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Report by Robert Sandford concerning his voyage from Cape Fear to Port Royal, Jamaica from June 14 to July 12, 1666
Sandford, Robert
July 14, 1666
Volume 01, Pages 118-139

[B. P. R. O. Shaftesbury Papers. Bdle 48. No. 7.]
THE PORT ROYAL DISCOVERY BEING THE RELATION OF A VOYAGE ON THE COAST OF THE PROVINCE OF CAROLINA FORMERLY CALLED FLORIDA IN THE CONTINENT OF THE NORTHERNE AMERICA FROM CHARLES RIVER NEERE CAPE FEARE IN THE COUNTY OF CLARENDON AND THE LAT. OF 34 DEG. TO PORT ROYAL IN THE LAT. OF 32. D. BEGUN 14th JUNE 1666.

PERFORMED BY ROBERT SANFORD ESQr SECRETARY AND CHIEF REGISTER OF THE RIGHT HONble THE LORDS PROPRIETORS OF THEIR COUNTY OF CLARENDON IN THE PROVINCE AFORESd &c.

Fungor Officiis.


Anno Domini 1666.

To Right Honble Edward Earle of Clarendon Lord High Chancellor of England George Duke of Albemarle Capt. Generall of all His Maties Forces in the Kingdome of England, Scotland and Ireland and Master

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of the Horse Wm. Lord Craven John Lord Berkley Anthony Lord Ashley Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir George Carteret Vice Chamberlaine of his Maties Household Sir Wm. Berkeley Knt and Sir John Colleton Knt & Baronet the true and absolute Lords Proprietors of all the Province of Carolina

Right Honble

It is not presumption but duty which presents this Narrative howsoever rude & imperfect to soe illustrious I had rather say a Constellac̄on than a Corporac̄on The matter related was performed under your auspices in your Country and by your Servant. It measures to you my Lords (as his foot did Hercules) the greatnes of yor Sovereigns Giuft and to the world the greatnes of your trust and favour with him It shewes you in prospective how lastinge a renowne you may adde to your already most glorious names how boundles a grandeur to your longest posterity None indeede but God and the Kinge can move your hearts to doe theis great things for yourselves and nation Yet that such a nation be effected may and shall bee the prayers of

Right Honble
with all submission readines & fidelity
Yor Lordpps servant
ROB. SANDFORD.

THE PORT ROYALL DISCOVERY.

The Right Honoble the Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina in prosecuc̄on of his sacred Maties pious intenc̄ons of planting and civillizing there his domins and people of the Northerne America, wch Neighbour Southward on Virginia (by some called Florida (found out and discovered by Sr Sebastian Cabott in the yeare 1497 at the charges of H: 7: King of England co.) Constituted Sr John Yeamans Baronet their Lt Generall with ample powers for placing a Colony in some of the Rivers to the Southward and Westward of Cape St Romania who departing from the Island Barbadoes in Octob: 1665 in a Fly boate of about 150 Tonns accompanyed by a small Friggatt of his owne and a Sloope purchased by a Comon purse for the service of the Colonyes after they had been seperated by a great storme att Sea (wherein the Friggatt lost all her Masts and himselfe had like to have foundred and were all brought together againe in the beginning of November to an Anchor before the mouth of Charles River neere Cape Feare in the County of Clarendon, part of the same Province newly begunn to be peopled and within the

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Lt Genlls Comission They were after blowne from their Anchors by a suddaine violent Gust, the Fly boate Sr John was in narrowly escapeing the dangerous shoales of the Cape. But this proved but a short difference in their Fate, for returning with a favourable winde to a second viewe of the entrance into Charles River but destituted of all pilates (save their owne eyes (which the flattering Gale that conducted them did alsoe delude by covering the rough visage of their objected dangers with a thicke vaile of smoth waters) they stranded their vessell on the middle ground of the harbours mouth to the Westward of the Channell where the Ebbe presently left her and the wind with its owne multeplyed forces and the auxiliaryes of the tide of flood beate her to peeces. The persons were all saved by the neighborhood of the shore but the greatest part of their provision of victualls clothes &c: and of the Magazine of Armes powder and other Millitary furniture shipped by the Lords Proprietors for the defence of the designed settlement perished in the waters the Lt Genll purposed at first imediately to repaire his Friggatt which together with the Sloope gate safely into the River when the Fly boate was driven off) and to send her back to Barbados for recruity whilst himself in person attended the issue of that discovery which I and some other Gentlemen offered to make Southwards in the Sloope, But when the great and growing necessityes of the English Colony in Charles River (heightened by this disaster) begann clamourously to crave the use of the Sloope in a voyage to Virginia for their speedy reliefe, Sr John altered that his first resolution and permitting the sloope to goe to Virginia returned himself to Barbados in his Friggatt. Yett that the designe of the Southern Settlement might not wholy fall, Hee considered with the freighters of the sloope that in case she miscarryed in her Virginia voyage they should hire Captain Edward Stanyons vessell (then in there harbour but bound for Barbados) to performe the Discovery and left a comission with mee for the effecting it upon the returne of the Sloope or Stanion which should first happen.

The sloope in her comeing home from Virginia loaden with victuall being ready by reason of her extreeme rottennes in her timbers to Sinke was driven on shoare by a storme in the night on Cape looke out (the next head land to the north and Eastward of Cape Feare and about 20 Le: distant her men all saved except two and with many difficulties brought by their boate through the great Sound into Albemarle River neere the Island Roanoake (within this same Province of Carolina, to the English Plantation there—

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Captain Stanyon in returning from Barbados weakly maned and without any second to himselfe driven to and agen on the seas for many weekes by contrary winds and conquered with care, vexation and watching lost his reason, and after many wild extravagances leapt over board in a frenzye leaveing his small Company and vessell (to the much more quiet and constant though but little more knowing and prudent conduct of a child, who yett assisted by a miraculous providence after many wanderings brought her safe to Charles River in Clarenden her desire port and haven.

