 1888. They have children--S. Phillis, P. E. A., Peter L., H. H., Jr., Libby J., N. Ruth, L. E., Daisy A., Katie L., Samuel J., Inda A. and William A. Mr. Parker is a home owner and prominent in secret orders.

        Patterson, Rev. S. J., was born in Greenville, S. C., February 16, 1867. With his parents, Isaac and Rachel Patterson, he moved to Florida when six years old. Was converted May 1, 1887; licensed to preach July 8, 1889, by Dr. S. H. Coleman; joined the conference, March 6, 1894. He was made general missionary by Bishop T. W. D. Ward in February, 1896. His first appointment was to Cottage Hill, "Ybor City," a Cuban

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. J. PATTERSON.

town with one member. He was ordained deacon by Bishop W. J. Gaines, March 9, 1897, and elder, March 5, 1899, at Orlando, by Rt. Rev. W. J. Gaines. He graduated June, 1903, from Payne Theological Seminary, Wilberforce, Ohio. He was elected delegate to the general conferences of 1908 and 1912. He was appointed presiding elder February, 1906, by Bishop B. T. Tanner and has been successively and successfully presiding elder since that time. He is well known and highly esteemed.

        Payne, Daniel Alexander, sixth bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born in Charleston, S. C., February 24, 1811. At twelve years of age he was put to the carpenter's trade, in which he spent four and one-half years. While working here he read the first number of Rev. John Brown's "Self-Interpreting Bible," and he resolved to be what John Bunyan was. He was converted in 1829, about three years after he had joined church on probation. In 1835 he left Charleston, S. C., his native city, and returned thirty years later as a bishop of the A. M. E. Church. He planted the banner of the connection on the soil where he had thirty years before suffered imprisonment and oppression. He was licensed to preach in Gettysburg College


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by Rev. Frank Syn, G.X. He commenced traveling the A. M. E. Church in 1842. He was ordained deacon in 1838 and elder in 1838; was ordained bishop May 13, 1852. Died November 29, 1893, and was

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP D. A. PAYNE.

buried in Baltimore, Md. He was senior bishop for over 20 years. He was the Negroes' first apostle of education. founded Wilberforce University, in 1856, in connection with others, and bought the property for the A. M. E. Church in 1863.

        Pendergrass, Rev. Durant Percival, was born December 26th, 1872. His parents, Jack Pendergrass and Sarah Pendergrass, were slaves, reared on the Oliver plantation near Foreston, S. C., Clarendon County. Opportunity for schooling was very limited, until in 1889

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. DURANT PERCIVAL PENDERGRASS.

his teacher, Prof. W. D. Tardif, suggested that he go to Hampton, Va., where four years were spent.

        He married, in 1901, Miss Maud Beula Chavis, whose father, the Rev. J. M. Chavis, was a minister in the A. M. E. Church back in the '80's.

        In 1903 he was admitted to the North East S. C. Conference under the late Bishop W. J. Gaines. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Coppin December, 1905. In 1907 he was ordained traveling elder.

        He has served some of the best charges of the Northeast South Carolina Conference. Among them are Unionville Station, and the famous Couterboro Station. At Unionville Station, he settled, and took up mortgages of long standing that had threatened to close the church. At Couterboro he built and seated and paid for one of the finest churches in the conference. At the conference sitting in Sumter, 1913, Bishop L. J. Coppin, D.D., appointed him presiding elder of the Sumter District, where he is now serving.

        Perrin, D. A., was born in Greenwood, S. C., in 1869; graduated from Allen University in 1889, and

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. D. A. PERRIN, A.B.

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. D. A. PERRIN.

from Claflin University in 1895; taught in the public schools and for a short while held the chair of history in the State College of Orangeburg, S. C. He was
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converted in his seventeenth year and joined the ministry at Marion, S. C., in 1892, under Bishop Salter. He was stationed at Orangeburg, S. C., where he rebuilt the church and increased the membership from 30 to 300. In 1897 he resigned the chair of history in the State College and was stationed at Bethel, Tallahassee, Fla., where he did a great work in building up the church and saving souls. While there he was married to Miss Rowena E. Andrews, the only child of Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Andrews, of Sumter, S. C., and four children have blessed their union. In 1900 he was sent by Bishop Gaines to St. Paul, Tampa, Fla., where he pastored with great success, paid off the debts and burnt the mortgage. In 1902 he was made presiding elder and presided for thirteen years. He has been a delegate to every general conference since 1900, and led the delegation in 1904 and 1908. He is now pastor in charge of Mt. Olive A. M. E. Church, Orlando, Fla. He made the best report that has ever been made from that church at the last conference, which was held in Tampa, Fla., February 23, 1916.

        Perrin, Mrs. Rowena E. (Andrews), was born in Sumter, S. C., the only child of W. J. and Amelia J. Andrews. She was educated in Scotia Seminary, North Carolina, and Boston, Mass., spending two years in the New England Conservatory of Music and in the law office of Johnson W. Ramsay. After leaving Boston she taught in Allen University and in the State College of South Carolina. She was married to Rev. D. A. Perrin in 1898, was principal of the Tampa (Fla.) Musical Studio for ten years and trained several brilliant pupils. She has proved an ideal minister's wife and has been of invaluable service to her husband at all times, acting as his private secretary. When the Mite Missionary Society was organized in South Florida conference during the administration of Bishop Handy, Mrs. Perrin was appointed first president and Miss Emma Moore secretary. She proved to be an earnest missionary worker. She was again elected president of the Mite Missionary Society in 1914. The report for that year was $500; for the year 1915, $800.05, and in 1916, $811. She was appointed a notary public in 1911, and was the first Negro woman to hold that position in South Florida. Her commission continues until June, 1919. She is the mother of four children, namely, Horace C. A., William J., Amelia H. and Mary Rowena.

        Phillips, W. A. J., was born of free parents, January 15, 1831, in Rappahannock County, Va., where he lived until September, 1851, when he went to Pittsburgh, Pa., where he learned the barber's trade, which he followed until 1868. He was converted in Wylie Avenue Church, Pittsburgh, Pa., August 27, 1853, during the pastorate of the Rev. Hiram R. Revels. He was married to Miss Martha Benson, of Uniontown, Pa., January 2, 1854, with whom he is still living, in a comfortable home in Little Rock, Ark. He served in every local office of the church, was licensed to preach by the Rev. Levin Gross in 1867; was admitted in the Pittsburgh conference on probation April 7, 1869; was ordained deacon by Bishop J. M. Brown, in Wylie Avenue Church, April, 1870, and elder, by Bishop D. A. Payne, at Meadville, in 1872. He served the following charges in the Pittsburgh Conference: Allen Chapel, Pittsburgh, Pa. missionary to West Virginia; Uniontown, Pa., where he rebuilt and beautified the church; Wilkes-Barre, Pa., where much improvements were made; Washington, Pa., where he built the present house of worship; Meadville Circuit, which included Meadville, Oil City, Titusville and Erie; at Meadville, where the church had been recently burned he at once rebuilt; at Oil City a large debt on the church was paid and the church beautified; at Erie, where there was no house of worship he secured a lot, and a substantial house of worship was donated by the Young Men's Christian Association. He was pastor of Oil City and Titusville; presiding elder of the Allegheny district; pastor of Monongahela Station. In October, 1880, he was transferred to the Arkansas conference and was stationed at Bethel Church, Little Rock, where he served three years. He was then presiding elder of the Fort Smith district seven years, of Newport district four years, Little Rock district seven years, Arkadelphia district four years, Camden district four years, making a total of 26 years as presiding elder. He was financial agent for Shorter College for three years and a member of eight general conferences consecutively, beginning at St. Louis, in 1880, and ending at Norfolk, Va., in 1908. He was a member of the second Ecumenical Conference of Methodism held in Washington, D. C., in 1891, and proposed and advocated the union of all Negro Methodist bodies. He was a member of the Advisory Council of the Parliament of Religions, held in Chicago in 1893, during the World's Fair; was a member of the general Board of Missions, Board of Education and Financial Board. In the organization of our school work in Little Rock, in 1885, he was elected president of the board of trustees, which position he held until 1894. He was again elected president of the same board in 1901, and served until 1909, during which time four additional lots were bought, and the present building, which is now occupied, built, furnished and other important improvements made. He has received the degree of D.D.

        Pierce, Rev. Alexander Wayman, was born at Gouldtown, N. J., October 14th, 1858, the son of Rev James V. and Matilda Pierce. His father was an A. M. E. minister for thirty-five years. Alexander was religiously awakened in his fifteenth year and united with the home church. Thirteen years from this time he and his wife, Dorothy A. Pierce, happily received the baptism of the Holy Spirit, and became active workers in the home church. He served as class leader, Sunday school teacher, and superintendent until he entered the ministry.

        In 1886, during the pastorate of his father, at Gouldtown, he was licensed to preach. He joined the N. J. Conference at Trenton, N. J., 1887, Bishop Wayman presiding. He received an appointment to Haleyville Circuit, which included Port Elizabeth, N. J. He was next appointed to Crosswicks Circuit, which included Cookstown, N. J., where he served two years, revived and fitted up the church, paying all the debt. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Turner at Mt. Holly in 1889. He was ordained elder by Bishop Turner at Asbury Park, N. J., in 1900. From Crosswicks he was sent to Millville, N. J., including Vineland, and served two years, paid the debt at Vineland and built a new parsonage at Millville. Next he served Rahway, N. J., for one year


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and paid the debt on the church, which Rev. Joseph Ross started to build. He next served Woodbury, including South and North Woodbury, and furnished the parsonage built by Rev. J. H. Morgan, and had a good revival. Next he served Cape May, N. J., had a revival and adjusted the debt on the new church. He next went to Greenwich, N. J., had a big revival and considerably decreased the debt on the new parsonage. While at Woodbury he took a course in theology at the Protestant Episcopal Seminary in Philadelphia. At the conference held at Salem, N. J., he was sent to Roslyn Circuit, including Port Washington and Westbury, N. Y. He paid off the debts at Westbury and Roslyn. He went next to Coxsackie, N. Y. During the two years he had a revival, paid off the debt of the lecture room and fitted up the main auditorium. He next went to Amityville, L. I. Three years here he paid off the debt of the church, and had

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. ALEXANDER WAYMAN PIERCE.

a good revival. He next went to Chatham, N. Y., for two years, paid off the debt, burned the mortgage, and left the church in good spiritual condition. He next went to Bayshore, L. I., for three years, paid the first money on their mortgage, which had stood for seventeen years, and strengthened the church spiritually. He was returned a second time to Westbury, N. Y., for four years, built a new basement, renovated and improved the auditorium, paying for all and leaving a balance in the treasury. He next went to Roslyn for two years, built an addition, put in new stained glass windows and electric lights, and paid for all work, leaving a balance in treasury. He is now serving Amityville charge for the second term, making a strenuous effort to pay off the heavy debt left on the new church. It has been his fortune to pay off debts as well as to add souls to the church. He has been greatly assisted by his good wife and large family of ten children, all of whom are in the church as active and earnest workers. He has traveled ten years in the New Jersey Conference, and eighteen years in the New York Conference.

        Pinckney, Rev. Henry Hammond, one of eight children of Joseph and Matilda Pinkney, was born January 11, 1861, in Charleston, S. C. His father was a member of the A. M. E. Church, but his mother was a member of M. E. Church. He attended school about fourteen years beginning as a small boy. He attended Avery Normal Institute, and after graduation from the same went to the South Carolina University, but was not able to finish on account of the seizure of the school by the Democratic State government, which determined that it should be for whites only. He later studied nearly two years at the Reformed Episcopal Seminary at Philadelphia, Pa., and at Princeton Theological Seminary, N. J. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Paul Quinn College. He was converted in 1878 and joined A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held the following offices in the local church, that of steward, trustee,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. H. PINCKNEY

exhorter, local preacher and Sunday school teacher. He was licensed to preach at Charleston, S. C., in 1883, by Rev. E. Winston Taylor, joined the South Carolina Annual Conference in 1884 under Bishop Shorter; was ordained deacon in 1885 by Bishop Shorter, and was ordained elder in 1887 at Trenton, N. J., by Bishop A. W. Wayman. He has held appointments in Jersey City, N. J.; Rahway, N. J.; Snow Hill, N. J.; Burlington, N. J.; Princeton, N. J.; Jersey City, N. J.; Gouldtown, N. J.; Bordentown, N. J.; Elmira, N. Y., and New Haven, Conn. He has twice been presiding elder, and is now presiding elder of the Boston district of the New England Conference in his fourth year. He built Ebenezer at Rahway, N. J.; remodeled parsonage at Snow Hill, N. J.; repaired Mt. Pisgah at Princeton, and Trinity at Gouldtown, and the church at Burlington, N. J. He has taken about 2000 people into the church and baptized about 900 people.

        Was delegate to general conferences of 1900, 1904, 1908 and 1916.

        He was voted for for editor of the Christian Recorder in 1900 and 1908. In 1882 he was married to Miss Harriet O. Generette, of Charleston, S. C., and two children, Ersylind T. and Pauline L., were born to them.

        Has contributed to Christian Recorder, A. M. E. Review and various daily papers. He is author of one


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book, "The Prophet Zachariah." Principal addresses made were "Charles Sumner" and "The Civil Rights Bill." He is connected with F. and A. M. and G. U. O. of O. F. and has held prominent offices in each; is a Republican and owns a home.

        Polk, Rev. P. H., was born of slave parents, in Yallabusha, Miss., in 1861. His father and mother, George and Milly Polk, moved to Shelby County, Tenn., when he was four years old. He attended the public schools in Memphis.

        At twenty-one years of age he professed religion, joining the A. M. E. Church. He was licensed to preach by the deceased Editor Johnson of the Christian Recorder, who was at that time presiding elder of the South Memphis District. He became a member of the West Tennessee Conference in 1888 under Bishop Wayman. He pastored in Tennessee fourteen years with remarkable

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. P. H. POLK, D.D.

success, and was transferred to Arkansas at his own request under Bishop Tanner. He built a splendid brick church at Jonesboro, Ark.

        He was next transferred to the Mississippi Conference and stationed at Brookhaven, Miss. Here he erected a church at a cost of three thousand dollars.

        Campbell College conferred upon him the degree of D.D. He was elected leader of his delegation from the Mississippi Conference to the general conference at Norfolk, Va. He was elected delegate to the general conference, Kansas City, Mo. For five years he was presiding elder with great success. He has been twice elected trustee of Wilberforce.

        He has pastored some of the leading charges in Mississippi, Brookhaven, Natchez, and is at present stationed at Clarksdale, where he has contracted to build a six thousand dollar church. He is a delegate to the general conference at Philadelphia. He is a great believer in his church and his race.

        Pope, Robert Luther, the son of Monroe and Hannah Pope, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born September 2, 1870, in Clarke County, Ga., one of eleven children. He entered school when seven years of age and attended school about eighteen years in all, attending the county public schools of Wintersville, Knox Institute, Allen University, Morris Brown College and Gammon Theological Seminary. He received the degree of A.B. and A.M. from Morris Brown and D.D. from Gammon Seminary. He was converted in 1890 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year; was licensed to preach in 1895, at Athens, Ga., by Rev. J. S. (now Bishop) Flipper; joined the annual conference under Bishop A. Grant; was ordained deacon in 1897, at Thomaston, Ga., by Bishop Gaines and elder in 1899, at Atlanta, Ga., by Bishop Gaines. He has had the following appointments: Kirkwood Mission, Atlanta, Ga., 1896; West End, Atlanta, Ga., 1897-98; Trinity Station, Atlanta, Ga., 1898-1901; St. Paul, Troy, Ala., 1901-04; St. Luke, Eufaula, Ala., 1904-08; St. John, Montgomery, Ala., 1908-12; Campbell and Shorter Chapels, Denver, Col., 1912-16.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. R. L. POPE, A.M., D.D.

He built St. Paul's Church, at Troy, at a cost of $3000, in 1902; parsonage at Troy, at a cost of $1200, in 1904; parsonage at St. John's, Montgomery, Ala., at a cost of $2500, in 1911. He lifted the mortgages on Trinity, Atlanta, Ga., to the amount of $1600, in 1900, and on Shorter Chapel, at Denver, Col., to the amount of $300, in 1916. He has taken 2092 people into the church and baptized 869. He was a delegate to the general conferences of 1908, 1912 and 1916; was appointed a member of the Fourth Ecumenical Conference of Methodism held in Toronto, Canada, in 1911; was second assistant secretary of general conference of 1912. He married Jane Crane, of Pensacola, Fla., in 1899. He has contributed to "New York Independent," "A. M. E. Review" and "Recorders." He made the annual address for Morris Brown College, also annual sermon for Payne Institute, and one of the educational addresses at the Centennial General Conference. He is connected with the F. and A. M. and K. of P., and is a home owner.

        Pope, W. T., born 1870, Washington, Ga., son of William and Sarah Ann Pope; educated in public schools; was several years on public works, mostly


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railroad, where he served as foreman; taught school in Jefferson Co., Ark.; edited "The Sentinel," Prescott, Ark.; "Voice of Twentieth Century," Argenta; "Free Lance," Augusta, Ark.; "Co-operator," Forrest City, Ark.; "African Methodist," Argenta, Ark.; was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church, 1897, at Prescott, Ark.; licensed to preach May, 1897, by Rev. W. H. Jones; admitted to conference. by Bishop W. B. Derrick, at Arkadelphia, in 1898; ordained deacon, 1898; ordained elder, April, 1900; pastored Mineral Springs, Ashdown, McNeil, Gurdon, Gregory, McComb City, Miss.; Fordyce, Holly Grove and Forrest

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. T. POPE, D.D.

City, Ark.; presiding elder of Clarendon and Sherrill districts; originator of the laymen's movement in Arkansas, through which $1100 was turned over to the treasurer of Shorter College after paying the expenses of the rally and the expense of the commencement for that year. Dr. J. G. Thornton is the present head of the movement and it promises much for Shorter College. He believes that the Negro has the solution of the race problem largely in his own hands. Cooperation is his hobby. Member of the general conferences of 1912-1916; is trustee of Shorter College and treasurer of Trustee Board.

        Porter, George Wellington, the son of Thomas and Adeline Porter, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Paris, Tenn., one of twelve children; attended school about eight years. He is a graduate of Morris Brown College. He received the degree D.D. from both Morris Brown and Turner College. He was converted in 1884 and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held many important offices in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1890 at Paris, Tenn., by Rev. D. E. Asbury. He was ordained deacon in 1891 at Clarksville, Tenn., by Bishop Wayman, and ordained Elder in 1893 at Waverly, Tenn., by Bishop M. B. Salter. He joined the Annual Conference in 1890 at Paris, Tenn., under Bishop Wayman. He has had the following appointments: Huntingdon, Miss., 1890-91; Crossland, Miss., 1891-94; Tyler Chapel, Memphis, 1894-95; St. Peter's, Clarksville, 1895-1900; Bethel, Vicksburg, Miss., 1900-05; Avery Chapel, Memphis, 1905-08; P. E. Clarksville District, 1908-11; St. John, Nashville, 1911-15. He has built churches at Crossland, Tenn., at a cost of $1,500 in 1893; Trainer Chapel, at Crossland, Miss., at a cost of $700, in 1892.

