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(title page) The Third Reader, Designed for the Use of Primary Schools,
A. DE V. CHAUDRON.
Adopted for use in the Public Schools of Mobile.
W. G. Clark &Co., Publishers.
Call number 4044conf (Rare Book Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
LC Subject Headings:
Adopted for use in the Public Schools of Mobile.
THE THIRD READER being designed for children between the ages of nine and eleven, the Author has been compelled, as in her preceding books, to sacrifice much to simplicity of diction. Such words, therefore, as were in the slightest degree, abstruse or difficult to enunciate, she has not hesitated to paraphrase.
With regard to definitions, she has attempted them with diffidence. It was impossible to satisfy the exactions of a scientific lexicology, while interpreting the sense of words to little minds. The Author has therefore, to the best of her knowledge, addressed her explanations to children, without any reference to a technical accuracy, fit to stand the ordeal of grown-up criticism.
With this understanding, the "THIRD READER" has been respectfully submitted to some of the most accomplished grammarians in the State, and has received their approval.
Such expressions as "I wonder, at last, to be sure, news, quiet, popped" and others equally familiar, although they will be found defined in more advanced School Readers of the United States, are not defined in the Third Reader. Our Southern children are supposed to have learned the signification of such words from their infancy.
Some notice has been taken of colloquial errors.
In a language which from the very exuberance of its beauty, gives constant opportunity for inaccuracy of speech, such lapses must abound. Of these, a few of the most offensive, have been pointed out to our children.
Of the translations from "l'Ami des Enfans," a few will be familiar to the public; for Berquin's works, under every conceivable form, have been pilfered by English writers, for sixty years past. But in their many disguises, his stories have undergone such transformations, that it is hoped they will not seem stale in their original garb. To the author of "Sandford and Merton" (not Mr. Day, but Berquin) we are indebted for several hundred tales and dramas for children.
The translations from the German, it is believe, are new.
The Third Reader is the fruit of earnest and conscientious labor; and it is offered to the children of the Southern Confederacy, with the hope that their teachers will not be less indulgent to its errors, than they have always shown themselves towards those of the school-books, which before the war, were introduced into our schools, without ever having been subjected to the slightest criticism.
A. V. C.MOBILE, April 7th, 1863.
Heavenly Father! I am but a little child, wishing from my heart, to do Thy will.--Help me dear Lord when I am tempted to sin; bless and strengthen me when I try to be good; and O! forgive me the many, many things I do to offend Thee. Saviour, who on earth, didst suffer little children to come unto Thee, forbid me not, for I also would come near Thee to beg Thy blessing.
Make me an obedient child to my parents. May I never cause them shame or sorrow. Make me kind and loving to other children, above all to those whom Thou hast given me as brothers and sisters. Give me grace to be honest, and always to speak the truth, that I may never be ashamed to look up to heaven.
Have mercy, dear Father upon those children who have no one to make them good; and grant that we, who have been taught to know Thee, may do Thy will on earth, as the angels do in heaven, through Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen.
IT is not expected that the pupils for whom this grade of Reader is prepared, will be sufficiently advanced to read the Observations, the hints on Orthoepy, or the Definitions with which its pages are interspersed. The Teacher is requested to read them aloud, commenting upon the rules, supplying their deficiencies, and asking such questions in relation to them as his judgment may suggest.
The words defined may be spelled by the class; but upon the Teacher will devolve the reading of the explanatory clauses. Although much care and labor have been expended on the definitions, it cannot be expected that in all cases they should be complete, without the addition of some oral commentary.
The hyphens used to divide some words of three or more syllables, are for the convenience of the learners.
MY DEAR CHILDREN:--
You have learned in our two preceding books to read simple words. You must now take a step further, and learn to read in such a way as to show that you understand your lessons. Look over the little stories that have been written for you in this book; find out their meaning; and then try to read them as if you yourselves were telling them to other boys and girls.
To read well, you must not only pronounce correctly, but articulate clearly.
EXAMPLE.--In the word "desks" the three last letters (sks) must be distinctly articulated. In the word "society," the letters o, i, and e, must be correctly pronounced.
When you read, neither raise your voices unnaturally, nor lower them so as not to be heard. Throw back your shoulders and let your chests come forward, so as to give plenty of room to your lungs. Then, in a clear voice, pronounce every syllable of your words as distinctly as you can.
No habit can be worse than that which some children have of repeating or stammering when they read.
Now, while you are trying to read well, you must also learn to speak correctly. Attend to me while I tell you of various words and phrases which you must carefully avoid.
1st. That very remarkable form of the verb "to be," which runs as follows:
|I wä'nt||We wä'nt.|
|He, she, or it wä'nt.||You wä'nt.|
2d. The use of the preposition "without" for the conjunction "unless:" as "Without you improve, I shall not reward you;" instead of "Unless you improve," &c.
3d. The use of "what" and "for" in the place of the adverb "why:" as "What is he smiling for?" instead of "Why is he smiling?"
4th. The use of the preposition "like" for the subjunctive phrase "as if it were." Thus: "She looks like she was sick;" instead of "She looks as if she were sick." "He looks like he was angry," instead of "He looks as if he were angry."
5th. The frequent ending of your sentences with prepositions: as, "The place I was going to," instead of "The place to which I was going." "The man I was speaking to;" instead of "The man to whom I was speaking." "The door he was coming through;" instead of "The door through which he was coming."
6th. The addition of the letter s to the words "somewhere," "anywhere," "everywhere," "nowhere."
7th. The omission of words or parts of words; as, "Jogphiz 'scription 'th o[long e, macron]th." "Grammah'z art 'f speak un writin th' Englsh langzh 'th priutty." These two phrases are not caricatures of the manner in which many of you jumble your words together.
Of some other errors of speech, we have treated in the preface of the Second Reader. It will not be necessary to repeat these cautions in this book.
1. A Comma [,] is used to divide those parts of a sentence between which, if you were speaking, you would breathe, or stop long enough to say quickly "ONE."
2. A Semicolon [;] divides those parts of a sentence between which you would rapidly count "TWO."
3. A Colon [:] divides those parts of a long sentence between which you would rapidly count "THREE."
4. A Period [.] ends the sentence. After a Period we may count FOUR, FIVE, SIX, or more.
5. A Note of Interrogation [?] is always placed after a question: as, "Have you seen my kite?" "Can you spin a top?"
6. A Note of Exclamation [!] is placed after a sentence expressive of surprise, admiration, grief, horror, &c.: as, "O what a large apple!" "O what a pretty doll!" "What a dreadful misfortune!" "What a horrible sight!"
7. Quotation Marks [" "] enclose a sentence that has been spoken or written by another person: as, "My mother said to me, 'Dear child, always speak the truth!' "
We will now recapitulate these signs for you, that you may recognize them perfectly:
The word "deaf" is pronounced def.
Emma, is your father at home? (4)
Do you attend the public schools? (4)
Do you feel sick, to-day? (4)
Are you angry with me? (4)
Who took away my cap? (4)
Which of the books is mine? (4)
What is the matter? (4)
Whose pencil is this? (4)
Practice first the words that follow, and then the sentences.
Sound the R's--Poor, not pooah; matter, not mattuh; mother, not mothuh; warm, not wääm, &c.
Ring out the ng's--Going, not goin; letting, not lettin; darling, not darlin, &c.
Articulate the other Consonants--Clothes, not cloz; except, not excep; must, not muss, &c.
Aspirate the H's--Whether, not wether; when, not wen, &c.
Give its own peculiar sound to each unaccented vowel--Sorrow, not sorruh; sunshine, not sunshäeen; dïvide, not düvide; dried, not dräeed; children, not childrun; äre, not àre.
1. Mama. Come, little Ada, and pút on your bonnet. I am going to see a poor, sick woman, and I wish to take you with me.
2. Ada. What is the matter with her, Mama?
3. M. She is ill with a fever. She has two little girls, not older than you, and a baby. Their father is dead. He was killed in battle last year.
4. A. Poor little things! Papa says we must see that the soldiers' wives and children do not suffer this winter. Thank you, mama, for letting me go with you. What shall we take them?
5. M. Bring me that basket, and let us go into the pantry. First, we will take some tea and sugar for the sick mother, then you shall choose what you like for the children.
6. A. Some cakes and dried fruit, mama, if you please, and some milk and honey, and--
7. M. (smiling.) Stay, Ada, our basket will not hold milk or honey. The cakes and dried fruit can go; but if I may advise you, you will put a loaf of bread among the cakes.
8. A. Very well, mama, and what else?
9. M. Now we will go into the large closet up stairs, and look for some dresses and warm sacks for the poor children. There are other good things in the world besides cakes and fruit.
10. A. Yes indeed, mama, there are, but I thought their own mama would give them clothes. Nobody ever gives me clothes, except you.
11. M. True, Ada, but "their own mama" is too poor to buy new dresses for the children, and she is glad to have your old ones.
12. A. It must be very hard to be poor, to be cold, and not to have enough to eat. Why does not God make everybody rich?
13. M. I could give you many good reasons, Ada, why God has made some of us rich, and some poor; but of what it pleases Him to do, we have no right to ask the reason. There must be something good in poverty, for our dear Saviour, while He was on earth, chose to be very poor.
14. A. Does God then love the poor more than he does the rich? If he does, dear mama, let us throw away our money, and go among the poor. I want God to love me.
15. M. He does love you, darling. He loves all those who are good, be they rich or poor: the poor are very dear to God, when they bear their trials with patience for His sake; and the rich, He loves too, when like you, they äre ready not only to dïvide their riches with the poor, but to throw them away for the love of Him.
16. A. I am glad that I may be rich and be loved by God at the same time, for I would be very sorry to be so poor as to have nothing to give.
17. M. The poor can do a great deal for one another, my child. There are many things in this world to give, besides money, food, and clothes.
18. A. What else can we give, dear mama?
19. M. We can help with our hands, and with kind words. We can nurse the sick, comfort those who have sorrow, and be so good to others, that when they see us coming, they feel as you do when you see the sunshine.
20. A. O, how I wish that I could be such a person, Mama! Everybody loves the sunshine. But, mama, the rich can give "sunshine" as well as the poor, can they not?
21. M. Yes, my dear, they can add that to all the other things they have to give away.
22. A. (after a pause.) I think our God is very good, mama, for He seems willing to give us a chance to please Him, never mind whether we are rich or poor, large or small.
23. M. Indeed He does, darling, and I thank Him that He has put so wise a thought in my little girl's heart.
Sound the R's--Marbles, not määbles; arms, not ääms; were, not wàuh.
Ring out the ng's--Coming, not comin'.
Articulate the other consonants--Chest, not chess; pleased, not please'; friends, not friens; and, not an', &c.
Aspirate the H's--White, not wite; when, not wen.
Give to each vowel its own sound--Yellow, not yelluh; velvet, not velvut; Ellen, not Ellun; new, not noo; pût, not putt; doll, not dawl, &c.
Do not make use of the sound uh for her, of, and or; or of the sound um for him and them.
"At the top of his speed." This means that Hugh ran as fast as he could.
SPEED, the rate at which a body moves.
1. It is New Year's day. Hugh and Ellen are busy with the toys that have been given them by their mother, or sent them by their friends.
2. Hugh has a large india-rubber ball, a chest of tools, a stout wagon, a bag of marbles, and a paint-box. All these are very nice presents for a boy.
3. Ellen has a little table with a tea-set of white and gilt china. She has also a rich glass box, filled with sugarplums; an orange, some cakes, and a large wax doll.
4. This doll not only rolls her eyes, but she has waxen hands and feet. She is dressed in a pink silk slip with lace over it, and on her head, she has a yellow straw hat, trimmed with black velvet.
5. Ellen is so proud of her new doll, that she cannot put it down. She shows it to all those who come to wish her mother a happy New Year. I hope she will not break that pretty doll.
6. Ellen's little cousin Clara is coming to spend the day with her. They will set out the china, and take tea on the little table. The table is ready with sugar in the sugar-dish, and cakes in the plates.
7. By and by, when Clara comes, Ellen's maid, Winny, will bring in the tea and biscuits, and then she will wait on the table. The little girls will be very happy, playing tea-party.
8. They will be very happy if they are good and gentle; but if they should be selfish and cross, New Year's will be no better for them than the dullest day in the year.
9. Hugh is in the yard with his wagon. He runs at the top of his speed up and down the walks, and the noise made by his iron wheels, seems to give him great pleasure.
10. Boys are very fond of noise, and they are apt to forget that other people do not relish it quite as much as they. But I think if they are good boys, they can be quiet when they are asked to be so.
11. Hugh's wagon has a green body, lined with red, and the wheels are painted yellow. The wagon is large enough to hold Ellen and Clara, if Hugh should be so polite as to invite them to take a drive with him.
12. Hugh's ball, tools, marbles, and paint-box, are in the wagon; that being the only way in which he can contrive to enjoy all his New Year's gifts at the same time.
13. When-ever he stops, he opens the chest, takes out the tools and pûts them back. He rattles the marbles, looks into his paint-box, and then giving a kick to the football, he darts off with the wagon, and picks it up again.
14. How happy Hugh seems to be! The season is winter; but in our sweet South, the winters are so mild, that we often open our windows on New Year's; and never was the air softer, or the sun brighter than Hugh feels them to be, on this lovely day.
15. I wish that every little child I know, were as happy as Hugh and Ellen. But some children are poor, and have never had a toy in their lives.
16. Let us be kind to them, poor little things! God loves them very much, and He has promised to reward us if we give them so much as a cup of water, for His sake.
Sound the R's--Albert, dinner, father, morning, horse, hard, &c.
Ring out the ng's--Morning, trotting, looking, neighing.
Articulate the other consonants--Breakfast, softly, lastly.
Aspirate the H's--Which, when.
Distinguish between the vowels--Latin, sorrow, refused, behaved.
CA-RESS, a kiss or embrace.
IN-DUS-TRY, steady attention to work
RE-WARD, something given us for having done well.
1. Albert's bay pony, Fleeta, was one of the prettiest little ponies you ever saw. She had a black mane and tail; and her coat shone like satin.
2. She was so gentle, that when Albert called her, she knew his voice, and came trotting up at his call. Then she would bend her head for him to stroke it, and show her love by laying it against his breast.
3. The reason why Fleeta was so fond of her young master, was, that Albert always fed and curried her himself. Every morning, before he went to his own breakfast, he saw that his pony had hers; that she was washed, her dainty hoofs were cleaned, and she had a pail of fresh water to drink.
4. Every day, when Albert came from school, he went to visit Fleeta; and after dinner, she was saddled for a gallop through the woods. It was hard to say which was the happier of the two, when Albert was in the saddle.
5. One day, Albert's father came home, looking very sad. He had lost a great deal of money, and said he could afford to keep Fleeta no longer. He must sell his horses; and Albert's horse too, he said, must go.
6. Sell Fleeta!--Poor, poor Albert, how he cried! He thought he would die of grief, as many of us have thought when, like him, we were young, and had not yet known what it was to taste of sorrow.
7. He ran to the stable, and clung to Fleeta's neck, while she, knowing that something was wrong, tried to show her love by softly neighing in reply to Albert's sobs. He begged hard for his pet; but his father, although very sorry, could not grant his poor little son's prayer.
8. The next day, a man came for the pony. When she was led away. Albert tried to behave like a man, but he could not. He ran down the road, weeping, to take one last caress.
9. When the pony heard Albert's voice, she broke loose and galloped back through the open gate, until she stood in front of her dear little master. After that, she refused to follow any one else; and poor Albert had to mount and take her to her new owner.
10. Here another sad parting took place, when a friend of Albert's father, seeing his grief, bought her back, and sent her home. But Mr. ---- said that he could no longer afford to keep a pony.
11. Then Albert begged to be allowed to try if he could not earn his pony's food. The father gave his consent. He also gave his son a plot of ground. So Albert went to work with spade and hoe to make a garden.
12. He planted corn, peas and potatoes. The corn he saved for Fleeta, and of the stalks he cured fodder for her use also. He then sold his peas and potatoes to his father, and lastly he had a fine crop of grass, which made hay.
13. Albert's garden amply paid for Fleeta's food. His father was much pleased, and said that he had proved that he knew how to love, and was a dear, good child. You may be sure that this made Albert feel very happy.
14. At the end of a year, Mr. ----, whose affairs were not so bad as he had feared they were, was able to keep his horses again. On the day when the new carriage and horses came to the stable, Albert ran in great joy to look at them.
15. When he came inside of the stable, he saw hanging over Fleeta's stall a handsome new saddle and bridle. His father gave them to him as a reward for his industry, and told him that hereafter he would not have to work for Fleeta's food.
16. Albert was very glad; for he was only twelve years old, and for a year past he had had but little play.
REMARKS.--Very few children can be made to read verses, even tolerably. Very few grown persons have ever learned to read them well. The cause of this is to be traced, in some measure, to a natural deficiency, which no amount of culture can remedy; but it may also be attributable, in some degree, to the quality of the rhymes prepared by careless writers for children's books.
In selecting verses for these Primary Readers, without aspiring to present Poetry, we have tried to avoid doggerel.
Sound the R's--Mother, dear, pure, bitter, tears, earnest, heart, heard.
Ring out the ng's--Pleasing, kneeling.
Articulate the final consonants--Soft, earnest.
Aspirate the H's--When.
Pronounce the vowels correctly--Bright, not bräeet; night, not näeet; guile, not gäeele.
GUILE, sin, deceit.
EARN-EST, serious and sincere in intention.
1. "I will be good, dear mother,"
I heard a sweet child say;
"I will be good; now watch me--
I will be good all day."
2. She lifted up her bright young eyes
With soft and pleasing smile;
Then a mother's kiss was on her lips
So pure and free from guile.
3. And when night came, that little one
In kneeling down to pray,
Said, in a low and timid tone,
"Have I been good to-day?"
4. O many, many bitter tears
'T would save us, did we say,
Like that dear child, with earnest heart,
"I will be good to-day."
SONGS FOR THE LITTLE ONES AT HOME.
Sound the R's--Farm, birds, before, door, larger, water, arbor, &c.
Ring out the ng's--Going, looking, putting, lying, &c.
Articulate the final consonants--Filled, hatched, hoped.
Aspirate the H's--Where, when.
Give to each vowel its own sound--Fruit, yellow, windows.
PAD-DLING, playing in the water.
LAWN, a very large grass-plot.
1. Mary is going to live in the country. Her papa has sold his house in town, and has bought a farm. Mary is very happy to live in the country, where there are plenty of trees and grass; where the woods are filled with birds, the orchards with fruit, and the farm-yard with poultry.
2. To-day Mary went out in a carriage with her mother and father, to see their new house. They drove through a long, shady lane, and then the carriage swept around a circle, and drew up before the front door.
3. The house was very pretty. It had a pleasant, sunny parlor, with windows that opened to the floor, and a nice dining-room that looked out upon the garden.
4. Mary ran through the empty rooms, and laughed to hear how strange was the sound of her own voice when she spoke. Then she came and stood before one of the open windows that led to the garden.
5. There she saw a pretty, green lawn; and beyond it, so many gay flowers, that she begged her mother to let her have a romp by herself down the smooth, broad walk.
6. At the end of this walk was a grape-arbor, where she sat down and rested for a while under the cool, shady roof made by the leaves. The arbor was full of little green grapes, some no larger than a pea.
7. Further on, but fenced in, were peach, fig, pear and apple trees, laden with fruit. But the fruit was not yet
ripe, so Mary knew she must not ask for any, and having rested herself, she ran back to the house.
8. Her mother was not there, but Mary heard her voice not very far off. When she joined her mother, she saw flocks of turkeys, hens, ducks, and geese, and six of the hens had little broods just hatched.
9. Then there were young ducks, covered with yellow feathers, as soft as down. Mary thought them even prettier than the chickens. But as she stood looking at them paddling in a trough of water, a gander began to hiss at her, and Mary ran away.
10. Aunt Kitty, who had been there for a week, putting things to order, now took Mary with her to a sty, where a fat sow was lying on some straw in the midst of a litter of young pigs.
11. Then Mary's father took her to see the stables. On the roof of the stables was a fine, large pigeon-house; but there were no pigeons, though Mary hoped that some day or other they would find their way there.
12. At last, they went into the cow-yard. Aunt Kitty came out with her pail to milk the cows, and Mary's mama told her that she might choose a cow for herself. So Mary chose a red cow, whose name was Daisy.
13. Daisy had a young calf, and gave four gallons of milk a day. Aunt Kitty laughed, and said that Miss Mary had "a heap of sense," to take the best cow she had in her drove.
14. Mary said that she was not going to take Daisy, or Daisy's milk, from Aunt Kitty; but she would pet and feed her cow, in the hope that it would come to know and love her.
15. When they went back to the carriage to drive home, Mary told her father that she had never spent so happy a day in her life; and she hoped they were to move into the country very, very soon.
16. Mary will have her wish; for next week she will leave town for her new home; and when she is there, I hope she will be a good girl, and think of her Father in Heaven, who gives us every thing we have on earth.
17. And I hope that for love of HIM, she will be kind to other little boys and girls, who may not have so many comforts as she has, in her pretty country home.
Sound the R's--Dinner, surely, orchard, farmer, there, pear, &c.
Ring out the ng's--Walking, lying, saying, eating, &c.
Articulate all the consonants--Shalt, accept.
Aspirate the H's--While, What.
Pronounce the unaccented vowels--Yellow, reward.
HEDGE, a fence made of shrubbery.
ES-CAPE, the act of coming out of danger unhurt.
REL-ISH, pleasure produced by eating anything nice.
COM-MIT, to do.
1. A little boy was once walking in the country with his father, when they passed by an orchard. It was a warm day in the fall.
2. "Dear papa," said Fabian, "I am very hungry."
3. Mr. F. So am I, my son; but have patience. As soon as we get home, I shall order dinner.
4. Fabian. There is a fine pear-tree, papa, laden with large yellow pears. How I should like to have one!
5. Mr. F. So should I, Fabian, but you see that the pear-tree is not on the high-way, but in an orchard.
6. Fabian. Never mind, papa. I can easily creep through the hedge, and gather some for both of us.
7. Mr. F. And what would the owner of the orchard say to that?
8. Fabian. O, he is no doubt at home. I have just peeped in, and there is no one near to see us.
9. Mr. F. No one, Fabian? You mistake, my child. There is One very near, who not only will see, but will punish us, if we take what belongs to others.
10. Fabian. Who is near, papa? I see no one.
11. Mr. F. God is near; and he sees not only your acts, Fabian, but your very thoughts. GOD will see you, my son, and He has said: "Thou shalt not steal."
12. Fabian. O, dear papa, I had not thought of that, nor did I mean to steal! If that is stealing, I would not touch one of the pears for all the world.
13. Just then, a man who had been lying on the grass behind the hedge, rose up. It was the owner of the orchard, and he spoke to Fabian.
14. "I am glad to hear you say that, my boy," said he, "and you may thank God that your father was here, to warn you of the sin you were about to commit.
15. "At the foot of this very pear-tree is a man-trap, which, if it had caught your leg, would have broken it, and perhaps have lamed you for life. But since you were so willing to listen to your father's advice, I myself will give you some of my fruit."
16. So saying, the farmer shook the pear-tree, and down fell the pears in showers on the ground. He filled his hat with them, and handed it over the fence to Fabian.
17. Mr. F. would have paid for the fruit, but the good farmer would take no money. "No sir, no" said he, "I am really glad to reward your little boy; and if I were to take your money, I should lose all my pleasure."
18. Mr. F. thanked him and so did Fabian, who ran down the road, eating his pears with great relish.
19. Fabian. "What a kind old man!" cried he. "Do you not think so papa?"
20 Mrs. F. "Yes, my son, he seems not only kind, but wise. He has proved to you how much better it is to do right than wrong."
21. Fabian. But would God really have punished me, papa, if I had taken the pears?
22. Mr. F. My dear boy, you heard what the farmer said about the man-trap at the foot of the tree.
23. Fabian. My poor legs, what an escape they have had! Indeed, papa, I ought to thank you for saving them.
24. Mr. F. Thank God, my child, who spoke to you through the warning of your father.
TRANS. FROM THE FRENCH OF BERQUIN, BY A. V. C.
Sound the R's--Western, waters, father, mother, silver, under, over.
Ring out the ng's--Rolling, drooping.
Articulate the final consonants--Wind, (pron. wynde), and, rest, breast, nest, west.
Take heed that you distinctly sound the d in the word "and," which, in this little poem, being always followed by another consonant, is apt to be slighted.
Aspirate the H's--While, him.
Give the vowels their pure sound--Wind, not wäeend; while, not whäeel.
FROM TENNYSON'S POEM OF "THE PRINCESS." NOTE.--Before advancing any further in the study of Elocution, we must call the attention of our little learners to some very common colloquial errors, which, for want of a more scientific name, we will call AFRICANISMS. The following words bear so little resemblance to those for which they are substitutes, that we will treat them as grammatical "barbarisms," and translate them into English:
1. Sweet and low, sweet and low,
Wind of the western sea,
Low, low, breathe and blow,
Wind of the western sea!
2. Over the rolling waters go,
Come from the drooping moon, and blow,
Blow him again to me;
While my little one, while my pretty one sleeps.
3. Sleep and rest, sleep and rest,
Father will come to thee soon;
Rest, rest, on mother's breast,
Father will come to thee soon.
4. Father will come to his babe in the nest,
Silver sails all out of the west,
Under the silver moon;
Sleep, my little one, sleep, my pretty one, sleep.
FROM TENNYSON'S POEM OF "THE PRINCESS."
NOTE.--Before advancing any further in the study of Elocution, we must call the attention of our little learners to some very common colloquial errors, which, for want of a more scientific name, we will call AFRICANISMS.
The following words bear so little resemblance to those for which they are substitutes, that we will treat them as grammatical "barbarisms," and translate them into English:
Dey come dis mawnin' fum t'udder side ud dï river.
They came this morning from the other side of the river.
I seed um dat time, dough dey didden see me.
I saw them that time, though they did not see me.