I had now a vessell to performe my Southerne Expedition but disfurnished of a Master and none here skilled in navigation to be perswaded to the voyage, least therefore a worke so necessary to promote the settlement of this Province should be poorely left without an attempt, myselfe undertooke the office, though no better capacitated for it then a little reading in the Mathematicks had rendered mee with the helpe of a fewe observations made whilst a passenger in some late sea voyages to divest their Tedium.

On the 14th June 1666 I entered on my charge neare six months after the date of my Com̄ission (so long had theire various accidents detained mee) and on the 16th I left Charles River sayling Westward with a faire gale att East alongst that goodly and bold bay which on her two Capes Feare and Romania as on two hornes procures all dangers of flatts and shoales from her owne more gentle bosome. To make her yett more signall I named her Berkly Bay from the Right Honble John Lord Berkly and Sir William Berkly two of her noble Lords Proprietors.

I was accompanyed by Capt George Cary Lt Samuell Hardy Lt Joseph Woory Ens: Henry Brayne Ens: Richard Abrahall and Mr Tho: Giles and severall other Inhabitants of the County of Clarendon to the number of 17 besides myselfe (and the shipps company (which alas were but two men and a boy) with me I tooke a small shalloope of some three tonns belonging to the Lords Proprietors and appointed by the Lieut Generall for that service in which I placed Ens: Henry Brayne of some Experience in Sea matters and two other men) soe reserving eighteen of all sorts in the biggest vessell whose burden alsoe exceeds scarce fiveteene Tonns.

The 19th in the night it being very cloudy and darke and hee att our helme unawares bringing our vessell a Stayes wee lost Company of our Shalloope The 22th about 7 a clock in the morning wee made the land and a faire River to Leward of us (haveing beene driven out to sea by a Southwest winde from the 13 to the 21 when a strong easterly gale brought