        He has lifted mortgages on St. Peter, at Clarksville, to the amount of $4,000, in 1897; Bethel, at Vicksburg, Miss., to the amount of $3,500, in 1903; Avery Chapel, at Memphis, to the amount of $3,600, in 1907; on St. John, at Nashville, to the amount of

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. G. W. PORTER

$1,363, in 1914. He was delegate to the General Conferences of 1896, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912, and is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916. He was a member of the Financial Board in 1904-08; Southern Recorder Board, 1900-04, and A. C. E. League Board for four years.

        He was Assistant Secretary of the General Conference of 1904 to 1912. He married Mrs. Llewlyn Porter, of Paris, Tenn., in 1884. They have one child, Lela B. Porter, who is a graduate of Straight University, New Orleans, La., and Walden University, Nashville, Tenn. He has contributed to many papers and has written many pamphlets, and made many addresses on different occasions. His little book of poems, "Streamlets of Poetry," has been highly commended. He is connected with the F. & A. M., G. U. O. of O. F., K. of P., Mosaic Templars, and has held prominent offices in each. He is a member of the Republican Party and has attended many conventions, and owns a comfortable home. Dr. Porter was the first Negro Magistrate elected in Henry County, Tenn. He is actively associated with Nashville Institute for Training Christian Workers, Southern Sociological Congress, and several schools and colleges.

        Powell, Rev. Benjamin Joseph, was born December 25, 1865, was brought up in the A. M. E. Church and Sunday school at Cuthbert, Ga. At twelve years of age he was converted and joined the church during the pastorate of Rev. D. T. Greene and has not missed attending Sunday school but five times in 38 years. In 1882 Dr. Joseph A. Wood licensed him to preach. He was admitted into the Georgia Annual Conference December, 1887; was ordained deacon in Brunswick, Ga., and was ordained elder in Marietta, Ga., in 1893.


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        During his pastorate he served the following charges: Morris Station Mission, McDonald Mission, West Atlanta Mission, Summertown Circuit, Sylvania Circuit, Statesboro Circuit, Darien Station, Milledgeville Station, Mt. Gilead Circuit, Lumpkin Circuit, Millen Circuit, Cedartown Station, Bethel Circuit, Americus Station, Thomasville Station and is now serving his second year as presiding elder of the Bainbridge District.

        For ten years he was a successful public school teacher having attended school at Howard Normal, Cuthbert, Ga., Morris Brown College and Gammon Theological Seminary, Atlanta, Ga.

        On March 12, 1897, he was married to Miss Laura Pearl Lemon, of Atlanta, Ga. Later was divorced by the Superior Court of Fulton County, Atlanta, Ga., August 16, 1904, and was married to Miss Mildred E. Austin, November 18, 1908, Columbus, Ga.

        He has been a trustee of Morris Brown College for 22 years; trustee of Payne College for 15 years. He is connected with many progressive movements of his race, church and state. He is a member of the Centennial General Conference.

        Prince, Rev. W. H., was born December 8, 1867, in Mobile, Ala., son of William Henry and Dora Prince, who were both zealous Christians and enthusiastic Methodists. He was one of three children. His education in early life was neglected because of his father's death. In 1888 he was converted and joined Big Zion A. M. E.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. H. PRINCE, B.D.

Zion Church. In 1889 he entered Livingstone College, Salisbury, N. C., and spent about two years there. He was licensed to preach in 1894 by Rev. (now Bishop) A. J. Warner; joined the West Alabama Annual Conference of the A. M. E. Zion connection in 1894 under Bishop C. C. Petty. He was ordained deacon at Scranton, Miss., by Bishop Petty and elected chief secretary of the conference. In 1898 he decided to cast his lot with the A. M. E. Church and he joined the Southwest Georgia Conference at Tolbotton, Ga., under Bishop Turner. He was ordained elder in 1900 at Fort Gaines, Ga., by Bishop Turner.

        He has served the following charges: St. Peter Circuit, where St. Peter was rebuilt at the cost of $800, which was paid; St. James Station, Atlanta, Ga., paying a mortgage of $350, and conducting a great revival; Trinity Station, Atlanta, Ga., where many souls were brought into the church and a mortgage for $712 was lifted. While in Atlanta, he matriculated in Turner Theological Seminary, Morris Brown College, from which he finished with honors in 1907. In 1906 he was awarded the class medal in the oratorical contest, and in 1907 the first prize medal was awarded him in the oratorical contest between the "theologs" and the "collegiates" of Morris Brown College.

        Upon the completion of his course in theology he went west and took charge of St. Paul Station, Pueblo, Colorado; next to Hubbard Chapel, La Junta, Colo., where he erected a nice parsonage, and wrote the booklet,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. W. H. PRINCE.

"Reflections of the Ten Commandments." From this point he went to the Pueblo District of the Colorado Conference, over which he presided four years, during which time he purchased lots for the church at Salida, Colo., for $300; Alamosa, Colo., for $375; Tucson, Ariz., $600; Clifton, Ariz., $1100; Douglass, Ariz., $150. He was elected leader of the delegation to the general conference of 1912, receiving every vote but one. This district composed the then prospective Arizona Annual Conference. During this time he wrote a book of poems, "Musings on the Western Plains." Leaving the Southwest, he went to Spartanburg, S. C., and lifted a $450 mortgage from Trinity Station. From there he was stationed at Montevallo, Ala., where he relieved Ward Chapel Station of a debt of $390.

        From Montevallo he transferred to the Northwest and stationed at Union Bethel, Great Falls, Montana, where he compiled a booklet, "Observations of the Lord's Prayer." He is now stationed at Portland, Oregon.


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        Prince, Frances Leontine, wife of Rev. W. H. Prince, of Portland, Oregon, is an invaluable aid to her husband in his ministry, a woman of marked affability, unusual business ability and a successful dramatic reader. She has taken an active and important part in the work both of the W. H. & F. Society and the W. M. M. Society and has been an inspiration to hundreds.

        Prioleau, Rev. George W., Chaplain, United States Army, was born of slave parents, L. S. and Susan A. Prioleau, in Charleston, S. C., attended the public schools of that city and Avery Institute. In 1875 he attended Claflin University, Orangeburg, S. C. During the winter months, from 1875 to 1879, he taught the primary public school, Lyons Township, Orangeburg County. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church, St. Matthews, S. C., his father being pastor. Served his church

[ILLUSTRATION]
CHAPLAIN GEORGE W. PRIOLEAU, U. S. A.

as leader of the choir. Sunday school teacher, superintendent, class leader and local preacher. Joined the Columbia, S. C., Conference December, 1879, under Bishop Brown. Was assigned as pastor to the Double Springs Mission, Laurens County, S. C. December, 1880, was sent to Wilberforce University by the Columbia, S. C., Conference, but the conference having failed to support him, he did so himself by working at his trade during hours of recreation, in the harvest fields of Green and Clark Counties, Ohio; and was assisted by his father. Was assigned to the Selma Ohio Mission by Bishop Shorter in the year 1881, held this charge three years. Graduated from the Theological Department, Wilberforce University. June, 1884, with the degree of B.D. Taught in the public school, Selma, Ohio, September, 1884, to September, 1885; in connection was pastor of A. M. E. Mission, Yellow Springs, Ohio, North Ohio Conference. Was appointed pastor of A. M. E. Church, Hamilton, Ohio, September, 1885. Was married to Miss Anna L. Scovell, class 1885, Wilberforce University, December 23rd, 1885. Appointed pastor of A. M. E. Church, Troy, Ohio, by Bishop Campbell, 1887. Was elected to fill the chair of Ecclesiastical History and Homiletics, September, 1889, and in this connection was pastor of Trinity A. M. E. Church, Wilberforce University. Appointed Presiding Elder Springfield District, Northern Ohio Conference, A. M. E. Church, September, 1890, in connection with duties as instructor Wilberforce University. This dual position was held until September, 1892. Elected delegate to the general conference held at Philadelphia, May, 1892. Was elected secretary for four consecutive times of the North Ohio Conference; president North Ohio Sunday School Institute for three years. Was appointed pastor of St. John's A. M. E. Church, Xenia, Ohio, in connection with professorship at Payne Theological Seminary. Associate Editor A. M. E. Sunday School Lesson Leaf for three years. Was appointed Chaplain of the 9th Cavalry, U. S. Army, by President Cleveland, April 25th, 1895, with the rank of Captain, and served with the regiment until November, 15, 1915, twenty years, six months and twenty days. Transferred to 10th Cavalry November 15, 1915. Was married after the loss of his first wife February 27th, 1902, to Miss Ethel C. Stafford, Kansas City, Kansas, February 20th, 1905. Two girls, Mary S. and Ethel S., are the fruit of this marriage. The Chaplain has crossed the Pacific Ocean six times, four times with his regiment and twice on detached service. He is a 33 deg. Mason, Odd Fellow and was initiated as a K. of P. Appointed D. D. G. M. by G. M. N. C. Crews, Jurisdiction of Missouri, over Arizona and New Mexico. Organized William H. Carney Lodge, No. 89, G. U. O. of O. F. Reorganized Joppa Military Lodge No. 150, A. F. and A. M. He paid off a long standing debt of nearly $1100 on church at Troy, Ohio, and built the present structure. Paid off a large debt on St. John's Church, Xenia, Ohio, and Payne A. M. E. Chapel, Hamilton, Ohio. His reports have always been satisfactory to the Bishop. Many souls were converted through his preaching at Hamilton, Selma, Xenia, and in the army.

        Payne Theological Seminary conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity in June, 1895, but after fifteen years, on account of his high conception of the meaning of the degree, and the prevailing abuse of it, he publicly disclaimed all rights to the degree June, 1910, at Wilberforce University, just before he preached the Baccalaureate sermon to the class of 1910.

        Pryor, Still Paul, one of twelve children of Reuben Still Pryor and Angeline Pryor, was born March 6, 1865, in Brundige, Ala. He attended school for five years, part of the time attending Tuskegee Institute; also took a correspondence course from Morris Brown College. He was converted in 1889 and joined the Wayman Chapel, A. M. E. Church, Union Springs, Ala.; served as steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher and Sunday school teacher. He was licensed to preach May 8, 1891, at Union Springs, Ala., by Rev. E. H. Dickerson; joined the annual conference in 1891, at Montgomery, under Bishop Gaines; ordained deacon 1894, in Troy, Ala., by Bishop Grant; ordained elder September, 1899, by Bishop Turner; held the following appointments: Suspension Mission 1893; Hurtsboro, 1894; Troy circuit, 1895-96; Clopton circuit, 1897-98; Troy Station, 1899; pastor Cherry Street, Dothan, 1900-02; presiding elder, columbia district, 1904-06; presiding elder, Ozark district, 1907-1910; presiding elder, Columbia district, 1911-12; pastor Elba circuit, 1913; presiding elder, Eufaula district, 1913 to date. He built church at Suspension, for $400, in 1893; parsonage at Dothan, for $800,


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in 1900; a church at Clopton, for $1500, in 1897; a church at Madrid, for $1200, in 1911; lifted $500 mortgage

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. P. PRYOR.

from church at Dothan, in 1912; has taken in church more than 1500 people and baptized over 500;

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. S. P. PRYOR.

was delegate to general conference in Chicago, Ill., 1904; has four children--John B., age 21; Gaines Washington, age 13; Ruby May, age 10; Minnie Lee, age 8 years.

        Purnell, Sydney E., was born January 2, 1867, at Snow Hill, Worcester County, Maryland, the son of William P. and Nellie Purnell. Received his education in the public schools at his home and in New York City. At the age of seventeen he was forced to stop school and go to work. His father had become blind and his mother a cripple. He took up seafaring life and traveled on the Atlantic Ocean for three years. He then located in New York and was chief steward of a yacht club for two years. He moved to Philadelphia, December 31, 1888, and on January 7th, 1889, secured position as porter

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. SYDNEY E. PURNELL.

with a millinery firm; after two years he was promoted to shipping and receiving clerk and holds that position until now. He was converted at Snow Hill when eleven years old and joined the church immediately. His mother entered him on the Sunday school Roll when he was three years old and he has continued an active member of the church and Sunday school. He joined Bethel Church and Sunday school, Philadelphia, January, 1889; has served as a class leader, steward, church clerk, secretary of the stewards' board and Sunday school teacher. He served as district superintendent of the Philadelphia district fourteen years. He served as secretary of the Publication Board for a number of years. Mr. Purnell is well informed on the discipline and church law, and an influential and prominent citizen.

        He was married on November 27th, 1895, in Philadelphia, to Miss Julia Lucinda Sumby, who was formerly of Alexandria, Va., and the union has been a happy one.

        RANDOLPH, JAMES WELDON, son of William and Rachel Randolph, both members of the A. M. E.. Church, was born October 15, 1842, at Philadelphia, Pa., one of eight children of his parents. He entered school at six years of age, and spent about nine years receiving his education from Northern Liberty and James Bird's Schools, Philadelphia. He has given special study to the subjects of music, French, German and Spanish, and received the D.D. degree from Paul Quinn College. He was converted in 1863, and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He was licensed to preach by Rev. A. S. Stanford. He was ordained deacon in 1870, at Columbus, Ga., by Bishop J. M. Brown, and ordained elder in 1871, at Columbus, Ga., by Bishop Brown. He joined the annual conference of 1869 at Americus, Ga.,


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under Bishop Brown. He has held appointments at Augusta, Athens, Helena, Ark.; Galveston, Waco, Brenham, Bryan, Hearne, Houston, Dennison, Fort Worth, San Diego, Cal.; Danville, Va.; Pottsville, Pottstown, Pa.; Long Branch, Washington, N. J.; Camden, N. J.; Wilmington, Del.; Lansdowne, Pa. He remodeled the church at Galveston, Tex., and Pottsville, Pa., and the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. W. RANDOLPH, D.D.

parsonage at Sherman, Tex. He lifted the mortgages at Reedy Chapel, Bethel, Lake Charles, La.; St. Peter's, La. He was married to Anna Eliza Randolph, of Savannah, Ga., in 1869. They had four children--Gaetana, Edmonia, Olivia and Emily. Their daughter, Edmonia, is a graduate of Wilberforce, Ohio. He has contributed to the several Recorders. He published "The Everlasting Joy," a music book. He has published several copies of sheet music. He is a teacher of vocal and instrumental music.

        Rankin, Rev. J. W., Secretary of Missions, was born a slave, and reared in the State of Mississippi. His father was a tanner and made or tanned the leather on his master's plantation to make shoes for more than one hundred and fifty slaves, and it is said that the Rev. Rankin was born in the field while his mother was working under her taskmaster.

        His first school was at night on the plantation quarters, and his first book was a Webster's spelling book, known as the "blue back" speller, which, during the war, was bought by his mother, who sold eggs to the soldiers. Immediately after freedom, his father sent him to a country school until he advanced to the fourth grade.

        He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1877, at Brookhaven, Miss. He was licensed to preach the same year by the Rev. M. T. Newson, presiding elder. After that time, he attended the city school at Memphis, Tenn., and subsequently entered the LeMoyne Institute, a school founded by the American Missionary Association. There he made rapid progress with his studies. But upon the death of his father he had to discontinue school to assist his widowed mother on the farm with eight other small children.

        He joined the annual conference at Friarpoint, Miss., in 1878, under Bishop Campbell, who ordained him a deacon under the missionary rule for special work, and sent him to his first charge, at Senatobia, Miss. Afterwards he was sent by his presiding elder, John Miller, to Harrison Mission charge, where he found eight members. Serving three years, he built them a splendid church and took in more than one hundred members.

        He has served as pastor and presiding elder in Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas for the past thirty-five years with great success. He spent eighteen

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. W. RANKIN, D.D.

years in the Texas ministry, from which State he was elected to the office of Secretary of Missions of his (A. M. E.) Church, with headquarters at New York City. Dr. Rankin is a business man of no mean ability. He is the editor of the Voice of Missions, and has published two books for the study of missions.

        He has nearly one hundred missionaries under his department. During his quadrennium just closing he has visited the foreign field in West Africa, and in the West Indies. He also instituted special missionary rallies in the large cities. Dr. Rankin has been honored with the degree of doctor of divinity by two leading schools of the A. M. E. Connection, and in 1912 another university in the State of Indiana honored him with the degree of doctor of common law.

        Ransom, J. R., was born June 30, 1861, in Murfreesboro, Tenn., the son of Samuel and Hettie Ransom. He was reared principally on a farm, attending the country district schools until he was converted, August 16, 1878. He married November 23, 1881. He attended after his marriage for about three years the Central Tennessee College, Nashville, Tenn., now Walden University. He was licensed to preach February 10, 1882, and entered the ministry under Bishop Turner September, 1885, at Pulaski, Tenn.

        His first appointment was Lebanon Mission, where he found neither church nor members, but bought the ground, built a church and took 125 members into his church the first year. His second year in this charge he paid the debt off his church and organized


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and built three other churches during that and the following year, namely, Webb's Chapel, Perry's Chapel, both in Wilson county, and Gladesville, in Davidson county. He was transferred by Bishop Wayman to the Kansas Conference in 1888, was ordained Deacon by Bishop Turner in Murfreesboro in 1885, Elder in Nashville in 1887. His first appointment in the Kansas Conference was at Council Grove, where he remodeled, almost making anew our church. He was moved from there to Argentine, Kans., where he found no church or ground. He purchased ground and built the church at this point and remained there as pastor in charge three years.

        From this place he was assigned to Parsons, Kans., where he built a brick church with a stone basement and a six-room parsonage. He bought half the ground on which this property stands and remained in this charge four years. He was sent from this point by Bishop Tanner to St. John A. M. E. Church, of Topeka, Kans. There he found a debt of $9987.45 with the parsonage property sold. But he succeeded in paying off this parsonage debt and reducing the obligation to $4500 within three years. Next he was appointed Presiding Elder of Omaha District. He served four years and was assigned by Bishop Shaffer to the Kansas City District and served for five years, and Bishop Grant assigned him to the Topeka District, where he served four years. After these thirteen years of faithful and successful work as Presiding Elder Bishop Parks assigned him as pastor of the First A. M. E. Church, of Kansas City, Kans., where he canceled the $2265 debt the first year. The second year he raised $1000 toward a building fund and this, his third year, he has all of his plans arranged and will soon erect an eight-room modern parsonage, enlarge the church, putting a basement under the same with all modern equipments. He has taken in more than 500 members in this church during his short pastorate.