Let no one suppose that these astounding barbarisms are current among the children of the illiterate alone. They are the dialect first learned by every young Southerner, from that dusky deity of his infantine worship, his "Mammy." Many a distinguished Southern orator has had to study hard before he could break himself of "Mammy's" Africanisms; and it is to spare our children this future trouble, that we call their attention to these errors.
Many of them may be corrected by paying attention to those little words which, in grammar, we call particles.
A few exercises are subjoined, merely as illustrative of the errors; but it would be superfluous to extend the examples, as every reading lesson in every book abounds with them:
The paper is in the desk, in the study, on the table.
Though an egg is small, it is strong food.
This boy is the brother of that one; they are twins.
These hats are of felt; those are of straw.
The girls went from one room to another.
I told them that this was not the man they sought.
While on the subject of provincialisms, we may as well remark that in some of the older States of the Southern Confederacy, mis-pronunciation seems to have been perpetuated as a matter of pride. We know of people who would be very sorry to call a "cow" anything but a cowooooo; a "house" anything but a houooose. They know that their accent is provincial, and they are proud of it. In another section of the Confederacy, people speak of their "H[long a, macron]äär," instead of hair; things are "b[long a, macron]ääd" or "s[long a, macron]ääd," not bad, or sad; and the boys of that portion of our country are "böö-oys". We do not speak of ignorant, but educated people.
Again, by Southerners who ought to know better, the word "Aunt" is converted into an unintelligible grunt, which no alphabetic characters in the English language are competent to represent. An approximation to the grunt may be found by exaggerating the nasal sound in the French word "en." In the same localities, the word "cannot," or its abbreviation, "can't," are converted into a rapid enunciation of the two French words "QUI EN." Thus: "I qui en do it."
We will not attempt to give demotic character to any more of these un-English sounds. If the few examples quoted have the effect of turning the attention of Southern teachers to the vulgar colloquial errors of their pupils, the lesson on "Africanisms" will have answered the end for which it was written.
Aspirate the H's--Which, when, whip.
Give to each vowel its own sound--Before, children, de-lighted, terrible, yellow.
Do not slight the little words.
Sound the R's--Large, curtain, turned, sharp, roar, feared, &c.
Ring out the ng's--Going, touching, feeling, looking, &c.
Articulate the consonants--Best, turned, limbs,shaped,fast, and,&c.
TENT, a shelter made of cloth.
SHAG-GY, having a rough coat.
GLOSS-Y, smooth and shining.
TO AT-TRACT, to draw attention.
GRACE-FUL, well formed, having pretty motions.
BRU-IN, a name given to bears.
1. A few days ago, Edwin and Susan went with their father to take a walk. After they had passed three or four streets, they came to a large open square, in the midst of which was a huge tent of canvas.
2. Edwin and Susan had seen many and many a soldier's tent, but they had never yet seen a tent as large as the one now before them. At the door stood a man, to whom their father gave some money.
3. As soon as he had the money, the man stepped aside and put back a curtain, when they all three passed inside, and what do you suppose was there?
4. Row upon row of iron cages as large as a farm wagon, in each one of which was to be seen a pair of lions, tigers, wolves and panthers. There was also a huge bear; then a crowd of people, who closed up the view.
5. The children knew that something very merry was going on at the other end of the tent, for they heard a good many faint squeaks, and a great deal of hearty laughter. But their father thought it best to keep away from the crowd, so they turned their atten-tion to the Lion.
6. There stood the king of beasts, his long mane almost touching the floor of his cage. Susan mistook him for the lioness, on account of his "long hair," as she called the mane.
7. Edwin thought that a lion had been much larger; but the keeper told him that this one was a monster in size. Just then he opened his great jaws, and showed such a deep throat and such long, sharp teeth, that Edwin drew back, not feeling safe, even with the iron bars between them.
8. This was not all. The shaggy lion shook himself and gave a roar. Such a roar! It made both Edwin and Susan start as if they had been shot; and after that, Edwin thought the lion not only a huge, but a very terrible fellow.
9. Next came the Tiger, the graceful, playful-looking tiger. The children were charmed with his beauty. Susan had often thought how pretty was the tiger-skin printed on her mother's carriage-blanket, but the tiger himself was far prettier.
10. His limbs were so well-shaped and his coat so glossy, that Edwin longed for a tiger's cub to pet; but his father told him that tigers were more cruel than lions, and much more to be feared.
11. The children cried out that they could scarcely believe such a thing. The tiger looked so much like Puss at home, that they felt like putting their hands through the bars to stroke his glossy coat.
12. The keeper shook his head, and said that if those little tender hands came within reach of the tiger's jaws, they would never be seen again. This made Susan turn pale; but Edwin held up his head, and said he was not afraid.
13. Neither of them cared for the bear. He was too ugly, poor Bruin! to attract our little boy and girl. But they moved quickly on towards a ring where stood a Shetland pony; and while Edwin was trying to think how much money it would take to buy him, up leaped a black monkey on his back.
14. A band of music struck up "Dixie," and away flew the pretty pony around the ring. At first the monkey clung to the pony's neck, but at the crack of the keeper's long whip, he jumped up and stood like a circus-rider.
15. And then he danced, and turned around, and played so many tricks that the children were all de-lighted. A second crack of the whip was heard, and the pony came to
a dead stop, the monkey flung himself to the ground, and the show was over.
16. Some-body threw an apple to Jacko. He picked it up and began to nibble at it as fast as he could; but the keeper cracked his whip, and cried out, "Make a bow sir." Down went the apple, and Jacko made three funny little bows. Then catching his apple again, he trotted off as fast as his legs could carry him.
17. Edwin and Susan would have staid longer; but all the rest of the people leaving, their father said that they too must go. He promised to bring them again, if they studied their lessons well, were good children, and loved one an-other as brother and sister ought to do.
Sound the R's--Surely, girl, purchase, purse, therefore, perched.
Ring out the ngs--Trying, needing.
Articulate the consonants--Child.
Aspirate the H's--What, when.
Pronounce the vowels correctly--Belong, true, tried, kind, promised, &c.
BRIBE. a thing which we give or promise to a person, to induce him to do as we desire.
PUR-CHASE, something bought.
PERCHED, roosted like a bird.
1. Mrs. M. What have you done with your money, Eugenia?
2. Eugenia. I have given it all away, dear mama.
3. Mrs. M. Indeed, so soon! To whom did you give it?
4. Eu. To a bad little boy, mama.
5. Mrs. M. (smiling.) To bribe him into being a good one, I suppose.
6. Eu. Yes, yes, mama, I did it for that very reason. Is it not true that all the birds in the world belong to God?
7. Mrs. M. They do, my child; and not only they, but all other things on earth belong to God, who made them.
8. Eu. Well, mama, this bad boy had stolen a bird from God, and he was trying to get some one to buy it from him. The poor little thing tried its best to cry for its mother, but the cruel boy held its beak so tight that it could not make a sound. He was afraid that God would hear his poor little bird, and come to set it free.
9. Mrs. M. And what did you do for the bird, my daughter?
10. Eu. I gave the boy all the money I had in my purse to let the bird go. I think God must have been glad when I bought it back for Him.
11. Mrs. M. Yes dear, God was glad when He saw that my little girl had a good heart.
12. Eu. (seriously.) But perhaps this boy was poor, and in need of money, and he may have taken the bird to buy something for himself to eat.
13. Mrs. M. I think that very likely, my child. He surely would not have robbed a bird of its young one to sell it, if he had had plenty of money.
14. Eu. Then I am glad that I gave him mine for I have always enough, and more than enough.
15. Pauline. I did not quite agree with Eugenia about this purchase, mama. She gave all she had in her purse to the boy, without counting it. I told her that she should first have asked the price of the bird.
16. Eu. Which of us was right, Mama?
17. Mrs. M. I am afraid that I must say it was your sister, darling; but as she is older than you, it is not strange that she should be wiser.
18. Eu. But have you not often told me that when good was to be done I was never to stop to count the cost of it?
19. Mrs. M. Perhaps I have, my daughter, but I did not mean it exactly in this sense. We must not only do all the good that we possibly can, but we must also try to do it in the best way. For instance, to-day you had more than enough money to buy one bird; you ought therefore to have kept some of it to do an-other kind action. Suppose you had met another boy with a bird for sale, what then would you have done?
20. Eu. I would have come to you for more money, dear, good Mama.
21. Mrs. M. But I might have had none to give to you, Eugenia.
22. Eu. Dear me! I never thought of that.
23. Mrs. M. Then you must allow that Pauline was wiser than you, my little one. Did you think there was nobody needing help in the world except one little bird?
24. Eu. Indeed, at the time, I thought of no one but him. If you could have seen how glad he was to be free once more! How he shook his wings, as he perched upon my hand before he flew away! And before I paid him, I made the boy promise that he would catch no more birds.
25. Mrs. M. I hope he will keep his promise, my love. But whether he does or not, you are a good child, and to reward you, here is your money back again. Do more good with it, and do it wisely.
26. Eu. Thank you, my own dear Mama; I will try to make the best use of it.
27. Mrs. M. I am sure that you will. Give me a kiss, my dear child. Wise or not, I love you with all my heart; and God will surely bless you for your goodness, even to so small a thing as one of his little birds.
TRANS. FROM BERGUIN--L'AMI DES ENFANS--A. V. C.
Sound the R's--Curtains, girl, or, stars, pearly, brighter, forth, har vest, &c.
Ring the ng's -- Singing, peeping, floating.
Articulate the Consonants--Round, them, child, soft.
Aspirate the H's--When, while.
Give to each vowel its own sound--Shine, bright, yellow, silent, skies, harvest.
Do not slight the particles.
SKIM, to pass lightly.
REAP-ER, one who cuts grain.
FLOAT-ING, moving lightly in the air.
BEAM, a ray of light.
SHEAVES, bundles of grain.
PEARL-Y, like a pearl.
1. Who am I that shine so bright,
With a soft and silver light,
Peeping through your curtains gray?
Tell me, little child, I pray.
2. When the sun is gone, I rise
In the clear and silent skies,
'Mid the floating clouds that skim
Round about my pearly rim.
3. Then the little stars do seem
Hidden by my brighter beam,
And among them I do ride
Like a queen in all her pride.
4. Then the reaper goes along,
Singing forth his evening song,
While my light falls on the leaves
And the yellow harvest sheaves.
SONGS FOR THE LITTLE ONES AT HOME.
1. On my birth-day, my mother gave me these flowers.
2. My sister was born in yonder house, last winter.
3. I cut my finger with a sharp strip of copper.
4. When the season is warmer, the birds will twitter.
5. I will be sure to return, to-morrow morning.
6. Did you forbid your brother to accept my offer?
7. When he came nearer, he saw something glitter.
8. This scholar is dearer to me than his elder brother.
9. You will not find a better pair of slippers in town.
10. Did you observe that fine turkey in the larder?
11. Are you certain that she wore a purple plume in her hat?
12. That circus rider is as light as a feather.
13. The servant was too nervous to answer a word.
14. What a monster he must have been, who could murder his father!
15. Did you see that large horse gallop around the circle?
16. The merchant paid a thousand pounds sterling.
17. Would you have purchased the pearl, had I offered it?
18. If the sinner repent, God in His mercy, will forgive him.
19. I shall go early to church, that I may hear the sermon.
20. In modern times, ladies have worn gold powder in their hair.
21. I had it in my power to do him a great service.
22. In furs, I prefer marten, even to royal ermine.
23. Before the battle, a skirmish took place near the river.
24. I ordered her return before dinner.
25. I observe that my preserves have begun to ferment.
26. If I go to the concert, I shall retire early.
27. He cannot afford to import much and export little.
28. Danger shall never deter me from the path of honor.
29. I have no desire to explore unknown regions.
30. Let them survey these lands, and then report to the board.
Aspirate the H's--Whether, while, which, whispered, &c.
Give to each vowel its own sound--Enough, before, kind, flew, (not floo) new, (not noo), &c.
Sound the R's--Mother, never, tired, learn, servants, hard, &c.
Ring the ng's--Something, sewing, amusing, looking, &c.
Articulate the other Consonants--Myself, herself, vexed, longed, whispered, &c.
WEAR-Y, very tired.
ROMP, to play noisily.
STAR-ING, fixed, wide open.
DART-ED, ran suddenly.
1. "How I wish that I had one whole day for myself," said little Laura to her mother.
2. Mrs. D. One whole day, Laura!
3. L. Yes indeed, dear mother, one whole day. I have never yet had as much play as I wished for.
4. Mrs. D. Then, my dear, you shall have enough of it to-day; but you will grow weary, and wish before night that you had something to do.
5. L. O no, indeed! Try me, and see whether I grow weary.
6. Mrs. D. Very well, my daughter, I will try you. Go now,--you are free until bed-time.
7. Away flew Laura, full of joy to think that she had no lessons to learn, no sewing to do, and a new wax doll to dress. For a while she played with the doll, and thought it very amusing to put on and take off her hats, capes, and frocks.
8. But by-and-by, she began to yawn and wish for some of her sisters to play with her. She grew tired of looking
at Miss Dolly's red cheeks and staring eyes, and she threw her down in a pet.
9. She turned over the rest of her toys; but they, too, were stupid. She then went into the garden; but it seemed hot and dusty, and no one was there to romp with her. So she ran to her mother to know what she should do next.
10. Mrs. D. was busy giving orders to her servants, and she had no time to listen to Laura. Laura, almost vexed with her dear, kind mother, went off and seated herself in a corner, where she yawned and yawned, until her little jaws ached.
11. At last she heard her sisters' voices, and knew that school was out. She darted to meet them and tell how she had longed for some one to play with her.
12. Now Laura's sisters were all very kind; so they went at once to the baby-house, and did every thing they could to amuse her. But it was all in vain. Laura had played too much, and she was tired of every thing.
13. At last she grew so cross that she told her sisters they were doing their best to vex her. This made them all smile at which Laura became so angry that she burst into tears.
14. Then Adela, who being twelve years old, had more sense than the others, took Laura on her lap, and kissing her, said: "I will tell you, little sister, who it is that is cross to-day, and spoils all our games. Do you wish to know?"
15. Laura. Yes, indeed I do; but I think it is all of you.
16. Adela. It is none of us, Laura. There is no one cross but yourself, and you alone are to blame if your sisters seem stupid to-day. The games amuse everybody but you, for everybody else has been hard at work.
17. We are all hungry for play, and you have had too much of it at one time; that is the reason why you can enjoy no more. Go, study your lessons for half an hour, and then see whether you do not find our games as pleasant as ever.
18. Laura, young as she was, had a great deal of good sense, and she felt the truth of her sister's words. She went for her books, studied her lesson, and then whispered to her mother that she would never again wish for a whole day of play.
BERQUIN--L'AMI DES ENFANS.
Sound the R's--Morning, mirth, ordered, served, comfort, &c.
Ring the ng's--Morning, passing, watching, rowing, &c.
Articulate the other Consonants--Forests, jumped, climbed, and, midst, &c.
Aspirate the H's--Which, while, whether, when, where, &c.
Give to each vowel its own sound--B[long e, macron]hind, forests, children, politely, b[long e, macron]low, r[long e, macron]past, boatmen, r[long e, macron]ceive, &c.
Do not slight the little words.
LAPSE, the passing.
RIP-PLE, little wave.
RE-PAST, a meal.
TI-NY, very small.
1. Not long ago, a party of boys and girls went with their parents to a picnic. They left home quite early in the morning, some in carriages, some on horseback.
2. They were followed by a wagon, in which were baskets of every size, filled with all that would be needful for a dinner given in the woods on the grass.
3. The children were in fine spirits; above all, when having left the city behind them, they drove into the cool, shady woods, and heard the crisp leaves crack under the carriage-wheels.
4. There were great oaks and tall pines, and the boys talked of all the various uses to which man has put these two kingly trees.
5. They agreed that not only were the oaks and pines kings at home in their own forests, but abroad too, where they ruled the great ocean in the form of ships. Some boys thought the oak was the most useful of trees, others liked the pine; and much was said on both sides.
6. At last, after the lapse of half an hour, the woods opened, and the road ended at the side of a pretty lake, on whose banks ths picnic was to be given.
7. The carriages were soon empty, and the children began to play all manner of merry games. Some jumped the
rope, some climbed the trees to gather nuts, some went in search of wild grapes, and a few threw themselves upon the sward in little groups to talk.
8. Two of the largest boys had brought a stout rope with them, which they tied to two oak-trees. Then they notched a plank, and passing it through the rope, it made a firm seat, after which they po-litely invited the girls to come and swing.
9. This was very thoughtful of these two boys and proves that they had kind hearts. Those who forget themselves to think of the comfort or pleasure of others, are loved, not only on earth below, but in heaven above.
10. Moored to the banks of the lake, were three little boats, each with a boatman, who rowed the children to the shore op-posite, and back again. This was great sport, and hap-pily it was sport without danger.
11. The lake was not deep enough to drown any one so that the children could dip their hands over the sides of the boat, and amuse themselves with the ripples of the water, to their heart's content.
12. They were all happy, each one to his taste, while their fathers sat watching them, and their mothers were busy making ready the dinner near the boat-house which served them for sort of a pantry.
13. Out of this boat-house came so many nice things that everybody wondered whether they could ever be eaten. But nobody wondered long. The last thing was laid out on the grass, and dinner was ready.
14. Forth from lake and woods came troops of happy, hungry children, and after much mirth and a vast deal of noise, all were seated and served.
15. Away went chicken-salad and oysters, turkey and ham, champagne and claret. Knives and forks rattled, corks popped, and our little people thought that never had feast been equal to this repast in the woods, spread out on the sweet, soft grass.
16. And now they rise. The empty plates are put back into empty baskets, the boatmen receive their fee for rowing the children, the carriages are ordered, and the party are off for town again.
17. The horses, always glad to turn their heads towards home, snuff the air, and trot gaily off; while the boys and
girls tired, but happy as ever, are leaning back in drowsy comfort, now and then closing their eyes, and thinking about bed-time.
18. Such a drive! such a day! And how they all sleep on the night that follows that joyous picnic on the banks of the tiny lake, which lies hidden so far away from town in the midst of those lovely woods!
Sound the R's--Hour, flower, labors, hard, works, gather, store.
Ring out the ng's--Opening, shining.
Articulate the other Consonants.
Aspirate the H's--Her, (first line second verse.)
Sound the vowels -- Skillfully, not skillf'lly.
Doth is pronounced d[short u, breve]th.
IM-PROVE, turn to good account.
SA-TAN, the devil.
MIS-CHIEF, harm, wrong doing.
SKILL-FUL-LY, nicely, expertly.
TO STORE, to fill up for future use.
IDLE, doing nothing.
1. How doth the little busy bee
Improve each shining hour,
And gather honey all the day
From every opening flower.
2. How skill-fully she builds her cell,
How neat she spreads her wax,
And labors hard to store it well
With the sweet food she makes.
3. In works of labor or of skill
I would be busy too;
For Satan finds some mischief still
For idle hands to do.
Sound the R's--Winter, summer, perfume, purple, &c.
Ring the ng's--Walking, picking, nothing, making, &c.
Articulate the other Consonants--Asked, felled, the, they, them, &c.
Aspirate the H's--Which, when, what, where, &c.
Give to each vowel its own sound--For-ever, not fur-ever; returned, violets, family, willow, &c.
RAP-TURE, great joy.
GLEE, gayety, mirth.
PAS-TURE, field of grass for cattle.
VIN-TAGE, gathering of grapes for wine.
PEAS-ANTS, poorer class of country people.
WINE-VAT, large vessel in which wine is fermented.
FER-MENT, to work like yeast, cider, and ale.
1. "How I wish that winter could last forever!" cried a boy who had just returned from a sleigh-ride, and was now in the garden, making a huge man of snow.
2. His father, who heard the wish, came forward and said, "My son will you write your wish upon my tablets?" Fred wrote it down, while his hands shook with cold.
3. Winter passed away, and it was Spring. Again Fred was in the garden with his father. The trees had began to bud, and the flowers to blow. They walked in the midst of violets, hy-a-cinths, and jonquils.
4. Fred thought he had never seen anything so pretty in his life, and as he scented the perfume that filled the air, he looked around him in rapture.
5. "These are the beauties of Spring, my son," said Mr. G.; "they are very lovely, but very short-lived."
6. "What a pity!" cried Fred. "Why is it not always Spring?"
7. His father drew out the tablets, and asked him to write this down. Fred did so, and ran to and fro about the garden, snuffing the air like a young colt.
8. Three months passed away, and Fred went on a visit with some friends to a village not far from his father's country-seat.
9. They drove past rich fields of grain that waved gently in the Summer air, through green fields dotted with wild flowers, through wide pastures where the young lambs and colts frisked around their mothers in wildest glee.
10. They ate straw-berries and cherries, drank rich milk, had plenty of fresh eggs, and spent the day in the open air. In the sun, it was warm, but under the shade of the trees, they all enjoyed the sweet breeze that strewed the leaves and cooled the air.
11. "Summer has its pleasures, has it not, my son?" asked Mr. G. of Fred, when the happy boy bade him good-night.
12. "O that it were always Summer!" cried Fred, in reply.
13. Again the little tablets were taken out, and Fred's wish was written on a blank leaf.
14. Finally came Autumn, with all its riches and its blessings. The family went to see the vintage. The air was soft, and the skies clear. The vines were heavy with clusters of purple grapes, which the peasants bore away in huge baskets to the wine-vat.
15. The ground was covered with golden melons that perfumed the air, and the trees were laden with rich, ripe fruit.
16. Fred's joy knew no bound, for if he loved anything in the world, it was grapes, melons, and pears. More-over, he had the pleasure of picking them all himself.
17. "Well," said his father, as Fred came towards him with his little willow basket full of apples and pears, "well, my boy, the season has almost gone by, and Winter will soon set in; the trees will be stripped of their leaves, and we shall have plenty of snow and ice.
18. "O how sorry I am, papa!" said Fred, "why cannot this lovely season last for-ever?"
19. Mr. G. "Would you really have it so? Think, my son."
20. Fred. "You may be sure that I would, papa. Would not you and every body like it as well as myself?"
21. Mr. G. (drawing out his tablets.) Look here Fred, what is this?
22. Fred (reading.) "How I wish that Winter could last forever!"
23. Mr. G. Let us turn over a few leaves. Now read again, my son.
24. Fred (reading.) "Why is it not always Spring?"
25. Mr. G. And farther on, what have we here?
26. Fred (still reading.) "O that it were always Summer!"
27. Mr. G. And just now, what did you say?
28. Fred (smiling.) I wish that the Fall might last forever.
29. Mr. G. This is strange, my boy. Last Winter you were for giving us nothing but Winter; in the Spring we were to have nothing but Spring; then came Summer, and you would have nothing but Summer; and now you have just wished that Autumn would last forever. What do you argue from all this?
30. Fred (after a few moments of thought.) That all seasons are good and have their uses, papa.
31. Mr. G. Right, my son. Each season is rich in blessings from the hand of God. But He knows best how to deal out His gifts to man.
32. If your first wish had been granted, the earth would have been for-ever covered with snow; the trees would have been for-ever bare, and your only pleasures would have been sleigh-riding and making men of snow.
33. Not only would you have robbed us of fruits and flowers, but of every means of living. Well is it for us, my child, that we have not the power to change the laws of God.
34. He does all things for our good. Let us always rely upon His wisdom and His love, and let us ever say, with all our hearts:
"Thy will be done on Earth, as it is in Heaven."
BERQUIN--L'AMI DES ENFANS.
Sound the R's--Water, poor, dare, her, sir, disturb, for, far, born, your, brother, father, or, tender, were, heard, shepherd, sorts.
Ring the ng's--Lapping, paddling, running, finding, drinking, trembling, saying.
Articulate the final consonants--Loudest, heard, called, next, forest, and.
Aspirate the H's -- White, which, his, her, him.
Do not slight the unaccented vowels--Quarrel, loudest, below, cruel, revenge, helpless, forest.
Attend to the little words--the, of, and, from, &c.
FA-BLE, a story which is not true, but is intended to teach a truth.
LAP-PING, licking with the tongue.
PAD-DLING, playing in the water.
SHRIEK-ED, cried out.
SHEP-HERD one who tends sheep.
HELP-LESS, not able to help itself.
RE-VENGE, the return of evil for evil.
(Fable containing all the signs of punctuation.)
1. A Wolf was once lapping water at the head of a running brook, (1) when he spied a little white Lamb paddling down the stream, (1) at some distance from home. (4)
2. He soon made up his mind that the poor young lamb should be his; (2) so he set about finding an excuse to pick a quarrel with her. (4)
3. "Villain!" (4) said he, in his loudest voice, (1) "how dare you muddy the water, (1) when you see me drinking?" (1)
4. "Indeed, sir," (1) said the Lamb humbly, (1) "I do not disturb the water of which you drink, (1) for I am far below you in the stream; (2) and the water runs, (1) not from me to you, (1) but from you to me." (4)
5. "You muddy the water I tell you," (1) shouted the Wolf, (1) "and more than that. (4) About a year ago, you were heard to call me all sorts of ill names." (4)
6. "O sir!" (4) said the Lamb, (1) trembling, (1) "a year ago I was not born." (4)
7. "Then," (1) said the Wolf, (1) "if it was not you that called me names, (1) it was your brother." (4)
8. "My brother!" (4) cried the poor Lamb, (1) "I have no brother," (4)
9. "Then," (1) shrieked the Wolf, (1) "if it was not your brother, (1) it was your father; (2) and if not your father, (1) it was your shepherd or some of his dogs. (4) I will have my revenge." (4)
10. So saying, (1) he fell upon the helpless Lamb, (1) carried her off to a dark forest, (1) and made his next meal of her tender flesh. (4)
ÆSOP.NOTE.--It is recommended that each child in the class be made to read the whole of this fable. It will be a means of fixing the signs of punctuation in the minds of the pupils.
After the lesson, such questions as the following might be put to the class:
What is this story called? Ans.: a Fable. What is a fable? Of what animals does it tell us? What was the Lamb doing when the Wolf first perceived him? What did the Wolf make up his mind to do? Of what did he accuse the little Lamb? What was the Lamb's reply? Of what else did the Wolf then accuse her? And what said the Lamb to that? When the Lamb said that she was not yet a year. old, whom did the Wolf accuse of calling him ill-names? And what, at last, did the Wolf do to the poor Lamb? What do you think of the Wolf? Whom do we offend when we are wicked? Why should we desire not to offend God? Why should we be afraid to offend God? Tell me the story of the Wolf and the Lamb.