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us in with the Shoare againe wee bore up to the River and a great way kept our depth of six and five fathum water without any sign of breakes att length it shoaled, and wee could plainly discerne a breach) in the Easterne board. The River when wee first made it bore N. W. by W of us and by this time wee had brought it to N. W b: N: being therefore come into two fath: water and judging ourselves on the breake of the visible Easterne shoalings wee steered more Westerly and presently deepened our Water to three fatham and soe upwards But the wind being at East and the water Ebbing, if wee had goune more Westerly wee could not have luf'd in wherefore I resolved (noe breath appearing all before mee) to runn in directly with the River which nowe bore N. N. W. and in standing in that course one heeve of the lead wee had butt 11 foot water but the next was two fatham which depth and between that and two fathum and a half continued a great while and as wee approched the Westerne point of the Entrance it deepened soe that close aboard the point wee found five and six fathum water and took upwards to nine fathum all the way in it was halfe Ebbe att least when wee entered, and I am very much perswaded that if wee had goune soe farre Westerly as till the River had borne North or N. N. E. wee had found a much deeper Channell for though it blew a very fresh gale att East (which here is alongst shore and Somewhat upon the Westerne Coast, yett wee could not discerne any appearance of Flatts att all to the Westward. Being come about foure or five miles within the River I anchored and a Canoa with two Indians came presently aboard mee and told mee that was the Country of Edistoh and that the cheife towne or seate of the Casique was within on the Western shoare somewhat lower downe towards the sea by which relation I guessed this to be the same River that some English in a former discovery mentioned by the name of Grandy (if it be not rather the French Gironde) and only sawe of att sea but entered not That it might no longer remaine under an uncertaine distinction I called it from that the name of my Lt Harry Haven. It lyes about 32.d 3.m The markes to knowe it by as ye same come from Sea are theise, The North East side is a blufe land rounding from the River and stretching East into the Sea hence a ledge of breakers runn out South before the harbours mouth, on which wee borrowed when wee made such Shoale water in our Entrance, the Southwest side makes a sharpe lowe wet point bare of trees, a pretty way from the entrance West and then shews a hummocke or two of thicke shrubby trees from this point the Coast tends S. W. and then W. S. W. just within the entrance is a shewe of a faire Creeke on the Starboard side and another on the West or larbord side almost oposite from the
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uper side of the East side Creeke a Marsh Island runing out West and southerly almost crosse the River, edged to the seaward with a banke of oyster shells discernable a good way to sea as the same come from the Northward and perticularly meett with two lowe trees which in the offing and before the oyster banke is discovered seeme as vessells riding within the River. It flows here East and West neere eight feete perpendicular att spring tides the Woods on each side entring to us seemed to consist most of had oake, the land levell of an habitable height generally with steepe redd banks here and there appearing over the marshes, on which in many places wee could see the feilds of Maiz greenly florishing. The next day being the 23rd June I went with my boate into a Creek on the East shoare opposite to where the vessell rode a very faire and deepe Creeke or River goeing North and Easterly to appearance a long way being goune about a mile up I landed and according to my Instructions in presence of my company took a formall possession by turfe and twigg of that whole Country from the Lat: of 36 deg: North to 29d South and West to the South Seas by the name of the Province of Carolina For our Soveraine Lord Charles the Second King of England &c: his heires and successors and to the use of the Right Honble Edward Earle of Clarendon Geor: Duke of Albemarle, William Lord Craven, John Lord Berkley Anthony Lord Ashley Sir George Carteret Sir William Berkley and Sir John Colleton their heires and Assignes according to the Letters Pattents of our Soveraigne Lord the King. I ranged a little on either side this Creek passed through Severall Feilds of Maiz or Indian Corn, and following the guidance of a small path was brought to some of the Indians Habitations, I found all the land that I passed over whether I went back or alongst the side of the Creeke a rich fatt soyle black mould on the topp and under mixed with a soft redd marle (which and a stiff clay) I after found the most generall foundation of all the land noe swamp, noe sandy land on the outside of the Woods some single scattring Pine trees but of the sort which is called spruce. The rest and the Generallity of the timber being Oake, Maple, Ash, Walnutt Popler Bayes & the trees tall and streight but not very large growing closer together than I have seene in any other part of this Province The reason I guesse of their being so slender) They are for the most part a well seized building timber and some fewe wee sawe of oake and maple that would beare three or fowre foot over a very great burthen upon the ground and much of it of such groweths as wee know to be an excellent feeding for cattle and so thick and high that it made our travelling very tedious. The next day I went some miles up the maine River
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and finding a Creeke alsoe on the East side which opened some groves of Pine trees to our veiwe, I put in there purposely to see that sort of land and found this if any the Swamps of this Country for this Creeke carryed us into low broken Marshes and Islands of these Pine trees lying almost levell with the water Wee landed on some of them found them firme and dry (though severall dayes and the very night before wee had store of raine) and without any signes of haveing ever beene overflowed yett they are seemingly soe seated as that great store of raine and frequent must necessarily stand in them The Pines are all spruce the soyle a fatt black mould with a scarce discernable mixture of sand foundee alsoe either on marle or clay as the other lands and bearing a very great burthen and though on the outside Wee sawe onely pine trees yett being entred the Wood wee found alsoe Oake and severall other timber trees of a very large seize Att a venture wee called those kind of lands pine swamps. But I esteeme them a very profitable tillable ground and some of my Company did after this see an Indian planted feild of this sort which they told mee bore as tall Maiz as any. We rowed along way up this Creeke and besides theise swamps sawe and ranged through very spacious tracts of rich Oake land and yett wee were not past the Oyster bankes and frequent heapes of shells nor the salt water, att my return downe the River I sent some a shoare to range on the West side who did constantly affirme that the lands there were of an equall excellency with the best of those wee had otherwhere viewed and that they beleived itt an impossible Injunction to be putt to march to the end of the tracts being therefore well satisfyed with the successe of our discovery hitherto I wayed and stood downe the River intending a short stay att the landing place neerest to the cheife seate of Edistowe whither the Indian had intreated of mee that they might with the lesse trouble come aboard mee to trade. When wee were here a Captain of the Nation named Shadoo (one of them which Hilton had carryed to Barbados) was very earnest with some of our company to goe with him and lye a night at their Towne which hee told us was but a small distance thence I being equally desirous to knowe the forme manner and populousnesse of the place as alsoe what state the Casique held (fame in all theise things preferring this place to all the rest of the Coast and fower of my Company (vizt) Lt Harvey Lt Woory Mr Thomas Giles and Mr Henry Woodward forwardly offring themselves to the service haveing alsoe some Indians aboard mee who constantly resided there night & day I permitted them to goe with this Shadoo they returned to mee the next morning with great comendations of their Entertainment but especially of the
