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Journal of August Gottlieb Spangenberg's voyage to North Carolina to establish a Moravian Settlement [Translation]
Spangenberg, August Gottlieb, 1704-1792
September 13, 1752 - January 08, 1753
Volume 05, Pages 1-14

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[Translated from the Original in the Archives of the Moravian Church at Salem, N. C., by Rev. R. P. Lineback.]

Edenton Sept. 13. 1752.

The condition of the Indians in N. C. is rather a deplorable one. The tribe of Chowans is reduced to a few families. Their land has been taken away from them. The Tuscaroras live about 35 miles from here & are still in possession of a fine tract of land. They are a remnant of that tribe that waged war with N. C.; & then took refuge with the 5 Nations, & became incorporated with them. Those that have remained here are treated with great contempt, & will probably soon be entirely exterminated.

The Meherring Indians live farther to the West, & are also reduced to a mere handful. It would seem that a curse were resting upon them and oppressing them. Still farther to the West are the Catawbas. They have been at war with the 5 Nations. Beyond S. C. far to the South-west are the Cherokees, a strong tribe. They keep up connection with S. C. & make annual journeys thither to receive their “Presents.”

Granville Co. Sept 25. 1752. As regards the commerce of N. C. the prospect is bad, because there are no navagable streams, & hence there are difficulties in the way of shipping. As there is no opportunity for exportation the evil becomes greater; Edenton is one of the oldest towns in America, & yet it is hardly ¼ as large as Germantown, although it has a beautiful situation. There are other cities mentioned in the Law Book: but there are no houses—no people—they are only created cities by act of Assembly. Tobacco is raised in considerable quantities, but it is generally taken to Suffolk or Norfolk in Va Here it is examined by the Inspectors—i. e.

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the officers appointed for that purpose; all that is merchantable is selected—the remainder is burnt. The Va merchants ship that which is fit, & pay the Ca. farmers what they please for their tobacco. There are also large numbers of cattle taken to Va., but the N. Carolinians do not get the profits—they are reaped by the Virginians. The stock is taken to Va and there slaughtered, & sold with a profit, while the raiser suffers loss, as he receives pay only for the meat, after it is slaughtered. For the hide, tallow &c. the butcher pays him nothing. The same is the case with hogs. They are taken to Va, slaughtered, salted up, exported & sold as Va pork It is taken to West India & traded for rum, Sugar Molasses, &c. which the Carolinians buy—paying money for it.

As regards the different mechanical employments, it is about the same, as far west as 150 miles—the end of our travels. We scarcely found any mechanics at all. In Edenton I saw one blacksmith: one shoe-maker: & one tailor: if there are any more I did not see them.

Granville Co. Sept. 26. 1752. If we desire to become a separate corporation in N. C. we must become a Borough, Town, Village or County.

Should we form a corporation in N. C., we must have an act of Assembly for the purpose, confirmed by the King. We have passed through several counties in N. C. viz. Chowan, Bertie, Northampton, Edgecombe & Granville, as far as Mr. Salis', 153 miles from Edenton. Our way lies through Orange & Anson, which is the last county towards the West.

The land which we have seen has nothing remarkable, but yet, as we are told, has all been taken up—if at all available.

We sometimes travel 2 & 3 hours without finding anything but Pine Barrens—or stretches of White Sand covered with Pine. These districts are all taken up, I am informed, & the people make Tar, Pitch, Turpentine &c. If only these products could be conveyed to some stream & carried away by means of small craft to some port or other.

We saw some few stretches of country that produce some Oak & other trees—with some tolerable farms—though if you except the culture of Indian corn & raising of hogs there is but little done on these plantations. As far as cattle & stock are concerned—it is purely their care to see to it how they get through the winter; with horses it is no better. If they survive it—they survive it! Hay they have none for there are no meadows, & corn fodder & tops do not go far. Thus in winter the people have no milk at all, & when spring comes the cows are so nearly starved out as to be of little benefit till harvest. This may be the reason that their horses are not much larger than English colts—and their cows the size of their yearlings.

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The best lands lie along the rivers, i. e. the Chowan & Roanoke. But these streams are subject to freshets & the Roanoke often rises 25 ft. above common level.