Questions like these, if occasionally put to the pupils after their reading lessons, will fix their attention, awaken their intelligence, and cultivate their memory.
It is also suggested that questions be asked on the paragraphs headed "Orthoepy" and "Definitions."
Sound the R's--Hunger, stairrs, heart, turn, herself, sister, orphan, &c.
Ring the ng's--Taking, mewing, wishing, coming, &c.
Articulate the final consonants--Clapped, and, climbed, snatched, crept, left, frisk, &c.
Aspirate the H's--When, where, while, which, her, him.
Do not slight the unaccented vowels--Before, follow, family, together, yellow, &c. Pût, not p[short u, breve]t. Been is pronounced bïn, not ben.
RES-PECT-ED, much thought of.
CA-NA-RY, a little singing-bird.
EN-E-MIES, those who do not like us.
STRIDE, to take long steps.
PO-EM, any writing in verse.
STAR-TLED, frightened, astonished.
1. A little girl, named Fanny, once found a gray kitten in a wood where she was taking a walk. The kitten had lost its mother, and was almost dead of hunger, when Fanny heard it mewing in the bushes, and stooped to pick it up.
2. She carried the poor, starved kitten to her own home, where her good mama gave it some milk to drink, and made it a soft bed of wool by the fire, where it soon fell asleep.
3. At night when Fanny went to bed, she took the kitten up stairs to her own room. She soon grew very fond of it, and called it PET. Pet was a cat of very tender heart; and she loved Fanny as much as a cat can love any-body.
4. Where-ever Fanny went, Pet was sure to follow; and if Fanny left the house without taking her, she would go about mewing in very low spirits until her little mistress returned. Then she would purr, and show her joy by rubbing herself against Fanny's dress.
5. Pet liked mice for dinner. All her family had been fond of mice, and she could scent one running over the floor, before any one else in the room saw it. She would dart from her snug, warm place by the fire, and have a mouse in her jaws before you knew that one was any-where about.
6. So Fanny's mama said that Pet was a useful member of the family, and Pet was much praised for her good conduct. Of course it made her very happy to know that she was liked in the house, and she used often to think that if ever there was a lucky kitten, that kitten was herself.
7. Fanny had a baby sister who also was very fond of Pet. Day after day they played to-gether in the nice nursery where the baby staid. Sometimes Baby would throw a ball to Pet, who would catch it in her paws and frisk about the room with it, while Baby clapped her little hands and crowed for joy.
8. Then, when the days were fine. Fanny would carry the baby out in the yard, and set her down on the soft grass under the oak trees; and there Baby and Pet rolled over and over, and had gay romps, until they both grew tried, and fell asleep.
9. Baby often took Pet in her arms, and hugged her until the poor little cat could hardly breathe; but she knew that it was Baby's way of loving her, and she always took it kindly. Sometimes Pet ran away and climbed the great oak-tree, where she peeped down through the branches, while Baby looked up, and begged her to come back.
10. Fanny loved to see her little sister and Pet together; the two seemed so happy. She often told Pet that she was a dear, good cat, and must never let a naughty mouse show its sharp nose in the house.
11. Pet vowed in her heart that she never would; and for a long time she lived a proud and happy cat, respected and loved by all who knew her.
12. One day, Fanny's aunt sent her a gift of a Canary-bird that sang very sweetly. Fanny bought him a pretty wire cage, on one side of which was a little glass cup which held water for him to drink, and on the other side a bowl to hold his bird-seed. Fanny cleaned his cage every day, and fed him herself; for she was very proud of her Canary.
13. Pet saw the bird in what she took to be a trap; and little idea had she that her dear Miss Fanny set any store upon his life. She had always been praised for killing mice, and how was she to know that she would be blamed for eating a bird? Her only trouble was how to reach him; for the door of the trap was always shut, and she never had found out the way to open it.
14. Poor Pet! She was like the cat in a little poem that I used to read when I was a child, "who thought birds and mice were on purpose for eating." So that one day when Miss Fanny had left the cage open, and the bird was hopping about the floor, Pet, who was close by, just wishing that it was dinner-time, siezed upon him and before help could come, poor birdie was dead and buried in her jaws.
15. Part of his little yellow head still hung from her mouth, when Miss Fanny came back with seed and water in her hands. With a loud scream, she dropped her cup, snatched Pet up, and running to the door, dashed her far into the yard.
16. Poor Pet! Never had she been so startled in her life. To be so ill-treated, and by Miss Fanny too! What could be the matter? Had she done any thing to make dear Miss Fanny angry? She thought over all the sins of her past pussy life, but to no purpose. She had always tried to be a good little puss, doing her duty as well as she could, both to cats and men.
17. She looked back at her young mistress as if to ask what it was that she had done; but Miss Fanny darted after her with such a glance of fury, that Pet felt her life to be in danger. She had nothing to do then, but run as fast as four legs could carry her to an old barn, where she spent the rest of the in day very low spirits.
18. The next morning she came out and crept softly back to the house. She had just reached the door-step, when Fanny's mama came out with the baby in her arms. Baby crowed when she saw Pet, and Pet was so happy that she ran at once to meet her; but Baby's mama raised her foot and dashed poor Pet as far into the yard as Miss Fanny had done on the day before.
19. Here was another shock, and Pet quite heart-broken, flew once more for safety to the old barn, where at last, if there was no so-ciety, there were plenty of mice. She staid there for three days; but she was so lonely that at least she could bear it no longer. If it cost her her life, she must go and beg Miss Fanny to love her again, and let her have a romp with the dear little baby.
20. Once more she left the old loft, and stole back to the house, where until now, she had always been welcome. Softly, on tiptoe she made her way up stairs to her own
little cushion--the cushion that her dear Miss Fanny had made for her when first she came a poor orphan kitten to the house.
21. Pet felt like mewing aloud, as she thought of those happy days. But she kept up a stout heart until she heard some one coming up stairs. The footsteps came nearer, and who should stride in, with a great broom in her hand, but Binah, the house-maid.
22. Pet nearly fainted, for Binah and she had never been on very good terms; and if her best friends had grown so cruel to her, what could she expect, at such a time, from her enemies? She began to wish herself back in the old barn; but she stole under Miss Fanny's bed before Binah had time to see her.
23. Binah went about the room for some time without looking under the bed, and Pet began to breathe a little more freely. She was even thinking that she might venture out, when all at once, she felt the bedstead whirl out over her head, and she was flung out of her hiding-place into the very middle of the room where Binah stood.
24. The very moment Binah caught sight of her, she chased her with the long broom; and before Pet could get to the head of the stairs, her back was almost broken by its cruel blows.
25. This time, she shook the dust from her paws, and bade adieu to the house for-ever. Often would she hide in the fields to get one look at her dear, dear Miss Fanny and the baby as they went by; and over and over again did she wonder what she had done to offend them. But never, to her dying day, did she know that the eating of that bird had been the cause of all her misery.
26. Pet is not the only one in this world who has lost friends without ever being able to guess why they had grown unkind.
THIS lesson will be devoted to the practice of final consonants,* Those consonants which close a word or syllable.
which are often elided, especially when followed by another consonant. The exercise should be repeated, until the t, d and k, and the ts, ds and ks are perfectly articulated. To do this distinctly, without harshness, will require time and practice.
Those consonants which close a word or syllable.
1. Soft soap is much stronger than hard.
2. The child slept not an hour through the night.
3. She is a wild girl, but she has kept her word.
4. At last, she awoke, and smiled feebly upon her child.
5. The task which you gave me is done. May I close my desk?
6. The cask that holds the wine, must be here before dusk.
7. This is the most chilly day that I have felt this Spring.
8. I trust that my sons will never rob a bird's nest.
9. Here, dearest mother, is my warmest and truest friend.
10. When you wish to do well, choose those duties which are nearest to your hand.
11. This is a percfet likeness of my youngest and prettiest sister.
12. I gave him my softest pillow, for he was in need of rest.
13. She expects her cousin, but her aunt objects to the journey.
14. It was a scene of the highest merit--a subject for a painter.
15. The Indians are almost an extinct race.
16. I predict that your conduct will afflict your parents.
17. He often boasts of his chests of gold.
18. The white and the black man are two distinct races.
19. The toasts having been drunk, the guests dispersed.
20. The tests of a man's worth, are his acts.
21. After the tempest, the coast was filled with broken rafts.
22. My father accepts all my drafts.
23. The crests of the waves were white with foam.
24. What im-portant events have taken place this year?
25. Their tents were attacked by hosts of wild beasts.
26. In the hall were twelve busts covered with dust and cobwebs.
27. The actress was greeted with loud bursts of applause.
28. He affects piety; but he has very grave faults.
29. It afflicts me that his tastes should be so corrupt.
30. Her defects are seen in her acts of folly.
31. My heart prompts me to for-give your neglect.
32. Their attempts at music; show them to be no adepts.
33. These kind presents have more than supplied my wants.
34. I follow the precepts of my aunts.
35. The snow melts, but the mists still fall.
36. While summer lasts, the insects hum.
37. The hilts of their swords were fastened to their belts.
38. That cook wastes whole joints of meat.
OBSERVATION.--Although the subject of this exercise is "Final Consonants," still we must not lose sight of the other difficulties.
SOUND the R's--Perfect, girl, here, forgive, important, &c.
Ring the ng's--Having.
Aspirate the H's--White, when, which.
Do not slight the unaccented vowels--Likeness, highest, goodness, follow, &c.
The word "fastened" (37th line) is pronounced as if written--fassened.
Sound the R's--Bow'r, flow'r, gardener, care, there, &c.
Ring the ng's--Sucking.
Articulate the finals--Passed, listened, smiled.
Aspirate the H's--When, her, him, he.
Give to each vowel its own sound--Sm[long i, macron]led, n[long i, macron]igh, not sm[long a, macron][long e, macron]eled, n[long a, macron][long e, macron]ee; flew, not floo. For the dipthong ew in dew, new, flew, mew, crew, drew, threw, &c., has the sound, not of the dipthong öö, but of the long [long u, macron].
BOWER, a shady place formed by bending the boughs of trees.
BOW'R, a shady place formed by bending the boughs of trees.
A little bee once in a bow'r,
Was sucking sweets from every flow'r,
When passed a gardener by.
He listened to her busy hum,
And smiled to see her go and come,
And once when she flew nigh:
"Dost know that many a flow'r," said he,
"Hath poison in its petals, bee?"
"O yes," she cried, "but I take care
Always to leave the poison there!"
TRANS. FROM THE GERMAN OF GLEIM--A. V. C.
OBSERVATION.--The beautiful lesson to be deduced from this little fable, will readily present itself to the mind of the intelligent teacher. Let the opportunity be improved of adding ethical to scholastic instruction.
Sound the R's--For-ever, marbles, wore, work, services, forgive, &c.
Ring the ng's--Writing, sewing, telling, felling, being, &c.
Articulate the finals--Loved, moved, pleased, sobbed.
Aspirate the H's--When, where, why, whim.
Give to each vowel its pure sound--Children, fires, moment, oblige, obedience.
THOUGHT-LESS, having no thought.
SEL-FISH, loving one's self too much.
CLAM-OR-ED, asked noisily.
OC-CA-SION, a fit time.
O-BE-DI-ENCE, the doing of that which we are told to do by those who have a right to rule over us.
BIN, a wooden box for coal or grain.
GRAT-I-FY, to please or satisfy.
AM-BI-TION, a wish to do better than others.
IN-VENT, to make.
NOTE.--When you read the dialogues (that is the sentences spoken by Walter or his mother) read them precisely as though you were speaking, yourselves.
1. Little Walter loved his mama, at least he was forever telling her that he did; but to see how he teased her, no one would have thought that he cared for her at all. If his mother was busy writing, he would come by her and ask her questions; if she was sewing, he would beg her to get up and help him to look for his top or his marbles.
2. If she had drawn on her gloves, and was about to step out of the front door, he was sure to call her back to tie his shoe or to give him a drink of water. Walter was not a wicked boy, but he was very, very thoughtless, and in this way he gave great trouble to every body.
3. If we are thoughtless, it is because we are selfish; and in spite of all the excuses you can invent for yourselves children, if you give your parents trouble which you might avoid giving them, you do not love them as you ought to do.
4. Walter was careless as well as thoughtless. No matter how nice were the clothes he wore, he either soiled or tore them before the day was over; and yet little Walter
well knew that everything he wore, was the work of his mama's own dear hands.
5. He knew, too, that long after she had kissed them good-night, and had put them to bed, she sat up alone and late to make and mend her children's clothes; for Walter's mama was far from being rich.
6. But Walter never thought of all this. He gave trouble from morning till night. If anything was to be done in the house, let it be what it would, he clamored to have a hand in it. If a heavy piece of fur-ni-ture was to be moved, he was sure to offer his ser-vi-ces.
7. If a bookcase was to be moved, Walter would insist upon carrying an armful of books, and then let half of them tumble on the floor. If a carpet was to be laid, he wanted to hammer the tacks; if a high shelf was to be reached, he must climb on chairs to do what a taller person would have done in half the time.
8. He was anxious to cut wood, to make fires, to put away glass and china, to sweep rooms, to put his mother's bureau drawers in order; in short, he wanted to do everything that grown people did, no matter how little the work might be suited to himself.
9. One day his mother bought several sacks of corn. These sacks were all to be emptied, and the corn was to be put in some large boxes that were in the store-room.
10. "Now," thought Walter's mother, "here is something that my little boy will like to do. he is always so anxious to do more than he is able, that when he comes from school, he will be very glad to hear that at last, I have found some work for him. How pleased he will be to empty the corn with this pretty basket!"
11. So, as soon as Walter came home, his mama handed him the basket, and told him to go and empty the sacks of corn. To her great surprise, Walter, who was so ready to help when help was not wanted, was anything but ready to oblige his own mother.
12. He said he was too warm, then he was too tired; then he was sure he would spill the corn over the floor; and at last he said he would much rather go down into the cellar to help the man that was filling the coal-bins.
13. His mother said that it would tire him much more to fill coal-bins than corn-boxes; that the work of carrying coal was very heavy, and besides being unfit for a child, would soil his clothes. She could not allow her son to fill the bins.
14. To all this, Walter replied, "no! no! no!" It was not heavy work--it would not soil his clothes--he would like above all things to do it, and so on. "Please, dear mama, do dear mama," said he, "let me carry coal. You never will let me do anything to help you."
15. His mother laid her gentle hand upon his shoulder. "Walter!" said she. And Walter held down his head, for he saw that he had grieved her. She looked at him for a few moments, and then went on.
16. "I thought to make you happy, my child, by showing you a way in which you might be really useful to me; but since it is not to oblige me, but to grat-i-fy your whims that you are so anxious to work, I shall call a servant to remove my corn for me. I do not need your help any more."
17. The tears streamed down Walter's cheeks. "O dear mama," cried he, "do not--please do not call the servant. Forgive me for being so willful!" and and he threw his arms around his mother's neck, sobbing until she kissed away his tears, and gave him the little basket.
18. With a light heart he ran off to the store-room, and before dinner was brought on the table, he came back with a proud and happy face to say that the sacks were empty, the boxes were filled, and not a grain had fallen on the floor.
19. Ah dear children! as Walter behaved to his mother, so do we often act towards our dear Heavenly Father. We think we could do any work, bear any load, except that which is given us.
20. Here-after, instead of losing time wishing for some great oc-casion to do well, let us set about the duty that is before us, doing it with all our hearts; and God, who is as well satisfied with little works as with great ones, will love us far better for our o-be-dience than for our am-bi-tion.
Sound the R's--Pitcher, large, filberts, your, other, &c.
Ring the ng's--Trying, standing, seeing.
Articulate the finals--Told, handful, plunged, grasped, hand, hold.
Aspirate the H's--He, his, while, him, &c.
Give to each vowel its own sound--Narrow, while.
GRASP-ED, seized with the hand.
PLUNG-ED, pushed with force.
WITH-DRAW, take back.
1. A little boy was once told that he might have as many filberts as he could take at one handful, out of a pitcher. Now the pitcher was large, and held a great many nuts, but its mouth was narrow. The boy plunged his hand in, and grasped as many filberts as he could hold.
2. He now wanted to withdraw his hand, but after trying for some time, and seeing that he could not, he began to cry. A person standing by, said to him, "Do not be so greedy, boy: let go half the nuts you now hold, and you will be able to get your hand out, with the other half."
ÆSOP.OBSEVATION.--The moral of this fable is admirable. It will be well to ascertain that the children understand it.
Nothing mars the beauty of the English language more than the ellipses, which are continually heard from the lips of careless readers or speakers.
Do not say tell 'im, see 'er, send 'em, give 'em, &c.; but tell him, see her, send them, give them, &c.
Do not say ware, wat, wen, wich, wy, wite, wine, wim, wip, wit, wiz, &c.; but where, what, when, which, why, white, whine, whim, whip whit, whiz, &c.
1. Tell him not to whine for his whip.
2. Send her where she will find her friends again.
3. Tell her that I wish to wear my white dress.
4. Give him a yard of stout whip-cord.
5. Give them the room which is ready for them.
6. I will send him to school when he returns.
7. Why did you give her my white kitten?
8. Which of these whisks shall I send them?
9. He whispered to me that I envied her.
10. I held him while his mother dressed his wound.
11. He likes whisky not a whit less than his father.
12. Which of those boys is it that whistles so much?
13. The wheel of the cart broke while I was driving home.
14. Why should we gratify the whims of that child?
15. When will you come to play a game of whist?
16. What do you suppose is the price of wheat?
17. When I heard the balls whizzing, I told him to go away.
18. I do not know whether I shall tell them the news.
19. You said "wimper," whereas you should have said "whimper."
20. I know why he went, but when and where, I know not.
21. If I see him to-day, I will tell him that you are here.
22. I see something whirl, but I cannot say what it is.
23. I gave her some food and then I sent her to bed.
24. I made him a hot whisky-punch, for he had an ague.
25. Wine-whey is given as diet to the sick.
26. The young ones of the dog and lion, are called whelps.
27. Whalebones are made from the jaw of the whale.
28. Those who have colds, are apt to wheeze.
29. I will whet your axe upon the grindstone.
Sound the R'--Star, world, never, dark, curtains, spark, are, your.
Articulate the final Consonants--Diamond, with, and.
Aspirate the H's--What, when, has, &c.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--High, blue, bright, light, night, &c.; sky, not skäee. Often is pronounced offen.
Speak distinctly, and let every word be heard.
GLO-RI-OUS, splendid, great.
TI-NY, very small.
TWIN-KLE, to sparkle.
1. Twinkle, twinkle, little star;
How I wonder what you are!
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
2. When the glo-ri-ous sun has set,
When the grass with dew is wet,
Then you show your little light!
Twinkle, twinkle, all the night.
3. In the dark blue sky you keep,
And often through my curtains peep;
For you never shut your eye,
Till the sun is in the sky.
OBSERVATION.--Although the "LITTLE STAR" was written for a generation that preceded us, we cannot exclude from our Southern books, this dear little poem, so long beloved by children. Would that we could find a nursery song of the present day to compare with it! Sound the R's--Farmer, heartily, pleasure, others, turmoil, sore, &c. Ring the ng's--Morning, singing, setting, using, knitting, &c. Articulate the final consonants--Dressed, kept, feast, opened, just, shrieked, &c. Aspirate the H's--When, what, while. Mark the different vocalic sounds--Children, behind, before, below, vessels, like, &c. FEAST, a delicious meal. GRAVE-LY, seriously. TUR-MOIL, trouble. AGREE-A-BLE, pleasant. OBSERVATION.--Dialogues must be read with spirit; and the speeches of the various speakers, must follow one another promptly. 1. A farmer had four children, Karl, Fritz, Lotty and Hetty. He was anxious that they should like work, and he did everything in his power to make work agree-able to them. 2. One evening he said to them, "Children, if to-morrow morning without being called, you will be dressed by six o'clock, you shall go with me to a feast." 3. "A feast, father?" said Lotty, "what kind of feast can you give so early in the morning?" 4. "Just rise at the hour" replied the father, "and you will see whether I am not able to give a feast at one time as well as at another." 5. "I shall be there, for one" said Karl. "And I, and I," cried the others. They all went to bed singing "six o'clock in the mor-n-ing!" and Fitz wrote it upon his slate, which he placed at the foot of his bed. 6. Hardly had five o'clock struck, when the four children sprang out of bed. They dressed themselves in great haste, and then ran down stairs to the sitting-room, where they waited with im-pa-tience for their father to join them. 7. As they crowded around to wish him good-morning, he laughed, and said, "O what early risers we can be, when pleasure is promised us!--Well--you have kept your word, and now, I keep mine." 8. "But the feast, father, where is the feast?" cried Hetty, the youngest of the family, and by no means the best. 9. "Here it is," said the father, as he threw a hood to each one of his children. These hoods were made of cloth, and were fastened to wire masks, which were to be worn over the faces. 10. "Now I guess" cried Fitz, as he caught one of the hoods in his hands. "We are going to the bee-hives, to gather honey for the winter." 11. "Right!" said the father, "will the feast be welcome?" 12. "Yes, yes, dear father" said all the children with one voice; and away went the gay little troop to the fields. 13. Fitz carried a pan full of live coals; Karl had a bunch of green wormwood, and the little girls brought, one a knife, the other a spoon. Behind, came father and mother with a sieve and some pans. 14. They passed through the garden where the early dew lay on the flowers, making them sparkle like diamonds; then they came to the orchard where plenty of fruit was ri-pen-ing; and just beyond, in the buckwheat field, the feast opened. 15. The farmer laid the wormwood on the coals, and then unlocked the hives. He filled them with smoke, and the bees all drew back into a corner. He then loosen-ed the honey-comb with his knife, and took it out in large cakes. Then he laid the cakes on the sieve to drain, and the rich golden honey fell into the deep pans below. 16. When they had robbed all the hives in the same way, they went back to the house, each one laden with a great pan of honey. 17. The father placed one of the pans on a shelf in the dining-room, and then left, to put away the rest of the honey, and to clean the vessels that had been used. 18. The mother went into the kitchen to see how the rolls were coming on, which she had put into an oven for breakfast. 19. "Now" said she, "I am going to give you nice wheat bread to eat with your honey. But while I am away, let no one touch the dish that your father has left on the shelf." 20. Karl and Fritz sat down by an open window, and Lotty took up her mother's knitting. But Hetty--naughty Hetty!--slipped under the shelf, reached the dish, and stuffed a large piece of honey-comb in her mouth. 21. She took one bite, and then--she gave a shriek that sounded throughout the whole house. Her mother came running from the kitchen, her father from the pantry, and the children crowded around her asking what could be the matter! 22. But Hetty only screamed the louder, and danced all over the room, like a little mad thing. 23. At last, the honey-comb fell from her open mouth; and there, with its sting fast to her tongue, lay the bee that that was causing all this turmoil. 24. Her mother took it out, but she could not take out the pain. Hetty's tongue was so swollen that she was not able to eat a mouthful for one whole day. 25. Her brothers and sister sat down to breakfast, and enjoyed the fresh rolls and honey quite as much as they had ex-pect-ed to do. They laughed at Hetty for being so nicely caught in a trap of her own setting. 26. But the mother said gravely, "Hetty must beg pardon of God, for He has said, 'Thou shalt not steal;' and she must ask of Him, to give her grace in future, to be a better child." FROM THE GERMAN OF SALZMANN.--A. V. C.
1st. FINALS OF WORDS.--The terminations as, es, ce and ds, when followed by the consonants y and s, are often improperly sounded. We frequently hear, "makesh you," "seege you," "senge you," &c., for "makes you," "sees you," "sends you." 1. What makes you cry? not What makesh you cry? 2. A nice young girl. not A nyshe young girl. 3. What offends you? not What offenge you? 4. As you please; not Azge you please. 5. A nice sugar-plum; not A nyshe sugar-plum. 6. Who attends you home? not Who attenge you home? 7. He lends you a book; not He lenge you a book. 8. She mends your coat; not She menge your coat. 9. He sends you his love; not He senge you his love. 10. He sees you at last; not He seege you at last. 11. She leaves you free; not She leavge you free. 12. He receives your gifts; not He receivge your gifts. 2. FINALS OF SYLLABLES.--Such words as stat'ue, ed'ucate, moisture, &c., are often sounded as if written--stat-chu, edge-ucate, moishchure. While we aim at purity of speech, we must guard against affectation. It is not intended that in all these words, the T should be sounded with perfect purity. The lesson is designed to check the exaggeration of a sound which, though not an actual impropriety, becomes one when it expands into a full-blown dg in educate and "verdure,"* In these words, the sound of the D must be perfectly pure. In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable. In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable. In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable. In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable. In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable. In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable. In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable. In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
4. As your bright and tiny spark
Lights the trav'ler in the dark,
Though I know not what you are,
Twinkle, twinkle, little star!
or a ch in the other words which follow.
OBSERVATION.--Although the "LITTLE STAR" was written for a generation that preceded us, we cannot exclude from our Southern books, this dear little poem, so long beloved by children. Would that we could find a nursery song of the present day to compare with it!
Sound the R's--Farmer, heartily, pleasure, others, turmoil, sore, &c.
Ring the ng's--Morning, singing, setting, using, knitting, &c.
Articulate the final consonants--Dressed, kept, feast, opened, just, shrieked, &c.
Aspirate the H's--When, what, while.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--Children, behind, before, below, vessels, like, &c.
FEAST, a delicious meal.
OBSERVATION.--Dialogues must be read with spirit; and the speeches of the various speakers, must follow one another promptly.
1. A farmer had four children, Karl, Fritz, Lotty and Hetty. He was anxious that they should like work, and he did everything in his power to make work agree-able to them.
2. One evening he said to them, "Children, if to-morrow morning without being called, you will be dressed by six o'clock, you shall go with me to a feast."