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goodnes of the land they marcht through and the delightfull scituation of the Towne, telling mee withall that the Cassique himselfe appeared not (pretending Some indisposition but that his state was supplyed by a Female who received them with gladnes and courtesey placeing my Lt Harvey on the seat by her, their relation gave myselfe a curiosity (they alsoe answering mee that it was not above foure miles off) to goe and see that Towne and takeing with mee Capt George Cary and a file of men I marched thither ward followed by a long traine of Indians of whome some or other alwayes presented himselfe to carry mee on his shoulders over any the branches or Creeks or plashy corners of Marshes in our way. This walk though it tend to the Southward of the West and consequently leads neere alongst the sea coast yett it opened to our view soe excellent a Country both for Wood land and Meadowes as gave singular satisfaction to all my Company Wee crossed one Meadow of not lesse then a thousand Acres all firme good land and as rich a soyll as any clothed with a fine grasse not passing knee deep but very thick sett and fully adorned with yeallow flowers. A pasture not inferior to any I have seene in England the wood land were all of the same sort both for timber and would with the best of those wee had ranged otherwhere and without alteration or abatement from their goodnes all the way of our march Being entered the Towne wee were conducted into a large house of a circular forme (their generall house of State) right against the entrance was a high seate of sufficient breadth for halfe a dozen persons on which sate the Cassique himselfe (vouchsafeing mee that favour) with his wife on his right hand (shee who had received those whome I had sent the evening before) he was an old man of a large stature and bone. Round the house from each side the throne quite to the entrance were lower benches filled with the whole rabble of men women and children, in the center of this house is kept a constant fire mounted on a great heape of Ashes and surrounded with little lowe formes Captain Cary and myselfe were placed in the higher seate on each side the Cassique and presented with skinns accompanied with their ceremonyes of Welcome and friendshipp (by stroaking our shoulders with their palms and sucking in theire breath the whilst) the Towne is scituated on the side or rather in the skirts of a faire forrest in which att severall distances are divers fields of Maiz with many little houses straglingly amongst them for the habitations of the particular families, On the East side and part of the South It hath a large Prospect over Meadows very spatious and delightfull, before the Doore of their Statehouse is a spacious walk rowed with trees on both sides tall & full branched, not much unlike
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the Elmes which serves for the Exercise and recreation of the men who by couples runn after a marble bowle troled out alternately by themselves with six foot staves in their hands which they tosse after the bowle in their race and according to the laying of their staves winn or loose the beeds they contend for an Exercise approvable enough in the winter, but somewhat too violent (mee thought) for that season and noone time of the day, from this walk is another lesse aside from the round house for the children to Sport in. After a few howres stay I retorned to my vessell with a greate Troope of Indians att my heeles. The old Cassique himselfe in the number who lay aboard mee that night without the society of any of his people some scores of which lay in boothes of their owne imediate erection on the beache.—While I lay here I had perfectly understood that the River went through to another more Westerly and was passable for our vessell and alsoe that it was not much more than a tides worke through through. This increased my desire of passing this way especially being perswaded that this next River was Jordan (Hilton intimateing as much in his Journall and mapp) wherefore on the 27th of June with the help of the tide of flood (the wind being contrary) I turned upp the River soe haveing oportunity to try the whole channell which I found generally mid and between that and six fathum deepe and bold home to each shoare till wee were come about 10 miles from the harbours mouth where the River was contracted between the marshes yett here (except in one or two places where some flatts narrowed the passage) wee seldom founde lesse then five fathum water. The river being narrowe and variously winding noe gale would att any time serve us long soe that wee were forced for the most part to towe through and that often against the winde which proved very tedious nor could wee passe but by day, which with lying two tides a ground to stopp some Leakes made it Sunday morning the first of July before wee came into the next Westerly River, and by it into the Sea again, Though by the Travers I tooke of our course I found it performable with light boates in one tide of flood and an Ebbe. The passage is generally betweene the River and Wood especially on the Island side on the East or Maine side of the Marsh is much narrower and in many places the river runns close under the banke of wood land which wee had the oportunityes to view and found it to continue its excellency without change or dimuntion, The Indians alsoe that inhabitt the Inner parts of it assuring us that it was all alike, The next Westerly River is a pretty faire river not lesse broad then Harvey Haven But its Channell more crooked narrow'd and Shallowe, the West side of itt (as wee found afterwards is but a necke of land haveing a
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Creeke or two which seeme to goe through into the next River It is for the generallity drowned marshes alsoe yett in some places the bank is high crowned here and there with small groves of wood, consisting of dry plantable land surrounded a good space with a firme meadowe or pasture Land and presenting most delectable Seates for Summer recesses. I did a little wonder to see the Sea and no apparent open passage first to the Westward as I expected (still imagining this to be the River Jordan) and when I was come out of it into the sea and sawe none of those markes which Hilton had prefixed to Jordan I was in a great puzzell to knowe where wee were gott. Nothing of the coast makeing like those drafts which Hilton had given of itt, But the winde first dying into a calme and then againe blowing contrary with some Menaces of an evening storme I putt into the River againe and being anchored went a shore on the east point of the Entrance where I found Shadoo (the Captain of Edistow that had beene with Hilton att Barbados) and severall other Indians come from the Towne by land to see for our comeing forth of whome I asked whether this was the River which Hilton was in, they told mee noe butt itt was the next River, This assured mee that Jordan was yett further and that Hilton had noe knowledge of this River and soe could not lay it downe I demanded the name of this River they told mee Edistowe still and pointed all to be Edistowe quite home to the side of Jordan, by which I was instructed that the Indians assigne not their names to the Rivers but to the Countryes and people, amongst theise Indians was one who used to come with the Southern Indians to trade with us att Charles Towne in Clarendon and is known to us by the name of Cassique hee belongeth to the Country of Kiwaha and was very earnest with mee to goe with my vessell thither assuring mee a broad deepe entrance and promising a large welcome and plentifull entertainment and Trade I told him I must first goe to Port Royall and that in my return I would see his Country, but for his better security hee would needs accompany mee to Port Royall and soe bee my Pilate (as hee made mee understand) for their River and presently hee sent away his Companion to give notice to the chiefe Cassique of the place of my Intention that hee might prepare for my comeing and himselfe went on board with mee. That evening blewe a storme of winde att S. W (the frequent sommer stormes on this coast) soe violent that (though in the River) I durst not trust to my ordinary roade, but kept my short anchor underfoot—