        Dr. Ransom is classed among the strong preachers of our race. Although largely self-made, he is recognized as one of the most resourceful and thoughtful preachers of our church. He has been a delegate to the General Conference for sixteen years. He has been a member of the Trustee Board of Wilberforce University and Western University for twenty years. He helped to establish the Industrial Department of Western University, being responsible for the most part for the first $10,000 the State of Kansas appropriated for that department.

        Rev. Ransom has a family of five sons and one daughter. One son, Dr. J. Louis Ransom, is a practicing physician. Another, Edward Ransom, is a successful embalmer. William Ransom is the fireman at the State heating plant, Topeka, Kans. J. R. Ransom, Jr., is engineer at Western University. The daughter, Mrs., Ethlyn Ransom Henderson, is the wife of Dr. R. C. Henderson, pastor of one of the A. M. E. Churches in St. Louis, Mo. T. P. Ransom, who is studying medicine at the State University, at Lawrence, Kans., is the youngest. Rev. Ransom has a younger brother who is just entering the ministry in Detroit, Mich., by name of Dr. Wayman Ransom, dentist. Dr. Ransom, the subject of this sketch, was a candidate for Financial Secretary during the General Conference of 1912 and received the second highest vote.

        He enjoys the distinction of being one of the leaders in the Republican party in this State, and is classed as one of the ablest political speakers upon the platform. For twenty-six years the State Central Committee has used him in every one of their campaigns. Dr. Ransom has refused at all times to either take money or an office for his service, preferring to use his influence in the interest of his race and church, and in the past twenty years he has been responsible for 167 persons of his race receiving good positions.

        Ransom, Rev. Reverdy Cassius, editor A. M. E. Review, only child of George and Hattie Ransom, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born January 1, 1861, at Flushing, Ohio. He began attending school at six years of age and spent 17 years in all in school, attending chiefly the public schools of Washington, Ohio, and Cambridge, Ohio, Oberlin College and Wilberforce, receiving from Wilberforce the degree of B.D. and D.D.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. R. C. RANSOM.

He was converted in 1881 and joined the A. M. E. Church and served as class leader and Sunday school teacher. He was licensed to preach October, 1883, at Wilberforce by Dr. T. H. Jackson, joined the annual conference in 1885 at Zanesville, Ohio, under Bishop Campbell; was ordained deacon 1886 at Meadville, Pa., by Bishop Campbell, and elder in 1888 at Canonsburg, Pa., by Bishop Payne. He has held the following appointments:

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. R. C. RANSOM.

Selma, Ohio, 1885; Altoona, Pa., 1886-88; Allegheny City, 1888-90; Springfield, Ohio, 1890-93; Cleveland, 1893-96; Bethel, Chicago, 1900-04; Bethel, New Bedford, Mass., 1904-05; Charles St. Church, Boston, Mass., 1905-07; Bethel, New York City, 1907-1912. He built a church at Allegheny City, Pa., $4500, in 1889,
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and lifted the mortgage on St. John's Cleveland, Ohio, $1500, in 1894.

        He has been a delegate to all general conferences from 1896 to 1916. He was a member of the Publication Board from 1900 to 1904 and Church Extension Board from 1908 to 1912. He was delegate to the Ecumenical Conference, London, in 1901. He was elected editor of the A. M. E. Review in 1912. He married Emma S. Ransom, of Virginia, in 1887. He has two children, Harold G. and R. C. Ransom, Jr. Their son, R. C., Jr., is a graduate of Drew Seminary and a minister in the New York conference now at the A. M. E. Church of Simon the Cyrene, a mission started by his father in the slums of New York.

        Dr. Ransom has contributed to all church papers and many newspapers and magazines of Chicago, Boston and New York. He has written pamphlets and books on William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, J. G. Whittier, Charles Sumner, John Brown, "School Days at Wilberforce," "Study and Destiny." He has often spoken at Fanueil Hall, Boston; Plymouth Church, Brooklyn; Free Synagogue, New York. He has been employed by lecture bureaus, Chautauquas and colleges as lecturer. He has been an independent Republican since 1904. He organized the first Board of Deaconesses in the A. M. E. Church, 1893, at Cleveland, Ohio; organized first Men's Club in the church in 1890, and organized the Institutional Church, Chicago, Ill. He owns a home.

        Reese, Rev. B. T., was born in 1863, at Rome, Ga., and attended school at the same place. He was converted in 1874 and came to Houston, Texas, in 1886,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. B. T. REESE.

and joined St. Paul A. M. E. Church, was licensed to preach by Rev. J. W. Rankin, at Houston, the same year. Ordained deacon 1900, at Willis, Texas, by Bishop M. B. Salter. Ordained elder at Houston, Texas, 1903, by Bishop Salter.

        Joined the Texas Annual Conference, 1898, at Galveston, Texas, under Bishop Salter.

        Has held the following appointments: Payne Chapel, 1898-1903; Fulcher Circuit, 1903-04; Shiloh, at Galveston, 1904-08; Brown Chapel, Houston, 1908-10; Mt. Vernon, Palestine, 1910-12; Presiding Elder of Palestine District, 1912-16.

        At Brown Chapel, Houston, Texas, lifted a mortgage of $700, repaired church at the cost of $736, and paid $800 on the debt.

        At Palestine, Texas, he paid $450 on mortgage. Has taken 225 members into the church. Has baptized 40 and married 31.

        Rice, David Eugene, was born near Wallaceville, Fairfield County, S. C., November 2, 1883, the second son of Rev. William P. and Sarah (Gary) Rice; the grandson of Mrs. Harriet and Rev. D. S. Rice, who was one of the pioneer ministers of the A. M. E. Church in South Carolina. His mother died when he was but nine months old, and his father, a young minister of promise, died a year later. The two children were given to their grandparents, who reared them. His grandmother died in 1893. They remained with their grandfather till his death, July 21, 1903. On account of being reared from such early age by their grandparents they were called "Rice" instead of "Gary." While their grandparents took the best of care of them, he, young Rice, was not able to secure the proper early school advantages. He, however, attended the Winnsboro Graded School in 1898, Brainerd Institute, Chester, S. C., in 1900; Allen University, 1896-97 and 1901. He was converted and called to the ministry in 1900. In July he was licensed as an exhorter and in November of the same year was given local preacher's license. In 1901 he was recommended to the annual conference but failed, and in 1902 was admitted to the Columbia (S. C.) Conference, at Spartanburg, S. C., under Bishop Gaines. Upon the death of his grandfather young Rice was asked for by the officers of the Enoree circuit, of which his grandfather was the pastor, to fill the unexpired term. Presiding Elder Hiram Young granted their request, and at the annual conference Bro. Rice was ordained deacon and returned to the Enoree circuit. At the annual conference at Greenwood, S. C., he was given a conference scholarship in Wilberforce University. In 1909 he won the prize for oratory; in 1910 he represented Payne Theological Seminary in the Founder's Day celebration. He was popular in his school circles, being a member of the Y. M. C. A. Cabinet, president of the Junior Class, also of the Preacher's Aid Association of Payne Theological Seminary, the Debating Team and the John G. Mitchell Literary Society. He graduated from Payne Theological Seminary, 1911, with the degree of B.D., delivering his salutatory oration "The Task of the Modern Theologian." He served the following pastorates: Enoree circuit in the Columbia (S. C.) Conference, 1903-4; Selma and Jeffersonville (O.) Conference, 1909-11; Allen Chapel, Springfield, North Ohio Conference, 1911. He returned to his native state in 1911, and was secretary to Bishop Lee for the State of South Carolina during the annual conferences; was ordained elder at Anderson, S. C., by Bishop Lee, December 3, 1911. From this


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conference he was appointed to the pastorate of the Mt. Pisgah Temple, Greenwood, S. C., in which he is now spending his fifth year. He is a trustee of Allen University and engrossing secretary of the Piedmont Annual Conference. He built a church in 1904 at St. Paul, Newberry, at a cost of $500, and lifted mortgages of $300, at Springfield, O., in 1911, and another

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. D. E. RICE, D.D.

at Greenwood, amounting to $750, in 1912. He has delivered the sermon to the graduating class of the East High School, Greenwood, S. C., in 1913 and 1915; to Brewer Normal School, 1915, and orator of the day at the fiftieth anniversary celebration of the Emancipation, at Greenwood, in 1913. He was married to Miss

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. D. E. RICE.

Mayme E. Johnson, daughter of Rev. and Mrs. D. H. Johnson, of Abbeville, S. C., December 25, 1912. Miss Johnson was teacher of music at Allen University, and secretary to the president. She is a graduate of the South Carolina Colored College, also of the scientific department of Allen University, and studied music at the Boston Conservatory of Music.

        Rice, William Franklin, son of Benjamin and Janie Rice, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born July, 1875, at Laurens County, S. C. He was one of four children. He entered school when quite young and spent twelve years in school, receiving his education at Ferguson School and Allen University, from which he graduated with the degree B.D. He was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church in 1886; served the local church as steward, trustee, class leader, exhorter, local preacher, Sunday school teacher and superintendent; was licensed to preach in 1897 by Rev. J. W. Sykes, and joined the annual conference in 1898, at Clinton, S. C., under Bishop Arnett; was ordained deacon 1900, at Newberry, S. C., by Bishop Grant, and ordained elder, 1902, at Greenville, S. C., by Bishop Gaines. He has held the following appointments:

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. F. RICE, B.D.

Seneca City, 1900; Nebo circuit, 1901; Newberry circuit, 1902; Mountville circuit, 1903-06; Mt. Hebron, 1906; Flat Rock Station, 1910-11; Silver St. circuit, 1907-09; St. James station, 1912-16. He remodeled the church at Newberry, at a cost of $500, in 1901; New Hope Church, at Mountville, $3000, in 1903; built Fairview Church, near Clinton, for $2500, in 1903; Trinity Church, at Silver Street circuit, for $3500, in 1908; Mt. Hebron Church, at Kiblers, S. C., for $3000, in 1906. He lifted mortgages on Fairview Church, at Clinton, to the amount of $2000, in 1905; Trinity Church, at Silver Street, $3000, in 1907; St. James Church, at Abbeville, to the amount of $5000, in 1912. He has taken over 1200 people into the Church, and baptized 780. He was a delegate to the General Conference of 1916; trustee of Allen University, 1907-16; secretary of the annual conference for eight years. He was married in 1897, and has three children--Minnie, Bessie and William. Minnie is a graduate of Morris Brown University. He has contributed to the "Piedmont Voice." He addressed the class of 1915, at Allen University. He is connected with the G. U. O. of O. F., F. and A. M., K. of P., and is a home owner.


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        Richard, Eliza, was born at Lochapoca, Ala., August 30, 1859, reared at Dangerfield, Texas, and moved to Texarkana, Texas. In the year 1876, August 24, she married Cornelius Richard, and two years later she was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church, under the charge of Rev. Daniel Austin. She has been

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. ELIZA RICHARD.

stewardess since the first year of her connection with the Church, and for eighteen years she has been class leader in the church of which her husband was the founder, and for fifteen years she has been laboring in the missionary cause.

        Richardson, Addison McClain, son of Joseph and Nancy Richardson, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born at Shelby County, O. He was one

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. A. M. RICHARDSON.

of five children. He entered school when six years of age, and attended about eight years. He received his education at the district school and Wilberforce University. He was converted in 1888, and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held several offices in the Church. He married Cassie Morton, of Wilmington, O., in 1890. They have eight children, Alexander, 24 years; Blanche, 21 years; Leonard, 20 years; Addison, 18 years; Harry, 16 years; Myrtle, 13 years; Edward, 11 years; Lawrence, 4 years. His daughter, Blanche, is a graduate of the Anna High School. He is a member of the Republican party.

        Richardson, P. A., was born and reared on a small farm in Halifax County, N. C., where he remained until nearly grown, when he moved to his present home, and went into a barber shop, which trade he followed for over twenty-four years very successfully. He gave up his work to devote his entire time to the rehabilitation

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. P. A. RICHARDSON.

of the Endowment Department of District Grand Lodge, No. 71, G. U. O. of O. F. When he took charge of this department, in August, 1906, it was over $10,000 in debt, trying to pay a $100 death benefit. All debts have been paid, and assets amounting to more than $26,000 have been accumulated without making an extra assessment or raising the dues. Besides, it pays $200 instead of one hundred as formerly. He was converted early in life, and joined the A. M. E. Church, which has honored him with every office up to chief recording secretary of the general conference, which position he filled at four consecutive general conferences, 1906, 1907, 1908 and 1912. An active worker in the Sunday school, where he held all the positions of trust. A thirty-second degree Mason, and at present D. D. Grand Master Thirty-first District, Grand Lodge of North Carolina, F. and A. M. He is an alternate to the 1916 General Conference. A progressive in Church and lodge matters. His home is in Nashville, N. C.

        Ringgold, Rev. Isaac Henry, son of Mary and Isaac Ringgold. His mother was a member of the A. M. E. Church. He was born September 4, 1879, at Woodstown, N. J. He was one of three children. He entered school in 1885, and attended seventeen years


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in all, chiefly at Fenwick, N. J.; Woodstown, N. J., and Lincoln University. He received the degrees A.B., A.M., S.T.B. from Lincoln, and S.T.D. from Bible College. He was converted in 1892, and joined church the same year. He has held the offices of class leader, local preacher, Sunday school teacher and chorister. He was licensed to preach in 1899, at Fenwick, N. J., by Rev. W. H. Giles; was ordained deacon in 1902 by Bishop Derrick, at Asbury Park, N. J.; elder, at Trenton, N. J., in 1904, by Bishop Derrick. Joined Conference

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. I. H. RINGGOLD.

at Bethel church, Camden, N. J., 1901; pastored Flemington, N. J., 1903-4; Payne, Philadelphia, 1904-5; Middletown, Pa., 1905-7; Wayne, Pa., 1907-11; Germantown, Philadelphia, 1911-14; Zion, Philadelphia, 1914, to date. He has taken over 500 people into the Church, baptized over 200 and married 60. He is a delegate to the church conference of 1916. He married Fannie Ringgold, of Philadelphia, in 1901. He is connected with the Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. He has held the offices of P. N. S. and Prelate. He has been associated with the Equal Rights Association.

        Roberts, Rev. Dolphin Pernanders, son of Elias and Mariah Roberts, was born on a farm in Hamilton County, Ind., March 17, 1856. He began attending school at the age of seven years and went in all about fourteen years. Among the schools attended were Spiceland University, the Evansville Medical School and the National Medical College of Louisville, Ky. He received diplomas from the Westfield High School, the Spiceland University, and the National Medical College, with the degree of doctor of medicine, and received the degree of doctor of divinity from Wilberforce University. His theological training was largely under the instruction of private teachers.

        He was converted and joined the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 1869, was ordained elder in 1876, joined the Ohio Conference, under Bishop Wayman, in 1876, and was assistant pastor to the late Rev. A. A. Whitman, in Zanesville, O. In 1877 he was transferred to the New England Conference and assigned to the Chelsea Mission, succeeding the late Dr. Cheeks. In 1879 he was transferred to the Indiana Conference, and has pastored the following charges since that time: Bethel, Detroit, 1879; Alexander Chapel, Evansville, 1882; Bethel, Indianapolis, 1884; Terre Haute, 1886; Richmond, 1887; Alexander Chapel, Evansville, 1889; Mt. Pisgah, Washington, D. C., 1892; Charles Street, Boston, 1893; Union Church, Philadelphia, 1898; St. Paul, St. Louis, 1900; Quinn Chapel, Chicago, 1904; Bethel, Chicago, 1909; and Bethel, Indianapolis, 1913, where he is now serving his third year of his second term.

        During his ministry Dr. Roberts paid off the indebtedness on Bethel Church, Detroit, and Alexander Chapel, Evansville, Ind., and paid about $27,000 on the indebtedness of other churches. He has taken into the Church about 5000 persons, baptized about 900

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. D. P. ROBERTS, M.D., D.D.

persons and married something over 800 couple. He has been elected to nine consecutive general conferences, the first being in 1884, the last 1916. He was a member of the Board of Church Extension sixteen years, and a member of the Financial Board four years. He was elected in 1884 a member of the Joint Commission on organic union of the A. M. E. and the A. M. E. Z. Churches, was a member of and secretary to the General Conference Commission of 1904, was voted for for the office of general manager of the Book Concern in 1896 and 1900, and was voted for for bishop in 1908 and 1912.

        Dr. Roberts' first marriage was to Leda S. Spellman, of Cincinnati, O., in 1875, to which union there were born five children: Walter M., William B., Arthur C., Charles S., and Della C. His first wife having died, he was married to Mamie B. Gee, of Richmond, Ind., to which union there were born six children: Dolphin P., Jr., Estella B. (deceased), Helen M., Flora M. (deceased), Ruth A. and Leda C. Walter and Arthur are graduates in law, and Helen, Ruth and Leda are pupils in Shortrage High School, Indianapolis.

        Dr. Roberts' eulogies on the life of Bishops Allen, Payne, Arnett, Salter, Turner, Lincoln, Douglass and Booker T. Washington, together with his speeches before the Missouri Legislature against a Separate Car Bill, on President Roosevelt and the Brownsville incident, and on the Springfield (Ill.)


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mob and the murder of innocent colored people, all may be considered worthy of mention.

        Dr. Roberts is a mason and an Odd Fellow. He is a Republican in politics. He was appointed Recorder of the General Land Office by President Harrison, and accepted, on the advice of the late Bishop Brown, and served two years. He let the contract and superintended the building and dedication of the Alpha Home, an institution for the Aged Colored of Indianapolis, Ind. He was one of the promoters of the Y. M. C. A. of Indianapolis, and also a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

        Roberts, Rev. Primos Ruben, was born January 14, 1869, at Waukwenah, Jefferson County, Fla. He is the son of the Rev. J. E. Roberts, one of the superannuates of the Florida Conference. He was converted in 1891 under the pastorate of the Rev. K. P. Neal, at Ashville, Fla., and licensed to preach the same year by

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. P. R. ROBERTS.

Presiding Elder Thomas Moorer. He entered the itinerant work in 1897 and has pastored the following charges: Warthington Springs, Hague, Dutton, Mt. Olive, Katherline, Crystal River, Halder, Cedar Keys, Floral City, St. Petersburg, and is now presiding elder of the New Gainesville District, Central Florida Conference.

        He rendered commendable reports from each of these charges, especially from Katherline and Crystal River. When Dr. G. W. Jenkins died Rev. Roberts was sent to Bethel, the leading charge in Central Florida, and no pastor has ever had a warmer place in the hearts of the people than he had. He has to his credit in the way of church building the structures at Hague and Holder. He has built parsonages at Crystal River, Floral City, also St. Petersburg. He was until the past year the Conference Educational Money King. He has been successful as a revivalist, having been instrumental in the conversion of thousands of souls. He is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference at Philadelphia, 1916.