3. "A feast, father?" said Lotty, "what kind of feast can you give so early in the morning?"
4. "Just rise at the hour" replied the father, "and you will see whether I am not able to give a feast at one time as well as at another."
5. "I shall be there, for one" said Karl. "And I, and I," cried the others. They all went to bed singing "six o'clock in the mor-n-ing!" and Fitz wrote it upon his slate, which he placed at the foot of his bed.
6. Hardly had five o'clock struck, when the four children sprang out of bed. They dressed themselves in great haste, and then ran down stairs to the sitting-room, where they waited with im-pa-tience for their father to join them.
7. As they crowded around to wish him good-morning, he laughed, and said, "O what early risers we can be, when pleasure is promised us!--Well--you have kept your word, and now, I keep mine."
8. "But the feast, father, where is the feast?" cried Hetty, the youngest of the family, and by no means the best.
9. "Here it is," said the father, as he threw a hood to each one of his children. These hoods were made of cloth, and were fastened to wire masks, which were to be worn over the faces.
10. "Now I guess" cried Fitz, as he caught one of the hoods in his hands. "We are going to the bee-hives, to gather honey for the winter."
11. "Right!" said the father, "will the feast be welcome?"
12. "Yes, yes, dear father" said all the children with one voice; and away went the gay little troop to the fields.
13. Fitz carried a pan full of live coals; Karl had a bunch of green wormwood, and the little girls brought, one a knife, the other a spoon. Behind, came father and mother with a sieve and some pans.
14. They passed through the garden where the early dew lay on the flowers, making them sparkle like diamonds; then they came to the orchard where plenty of fruit was ri-pen-ing; and just beyond, in the buckwheat field, the feast opened.
15. The farmer laid the wormwood on the coals, and then unlocked the hives. He filled them with smoke, and the bees all drew back into a corner. He then loosen-ed the honey-comb with his knife, and took it out in large cakes. Then he laid the cakes on the sieve to drain, and the rich golden honey fell into the deep pans below.
16. When they had robbed all the hives in the same way, they went back to the house, each one laden with a great pan of honey.
17. The father placed one of the pans on a shelf in the dining-room, and then left, to put away the rest of the honey, and to clean the vessels that had been used.
18. The mother went into the kitchen to see how the rolls were coming on, which she had put into an oven for breakfast.
19. "Now" said she, "I am going to give you nice wheat bread to eat with your honey. But while I am away, let no one touch the dish that your father has left on the shelf."
20. Karl and Fritz sat down by an open window, and Lotty took up her mother's knitting. But Hetty--naughty Hetty!--slipped under the shelf, reached the dish, and stuffed a large piece of honey-comb in her mouth.
21. She took one bite, and then--she gave a shriek that sounded throughout the whole house. Her mother came running from the kitchen, her father from the pantry, and the children crowded around her asking what could be the matter!
22. But Hetty only screamed the louder, and danced all over the room, like a little mad thing.
23. At last, the honey-comb fell from her open mouth; and there, with its sting fast to her tongue, lay the bee that that was causing all this turmoil.
24. Her mother took it out, but she could not take out the pain. Hetty's tongue was so swollen that she was not able to eat a mouthful for one whole day.
25. Her brothers and sister sat down to breakfast, and enjoyed the fresh rolls and honey quite as much as they had ex-pect-ed to do. They laughed at Hetty for being so nicely caught in a trap of her own setting.
26. But the mother said gravely, "Hetty must beg pardon of God, for He has said, 'Thou shalt not steal;' and she must ask of Him, to give her grace in future, to be a better child."
FROM THE GERMAN OF SALZMANN.--A. V. C.
1st. FINALS OF WORDS.--The terminations as, es, ce and ds, when followed by the consonants y and s, are often improperly sounded. We frequently hear, "makesh you," "seege you," "senge you," &c., for "makes you," "sees you," "sends you."
1. What makes you cry? not What makesh you cry?
2. A nice young girl. not A nyshe young girl.
3. What offends you? not What offenge you?
4. As you please; not Azge you please.
5. A nice sugar-plum; not A nyshe sugar-plum.
6. Who attends you home? not Who attenge you home?
7. He lends you a book; not He lenge you a book.
8. She mends your coat; not She menge your coat.
9. He sends you his love; not He senge you his love.
10. He sees you at last; not He seege you at last.
11. She leaves you free; not She leavge you free.
12. He receives your gifts; not He receivge your gifts.
2. FINALS OF SYLLABLES.--Such words as stat'ue, ed'ucate, moisture, &c., are often sounded as if written--stat-chu, edge-ucate, moishchure.
While we aim at purity of speech, we must guard against affectation. It is not intended that in all these words, the T should be sounded with perfect purity. The lesson is designed to check the exaggeration of a sound which, though not an actual impropriety, becomes one when it expands into a full-blown dg in educate and "verdure,"* In these words, the sound of the D must be perfectly pure.
In these words, the sound of the D must be perfectly pure.
In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
In the words marked * the difficult consonants begin the syllable.
1. The boy has the features of his mother.
2. "The statue that enchants the world."
3. Goliah was a man of great stature.
4. I heard a lecture on the sculpture of the Greeks.
5. The stat-ute is a wise, and therefore a popular one.
6. I will educate my sons to be merchants.
7. The gestures of little children are graceful.
8. This structure is very im-per-fect.
9. The vulture is a bird of prey.
10. Do not pass idle strictures on the conduct of others.
11. The man wore the vesture of a priest.
12. A fixture is a thing which cannot be removed.
13. The texture of the cloth is very fine.
14. Verdure is the fresh green color of the woods and fields.
15. A mixture of red and blue makes purple.
16. A rupture takes place when something bursts asunder.
17. A rupture also means a breach of peace.
18. The moisture of the dew refreshes the flowers.
19. Sculpture is the art of carving statues.OBSERVATION.--"The statue that enchants the world." This is the statue commonly called the "Apollo Belvidere." It is at Rome, in the Vatican.
Sound the R's--Third, perched, water, pitcher, turned, darted, &c.
Ring the ng's--Dying, standing, getting, picking, &c.
Articulate the finals--Vexed, tried, covered, dropped, cawed. It may be well to remark that final consonants are not difficult of articulation when followed by a vowel. It is only when followed by another consonant that they are apt to be slighted.
Aspirate the H's--When, himself, he, his.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--Flew, window, merrily, refreshed.
PERCH-ED, sat like a bird.
DART-ED, went suddenly.
RE-FRESH-ED, given new strength.
BEAK, a bird's bill.
CAW-ED, made a noise like a crow.
1. A crow, almost dying of thirst, flew with joy towards a pitcher which he spied in the window of a cottage, near the tree upon which he was perched. When he peeped into the pitcher however, he saw that the water was too low for his beak to reach it.
2. He was much vexed at this; so much so that he tried to break the pitcher, but it was too strong. He then did his best to o-ver-turn it, but it was too heavy.
3. He was ready to faint with thirst and rage; but he began to think that getting in a passion would not mend the matter. So putting his head on one side, and standing on one leg, as crows often do when they are deep in thought, he turned over in his mind various ways of getting this water of which he was so much in need.
4. At last, he shook his wings mer-ri-ly, and said, "I have it!" So away he flew again to a place where the ground was coverd with little pebbles. Picking up one at a time, he carred them to the pitcher, and by and by, he dropped in so many, that at last, the water rose to the top.
5. He then dipped in his beak, took a long drink, and having refreshed himself and gotten in a good humor, he darted up to the top of a tall tree, and cawed for an hour with joy at his own wit.
OBSERVATION.--How prettily this little fable teaches us, that when things go amiss with us in this world, anything will set them right sooner than impatience.
When our children have difficult tasks to perform, let them take courage, and think of all the pebbles that the poor crow carried to the pitcher, before the water rose high enough for him to get a drink!
Sound the R's--Orleans, affair, butterfly, girl, silver, sport, Charles &c.
Ring the ng's--Being, praising, willing, running, flying, &c.
Articulate the finals--Must, reached, passed pleased.
Aspirate the H's--When, have, her, him, where, while, &c.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--Kite, not käeet, yellow, suddenly, fellows, poor, not pore.
Do not convert the word "pretty," into "perty" or "pûtey."
CHI-NA, a country in Asia.
TRI-UMPH, joy for success.
GOR-GEOUS, very fine and showy.
FLIGHT, the flying away.
PLAN-ET, a body like the earth, that moves around the sun, and receives light from it.
FLUT-TER-ED, moved quickly in waves.
VIC-TO-RI-OUS, successful in dispute or rivalship.
1. One day Charles had a kite sent to him by his cousin, who lived in New Orleans. This kite was not an everyday affair. It was almost as tall as Charles himself; and he felt very proud as he carried it through the streets towards the square where he meant to fly it.
2. This famous kite had come all the way from China, where kites are made into many odd shapes. This one looked like a huge butterfly. It was painted in green, gold, black and yellow and it was very fine and gay.
3. Charles thought as he looked around, that nobody was as grand as himself, and he fancied that every boy he met must envy him. He was pleased with this idea and he began to strut and swell with pride. Foolish boy!
4. Not only foolish, but sinful: and had his mother been by to see how absurd he looked, she would have felt ashamed of her little boy, and she would have been sorry that any one had ever taken the trouble to send him a pretty kite.
5. But Charles did not long enjoy his silly triumph. His kite, as I have told you, was very large; and after he had reached the square, he found it too heavy to raise without help. A crowd of boys was close by, all looking at the kite and praising its beauty; each one willing and ready to lend a hand in raising it.
6. But our selfish boy was not willing to have anybody share his sport; so he went to work to raise his kite alone. The boys around were very eager to help, but Charles pretended not to see them, so they all stood together in a knot to look at him.
7. He ran, let go the cord, and ran again; but it was useless. The kite would not move. He was ready to cry, as tired and vexed, he leaned against a tree with his kite before him. His face was red and sulky; and it looked so droll, peeping just over the body of the big butterfly, that some of the boys began to laugh.
8. This made master Charles very angry, and he began, in his turn, to utter cross words. Then the boys laughed all the louder, for everybody knows how boys love to tease. But suddenly they stopped, wheeled about, and ran off to an-other part of the green.
9. Charles looked after them; and just then, coming through one of the park-gates, he saw an-other boy with a kite, which, though it was not as curious as his, was quite as large, and seemed to be still more admired.
10. And indeed it was a pretty kite. Its color was light blue, and in its centre was the planet Saturn, with its two rings and its eight moons, all cut out of glitter-ing silver paper. Below the rings, in large silver letters, was the word "PLANET." This was the name of the kite.
11. The boys crowded around its owner, who giving it at once into their willing hands, loosened the cord and unrolled a gorgeous tail, made up of bits of cloth and silk. Every boy had a share in the sport; and when at last, all was ready, and the "Planet" darted up into the air like an arrow, the whole group sent up a shout of joy.
12. Poor Charles and the Butterfly!--Sullen and alone, he watched the happy faces that were follow-ing the flight of the "Planet," until he actually began to cry with envy. He who had hoped to make others envious!
13. All at once one of the boys came running towards him. It was the boy who owned the "Planet." He had lent his kite to the others, and now came forward to know if Charles would like him to help to raise the "Butterfly." Charles felt very glad, and gave it into the boy's hands."
14. Between the two, they raised it. As soon as it had fairly started, the cord was placed in Charles's hands, and his kind little friend ran off again.
15. Charles was so anxious to out-do the "Planet," that he let out his cord too fast; and as he dashed across the green, his kite, instead of rising as it should have done, fluttered and was caught in the branches of a tall oak tree.
16. Charles, in his anger, gave such a pull to the cord, that it snapped, and the kite was left behind. It was useless to try to get it down, for nobody could venture to the top of that tall tree. Once more, the boys swept by with the vic-to-ri-ous "Planet," and Charles was left alone.
17. He had nothing to do now, but to go home. It is hoped that if he was a sadder, he was also a wiser boy than when he had gone out that morning, hoping to find pleasure, not in his pretty kite itself, but in the envy of those who would see and long to own it.
18. For a few weeks. the "Butterfly" hung in the oak tree, making Charles's heart ache every time he passed the square; and what was still worse, the boys, when they met him, would smile and point to it, as far out of reach, and torn into strips, it flapped feebly in the wind that was forever (so Charles thought) bringing it before the sight of the whole town.
19. At last came a heavy rain; and the famous kite that had come all the way from China, to make one little boy so unhappy, was beaten to paste, and dropped to pieces.
NOTE.--It is suggested that children be directed to find the countries mentioned in their reading lessons, on the map. A few remarks from the teacher, on the peculiarities of these countries, will render the lesson interesting. Let the pupils now be told that the great planet "Saturn" has two luminous rings around it; that it has eight moons, and is one thousand times larger than the earth on which we live. If no astronomic chart is at hand, the diagram on the kite will serve to illustrate these facts. The "little scraps" of information thus incidentally dealt out to children, will never be forgotten by them
It is also suggested that questions similar to those following the fable of the "Wolf and the Lamb," be frequently put to the reading-class. The power of narrating correctly, is the first step in the art of Composition.
WORDS ending in ing are frequently robbed of their final letter. We often hear the words running, playing, being, &c., pronounced as if written runnin', playin', bein', &c.
1. I heard a bird this morning, singing in the woods.
2. We had a plum-pudding for dinner, on Christmas day.
3. Who can help loving that darling child?
4. Last evening I was visiting until ten o'clock.
5. What are you doing so early in the morning?
6. Were you going or coming, when I met you?
7. I was turning the corner, when I saw the horses running.
8. The horses were kicking and plunging fu-ri-ous-ly.
9. The children were romping and playing on the green.
10. Are you tying or un-tying your shoe?
11. I am living with with my uncle, and working for him.
12. John was out walking, while Paul was flying his kite.
13. One of them was hoarding money, while the other was spending it.
14. Harry was riding through the field, and I was getting over the stile.
15. You were standing by the fire, warming yourself.
16. The audience were stamping, and clapping their hands.
17. The fire is burning and blazing brightly.
18. They were opening and shutting the doors of their room.
Sound the R's--Mother, dear, absurdly, for, there, were, fear, &c.
Ring the ng's--Playing.
Articulate the consonants--Myself, not mysef, child.
Aspirate the H's--While, his.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--Advice, ice, not adv[long a, macron][long e, macron][long e, macron]ce, [long a, macron][long e, macron][long e, macron]ce, child, strife, life.
AD-VICE, something told to us by way of teaching us what we had better do.
"Kid," said the mother-goat, "take my advice,
Dear little kid, do not go on the ice!
The ice is so smooth that you might, by mistake,
While playing slip down, and your leg you would break."
"O how can you talk so ab-surd-ly to me,"
Said the kid, "as if I were not able to see!
I can judge for myself, for to tell you the truth,
Kids are much wiser now than they were in your youth."
"Well child," sighed the Mother, "there shall be no strife
Between us, so go, but I fear for your life."
The kid bounded off to the ice while she spoke,
And leaping too wildly, his fore-legs he broke.
TRANS. FROM THE GERMAN.--A. V. C.
Sound the R's--Summer, garden, whirl, parlor flowers, &c.
Ring the ng's--Running, playing, skipping, waiting, &c.
Articulate the other consonants--Stooped, blamed, picked reached, statues, &c.
Aspirate the H's--While, where, when, him, her, his, why, &c.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--Fountain, (pronounce fountin,) delight, behind, drew, (pronounce dr[long u, macron],) possible, sweetness, moments.
RARE, very scarce.
FRANCE, a country in Europe.
1. It was a fine summer day. An-to-ny and Dora V--were about to take a walk with their father in one of those lovely public gardens, of which there are so many in France.
2. These gardens are for the use of the people. They are filled with trees, flowers, fountains, and statues. Fathers and mothers take great pleasure in going there with their children, and the latter are never happier than when they are running and playing under the shade of the trees.
3. Mr. V--had gone to his room for a few moments, and Antony and Dora were waiting for him in the parlor. Dora, like a little lady, was seated on a low cushion, looking at some prints; but Antony, wild with delight at the thought of the trees, the flowers, and the wide walks of the garden, was skipping about the room.
4. Dora warned him two or three times to sit still; but he would not heed her. At last, in one of his bounds, he gave such a whirl, that he dashed from its stand a rare plant, which a few minutes before, his father had placed near an open window.
5. The plant was in bloom, and the broken flower fell on the carpet at Dora's feet. She stooped to pick it up, and still held it in her hand when her father opened the parlor-door and walked in. Little Dora felt so sorry for her brother that she scarcely knew what to say to her papa.
6. Mr. V--seeing her with the flower, thought that she had picked it from its stem. Coming at once towards her, he cried out in an angry voice, "Is it possible, Dora,
that you have taken the liberty of picking this rare flower, which I was saving with so much care, for its seed?"
7. "Dear papa," said Dora, confused, "do not be angry!"
8. "How can I help it," replied her father, "when you are so ill-behaved? Go up stairs to your room, for I cannot take you to a garden which does not belong to me, lest you should take a fancy to pick other flowers besides those of your father. Come Antony, let us go."
9. Dora hung her head, and her eyes filled with tears, but she said not a word. She was quite ready to be blamed for her brother's fault, and to stay at home that he might enjoy a walk with his father.
10. But Antony had no idea of letting his dear little sister suffer for his sake. He had hidden himself behind her in the hope that she might say something to excuse him; but he now ran up to his father.
11. "Dear papa," cried he, "sister did not touch your flower, it was I, I alone, who did all the mischief. I brushed it from its stem with my coat-sleeve. Take Dora with you, and leave me at home; for nobody is to blame but me."
12. Mr. V----took both his children in his arms and kissed them, while tears of joy rose to his eyes.
13. "God bless you, my darlings," said he, "for the love you have shown to one another to-day. You shall both come with me to the garden, and our walk will be all the happier for the loss of my flower, which never has been as precious to me as it is now, broken and ruined though it be."
14. You may be sure that Antony and Dora were very happy also. They saw many things that amused them as they went through the streets; änd when they came to the garden, their father took them all over it, showing them all the curious plants and the prettiest flowers that were growing there.
15. Dora drew in her skirts when she came near the borders of the flower-beds, and Antony was as careful as his sister. But in the long, wide walks, they could skip about as much as they chose; and as they laughed and danced around him, their proud father thought that such dear children as his, were worth all the rare and precious flowers in the world.
TRANS. FROM BERQUIN.--A. V. C.
The syllables ki, ky, car, gar, and gir, when they end a word or are followed by a consonant, are often mis-pronounced. Their sound is delicate and peculiar. It is far removed from the vulgar pronunciation of the words kite, sky, card, garden, girl, which is somewhat as if these words were written, k[long a, macron][long e, macron][long e, macron]t, sk[long a, macron][long e, macron][long e, macron], c[long a, macron]hd, gähdun, g[short u, breve]rl.
Neither are these syllables to be sounded k[long e, macron][long e, macron][long i, macron]te, sk[long e, macron][long e, macron]y, k[long e, macron][long e, macron][long a, macron]rd, gu[long e, macron][long e, macron][long a, macron]hdun, gu[long e, macron][long e, macron][long u, macron]rl. But the lat ter pronunciation is less offensive than the former.
The exact sound must be taught orally. It cannot be represented by any written combination of letters.
The dipthongs ua and ue, are subject to the same rule, as are also the dipthongs ui and uy, when these two last are followed by the letter R.
1. The heart of a good girl is free from guile.
2. The kite flew up as if it would cleave the sky.
3. Do not throw the ashes of your cigar upon the carpet.
4. Guy was not able to find his way without a guide.
5. I have a great regard for that young girl.
6. My guardian is walking in the garden.
7. A carter is one who drives a cart.
8. Carmine is the name of a beau-ti-ful red color.
9. The cars were crowded with carmen to-day.
10. The guards were all away, playing cards to pass the time.
11. The soldier on guard froze to death on that cold night.
12. The queen of England wears the order of the garter.
13. If once you have eaten of an Arab's salt, he will always treat you kindly.
14. Dorcas was a woman who made garments for the poor.
15. The girdle of Venus is called her "cestus."
16. The Christian looks to heaven as the guerdon of a well-spent life.
17. On Christmas day, our churches are decked with garlands of holly.
18. It is folly for the old to garner up their riches.
19. The garnet is a red stone, darker than the ruby.
20. The dishes at this dinner were all garnished with flowers.
Sound the R's--Desert, for-gotten, starved, parched, thirst, barley, hurled, &c.
Ring the ng's--Nothing, lying.
Articulate the finals--Lost, parched, reached, stooped, ground, find.
Aspirate the H's--This, which.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--Suddenly, lying, re-freshed, &c.
AR'-AB, a man born in Arabia.
DATES, the fruit of the great palm tree.
DES'-ERT, a great plain covered with sand.
AL-LAH, the name which the Arabians give to God.
O-A-SIS, a small spot in the desert, where trees and water are found.
RE-FRESH-ED, made strong.
HURL-ED, threw with violence.
1. An Arab was lost in a desert. For two days and nights he had nothing to eat or to drink. He was almost starved, and his throat was parched with thirst.
2. Sud-den-ly he came within sight of an o-a-sis. Here he was sure to find water; and after much toil, (for he was very weak), he reached the spring.
3. As he stooped to drink, he saw lying on the ground beside him, a little leather sack. "Alläh be praised!" cried he, "here is food. In this precious bag there must be either barley or dates. I care not which I find, for both are good, and I shall be refreshed and live."
3. With eager hands, he cut the string that tied the sack. It opened, he gave one look, and hurled it far, far away into the spring.
4. "Alas!" cried the unhappy man, "they are only pearls."
TRANS. FROM THE GERMAN OF PALMBLÄTTER--A. V. C.
Sound the R's--Birthday, yourself, assure, dearly, purpose, &c.
Ring the ng's--Wishing, something, nothing.
Articulate the finals--Yields, must, exact-ly, gift, best.
Aspirate the H's--While, what, him, &c.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--Bouquets, (pronounced böökays,) children, suit, (pronounced sute,) forgotten, follow, mine, truly, &c.
GAUD-Y, very showy.
FRIEND-SHIP, love between friends or relations.
GEN-E-ROUS, willing to give away.
1. "To-morrow is brother's birthday," said Vic-to-ria St. M. to her mother. Have you nothing to give me, mama, of which I might make him a present?"
2. Mrs. St. M. Yes, Victoria, I have several things that would be very pretty presents for your brother; but I may as well give them myself, for I assure you that I enjoy making presents quite as much as you do. More-o-ver, if I pass my things over to you for that purpose, the gift will be mine, not yours.
3. Vic. True, mama; but still, I cannot help wishing that I had something to give as well as yourself.
4. Mrs. St. M. Very well, Victoria, let us see if you have not something of your own to give. Your orange-tree, for instance?
5. Vic. My orange-tree, mama, that yields me flowers for my bouquets! I could not part with that.
6. Mrs. St. M. Your lamb, then?
7. Vic. Oh, mama, how can you propose to me to part with my own pet lamb, that follows me about, and loves me so dearly!
8. Mrs. St. M. Well then, give him your doves.
9. Vic. You know, mama, that I have fed those doves since the day they were hatched. My doves! Why they are like children to me.
10. Mrs. St. M. Then it seems that after all, you have nothing to give to your brother.
11. Vic. Yes, mama, I have just thought of something that will answer my purpose exactly.
12. Mrs. St. M. What is it, my dear?
13. Vic. Do you re-mem-ber that splendid purse all worked in gold, that my aunt once gave me as a New Year's gift? It is the very prettiest thing I have.
14. Mrs. St. M. Perhaps so, but I hardly think it would give any pleasure to your brother. He could make no more use of that gaudy trifle than you have done for three years past, while it has been lying for-got-ten in the bottom of your drawer.
15. Vic. Still, mama, the purse is very rich and costly, and it will be a pretty present.
16. Mrs. St. M. No, my dear, it will not be a pretty present, for it will not suit the person to whom it is to be given. You must not expect to please your brother by this cheap plan of giving him a thing which has no value in your own eyes.
17. Vic. (after a pause.) Must I then give my brother everything that I love best, if I wish to make him a birthday present?
18. Mrs. St. M. Not at all. You may give as much or as little as you choose, my child, but you must give that much or little with all your heart.
19. Vic. (after some moments of reflection.) Now I know what to do. I shall gather the prettiest flowers from my orange-tree for brother, and will make him a present of my pet lamb.
20. Mrs. St. M. Right, Victoria. This shows true friendship.
21. Vic. And I shall teach it to follow him just as it follows me, so that he may have as much pleasure in the dear little lamb as I have had while it was mine.
22. Mrs. St. M. My dear child, this is being truly gene-rous. Now you may be sure that your birthday present will give real pleasure. And let me tell you that it will not only make your brother happy, but yourself also.
23. Vic. And what will you give him, mama?
24. Mrs. St. M. Something that will be quite as much a gift to you, as to him--a birthday party.
TRANS. FROM BERQUIN.--A. V. C.
The trigrammic elements alf, alm, and alv, have a peculiar sound. The l is silent, and the a has almost the sound of the Italian ä. Remember almost, not quite, äf, äm, äv. It is inelegant to give to the a, in this combination, the sound of the short or French [short a, breve].
1. Mary gave me one half of her apple.
2. The calf of our cow is a month old.
3. I will speak to your father in your behalf.
4. Let us never forget to give alms to the poor.
5. Balm tea is sometimes used in sickness.
6. Do you prefer almonds to pecans?
7. There are several kinds of palm-trees.
8. I like very much to read the twenty-fourth psalm.
9. Salve is used to heal wounds and blisters.
10. After a storm, comes a calm.
11. The oranges were peeled, and cut in halves.
12. We have on our farm eight young calves.
THE dipthong au in laugh, aunt, guant, haunt, &c., has a sound between that of the a in balm and calm, and that of the short or French [short a, breve] in f[short a, breve]t and c[short a, breve]t. The Italian sound of ä in laugh, grant, &c., is both unpleasant and improper.
Do not make the great mistake of prolonging the a in such words as b[short a, breve]sket, d[short a, breve]nce, gr[short a, breve]ss, &c.
Sound the R's--Morn, before, birds, words, flowers, harm, &c.
Ring the ng's--Bleatings, evening, &c.