With the riseing of the morne I weighed and stood out to sea haveing an Easie Gale att N. E. and a Tide of Ebbe. My course out Lay S. E.

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between two bankes of shoales lesse then halfe a mile distant I choase rather to keep in the sounding of the Easterne then of the W. Flatts, both because the winde was Easterly and soe I could beare up from them when I would and alsoe because haveing both in goeing out and comeing in the day before borrowed on the Westerne shoalings I should by this Easterly Course take knowledge of the whole channell, I was scarce shott a mile without the Eastermost point of the Entrance but the winde wholy left mee and the Ebbe (which the flatts on either side makeing soe faire a lane I expected should sett directly out to Sea) did runn with soe strong a current over the Easterne sands that att the second heave of my lead I was cast from two fathum into six foot water and I drewe five into a rowling sea on the very edge of a breach) I had no way but imediately to lett fall one anchor soe to stay the vessell from precipitating on her ruine whilst I might carry forth another Anchor to warpe her into deepe water The first was presently downe but to gett out the second which was to confirme our safety proved hughesly difficult [Wee lay in soe tumbling a sea that our boate could not bee brought to our bowe without danger of staveing, I had but two men with mee entered to Sea labour and the most spirited and active part of my company were Gentlemen but little used to any labour, one of the seaman must necessarily stay within board to deliver the anchor and Cable that was to be carryed out however the danger made every one give his best helpe and with much adoe the boate is brought to the bowe and the Anchor put into her but all our strength could not stemme that Tide of Ebbe which had hurried us into the perill and must therefore be encountered in the way to bring us out, but a starne wee fall against the whole force of our Oares, A second attempt is made with doubled strength but one breakes his shoales another his Oare and nowe cumbered with our owne vessell number in a boate of scarce equall seize we became rather weaker than at first yett we have noe other way left but this to prevent our weake (heaven not yielding us one breath of aide) therefore to worke wee goe againe and refix our boate, but in theise past fruitles performances soe much time had beene spent as had given the Ebbing tide a further advantage against us to the allmost perfecting our destruction for by this time the vessell by her repeated stroakes as it were to rescue herselfe from those inhospitable sands, gave us warning that her condition was well neere desperate, yett out goes our boate againe and god mercifully improved our strength to the getting forth an anchor though not much farther than our vessells length) yett soe farre as brought us into two fathum water the banke on which
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wee had grounded proveing steepe to, by reason which wee the more easily wrought ourselves out of those unkind embraces and to the praise of the Almighty Deliverer were snatched from either an instant descending into the Gorge of the unsated Ocean or the more slow and painfull progresse to our ends in a naked exposure amongst Nations whose piety it is to be barbarous and Gallantry to be inhumane. This ill Entertainment made us brand the place with the name of Port Perrill, it lyes in the Lat: of 32d 25m or therabouts and may be known when you are in the very entrance by its Easterne point which is a very lowe point of Land bare of trees or other growth save a fewe stragling shrubbs, hence the River goe in N N W and N. W. b: N. a small Creeke running in East just within the point The Coast hence to the Eastward tends neerest E. b: N. with Sandy bayes and appeares even and bluffe with trees when you are in the offing the Westerne part of the Entrance lyes within as in a deep bay and beare from the East. point N. W. b: W. or W. N. W. about two miles It is a bare sandy bay with a fewe shrubbs next the River and thinn scattering Pine trees—more Southerly the Coast thence Westward tends S.S. W. and all between this and Jordan shewes with severall hummacks like broken land or Islands when you are off before itt and especially next to Port Perill appeares a wide opening as of a River but it is nothing but but bare sandy bayes or oyster bankes with lowe Marshes behind them Jordan or as wee now call it Yeamans harbour from the name of our Lt Generall opens about two leagues to the Westward of this between two bluffe lands from the Westermost of which the North East end of an Island which from Capt Cary wee named Cary Island) runns out E S E and makes all the Coast between it and Port Perrill lye in the forme of a deepe bay all betweene Yeamans Harbour and Port Perrill are shoales and foule ground which from the West Point of Port Perrill runne out S. E. before the mouth of Yeamans Harbour to almost an even range with the outermost face of Cary Island From the East Point of Port Perrill a Rowe of breakers range themselves parrallell with the Westerne shoales, and were the same which had like to have proved so fatall to us att our coming out thence neere a League within Port Perrill are three distinct groves of trees elevated on pretty high bankes with lowe Marshes in easy interval they lye neere E. and West and when you are soe farre south an Westerly as that the lowe sandy point off the Entrance wholy disappeares Theise shewe themselves as though the mouth of the River were betweene two bluffe lands with a round woody Island in the middle of itt, in steering in if you come from the South and Westward, keepe East in three fathum water till you bring
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this seeming Island to touch the Easterne bluffe head and then stand in N. W. by N. and N. W. with the head land rather takeing the soundings of the Easterne flatts then of the W. if the winde will permit and you will have two fathum water little more or lesse all the way in att lowe water as you come neere in you will discerne the Eastern lowe sandy point betweene you and that bluffe land and the sandy bayes—along the Easterne Coast steering in with that sandy point and you will deepen and have five fathum water close aboard it.

After wee were gott cleare of the sands the Ebbe being doune and the gale springing up wee made sayle and stood out to sea but wee were not got farre ere the wind shifted to South East and the flood sett soe strong into the narrowe bay that wee could neither board it out nor gaine to the Westward of the shoales which lye before Yeamans Harbour so to runne in there, wherefore I came to an Anchor in three fathum water till the Ebbe att least might helpe us to worke out against the winde whilest wee rode here wee espyed to our great rejoyceing the Shalloope whome wee lost the 19th of June in the night shee was come forth of Yeamans harbour and stood to and againe before the Southwest Coast betweene it and Cary Island to shewe herselfe not being able to come out to us for the same reason that kept us imbayed, wee alsoe fired a gunn and putt out our Colours to lett her knowe that wee sawe her but could not gett to her for the flatts that interposed.

To goe into Yeamans Harbour Hiltons direction is (and itt seemed true to mee as I lay before itt though I went not in) to goe in on the West side of the shoalings which are opposite to the mouth thereof and which are contiguous with the flatts of Port Perrill giveing a ledge of breakers that lye before the south west Cape of the Entrance a small birth and soe to steere in with the North East land of the Entrance and the least depth he sayes is two fathum att lowe water and soe upwards to six or seaven fathum when you come neere under the said Easterne land But I have understood since from Ens: Brayne that betweene that Lodge of breakers which lye before the South West Cape and the end of Cary Island is a Channell which hee affirmes has about three fathum water where shoalest which alsoe when you are past that lodge of breakers sett over to the North East land of the Harbours mouth The Ebbe nowe beginning to make wee weighed and plyed off to sea with some difficulty boarding it out of the dangerous and foule bay wherein still about three leagues from shoare the deepest water we could finde was scarce three fathum and in our turning wee generally into a fathum and a halfe on each side and this though it was high water, a place to be attempted with Care when

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the winde is off as now it is by night wee were got cleere of all danger into six and seaven fathum water I stood off and on all night and in the morning found my selfe off the seaboard side of Cary Island in the middle betweene two openings this Island fills up almost the whole space betweene Yeamans Harbour and Port Royall, to seaward it makes an even smooth land pretty blūffe with trees and tends south west and North East about three leagues in length It shewes two small openings neere Equidistant from either end and from each other from the Westermost opening all Westward the Coast is bold Five fathum water within halfe a league of the shoare more Easterly it is not so deepe.