        Robinson, Edward Daniel, the son of Reed and Maria Robinson, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born May 9, 1880, at Pittsville, Virginia. He was one of twelve children. He entered school when six years of age and attended about seventeen years, attending the public schools in Bellaire, Ohio, Wilberforce University, and Central University. He received the degree B.D. from Wilberforce, and A. M. from Central Correspondence course for one and a half years from an English University while in the British colony. He was converted in 1892 at Bellaire, Ohio, and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held several offices in the church. He was licensed to preach in 1904 at Zanesville, Ohio, by Rev. Marion F. Sydes. He joined the Ohio Annual Conference at Cincinnati in 1905; was ordained deacon in 1907 at St. Paul, Columbus, Ohio, by Bishop Derrick, and ordained elder in 1909 at Irvington, Ohio, by Bishop Derrick. He has pastored the following charges: Selma, Ohio, 1905; Cedarville, Ohio, 1906-08; South Charleston, Ohio, 1908-10; Bermuda Islands, 1910-12; Clearfield, Curwensville, Pittston, Waverly, Bellefonte and Elizabeth, all of Pennsylvania.

        He lifted mortgages on churches at Cedarville, $200, in 1908; South Charleston, $250, in 1909; Bermuda, $400, in 1911; Clearfield, $80, in 1912; Bellefonte, $118, in 1913; Elizabeth, $350, in 1914. He has taken about 200 into the church, baptized 150 and married 30.

        He married Mildred Eliza Robinson, of Bermuda, in 1911. He has contributed to the Zanesville Advocate, Bermuda Colonist, Gazette and Mid-Ocean and Christian Recorder. He has written several pamphlets. He is a member of the F. and A. M. He completed a course in typewriting and stenography, and printing.

        Robinson, John Henley, was born October 31, 1854, at Columbia, Virginia. He was the son of Peter and Lucinda Henley Robinson. His mother was a

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JOHN HENLEY ROBINSON.

member of the Baptist Church. He is one of six children. He entered school at the age of 7. He spent over two years in the Camden Public Night Schools,
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Pennington Seminary. He was converted in 1880 and joined Bethel A. M. E. Church at Moorestown, N. J., the same year. He has held almost all of the offices in the church. He was licensed to preach September 24, 1892, at Bethel, Moorestown, by Rev. A. H. Newton, P. E. He was ordained deacon, May 8, 1898, at Trenton, N. J., by Bishop Grant; ordained elder, May 12, 1903, at Asbury Park, N. J., by Bishop W. B. Derrick. He joined the Annual Conference, 1896, at Newark, N. J., under Bishop Tanner. He held the following appointments: Summit Mission, 1896-97; Beverly Mission, 1897-98; Bethel, Trenton, and Crosswicks Circuit, 1898-1900; Manalapan Mission, 1900-01; Pennington and Skillman Circuit, in 1901-1904; Bethel, Pensauken, 1904-08; Mt. Pisgah, Princeton, 1908-10; Bethel, Burlington, 1910-11; Mt. Pisgah, Washington, 1911-12; Trinity, Gouldtown, 1912-16. He completed Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church at Skillman at a cost of $500 in 1902; improved Bethel A. M. E. Church at Pensauken at a cost of $500, in 1905; he finished Mt. Pisgah A. M. E. Church, at Princeton, at a cost of $6,600 in 1909. He has taken about 400 people into the church; baptized 175 people and married 50 couples. In 1879 he married Emma Wester, of New Jersey. Their only child, Eleanor L. Robinson, born September 7, 1883, is a graduate.

        Rodgers, Frank H., the son of Joseph and Annie Rodgers, was born 1878 in Philadelphia. He received his education in the Philadelphia public schools and Hampton Industrial School, Va., from which he graduated as a painter. He works at his trade and also

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. FRANK H. RODGERS.

as a caterer. He was reared in Mt. Pisgah A. M. E. Church, Philadelphia, and has served as steward, trustee, assistant superintendent and superintendent of Sunday school. He has held every office assigned him with credit to himself and the Church, and has endeared himself to all who know him, and especially the Sunday school children. He is now superintendent of the Sunday school.

        Rogers, Rev. Frank S., the son of Smith and Sarah Rogers, was born in Aberdeen, Monroe County, Miss., January 18, 1862. He received license to preach in 1895; was admitted to the Central Mississippi Conference, of which he is still a member, in 1898; was ordained deacon by Bishop W. B. Derrick in 1898, and ordained an elder by Bishop Evans Tyree in 1900, and has held several charges in the Central Mississippi Conference. After receiving a common school education

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. FRANK S. ROGERS.

he entered Buena Vista Normal School to finish his course, but lacked six months of graduating. He studied law by correspondence with the Chicago Law School, beginning in 1912 and graduating in 1915. He has also been before the Mississippi bar for admission as a practicing attorney. He was elected delegate to represent the Central Mississippi Conference in the Centennial General Conference in Philadelphia, May, 1916. He lives at Itta Bena, Miss., where he owns a good home and other property. He is also prominently identified with secret societies, and is highly respected by all classes.

        Roman, Charles Victor, the son of James and Anne Roman, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born July 4, 1864, at Williamsport, Pa. He was one of twelve children. He entered school in 1870 and attended irregularly. He is a graduate of Hamilton Collegiate Institute, Fisk University and Meharry Medical College. He received the degree of M.D. from Meharry and LL.D. from Wilberforce University. He was brought up in the A. M. E. Church. He was delegate to the General Conference of 1904, 1912 and 1916. He was a delegate to the Ecumenical Conference of Methodism at Toronto, Canada, in 1911.

        He married Margaret Lee Roman in 1891. He has contributed to the daily and weekly press, Editor of the Journal of National Medical Association. He has written many pamphlets, some of which are "Science and Christian Ethics," "After Life, What?" "Dethronement of a King." He has been an acceptable speaker on many occasions. He is connected with the K. of P., and G. U. O. of O. F. He has had


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all degrees in Odd Fellowship and has been Grand Lecturer of K. of P. He is a property owner. He is an enthusiastic and constructive Sunday School worker. He has been associated with the Southern Sociological Congress, American Academy of Political and Social Science, the Nashville Negro Board of Trade,

[ILLUSTRATION]
CHARLES VICTOR ROMAN, M.D.

National Medical Association and Young Men's Christian Association. Dr. Roman has been one of the strongest personalities in America so far as influencing the religious life of young Negro professional men, by thousands of whom in every part of the New World he is sincerely loved.

        Roseborough, Sandy D., son of John B. and Maria Roseborough, was born July 4, 1850, in Winnsboro, S. C.; moved to Georgia, in 1867; was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church, in 1872; was licensed to preach by Rev. W. H. Noble, in 1876, at Key, Ga.; was admitted to the Georgia Conference, at Bainbridge, in 1877, under Bishop Campbell; was ordained deacon by Bishop Campbell, at Cuthbert, Ga., 1879; ordained elder at Savannah, by Bishop Dickerson, in 1881. He has held the following charges, all in Georgia: Hickory Head Mission, 1877-8; Mitchell county circuit, 1879-80; Arlington circuit, 1881-4; Bainbridge, 1885; Cuthbert, 1886-8; presiding elder, Thomasville district, 1889-'92; Rome, 1893; Shellman circuit; presiding elder, Cuthbert district, 1894; Savannah district, 1895-7; St. John, Columbus, 1898-9; Americus, 1900-'01; Bainbridge, 1902-'05; presiding elder, Blakely district, 1906; Cuthbert district, 1907-'09; Talbotton district, 1910; Columbus district, 1911-14. He built churches at Hickory Head, Pelham, Arlington, Edison and Bainbridge; paid $1500 mortgage on St. Paul, Rome, Ga., and $250 on Campbell, Americus; has taken about 3000 people into the church and baptized about 2000; was delegate to general conferences of 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1908, 1916; chairman Georgia delegation, 1916; member Sunday School Union Board, 1907-'10; self-educated; received D.D. from Morris Brown; trustee of Morris Brown 25 years; of Payne College, 8 years; treasurer of Southwest Georgia Conference; was twice married, 1874 and 1889. Present wife, Mrs. Irene V. Roseborough, was

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. S. D. ROSEBOROUGH, D.D.

born in Lumpkin, Ga. He is the father of fourteen children, of whom A. L. and Fred Roseborough graduated from College; has contributed to all church papers, delivered addresses to secret orders, Emancipation Day addresses and preached baccalaureate sermons; is a home owner, Mason, Odd Fellow, Knight of Pythias, and interested in several businesses, president of Cuthbert Business Men's League.

        Ross, Isaac Nelson, 41st bishop of the African Methodist Church, was born January 22, 1856, in Hawkins County, East Tennessee. In 1861 his parents moved to Green County, Ohio, with ten children. His father was a sturdy, painstaking, thrifty farmer, a man of sobriety and integrity. His mother was a woman of strong personality and Christian piety. Four of the five sons of the Christian parents became ministers of the A. M. E. Church.

        Rev. W. P. Ross was founder of the Divinity High School, now Edward Waters College. Rev. O. P. Ross, at the time of his death, was dean of Campbell College, Jackson, Miss. Rev. A. H. Ross was one of the founders of Wayman Institute, of Harrodsburg, Ky., and at the time of his death, was the Chairman of its Trustee Board.

        Bishop I. N. Ross is the youngest and only surviving member of the well known quartette of "Ross" preachers. He received his early school training in his home town, Bowersville. His early life was spent in work on the farm, when he was not in school.

        On January 1, 1879, he was married to Miss Mary Robinson Fletcher of Elizabethtown, Harding County, Ky. Six children, four of whom are living, blessed this union. The oldest son is a practicing physician in Cincinnati. The oldest daughter, who is a graduate of the University of Cincinnati, is a teacher in the public


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schools there. The youngest daughter, who is a graduate of the Teachers' College of Howard University, Washington, D. C., is a Kindergarten teacher in Cincinnati; and the youngest son, of the Physical Culture Department of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., is a professor of physical culture in the public schools of Cincinnati.

        Dr. Ross joined the Ohio Conference in 1880 and pastored the following churches: Oberlin Mission, O.; St. Paul's A. M. E. Church, Washington, Pa.; Oil City and Titusville Circuit, Pennsylvania; Brown's Chapel, Allegheny City, and Wiley Avenue A. M. E. Church, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Warren Chapel, Toledo, Ohio; St. Paul's Church, Columbus, Ohio, where he

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP ISAAC NELSON ROSS.

entertained the general conference in 1900; 5 years at Allen Temple, Cincinnati, Ohio; 3 years and 6 months at Big Bethel, Atlanta, Georgia, and 4 years and 9 months at Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, Washington, D. C., 2 years at Ebenezer, Baltimore, until May, 1916. All of these churches have been financially and spiritually quickened and improved. Some of them were relieved of their heavy indebtedness. Most prominent among those relieved were Brown Chapel, Allegheny City, where a mortgage debt of $3,858.00, of 27 years' standing, was entirely lifted and the mortgage burned. A sinking fund was created at Wiley Avenue A. M. E. Church for the building of a new church. A new site was purchased at Titusville. The church was moved-from a back street to one of the main streets of the town. Brown Chapel, Oil City, was made almost new. The church at Toledo was paid entirely out of debt. The indebtedness of St. Paul's Church was changed and arranged so as to make it practical to meet the obligations as they came due, and the church at Cincinnati was improved and remodeled on the interior, completely from top to bottom, fitted up with all modern appliances at an expense of several hundred dollars, which was paid off as the work advanced. At Big Bethel Church, Atlanta, Ga., his work as pastor was marked all the way with consecration and seriousness; thousands of dollars were paid on the indebtedness; the basement, which had been untouched from the time of the erection of the church, was put in excellent condition for regular use, electric lights were installed and renovated and the interior remodeled. At Metropolitan A. M. E. Church he installed steam heat and made other needed improvements on the interior and exterior of the church; reduced its bonded debt $2,000, and greatly increased the congregation.

        He was a delegate to the general conferences of 1892 to 1908, and is a delegate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916. In 1912 he received a large vote for the bishopric. He was one of the most popular pastors of the A. M. E. Church. He received "D. D." from Wilberforce in 1903. He was elected bishop on the third ballot to the bishopric May 18, 1916.

        Ross, Mamie Robinson Fletcher, wife of Bishop I. N. Ross, was born in Elizabethtown, Ky., six years before the war which marked the close of slavery. When a babe she was given as a bridal present to a

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. I. N. ROSS.

young lady in the family in which her mother had served faithfully. Being in a good family and so young, she escaped the horrors and cruel treatment to which many slaves were subjected. After the war she went to a little cottage to live with her mother and brother. She attended the school established in her town. She grew up into a much-respected young lady. Her pastor introduced her to his brother, the Rev. I. N. Ross, whom she married later and early in her twenties. She has served faithfully with him from the small mission to the bishopric. Mrs. Ross was always closely identified with the missionary societies of the churches which her husband served. Beginning at Cincinnati, she started a chain of societies known as "The Lend-a-Hand Association of Ministers' Wives." Another plan she adopted is that of gathering the new women members of the churches and getting them in line to help the church in an organization known as "The Willing Workers." Both of these organizations are doing good work in the various communities in which she planted the seed. Mrs. Ross is
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also an enthusiastic member of the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs. Although deprived of a regular and complete education, she has read good books, subscribed to helpful magazines, attended lectures and conventions, traveled considerably, and is known and loved wherever she has worked.

        Roundtree, Rev. I. W. L., is a native of Georgia. His father, Rev. Wm. Roundtree, was a man of sterling worth and in possession of more than ordinary intelligence. His mother was also a woman of ability and strong character.

        Doctor Roundtree spent the early part of his life on the farm and in the country school. He graduated from Cookman Institute in Jacksonville, Florida, studied in the Home Missionary Institute, Live Oak, Florida. Later he entered Howard University, Washington, D. C., and Lincoln University, where he was graduated in 1886, receiving the degree of A.B. Three years later he graduated from Drew Theological Seminary at Madison, N. J., with the degree of B.D. He also studied in the famous Princeton Theological Seminary, from which he also graduated. He has specialized in Hebrew, Old Testament and New Testament Theology, Comparative Religion and Biblical Criticism. These branches he supplemented in Princeton University by the study of biology and astronomy and kindred subjects.

        Dr. Roundtree has been honored in the city and state with positions of responsibility. He was one of the founders of Bordentown Industrial School. He represented the race at the World's Temperance Congress in Chicago in 1892.

        Doctor Roundtree has been elected as a member to the general conference continually since 1892. He was also voted for for the bishopric, and is now serving as presiding elder. He is also State Commissioner for the Bordentown Industrial School at Bordentown, N. J., being appointed by the State Board of Education.

        As a teacher he made good, having taught in Georgia, Florida and Virginia. His Christian faith and his uncompromising determination to do something for mankind endear him to the hearts of those with whom he comes in contact. His wife was Miss Fannie C. Colson, of Petersburg, Va.

        SAMPSON, JOHN PATTERSON, was born in Wilmington, N. C., August 13, 1837; is of mixed African and Scottish descent, educated in the public schools of Cambridge, Mass., graduated from Comer's College, Boston, 1856; began life as a teacher of public school at Jamaica, L. I., in 1862; published and edited the Colored Citizen at Cincinnati, continuing as a Negro war policy paper

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. P. SAMPSON.

till the close of the war, about which time was made assessor and clerk to Superintendent of Freedman Schools, at Wilmington, N. C.; took an active part by appointment in reconstruction, was nominated for Congress, defeated by the Democratic candidate; was appointed and continued fifteen years a clerk in the Treasury Department at Washington, during which time he studied and graduated from the National Law University in 1868; was admitted to practice in the District Supreme Court, was subsequently appointed by the Commissioners Justice of a District Court, became a public lecturer on social and scientific subjects; was engaged by General Armstrong to deliver a course of lectures at Hampton School. Called to the ministry, studied Theology at the Western Theological

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. J. P. SAMPSON.

Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., joined the New Jersey conference, held many leading charges, elected several times a delegate to the general conference; made presiding elder two terms in the Philadelphia conference. During his absence was elected president of Frederick
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Douglass Hospital and Training School, continuing as such five years. D.D. conferred by Wilberforce University, Ohio, 1888. Married Mary A. Cole, of Borlentown, Sept. 10, 1880.

        Author of "Common Sense Physiology," "Temperament and Phrenology of Mixed Races," "Jolly People," "Pastoral Theology," "The Disappointed Bride" and "How to Live One Hundred Years." Was appointed and continued nine years presiding elder in the New England Conference. At present pastor at Morristown, N. J.

        Sanders, Rev. Albert Carter, was born October 16, 1863, in Georgetown County, South Carolina. He attended the public schools of Charleston. Was a Sunday school pupil in Emanuel A. M. E. Church, Charleston during the pastorate of Rev. Moses B. Salter. He went to New York in 1883 and attended night

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. A. C. SANDERS.

schools there; was converted in New York, January, 1894. Impressed with the call to the ministry, he began the study of theology under Rev. H. G. Miller, a graduate of Lincoln University. He joined Bethel Church, West 25th St., Rev. John M. Henderson, pastor, in 1897. Served as local preacher until May, 1899, when he joined the New York Conference; was ordained deacon by Bishop Grant in New York City and was assigned to Little Neck Circuit, including Maspeth and Port Washington, Long Island. At Maspeth the church was condemned by the building department, doors closed for two years. Rev. Sanders, with a membership of five to work with, contracted for a stone foundation at a cost of $350.00 and in three months the doors were opened for religious worship. In May, 1902, was ordained elder by Bishop Derrick in Bridge St. Church, Brooklyn, N. Y.

        With a membership of only 9 persons a church at Port Washington was built near the railroad station in 1904 and dedicated as "Underdunk's Chapel." The same year the church at Little Neck was remodeled and enlarged, a new organ installed and many improvements made. Rev. Sanders served this circuit five years.

        In June, 1904, he was sent to Amityville, Long Island, where he served four years, bought a site and built a parsonage at a cost of $2500.00; enlarged the church with a membership of 50 and raised $7000.00. In 1909 was sent to Israel A. M. E. Church, Albany, N. Y. It was said by those who knew that the status of the church was better during the Rev. Sanders' pastorate than any in its history, excluding the pastorate of Rev. Wm. B. Derrick. In June, 1910, the church in Buffalo, N. Y., was about to be sold on the block. Rev. Sanders was appointed to Buffalo and in 8 months

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. A. C. SANDERS.

he was able to satisfy all of his creditors. He held this charge for four years and increased its wealth to $5000 worth of real estate. In May, 1913, he was transferred from the New York to the New England Conference by Bishop Tyree, and stationed at Cambridge, Mass., where he is serving his third year. In two years he gathered into the church 123 new members, installed two new furnaces, placed a new roof on parsonage and has just installed a beautiful pipe organ in St. Paul's Church. He is a P. N. F. in the Odd Fellows and for two consecutive years has preached the annual Thanksgiving sermons to all the lodges in Boston, in Tremont Temple. He is engaged in civicwork, and is thoroughly a race man.