Articulate the finals--Child, shield.
Aspirate the H's--When.
Mark the different vocalic sounds--Child, before, begin, because, &c.
BLEAT-INGS, cries of sheep.
FLOCKS, a great many animals together.
SHIELD, to keep away from harm.
1. Wake little child, the morn is gay,
The air is fresh and cool;
But pause awhile to kneel and pray,
Before you go to merry play,
Before you go to school.
2. Kneel down and speak the holy words;--
God loves your simple prayer,
Above the sweet songs of the birds,
The bleatings of the gentle herds,
The flowers that scent the air.
3. And when the quiet evening's come
And dew-drops wet the sod,
When bats and owls begin to roam,
When flocks and herds are driven home,
Then pray again to God.
4. Because you need Him day and night
To shield you with His arm;
To help you always to do right,
To feed your soul and give it light,
And keep you safe from harm.
IN OUR LESSONS, the diction will not be quite so simple as heretofore. We have, so far, brought our language down to the level of our little children's minds. They must now, in their turn, rise to the level of our meaning. It will be no more beyond the range of their understandings than is the object which placed upon a shelf above their heads, is easily reached by standing on tiptoe.
Sound the R's--Summer, flower, bird, perched, sporting.
Ring the ng's--Morning, birdling, sporting, &c.
Articulate the final consonants--Reached, stamped, perched, softly, crept, &c.
Aspirate the H's--This, what, why, where, &c.
Give to each unaccented vowel its own sound or sounds--Wild, behind, promise, tiny, fragile, &c.
Ges-ture, not geschure; pretty, not purty; and, not an'.
Pronounce distinctly every word you read; but emphasize such only as are important. Do not skip over the little words.
GES-TURE, motion of the body.
FRA-GILE, easily destroyed.
ES-CAPE, get away.
BIRD-LING, little bird.
1. One summer morning, little Rudolph came running from his father's garden, wild with joy. "See," cried he, "what a lovely bird I have found! It was perched upon a flower, and its wings shone bright--O, brighter than gold!
2. I crept softly behind it, reached out my hand, and caught it fast. It shall not escape me, I promise you. I shall put it in a tiny cage, and it shall have sweet-milk and bread to eat."
3. "Well my boy," said his father, "let us see this glorious prize."
4. Rudolph put his hand quickly in his bosom, and drew forth a gorgeous butterfly. But alas! the birdling had lost its beauty; its tender wings were torn, and their gold-dust clung to the boy's fingers.
5. He looked at them for awhile, and then cried out: "O see how the thing is crushed and ruined! It looks no longer like the pretty bird that rocked itself on the lily-bush. Pshaw, what a poor thing to be so easily killed!"
6. He stamped his foot, and, with an angry gesture, threw the faded butterfly upon the ground.
7. His father called him and said, "Is it the fault of the butterfly, Rudolph, that it was made so tender and so fragile? With a rough and careless hand, you snatched it from the bush where it was sporting in the sunshine; and this is the reason why it has lost its golden sheen and its flower-life."
FROM THE GERMAN OF KRUMMACHER--A. V. C.
OBSERVATION.--It will be observed that some of these little lessons, translated from the German, are not altogether anglicised. The German style has been preserved because it is believed by the translator that their strange and eloquent diction will introduce new forms of thought in the minds of our little American children. The language, though poetic, is very simple; and what an exquisite idea of fragility is conveyed in the expression "its flower-life!"
Sound the R's--First, scarcely, purple, shores, heart, forget, &c.
Ring the ng's--Floating, spending, dying, changing, &c.
Articulate the consonants--Wished, himself, asked, surprised, seemed.
Aspirate the H's--Whale, while, where, himself, when, &c.
Mark the five vowels--Blue, below, nostrils, fountains, believe, cabin, narrow, swallow, yellow, grateful, &c.
News, not noos; sky, not skaee; bade, pronounced bad.
BERTH, bed on a ship or boat.
FOUNT-AIN, a spring of spouting water.
FLOATING, lying on top of the water
FRANCE, a country in Europe.
CAB-IN, a room in a ship or boat.
FOG, mist rising from the earth.
SHORES, land bordering on water.
1. Louis has been far away from home. He went in a large ship, whose top-masts seemed to him to touch the clouds. At first Louis was very sea-sick; and often as he lay in his narrow berth and felt the rolling ship toss him, first on one side and then on another, he wished himself safe at home and on dry land.
2. But by and by he felt better; and at last he was well enough to be dressed and to go out on deck with his mother. He looked all around for land, but he saw nothing but sky and water. How strange it was to our little boy to see blue above and blue below.
3. But he rather liked to sit and watch the waves as they dashed against the sides of the vessel; and he loved to feel the cool sea-breeze play in his hair and about his face. Then he began to get hungry; and when dinner-time came, he thought that never had food tasted so good to him before.
4. While Louis was at sea, he saw many strange sights. At one time the sea would be as smooth as glass; at another, the waves dashed up so high that they seemed to touch the sky. At such times Louis would feel afraid, but
he always prayed to God, who hears and sees us, and knows all our wants, whether we pray on sea or on land.
5. Louis saw many fish jumping about in the water; some of them were very small, and seemed to have wings. His papa told him that these were called flying fish. Some of the fish, too, were very large; and one day the Captain called Louis to come on deck and see a whale.
6. And there he was to be sure! A huge monster, longer than the ship herself, throwing up water through his great nostrils, as if they had been fountains. Louis could scarcely believe his eyes; and he asked the Captain if he was not afraid that the whale would swallow the ship. But the Captain said, "No;" so Louis watched the whale until he was out of sight.
7. Often when he was gazing at the water as it dashed up against the sides of the ship, he saw pretty little shell-fish on the tops of the waves, that looked like tiny boats with pink sails. Louis loved to see the little things floating along, and he hated to pass them by, and leave them alone on that great, wide ocean.
8. He thought that they looked too little to take care of themselves; but his mother told him that God had made the sea their home, and therefore the sea must be the best place for them to live in.
9. Still more was Louis surprised when he saw whole flocks of little birds come down and sit on the waves with as much ease as a hen sits on her nest. He was afraid at every moment that they would drown; but they never did. Though no tree was there for them to fly upon, God watched over the little birds, as he watched over all things, great or small.
10. Louis was very anxious to catch one of these birds to look at it for a few moments; he told his wish to a sailor, who, not long after, brought one of them to the cabin, and showed Louis that they had more feathers than flesh, and were as light as little balls of down. God had made them so, and they were as safe on sea as they would have been on land.
11. One day the sailors caught a beau-ti-ful yellow fish, which they called a dolphin. As he lay on the deck, dying, his color changed from yellow to purple; and bright dots
of red, blue, and gold came out, all over his body. Louis was so full of wonder at the sight, that he never thought of the poor fish's sufferings, until his mother told him that all the beauty at which he had been gazing was caused by pain.
12. Then he drew back, and would look no longer at the beautiful, dying dolphin. He begged the sailors to put it back in the sea, but it was too late. Just then it gave a spring into the air, and flut-ter-ing a moment longer on the deck--it died.
13. After spending more than a month at sea, Louis observed that the water was changing color, and he asked his father why it looked so light and green. His father replied that they were now not far from land, and bade him look a-head where he saw great banks of fog in the distance.
14. Louis looked, and was much surprised when his father told him that what seemed to him banks of fog, was in reality the distant shores of France. Louis was so glad to see land again, that he danced all about the deck for joy, and then ran into the cabin to tell his mother and sister.
15. When they heard the news, they came quickly on deck. They saw the welcome land a-head, and were too glad to speak. But the mother, taking Louis's hand, led him into the cabin, where they all knelt down and thanked the good God who had brought them safely to France.
16. My dear children, God loves a grateful heart. Let us remember Him when we are happy, and be sure that He will never forget us when we are in trouble.
AS WE advance from words of two, to words of three syllables, more attention will be required on the part of teachers and pupils, to ensure a distinct articulation of consonants, and a purity of vocal elements. Some children may find it troublesome to articulate distinctly, but every child that has the power of speech, is able to give utterance to all the vowels. That frightful coalition, therefore, of five different sounds into one concrete [short u, breve], is inexcusable. And yet it is heard in words of every degree, from the monsyllable of two letters to the polysyllable of seventeen. We give examples of a few of these inaccuracies:
1. The word "of" as heard in "A cup [short u, breve] tea, or a cup [short u, breve] coffee."
2. The word "pens[short u, breve]l" for "pencil."
3. The word "beaut[short u, breve]ful" for "beautiful."
4. The word "ind[short u, breve]pend[short u, breve]nt" for "independent."
5. The word "mon[short u, breve]syllable" for "monosyllable."
6. The word "f[short u, breve]miliar[short u, breve]tty" for "familiarity," &c. Ad infinitum.
Once for all, let us have five vowels, not one.
1. Will you oblige me by giving me a muffin?
2. Did he stand before or behind the negro?
3. When she came to visit me, she wore a scarlet satin dress.
4. I pro-test that I have never seen your pencil.
5. I will divide the turnip into four slices.
6. He will o-bey our commands with delight.
7. With regard to his rude remark, I cannot de-fend it.
8. The enemy made a very sudden retreat.
9. A polite man never uses profane language.
10. Will you receive or refuse this tulip.
11. I believe that your friend will never deceive you.
12. You must prononce these words: anvil, bullet, bonnet.
13. Beware lest you reveal the secret I entrust to you.
14. You must prepare to return home at once.
15. They pro-pose to hold a solemn council to decide the matter.
16. I cannot divine who it was that went into the cabin.
17. The towel does not belong to my mother.
18. Will you be kind enough to proceed?
19. You are very civil to devote your time to us.
20. John was de-light-ed with his kite. It is called "The Planet."
21. My father has renounced his projects of travel.
22. The Captain was released on parole.
23. When he felt the bullet, he shook like an aspen leaf.
24. The casket was found behind an old oaken panel.
NOTE.--It is in Poetry that a distinct enunciation is most desirable. The music of its rythm is destroyed by the least imperfection, whether of Punctuation, Orthoepy, Syllabication, Accent, Emphasis, or Intonation. So far, we have treated of the two first requisites alone; the other branches of Elocution will be presented in the order of their difficulty.
But to read the simplest verses, some little idea of quantity is indispensable. This branch, for the present, can be taught by imitation only. It is for this reason that a teacher of Reading should himself be an accomplished elocutionist. In every case, his interpretation of a poet's thoughts should be the model for his pupils. Before they are called upon to read Poetry themselves, let them hear it intelligently read by their instructors.
SPRAY, twig of a tree or bush.
SPED, gone quickly.
1. There sitteth a dove, so white and fair.
All on a lily spray;
And she listeneth how to Jesus Christ
The little children pray.
2. Lightly she spreadeth her friendly wings,
And to Heaven's gate hath sped;
And unto the Father in Heaven she bears
The prayers which the children have said.
2. And back she cometh from Heaven's gate,
And bringeth--that dove so mild,--
From the Father in Heaven who hears her speak
A blessing for every child.
4. Then children lift up a pious prayer,
It hears whatever you say,
That heavenly dove, so white and fair,
That sits on the lily spray.
Sound the R's--Othr, wonder, occurred, world, entertained, tears.
Ring the ng's--Morning, watching, saying, going, coming, &c.
Articulate all the consonants--Mild, called, exactly, displeased, herself
Aspirate the H's--When, where.
Mark the five vowels--Mild, polite, children, behind, window, dis-o-be-dience.
DIS-AP-PEAR-ED, were no longer seen.
STAR-TLE, to give a sudden fright.
TRIP, to dance lightly.
DIS-O-BE-DIENT, not doing as they were bid.
EN-TER-TAIN-ED, received in their house.
UN-A-WARES, without knowing it.
1. Helen and Edwin were sweet, good children. They were kind and gentle to each other, mild to their servants, polite to every one. It was, therefore, no wonder that everybody loved them; and that their parents, who loved them most of all, should thank God each day of their lives that He had given them such lovely children.
2. They had been taught to rise early, and as soon as they were dressed, to go into their father's library, and there study their lessons, until they were called to prayers. No one ever thought of watching them; for they had always been truthful and o-be-dient.
3. But one morning, from the window of her dressing-room, their mother saw that instead of being in the library as usual, they were in the garden. When she perceived them, they were walking quietly down the broad garden-walk, and presently dis-ap-peared behind the trees.
4. Not long after, they came running towards the house, looking gay and happy as two young larks. It was clear that something in that pretty garden, had given them very great pleasure.
5. But their mother was not pleased. Helen and Edwin had been for-bid-den to play, until they had said their prayers and studied their lessons. The mother called the father, and he, too, thought it strange. But he said, "Let us wait and see if they do it again."
6. They waited; and the next morning, the same thing occurred. The brother and sister, looking very grave, went down the garden-walk, and came back again full of joy. Papa said this must be stopped. It might be very tempting to take that short romp under the trees, but his little boy and girl must be made to do exactly as they had been told. This was dis-o-be-dience.
7. When Helen and Edwin came into the breakfast-room, their mother asked them what they had been doing in the garden so early in the morning. They both blushed, and little Helen kissed her; but neither child said a word. Their mother went on to say that she hoped they were not growing idle or dis-o-be-dient.
8. Here they both put their arms around her, and promised to be neither. But again they were seen in the garden, though they tried to slip by, behind the lilac-trees and rose-bushes that bordered the garden-walks. Their mother was much displeased, and hurrying on her dressing-gown, she followed them.
9. They went on in perfect silence, until they reached a shady bower in a retired part of the garden, where they felt quite sure of not being observed; and there, these two dear children knelt down side by side, while Helen, in a low voice, repeated this little prayer:
10. "Heavenly Father, bless papa and mama, and let them live in this world for many years to come. Show us how we can make them happy; and O Lord! never let us do anything to make them sad or sorry. We wish to be good, dear Jesus, but we do not know how. Teach us how to do right, and never let us do any wrong."
11. The mother's eyes filled with tears, as she listened to her dear little girl's voice; and well might she lift her hands to Heaven and thank God that these were her children. She did not startle them by coming out to bless them, though she longed to do so; she let them trip merrily back, and slip into the library without ever suspecting who had been so near.
12. But she went to her husband, and with tears of joy that almost choked her words, she told him how her children had gone, not to play, but to ask God's blessing upon their beloved parents.
13. The next day, when Helen and Edwin went down the garden-walk, two persons watched them with loving eyes from the window of the dressing-room. The mother blessed them as they passed, and the father, putting his arm around her, whispered:
"We have en-ter-tained Angels un-a-wares."
FROM THE FRENCH OF BERQUIN--A. V. C.
Sound the R's--Ever, forget, warning, more, tears, nervous, scarcely, &c.
Ring the ng's--Warning, knowing, loving. awaiting, eating, &c.
Articulate the other consonants--Child, post, dusk, wept, lost, hand.
Aspirate the H's--What, her, him, where, whether. which, &c.
Mark the five vowels--Desert, visible, enemies, guard, below, following, &c.
TYPE, a model.
VIS-I-BLE, to be seen.
ASHES, remains of the dead.
COT-TAGE, a low house.
WAN-DER-ING, going about without knowing where.
VAL-LEY, hollow between two hills.
RE-LIED, depended upon.
1. What child ever lived that did not love a dog? He is the type of affection himself; for never has he been known to desert or forget his friends. He is the playmate of children by day, and their watchman by night; and no creature was ever known to be at once so full of frolic and so full of fight.
2. We once had a great black wolf-dog, called Juno, who was the terror of all evil-doers. During the day, she kept herself within her snug dog-house, unless a hand was laid upon our gate; and then her low, wolfish growl gave warning to all visitors not to come within reach of her chain.
3. To us, her playfellows, she was as loving as none but a dog can be. Every child in the house liked to untie Juno, and take a romp with her before she left for her post of duty. This post, after dusk, was at the back-door, where she spent her nights on the mat.
4. Many a time have I stumbled over dear Juno, as there she lay; for she was too much like night herself, to be vis-i-ble in the dark. She never even growled at me for my awk-ward-ness. When I patted her and begged pardon, she always jumped up and licked my hand, to show that she forgave me.
5. Juno was not a Christian, for although she loved her friends, she hated her enemies; and those same enemies, I do believe, brought about her death. Poor, dear Juno! One morning, we found her stiff and dead in the yard; and we always thought that she had been poisoned. In tears we dug her grave and laid her to rest. Peace to her ashes!
6. Dogs sometimes show more sense than some people we know. Here is a story of one who was good and sensible too. If this dog had been sent to school, I think he would have been put at the head of his class.
7. Far, far away from our own Southern land, among the hills of Scotland, lived a shepherd. He had large flocks of sheep which he raised among the hills about his cottage. To guard them, he had a shepherd-dog, whose name was Watch.
8. One bright morning, as the shepherd with his dog, was setting out for the hills, his little son, a child of four years, begged very hard to go with them. So they went off together, Watch and the boy before, while the father followed behind.
9. When they came up to the flock, the shepherd found that some of his young sheep had strayed to the top of a high hill, too steep for his little boy to climb. So telling him to sit quietly on the grass until he came back, he went off in search of his lambs.
10. The shepherd had scarcely reached the top of the hill, when the sky darkened, and the valley filled with one of those Scotch mists of which we have heard so often. Sometimes in the mountains of Scotland, these mists form so quickly, that in fifteen minutes day seems turned into night.
11. Such a mist over-took our shepherd. He knew every step of the way as well as he did the rooms of his own house; but he was so nervous about his little boy, whom he had left in the valley below, that he lost his way.
12. The mist was so thick that he could not see a yard ahead. He ran to and fro without knowing whither, calling "Willie! Willie!" But he heard nothing save the bells of his flocks and the noise of a water-fall. Poor father! Through that long, dark day, he called for his child, but called in vain.
13. After much wan-der-ing, he came to the edge of the mist. It was night! By the light of the moon, he saw that he was very far away from his poor boy; for there, just before him, lay his own cottage, where the mother was awaiting his return. The dog, too, had gone--the dog upon whom he had relied to follow the child's scent.
14. The shepherd scarcely knew whether to go home or not. He feared to meet his wife, but at last he de-ci-ded that it would be better for her to know the truth. All night long, the father and mother wept for their child; and as soon as day dawned, the shepherd, with some of his neighbors, was off for the hills, to search for him anew.
15. All day they looked, but looked in vain. When they returned to the cottage, the shepherd's wife told them that Watch had been there. He had come running through the house, had snatched up an oaten cake from the kitchen-shelf, and had gone off with it, before any one could stop him.
16. Day after day, Willie was searched for, but never found. His unhappy parents gave him up for dead. But still Watch came and went as before, each time taking with him a cake from the shelf. At last it struck the shepherd that by following the dog, the body of the child might be found.
17. He therefore staid at home that day, waiting for the dog to come. As usual, he ran to the kitchen for his cake, which Willie's mother was now in the habit of handing him herself. He then made off for the hills at full speed, the shepherd following, but scarcely able to keep up with him.
18. The dog stopped at last before the water-fall. He then made a turn, dashed down the steep rocks, and was lost to sight. The shepherd, with some trouble, made out to follow him; and when he reached the bottom, and turned the corner of the last rock, what do you suppose he saw there?
19. His own little Willie, seated at the entrance of a big cave, eating the cake which the dear, good dog has just given him; while Watch stood by, wagging his tail with joy!
Now what do you think could be too good for such a dog as that?
NOTE.--While we enjoin upon our pupils to give their pure sounds to all the vowels, we must warn them not to place the slightest accent upon unaccented syllables. In arriving at purity, let us not be guilty of affectation.
On one occasion, I heard a boy inform his audience that he was about to read
"The De-cla-ra-tion of In-de-pen-dence."
The effect was very droll, for he accented every syllable of the phrase. Had he pronounced his syllables correctly, accenting only the "ra" in declaration, and the "pen" in independence, his orthoepy would have been both correct and unaffected.
We will now continue our lesson on unaccented finals:
1st. The syllable ent which is generally transformed into [short u, breve]nt.
1. Not a fragment of the dinner have they left.
2. The pavement of the church is of marble.
3. The movements of the army are not known.
4. We have not a moment to lose.
5. It is warm. Leave the casement open.
6. What have I done to merit such treatment?
7. My brother is a student-at-law.
8. In my judgment, you are wrong.
9. My uncle is a very prudént man.
10. Quinine is a po-tent remedy for fever.
11. In the recent battle, we lost a great many men.
11. Pigment is the matter which gives to bodies their color.
2d. The terminations ess and ence, which are pronounced as if written [short u, breve]ss and [short u, breve]nce.
1. I have been guilty of great weakness.
2. The lameness of the soldier is for life.
3. There has been much sickness here of late.
4. The cypress-vine bears a red flower.
5. The carriage and harness are in good taste.
6. This war has filled our homes with sad-ness.
7. I can bear witness to the servant's honesty.
8. The laundress will bring the dresses to-day.
9. Edward is a very heedless boy.
10. I cannot account for my brother's silence.
11. What a stillness is in the air before a storm!
12. In that affair, you have acted with prudence.
13. She died during the absence of her relatives.
NOTE.--As we advance from words of two, to words of three syllables, let me repeat that great care must be taken not to clip off any one of the syllables. Let us not hear such ellipses as vi'let, beaut'ful, jess'mun, hy'cynth, &c.; but vi-o-let, beau-ti-ful, jess-a-mine, hy-a-cinth, &c.
The word per-fume, when a noun, has its accent on the first syllable; when a verb, it is accented on the second.
EXAMPLE.--N. The per'fume of the violet.
V. The violets perfume' the air.
Sound the R's--March, are, perfume, earned, birds, chirp, &c.
Ring the ng's--Coming, warning, wedding.
Articulate the other consonants--Winds, nest.
Aspirate the H's--Who, where, what, while, &c.
Mark the vowel sounds--Cherokee, children, gladness, because, April, promise, window, &c.
SUR'-NAME, a name given because of its fitness.
FORE-NOON, before twelve o'clock.
IN'-CENSE, perfume obtained by burning gums and spices.
BALM-Y, soft, mild.
1. Spring is a lovely season. The three spring months are March, April, and May. In some countries, the March winds are very cold; but in the beau-ti-ful South, where we have our homes, March already gives promise of the sweet days that are coming soon to bless the earth.
2. The poor are glad to see Spring, because now they can live without the expense of fire: the sick, too, take heart, because they can sit once more by their open windows, and breathe the balmy South breeze. And as they look once more upon the waving trees, and the glorious skies, how can they help breathing out a prayer of thanks to God who made the world so fair?
3. And little children--O how they love the Spring! And how they long for Sat-ur-days to come, that they may go out in troops and shout their welcome to the season that is so like their own hearts:--so full of hope, of health, and of promise!
4. The hy-a-cinths and jonquils that have taken such a long sleep under ground, now wake up, and peep out at all that is going on. The saucy heart's-ease opens its bright eyes, and stares at the other flowers; while deep hidden among clusters of little green leaves, the purple vi-o-let perfumes' the air.
5. Sweet violets, how everybody loves them! And how everybody loves the children who like them! I have known more than one dear child that was so good, so mild, and so modest, that at home, it had earned for itself the pretty surname of "The Violet." The child-violet is like the flower: it never knows how sweet it is.
6. But let us leave our flower-pet, and look higher, where the Cherokee rose has dressed the hedges in bridal white, where the little birds chirp as gaily as if they were all on their way to a wedding; where, under the eaves of the big barn, the swallow has built her nest; and where, far above them all, the silver clouds lead our hearts from earth up to heaven.
7. How pleasant it is now to take a drive in the forenoon! The air so soft, the skies so bright, the fields so green! The cows, in lazy comfort, crop the grass; the hens run about with broods of pretty chickens; the mocking-bird sings in the orange-tree, while the bee hums her tune among the flowers.
8. In every garden, the beds are dotted with green; and in every orchard the peach-trees are covered with pale, pink blossoms. Far away, in the woods, the yellow jessamine perfumes' the air, and the magnolia groves send incense up to heaven.
9. Children give your young hearts to Him, who made everything so beautiful in the Spring.
Sound the R's--Morning, morsel, store, warm, harm, mortal, &c.
Ring the ng's--Picking, bustling, morning, &c.
Articulate the finals--Round, kind, nicest,
Aspirate the H's.
Mark the vowel sounds--Callow, wide, high.
CAL-LOW, not fledged.
1. See the chickens round the gate
For their morning portion wait;
Fill the basket from the store,
Let us open wide the door;
Throw out crumbs, and scatter seed,
Let the hungry chickens feed.
Call them; now how fast they run
Gladly, quickly, every one.
2. Eager, busy hen and chick
Every little morsel pick,
And the hen with callow brood
To her young is kind and good.
With what care their steps she leads--
Them, and not herself, she feeds;
Picking here and picking there
Where the choicest morsels are.
Sound the R's--First, charmed, perhaps. Ring the ng's--Morning. Articulate the finals--Child, seemed Aspirate the H's--While. Mark the vowel--Carpet, beautiful. RA-MBLE, to rove about. In RAP-TURES, in a state of delight. DEL-I-CATE, slender. AD-MIRE, to look at with pleasure. ALOES, a very bitter medicine. FRA-GRANT, sweet-scented. 1. On a lovely summer morning, a little girl and her mother went to ramble in the woods. The child was in raptures with every thing she saw. First the bright skies, then the tall trees, then the songs of the birds pleased her; but most of all she was charmed with the gay flowers that made a prettier carpet for the earth than ever she had seen in her mother's parlors. 2. One little flower gave her es-pe-cial pleasure. Its stem was so del-i-cate, its shape so graceful, its color so rich a scarlet. Minna broke it from its stalk, and gave it one kiss for its beauty, another for its per'fume, and then she called it by every pet name she could invent. 3. People who go too far in their fancies, are apt to tire of them very soon. So with Minna. After a while, her flower grew less pretty, she thought; then its odor was less sweet. No longer sat-is-fied with its beauty or its perfume, she began to wish that it was good to eat, and finally put it in her mouth. 4. Scarcely had it touched her tongue, when she spat it out in great disgust. And no wonder, for flowers are not made to please the palate, but the eye. God, in his goodness, has not only made many things for our use, but he has made others to give us pleasure by their beauty. 5. Minna ran to tell her mother of her mistake. "O Mother!" cried she, "the flower that I thought so pretty and sweet, is an ugly, hateful thing. It is as bitter as aloes."*
As opium is the juice of the poppy, made solid by evaporation, so aloes is the juice of the Aloe plant, obtained in the same way. The Aloe is a curious and very useful plant. 6. "No, my child," said her mother, "the flower is neither ugly nor hateful. It is as beautiful and fragrant as ever. You have no right to ask of it what God has not given to it, for flowers were not made to be eaten." FROM THE GERMAN OF KRUMMACHER--A. V. C. The vowels i and y are seldom sounded with perfect purity. In the mouths of careless speakers, they become a disagreeable dipthong, made up of oi or ä[long e, macron] as in the words foine, nä-eet for fine, night. The secret of sounding the i or y properly, is simply not to open the mouth too much. The moment the mouth opens, out comes the Italian ä.