The morning was calm and soe continued till about two o'clock afternoon when a fresh gale sprang up att North East which in a short time opened to us Woory Bay and the mouth of Port Royall Woory Bay of Lt Woory is made by the South Westerly end of Cary Island and the Southermost Cape or headland without Port Royall (called from the first discoverer Hilton head which is the farthest land in sight as you come from the Northeast along by the end of Cary Island whence it beares neerest S. W. and is bluffe with trees large and tall which as you approach them seeme to looke their topps in the sea, Port Royall mouth opens in the bottome of this Bay neerest to the Westward side thereof the opening is wide little lesse then two leagues The Westermost land of it running out almost South to Hilton head and baying in like a halfe bent bowe makeing the West side of Woory bay from the East side of Port Royall the land tends away east Northerly into Giles streights (the passage on the backe side of Cary Island named soe from Mr Thomas Giles) and formes the bottum of Woory Bay Before this part of the Coast and the end of Cary Island in all the Easterly part of the bay. It shoales and very uneven ground unsafe to meddle with towards the Eastermost angle of it oposite to the entrace into Giles streights lyes a sand hill pretty high with some smaller about it visible a good distance off in comeing from the Westward as you part from Cary Island steere away S. W. with Hilton head and you will soon thwart the Channell of Port Royall which you will finde by the deepening of the water from five to seaven fathum and upward. It lyes neerer towards the West Land and runns in N. N. W. towards the Easterne land of the Entrance (by us called Albrahall point) haveing seldom so little as seaven fathum water all the way in. The shoales in the East part of the bay lye poynting out a good way to sea therefore it wilbe safe for shipps of burthen to keepe out till they have brought Hilton Head to beare about N. N. E. from them. When I had opened Woory Bay sayling S. W. along by the end of Cary

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Island I had brought the Sand hills within a steerne of mee I luffed into the bay to try the soundings of that Eastermost part of itt and after a little while came on the shoalings and found them so uneven that it was ordinary to differ two fathum in the heave of a lead Being therefore satisfyed with the dangerousnes of this part of the Bay I bore up againe and stood away with Hilton Head crosse some of the shoales till I came to seaven eight and to about tenn fathum water. Then I steered away with the body of the West land betweene Hilton Head and the Entrance of Port Royall and shoaled my water by degrees to six fathum (which depth continued a good while and att length to five and foure fathum and to three within less then a mile of the woodside Then I brought my tacks aboard and stood North Easterly to gett into the channell againe and after some time deepened my water to five six and seaven fathum I then steered away with the East land of the River within Arahall point still deepning my water till att length the Ebbe being strong and wee makeing fresh way against it with a large winde I could not for a good space strike ground with my lead.—About midnight the third of July I came to an Anchor within the River in seaven fathum water the least depth I could then finde) a little above the Entrance into Brayne sound or the passage which goes through to Yeamans Harbour soe called from Ens: Brayne who twice sailed itt I would advise all who enter Port Royall to goe in upon the soundings on the west side of the Channell till they come a good way within Hilton Head. That side being the evenest ground and freest from all danger They may keepe in six and seaven fathum all the way in and then as they steere more Easterly towards Abrahall point they will finde it much deeper It flowes here E. S. E. The next morning I removed opposite to the principall Indian Towne and then anchored before itt where I had nott ridd long ere the Cassique himselfe came aboard mee with a Canoa full of Indians presenting mee with skinns and bidding mee welcome after their manner I went a shoare with him to see their Towne which stood in sight of our vessell Found as the forme of building in every respect like that of Eddistowe with a plaine place before the great round house for their bowling recreation att the end of which stood a faire woodden crosse of the Spaniards Erecc̄on But I could not observe that the Indians performed any adoration before itt, All round the Towne for a great space are severall fields of maize of a very large growth the soyle nothing inferior to the best wee had seene att Eddistowe apparently more loose and light and the trees in the woods much larger and ranged at a greater distance all the ground under them burthened exceedingly and amongst it a great variety of choice pasturage
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I saw here besides the great number of peaches which the more northerly places doe alsoe abound in some store of figge trees very large and faire both fruite and plants and diverse grape vines which though growing without culture in the very throng of weedes and bushes were yett filled with bunches of grapes to admiration. It was no small rejoycing to my Company (who began to feare that after Edistowe they should see nothing equally to content them) to find here not onely a River so much superiour to all others on the Coast Northward but alsoe a Country which their fancyes though preengaged could scarce forbeare to preferre even that which but a little before they had concluded peerlesse. The Towne is scituated on an Island made by a branch which cometh out of Brayne sound and falleth into Port Royall about a mile above where wee landed a Scituation not extraordinary here rather the whole Country is nothing else but severall Islands made by the various intervenings of Rivers and Creeks yett are they firme good lands (excepting what is Marsh) nor of soe small a seize but to continne many of them thousands of acres of rich habitable wood land whose very bankes are washed by River or Creeke which besides the fertility add such a comodiousnesse for portage as fewe countrys are equally happy in.

After a fewe houres stay to viewe the land about the Towne I retorned to my vessell and there found Ens: Brayne with his Shalloope come that morning through Brayne sound from Yeamans harbour att the mouth of which wee had seene him two dayes before Hee told mee that the same morning that I made Harvey haven hee came in with the shoare more to the Eastward and sayled along it till towards evening when hee entered Yeamans harbour supposing it Port Royall and not findeing mee there nor any knowledge of mee and guessing that I might be more Southerly hee came through to Port Royall and acquainted himselfe with Wommony the Cassique sonne (who had alsoe beene att Barbados) whom hee easily prevailed with to beare him Company from place to place into severall Creekes and branches betweene this and Yeamans harbour soe becomeing both his Guide and protection that he had by this meanes a large leasure and oportunity of veiwing all that part of the Country which he did soe loudly applaud for land and rivers That my Companies Comendations of Eddistowe could scarce out noise him,—sufficiently satisfyed with this relation (confirmed by those with him I resolved to loose him no time in a second search of that parte but to goe a tides worke up the maine River and see the body of the Country, and at my retorne to enter a faire Creeke on the West shoare opposite to where the vessell rode, and soe to viewe that side which Ens: Brayne had not medled with being the more desirous