Jno. Salis', Granville Co. 153 miles from Edenton. The Lord has here arrested our progress for a time & four of our company are suffering from remittant fever—of a bad type. N. C. about here is low, & there are many standing pools as well as running water & much malaria exists and causes many deaths. The brethren—Henry Antes, Jno. Merk, Herman Lash, & Timothy Horsefield are all down, & going through a severe sweating process—induced by a certain medicinal herb.

We probably contracted the fever in Edenton as it is a regular fever nest & lies very low. The streams have no ebb & flow nor tide, for the sand banks along the coast dam up the streams & prevent navigation—ergo there can be no commerce or travel in Va. In short there is not a navigable river in Lord Granville's district We propose to remain here, until our people are recovered & then to continue our journey. We are at present staying with a man who spent a year & a half in Guinea (Africa) The Captain with whom he sailed, deserted him; The negroes captured & bound him with the intention of killing him but set him free & treated him with kindness, & would gladly have kept him with them; but he sighed for his native land & availed himself of the first opportunity of returning thither. He & his wife treat us with the greatest kindness & consideration, & we pray that he may be abundantly recompensed.

N. C. Catawba River, Oct 28. 1752. Here I must remark on some of the difficulties incidental to the colonizing of this country. They will probably settle in Anson Co. Where? That remains to be seen, as we know not.

They will require salt & other necessaries which they can neither manufacture nor raise. Either they must go to Charleston, which is 300 miles distant. The distance is not the only objection—on the road they have mostly stinking water to drink; & are in danger on account of robbers. Or else, they must go to Boling's Point in Va on a branch of the James, & is also 300 miles from here. This is the usual course of the Planters who usually require several weeks to make the trip. The roads are bad & there are many streams & bad hills to cross; or else they must go down the Roanoke—I know not how many miles—where salt is brought up from the Cape Fear—but here there is no proper road laid out as yet Possibly a saltpeter manufactory might be of advantage here; but that is all in the dim & distant future.

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Forks of Little River, South side Brushy Mt. in Camp. Nov. 5. 52. I must say something of the surveying in N. C. as it is carried on in all our land measurements The Surveyor has received strict orders from Lord Granville's Agents, to run no other lines but N. S. E. & W. I have spoken much about this matter with Mr. Churton—who certainly is a reasonable man—but he always pleads his orders, & says he must abide by them. In the next place I would suggest to the brethren, that when they come to possess the land, it might be of great advantage to avail themselves of the services of the hunters whom we have to assist us to find the different bodies & tracts of land which we take up. Their names are Henry Day, who lives in Granville Co. Near Mr. Jno. Salis', Jno. Perkins who lives on the Catawba River & is known to Andrew Lambert, a well known Scotchman; & Jno Rhode, who lives about 20 miles from Capt Sennit on the Yadkin road. I mention these items, because no one about here knows anything about our lands nor their boundaries. I especially recommend Jno Perkins as a diligent & trustworthy man & a friend to the brethren.

In the 3rd place I would say that our surveyor only measures three sides of a tract, & says it is a lawful survey. I state this that the brethren may not trouble themselves for nothing, seeking the marks on the trees on the 4th side.

I would state that the surveyor has made great objections (& caused us much trouble) to measuring small tracts. I had much difficulty in inducing him to survey the smaller parcels in the forks of Little River, & the 1000 acre tracts along the Catawba. In the warrant from My Lord Granville it is mentioned, that for every 5000 acres surveyed the surveyor receives 3£ sterling—which the surveyor interprets as meaning that we are only to take such sized parcels. But should we do so there would be too much mountain & barren land in the survey. It would almost seem as if we would be compelled to take them in—mountain & all—as we can hardly otherwise get our land in one piece.

There are many small tracts of 1, 2 or 300 acres which we did not get into our survey—tho' they lie along our line. The surveyor is excessively scrupulous & strenuously opposes the surveying of any piece of land that is not square. I have spoken to Mr. Corbin—requesting him not to dispose of these tracts to any one but the brethren, in the event of their coming to this part of the country.

From the Camp at Little River—20 miles from the Catawba River—& the mouth of Little River—Anson Co. N. C. This is the first piece of land which we have taken up. It lies at the 2 branches of Little River, of which one flows S. West, & the other S. East. Little River

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flows into the Catawba, about 20 mls. from Andrew Lamberts, a well known Scotchman.

We finished the survey to day.