3. As she calls, they flock around,
Bustling all along the ground.
When their daily rovings cease,
And they wish to rest in peace,
All the little tiny things
Nestle close beneath her wings:
There she keeps them safe and warm,
Free from fear and free from harm.
THE BITTER FLOWER.
And Minna made a dozen wry faces as she said this.
Sound the R's--First, charmed, perhaps.
Ring the ng's--Morning.
Articulate the finals--Child, seemed
Aspirate the H's--While.
Mark the vowel--Carpet, beautiful.
RA-MBLE, to rove about.
In RAP-TURES, in a state of delight.
AD-MIRE, to look at with pleasure.
ALOES, a very bitter medicine.
1. On a lovely summer morning, a little girl and her mother went to ramble in the woods. The child was in raptures with every thing she saw. First the bright skies, then the tall trees, then the songs of the birds pleased her; but most of all she was charmed with the gay flowers that made a prettier carpet for the earth than ever she had seen in her mother's parlors.
2. One little flower gave her es-pe-cial pleasure. Its stem was so del-i-cate, its shape so graceful, its color so rich a scarlet. Minna broke it from its stalk, and gave it one kiss for its beauty, another for its per'fume, and then she called it by every pet name she could invent.
3. People who go too far in their fancies, are apt to tire of them very soon. So with Minna. After a while, her flower grew less pretty, she thought; then its odor was less sweet. No longer sat-is-fied with its beauty or its perfume, she began to wish that it was good to eat, and finally put it in her mouth.
4. Scarcely had it touched her tongue, when she spat it out in great disgust. And no wonder, for flowers are not made to please the palate, but the eye. God, in his goodness, has not only made many things for our use, but he has made others to give us pleasure by their beauty.
5. Minna ran to tell her mother of her mistake. "O Mother!" cried she, "the flower that I thought so pretty and sweet, is an ugly, hateful thing. It is as bitter as aloes."*
As opium is the juice of the poppy, made solid by evaporation, so aloes is the juice of the Aloe plant, obtained in the same way. The Aloe is a curious and very useful plant.
As opium is the juice of the poppy, made solid by evaporation, so aloes is the juice of the Aloe plant, obtained in the same way. The Aloe is a curious and very useful plant.
6. "No, my child," said her mother, "the flower is neither ugly nor hateful. It is as beautiful and fragrant as ever. You have no right to ask of it what God has not given to it, for flowers were not made to be eaten."
FROM THE GERMAN OF KRUMMACHER--A. V. C.
The vowels i and y are seldom sounded with perfect purity. In the mouths of careless speakers, they become a disagreeable dipthong, made up of oi or ä[long e, macron] as in the words foine, nä-eet for fine, night. The secret of sounding the i or y properly, is simply not to open the mouth too much. The moment the mouth opens, out comes the Italian ä.
1. This long fishing-line is mine.
2. I made a sign to you to drink no more wine.
3. This is a fine day. Shall we take a drive?
4. No; I design to take a ride on horseback.
5. We fight for right, and they for might.
6. He will write to his son to-night.
7. Too much light at night, injures the sight.
8. I will divide my pine-apple with you.
9. I do not reside on this side of the street.
10. I have no desire to resign my rights.
11. We will provide a surprise for them to-night.
12. You are quite right to chide your child for her pride.
13. A spider has fallen in my glass of cider.
14. She gave me a vial of lime-water, and a pint of lye.
15. This dish of rice is very nicely prepared.
16. We dine at nine, by candle-light.
17. If you are wise, you will return before Friday.
18. What a lovely moonlight night!
19. Twilight is a dreamy time of day.
20. A sky-light is a window in the roof of a house.
21. A glass of wine with ice-water, is a very nice drink.
This lesson contains many unaccented vowels, many examples of the long i, and just as many of the difficult consonants.
Sound the R's--World, work, tore, earthly, heart, brother, mother.
Ring out the ng's--Loving, giving, putting, getting.
Articulate the other consonants--Costs, yields, around, closed, yourself, himself, &c.
Aspirate the H's--When, whispered, what.
Mark the vowel sounds--Goodness, polite, because, before, quite, family, children, enemies, rights, silent, &c.
PROF-IT, pay, gain.
RE-JOICE, be glad.
UN-SEL-FISH, thinking more of the comfort of others than of our own.
GROUP-ED, standing or sitting together.
JAR, to sound harshly.
CRIMES, great sins.
1. Children who are polite at home, are sure to be well-bred abroad. There is no danger of for-get-ting good manners, when the manners are not put on for the occasion. A child who is gentle at home, will be always polite (because good) to everybody.
2. Po-lite-ness is nothing more than a show of goodness, which makes this world much pleas-ant-er to us all, than it would be without it. Some wise person has said that nothing costs less than politeness, while nothing yields more.
3. But let us not be polite for profit; for to be truly polite, we must be good, and goodness does not work for profit. Let us do what is right; so doing, we will please our dear parents here, and do the will of our Father who is in heaven. This, then, brings us to the main point of our lesson--politeness at home.
4. What sight upon this earth can be sweeter to look upon, than that of a family where the children love one another? Let us make a picture of such a family, as they sit together at home, in the evening.
5. Four or five bright little faces are grouped around Mother's work-table. They are quite close to one another; yet no one complains of being squeezed by his neighbor. They study their lessons quietly; and when the books are closed, they chat with Mother, or jest and play games together, happy as a band of earthly angels.
6. How sweet is the sound of their childish voices; and how happy, in their midst, sits the dear Mother who knows that within those young hearts, all is peace and love! In this home, each tries to make the other happy, by giving up some little comfort, or putting up with some little discom-fort, so that no angry sound falls upon the ear of that Mother whom all love, and who loves all alike.
7. O yes, dear children! Love one another, love one another! Give up little rights--bear with little wrongs. Do not behave as if your brothers and sisters were your enemies. Though they may have their faults, you know that they love you; for God has sent them here on earth to be your dearest friends.
8. Do not give their place in your hearts to strangers, for no strangers will ever love you half so well as they do. If you are happy, they will rejoice with you; if you are unhappy, you will turn to them for comfort; and be sure that in times of sorrow, no friends can be as good comforters as one's own kindred.
9. Suppose your brother should die. There, pale, stiff, cold, and for-ev-er silent, lies your joyous little playmate of yesterday. He can never speak to you again; and you know it. But O! if you have ever been unkind to him, what would you give to-day to be able to ask his pardon?
10. You shook him roughly one day, because he tore your new kite; last week you would not lend him your foot-ball; and only a few nights since, when he asked you to bring him a book, while you stood before the open bookcase, you told him how to come and get it for himself.
11. "O dear brother! What are kites and foot-balls to me now, when I would give my life to see you destroy them with those dear hands that will never move again! Thank God, I was not always unkind--but O Frank! you will never know now how dearly I loved you!"
12. So once spoke a boy who had lost his only brother. He kissed the cold face and hands, and called the dead
child by every tender name that love could prompt; but all in vain. He had loved poor Frank, but he had not been as kind to him as a brother should be; and now his little sins against the dead fell back upon his heart like crimes.
13. May such grief as this never be in store for you, dear children. May you be so gentle and un-sel-fish at home, so ready to oblige, so willing to give up your own comfort, and so anxious to make others happy, that when you go out into the world, you will not have to be taught how to be polite, because you will long ago have learned that lesson "by heart."
14. You know that one of God's com-mand-ments says: "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." Now, he who obeys this commandment, can never be rude or im-po-lite. Let me tell you of a sweet child, who was once asked "why everybody lowed her so much?"
15. She looked up at her father, with eyes that had taken their hue from heaven. "Indeed, papa," she whispered, "I cannot tell, unless it is because I love everybody so much myself."
16. Love everybody--keep God's holy laws, and out of the depths of your kind hearts will spring that true politeness without which no home can ever be happy.
OBSERVATION.--The author hopes that these little didactic lessons will not be tiresome. She has tried her best not to be prosy. As a general thing, it is well to teach morality through fiction; for this reason, few lessons, directly ethical, will be introduced in these Readers.
Sound the R's--Weather, fair, harvest, parterre, flower, flirt.
Articulate, the finals--Field, yield.
Mark the vowels--Fly, dry, I, delight, bright, harvest, delight.
PAR-TERRE, (pronounced pär-t[long a, macron]rre) a bed of flowers.
FLIRT, to trifle.
SOAR, to rise aloft.
HAR-VEST, a crop.
1. "If the weather were fine," said a butterfly,
"If this rain would but stop and my wings were dry,
To a gay parterre I would soar away,
And flirt with the roses, the live-long day."
2. "And I," said the bee, "if the weather were bright,
Would be off to my work with a new delight;
And every flower in every field,
To me a rich harvest of honey should yield.
FROM THE GERMAN--A. V. C.
Be careful not to convert the digraph ow into a short [short u, breve]. Pronounce the o distinctly, but do not accent it.
1. The swallow's nest is just above the window.
2. Those persons are sallow who have yellow faces.
3. My dog follows me to town every day.
4. A fallow deer is spotted with white.
5. I have made it a maxim never to borrow.
6. The loss of an only child is a great sorrow.
7. I will answer his letter day after to-morrow.
8. He gave me a ripe, juicy, mellow apple.
9. My sister's child is a sweet little fellow.
10. You have made your sofa-pillow too narrow.
11. A harrow is somewhat like a huge rake.
12. That lady has a golden arrow in her hair.
13. The marrow of beef makes good po-ma-tum.
14. The sparrow is a very saucy little bird.
15. Pigs like to wallow in the cool mire.
16. A foot, to be pretty, should be small and narrow.
17. A little bird, not fledged, is said to be callow.
Sound the R's--Servants, forward, work, understood, corner, &c.
Ring the ng's--Beating, telling, running, tasking, &c.
Articulate the other consonants--Dropped, told, clothes, extent, rattled, himself, &c.
Aspirate the H's--What, him, himself, whine.
Mark the vowels--Behind, before, allusion, life, m[short a, breve]ster (not mäster,) benefit.
BRA-ZIL, a country in South America.
SHREWD, clever, cunning.
PAR-IS, the largest city in France.
LON-DON, the largest city in England.
AL-LU-SION, a hint.
KEN-NEL, a house for a dog.
COIL-ED, curled around like a snake.
1. A gen-tle-man in Brazil once had a monkey who was so tame that he could do much more to make himself useful than many servants whom we know. This monkey waited on table, handed cakes and wine to vis-i-tors in the parlor, came at the sound of his master's bell, or rang the bell, when told to do so, for the other servants.
2. We say "other servants," for Jack was a fine servant himself. He knew that a well-bred waiter always helps a lady before a gentleman, and as he stood behind your chair, if you dropped anything, he would pick it up and hand it to you with a bow.
3. Jack wore clothes just as if he had been a little black boy; and he had been taught to make his own trowsers. When they had been cut and handed to him, he would sit down like a tailor, thread his needle, and sew away for dear life, until his master told him that he might stop.
4. Jack had a room of his own, that held a table, two little chairs, a bureau, and a bed, which he always made up himself. He took a bath every day; but his master had great trouble with Jack before he could persuade him to wear a hat.
5. Sometimes when Jack was sewing, his master would
say, "Jack, put up your work, and sweep the floor." Upon this, he would run off for a broom, and sweep and dust the room as well as a house-maid.
6. Jack could also load and fire a little gun which had been made for him. I think I should have been afraid to trust a monkey to such an extent as that. Still, I never heard that he did any mischief with his gun; and certain it is that Jack led a life more useful than that of some human beings. If I were a child, I would never have it said that I was not able to do as much work as a monkey.
1. In Paris, if you muddy your boots or shoes in the street, you will find, close at hand, a shoe-black to clean them for a few cents. One of these shoe-blacks had a little dog, who, seeing that muddy boots brought money to his master, used to roll in the mire, and then run and brush himself against the shoes of people passing by.
2. Then, his master came forward, and was paid for blacking them. A gentleman who found out the trick, was so pleased with the dog, that he bought him from the shoe-black for a large sum, and took him to London. But he ran off, got on board of some vessel, and not long after was found in Paris, by the side of the shoe-black, playing the same tricks for his master's ben-e-fit.
1. Sir Walter Scott had a bull-terrier, called Camp, who lis-ten-ed to every thing that was said is his presence, and proved that he un-der-stood it also. On one occasion, he bit the baker, as he was coming in the house with bread for the family. Sir Walter gave Camp a beating, at the same time telling him what a shame it was for a dog to bite his master's baker.
2. After that, if the least al-lu-sion was ever made to the story before Camp, he would get up and sneak off into a dark corner of the room in great distress. Then, if any one said, "Well, suppose he did, the baker was not hurt," or "it served the baker right," Camp came running out of his corner, barking, wagging his tail, and showing his great joy.
1. A gentleman had a fine, large dog, who in the winter season, was very fond of lying down on the rug before the parlor fire. Sometimes, his master coming in, would say, without looking at the dog, "If Carlo knew what a well-bred dog ought to do, he would not take up so much room before the fire." Carlo would at once leave the rug, and go into some corner of the room, as if ashamed of his ill-manners.
1. A pig and a dog once went to sea together. They were very good friends, having but one cause of dispute between them. They were apt to quarrel about the right to a kennel, which had been built for the dog. Sometimes one got it, sometimes the other.
2. At the close of a cold, stormy day, the pig, thinking that his best chance for the kennel lay in going to bed early, went slyly around it, and tried to slip in without being seen. But Master Toby had been before him, and lay snugly coiled up on the warm straw, while poor pig stood outside in the rain.
3. This was to bad! For a few moments, pig stood speechless; but all at once, he gave a grunt, and trotted off. He went about the deck for a while, as if in search of a dry corner wherein he might shake the rain from his bristles, but found none. Not even a bit of sail-cloth could he find to lie upon.
4. Pres-ent-ly he went to the side of the ship where the tin plate was lying, from which Toby and he ate their food every day. He took the plate up in his mouth, and carried it to a part of the deck, not near the kennel, but in full view of the opening.
5. Turning his back so as to hide the platter from the dog, he began to crunch with his teeth and rattle the plate, in such a way as to make Toby believe that some one had brought him a fine supper.
6. This, of course, made Toby prick up his ears and whine. Then Pig rattled the plate louder than ever, when Toby, unable to stand it any longer, left his warm bed, and running to the plate, pushed the pig aside and put in his own nose.
5. At this, Pig, who had been ready for him, made a dash for the kennel, and had coiled himself upon Toby's straw before Toby had done smelling at the empty platter.
6. This is a true story, and the Pig here spoken of was born and raised in New England.
Sound the R's--Morning, earliest, earth, birds, first, lark, our, your.
Ring the ng's--Morning.
Articulate the consonants--Tuned, earliest, finds, pretty.
Mark the unaccented vowels--Earliest, beautiful, enjoy, rejoice, finds, &c.
TUNED, made musical.
SIL-VER-Y, clear and sweet.
1. Who taught you to sing,
My sweet, pretty birds?
Who tuned your beautiful throats?
You make all the woods
And the valleys to ring;
You bring the first news
Of the earliest Spring
With your loud and silvery notes.
2. It was God, said a lark,
As he rose from the earth,
He gives us the good we enjoy;
He painted our wings,
He gives us our voice,
He finds us our food,
He bids us rejoice--
Good morning, my beautiful boy!
Sound the R's--Butter, carved, miners.
Ring the ng's--Boiling, sparkling, &c.
Articulate the other consonants--Damp, coast, deepest, supposed, depths, &c.
Aspirate the H's--Which, where.
Mark the vowel sounds--Shallow, before, easily, below, crucifixes.
ENG-LAND, part of Great Britain.
PO-LAND, a country in Europe.
SPAIN, a conntry in Europe.
CHAP-EL, a place of worship within some other building.
PU-TRI-FIES, rots or corrupts.
AL-TAR, a stone table, on which sacrifice is offered to God.
1. We all know of one way by which salt may be made. This is by the clumsy method now used in our own country of boiling salt-water in iron pots until it dries up, and leaves a damp, ugly salt in the bottom. This salt is made from saline' springs.
2. A better salt than this, is made from sea-water. In France, salt is easily and cheaply made in this way. There on the coast of the Bay of Biscay, the salt-makers dig three large, shallow pits or basins, so near the sea-shore that at high tide, the water can be made to flow in the deepest pit of the three.
3. This pit is called a res-er-voir. By a reservoir, we mean a place into which we let water, to keep it for use. The heat of the summer sun (which, in the south of France, is as great as it is on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico), soon dries up a portion of this sea-water, leaving that which remains in the basin more briny than before.
4. This brine is now emptied into the second basin or brine-pond, which is more shallow than the reservoir. Here the water dries up still faster than before. Do you know why? It is because the more shallow the pit, the greater is the power of the sun's heat over it.
5. The brine is now so thick that you can see the salt in it. It is emptied into the third pit, or salt-pan; and here, this pan being still more shallow than the two others, the heat of the sun soon dries up all the water, and nothing is left behind but pure, dry, white salt. You see how easy it is to make salt on the sea-shore.
6. We cannot live without salt. For this reason, salt is found in every part of the world. In some places it forms on the tops of hills; in others it is deep in the bowels of the earth. It is also found in springs and lakes. God, our Heavenly Father, who knows the wants of his creatures, has placed salt within the reach of all.
7. In A-mer-i-ca salt is found chiefly in lakes or licks; but not long since, a salt-mine of value, was found in Lou-si-an-a. In Spain, near the town of Cordova, is a hill made entirely of salt. In England and in Poland, salt is dug from salt-mines.
8. Far below the earth, where the sun never shines, there are people in these mines, who live and die without ever seeing daylight. Roads and streets are dug out there; and horses, wagons, men, women, and children go about just as the rest of the world goes about over their heads.
9. In England, the miners know neither how to read nor to write. Some of them, it is said, have never heard of God! What poor, unhappy slaves! Never to hear of God! Never to know that they have a Father in Heaven! How thankful we ought to be, who, as a nation, have no such sins upon our head.
10. In Poland, the miners live under ground, too; but they are far better off than the English miners, for they are Christians. Out of the great salt rocks among which they live, they dig beautiful chapels, where they go every Sunday to praise God, as we do who live upon the earth.
11. From the sparkling salt-rock they carve altars, columns, cru-ci-fix-es and statues, that look like diamonds. Many, many years ago, some one carved a statue of salt and called it "Lot's wife." The statue has been there so very long, that some of the miners think it may be Lot's wife herself. But they have never thought of inquiring how she got there.
12. We have now learned why so much salt is to be found on land. Do you know why it is that the ocean, too, is full of salt? It is because fresh water soon pu-tri-fles; and the salt in the sea keeps the water always sweet and pure. The warmer the climate, the more salty the ocean becomes.
13. It is supposed that in the depths of the ocean, far below the salt-mines of the earth, the floor of the sea is made of saline rocks, which forever washed by the great body of water above, will keep the ocean salt as long as it is God's will that this world shall last. Salt is also called by the name of Mu-ri-ate of Soda.
From the Second Reader, 22d Lesson.
This exercise is designed to teach the correct sound of the long [long u, macron], so often confounded with the diphthong oo. Fl[long u, macron]te, neither floot nor fle[long u, macron]te. Bl[long u, macron]e, neither bloo, nor ble[long u, macron].
|Fl[long u, macron]te||L[long u, macron]te||D[long u, macron]e||Pl[long u, macron]me|
|true||rule||ruby||d[long u, macron]ke|
Read the Exercise, not in columns, but across the page.
1. A good fl[long u, macron]te, As Distinguished from Some good food.
2. His name is Luke, As Distinguished from He cannot shoot.
3. The blue sky, As Distinguished from The guns boom.
4. Her blue eyes, As Distinguished from The man's boot.
5. That is true, As Distinguished from The next room.
6. It does not suit me, As Distinguished from As black as soot (not s[short u, breve]t.)
7. I play on the lute, As Distinguished from He works at a loom.
8. This is a long tube, As Distinguished from This is a good tool.
9. He plays a tune, As Distinguished from You are too wild.
10. A good rule, As Distinguished from A hen-roost.
11. A rude boy. As Distinguished from A rood long.
12. He has his due, As Distinguished from You must do it.
13. He gave me a prune, As Distinguished from I will prove it.
14. The glue will melt, As Distinguished from The gloom of night.
15. The ruby ring, As Distinguished from A high roof.
16. He will rue the day As Distinguished from A new broom.
17. He was made a duke, As Distinguished from He met his doom.
18. He wore a plume, As Distinguished from I saw a sloop.
19. They made a dupe of me, As Distinguished from He came too soon.
20. I will not sue him, As Distinguished from She rolls her hoop.
21. The clue is found, As Distinguished from The owl hoots.
Sound the R's--More, fire, creature, burst, tarts, nursery, verdict, &c.
Ring the ng's--Lying, sleeping, purring, prowling. &c.
Articulate the other consonants--Fiercest, baked, yourself.
Aspirate the H's--When, what, while, &c.
Mark the vowel sounds--Terrible, fellow, relation, origin, certain, supple, children, fire, &c.
GRIM, cross, sour.
RUN A MUCK, go madly about to kill.
SUP-PLE, that turns and bends easily.
RE-MIND-ED, put in mind.
OR-I-GIN, the beginning of a thing.
VIC TIM, the one that suffers.
TI-GER-LING, little tiger.
DE-TEC-TIVE, a policeman who traces crimes.
VER-DICT, an opinion given.
UN-PRIN-CI-PLED, acting without any regard to right.
1. To see pretty Puss lying on the rug before the parlor fire, or sleeping snugly on the sofa-cushion, who would ever suppose that she was related to that grim old fellow, the Tiger? And yet Puss and he are of the same family: and her second cousin, the royal Bengal Tiger, is one of the fiercest and most terrible of beasts.
2. Yes Puss, he is, and sometimes you forget yourself and show the family failing; for if ever those claws of yours slip out of their velvet sheaths, their stroke is sharp and cruel. Often I think that we are not half afraid enough of you, and then I begin to tremble lest some of these days you should be seized with a notion to run a muck and scratch us all to death, before we have had time to say "s-s-s-c-a-t!!"
3. Nobody heeds me however. Like all people who are winning in their ways, you purr yourself into everybody's good graces, and no one re-mem-bers your or-i-gin. The children grow angry if I venture a hint about your family connections in India; and they vow, one and all, that pretty Puss would not harm a fly.
4. Ah, Puss! I have known more than one pretty creature of my own race that reminded me of a cat. When such a one has come purring about me, I have always tried to keep at a safe distance from her velvet-covered hands. I did not want to be near, when she took off her gloves.
5. But that is neither here nor there. Our business is with you, Puss, you sleek, supple little sinner! You are a thief as well as a ti-ger-ling, you know you are. Who goes mousing about the house, whisking off the dainties that have been set aside for the children's lunch, gobbling up the cold turkey that was put away for supper, and lapping all the cream that nobody else would touch, because we were gathering it up to make butter?
6. You may well run away and hide your head. Go up to the garret, and repent of your sins.
7. I knew a cat once; a thief (of course,) but she really had some good qualities. She lived in a gentleman's family as mouser; did her duty faithfully, and was much petted by the children. They always fed her themselves, and Puss had her share of everything that was dainty in the house.
8. Not far from this family lived a pastry-cook, and you may be sure that he was a pop-u-lar man with the children. Many a cake and tart had Puss shared with them of his baking; until, at last, she felt quite weighed down by a sense of her ob-li-ga-tions. So she made up her mind to return the favors.
9. One day while the children were at play in their nursery, in ran Puss with a freshly baked tart in her mouth, which she laid at their feet. She then looked up and began to mew. The children, in a high state of glee, divided the tart, taking care that Puss should have her share.
10. The next day, back she came with another; and this went on for several days. At the end of a week, a family council was held over the affair; aud as it was well known that Puss had no pin-money, the painful truth burst upon her friends that she must be dishonest.
11. It was not hard to guess who had been the victim of her robberies. A message was sent to the pastry-cook, to know whether he had missed any tarts. He said yes; he had missed some for several days, but had not been able to
trace the thief. The family were in great distress; but the law must take its course, and a detective was sent for.
12. Puss had been very sly. She had chosen the moment when the cook having put down one tray of fresh tarts on the counter, had gone back to the oven for another. Little knowing the disgrace in store for her, she came in as usual, was caught in the act, and the detective (one of the little darkies from the kitchen) chased her all the way home.
13. Puss ran for her life, but held fast to the tart. She flew up the steps, darted into the nursery, and laid her prize, panting, at the children's feet. Then, instead of waiting for her share, she rushed out of the room and hid herself in the garret, where she consoled herself with a few mice.
14. She was brought to trial. The children sent for their father to judge the case. The verdict was, "Guilty, with ex-ten-u-a-ting cir-cum-stances." They told papa that they did not understand his big words, and begged him to explain.
15. Papa said that what he meant was this: Puss had stolen the tarts, beyond a doubt; therefore she was "Guilty." But as she was only a cat, carrying out her cat-like ideas of duty, she was not so much to blame as those thieves are who know better. These were the "extenuating circumstances."
16. Puss was therefore pardoned; and Papa told the pastry-cook that for the future, whenever she stole a tart, he would pay for it. In this way, he said that nobody would suffer from the raids of his children's generous, but un-prin-ci-pled friend.