        On March 22nd, 1891, he married Miss Fannie Williams, of Beaufort, N. C., who is a tower of strength to him in his ministerial labors. Five children were born to them, Albert C., Jr., H. Leroy, Agnes L., Anna E. and Walter J., Agnes L. and H. Leroy having died.

        Sanders, James Woods, son of John and Mary Sanders. Mother a member of A. M. E. Church. Born near Nashville, Tenn., April 30, 1857. Was one of four children. Entered school in 1866 and attended school about 7 years in all. Spent over two years at McKee's Presbyterian Mission and the public schools. Graduated from normal department in 1872, but has done most study under private teachers, received degree D.D. from Kittrell College, N. C. Converted in


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1878 and joined A. M. E. Church, 1884. Has held offices of steward, class leader, exhorter, local preacher, Sunday school teacher, general missionary and fiscal agent of Colorado Conference. Was secretary of Colorado Conference for five years. Licensed to preach in 1884 at Pueblo, Colorado, by Rev. Wooton. Ordained deacon 1886 at Lincoln, Nebraska, by Bishop Brown. Ordained elder in 1889 at Pueblo, Colorado, by Bishop Ward. Joined the annual conference in 1885 at Parsons, Kansas, under Bishop Brown.

        Dr. Sanders is one of the trustees of Wilberforce and Kittrell College. He has held the following appointments with credit: Colorado Springs, Trinidad, Minneapolis, Salina, Kansas; Helena, Montana; Salt

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. JAMES WOODS SANDERS.

Lake City, Albuquerque, Cheyenne, Wyoming; Denver, Colo., 2 years; Hannibal, Mo., 2 years; Leadville, Silverton, Col.; Staunton, Va.; Smithfield, Va., and Bethel, Baltimore. He organized churches at Eddy and Roswell, N. M. He paid $2000 on a debt at Helena, Montana. At Salt Lake City he built a church worth $2500 and paid $2000 of it.

        He was married to his first wife in 1891 and his present wife, Mrs. Corinthia May Sanders, in 1899. He has three children, Bernice, John W., Jr. and George F. Miss Bernice graduated as valedictorian in Denver, Colorado, and with the highest honors from Wilberforce, where she was president of the Greek letter sorority.

        Rev. Sanders has contributed to all of our church papers, local papers and Independent of New York. He has addressed many conferences and societies. Member of the Republican party and attended conventions in New Mexico and Colorado. He is a property owner. Member of a Negro Organization Society of Virginia,

        Sands, Rev. I. S., was converted in 1859 at Ben Salem, Pa., in the A. M. E. Church. His life has been one of hard struggle, but having strong faith in God, he has surmounted every difficulty. He has built many churches and paid off many debts. He has held the following appointments: Camp Town, Pa., 1890; Flemington, N. J., until 1892; Bristol, R. I.; Norwalk, Conn.; Lynn, Mass.; Providence, R. I.; Binghamton, N. Y.; Roslyn, L. I.; St. John, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Elmira, N. Y.; Lockport, N. Y.; Chatham, N. Y.

        He has been a source of inspiration to many and has been instrumental in bringing many into the fold of Christ.

        Scarborough, William Sanders, president of Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio, was born in Macon, Georgia, in 1854. He received his early education in his native city before and during the Civil War. From 1869 to 1871 he attended Atlanta University, and entered Oberlin College in 1871, from which he received the degree of A.B. in 1875, later receiving from Oberlin the degree of M.A. He spent a part of 1876 in Oberlin Theological Seminary in special study of the Semitic languages and Hellenistic Greek. In 1877 he was elected head of the Classical Department in Wilberforce University. In 1881 he published through A. S. Barnes & Co., "First Lessons in Greek," the first Greek text book ever written by an American

[ILLUSTRATION]
PRESIDENT WILLIAM SANDERS SCARBOROUGH, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.

Negro. He has also written a treatise entitled, "The Birds of Aristophanes--a Theory of Interpretation"--aside from numerous tracts and pamphlets, covering a variety of subjects, classical, archaeological, sociological and racial. He has written many papers for various societies to which he belongs, especially the Philological Society. In 1891 he was given chair of Hellenistic Greek in Payne Theological Seminary, at its opening. In 1897 he was again elected as professor of Latin and Greek in Wilberforce University and was made vice-president of the same. In 1908 he was elected president of Wilberforce University, a position which he now holds.

        In 1881 he married Sarah C. Bierce, a lady of high literary attainments, and a writer for many magazines.

        President Scarborough has been for many years the exegetical editor of the A. M. E. Church Sunday school publications. He is a member of the following societies: American Philological, American Dialect, American Social Science, Archaeological Institute of America, American Spelling Reform, American Folk-Lore, American Modern Language, American Political and Social Science, the Egyptian Exploration Fund Association, National Geographical Society, American Negro Academy, of which he is first vice-president. He has often been orator at the banquet of the Lincoln League of Ohio. He was president of the Afro-American


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State League, was appointed by the Governor of Ohio a delegate to the National Conference in St. Louis in the interest of Negro Education. He is the only Negro representative on the Board of the Lincoln Memorial Association of Ohio, which is presided over by the Governor. He was a delegate to the Ecumenical Methodist Conference held in London in 1901, and was in attendance upon the Universal Race Congress in London representing Wilberforce University.

        Scott, Oscar J. W., captain and chaplain 25th Infantry, United States Army, was born in Gallipolis, Ohio, July 31, 1867. He attended the public schools during his childhood, in the vicinity of his birthplace. While still in his youth, he entered the Ohio Wesleyan University, from which he graduated with the degree of A.B., later earning the degree of A.M. from the same institution, and the degree of B.D. from Drew

[ILLUSTRATION]
CHAPLAIN OSCAR J. W. SCOTT, A.M., D.D.

Theological Seminary. The University of Denver bestowed upon him the degrees of B.A. and S.T.B., after he had completed a course of study in that institution. The honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by Payne Theological Seminary.

        Chaplain Scott has served his church with marked fidelity and ability, having been pastor of churches at Madison, New Jersey; Kansas City, Missouri; Denver, Colorado, and of the Metropolitan Church at Washington, D. C. His work as a pastor was always of a highly constructive character, morally and materially.

        In 1895 Chaplain Scott was married to Miss Nettie Poindexter, of Columbus, Ohio. Mrs. Scott possesses a rare charm, is an accomplished musician, and is in every way a fit help-mate for her distinguished husband. As a result of their union, there are three children, Albert, James and Ruth.

        On April 17, 1907, while pastor of the Metropolitan Church, Washington, Dr. Scott was appointed a chaplain in the United States Army, and assigned to the 25th Infantry. Since the very beginning of his career as an army chaplain, Doctor Scott has continued to gain in popularity and efficiency. He is popular with both the officers and men of his regiment, and was recently recommended by his commanding officer as being worthy of distinction for special efficiency. He has served with his regiment in Texas, the Philippines, in the state of Washington, and is now stationed with the command in the Hawaiian Islands. While in the Philippines, he was engaged for a number of months compiling an historical, descriptive work dealing with the history, habits and characteristics of one of the old Moro tribes of the Island of Mindanao.

        As a public speaker he is much sought after by congregations, Y. M. C. A. meetings and assemblies wherever he is stationed. He was kept busy addressing various gatherings while in the state of Washington, and since his arrival in the Hawaiian Islands he has been in great demand as a speaker at public meetings of various sorts. He has responded in many cases and has been the principal speaker at the Y. M. C. A., various Hawaiian religious gatherings in Honolulu as well as on the Island of Hawaii and Maui, and at clubs and associations of business men of the city.

        He has organized and maintains the Young Men's Bible Study Class, the Scott Literary Society, and is said to have a larger congregation in attendance upon his services on Sundays than any other chaplain in the post.

        Scott, Price Andrew, eldest son of David and Sallie Scott, was born near Lynchburg, Va., November 25, 1866. He learned to read and write at home and at 12 years of age entered the public school at Lynch's Sta., Va., and progressed so rapidly that at the age of 16 he became the teacher of a country school at Good Hope, W. Va. In the meantime under his father's instruction he became an accomplished blacksmith. His further education was secured at Storer College, Meadville (Pa.) Theological Seminary, the latter institution conferring upon him the D.D. degree. He also graduated from the Pennsylvania Sabbath School Association and the International Sabbath School Association. He was the only regular colored delegate from Pennsylvania at the International Sunday School Convention in Louisville, Ky., in 1908. For two years he was the editor and publisher of "The Oil City Herald" and was for a time the associate editor of "The Vindicator," a white prohibition paper in Franklin, Pa. He is the author of a large number of poems and songs, which he contemplates publishing in book form. He was converted in Evington, Va., November 25, 1890, and was licensed to preach by Rev. C. A. McGee, P. E., May 7, 1891, at Clarksburg, W. Va.; ordained deacon by Bishop Payne in October, 1891, in Allegheny, Pa., and elder by Bishop Arnett in October, 1894, in Wheeling, W. Va. He has held the following charges: A mission in Charleston, W. Va., one year and a half from May, 1891, serving as pastor and public school teacher; Wheeling, paying off a large indebtedness and extensively repairing the church building; Meadville, repairing the church and doubling its membership; Erie, holding a large revival and partly building the new church structure; Oil City, buying and paying for a parsonage for $1500, improving the church building and nearly doubling the membership; McKeesport, nearly doubling the membership in one year; Chartiers Street Church,


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Allegheny, in two years paying off a debt of $1100 and buying a beautiful brick church which was dedicated by Bishop Derrick December 10, 1905, as Allen Chapel and is now a strong church; Williamsport, in three years nearly doubling the membership and remodeling the church building, paying $1000 for the same; Wilkes-Barre, repairing the church building, purchasing a new church organ and increasing the membership; Bethel Church, Wylie Avenue, Pittsburgh, for four years and three months, the longest pastorate in the history of that church, having 600 additions to the membership and raising over $20,000 for all purposes,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. PRICE A. SCOTT, D.D.

also purchasing large electric motor pipe organ which was paid for when dedicated, and extensively beautifying the church building for the annual conference which he handsomely entertained at the close of his pastorate. In October, 1915, he was sent to St. Paul Church, Washington, Pa., and in less than nine months completely revolutionized the charge, and on June 25, 1916, held one of the most successful rallies in its history, raising over $1200 in cash, and paid off a second mortgage of over ten years' standing and three bank notes. Dr. Scott was a delegate to the general conference, May, 1916; was chosen as one of its reading clerks and was voted for for the office of bishop. He has recorded over 1300 conversions, received over 2000 members into the church and married over 300 couples. He is an Odd Fellow and a high Mason, being at present the grand prelate of the International Conference of Knights Templar of the United States and Canada. He is actively interested in many movements of civic and racial uplift. In 1891 he married Miss Cornelia D. Chinn, of Bridgeport, W. Va. Their only child, Miss Clara Maude, is a graduate of the Nossokoff School of Hairdressing and is successfully practicing her art.

        Scott, Timothy Dwight, son of William and Mary Frances Scott, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born June 21, 1860, at Circleville, Ohio. He was the thirteenth child in a family of fifteen children. He entered school at the age of ten years, and received his education from the public school and Wilberforce University, from which he graduated in 1886, with the degree of A.B., subsequently receiving A.M. from his Alma Mater. He was converted in 1871, and joined the A. M. E. Church in his native city; held every office in the local church and Sunday school excepting pastor. He was licensed to preach at Wilberforce by Rev. Grafton H. Graham; joined the annual conference in 1887, at Parkersburg, W. Va., under Bishop Campbell; was ordained deacon in 1892, at Allegheny,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. T. D. SCOTT, A.M.

Pa., by Bishop Payne, and elder in 1894, at Wheeling, W. Va., by Bishop Arnett. He has held appointments at Parkersburg, W. Va.; Erie, Pa.; Xenia, Ohio; Cincinnati, Ohio, and Zanesville, Ohio; rebuilt St. Paul A. M. E. Church and a new parsonage at Zanesville, Ohio, in 1912, at a cost of $13,000; lifted an $800 mortgage on Allen Temple, Cincinnati, Ohio; has taken about 300 into the Church and baptized about 200. He was a delegate to the Centennial General Conference, in 1916. He married Mary Lillian McKinley, of Macon, Ga., December 27, 1887. They had six children, as follows: Lewis McKinley, Lillian Eliza, Laura Eloise (deceased), Amanda Louise (deceased), Francis Gregory, Timothy Dwight, Jr. He has one other child, Cecil Hall, by a subsequent marriage, the former wife having died in 1903. The two oldest children are graduates of the Xenia (Ohio) High School. He has contributed to the "A. M. E. Review" and "Christian Recorder," and many daily papers. He wrote the class song for the Class of '86 and the Class Ode for the Quarto-Centennial of the Class of 1911 of Wilberforce; was principal of the Circleville High School one year, the Parkersburg High School five years, was professor of science at Wilberforce University for three years, principal of Xenia High School for fifteen years, resigning that position to accept the pastoral charge of Allen Temple, at Cincinnati, Ohio, on the death of the Rev. David Caliman; has been connected with the F. and A. M., K. of P. and G. U. O. of O. F.; is a Republican, and was a member of the convention
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that nominated the Hon. Robert Kennedy for Representative in Congress in 1886; is secretary and historian of the Ohio A. M. E. Annual Conference. He is at present pastor of Brown Chapel, A. M. E. Church, Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio. He delivered the annual address before the Religious Societies at his Alma Mater, June 9, 1916, concerning which the "Southern Christian Recorder" said: "His theme, 'The Voice of One Crying in the Wilderness,' was beautifully illustrated, and applied to modern day conditions. In all it was a masterly effort, scholarly and practical."

        Seabrook, Captain E., was born in South Carolina about forty-five years ago. As a young lad he came to Georgia and for twenty-five years followed the pilot-age business. He has been master of some of the finest steam vessels plying the Savannah river. Because of his knowledge of the coast from the Saint Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, he has often been selected to bring palatial steamers and private yachts down the

[ILLUSTRATION]
CAPTAIN E. SEABROOK

coast. He has the reputation of never having an accident to a vessel while he was in charge. In 1906 Captain Seabrook launched into the undertaking business and has made great progress in such a short space of time. Today he is rated as one of the largest colored undertakers in the United States. For the convenience of his patrons he has a seven-passenger automobile, a motor ambulance and white, silver gray and black funeral cars. He gives employment to six men regularly, including two embalmers. His business is located at No. 514 West Broad Street, Savannah, Ga., in a three-story brick building owned by him. He is an active member and trustee of St. Philip A. M. E. Church, Savannah, Ga., and his wife, a stewardess, is a leader in all church and charitable work among the women of the city. Captain and Mrs. Seabrook are a worthy example of what prosperous people ought to do in the church.

        Shackleford, William Henry, was born at Selma, Ala., January 21, 1878; educated at Payne University of the same city from which he graduated as valedictorian of the Class of 1894. His mother was a devout African Methodist, and her son seems to have inherited her disposition and Christian qualities. He was presented in infancy to the Church at Brown Chapel, Selma, and he grew up in the service of the church. He has an excellent record as a Sunday school scholar, officer, teacher and superintendent. The better portion of his time since graduation was spent in the profession of teaching, and it was from the principalship of the city school of Greensboro, Ala., that he was called to accept the position of proof-reader

[ILLUSTRATION]
MR. WILLIAM HENRY SHACKLEFORD.

and associate editor of the "A. M. E. Sunday School Union," Nashville, Tenn. In this institution he has proven his aptitude for the work, being possessed of a versatility that allows him to fill with ease and credit almost any position in this department of the Church. He reads practically every line of proof, is manager of the publications, also originates and designs all the blackboard illustrations which appear in the periodicals of the "Sunday School Union." He has been superintendent of Bethel Sunday School, Nashville, Tenn., for five years. When he took charge the enrollment was about 50 and collections averaged 35 to 50 cents. At present the enrollment in all seven of the departments is over 600. Here may be found in excellent working order, under capable superintendents, the Cradle Roll, Beginners', Primary, Intermediate, Junior, Adult and Home Departments, also a Temperance Legion. Thirty officers and teachers carry on the work, and recently over 500 attended a regular morning session of the school. The whole school has been resolved into a missionary society, and pays annually the conference missionary claim, besides the minute and contingent moneys. Electric lights, at a cost of $100 have been installed in the auditorium of the church as a gift from the Sunday school. Mr. Shackleford is president of the Methodist Sunday School Alliance, composed of the Sunday school workers
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in Methodist churches of Nashville, which he organized in 1914.