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alsoe to trye this Creeke because the Indians reported that it lead to a great Southerne River which peirceth farre into the continent and I suppose may be the frenchmens river May or the Spaniards St Mathias, with the Flood therefore and a favourable fresh Gale of winde I sayled up the River In the shalloope neere thirty miles passed where it devides itselfe into two principall branches the Westermost of which I went upp and conceiving myselfe nowe high enough I landed, here I found the Ground presently within to rise into a pretty lull and as I ranged further I crossed severall fine falls and riseings of land and one brooke of sweete water which rann with a mourmoring course betweene two Hills a rarity towards the sea Coast (to which our former searches had beene confind in which wee had not seene any fresh water but in wells which Inconveniency was not to be borne with were it not to be healed by the easie sinking of Wells every where The land here was such as made us all conclude not only a possibility that Eddistowe might bee but a certainty that it was exceeded by the Country of Port Royall—Being fully tired with our March through a ranke growth of vines, bushes and grass which everywhere followed our leggs and proclaimed the richnes of the soyle I retired to my boate and with the Ebbe towards our vessell wee passed diverse faire Creekes on each side the river but entered none, haveing not much time to spare and being satisfyed by the sorts of wood wee sawe and the bankes that the land was all of like goodnes to what we had already veiwed only in one place the land seemeing lower than usuall and with a great mixture of pine (or rather spruce) I went in there and after I was somewhat within the woods found it very plashy and water standing everywhere in holes about ankell deepe or deeper caused as I thinke by the late raine which had fallen somewhat plentifully for there appeared no sign of constant swampis hues (as in the Cipresse swamps more northerly) nor anything that might discourage the manureing it. The morning was pretty faire spent ere I came downe to the vessell again wherefore I made haste and changed my Company and then crossed the River into that Westerne Creeke I spoke of which after three or fowre miles opened into a great sound full of Islands of different sizes Southward It went into the Sea by two or three out letts in our sight westward Wee still opened newe branches some bigger some lesse like those wee had already passed and found to crumble the Continent into Islands; I spent the remainder of this day and the best part of the next in this sound went a shoare on severall Islands found them as good firme land as any wee had seene, exceedingly timbred principally with live Oake and larger cedar and bay trees then any I had seene before on
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all the Coast In one of them wee entered a pleasant grove of spruce Shading a very cleare pasture of fine grasse in which we rowzed a brave herde of deere and thence called it the Discoverers Parke. This Island conteines some hundred of acres and both wood and Marsh proper for planting grazeing and for feeding swine and all the Islands of this Sound that were in our veiwe (some fewe small ones excepted that were onely Marsh) are in all appeareance alike good proportionable to their biggnes with high bankes richly crowned with timber of the largest size soe that of what we sawe in this sound onely might be found habitations for thousands of people with conveniencyes for their stock of all kinds in Such away of accomodation as is not comon, And if the Sound goe through to such a great River as the Indians talk of (which seemes very probable) It will putt an additionall value upon the Settlement that shall be made in it, It abounds besides with oyster bankes and such heaps of shells as which noe time cann consume but this benefitt it hath but in comon with all the Rivers betweene this and Harvy Haven which are stored with the necessary materiall for time for many ages and lying soe conveniently that what ever neere river or creeke you cann thinke fitt to sett a house there you may place your lime kill alsoe and possibly in the banke just by or very neere finde stay for your bricke kill &c: the great and frequent sculls of Fish wee mett with gives us expectation of advantage and imployment that way alsoe In sume wee could see of nothing here to bee wished for but good store of English Inhabitants and that wee all heartily prayed for, I gave my name the Honour of calling this sound by it, and do believe that if this place bee setled by us it may hence receive a longer duration then from any access within the reach of a rational hope.

Within night I retorned to the vessell and the next day being the 7th of July I took in some fresh water purposing that night to leave Port Royall and retorne homeward haveing in the discovery already made, exceeded all our own and therefore confident to answer all other Expectations besides each mans proper occasion hastened him and the consideration of the charge of the vessell hired att five and twenty pounds sterling per month made us earnest not to detaine for a minute of time unnecessarily. We alsoe designed our selves some daies to see the Country of Kywaha one of whose Inhabitants remained still with us for that onely purpose But a little before night the Cassique of Port Royall come aboard and brought with him a proper young fellowe whome hee made mee to understand to be his sisters sonne He demanded of mee when I would retorne thither and shewing mee the moone asked whether within

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three times of her compleating her orbe, I told him noe, but in tenn monthes I would, he seemed troubled att the length of time and as it were begged mee to come in five, but I continued my first given number. Att length hee gave mee this young fellowe told mee hee should goe and retorne with mee and that I must clothe him & then hee asked mee when I would sayle I told him presently that night but hee very much importuned mee to stay untill the next day that he might prepare mee some venison and made signes as hee parted that if in the morning hee should not see mee hee should crye and soe hee left mee and the Indian with mee I was somewhat pleased with the adventure haveing before I came on the discovery wished that if I liked the Country I might prevaile with the Indians to lett one of their Nation goe with mee I leaving an Englishman in their roome for the mutuall learning their language And to that purpose one of my Company Mr Henry Woodward a chirurgeon had before I sett out assured mee his resolution to stay with the Indians if I should think convenient wherefore I resolved to stay till the morning to see if the Indians would remaine constant in this intention, according to which I purpose to treat further with them on the morrow therefore I went a shoare to their Towne took Woodward and the Indian with mee and in presence of all the Inhabitants of the place and of the fellows relations asked if they approved of his going along with mee, they all with one voyce consented after some pause I called the Cassique and another old man (his second in authority) and their wives and in sight and heareing of the whole Towne delivered Woodward into their charge, telling them that when I retorned I would require him att their hands they received him with such high Testimonyes of joy and thankfullness as hughely confirmed to me their great desire of our Friendshipp and Society. The Cassique placed Woodward by him upon the Throne and after lead him forth and shewed him a large field of Maiz which hee told him should be his, then hee brough him the sister of the Indian that I had with mee telling him that shee should tend him and dress his victualls and bee carefull of him that soe her brother might bee the better used amongst us—I stayed a while being wonderous civilly treated after their manner and giveing Woodward formall possession of the whole Country to hold as Tennant at Will of the Right Honble Lords Proprietors, I retorned aboard and imediately weighed and fell downe—