This piece of land contains 1000 acres—(the acres 160 Rods). The best of the land is the low land—which lies between two hills, in a curve like an elbow. This land is all very rich, & is at times overflowed by Little River. This tract extends about 3 miles in the curve—contains about 300 acres—The most of it is already cleared & has been cultivated in corn & hemp. Hemp is not only useful for domestic purposes—but there is a bounty on it to encourage its culture. Wood is not so abundant but there is still enough for all ordinary purposes. For stock raising it is very convenient, & 10 families could readily make a comfortable living here. There is abundant opportunity for making meadows—though stock could easily subsist in winter in the reed thickets as they remain green all winter—& cows & horses are very fond of the reed blades.

There is no lack of water courses in the bottoms & there is a fine site for an overshot (wheel) mill—both in the N. & E. side of the tract: Upon the whole the bottom has an abundance of water courses, not only from the creek which has such steep banks as to render it too steep for fording—(except where buffaloes have made a ford) but it abounds in springs also. There are also stones here suitable for building purposes—but no limestone. Indeed it is said there is no limestone this side of the Alleghanies. That is the reason there are nothing but very indifferent houses of wood to be met with about here. About 14 miles from here lives a family of Scotch Irish: there is said to be a mill there, but there is neither road nor way leading to it

Brother Henry Antes thinks mill stones may be found within the limits of the tract we have taken up. Joining the upland tract, are several hundred acres, of good woodland, also a piece of bottom which may be secured by the brethren at some future day & time if found desirable.

Nov. 7. 1752. Second Fork Little River in the Brushy Mountains—2 miles fr. 1st Fork. This is now the 2nd place where we have camped to take up land. What has especially induced us to do so, is the fact that there is here much lowland, & is near the First Fork. This lowland comprising about 200 acres is not only watered by Little River, but by numberless streams issuing from the mountains. By conducting a stream of water fr. Little River—to the N. side of the mountain—wh. could be done without much difficulty, a very excellent Mill could be built. wh. would be exempt from the high water which so often prevails here. Stone is found here for building purposes—but neither lime

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nor limestone. Abundance of good wood, with excellent soil is the rule. For the culture of hemp & corn the soil is good; & in most respects this tract excels the first one taken up by us.

A short distance eastwardly from here we come to an admirable piece of land, alongside the bottom, which has the benefit of the sunshine all day long. With a little labor water could be brought here from Little River—also a mountain stream which would furnish fresh cold water for household purposes. And here there would thus be water power enough to run a grist & saw mill, for both sections in this tract. Along the W. side is a hillside of very rich soil, & thickly covered with locust trees.

Nov. 12. 1752. In Camp on the Catawba River. We are here in the neighborhood of what may be called “Indian Pass.” As we believe it is the Lords purpose to confer a blessing on the Catawba & Cherokee Indians—by means of the Brethren—we resolved to take up some land here. There are about 200 acres of land (bottom) & along this strip, are 1 or 200 acres more, of very good quality, a kind of second bottom. This lowland is a narrow strip,—but is good and well timbered, & is suitable for meadow & wheat land. This piece has such a steep bank, that it is not easily reached by the Catawba freshets. A number of hills bound this tract, between which several strong Springs as well as creeks wind along & furnish water power for several mills. Here we have taken up a piece of over 1,000 acres which is three miles long, & half a mile wide embracing a portion of every hill. Tis a pleasant locality & is peculiarly attractive. The hills are wooded, in part with pine trees. By judicious management the forests can be improved, as they have been partially ruined by the Indians, when they set the woods on fire, to drive the deer to certain localities, that they might be more easily taken. Portions of the hills may also be made useful for corn culture, more especially where they be near the bottoms. The next settlement from here is that of Jonathan Weiss more familiarly known as Johnathan Perrot. This man is a hunter & lives 20 miles from here. There are many hunters about here, who live like the Indians, they kill many deer selling their hides, & thus live without much work.

Nov. 19, 1752. From the camp of the Middle River of the three Rivers which flow into the Catawba, near Quaker Meadows.

We are now in the forest, 50 miles from all the settlements. We arrived here last Thursday & struck up camp—& rode about until in the night—& found all we thought was required for a settlement.