        Shaffer, Cornelius Thaddeus, the twenty-ninth bishop of the A. M. E. Church, the third son of John and Margaret Shaffer, was born in Troy, Ohio, January 3, 1847. He attended the public schools of his native state and of Indiana. When he was but little past seventeen years of age he enlisted as a soldier in the Civil War. On returning from the war, feeling the need of further preparation for his life work, he soon after, being in Kentucky, entered Berea College, pursuing his studies for more than two years. Later, after his entrance into the ministry, he took up special courses in Cadiz, Ohio, under the superintendent of the public schools; in Brooklyn, N. Y., with a Jewish Rabbi, and in Philadelphia, with Dr. W. R. Harper,

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP C. T. SHAFFER, M.D., D.D.

the late president of the University of Chicago, and finally he entered Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, graduating with the degree of M.D., in the Class of 1888. The degree of D.D. was first conferred upon him by Allen University, Columbia, S. C., 1888. Later Wilberforce University honored him with the same degree--D.D., and finally with the degree of LL.D., he having been most actively engaged in the work of development and maintenance of the said Wilberforce University throughout his entire public career. He was converted in the A. M. E. Church and united with the same in 1861; he held nearly every office in the Church, being licensed to preach in 1867, by his brother, Rev. G. H. Shaffer, D.D., at Frankfort, Ky., where he was at that time engaged in business. He was admitted into the conference and itinerancy by Bishop Payne, at Bowling Green, Ky., in 1870, and was immediately transferred to the Ohio Conference in his native state, and stationed at Newark, Ohio. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Payne, at Portsmouth, Ohio, 1872, and elder by the same bishop in 1874, at Zanesville, Ohio, from whose hand he received eleven consecutive annual appointments. He served the following charges as pastor: Newark, Ohio, one year; Delaware, two years; Cadiz, one year; Xenia, Ohio, three years, when he was transferred by Bishop Payne to the New York Conference, and stationed at Fleet Street Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., which church he served three years. He was again transferred by the same bishop and stationed at Allen Chapel, Philadelphia, which he served four years. He was then transferred by Bishop Payne to Baltimore Conference, and appointed to Mother Bethel, Baltimore, Md., serving said church two years, when he was returned to the Philadelphia Conference, and stationed at Union Church, Philadelphia, which he served for two years, when the late Bishop H. M. Turner, at the most earnest solicitation of the officiary of the Mother Church (Bethel), Philadelphia, assigned him to the said church, where during two years, which filled up the limit possible in any one city, he paid off a mortgage of $900 on the old church, purchased additional ground costing $6000, laid the plans, tore down the old church and erected the present and new Bethel, at a cost of $50,000, on which he paid more than $20,000. This was in 1889-91. As pastor he lifted mortgages and paid on principal debts as follows: Newark, Ohio, $300; Fleet Street, Brooklyn, N. Y., $1500; Allen Chapel, Philadelphia, $5000; Union Church, Philadelphia, $9000; Bethel, Philadelphia; old mortgage of $900 on new building, $20,000. During his pastorate he took into the Church about 1400 members, as presiding elder and bishop about 300 more, or about 1700 members; he baptized about 400, married 350 couples. He was the grand secretary of the Good Templars of the World for the State of New York, composed of both races, and was elected as delegate to the Good Templars Grand Lodge of the World, which met in Liverpool, England, 1879, whose head was the world famous Hon. William E. Gladstone. He was fraternal delegate from the A. M. E. to the M. E. General Conference which met in New York, 1888. A delegate to the World's Congress of Religions in Chicago, 1893, and delegate to the Ecumenical Conference, which met in London in 1901, though he did not go as he had to make a trip to Africa early in 1902. He was also a member of the Ecumenical meeting in Toronto, in 1911. He was elected secretary-treasurer of the Church Extension Department, 1892, which he organized and developed from not a single penny to the sum of $104,875.30, leaving in the treasury when he turned it over to his successor, in 1900, $12,025.79, as a cash balance; though he had aided some 500 churches, schools and departments, of the connection, he served the department for the first year without salary, serving as presiding elder of the Philadelphia P. E. District, from which he received his support; and this though during the year he collected for the department $4,817.07, which was placed in savings banks at 3 per cent. interest for the department. He was elected bishop at Columbus, Ohio, in May, 1900, and assigned to preside over the fifth Episcopal district embracing more than one-quarter of the territory of the U. S. A., with a stretch from St. Louis to Seattle, Wash, of nearly 3000 miles. Yet on the death of Bishop M. M. Moore, D.D., his colleague and classmate, he accepted in addition to his own work, Bishop Moore's work in Africa. He visited said field in 1902; held the Sierra Leone and the Liberia Conferences, delivered nine sermons and addresses in the country; arranged to secure 100 acres of land near Arthington, Liberia, as a school farm for a boys' industrial school. On his way home, in the City of Liverpool,
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he purchased the iron for the building, paid for and shipped the same to the Rev. Curtis, acting superintendent for the erection of the first school building ever erected by the A. M. E. Church on the continent of Africa for the education of the native African youth on their native soil, which school was established, built and all the debts paid off under his administration of that work. The school was originally established and known as "The Industrial Institute for Boys," the name being changed by the people there to the "Shaffer Boys' High School," as it is now called. A most interesting feature of this educational movement in Africa was that the National Legislature of Liberia passed a bill appropriating from the National Treasury $2500, to be paid in annual installments of $500 toward the maintenance of the school for five years. During his administration of the fifth Episcopal district the school work of the Western University, of Kansas City, Kans., was specially fostered and developed, and the most permanent building of the plant, "The Stanley Hall," with a splendid assembly room or chapel being erected and duly dedicated. From 1904 to 1912, two quadrenniums, he presided over the fourth Episcopal district, embracing the Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Ontario and the two Kentucky Conferences; 1912-1916 he presided over the third Episcopal district, embracing the Ohio, North Ohio, West Virginia and the Pittsburgh Conferences. In all of these fields he has always been very painstaking and successful in his work whatever the sphere. He was united in marriage to Miss Annie Marie Taylor, of Lexington, Ky., in 1870. To this union three children were born, two girls--Mary Naomi and Claria Belzoora, both of whom passed away in infancy, while their son, Carl Wilberforce survives. He was graduated from the Pharmaceutical College of Howard University, as doctor of pharmacy. The bishop has written a number of pamphlets, lectures, addresses, and is the author and publisher of several works to unify and facilitate the work of the pastor, presiding elder and the quarterly and annual conference work, such as "The Minister's Companion," "The Presiding Elder's Quarterly Journal," "The Quarterly Conference Journal," "The Annual Conference Statistical Journal," making a complete set of most practical, helpful and time-saving publications which fill a great need of the Church.

        Shelton, Rev. R. E. was born 1856 at Lake Village, Ark., converted 1868, joined Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church near Wilmar, Ark.; received exhorter's license 1871, Rev. Soloman Smith, pastor; was ordained deacon in 1876 by Bishop Ward at Arkadelphia, Ark. He has served the following named charges: Star City Mission, 4 years; Tarletter Mission, 2 years; Long Vewure Mission, 3 years; Falkom Mission, 1 year; St. James Mission, 2 years. After this he ceased to travel on account of his health, but he has not ceased to work in Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church, of which is a member serving in every capacity that he has been called. During his pastorate he built three churches and bought and paid for twelve acres of land for the A. M. E. Church. He has received and baptized in the church 129 members, and baptized about 400 children. He married Miss Missouri Rhodes in 1877. They had eight children, five of whom are now living. He is now living in his own home near Wilmar, Ark.

        Shelton, Rev. W. C., was born in Columbus, Ga. Reared without a father he began life with the cares of a mother upon him whom he loved dearly. In youth he attended the public schools of his city. He had a private teacher to teach him until he was able

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. C. SHELTON,D.D.

to attend high school. He completed the correspondence course of Iowa Christian College at Oskaloosa, Iowa, with the degree of M.A.L. conferred upon him.

        He was converted and joined St. James A. M. E. Church, Columbus, the church of his parents, and

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. W. C. SHELTON.

licensed to preach at an early age in 1878. He joined the Georgia conference in 1879, ordained deacon 1880 by Bishop Campbell, ordained elder 1883 by Bishop Dickerson.

        He served the following charges: Stewart County Circuit, Chattahoochee Circuit, Geneva Circuit, Barnesville Station, Forsyth, Talbotton, Sandersville,


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Davisboro, Camp Hope, Clinton, Gaines Chapel, Savannah; Cordele, Covington, Tennille, Turner's Tabernacle, Macon; presiding elder of the Waycross district, presiding elder of the Ft. Valley district. He was transferred to North Alabama Conference by Bishop Gaines and served the following charges: Huntsville and Pratt City; was transferred by Bishop Grant to the Kansas Conference and served the following charges: Iola, Topeka, Kansas City, Kans. He was transferred to the Michigan Conference by Bishop Derrick and stationed at Ypsilanti. He is at present presiding elder of the Detroit district, Michigan Conference.

        He has built 10 churches, repaired and paid for 9, built 2 parsonages, cancelled 2 mortgages in full, organized 15 mission churches, and added 2985 persons to the church. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by Morris Brown University.

        Rev. Shelton has spent many years of usefulness in the church. He has been a very successful pastor and presiding elder. As a preacher he belongs to the first rank. He enjoys the confidence of all classes of people. He says he owes his success largely to his present wife, who is an active missionary worker.

        Sherman, W. O. P., was born 1854. Became a Christian early in life and joined the A. M. E. Church. Studied to be a minister at the Academy at Cuthbert, Ga. Took correspondence courses and attended night schools.

        Has been engaged in the ministry over 30 years. He has served nearly all of the offices in the church.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. W. O. P. SHERMAN, D.D.

He has met with success, both as pastor and Presiding Elder. He received the degree D.D. from Morris Brown University, in 1904. Was a member of every General Conference since 1884 to 1916. He has taken many people into the church. Dr. Sherman has built and repaired many churches, paid off a large number of debts. Has been publisher and editor of the Savannah Independent for fifteen years. He has been succeeded in this by his son, Rev. W. O. P. Sherman, Jr. He is highly respected for his good works.

        Shorter, James A., ninth bishop of the A. M. E. Church, was born February 4, 1817, in Washington, D. C. When quite a boy he went to Galena, Ill., where he was converted in 1839 and joined the M. E. Church. Coming east the same year he joined Bethel A. M. E. Church in Philadelphia, Pa. He married Miss Julia Steward, of Washington, D. C., returned to Washington and united with Israel Church, and was elected one of the first trustees of this church. He was licensed to preach in 1839 by Rev. John Cornish in Washington. Having held nearly every lay office in the church he was recommended for the itinerant service in the Baltimore Conference and admitted April, 1846.

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP JAMES A. SHORTER.

He was ordained deacon in 1848 and elder in 1850. At the time of the opening of Wilberforce University he moved with his family to Greene County to give the children the benefits offered by this institution.

        He served the following charges: Gettysburg and Lewiston circuit, Seningtonville circuit, Lancaster circuit, Bethel, Baltimore; Israel Church, Washington, D. C.; Ebenezer, Baltimore; Xenia, Ohio; Zanesville Station, Allen Chapel, Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1866 he was agent for Wilberforce University and collected about $3000 for educational purposes. In 1867 he pastored at Wylie A. M. E. Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. In 1868 he was elected bishop at the general conference in Washington, D. C. He organized many conferences: Tennessee annual conference, Louisiana conference, Texas and Arkansas conferences. He died July 1, 1887, and is buried at Xenia, Ohio.

        Shorter, Joseph Proctor, was born at Washington, D. C., March 31, 1845. His parents were Bishop James A. and Julia A. Shorter. Joseph received his first schooling in the city of Baltimore, Maryland, in a private school, taught by Mr. George Watkins. Seeing there were no satisfactory advantages for the education of his children, his father removed, with his family of six children, to Wilberforce, Ohio, chiefly to educate them, taking work in the Ohio Conference as an itinerant minister. Joseph entered the primary department of Wilberforce, and was graduated from the classical department in 1871.

        His tastes from earliest childhood were for teaching. After graduation, he went to Leavenworth, Kansan,


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and for three years was principal of the colored schools there, and met with flattering success; at the end of his second year he had a call to Washington, D. C., to teach, at an increased salary. The committee on teachers of the Leavenworth Board of Education would not consent to his leaving and offered him an increase of one hundred dollars, which amounted to a much larger salary than they had ever given any teacher, as principal of the schools, pledging if the Board could not see its way clear to this raise, they would pay it out of their own pockets. At the close of his third year's work, September, 1874, at Leavenworth, he was called to fill the chair of mathematics at Wilberforce,

[ILLUSTRATION]
PROF. JOSEPH P. SHORTER.

and filled this chair acceptably for 23 years. In 1896 he was chosen superintendent of the Combined Normal and Industrial Department of Wilberforce University.

        The degrees of A.M. and LL.D. have been conferred upon him, but he respectfully declined both. Believing that teaching was his calling, he turned aside but seldom, and only for a short interval, to anything else. He was a director of the public schools of Wilberforce from the time of their organization to the change of the law, abolishing the directorship. He traveled in England, France and Switzerland, visiting Mt. Blanc, Geneva, and boating on the Rhine and Lake Geneva.

        Professor Shorter was a lay delegate to five general conferences, and for twelve years was a member of the financial board, serving as recording secretary of the board. He was a delegate to the first Ecumenical Conference of Methodism in City Road Chapel, London, England, in 1881, and read a paper, by appointment, which is found in the proceedings of that body. He was also chosen as an alternate to the second Ecumenical Conference, that met in Washington, D. C., October, 1891.

        Professor Shorter was married December 25th, 1878, to Miss Susie I. Lankford, daughter of Rev. Whitten Lankford, one of the pioneers of the Indiana Conference. She was a woman of generous, kindly disposition, and was interested much in missionary and club work. Her Ohio Federation Club song, "Lifting as we Climb," has been adopted by many other states than the state for which it was written.

        Of the eight children who came to these parents, only three remain, Lee Jackson Shorter, Joseph Prattis and Mrs. Pearl Shorter-Smith.

        He superintended the construction of Arnett Hall, Galloway Hall, and one wing of Mitchell Hall, besides several small buildings on the grounds. The electric light plant was installed and most of the cement walks were laid under his superintendency.

        He was an exceptionally frank and honest man, and very earnest and faithful in the discharge of his duties. He was a strong Christian gentleman, and was sincerely respected both by his friends and those with whom he came in contact in merely business relations.

        During the 37 years he labored at Wilberforce he not only did his duty as a teacher and as superintendent, but many lives were better, many ideals higher because of contact with him.

        On March 25, 1910, the Friday before Easter, after an illness of only 10 days, he departed this life. His dearly beloved wife survived him until Feb. 27, 1912.

        Simmons, Rev. Sandy, was born in Georgetown County, S. C., December 12, 1867. At the age of two years was carried to the city of Charleston, S. C. His mother dying at an early age, he was reared by his paternal grandmother, who brought him up in the old fashioned way.

        After finishing the public school course, owing to the death of his grandmother, he was compelled to go to work for himself. The first job he got paid him the sum of twenty-five cents a week. After knocking around working at odd jobs for some time, he finally got a situation as house servant of one of the aristocratic families of Charleston, who gave him free access to their splendid library.

        In the summer of 1885 he was converted and joined Emanuel A. M. E. Church under Rev. L. R. Nichols. In 1887 the church sent him as a student to Allen University, Columbia, South Carolina, where he spent five years, finishing the normal and classical courses, coming out with the degree of A.B. He was valedictorian of both normal and college classes. While in the junior college year he was elected a tutor in Allen University. Leaving school in 1892, was elected principal of Payne High School (now Payne College), Cuthbert, Ga. After teaching one term, feeling a divine call to the ministry he returned to South Carolina and entered the ministerial ranks under Bishop Salter, being appointed to the South Santee Circuit, remaining there from December to the following August, when he was transferred to the Michigan conference by Bishop Turner, 1894, remained in Michigan ten years and pastored Flint, Ann Arbor and Jackson. Was made presiding elder by Bishop Grant in 1901, and given charge of the Grand Rapids District. While pastoring Ann Arbor he entered the University of Michigan and took the full law course of three years, graduating with credit with the degree of LL.B. in a class of 250, only three being colored.

        Returning to South Carolina in the latter part of 1904, he was elected to fill a vacancy in Allen University, teaching the subjects of physics, political


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economy and general history. Bethel Church, Columbia, becoming vacant, he was appointed to same by Bishop Coppin. In ten months he succeeded in cancelling a debt of 22 years' standing, thus saving that historic church to the connection.

        After a stay of four years at Bethel, refusing to

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. SANDY SIMMONS, D.D.

stay for the fifth year, he was transferred to the South Carolina Conference by Bishop Lee and stationed at Ebenezer, Charleston. At the end of the year he was made presiding elder of the Georgetown district. The first year raised over $1800 for education. After four

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. S. G. SIMMONS.

years on the district, was appointed to Morris Brown Sta., Charleston, and raised $250 for education the first year. He has been a member of five general conferences: Columbus, Ohio; Chicago, Norfolk, Kansas City and Philadelphia. At Columbus he was elected fourth assistant secretary; at Chicago and Norfolk he was chief reading clerk, and at Kansas City chief marshal of the episcopal committee.

        Since entering the ministry in 1893 he has been a success. At one time he was the "dollar money king" of Michigan, being the first to raise more than one dollar per capita. After delivering the address to the graduating classes of 1907, Allen University conferred the degree of D.D. upon him.

        Dr. Simmons is a 32 degree Mason, a member of the uniform rank, K. of P., an M. V. P. of the G. U. O. of O. F. and a Good Samaritan. He is also a trustee of Wilberforce and Allen Universities.

        Simmons, Mrs. S. G., acting president of the W. H. & F. Missionary Society, is the wife of Rev. Sandy Simmons, of Charleston, S. C. She was made president of the Columbia branch of W. H. & F. Missionary Society in 1905 by Bishop Coppin, serving two years with success. Moving to the South Carolina Conference, she was made president of the same by Bishop Lee. After serving one year, the conference was divided and she was appointed president of the Palmetto Conference, which position she still occupies (1915).

        Going as a delegate to the quadrennial meeting of the W. H. & F. M. Society at Birmingham, Ala., in 1911, she was unanimously elected connectional vice-president. At the quadrennial session at New Orleans, in 1915, she was again elected to the same position. Upon the death of Mrs. Laura Lemon Turner, Oct., 1915, she became president of the W. H. & F. M. Society and was chosen editor of the Woman's Missionary Recorder.

        Sims, Handy Samuel, one of nine children, of Robert and Eva Sims, both members of the A. M. E. Church, was born in 1869 at Madison County, Florida.

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. S. SIMS, D.D.

He attended school from the age of six to fifteen years, going to Richardson's Academy, Lake City, Florida; received the degree of D.D. from Paul Quinn College; was converted in 1881 and joined the Hamburg A. M. E. Church; served as steward, trustee, class leader,
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exhorter, local preacher, Sunday school teacher and superintendent; was licensed to preach 1890 at Lake City, Florida, by Dr. S. M. Coleman; ordained deacon in 1894, at Ocala, Fla., by Bishop Grant; ordained elder in 1895 at Tampa, Florida, by Bishop Grant; joined the annual conference in 1893 at Sanford, Florida, under Bishop Ward; held the following appointments in Florida: West Palm Beach, Florida, 1894-95; Crescent City, Florida, 1896-97; Wildwood Station, 1898-1899; Goldsboro, Florida, Station, 1900-1902; Eatonville, Fla., 1903-04; in Texas, presiding elder El Paso district, 1905-09; presiding elder Austin district, 1910-11; pastor Mt. Vernon Station, 1912-13; Bethel Station, 1914-15. He built Payne Chapel, West Palm Beach, at a cost of $2500, in 1894; Allen Chapel in Wildwood, Florida, $400, 1898; parsonage, Goldsboro, Fla., $1000, 1901; repaired parsonage at Eatonville, Fla., $250, 1903; Bethel A. M. E. Church at San Antonio, Texas, $11,500; parsonage at San Antonio, Texas, $1500. Lifted mortgages on Bethel A. M. E. Church, at Crescent City, Florida, $248, 1896; Mt. Vernon A. M. E. Church, at Palestine, Texas, $502, 1912; has taken into church about 2150 people and baptized 285; was a delegate to general conferences at Kansas City (1912) and Philadelphia (1916).

        Singleton, Richard Henry, son of Richard and Cecilia Singleton, members of the Baptist Church, was born September 11, 1865, at Hilton Head, S. C. Was one of twelve children. Entered school in 1871 and spent about 12 years in school. Attended over two years primary public school, Giles Academy, Morris

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. RICHARD HENRY SINGLETON.