An Indian that came with mee from Eddistowe with Intention to goe noe further then Port Royall seeing the kindnes and mutuall obligation betweene us and the people of this place that his nation and tribe might bee within the League voluntarily offered himselfe to stay with mee alsoe

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and would not bee denyed, and thinking that soe hee should bee the more acceptable hee caused himselfe to bee shoaren on the Crowne after the manner of ths Port Royall Indians, a fashion which I guesse they have taken from the Spanish Fryers, thereby to ingratiate themselves with that Nation, and indeed all along I observed a kind of emulation amongst the three principall Indians of the Country (vizt:) those of Keywaha Eddistowe and Port Royall concerning us and our Friendshipp each contending to assure it to themselves and jealous of the other though all be allyed and this notwithstanding that they knew wee were in actuall warre with the natives att Clarendon and had killed and sent away many of them For they frequently discoursed with us concerning the warre, told us that the Natives were noughts, the land sandy and barren, their Country sickly, but if wee would come amongst them wee should finde the contrary to all their evills, and never any occasion of dischargeing our gunns but in merryment and for pastime.

The 10th of July in the morning I was fayre before the River that leadeth into the Country of Kywaha but the Indian of the place who undertooke to bee my guide and stayed all this while with mee for that onely purpose would not know it to be the same but confidently and constantly affirmed to mee that it was more easterly and att length when I was almost neere enough to goe in with great assureance and Joy he shewed mee a head land not farre off about which he affirmed the entrance to bee. This confidence of his made mee stand away but by that time I had sayled some two leagues hee sawe his Error when it was too late, for nowe the winde was soe that I could not fetch the River againe and if it had been fayre I was sure not to enter it before night, and I did not like the Complexion of the Heavens soe well as to trye that night upon the Coast.

The River lyes in a Bay between Harvey Haven and Cape St Romana wherein wee found 7 or 8 fathum water very neere the shoare, and not the least appearance of shoales or dangers in any part of itt It shewes with a very faire large opening cleare of any flatts or barre in the Entrance onely before the Easterne Point wee sawe a breach but not farre out I perswade myselfe that it leads into an excellent Country both from the Comendation the Indians give itt and from what I sawe in my ranging on the Easterne part of Harvey Haven the next neighbouring land to this wherefore in hopes that it may prove worthy the Dignity I called it the River Ashley, from the Right Honble Anthony Lord Ashley and to take away every little remaine of forraigne title to this Province I blotted out the name of St Romane putt before the next Easterly Cape

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and writt Cape Cartrett in the roome to evidence the more reall right of Sr George Cartrett as hee is a Lord Proprietor of Carolina—

The 12th of July about noone I entered Charles River and before darke night landed at Charles Towne in the County of Clarendon to the great rejoyceing of our Friends who yett received not our persons more gratefully then they did the Sound Comendations which they heard from every one of us without one dissonant note of that never enough to be valued country which wee had seene and searcht in which may be found ample Seats for many thousands of our Nation in a sociable and comfortable vicinity secured from any possible generall and from all probable particle Massacres with such other accommodations to boote as scarce any place cann parralell in a clime perfectly temperate to make the habitation pleasant and where such a fertile soyle cannot faile to yeild soe great a variety of Productions as will not give an absolute selfe subsistance to the place without all manner of necessary forraigne dependance but alsoe reach a trade to the Kingdome of England as great as that shee has with all her neighboars and render our Soveraigne Lord the King within his owne Dominions and the Lands possessed by his Natural English subjects universall Monarch of the Traffique and Comodity of the whole World

ROBT: SANDFORD

For a further confirmation hereof take this Testimoniall given of this Country by the principall Gentlemen with mee in this Discovery who have attested under their hands as much as I have sayd and yett noe more than what thousands had they been there would alsoe have affirmed—


Clarendon
in
Carolina

Wee whose names are hereunto subscribed having accompanied Lt Col: Robert Sandford in a voyage of Discovery on the Coast and Rivers of this province to the Southward and Westward of Cape St Romane as farre as the River Port Royall and being all of us persons well experienced in the nature and qualityes of the severall soyles in theise Regions and some of us by meanes of our Travells throughly acquainted with most parts of America Northerne and Southerne Continent and Islands Doe hereby declare and testefie to the whole World that the Country which we did and see from the river Grandy nowe Harvy Haven to Port Royall inclusive doth for richnes and fertillity of soyle for excellency of Rivers, havens, Creeks and Sounds for abundance of good Timber of diverse sorts and many other requisites both to land and sea building and

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for sundry rare accommodations both for Navigation and Plantation exceed all places that wee know in possession of our Nation in the West Indies and wee doe assure ourselves that a Colony of English here planted with a moderate support in their Infant tendernes would in a very short time improve themselves to a perfect Comonwealth injoying a selfe sufficiency of all the principall Necessaryes to life and abounding with a great variety of superfluetyes for the Invitation of Forraigne Comerce and trade and which for its scite and production would be of more advantage to our Native Country the Kingdome of England and to the Grandeur of our soveraigne Lord the King his Crowne and dignity then any (we may say all) his other Dominions in America And wee doe further avouch that this Country may bee more securely setled and cheaply defended from any the attempts of its native Inhabitants then any of those other places which our Countrymen have refined from the Drosse of Indian Barbarisme In Witnes whereof wee have hereunto sett our hands this 14th of July 1666.

HENRY BRAYNE.
RICHD: ABRAHALL.
THOMAS GILES.
GEORGE CARY
SAMll HARVEY
JOSEPH WOORY.