Sound the R's--Dearly, mother, other, darling, brother, surprise, her, &c.
Ring the ng's--Reading, smiling, trusting, darling, loving, &c.
Articulate the other consonants--Hold, gold, looked, edged, pleasant, &c.
Aspirate the H's--Which, him, her.
Mark the vowel sounds--Children, beautiful, kind.
PON-DER-OUS, very heavy.
PON-DER, to study.
1. A little girl with a happy look,
Sat slowly reading a ponderous book,
All bound with velvet and edged with gold,
And its weight was more than the child could hold;
Yet dearly she loved to ponder it o'er,
And every day she treasured it more;
For it said--and she looked at her smiling mother--
It said, "Little children, love one another."
2. She thought it was beautiful in the book,
And the lesson home to heart she took;
She walked on her way with a trusting grace,
And a dove-like look in her fair young face,
Which said just as plainly as words could say,
"The Holy Bible I must obey.
"So, mama, I'll be kind to my darling brother,
"For little children must love one another."
3. "I'm sorry he's naughty and will not play,
"But I'll love him still; for I think the way
"To make him gentle and kind to me,
"Will be for me always to let him see
"That I strive to do what I think is right.
"And thus when we kneel in prayer to-night,
"I will clasp my arms around my brother,
"And say, "Little children, love one another."
4. The little girl did as the Bible taught,
And pleasant indeed was the change it wrought;
For the boy looked up with glad surprise
To meet the light of her loving eyes.
His heart was full--he could not speak,
But he pressed a kiss on his sister's cheek,
And God looked down on the happy mother,
Whose little children loved one another.
Sound the R's--Girl, skirt, scarcely
Ring the ng's--Spinning, flying, doing, running, looking, saying, &c.
Articulate the consonants--Wrist, Chained, herself, softly, rest, wild
Aspirate the H's--When, what, while, white, &c.
Mark the vowel sounds--Before, window, life, swallow, follow, kindness, &c. Tune, not Choon.
RE-STORE give back.
GRATE-FUL, feeling kindly towards those who have been kind to us.
NOTE.--This a very simple lesson. It ought to be read without a single error.
1. Once, a very little girl whose name was Annie, went out of her father's house, and stood by the front gate to look at a flock of sheep that were going down to a spring to be washed and sheared. When the sheep had gone by, little Annie thought that she might stay a while longer to look at the sun shining on the green branches of the china trees, the bees flying about the bushes, and the ants making hills on the ground.
2. Then she saw a butterfly with black and gold wings, and it looked so pretty, that the little girl ran through the open gate down the road to catch it. While she was running after the butterfly, she saw a man coming towards her with a hand-organ on his back, and a monkey chained to his wrist.
3. The monkey was dressed in red, and wore a short skirt like that of a dancer. As soon as the man saw Annie, he began to play on his organ. When he struck up the tune, the monkey began to dance, and little Annie was so de-light-ed that she scarcely knew what she was doing, until she had followed the monkey far out of sight of her mother's house.
4. The little girl was lost, although she did not know it. She still went on, stopping when the monkey stopped to dance, and laughing to see his tricks and faces. At last they reached the city; and by that time the poor child had walked two miles.
5. She felt very tired, and could no longer keep up with the monkey. Her little feet were weary, and she sat down to rest on a door-step. The street was full of people, and there were so many children on the pavement, that no one noticed our little stray lamb.
6. The organ-grinder was out of sight; and now that Annie saw him no longer, she began to feel frightened. Her heart beat fast with fear; and she got up and thought she would go home. Poor little thing! She was two miles from home, while every person in her father's house was looking for her.
7. She walked a little farther, when she came to a baker's shop, where the window was full of cakes, and where the fresh bread was baking, smelled so sweet, that Annie thought she had never been so hungry in all her life before.
8. While she stood looking in at the window, the baker's wife came in the shop with a basket full of hot loaves, and when Annie saw the nice bread so near, she could not help putting her little curly head in the door, until by and by she stood in the middle of the shop.
9. The baker's wife then saw her, and at once supposed her to be a lost child. She was too well dressed to belong to any of her neighbors; so the good woman put down her basket, and coming forward, took the poor little tired child in her arms. Before she spoke a word to Annie, she put a fresh rusk in her hand.
10. Annie tried to eat her rusk; but all at once she thought of home, and began to cry so hard that she could not swallow a morsel. The baker's wife wiped her tears
and kissed her, which made poor Annie cry all the more; and now she clung to the neck of her new friend and begged to go home "to Mama."
11. Good Mrs. Read promised to take her home, but told Annie that she must try and tell as much as she could about her papa and mama. Annie was able tell her own name; she lived in the country, and with these facts before her, Mrs. Read hoped that it would not take long to find out who her parents were.
12. She took Annie to her own room; undressed her, bathed her little tired feet, and the poor child, worn out with her long walk, soon fell asleep. When the baker came in, his wife showed him her little guest, and asked his advice as to the best way of finding her parents. The kind-hearted woman began to cry as she looked at the sleeping child; for she was a mother herself and knew how Annie's mother was grieving at that moment.
13. The baker passed his hand softly over her curls, saying, "Poor little stray lamb!" and his eyes filled with tears. He looked at his own child safe at home, playing with her dolls; and he prayed God to give him help, that he might soon find out whose darling it was that had come to rest her weary feet under his roof.
14. Ah, This world contains many good souls, and the angels live with them, though they know it not! Good people are almost always happy; and many times they have thoughts that fill them with joy, because an Angel whom they cannot see, is close by, caressing them with his white wings.
15. Such an angel was near these two good hearts that could not rest until they had done something to restore the lost child to its parents. Our baker took no thought of dinner that day. He gave a kiss to his wife, and one to his little rosy daughter; watered and fed his horse, and away he started for a printing-office.
16. He ad-ver-tised Annie in the paper of the next day, and then set off for a police-station, where he hoped to find an officer who would aid him in his search. By the time he had told his story to the guards, it was so late that when he turned his horse homeward, the gas in the streets was lit.
17. He was driving along slowly so as not to tire his horse, when he heard a bellman ringing his bell and crying "Lost child! Lost child!" Down jumped our baker from his wagon, and seizing the bellman, he told him of little Annie's visit to his house. They both knew at once that she was the child.
18. The bellman told Mr. Read that Mr. and Mrs. Ashton had been so wild with grief when they missed their child, that they had both come to town; led by the thought that there they stood a better chance of gaining tidings of her, than they would do by going farther into the country.
19. Still their anxiety was intense, for how could they know that their dear little girl was not spending the night in the woods? "Poor father! Poor mother!" said the baker: "let us hasten to end their sorrow."
20. "Jump in my wagon and show me the way," added he, "I never was gladder in my life." And away they went, the horse trotting so briskly that his master said he knew he had good news at his heels.
21. They were not long in reaching the house. The bell was nearly pulled from its wire, and the household came running to the door. Mr. Read waited for no questions, but crying out, "She is found--Annie Ashton--safe!"--he fell back into a chair, and began to cry in good earnest.
22. But forth came the happy father and the pale mother to bid God bless him for what he had done that day; and they made so much of his good deed that the baker felt ashamed. He begged them to say no more, but to tell him whether he should go and bring their child to them. The parents said no. If he would take them in his wagon they would go back with him.
23. Their own carriage was ordered to follow, while the baker went rattling down the streets with Mr. and Mrs. Ashton behind him. People looked in wonder at the richly dressed lady who was taking a drive in a baker's wagon; but if they had known all, they would have seen nothing strange in it.
24. At last the little runaway was pressed to her mother's heart; and while she kissed her child again and again, Mrs. Ashton poured out her grateful thanks to the kind
friends who had taken her in. Annie cried and laughed by turns. First she would hold out her arms to one, then to another. Poor little dove! She was wild with joy.
25. You may be sure that Mr. and Mrs. Read never had reason to repent of their good action. Annie's father and mother became the best friends they had ever had. They never came to town without seeing the baker's wife: they loaded her with presents of every kind, and whenever Christmas came around, the baker's children had prettier Christmas gifts than any others for miles around.
26. In this little tale, dear children, I have said nothing of the sin you commit, if ever you leave home without permission from your parents. Annie was too young to know that she was doing wrong; but children who are old enough to read, are very sinful if they do as she did.
27. Never go from home without your mother's consent; for if God should take her from you, you cannot think what a comfort it would be for you to feel that while she lived, you never gave her any sorrow.
Sound the R's--Hard, world, harness, purple, darling, murmured, afford, &c.
Ring the ng's--Whistling, waiting, budding, taking, looking, smiling.
Aspirate the H's--When, while, which, white, why, what, &c.
Articulate the other consonants--Obliged, subject, soft, dressed, crusts, himself, limbs, &c.
Sound the vowels--Barrow, opposite, harness, present, sometimes, sight, &c.
VER-SUS, (Latin) against.
LUX-U-RY, an enjoyment not necessary to our happiness.
MAG-NO-LIA, a beautiful forest tree.
MUR-MUR-ED, said softly.
CRIP-PLE, one who has lost the use of his limbs.
PAL-SIED, deprived of the power of action.
AF-FLICT, make unhappy.
1. In a pretty village, on the sea-coast, lived a little boy whose name was Martin Case. His parents were not very poor, but being far from rich, Martin was obliged to work, to wear coarse clothes, and to live on plain fare. He was no worse than other boys, but often when he was at work, and saw the children of richer people at play, he would sigh and think his lot a very hard one.
2. At such times his eyes would fill with tears, his arms and knees would begin to ache, and his task, whatever it might be, would grow and grow, until it seemed like some great high mountain, which no amount of little boys could ever hope to level.
3. One day he had been sent just beyond the skirts of the village to gather drift-wood from the sea-shore. He had left home with a light heart, and was rolling his wheel-barrow along the road, whistling as he went, when he saw a boy who attended the same school as himself, trotting off to the woods on a pretty chesnut pony.
4. The boy's father was able to afford him this luxury, and we cannot blame poor Martin for wishing that he too
had a pony; for everybody knows that nothing delights a boy more than a ride on horse-back; above all, when the horse is his own.
5. But Martin allowed himself so many thoughts on the subject, and wondered so often why it was that he was obliged to cut wood and wheel it home, while a boy who was in a lower class at school than himself, wore fine clothes, ate sweet cakes, and rode about on a pony of his own, that the wood was very hard to cut that day, and the good-for-nothing old barrow was heavier to roll than ever.
6. But the work must be done, for Martin's mother was at home waiting for the wood to bake bread for the morrow. So after much abuse of his hatchet for being so dull, and of the drift-wood for not being rotten, the barrow was loaded, and Martin turned his steps homeward.
7. When he was not envying rich people, but was listening to the sweet murmur of the waves as they dashed against the beach, or looking at the mocking-birds in the branches of the dark magnolias, his barrow seemed to run very smoothly; but to-day poor Martin was tired--so tired that he sat down on a log to rest and to cool himself with the soft breath of the sea-breeze.
8. He had almost made up his mind that the world was very fair to look upon, that his father was the best father, and his mother the dearest mother that ever smiled upon an only son, that he was quite re-freshed and able to go on, when a sight met his eyes which killed all the joy that was budding in his poor, foolish little heart.
9. Just opposite the log where he sat was a house, where those who drove on the beach sometimes stopped for refreshments. Martin was just taking a piece of corn-bread from his pocket to eat, when he saw a fine carriage coming towards him, in which were a lady and a boy of his own size. They stopped before the house.
10. The top of the carriage was thrown back, and Martin could see that its trimmings were of silk, and its cushions of the same, and that the lady and the boy were both richly dressed. The coachman had a fine suit of cloth, and wore white gloves, and the harness of his splendid bay horses glistened like silver.
11. Here, to be sure, was a contrast! Martin looked with disgust at his wheel-barrow, and his musings were as follows:
"What a carriage! What clothes! The very coachman better dressed than I! And that boy--why should he have such a fair face, such glossy curls, and such delicate, white hands? My face and hands are brown, my hair is harsh, and I eat dry corn-bread, while he--yes! just look at him--he is having a lunch of cold chicken, fruit and wheat-roll!"
12. (Oh Martin! Martin! It was only yesterday that little Jemmy Harris, who has neither father nor mother, was glad to get the hard, stale crusts which you had set aside for the pig. Take care, lest God, who gives us all things, should deprive you of some of the blessings on which you seem to set so little store!)
13. The lady now handed out a rich silver cup, and told her footman to ask for a drink of water for her son. He, meanwhile, was looking towards the sea, and meeting Martin's eye, he smiled so kindly that Martin could not help smiling in return. This, however, did not prevent him from envying that happy, rich boy, who wore fine clothes, rode in a fine carriage, and drank from a silver cup.
14. "Would you like to have some water!" said the boy, seeing that Martin was eating dry bread.
15. "Yes sir, but I have no cup," replied Martin dolefully.
16. "Then you shall drink from mine," said the kind little stranger, re-filling his goblet, and reaching it out to Martin, while at the same time he handed him a long bunch of nice, purple grapes.
17. Martin's eyes grew large as saucers when he received the grapes. He was very thankful, but felt awkward, and scarcely knew what to say. He looked up with such wistful eyes that his new friend had no trouble in guessing at his thoughts. They were plainly written upon his face.
18. "You think me a lucky boy, do you not?" said the stranger.
19. "Indeed I do."
20. "Then you would be willing to change places with me?"
21. "I should think I would."
22. "Suppose we change then. But I warn you that
you have something to yield to me, for which, if it could be bought, mama would give all her fortune. Would you not Mama?"
23. Mama looked very sad, and murmured, "My poor, darling Harry!"
24. Martin thought this very strange on the part of the lady. What was there to pity in the fate of this handsome boy, who had not only fortune and beauty, but had been blessed by God with a good heart?
25. "Now mind," continued Harry, laughing at Martin's puzzled face, "we change every thing. If I give you my carriage and horses, you give me your legs."
26. Martin looked down at his bare feet and scratched ankles, and thought it very funny that Harry should care to have his coarse, brown legs, that so often grew tired and refused to do their duty. But he only said, "If you have any use for my legs, I would be willing to change if such a thing"--
27. Here Harry cried out to John the footman to open the door and let him out. John looked at his mistress, who nodded, and Harry, instead of jumping to the ground as other boys would have done, stretched out his arms and was lifted out as gently as if he had been a baby.
28. As the carriage-door opened, Martin had caught sight of a pair of crutches, and now to his horror he saw that Harry was a cripple. His thin, shrunken legs hung loose from his body, and were no more support to him than those of a child just born. Martin was so sick at what he saw that he turned pale. Harry looked with a mournful smile at his poor, palsied limbs, and then he raised his mild eyes and spoke:
29. "Would you take my wealth and give me your legs?"
30. Martin could only cry out, "O how dreadful! How sorry I am! And I was thinking that you were happier than I!"
31. Harry held out his hand. Martin no longer envied its fairness, but put his little brown palm into it with tender pity. For a while Harry looked at the fine, well-shaped limbs, upon which Martin's body was firmly planted; then his eyes filled with tears. Sometimes his lot
seemed very hard to bear, but God who had so afflicted his body, had blessed him with great piety, and Harry bore his trial like a true Christian.
32. "What is your name?" said he at last.
33. "Martin Case."
34. "Well, Martin, we must see one another again, and when you come to that large house below the toll-gate, where you see a little marble fountain in the middle of the grass plot, I hope that the sight of my poor limbs will have taught you how to value yours, and above all things to give thanks to God that you were not born a cripple."
Sound the R's--Winter, furnishes, warm-hearted, harvest, deserts, elders, deserves, &c.
Ring the ng's--Evening, braiding, turning, leavings, clothing, reminding, &c.
Aspirate the H's--Which, when, he, why, what, him.
Articulate the other consonants--Oldest, nicest, yields, hind, swiftly, himself, youngest, &c.
Sound the vowels--Propose, fellow, defends, forever, guards, like, animals, noiseless, dominion, &c.
PAS-TIME, an amusement.
HAR-VEST, ripe grain ready to be gathered.
PRACTI-CAL, having common sense.
CRIT-IC, one who finds fault.
NAT-U-RAL HIS-TO-RY, the history of animals.
POP-U-LAR, liked by many people.
GLUT-TONS, those who eat too much.
SWIFT-LY, very fast.
MA-CHINE, an instrument used to increase power by motion.
1. On a winter evening, a group of children sat around the library-table, where they had been studying their lessons. Some were looking at picture-books, some were drawing queer-looking monsters on their slates which they called men, horses, dogs, and cats. There were four boys and two girls. One of the girls was braiding straw, the other was working for her doll.
2. Presently Nelly, the eldest, who was looking over her brother's slates, and laughing at the "monsters," said, "Boys, put up your slates for a moment. I have a pastime to propose. Suppose that each one in turn, names
the animal he likes best, and tells us why he likes it. You are the oldest Lloyd; let us hear you first."
3. Lloyd. "I love a Dog--a warm-hearted dog, that romps with me when I am gay, caresses me when I am sad, warns me of danger, defends me from harm, and guards me when I sleep. A trusty dog that brings me the game he longs to eat--a dear, good dog, that if he loves me once, loves me forever."
4. George. "Yes--your dog is a good fellow, but give me a Horse--a noble horse, so proud, so swift, so handsome! Such a horse as the Arab prizes above all gold--the friend who will bear him to the battle-field, or fly like the wind, when safety lies in flight. Look through the crowded streets of our own cities. There he is, drawing our carriages, carts, and drays. Go to the farm, he is there either turning up the earth for the sower, or bearing off the harvest to the farmer's barns."
5. Nelly. "Very well, George; now let us hear what Hester has to say."
6. Hester. "I don't know that we can all be said to have a choice of animals, as some of us must take the others' leavings; but I think I can make out a good case for the Cow. My docile, gentle cow, that gives us the nicest drink in the world--that butters our bread, makes our cheese, and furnishes cream for all our dainties, and who after a well-spent life in every body's service, yields up her body for our food, our candles, soap, pomatum, and shoes."
7. Cyprian. "Practical Hester!"
8. Nelly. "Yes--and useful Hester, who darns your socks and sews on your buttons. But now master Critic, let us hear you."
9. Cyprian. "You shall. I fancy the Elephant. He too, is a noble beast"--
10. Hester. "But a very ugly one."
11. Cyprian. "I used to think so, but since I have studied Natural History, and know why his eyes are so small, his hide so tough and wrinkled, his hind legs so short and strangely set, I think him ugly no longer. His trunk too, that wonderful machine which can pick up a pin or crush a man to death, is one of the most curious things in nature. Then the elephant is so sensible and so grateful"--
12. Hester. "And so revengeful."
13. Nelly. "Hester, that is not fair. Cyprian has the floor."
14. Cyprian. "I have done. Since my poor elephant, because of his want of beauty, is so unpopular, I yield my right to you Nelly."
15. Nelly. "If want of beauty is a fault, I fear my Camel will meet with no more favor than your elephant. But I have a great respect for her good qualities. Like the horse, she will carry yourself or your load, and she can live in deserts where the horse would die.
16. Like the cow she gives good milk, like the dog her scent is very keen, and the shawls that are made from her silky hair, are each one worth a fortune. She is mild, patient, and a good example to all gluttons. She looks awkward, I grant, but she travels swiftly, and her step is as noiseless as that of Julian's little kitten."
17. Lloyd. "And by the bye, let us hear which animal Julian likes best. As he is the youngest, he shall have choice of any one we have already chosen, if it happen to be his favorite."
18. Julian. "You have all passed by my favorite. It is the gentle Sheep. Her fleece is more useful than the camel's hair, for it gives clothing to the poor as well as the rich; and when the butcher comes to end her useful life, you will allow that her flesh is as good to eat as that of your ox. But most of all I love the Lamb, for Jesus must have loved it very much when he called himself the 'Lamb of God who taketh away the sins of the world.' "
19. Lloyd. "Upon my word, little Julian, you are much wiser than your elders. Mama, you ought to give Julian a kiss. He deserves one more than his share from you tonight."
20. Mama. "He does, my son, and he shall have it. Not only that--he shall have the thanks of his brothers and sisters for reminding them of Him who gave us all these good things, and who making man only, to His own image, gave him this beautiful world for his home and 'dominion over the fishes of the sea, the fowls of the air, and the beasts of the whole earth.' "
Sound the R's--Hither, everlasting, members, ever, dishonor.
Ring the ng's--Everlasting, saving, dressing, bidding, evening, committing, blessings.
Aspirate the H's -- What, when, which.
Articulate the other consonants--Child, softly, defend, must, ask, asked, yield, mild.
Sound the vowels--Defend, remind, renew, spotless, kneeleth, diligent, follow, life, &c.
EVER-LAST-ING, which lasts forever.
RIGHT-E-OUS-NESS, holiness, goodness.
RE-VER-ENT-LY, with fear and respect.
AP-PROACH-ETH, comes near.
DIL-I-GENT, trying his best to do well
STRIVE, to try.
COM-MIT-TING, giving in trust.
1. Come hither, little Christian,
And hearken unto me:
I'll teach thee what the daily life
Of a Christian child should be.
2. When a Christian child awaketh,
He should think of God in heaven:
And softly say, "I thank thee, Lord,
For the sleep which thou hast given."
3. He must say, when he ariseth,
"From evil and from harm
Defend thy little child, O Lord,
With thine everlasting arm."
4. The water that he useth
Must remind him of the day
When baptismal waters cleansed him,
And washed his sins away.
5. And, in low tone and earnest,
He must say, "This day renew,
O loving Lord, the saving grace
Of my baptismal dew."
6. Then, dressing very quietly,
The Christian child should say,
"With thy spotless robe of righteousness
Lord, clothe my soul, I pray."
7. He reverently kneeleth
To pray beside his bed--
With closed eyes and humble voice,
His holy prayers are said.
8. And, as he thus approacheth
The God of heaven above,
He looketh down, and smileth on
This little child in love.
9. He goeth to his chamber,
To his work, or to his play,
But the prayers that he hath prayed,
He must keep in mind all day.
10. He hath asked to be obedient,
And so he must fulfil
His parents' bidding cheerfully,
With a glad mind and will.
11. In all his daily duties
He diligent must be;
And say, "What'er I do, O Lord,
I do it unto thee."
12. When the little Christian playeth,
He must use no angry word;
For his little fellow-Christians
Are members of the Lord.
13. If a playmate take his playthings,
He must not rudely try
To snatch them back, but mildly ask,
Or meekly pass them by.
14. He hath asked to be made holy,
So he must strive all day
To yield his will to others' will,
His way to others' way.
15. No greedy thoughts dishonor
The Christian child at meals;
He eateth what God giveth him,
And ever thankful feels.
Five stanzas of this little poem have been omitted, as not quite appropriate to the manner of worship of ALL sects.
Again, when evening cometh,
The Christian child will pray,
And praise the Lord for blessings given
To him throughout the day.
Five stanzas of this little poem have been omitted, as not quite appropriate to the manner of worship of ALL sects.
17. Then, his soul to God committing,
He quietly may sleep;
God, and His holy angel hosts
Will watch around him keep.
18. God bless thee, little Christian!
Be holy, humble, mild,
Obedient, truthful, diligent,
A truly Christian child.
19. God bless thee, little Christian!
And bid thou God bless me!
I've taught thee what the daily life
Of a Christian child should be.
Sound the R's--Warn, sorely, waters, unmoor, first, worth, nursery, wharf, &c.
Ring the ng's--Running, missing, dancing, dashing, nothing, anything &c.
Aspirate the H's--Where, when, white, while, what, her, him, &c.
Articulate the other consonants--Wild, prettiest, agreed, breakfast, front, &c.
Sound the vowels--Wild, narrow, useless, request, disobedience, disregard, thoroughly, guardian, together, &c.
STRAY-ED, walked idly.
MOOR, fasten, (said of a boat.)
TEMPT-ED, inclined to do wrong.
MOPE, to sit stupidly doing nothing.
CON-SCIENCE, the voice within us which teaches us what is right and what is wrong.
DIS-RE-GARD, to slight.
AR-GUE, to reason with one who is not of the same opinion as one's self.
1. Joe and Frank were very wild boys, who were so much in the habit of running about the streets, that their parents never knew where to send for them when they were missing from home. Indeed, they were missing from home so often that at last their mothers had grown to think little or nothing of their absence.
2. Having no one to warn, or give them advice, they were often in great danger. But the fright over, they laughed, and went on as before. It had been so long since these boys had asked permission to out, that no one thought it strange if they were away at hours when all boys ought to be at home.
3. One day, while they were standing together on the wharf, a steamboat came in laden with cotton. For a time they were amused with the sight of the cabs and drays that were busy taking off loads. After this, they strayed along the wharves until they came to a place where a little row-boat that was moored to a stake, was dancing up and down to the tune of the dashing waters.
4. The boys were sorely tempted to unmoor the boat and take a row; but they felt a little afraid of doing wrong,
and passed on. All the way home, however, the boat was running in their thoughts, and as they went to the same school, it was the first thing of which they spoke when they met the next morning.
5. "What is that I hear about a nice little boat?" said Hubert C----, joining Frank and Joe on the play-ground at recess.
6. "O Hubert," cried Joe, "the prettiest thing you ever saw; all freshly painted, white, with a narrow red streak, and splendid oars! Frank and I intend to have a row across the river to-day, and we shall want a third to steer while we row. Do go with us."
7. Now Hubert, who was not in the habit of leaving home without asking permission, knew quite well that his mother would never consent to his going in a boat with none but boys of his own age; so he shook his head.
8. "Indeed, Joe, I am sorry: I would so much like to go, for really I believe there is no danger; but mother, I know, would object. It would be useless to ask her."
9. "Of course it would," said Joe, laughing. "But mothers are too anxious about their sons, Hubert; they are forever keeping us back as if we were girls, made to mope in a house. If we did nothing but what they give us leave to do, we would never have the chance of learning anything that is worth knowing."
10. "Do you know how to swim?" asked Hubert in a tone which showed that he was turning over the subject in his mind.
11. No, but Frank does; and if anything should happen, he can swim with me; but pshaw!--nothing will happen. If it were a sail-boat now, we might capsize her, but this little thing!--why she is as safe as a cradle in a nursery."