Very rich fertile bottoms, the like of which we had as yet seen nowhere in Carolina, & some of which could be cultivated many years

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before it could be impoverished. They lie at the foot of very rich hills from which the rain would rush down the rich soil & keep them always fertile. There is also a good deal of land that lies somewhat higher, which is well adapted to the culture of wheat & Indian corn. There are many springs & streams & even creeks, the water of which is as clear and sweet as any one could possibly wish. Further down is the river—higher up there are two branches which unite & form the river the waters of which are clear as crystal. Bottoms & uplands are well stocked with wood. For stock this is an excellent country, as the reeds are still quite green: This is fortunate as our horses would otherwise perish. There are many places which could be converted into good meadows & many more could be made because the water from the streams could be so conducted as to irrigate the land with but little labor. The soil along the hill is a rich clay: in the bottom it is black soil. For the erection of mills there is abundant water & fall—stones are plentiful, & as we believe suitable for grindstones, but no limestone.

'Tis to be regretted that so much good land is not in one piece—& that the hills which are fertile are so very steep that they can not be plowed as they would make such good wheat land. Our survey begins 7 or 8 miles from the mouth of the River where it flows into the Catawba. What lies farther down the river has already been taken up. The other line of the survey runs close to the Blue Ridge. I must add that we were compelled to take in a number of high hills which are bare of trees & useless for cultivation. But this is not to be avoided. This piece thus consists of about 6000 acres. We can have at least 8 settlements in this tract & each will have water enough, wood enough & land enough; and very good land & meadow land in abundance; & I calculate to every settlement 8 couples of brethren & sisters. How the roads are to be laid out I know not. We crossed high & steep hills in coming here, & calculate the distance from the Catawba land to be about 18 miles; the road lies in a N. W. direction (but why do I speak of road when there is none but what the Buffaloes have made). The hills run to the very water's edge, & one hill rises behind the other. But possibly something may manifest itself which as yet we do not see. Our surveyor & his Company were stopped here by 6 Cherokees. They were out on a hunt & were coming through the woods; however they soon became very friendly. The whole woods are full of Cherokee Indians; we come upon their traces very often wherever we go. They are now engaged in hunting.

Nov. 24, 1752. From the camp in the Fork of the Third River wh. empties into the Catawba near Quaker Meadows—about 5 miles from

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Table Mountain. This is now the 5th piece of land wh. we have surveyed. “A fine piece of land,” between 7 & 800 acres. The greater part is bottom which lies on 2 creeks. The country is further watered by different smaller streams & there are fine springs in different localities. The land is in several places very rich, & up to this time has been a Buffalo pasture, whose tracks & paths may yet be ascertained, & found to be useful. Frequently however, their tracks can not be followed—for they go through “thick & thin,” & thro' the deepest morasses & rivers—& often they are so steep that a man may roll down, or fall down, but he can neither ride nor go down them. There is also good light soil & good wheat land.

On some of the pieces the soil is too rich for wheat, but is more suitable for corn, tobacco hemp &c. There is a moderate supply of wood on it. The survey takes in several hills which are not so steep, & may therefore be used for farming purposes. Others have some trees on them—which fact is not to be despised. Others are so barren, that they are scarcely available for anything. But we have less barren land here than in any of our surveys, as the land was more favorable for the prescribed N. C. method of surveying.

Should it be desirable to build mills, there is sufficiency of water & of fall: & there are several places suitable for buildings, to which the water from springs might easily be brought. With stock raising there are here also great facilities, as the cattle could live through the winter on the cane that grows along the streams.

The wolves wh. are not like those in Germany, Poland & Lifland (because they fear men & dont easily come near) give us such music of 6 different cornets the like of wh. I have never heard in my life.

Several brethren, skilled in hunting will be required to exterminate panthers, wolves &c. not only here but in the other places also. They will thus not only obtain the hide of the animal but there is a bounty of 10 shillings for every panther & wolf that is killed: besides such men will be needed to furnish game from the wood to help the larder. Two settlements of 6 or more couples would find room enough in this survey.

Nov. 28. 1752. Old Indian Field N. E. Branch of Middle Little River. We arrived here on the 25th & resolved to take up some land. It is lowland (bottom) lying on two streams—the one larger than the other, & both containing excellent water. These streams are well adapted to mill purposes, & have this additional advantage that they never freeze in winter, being purely spring water.

