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Colonial and State Records of North Carolina
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Description of Carolina and the settlement in the Cape Fear Area (Clarendon County) [Extract]
No Author
1666
Volume 01, Pages 155-157

[Reprinted from A Copy in the “Swain Collection.”]
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCE OF CAROLINA, ON THE COASTS OF FLORIDA; AND MORE PARTICULARLY OF A NEW PLANTATION BEGUN BY THE ENGLISH AT CAPE FEARE, ON THAT RIVER, NOW BY THEM CALLED CHARLES RIVER, THE 29th OF MAY, 1664. WHEREIN IS SET FORTH THE HEALTHFULNESS OF THE AIR, THE FERTILITY OF THE EARTH AND WATERS, AND THE GREAT PLEASURE AND PROFIT WILL ACCRUE TO THOSE THAT SHALL GO THITHER TO ENJOY THE SAME. ALSO DIRECTIONS AND ADVICE TO SUCH AS SHALL GO THITHER, WHETHER ON THEIR OWN ACCOUNTS OR TO SERVE UNDER ANOTHER. TOGETHER WITH A MOST ACURATE MAP OF THE WHOLE PROVINCE, LONDON: PRINTED FOR ROBERT HORNE, IN THE FIRST COURT OF GRESHAM COLLEGE, NEAR BISHOPSGATE-STREET. 1666.

A. Brief Description of the Province of Carolina, &c. Carolina is a fair and spacious province on the continent of America, so called in honor of his sacred majesty that now is, Charles the Second, whom God preserve; and his majesty has been pleased to grant the same to certain honorable persons, who in order to the speedy planting of the same, have granted divers privileges and advantages to such as shall transport themselves and servants in convenient time.

* * * * * *

There is seated in this province two colonies already: one on the river Roanoak (now called Albemarle River), and borders on Virginia; the

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other at Cape Feare, two degrees more southerly; of which follows a more particular description.

This province of Carolina is situate on the main continent of America, between the degrees of 30 and 36, and hath on the north, the south part of Virginia; on the south is bounded by the 30th degree of latitude, not yet fully discovered; on the east is Mare Atlanticum, part of the great ocean; and on the west the wealthy South sea is its confines.

The particular description of Cape Feare. In the midst of this fertile province, in the latitude of 34 degrees, there is a colony of English seated, who landed there 29th. May, Anno 1664, and are in all about eight hundred persons, who have overcome all the difficulties that attend the first attempts, and have cleared the way for those that come after, who will find good houses to be in whilst their own are in building; good forts to secure them from their enemies; and many things brought from other parts there, increasing to their no small advantage.

* * * * * * *

The chief of the privileges are as follows:

First there is full and free liberty of conscience granted to all, so that no man is to be molested or called in question for matters of religious concern; but every one to be obedient to the civil government, worshipping God after their own way.

Secondly. There is freedom from custom for all wine, silk, raisins, currants, oil, olives, and almonds, that shall be raised in the province for seven years, after four tons of any of those commodities shall be imported in one bottom.

Thirdly. Every free man and free woman that transport themselves and servants by the 25th of March next, being 1667, shall have for himself, wife, children, and men-servants, for each, one hundred acres of land for him and his heirs forever, and for every woman-servant and slave fifty acres, paying at most ½ d. per acre per annum, in lieu of all demands, to the lords proprietors: Provided always that every man be armed with a good musket, full bore, ten pounds of powder, and twenty pounds of bullet, and six months' provision for all, to serve them whilst they raise provision in that country.

Fourthly. Every man servant at the expiration of their time is to have of the country a hundred acres of land to him and his heirs forever, paying only ½ d. per acre per annum, and the women fifty acres of land on the same conditions; their masters also are to allow them two suits of apparel, and tools such as he is best able to work with, according to the custom of the country.

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Fifthly. They are to have a governor and council appointed from among themselves, to see the laws of Assembly put in due execution; but the governor is to rule but three years, and then learn to obey; also he hath no power to lay any tax, or make or abrogate any law, without the consent of the Colony in their Assembly.

Sixthly. They are to choose annually from among themselves a certain number of men according to their divisions, which constitute the General Assembly, with the governor and his council, and have the sole power of making laws, and laying taxes for the common good when need shall require. These are the chief and fundamental privileges, but the right honorable lords proprietors have promised (and it is their interest so to do) to be ready to grant what other privileges may be found advantageous to the good of the colony.