Brown College. Received diploma and degree of D.D. from Morris Brown, also a diploma from Giles Academy. Studied to a great extent under private instructors. Converted November 28, 1888, and joined the A. M. E. Church the same year. He has held many offices in the church. Licensed to preach October 10, 1890, at Brunswick, Ga., by Rev. Henry Strickland, P. E. Ordained deacon in 1891 at Savannah, by Bishop W. J. Gaines. Ordained elder in 1896 at Bainbridge, Ga., by Bishop Turner. Joined the Annual Conference in 1892, at Thomasville, Ga., under Bishop Grant.

        Held the following appointments: Payne's Chapel, Brunswick, Ga., 1892-97; Gaines Chapel, Waycross, 1897-99; St. Philip Monumental Station, Savannah,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. R. H. SINGLETON.

1899-1904; St. Philip Station, 1909-1916; Presiding Elder of Valdosta District, 1904-1908; West Savannah District, 1908-09.

        Built churches at Brunswick, Ga., Payne Chapel, at a cost of $1,200, in 1895; St. Philip, at Savannah, Ga., at a cost of $42,500, in 1911. Rebuilt St. Philip Monumental at Savannah, Ga., at a cost of $18,500, in 1902. Rev. Singleton has taken 2,312 people into the church, baptized 657 people, and married 342.

        Was a delegate to General Conferences, 1904-08-12, and leads his delegation in the Georgia Conference to the Centennial General Conference of 1916. He is at present a member of the Financial Board, 1912-16.

        In General Conference of 1908, Dr. Singleton was voted for Bishop for West Africa. He married Mrs. Josephine Singleton, of Lumber City, Ga., April 18, 1889, who is a great aid to him in all of his work for the church and race. He has contributed to the Recorders, Atlanta Independent and Savannah Tribune.

        Has made the "Opening Address, Bishop Turner's Quarto-Centenary," St. Louis, Mo., an address to the graduates of Morris Brown College in 1904; to the graduates of Allen University; to the Y. W. C. A., etc. He is director in Union Development Co., Savannah, Ga.

        Member of F. and A. M., G. U. O. of O. F., and K. of P. Has held important offices in each; is a Republican and a property owner. Founder of Central Park Normal and Industrial Institute, Savannah, Ga., treasurer of Negro Civic League, trustee of Old Folks' Home, treasurer of Savannah Branch of Urban Condition of Negroes. Dr. Singleton is a man of unimpeachable character and a great asset to any community.


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He has pastored nearly 12 years in Savannah, now in his seventh year at St. Philips, and is more popular and useful today than ever before.

        Smith, Charles Spencer, son of Nehemiah Henry and Catherine Smith, was born in Colborne, Canada, March 16th, 1852. He resided in Canada for about fourteen years, chiefly at Bowmanville, a town about forty miles east of Toronto, and in the public school of Bowmanville he received his elementary education. When about twelve years of age he was apprenticed to learn the trade of furniture finishing. A disastrous fire having destroyed the factory in which he worked, his apprenticeship ended about one year after it had begun.

        At the age of fourteen he left Bowmanville and went to Buffalo, N. Y., where he was employed as a general utility boy in a boarding house. In 1868 he went to Chicago, where he worked for a time as a porter in a barber shop. He was there during the meeting

[ILLUSTRATION]
BISHOP C. S. SMITH, D.D.

of the National Republican convention which nominated General Grant for the presidency. He then engaged in service on certain boats plying the Great Lakes, serving as deck hand, second cook and waiter. The last boat on which he was employed ran in the lumber trade between Detroit and Saginaw, Mich. This was in 1869, and the last trip for the season was made in the latter part of October of that year. With a cold winter staring him in the face, and finding himself but ill-adapted to the service which he had rendered on board various boats, and despairing of making a success of similar duties in connection with hotel service, and remembering that he had knowledge of the elements of a common school education, he decided to go south and engage in teaching, and try to obtain a position under the Freedman's Bureau.

        He went to Louisville, Ky., and reported to Col. Runkel, who had charge of the Freedman's Bureau for that state, and who employed him as a teacher and sent him to Payne's station on the Lexington branch of the Louisville and Nashville railroad, about 11 miles from Lexington. His stay here was short, as the Ku-Klux broke up his school and ordered him to leave within forty-eight hours. He returned to Louisville, reported the facts to Col. Runkel, who assigned him to duty at Hopkinsville, Ky. He was very successful at this place, very much enjoyed his work, and formed the acquaintance of a young lady who afterward became his wife. He remained here from November, 1869, to June, 1870. While at Hopkinsville he was strongly convicted of sin, and sought and obtained forgiveness therefor. He was succeeded as teacher at Hopkinsville by the Rev. Allen Allensworth, a Baptist minister, who afterward became a chaplain in the United States army.

        From Hopkinsville he went to Jackson, Miss., where he became acquainted with most of the colored men who figured conspicuously in politics. Among them were James Lynch, secretary of state; John R. Lynch, speaker of the House of Representatives; B. K. Bruce, sergeant of the Senate and afterwards United States senator; Sam. Ireland, sergeant of the House; Thomas W. Stringer, and James Hill, afterwards

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. C. S. SMITH.

secretary of state. Hiram Revels was then United States senator, but he did not meet him while he occupied that position. After remaining in Jackson a brief time, he went to Greenwood, afterwards the home of Governor Vardaman, where he taught school for a few months. He also taught school in Yazoo City, Meridian, Loundes County, Noxubes County, West Point, and Kemper, DeKalb County.

        During 1871 he spent several months in and around Jackson, and, in partnership with a Mr. Chas. Evans, conducted a panorama of Biblical scenes.

        In August, 1871, he was licensed as a local preacher by the quarterly conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, in Jackson, Miss., under the pastorate of Rev. O. A. Douglass. At the suggestion of Rev. O. A. Douglass he attended the Mississippi Annual Conference of the A. M. E. Church, in session at Yazoo City, in December, 1872, Bishop T. M. D. Ward presiding, for the purpose of making application to be received into the conference on trial as an itinerant preacher. For some inexplicable reason he found that there was considerable prejudice against his being received, and on the advice of the Rev. Adam Jackson and the Rev, John Allen, he withdrew his application,


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and thus made it possible for him to be taken up and given an appointment ad interim of the annual conference. Bishop Ward, who was very favorably impressed with him, appointed him to the China Grove Mission. This was immediately after the adjournment of the conference, but on reaching Jackson Bishop Ward was induced to change the appointment and send him to Raymond Mission, where he remained until the end of November, 1873, when he was transferred to the Alabama Conference, where he was ordained a deacon under Bishop Ward in Emanuel Church, Mobile, Ala., December 6th, 1873, and was appointed pastor of the church at Union Springs, the county seat of Bullock County. Here he became active in politics, and Nov. 3d, 1874, was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the State Legislature of Alabama for a period of two years. One of his colleagues, G. W. Allen, afterwards became a minister of the A. M. E. Church, and in 1904 was elected editor of the Southern Christian Recorder, one of the official organs of said church. In 1875 he performed the ceremony which united his colleague, Mr. Allen, in the bonds of holy wedlock. In 1876 he was a delegate to and a leader of the Colored Men's National convention, which met in Nashville, Tenn., in the hall of the House of Representatives of the capitol building. Many distinguished men were in attendance at that conference, among them John M. Langston, P. B. S. Pinchback and M. W. Gibbs.

        On October 22, 1876, he was ordained an elder by Bishop R. S. Foster, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at Nashville, Tenn. This is explained on the ground that desiring to obtain favorable facilities for pursuing some special lines of study, he temporarily changed his relationship from the A. M. E. Church to the M. E. Church, and became a student in Central Tennessee College, now Walden University, Nashville, Tenn. During his brief connection with the M. E. Church he held pastorates in Nashville and Murfreesboro. In April, 1876, during his pastorate at Murfreesboro, he was married to Miss Katie Josephine Black, the ceremony being performed in Nashville, Tenn., by the Rev. John Braden, D.D., the founder of and for many years the president of Central Tennessee college. This union was blessed by three children, two of whom died in early life, leaving one still living, Susan Elnora. Death deprived him of the further care and affection of his wife, July 28th, 1885. She died while on a visit to his sister, Mrs. Lucy Thurman, Jackson, Mich., and was buried in Mt. Evergreen Cemetery of said city. In 1904 the body was disentombed and re-interred in Elmwood Cemetery, Detroit, Mich. While a student at Central Tennessee college, in connection with other studies, he pursued a course in medicine and was graduated from the medical department in 1880. He never, however, entered upon the active practice of the profession.

        In the spring of 1878 he rejoined the A. M. E. Church, and was appointed by Bishop Wayman to Brownsville, Pa., where a vacancy at that time existed. October, 1878, he was received by the Pittsburgh Conference, in session at Salem, O., and was appointed to the charge of Allen Chapel and East Liberty Circuit, both churches being located in Pittsburgh. At the Pittsburgh Conference, held September, 1879, East Liberty was made a station and he was appointed to the pastorate thereof. At the general conference of 1880, Bishop Ward having been assigned to the supervision of the Illinois Conference, and being fondly attached to him, he desired to be connected with one of his conferences, and in July, 1880, made application to Bishop Shorter, who then had charge of the Pittsburgh Conference, for a transfer to the Illinois Conference. In the following September he placed his transfer in the Illinois Conference, and was appointed to Bloomington. While at Bloomington he engaged his services as traveling agent for the great Sunday school Publishing House of David C. Cook, of Chicago. In September, 1881, at the session of the Illinois Conference, Chicago, Ill., he asked for and was granted a supernumerary relation in order that he might enter Mr. Cook's employ. During his brief connection with the M. E. Church, he had been much impressed with the utility and value of its Sunday school Union, so much so that when he resumed his connection with the A. M. E. Church he formulated a plan for the organization of a similar institution therefor, and presented the plan to the Bishops' Council, held in New York City, May, 1882. This being a special session of the Council, it was decided by the Bishops to waive the formal consideration of the plan until the meeting of their annual session, which took place August, 1882, at Cape May, N. J., where his plan for the organization of the Sunday school Union was formally approved, and he was appointed the corresponding secretary. The plan was carried to the general conference of 1884, in session at Baltimore, Maryland, and was unanimously adopted. He was elected without opposition its corresponding secretary and treasurer, a position in which he continued until May, 1900. The work he accomplished for the Sunday school Union during the 18 years of his connection with it is so well known that it need not be recited here.

        He was a delegate to the second Ecumenical Methodist Conference, held in Washington City, D. C., 1891; was a delegate to the third Ecumenical Methodist Conference, held in London, England, September, 1901. At this conference he participated in the discussion on Ecumenical Methodism, in which he emphasized the capacity of the native African for intellectual development, and asserted that in the empire of intellect no color line can be drawn. At the close of the London Conference he delivered addresses in provincial meetings in Hull and Sheffield. He was a delegate to the fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference, Toronto, Canada, October, 1911. He assisted in all the preliminary work of the executive committee, the business committee and the committee on program. Through his watchfulness and insistency, the distinctively Colored Methodist denominations were more largely represented on the program than at any of the preceding conferences. He presided at the morning session of the third day, during which he delivered a brief address on foreign missionary enterprises, which was regarded as one of the unique features of the conference. The ease and dignity with which he presided was the subject of general and most favorable comment. While in attendance at this conference, Victoria College, located in Toronto, conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, which was the first time that it had conferred that degree on a man of color. June, 1913, Wilberforce University honored him with the title of LL.D.

        He has been much sought after as a political speaker, and was elected an alternate delegate by the


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Illinois State Republican convention to the National Republican convention of 1884, which nominated Jas. G. Blaine as its presidential candidate. He possesses oratorical powers of a high order and is an eloquent and impressive speaker, whether on the platform or in the pulpit. His three most memorable addresses are, "Ballots and Bullets," "The Conflict between John and Tom--a Review of the Race Question" and "The Noachian Curse." He produced three sermons which may be regarded as masterpieces: "What is Truth?", "A Great Tribute Unwittingly Paid," and "Love, the Essential of Christianity." He delivered a magnificent and thrilling address on "The Relation of the British Government to the Natives of South Africa," before the Negro Young People's Christian Educational Congress, in Convention Hall, Washington, D. C., August 1st, 1906. He is a frequent contributor to the leading newspapers and magazines, and his writings are characterized by originality of thought, vigor of expression and elegance of diction.

        December, 1888, he married Miss Christine Shoecraft, of Muncie, Ind. The ceremony took place at Nashville, Tenn., and was performed by the Rev. G. L. Jackson. The fruit of this union was one child, Charles Spencer Smith, Jr.

        In 1900 he was elected a bishop by the general conference of the A. M. E. Church, in session at Columbus, Ohio, and was assigned to the Twelfth Episcopal District, comprising Ontario, Nova Scotia, Bermuda, Windward Islands and the South American Annual Conferences. Bishop Moore having died in 1900, he was given the additional work of superintending the Louisiana and the North Louisiana Annual Conferences. At the general conference held in Chicago, 1904, he was assigned to the Thirteenth Episcopal District, comprising the annual conferences in South Africa. Complications of a formidable and intricate nature, which had formed before his going there greatly militated against him, and finally led to an exchange of jurisdictions in the African work between him and Bishop Derrick, so that the latter assumed charge of South Africa, while he took over the supervision of the work in West Africa, November 24, 1906. He sailed from New York for West Africa, via Liverpool, to hold the Sierra Leone and Liberia Annual Conferences. At the General Conference held in Norfolk, Va., 1908, he was assigned to the Sixth Episcopal District, which embraces the State of Georgia. The outstanding feature of his administration in Georgia was the raising, in 1910, of $30,000 for Christian education. This was the largest amount raised for education, as the result of a single rally, by any fragment of colored people in the history of America. In addition to this, the increase in the Dollar Money for the quadrennium was over $23,000. At the General Conference held in Kansas City, Mo., 1912, he was assigned to the Tenth Episcopal District, which embraces the State of Texas. His administration in that district was chiefly characterized by rescuing Paul Quinn College, Waco, from serious financial embarrassment, and the extensive repairing and improving of the several buildings situated on the campus.

        In 1887 Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, O., conferred on him the title of D.D., and in 1913 the title of LL.D.

        Smith, George Thomas, was born December 30, 1863, in Pittsylvania Co., Va.; attended school at Lexington, Va., and the rural schools; was licensed to preach by Rev. D. F. Callinan; admitted to the Pittsburgh Conference by Bishop Lee, October 14, 1898; was ordained elder by Bishop Arnett, October 19, 1902; has held the following appointments: Erie, Pa.;

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. G. T. SMITH, D.D.

Bellvernon, Conn.; Bradford, Conn.; McKeesport, Pa.; Clarksburg, W. Va.; Phillipsburg, Conn.; Scranton, Pa., and Williamsport, his present charge. He built the following churches: Phillipsburg, Scranton, Pa., at a cost of over $13,500. He has always been a hard student; received the degree of D.D. from Princeton (Ind.) University. His wife has worked faithfully with him. He edited "The Christian Sentinel," a journal that had a large circulation.

        Smith, Irene B., whose parents were Rone and Kate Smith, was reared on her father's farm near Pine Bluff, Jefferson County, Ark. She was educated at

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. IRENE B. SMITH.

the Branch Normal College, Pine Bluff, and taught several years in the rural school of Arkansas. At the age of 14 she joined Warren A. M. E. Church, and has
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served as superintendent, secretary and teacher in the Sunday school; also as class leader, stewardess, secretary of the stewards' and trustees' board, juvenile superintendent of the Sherrill district; also a missionary representative to the general conference at Philadelphia, Pa., May, 1916.

        Smith, James Henry, was born of Henry and Edith Smith, both of whom were slaves, in Lincoln County, Tenn., January 3, 1874. He was educated in the public schools of Lincoln County and at Turner College, Shelbyville, Tenn., from which he graduated in 1904, and received the degree of D.D. in 1914. He began public life in 1880 as a public school teacher, and taught some of the best schools in Lincoln County.

        

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. J. H. SMITH.

        He was converted and joined St. John A. M. E. Church, Mulberry, Tenn., April, 1894, under the pastorate of the Rev. E. Crockrel; licensed to preach October, 1895, by Dr. S. R. Reed, Presiding Elder of the North Nashville District, and admitted into the Tennessee Annual Conference, at Fayetteville, Tenn., October, 1898, by Bishop Salter. He was ordained deacon in Nashville, Tenn., October 22, 1899, by Bishop Salter and ordained elder, November 9, 1903, by Bishop Tanner.

        Dr. Smith has filled the following charges with credit to himself and church: Shelbyville Mission, from 1898-1899; Center Grove Circuit, 1899-1900; Chapel Hill Circuit, 1900-1902; Lewisburg Circuit, 1902-1904. Having been transferred to the East Tennessee Conference by Bishop Lee in 1904 he has served the following appointments: Bethel, Knoxville, 1904-1905; Presiding Elder over the Knoxville District, 1905-1906; Presiding Elder of the Fayetteville District, 1906-1911; pastor Warren Chapel, Chattanooga, 1911 to the present. During his services as Presiding Elder on the Knoxville and Fayetteville Districts he won for himself the title "Educational Money King" of Tennessee.

        Dr. Smith is a member of the Masonic, Knights of Pythias and Odd Fellows Lodges; Secretary of the East Tennessee Conference; Treasurer of Turner College; Secretary of the United Pastors' Association (composed of white and colored ministers), of Chattanooga, Tenn.; President of the Board of Directors of the Associated Charities of Chattanooga (colored department); Trustee of Wilberforce University and Turner College and a member of the General Conference from 1908-1916.

        He was married November 20, 1898, to Mrs. Mattie J. Mitchell, who has proven a faithful companion.

        Smith, Rev. Lewis Henry, the third son of Joseph and Ann Smith, both slaves, was born June 11, 1853, in Talbot County, Ga. He remembers, when six years old, that his mother took him to a Methodist church.

        From the year 1859, when he decided for the Lord, to the year 1866, the preaching he heard and the teaching he received were not the best for deep, wide and high growth in the truth, the way of life, and the

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. LEWIS HENRY SMITH, SR.

knowledge of God as taught by Jesus Christ. But as a minder of his slave master's sheep he was aided much spiritually. Hence Lewis Henry was very anxious to study and know the truth and the way of the true Christian life.

        In 1886 he found a colored man who agreed to aid him in the study at nights. His father, seeing his desire and efforts to learn, allowed him to go on Sunday to a colored man, two miles away, who aided him some in spelling and reading. It was then and there near his father's home that a Christian white man of their community opened a day school for Negro children, but other white men forced him to discontinue his teaching at the end of one month. But that good month added so much to Lewis Henry's stock of book learning that he thereafter allowed no opportunity to pass him by which he could increase it.

        He was baptized and fellowshipped in the Methodist Church; he opened a Sunday school which he superintended and taught each Sunday as best he could, and as soon as he could reach Presiding Elder H. M. Turner's camp-meeting, in Talbotton, Ga., he joined the A. M. E. Church, and then returned to his own church in the county and resumed his Sunday


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school work, looking for stronger help and better days when Dr. Turner would send to his home church an ordained A. M. E. preacher. The Rev. Robert Strickland and Presiding Elder Andrew Brown were thus sent, and with them young Smith served faithfully as steward and secretary of the church and superintendent of the Sunday school.