There are more than 20 springs among the mountains here which pour their waters into the creeks whose sides are covered with reeds. These

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bottoms are mostly rich & moist & would make fine meadows: part is quite dry & would be well adapted to the culture of corn, hemp, tobacco &c. Wheat would not do well here, as it is too rich, tho' by repeated crops of corn it might be brought to raise wheat also. For stock culture it also suits well—for there are nothing but mountains all around, & the reeds on the streams would feed stock the whole winter until tame grass could be raised. When there are so many neighbors about there is not so much opportunity for stock raising & they all keep stock & that renders the pastures bare. In order to embrace all the bottom—we are compelled to take in a good many mountain districts—& thus this tract contains 2000 Acres. But there is nothing lost, for if we have taken in some barrens, there are many of the mountains that are not too steep to be plowed near the bottoms—& thus may be cultivated. Furthermore—the most of the mountains are covered with forests—&, in fact, there is a superabundauce of wood.

The strips of land lying between the mountains will make beautiful meadows. Below our land, there is another large piece of bottom which the brethren can hereafter take up, should they finally settle here.

That Indians once lived here, is very evident, (possibly before the war which they waged with the Whites in N. C.) from the remains of an Indian fort: as also the tame grass wh. is still growing about the old residences, & from the trees. It may have been 50 years since they left this locality Two settlements might be made here—each numbering 10 couples—& these would be amply supplied with Land, meadow, wood, water & pasture for stock. Furthermore this tract bounds the 600 acre piece which we took up on Middle Little River, from wh. it is separated by an E & W. line.

Nov. 29. 1752. From the Camp at the Upper Fork of the 2nd or Middle Little River, wh. flows into the Catawba not far from Quaker Meadows. We are now in a locality that has probably been but seldom trodden by the foot of man since the Creation of the World. For 70 or 80 miles we have been traveling over terrible mountains, & along very dangerous places where there was no way at all. With respect to this locality where we are now encamped—one might call it a Basin or Kettle. It is a cove in the mountains & is very rich soil. Two creeks—one larger than the other—flow through it. Various springs of very sweet water form lovely meadow lands. Mills may easily be built, as there is fall enough. Below the forks, the stream becomes quite a large one. Of wood there is no lack. Our horses find abundant pasture among the buffaloe haunts, & tame grass among the springs, wh. they eat greedily, & certainly the settlers of this place can very soon make meadows if they wish.

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Not only is this land suitable for hemp, oats barley &c. but there is excellent wheat land here also. There is also abundance of stone, not on the land, but on the surrounding mountains. (It will not be a matter of surprise, that I should mention this fact, to any one who has traveled in portions of S. & N. C. where for hundreds of miles there is not stone enough to rest a log upon.) I must add that there is not the tenth part of stones in these mountains that are found in many mountains in Pa. This survey would contain in itself all the requisites to make comfortable farms & homes for about 10 couples.

Dec 3. 1752. From the Camp on a River in an old Indian field, wh. is either the Head, or a branch of New River, wh. flows through N. C. to Va & into the Miss. River. Here we have at length arrived after a very toilsome journey, over fearful mountains & dangerous cliffs. A hunter whom we had taken along to show us the way to the Yadkin, missed the right path, & we came into a region from wh. there was no outlet, except by climbing up an indescribably steep mountain. Part of the way we had to crawl on hands and feet; sometimes we had to take the baggage & saddles & the horses, & drag them up the mountains (for the horses were in danger of falling down backward—as we had once had an experience) & sometimes we had to pull the horses up, while they trembled & quivered like leaves.

Arrived on the top at last, we saw hundreds of mountain peaks all around us, presenting a spectacle like ocean waves in a storm. We refreshed ourselves a little on the mountain top, & then began the descent wh. was neither so steep, nor as deep as before, & then we came to a stream of water. Oh how refreshing this water was to us! We sought pasture for our horses, & rode a long distance, until in the night, but found none but dry leaves. We could have wept with sympathy for the poor beasts. The night had already come over us, so we could not put up our tent. We camped under the trees & had a very quiet night. The next day we journeyed on: got into laurel bushes & beaver dams, & had to cut our way through bushes wh. fatigued our company very much.

Then we changed our course—left the River & went up the mountain, where the Lord brought us to a delicious spring—& good pasturage on a chestnut ridge. He sent us also at this juncture two deer—which were most acceptable additions to our larder. The next day we came to a creek, so full of rocks that we could not possibly cross it; & on both sides were such precipitous banks, that scarcely a man, & certainly no horse could climb them. Here we took some refreshments for we were weary. But our horses had nothing—absolutely nothing—this pained

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us inexpressibly. Directly came a hunter who had climbed a mountain, & had seen a large meadow. Thereupon we scrambled down to the water, dragged ourselves along the mountain & came before night into a large plain.