12. "I can swim!" replied Hubert, who, if he did consult his mother's wishes, at least knew something very well worth knowing which Joe did not. Hubert had been taught to swim at his mother's request.
13. As soon as Frank heard this, he cried out that there could be no danger for Hubert. He could tell his mother when the affair was over, and she would laugh and think no more of it."
14. "I think not," said Hubert. "She would not make
light of any disobedience of mine, and besides, if I disobeyed her once, it would make her anxious about me everytime I was allowed to go from home; and I should hate to worry mother."
15. "Then," said Joe, "go, and say nothing about it." Here the school-bell rang, and the boys parted.
16. But after school, somehow or other, the three met again, and the result of the meeting was that Hubert agreed to join Frank and Joe after dinner, when they would all walk down to the wharf, take a look at the boat, and--decide.
17. We may easily guess how they decided. Hubert had asked to take a walk, and his mother's usual caution was given: "Be home by dusk, my son." He went into the hall and took down his hat. He had a habit of kissing his mother every time he left the house, but he felt shy about it to-day; and after lounging awhile at the front door, he went slowly down the steps to join the other boys.
18. The boat was already unmoored, and they were only waiting for Hubert to push off. Again and again something whispered "go home, go home;" but Joe and Frank began to laugh at him for being a spooney, and he felt so much ashamed that he stepped in.
19. The boat was so small that Hubert's weight almost capsized her. He was about to leap back on shore, not from cowardice, but from a sting of conscience, when the other two, calling upon him to take the rudder, gave a sharp stroke of their oars, which sent the boat far, far away into the stream.
20. This, dear children, is the history of all sinful actions. First comes the tempter, then the "still, small voice" of the angel guardian which tells us not to listen. Then is the time to fly from sin; for if we stop to argue with Satan, he always gets the better of us, and we are lost.
21. Satan it was, who just as he had once tempted Eve to disobey her Maker, had also tempted Frank and Joe to disobey their parents. And now he was making use of them to tempt poor Hubert.
22. Hubert would have given a great deal to get back to land, but the others would not listen to him. However, he
had the rudder, and Frank and Joe were so busy rowing, that they did not see him steering for the wharf until the boat was driven so close that Hubert, with one spring, jumped on shore before they were able to prevent him.
23. "Now, I call that a shabby trick," cried Joe. "And I," echoed Frank.
24. "Indeed, boys, I am sorry to have done this," returned Hubert, "but I could not get rid of the thought of mother. Perhaps there is no danger, but we cannot tell, and" (here Hubert's voice trembled a little) "if I were to come to my death, God would never forgive me if I had died through disregard of my mother's commands."
25. "I declare, Joe," said Frank, "I have a great mind to follow Hubert. Suppose we row back and moor the boat where we found her."
26. "I shall do no such thing!" replied Joe, angrily. "I despise a fellow that don't know his own mind. If I had given my word, I wouldn't be so mean as to break it. Give me the other oar, and you steer the boat like a man. I don't intend to take her back until I have had some fun out of her."
27. Frank said nothing. He was a little afraid of Joe, so he thought he would let him have his way this time; but if ever he was caught at such tricks again-----
28. "Steer the boat, will you?" cried Joe, whose bad temper was now thoroughly roused. Poor Frank sighed and obeyed. Joe began to row, but the boat did not obey very well. Frank again begged him to turn back, for it was getting late, but he was in such a passion that he declared he should go on, if it cost him his life. Idle words! but they had a deep, sad meaning.
29. "I wish you a pleasant time," called out Hubert from the shore, "but I would rather be here than with you."
30. "So would I," thought Frank; but Joe, giving a jerk to the oars, cried out, "Go--you are a spooney!" and so they parted.
31. By the time Hubert reached home, it was night, and his mother had just begun to wonder what was keeping him so long. He had walked very slowly, all the time rejoicing that he had been able to escape from Frank and
Joe. He kissed his mother with a light heart, and when he went to bed, his last thought was to thank God for having saved him from sin.
32. The next morning, after breakfast, he was looking over his lessons while his father read the paper. Suddenly Mr. C----cried out, "O how dreadful! Joe Murray and Frank Chase were drowned yesterday evening!"
33. "Father, dear father!" was all that Hubert could say, and then he burst into tears. His father not knowing the cause of Hubert's grief, went on to read all that he already knew. But after that came the sad story in which he had been so near having a part.
34. The boat had capsized, and poor Frank who had hoped to save Joe, had struck his head against a snag in the river, so that both had been drowned. They were so much in the habit of being away from home, that their parents had thought nothing of their absence until far into the night, when the two fathers had gone out to look for them.
35. At daylight the bodies had been found, and now each one lay cold and stiff in that home, which neither would ever see again. Joe had staked his life and had lost it, and poor Frank! It was sad to think that he had been so unwilling to go.
36. No sooner had his father done reading than Hubert going up to his mother, laid his head upon her dear shoulder and poured out his whole heart. How pale that mother was as she listened! And when he had ceased to speak, she took him by the hand and together they went up into her own room.
37. There they both knelt down, while she thanked God who had not only spared her child's life, but had saved him from dying in sin! She then told Hubert how much more bitter it would have been to her had he been drowned, than if he had died at home in her arms, with his sins forgiven.
38. Hubert never forgot the terrible lesson. Let other children be warned; for few are allowed by Almighty God to go as far as he did, and then turn back in time to save life and soul.
Sound the R'--Modern, born, covered, silver, honor, deserve, wonderful, carved, admired, &c.
Ring the ng's--Sparkling, letting, receiving, waiting, obliging.
Aspirate the H's--Which, whether.
Articulate the other consonants--Greatest, guests, host, pleased, compliment &c.
Sound the vowels--Greatest, times, hundred, compliment, obliging, liked, pretend, &c.
MOD-ERN, present or recent.
GUESTS, the persons invited.
HOST, the person who receives them.
EVE, the day before.
SKETCH, an outline.
DAINT-IES, things pleasant to eat.
PRO-TEC-TOR, one who takes care of another.
ART-ISTS, those who study art.
1. Cano'va was one of the greatest sculptors of modern times. He was an Italian,* That is, a native of Italy.
and was born a little more than a hundred years ago, in a little village of the State of Venice.
That is, a native of Italy.
2. One day, the lord of the village, whose name was Falier'i, gave a great dinner-party. His table was covered with bright silver, sparkling glass, and gay china, but the prettiest thing there, was the statue of a lion made of--what do you suppose?--Butter!
3. This lion was so well made that the guests could talk of nothing else, and the host was so well pleased that he sent for the cook to pay him a compliment. The cook came up and was greatly praised, but when he heard that although his dinner was good, his lion was the cause of the honor he was now receiving, he shook his head and said that he did not deserve the thanks of his lord.
4. The wonderful lion had been made by a little boy of ten years of age, the son of a peasant living in the village. The cook then told him that on the eve of the dinner, he had been telling Canova (the father of the boy) that he was much distressed for the want of a centre-piece with which to adorn his table. Little Antonio, who was by, then offered to help him, sat down and drew a sketch of his lion
on paper, and then carved the block of butter into the statue which had been so much admired.
5. The cook having finished his story, Antonio, who was in the kitchen waiting for his reward in the shape of cakes and pastry, was sent for in the parlor, feasted at the grand table, and was not only rewarded with dainties, but received that which, child as he was, he liked better than all the sweet things which covered that richly furnished table.
6. The lord of the village adopted Antonio, and placed him at once under the care of a great sculptor named Torret-ti. Two years after, when Canova was little more than twelve years of age, he sent to his kind protector, two baskets of fruit in marble, which still adorn the arches of the Falieri palace in Venice.
7. Canova lived to become one of the most famous of modern sculptors. He carved many statues of great men and women; among others a statue of Washington, larger than life, which some years ago was in the state-house at Raleigh, North Corolina. Whether it is there to-day, we cannot pretend to say.
8. Canova was as good as he was great. He was without pride or envy, was kind and obliging to his friends, and in after life did for young artists what had been done for him in his own boyhood. He was so good that he was beloved, even by other sculptors.
How happy we feel when, having said that a man had great genius, we are able to add that he had great virtues also!
1. The words "mountain, fountain, curtain, certain, captain, villain," and others ending in ain, unaccented, are pronounced as if written "mountin, fountin," &c. Never say mount'n, fount'n, capt'n. Example--The captain drank from the fountain at the foot of the mountain.
2. Mark the difference between the o and the diphthong aw: Lost, not lawst; dog, not dawg; doll, not dawl, &c. Let no child be permitted to mumble the solemn words "LORD GOD." Some persons carry the drawl in this o to such an extent, that it has the sound of [long o, macron]-ä, thus: l[long o, macron]-äst, d[long o, macron]-äll, &c. In avoiding the drawl, guard against the opposite error, (a British one,) viz: lääst (lost), cääffee (coffee), dääg (dog), gään (gone), &c.
3. Take heed that you do not mispronounce the following words:
4. The article a has an obscure sound, resembling that of the [short a, breve] in [short a, breve]t, f[short a, breve]t, &c. It is not open as in [long a, macron]pe, or [long a, macron]le.
5. The article the, before a consonant, has also an obscure sound like that of the i in pin, tin, &c. But before a vowel, it has its long or open sound, thus: The (pro. thï) door. The (thï) boot. Th[long e, macron] egg, th[long e, macron] arm.
1. The letter R occurs so often in the English language, that it must be distinctly articulated. At the same time, it must not be exaggerated. Example--No earthly power can ever force a brave man to desert the land of his birth.
2. Avoid Africanisms. The longer you indulge in their use, the more difficult you will find it to overcome the habit. Do not say b[long o, macron]fe, for both; h[long e, macron][long e, macron]-ah, for here; thar, for there; whar, for where; dey, for they, &c. Example--Where are your brothers? They are both here.
3. Lesson 3d treats of the R.
4. Let all final consonants be distinctly sounded. Example--My youngest child slept through the night.
5. Do not forget to aspirate the letter H. Say while, white, why, which where, when, whip, &c. Example--Tell her to give me the white dress which I wore when I dined with the lady who plays such a good game of whist.
6. The terminations as, es, ce and ds, when followed by the consonants y and s, are often improperly sounded. We frequently hear "makesh you, seege you, senge you," instead of makes you, sees you, sends you, &c. Example--Do as you please. He sees you now. What a nice sugarplum! We also hear the sounds of ju and chu given to the elements du and tu. Example--The features of the statue are very beautiful.
7. Ring out the final gs. Example--The boys have been running and flying kites all the morning.
8. The syllables k[long i, macron], ky;, car, gar and ger, when they end a word, or are followed by a consonant, are often mispronounced. Their sound is a delicate and peculiar one, and cannot be perfectly represented in writing. It must be taught orally.
The dipththongs ui and uy are subject to the same rules of orthoepy, as are also the dipththongs ua and ue, when these two last elements are followed by the letter R. Example--The heart of that girl is free from guile. Guy has
been on guard all day. I have a great regard for my kind guardian.
9. The trigrammic elements alf, alm and alv, have a peculiar sound. The l is silent, and the a has almost the sound of the broad or Italian ä. Do not give to the a in this combination the sound of the short [short a, breve]. Example--She broke the almond in halves, and laid one-half in the palm of my hand.
10. There is no end to the slights that are offered by careless speakers to unaccented vowels. They have all been dismissed from the English language, to make way for that usurper the short [short u, breve]. Thus we have r[short u, breve]ppent, d[short u, breve]vine, pr[short u, breve]ttect, &c., for repent, divine, protect, &c. Let us re-instate these little vocals, for they are injured innocents. Example--Will you oblige me by being so polite as to devote a few moments to me before you conclude your visit here? I desire your advice upon a subject of deep and solemn import.
11. Unaccented finals in ment, must not be changed into munt. Example--In my judgment, the movement will not be a prudent one.
Nor must the e in the finals ess and ence be sacrificed to that everlasting [short u, breve]. Example--My brother's lameness arises from weakness. There was silence in heaven.
12. The vowels [long i, macron] and y are almost always mispronounced. They are converted into an unpleasant dipththong made up of oi or ä[long e, macron]; as foine, nä-[long e, macron][long e, macron]t, lä-[long e, macron][long e, macron]t, for fine, light, night. Keep your mouth almost closed when you enunciate these words, and the right sound will make itself heard. Example--You are right. This is a bright, moonlight night.
13. Let us be careful not to convert the digraph ow into [short u, breve]h. O that [short u, breve]h! Example--I see a nest of swallows above the window.
14. Mark the difference between the long [long u, macron] and the dipththong oo. Example--Long [long u, macron]: Is it true, that during the storm the sky was blue? Dipththong oo: The roses will soon be in bloom.
How to keep Christ's holiday
In the happiest, fittest way;
With our fathers and our mothers,
With our sisters and our brothers,
To the holy church we go,
The dear church of high and low,
Where the poor man, meanly dressed,
Is as welcome as the best;
And the rich and poor may gather
All around their common Father;
And our risen Lord is there,
Listening kindly to our prayer.
1. TIME is measured by centuries, years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes and seconds.
2. A CENTURY contains 100 years.
3. A YEAR contains 12 calendar months.
4. A LUNAR MONTH (that is, a month measured by the changes of the moon) contains 4 weeks.
5. The CALENDAR MONTHS are unequal in length.
6. A WEEK contains 7 days.
7. A DAY contains 24 hours.
8. An HOUR contains 60 minutes.
9. A MINUTE contains 60 seconds.
10. There are twelve calendar months: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.
11. January, March, May, July, August, October and December have each 31. days. September, November, April and June have each 30 days.
12. February has 28 days; but every fourth, or leap year, it has 29 days.
13. The number of days in each month may be perfectly fixed in the memory by learning the following doggerel, which is as old as the century, perhaps older:
Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
February, twenty-eight alone.
All the rest have thirty-one."
15. A YEAR contains 52 weeks.
16. A YEAR contains 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 48 seconds.
17. EVERY FOURTH OR LEAP YEAR contains 366 days; the odd day being added to February, which is the shortest month.
18. There was much trouble and confusion in the division of time, as marked by the change of seasons, until the year of our Lord, 1577, when Pope Gregory XIII called a council of learned men, who adopted the division as it stands now.
19. For this reason the calendar, as it exists to-day, is called the Gregorian calendar.
1. Very few people seem to be sound on the question of Weights and Measures. For the benefit of those who desire to know how sugar, coffee, tea, butter, flour, cheese, fodder, hay, and all groceries are weighed, we subjoin the following table:
|2.||16 drams (dr.)||make||1 ounce,||marked oz.|
|16 ounces||make||1 pound,||marked lb.|
|25 pounds||make||1 quarter,||marked qr.|
|4 qrs. or 100 lbs.,||make||1 hundred weight,||marked cwt.|
|20 hundred weight||make||1 ton,||marked T.|
3. For the measurement of flour, grain, potatoes, pulse, fruit, salt, &c., we append the following table of
|4.||2 pints||make||1 quart,||marked qt.|
|8 quarts||make||1 peck,||marked pk.|
|4 pecks||make||1 bushel,||marked bu.|
|8 bushels||make||1 quarter,||marked qr.|
|32 bushels||make||1 chaldron,||marked ch.|
5. Most liquids are measured by that standard called
|6.||4 gills (gi.)||make||1 pint,||marked pt.|
|2 pints||make||1 quart,||marked qt.|
|4 quarts||make||1 gallon,||marked gal.|
|31½ gallons||make||1 barrel,||marked bbl.|
|42 gallons||make||1 tierce,||marked tier.|
|63 gallons or 2 bbls.||make||1 pipe,||marked pi.|
|2 pipes||make||1 tun,||marked tun.|
7. It is also of importance that everybody should know how to weigh medicines. The standard by which medicines are weighed, is called
|8.||20 grains (gr.)||make||1 scruple,||marked sc. or
|3 scruples||make||1 dram,||marked dr. or
|8 drams||make||1 ounce,||marked oz. or
|12 ounces||make||1 pound,||lb.|
9. These are the four tables most in use in the ordinary affairs of life, and every girl and boy should be familiar with them. Cloth measure, which is equally in use, is omitted, because its denominations explain themselves, and the whole world seems to know them. Whereas, with regard to the tables above, we know many grown persons whose ignorance of them is excessively inconvenient to themselves.
1. There are two kinds of notation in use--the Roman and the Arabic.
2. The Roman notation expresses numbers by letters, as I, II, V, X, &c.
3. The Arabic notation expresses numbers by figures, as 1, 2, 5, 10, &c. In the present scarcity of elementary books, the following tables may be of some value in schools:
|9||Hundreds of Millions.|
|8||Tens of Millions.|
|6||Hundreds of Thousands.|
|5||Tens of Thousands.|
|2 and 1 are 3||3 and 1 are 4||4 and 1 are 5||5 and 1 are 6|
|2 and 2 are 4||3 and 2 are 5||4 and 2 are 6||5 and 2 are 7|
|2 and 3 are 5||3 and 3 are 6||4 and 3 are 7||5 and 3 are 8|
|2 and 4 are 6||3 and 4 are 7||4 and 4 are 8||5 and 4 are 9|
|2 and 5 are 7||3 and 5 are 8||4 and 5 are 9||5 and 5 are 10|
|2 and 6 are 8||3 and 6 are 9||4 and 6 are 10||5 and 6 are 11|
|2 and 7 are 9||3 and 7 are 10||4 and 7 are 11||5 and 7 are 12|
|2 and 8 are 10||3 and 8 are 11||4 and 8 are 12||5 and 8 are 13|
|2 and 9 are 11||3 and 9 are 12||4 and 9 are 13||5 and 9 are 14|
|2 and 10 are 12||3 and 10 are 13||4 and 10 are 14||5 and 10 are 15|
|6 and 1 are 7||7 and 1 are 8||8 and 1 are 9||9 and 1 are 10|
|6 and 2 are 8||7 and 2 are 9||8 and 2 are 10||9 and 2 are 11|
|6 and 3 are 9||7 and 3 are 10||8 and 3 are 11||9 and 3 are 12|
|6 and 4 are 10||7 and 4 are 11||8 and 4 are 12||9 and 4 are 13|
|6 and 5 are 11||7 and 5 are 12||8 and 5 are 13||9 and 5 are 14|
|6 and 6 are 12||7 and 6 are 13||8 and 6 are 14||9 and 6 are 15|
|6 and 7 are 13||7 and 7 are 14||8 and 7 are 15||9 and 7 are 16|
|6 and 8 are 14||7 and 8 are 15||8 and 8 are 16||9 and 8 are 17|
|6 and 9 are 15||7 and 9 are 16||8 and 9 are 17||9 and 9 are 18|
|6 and 10 are 16||7 and 10 are 17||8 and 10 are 18||9 and 10 are 19|
|2 from 2 leaves 0||3 from 3 leaves 0||4 from 4 leaves 0|
|2 from 3 leaves 1||3 from 4 leaves 1||4 from 5 leaves 1|
|2 from 4 leaves 2||3 from 5 leaves 2||4 from 6 leaves 2|
|2 from 5 leaves 3||3 from 6 leaves 3||4 from 7 leaves 3|
|2 from 6 leaves 4||3 from 7 leaves 4||4 from 8 leaves 4|
|2 from 7 leaves 5||3 from 8 leaves 5||4 from 9 leaves 5|
|2 from 8 leaves 6||3 from 9 leaves 6||4 from 10 leaves 6|
|2 from 9 leaves 7||3 from 10 leaves 7||4 from 11 leaves 7|
|2 from 10 leaves 8||3 from 11 leaves 8||4 from 12 leaves 8|
|2 from 11 leaves 9||3 from 12 leaves 9||4 from 13 leaves 9|
|2 from 12 leaves 10||3 from 13 leaves 10||4 from 14 leaves 10|
|5 from 5 leaves 0||6 from 6 leaves 0||7 from 7 leaves 0|
|5 from 6 leaves 1||6 from 7 leaves 1||7 from 8 leaves 1|
|5 from 7 leaves 2||6 from 8 leaves 2||7 from 9 leaves 2|
|5 from 8 leaves 3||6 from 9 leaves 3||7 from 10 leaves 3|
|5 from 9 leaves 4||6 from 10 leaves 4||7 from 11 leaves 4|
|5 from 10 leaves 5||6 from 11 leaves 5||7 from 12 leaves 5|
|5 from 11 leaves 6||6 from 12 leaves 6||7 from 13 leaves 6|
|5 from 12 leaves 7||6 from 13 leaves 7||7 from 14 leaves 7|
|5 from 13 leaves 8||6 from 14 leaves 8||7 from 15 leaves 8|
|5 from 14 leaves 9||6 from 15 leaves 9||7 from 16 leaves 9|
|5 from 15 leaves 10||6 from 16 leaves 10||7 from 17 leaves 10|
|8 from 8 leaves 0||9 from 9 leaves 0||10 from 10 leaves 0|
|8 from 9 leaves 1||9 from 10 leaves 1||10 from 11 leaves 1|
|8 from 10 leaves 2||9 from 11 leaves 2||10 from 12 leaves 2|
|8 from 11 leaves 3||9 from 12 leaves 3||10 from 13 leaves 3|
|8 from 12 leaves 4||9 from 13 leaves 4||10 from 14 leaves 4|
|8 from 13 leaves 5||9 from 14 leaves 5||10 from 15 leaves 5|
|8 from 14 leaves 6||9 from 15 leaves 6||10 from 16 leaves 6|
|8 from 15 leaves 7||9 from 16 leaves 7||10 from 17 leaves 7|
|8 from 16 leaves 8||9 from 17 leaves 8||10 from 18 leaves 8|
|8 from 17 leaves 9||9 from 18 leaves 9||10 from 19 leaves 9|
|8 from 18 leaves 10||9 from 19 leaves 10||10 from 20 leaves 10|
|2 times 1 are 2||3 times 1 are 3||4 times 1 are 4|
|2 times 2 are 4||3 times 2 are 6||4 times 2 are 8|
|2 times 3 are 6||3 times 3 are 9||4 times 3 are 12|
|2 times 4 are 8||3 times 4 are 12||4 times 4 are 16|
|2 times 5 are 10||3 times 5 are 15||4 times 5 are 20|
|2 times 6 are 12||3 times 6 are 18||4 times 6 are 24|
|2 times 7 are 14||3 times 7 are 21||4 times 7 are 28|
|2 times 8 are 16||3 times 8 are 24||4 times 8 are 32|
|2 times 9 are 18||3 times 9 are 27||4 times 9 are 36|
|2 times 10 are 20||3 times 10 are 30||4 times 10 are 40|
|2 times 11 are 22||3 times 11 are 33||4 times 11 are 44|
|2 times 12 are 24||3 times 12 are 36||4 times 12 are 48|
|5 times 1 are 5||6 times 1 are 6||7 times 1 are 7|
|5 times 2 are 10||6 times 2 are 12||7 times 2 are 14|
|5 times 3 are 15||6 times 3 are 18||7 times 3 are 21|
|5 times 4 are 20||6 times 4 are 24||7 times 4 are 28|
|5 times 5 are 25||6 times 5 are 30||7 times 5 are 35|
|5 times 6 are 30||6 times 6 are 36||7 times 6 are 42|
|5 times 7 are 35||6 times 7 are 42||7 times 7 are 49|
|5 times 8 are 40||6 times 8 are 48||7 times 8 are 56|
|5 times 9 are 45||6 times 9 are 54||7 times 9 are 63|
|5 times 10 are 50||6 times 10 are 60||7 times 10 are 70|
|5 times 11 are 55||6 times 11 are 66||7 times 11 are 77|
|5 times 12 are 60||6 times 12 are 72||7 times 12 are 84|
|8 times 1 are 8||9 times 1 are 9||10 times 1 are 10|
|8 times 2 are 16||9 times 2 are 18||10 times 2 are 20|
|8 times 3 are 24||9 times 3 are 27||10 times 3 are 30|
|8 times 4 are 32||9 times 4 are 36||10 times 4 are 40|
|8 times 5 are 40||9 times 5 are 45||10 times 5 are 50|
|8 times 6 are 48||9 times 6 are 54||10 times 6 are 60|
|8 times 7 are 56||9 times 7 are 63||10 times 7 are 70|
|8 times 8 are 64||9 times 8 are 72||10 times 8 are 80|
|8 times 9 are 72||9 times 9 are 81||10 times 9 are 90|
|8 times 10 are 80||9 times 10 are 90||10 times 10 are 100|
|8 times 11 are 88||9 times 11 are 99||10 times 11 are 110|
|8 times 12 are 96||9 times 12 are 108||10 times 12 are 120|
|11 times 1 are 11||12 times 1 are 12||13 times 1 are 13|
|11 times 2 are 22||12 times 2 are 24||13 times 2 are 26|
|11 times 3 are 33||12 times 3 are 36||13 times 3 are 39|
|11 times 4 are 44||12 times 4 are 48||13 times 4 are 52|
|11 times 5 are 55||12 times 5 are 60||13 times 5 are 65|
|11 times 6 are 66||12 times 6 are 72||13 times 6 are 78|
|11 times 7 are 77||12 times 7 are 84||13 times 7 are 91|
|11 times 8 are 88||12 times 8 are 96||13 times 8 are 104|
|11 times 9 are 99||12 times 9 are 108||13 times 9 are 117|
|11 times 10 are 110||12 times 10 are 120||13 times 10 are 130|
|11 times 11 are 121||12 times 11 are 132||13 times 11 are 143|
|11 times 12 are 132||12 times 12 are 144||13 times 12 are 156|
1. The Roman notation employs seven capital letters, viz: I, V, X, L, C, D, M. The letter I stands for one; V, for five; X, for ten; L, for fifty; C, for one hundred; D, for five hundred; and M, for one thousand.
2. To mark the intervening numbers, these letters are arranged as follows:
Two years ago, one of the most accomplished teachers in the Confederate States remarked to the author of these books, that he had never yet met with a series of Readers without a vacuum somewhere: she has, therefore, applied herself seriously to the task of making the chain of progression complete. In the Third Reader, therefore, while the first lessons correspond in simplicity with the last pages of the Second Reader, its closing lessons will be found to have reached the exact stage of difficulty presented in the first pages of the Fourth Reader.