        He was licensed to exhort and then to preach as per A. M. E. Discipline, and, in June, 1874, when their pastor, Rev. Zachariah Armstrong died, he was appointed, by Presiding Elder William Ravens, to pastor his home church.

        He thus entered the itinerant ranks, where he has served as follows: pastor, one year on the Guyton Circuit, at Guyton, Ga.; two years at Mobley Pond Circuit, Scriven County, Ga.; two years, Darien, Ga.; two years, Bainbridge, Ga.; four years, Eatonton, Ga.; one year, Augusta, Ga.; two years, presiding elder, Augusta (Ga.) District; pastored four years, steward A. M. E. Church, Macon, Ga.; presided two years on the Macon (Ga.) Presiding Elder District; returned to Macon, serving one year as pastor to redeem the credit of the church; pastored St. Philip's Church, Savannah, Ga., four years; served Milledgeville District as presiding elder one year; Forsyth District, four years; Milledgeville District again, three years; the Augusta District again, one year; the Macon District again, five years, and is now serving the Forsyth District as presiding elder, the second time and in this second conference year.

        In Sept., 1873, he married Miss Hester S. Love and they have been blessed with ten children, three of whom have died: Miss M. Etta Smith, the oldest and the first C. E. president in the A. M. E. Church in Georgia, June 20, 1903; Mrs. Mattie J. Smith Johnson, wife of Prof. J. A. Johnson, June 6, 1915, and one in infancy. The other seven, with their mother and father, are alive and working for Jesus.

        Rev. Lewis H., Jr., is a faithful and very successful pastor of the A. M. E. Church in the State of Georgia. The daughters are Miss Minnie L. Smith, one of the best teachers of the public schools of Macon, Ga.; Miss Beda A. Smith, a successful dressmaker; Miss Lovia T. Smith, a well-trained sick nurse, and Miss Roberta F. Smith, one of the teachers at Payne College, Cuthbert, Ga.; Nathaniel Grant and James LeRoy Smith are under age. Of the children of his deceased brother, Rev. R. V. Smith, which children were reared by Rev. L. H. Smith and wife, there remain alive Dr. Edward W. Smith, a practicing dentist, of Winston-Salem, N. C., and Mrs. Lillian S. Youngblood.

        The Rev. L. H. Smith, Sr., having entered the itinerant ministry of the A. M. E. Church in the year 1874, continued to study. His clearest and most saving knowledge of salvation through Jesus Christ was obtained by him when he first read Whitfield's sermon on Christ the Redeemer of the world; and then his study of Wesley's works, John Fletcher's works, Clark's Commentary, the Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation, etc., so fixed his mind, heart and soul in God's truth and way, and also in the doctrine and principles of Methodism that he has accomplished much for God, the A. M. E. Church and mankind, as the records of churches and districts he served will show.

        For many years he has held that many theologians, preachers and seekers of the Christian religion have misunderstandingly magnified Nicodemus' visit to Jesus by night, and also the words then and there spoken by Nicodemus to Jesus and also Jesus' answers to Nicodemus. He is now writing a book explaining more fully his view.

        The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Morris Brown College, in 1900. He has been elected by his annual conference as delegate and has attended seven consecutive A. M. E. general conferences. For nearly eight years he has been the treasurer of Morris Brown College or of the A. M. E. university system in the State of Georgia.

        Smyth, Rev. Theobald Augustus, was born on the Island of Jamaica. After attending school on that island he came to America and entered Boston University School of Theology. After spending one year in that school he entered the Wesleyan College of McGill University, Montreal, Canada. The following year he joined the annual conference, being the first and only colored man to be admitted and given work in the Methodist Church of Canada. Graduating in

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. THEOBALD AUGUSTUS SMYTH, D.D.

first-class standing he returned to the States and took up work in the Philadelphia Conference until 1906, when he was transferred to the Michigan Conference, and took charge of Bethel Church in Detroit.

        At this station the congregations became so large that galleries had to be added for the accommodation of those who came to worship there. Here also was installed a pipe organ, had the church renovated, the parsonage remodeled, paid for all the improvements and reduced the debt from $7000 to $3000.

        From here he went to Indianapolis, where he paid off a long-standing mortgage indebtedness, decorated the church, installed electric lights and left the church free of debt. In 1912 he was appointed to Bethel Church, Chicago, where he remained until his death, January 24, 1916.

        Snelson, Rev. F. Grant, the son of Rev. Floyd and Nancy Snelson. He was born December 19, 1865, at Ellaville, Ga. He was one of three children. He entered school at the age of six years and attended nineteen


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years, attending principally Dorchester Academy, Beach Institute and Atlanta University. He has received the following degrees: A.B. from Atlanta University; M.A. from Allen University; Ph.D. from Wilberforce; D.D. from Morris Brown; F.R.G.S., London, England, Fellow Royal Society of Arts, Manufacturers and Commerce of Great Britain. He was converted in 1874 and joined the A. M. E. Church at McIntosh, Ga. He has held nearly every office in the church. He was superintendent of African mission work 1896-1900. He was licensed to preach in 1889 at Atlanta, Ga., by Rev. D. T. Green. He was ordained deacon in 1894 at Athens, Ga., by Bishop A. Grant, and ordained elder in 1896 at Cedartown, Ga., by Bishop Turner. He joined the annual conference in 1892 at Marietta, Ga., under Bishop Grant. He has held the following appointments: St. Peter's Mission, Atlanta,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. FLOYD GRANT SNELSON, F.R.G.S.

Ga., six years; St. Matthew's Mission, 1891-92; Warrenton, N. C., 1893; Cartersville, 1894-95; Bethel, Athens, Ga., 1896; Supt. of West African Missions, 1896-1900; Bethel, San Francisco, Cal., 1900-02; Topeka, Kan., 1903-04; P. E. Kansas City District, 1904-05; St. Paul, Cambridge, Mass., 1905-07; Supt. P. E. Bermuda Islands, 1907-08; Hamilton, Lockland, Bellaire, Flushing, Cleveland, Steubenville, Columbus and St. Mary's, Chicago, 1908-1915.

        He built Bethel, Cartersville, Ga., at a cost of $900 in 1894; Mt. Zion, Freetown, Sierra Leone, at a cost of $5000, in 1897; Allen Chapel, Rotumba and Port Lokkoh, all of Sierra Leone, in 1898 and 1899. He lifted mortgages on Bethel, San Francisco, to the amount of $2500 in 1901; St. John, Topeka, Kan., to the amount of $8000 in 1904; Benton, Springfield, Mo., to the amount of $800 in 1905; St. Paul, Cambridge, Mass., to the amount of $9600 in 1906; St. Paul, Hamilton, Bermuda, to the amount of $2300 in 1907; Bethel, Bellaire, Ohio, to the amount of $600 in 1910.

        He has taken 4030 people into the church, baptized 2500 and married 600. He has been delegate to the general conferences of 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1908. He was a member of the educational board of 1900-04. He was voted for for the bishopric in 1900.

        His first wife was Mrs. Waterloo Bullock Snelson, of Atlanta, Ga. His second wife is Mrs. Blanche Ward Snelson, of Columbus, Ohio. He has four children living by the first wife, Floyd G. Snelson, Jr., age 24 years; La Ursa, age 22; Blydena Lovett, age 20, and Arnetta Snelson, age 9 years. Floyd is a graduate of the high school and La Ursa is a graduate of Wilberforce.

        He has contributed to many church papers and has written many pamphlets. He has made noted addresses in this country and abroad. He is connected with the Knights of Pythias and has held offices in it. He owns his home.

        Snelson, Mrs. Blanche Ward, daughter of William Shelton Ward and Mary Hodge Ward, grand-daughter of John Thomas and Katherine Moss Ward,

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. BLANCHE W. SNELSON.

and great granddaughter of Littleberry Moss and Elizabeth Moss, all of whom lived in Columbus, Ohio, for more than fifty years, comes of royal Virginia blood. The grandparents were farmers and stockraisers on their owned land in Truro Township. The grandparents were useful in "The Underground Railroad," assisting many slaves to freedom. The grandfather was, for fifty years, messenger for the City Council. The father of Mrs. Snelson, when a boy, was employed as a messenger in "The Underground Railroad" service, and during the Civil War conducted teams, hauling bread for the commissary, then stationed at Camp Chase; later on engaged in the transfer business until his death. Mrs. Snelson was born in Columbus, Ohio, June 18, 1879. She entered the public schools at an early age, and came out of the High School in the year 1894, well equipped for the position of bookkeeper, secretary and treasurer of the E. E. Ward Transfer and Storage Company, which does a $20,000. annual business, and which position she filled for about fourteen years. At the age of seven years Mrs. Snelson started in the Sunday school of the Mt. Vernon Avenue A. M. E. Church, and still possesses cups, vases, etc., she received for soliciting pennies for the Woman's Mite Missionary Society,
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and in all the succeeding years she has ever been found busy in the interest of the A. M. E. Church in Sunday school work, missionary work and every other department of the church.

        At twelve years she was elected secretary of Mt. Vernon Avenue Sunday school, and served faithfully nearly five years. She was junior superintendent of the same Sunday school for four years; taught in same Sunday school for about ten years, was delegate to the Sunday school Institute for seven consecutive years, vice-president of the Allen Christian Endeavor League for three years; she was junior stewardess in Mt. Vernon Ave. Church for several years. She was converted under Rev. C. S. Gee and baptized by him in 1893. In 1900, when the general conference met in Columbus, she represented Mt. Vernon Ave. Church in serving refreshments to the delegates and visitors. She was delegate to the Missionary Convention of 1914; delegate to the State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, 1914; was delegate to the Quadrennial Convention at Detroit, 1915; was a member of "The Married Ladies' League" of Columbus, Ohio, for more than eleven years, a member of the National Association for Advancement of Colored People for more than three years; a member of Civic Betterment Association, the City Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, vice-president of Pierian Coterie Literary Club, secretary of Ministers' Wives' Circle of Columbus, Ohio, and a member of Queen Etta Court of Calantha. She is a real estate owner, and bought her first piece of real estate when single and under 23 years of age. She now owns in her own right two valuable pieces of residence property.

        Mrs. Snelson was married to Rev. James Timothy Byrd, December 31, 1905, and they lived happily together until his death about 3 years ago. On October 21, 1914, she was married to Rev. Dr. Floyd Grant Snelson, F.R.G.S., now pastor of St. Mary's A. M. E. Church, Chicago, Ill. Besides her husband, she has living with her in Chicago, her mother, Mary J. Ward. She also has three brothers in business in Columbus, Ohio. She has at various times read papers on the following subjects: "A Model Christian Endeavor," "What Our Men are Doing in Foreign Fields," "A Cluster Ring of Women," "Mother, Her Charms," "The Importance of Personal Work," "Gleanings from Mission Fields," "The Modern Esther," "Palm Tree Christians," "The Need of Temperance," "The Necessity of Education."

        Snowden, Mrs. Leanna C., was born in Lexington, Ky. Six years of her childhood was spent in Cincinnati, O. She became a member of Quinn Chapel, A. M. E., of Lexington, Ky., when she was twelve years of age, later on transferring her membership to St. Paul A. M. E. Church, of Lexington, Ky., where for twenty years she has been an active and an energetic worker. Although a teacher in the public schools she was never too busy to respond to any request from her church. Her faithfulness to duty and earnestness in whatever she undertakes has won for her great esteem. She served as recording secretary of the local missionary society fourteen years, being elected conference branch president of the W. M. M. Society of Kentucky in 1912, and has succeeded herself up to the present time. She was elected a delegate to the Parent Mite Missionary Society, which convened in Detroit, October, 1916, where she responded pleasingly to the welcome address of Michigan. At present she is president of Allen C. E. League, a member of the stewardess board, choir and Sunday school and one of three in her church who hold a diploma of the Standard Teachers' Training Course of the International Sunday School Association. She is the wife of

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. LEANNA C. SNOWDEN.

John B. Snowden, U. S. mail carrier and fraternal man, to whom she was married in 1898. She has one daughter, Leland Weldon Snowden, who is a student at K. N. & I. I., at Frankfort, Kentucky. She is also interested in club work, being the first president of the City Federation of Women's Clubs in Lexington and at present first vice-president of State Clubs, and an influential worker in the women's department of the fraternal orders in Kentucky.

        Spearman, Henry Kuhns, son of Edward Daniel and Josephine E. Spearman, was born in Newberry, S. C., Dec. 21, 1875. Both parents were slaves, but the father later became one of the pioneer A. M. E. preachers in South Carolina, where he labored 35 years, dying in 1908. The mother, a woman of strong personality, simple, direct, forceful, stood shoulder to shoulder with her husband and made thereby doubly strong the goodly heritage that was to come to Henry Kuhns Spearman as his birthright. The subject of this sketch attended the public schools of Sumter, Winnisboro and Newberry, S. C., and was graduated from the Hoge graded school of Newberry, S. C., in 1895. He taught one year in Newberry County, spent one year at the Colored State College of South Carolina, winning oratorical honors; one year at Biddle University, and in 1898 entered Lincoln University and was graduated with the class of 1901. He was awarded the mental science honor and oration, and the degree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred upon him. He entered Yale Divinity School, of Yale University, at New Haven, Conn., where he completed the full course of three years with credit to himself and to his race, and was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Divinity. After


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delivering the annual address at the Literary Societies of Allen University in June, 1914, the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him. Rev. Spearman not only worked his way through school and secured his education without cost to his parents, but in the meantime became the support of his widowed

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. HENRY K. SPEARMAN, B.A., B.D., D.D.

mother. He was converted in 1895 and joined Miller Chapel A. M. E. Church at Newberry, S. C. He was licensed to preach in 1899 at Oxford, Pa., by Rev. J. H. Buckner. In June, 1901, he was admitted to the New England Conference and in June, 1903, was ordained elder by Bishop Derrick at Newport, Rhode

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. HENRY K. SPEARMAN

Island. His first appointment was People's A. M. E. Church, at Chelsea, Mass., where he served for two years acceptably. While here he joined the Knights of Pythias, Star of the East Lodge of Chelsea, Mass., and became Keeper of Records and Seals. He went next (1905) to Mailey St. A. M. E. Church at Lynn, Mass., and in four years increased the membership list from 17 to 60 and erected a handsome church edifice. Rev. Spearman was transferred to the New Jersey Conference, and entered upon his first appointment in June, 1909, at Macedonia A. M. E. Church, Camden, N. J. Signal success marked this six years' pastorate, the chief accomplishment of which was the payment of a $3000 mortgage indebtedness and the burning of the mortgage on April 23, 1914.

        His present appointment at St. James A. M. E. Church, Newark, N. J., was received at the hands of Bishop Tyree in May, 1915. June 30, 1915, he was married to Elizabeth Frances Morris, of Philadelphia, Pa., a teacher in the public schools of Camden, N. J. He was elected an alternate delegate to the general conference of 1912 at Kansas City, Missouri, and a delegate to the Centennial General Conference of 1916 at Mother Bethel, Phila., Pa.

        Stark, Rev. William H., was born May 11, 1842, at Medina, New York, and reared in St. Catherine, Ontario. He attended the common schools up to the opening of the Civil War, when he ran away and enlisted in the 3rd United States Infantry and served with honor until the close of the war. Then he followed cooking on lake steamers and dining cars for a number of years, making Buffalo, N. Y., his home. At a revival in Buffalo he was converted. Soon after his

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. WILLIAM H. STARK.

conversion the call was laid upon him to preach the Gospel. He went west and settled in Bedford, Iowa, and married Miss Laura B. Keen, his Christian companion and faithful worker from nineteen years of age. Brother Stark was admitted to the Chicago Conference in local relations as he was past the age limit. He has pastored two years in Centerville, where he built the foundation for a new church; 2 years in Boone and Marshalltown, Iowa, and straightened the title to the church property at Marshalltown, and at Newton, Iowa. Brother Stark is a forceful speaker, an ardent revivalist, a power as a temperance worker.

        Stepteau, Rev. C. Harold, pastor of the Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, Washington, D. C., was born in Lynchburg, Va. He attended the public schools of


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Wytheville, Va., went through the high school of the same city, and completed his education at Wilberforce University at Wilberforce, Ohio. He has traveled very extensively throughout the South, West, and Northern States and has visited Cuba in interest of his church. He began his public life as a school teacher and has taught in Virginia, Ohio, Texas and Louisiana. He was pastor of the Ebenezer A. M. E. Church

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. C. H. STEPTEAU.

at Baltimore, Md., for four years, afterward serving as presiding elder of Potomac district five years. Shortly after graduating from Wilberforce University, which was in 1892, he was unanimously elected president of Ward Academy, at Natchez, Miss., where he served for three years, and served as principal of the

[ILLUSTRATION]
MRS. E. L. STEPTEAU.

Algiers High School, at New Orleans, Louisiana, for two years, and while in this capacity he did very much for the colored people of that vicinity. He has served as a pastor and presiding elder in the Louisiana, Virginia and the Baltimore Conferences. He is now pastor of the Metropolitan A. M. E. Church, Washington, D. C. Since he has taken charge he has made wonderful improvement in the building and has added many to the church.

        Steady, Rev. H. M., was born at the village of Waterloo in Sierra Leone, West Africa, June 21, 1859. He was the son of Joseph and Elizabeth Steady, and grandson of the Rev. Henry Steady, the founder of St. Mark's Church, of the Countess of Huntingdon's Connection, Waterloo.

        He received his primary education at the Countess of Huntingdon, Wesleyan and Church of England Schools, respectively, at Waterloo. In the latter he was appointed pupil-teacher to the Cathedral School in Freetown, by the Rt. Rev. Henry Cheetham, D.D., Bishop of Sierra Leone. In 1879 he was received in the C. M. S. Grammar School, Freetown, for his secondary education, and after two years and six months of diligent and successful career, he was elected and appointed among his comrades Head Master of Kent, Church of England School in January, 1882.

        In 1885 he was invited by the Rev. S. Trotter Williams,

[ILLUSTRATION]
REV. H. M. STEADY.

superintendent of the Countess of Huntingdon, to take charge of St. Mark's School, Waterloo. Here under the influence of Mother Elizabeth Steady, he knew Christ as his personal Saviour, and became more devoted to the cause of Christianity, and after a year of successful service, he was promoted to serve as assistant to the superintendent.

        In 1887 he married to Miss Hannah Adelicia Beatrice George, the sister of Rev. A. T. George (Wesleyan).

        In 1889, in consequence of some misunderstanding on the Great Doctrine of Sanctification, he resigned his official relation with St. Mark's, Countess of Huntingdon.

        In 1890 he accepted an invitation to take charge of "Zion" A. M.