This caused rejoicing for men and beasts. We pitched our tent, but scarcely had we finished when such a fierce wind storm burst upon us, that we could scarcely protect ourselves against it. I can not remember that I have ever in Winter anywhere encountered so hard, or so cold a wind. The ground was soon covered with snow ankle deep—& the water froze for us aside the fire. Our people became thoroughly disheartened. Our horses would certainly perish & we with them. The next day we had fine sunshine, & then warmer days though the nights were “horribly” cold. Then we went to examine the land. A large part of it is already cleared & there long grass abounds, and this is all bottom.

Three creeks flow together here, & make a considerable river which flows into the Ohio, & thence into the Miss. according to the best knowledge of our hunters. In addition there are almost countless springs & little runs of water, wh. come from the mountains & flow through the country making almost more meadowland, than one could make use of. There is not a trace of reeds here, but so much grass land, that Brother H. Antes thinks a man could make several hundred loads of hay of the wild grass, wh. would answer very well if it only be cut & cured at the proper time. There is land here suitable for wheat, corn, Oats, barley, hemp &c. Some of the land will probably be flooded when there is high water. There is a magnificent Chestnut and Pine forest near here. Whetstones & mill stones wh. Brother Antes regards the best he has seen in N. C. are plenty. The soil is here mostly limestone & of a cold nature. The Waters are all higher than on the E. side of the Blue Ridge. We surveyed this land, & took up 5400 acres in our lines. We have a good many mountains, but they are very fertile and admit of cultivation. Some of them are already covered with wood, and are easily accessible. Many hundred—yes thousand crab-apple trees grow here—wh. may be useful for vinegar. One of the creeks presents a number of admirable seats for milling purposes.

This survey lies about 15 miles from the Va. line, as we saw the Meadow Mountain, & judged it to be about 20 miles distant. This mountain lies 5 miles from the line between Va & N. C. In all probability this tract would make an admirable settlement for Christian Indians, like Gradenhütten in Pa. There is wood, mast, wild game, fish, & a free range for hunting, & admirable land for corn, potatoes, &c.

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For stock raising, it is also incomparable. Meadow land & pasture in abundance.

Dec. 14. 1752. Camp on Headwaters of Yadkin—where W. & S. Branches make a Fork. Here we have arrived safely at last, after a bitter journey among the mountains. We virtually lost ourselves in the mountains, & whichever way we turned—we were literally walled in on all sides. None of us had ever been in that region—& path & road were unknown to us. But why speak of roads & paths where there were none. We had nothing but bleak mountains, & dry valleys to traverse, & because we followed the river several days in hopes of escaping from the mountains, we were only getting down deeper all the time, for the river flowed N. & S. & E. & W., in short all points of the compass. At last we determined to keep a course between E & S., & to scramble across the mountains as well as we could. One mt. rose up beyond the others, & thus we pursued our way, between fear on one side—& hope on the other. We suffered very much on account of our poor horses, as they had nothing to eat.

At last we came to a very rapid stream, that flowed down the mountain. We followed it, & successfully reached this side of the Blue Ridge. We were fortunate also to find pasture for the horses, What a joy this was to all! Here we again killed two deer, & as we, for several days, had had very scanty larder—there was rejoicing in the Camp. We thus found ourselves at the N. Branch of the Yadkin. From here we hastened to the Yadkin itself. Upon our arrival here we found a fine piece of land—we resolved to survey it—while our horses were recruiting among the reeds.

But here my dear Bro. Antes became very sick. Several days ago he had cut himself very severely in the hand—& then travelling on with us he had caught cold in the wound, wh. caused such intense pain in the arm as to be almost beyond endurance. But here the Lord helped us. We came upon some whites They were returning from a deer hunt, & were riding on the other side of the Yadkin, as we camped on this side. The man's name was Owen, of Welch stock, who had only settled here in the Spring. He invited us into his house & treated us very kindly. The next day we went to his house, & pitched our tent there as his house was too small to admit all.

As regards the land wh. we surveyed it lies on both sides the Yadkin, 3 or 4 miles down the river; & takes in the N. & S. Fork. Many springs & many streams flow through the lowlands of the River. Quantities of cane grow here—& should brethren come to this place, they can winter their cattle among them for several years. A number of meadows

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can be made here—for nature has adapted the soil & land to that purpose—The soil is rich & of a warm nature.

Those mountains wh. come within our range have fine woods, though only in part. It has a very desirable situation. It is probable the lowland may be flooded in high water; still I believe this to be one of the finest pieces we have thus far surveyed.

Dec. 20th 1752. From the Camp on the Yadkin—near the Mulberry Fields—at Mr. Owen's house. Here by the Grace of God we have all arrived safely, except that H. Antes suffers very much from his arm. He has “Wound Fever,” & yet we are glad he can stay in Mr. Owen's house, & recruit himself somewhat. The rest are busy surveying; for we have found a splendid tract through Mr. Owen's suggestion. It lies on the Yadkin 4 miles below—opposite the Mulberry fields. These are Old Indian Fields—where the Cherokees probably lived once. They have a pleasant situation & remarkable fertility of soil. Morgan Bryant had taken them up but they are uninhabited. Our land, on the opposite side of the Yadkin, is not far from the first piece wh. we surveyed on the Yadkin. Could we buy the Mulberry tract, we would bring the land on both sides of the river together for a space of 10 miles—as we have already a fine tract on the Mulberry Field side—which joins Mr. Owen's land. As regards this tract just surveyed it is much like the other, as to require no further description. The nearest house, except Mr. Owen's is 60 miles distant.

Jany. 8. 1753. From the Camp on the Three Forks of Muddy Creek. It is the middle of Winter & we have a “smart” snow. We still camp out in the woods—sound, well & contented, in the care of our Heavenly Father. Towards the close of the year we came here, & found a body of land wh., perhaps better than any other, answers the desired purpose. Had we possessed correct information of this tract in the beginning—probably we would not have gone to the Waters of the Catawba, or New River. But the Lord has doubtless overruled this for wise purposes, so that the 100000 acres were taken up there—wh. may be reserved for some special purpose. As regards this land upon which we have camped, I regard it as a Corner which the Lord has reserved for the brethren. It lies in Anson Co., about 10 miles from the Yadkin, on the upper Pennsylvania road—some 20 miles from the Va line. It is designed to construct a road from here to a “Landing,” where goods brought on the Cape Fear may be brought, then conveyed to their destination. From here it is 150 miles to said Landing Place—Edenton is 350—the nearest mill is 19 miles distant The situation of this land is quite peculiar. It has countless springs & many creeks—so that as many mills can be built

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as may be desirable. These streams make many & fine meadow lands—& they may even be carried to lands that do not lie so low.

The stock would have excellent pasturage & might be kept for a number of winters among the reeds on the creeks. There is a great deal of bottom—wh. is not too wet & may be used for Indian corn, & other products of the farm.

Of the rest of the land, which is either quite level or somewhat inclined, there is a large quantity here, wh. is good for wheat, corn, &c. &c. A portion has but little timber, for the hunters have so often ruined it with fire; but it is still not to be despised. A good manager will cultivate this first, as he will have less trouble & can spare the forests. There are barrens here too, & if a man would say it was half good—one fourth bad—one fourth “middling” it would be correct. But all land in N. C. is so mixed, & no 600 acres can be taken up without some barrens. There is no lack of stone for building—& bro. H. Antes thinks there are good mill stone to be found. Compared with Nazareth land it is about equal—only that that has more meadow land than this.

The most of this land is level & plain, The air fresh & healthy—& the water good, especially the springs, wh. are said not to fail in summer. According to the laws—the hunting & fishing privileges are exclusively ours. In the beginning a good forester & hunter will be indispensable. The wolves & bears must be exterpated as soon as possible—or stock raising will be pursued under difficulties. The game in this region may also be very useful to the brethren in the first years of the colony. The whole piece as surveyed comprises from 72 to 73000 acres. This we divide into 14 pieces—wh. will not be of the same size—but will not differ very much & are about 10 miles long & 11 wide according as the creek flows.

The plots of these tracts Mr. Churton will make on his return to Edenton—& return them. Each tract has wood—water—meadow—& arable land. Every one who knows the land, says it is the only piece where so much good land may be found together, & among all the still vacant lands it is the best. And we rather believe that way also.