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Our Own Third Reader:
for the Use of Schools and Families:

Electronic Edition.

Sterling, Richard, 1812-1883

Campbell, J. D. (James D.)

Funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services
supported the electronic publication of this title.

Text transcribed by Apex Data Services, Inc.
Images scanned by Joby Topper
Text encoded by Lee Ann Morawski and Natalia Smith
First edition, 2000
ca. 365K
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

        © This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.

Source Description:
(title page) Our Own Third Reader: for the Use of Schools and Families
Richard Sterling, A.M.
J. D. Campbell, A.M.

Call number VC375.428 s83t.1 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South.
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        Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. Encountered typographical errors have been preserved, and appear in red type.
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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

Languages Used:

LC Subject Headings:

Revision History:









Page verso

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Confederate States,
for the District of Pamlico, North Carolina.

Page 3


        To those who are familiar with the Readers intended to precede the present volume, little need be said in explanation of the method pursued in the arrangement of this work. It only carries out still further the principles on which they were composed, and is adapted to the intellectual advancement which those pupils who have properly studied "Our Own First and Second Readers" are supposed to have made.

        In making their selections, the compilers have endeavored to interest their young readers, and at the same time to convey valuable information and wholesome moral lessons.

        We have omitted giving questions on the lessons. These should be supplied by the teacher. Experience has taught us that children frequently seek for the few words that will answer the printed question, rather than aim to give the sense of the whole paragraph. Questions thus used are of very little value.

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        We would call special attention to the "Blackboard Exercises." These are designed to be written properly on the slate or blackboard, from the dictation of the teacher. The pupil may, by this means, be taught spelling, punctuation, and the proper use of capital letters.

        The more difficult words of each lesson have been defined, to aid the pupil in understanding what he reads; and he should be required to spell and define these words before reading the lesson.

        We cannot too earnestly insist upon the necessity of a clear, distinct enunciation of each word and syllable, and a proper attention to emphasis and pauses. Without these there can be no good reading.

GREENSBOROUGH, N. C., January 1863.

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        PUNCTUATION is the art of dividing written language by points, in order that the relations of words and clauses may be plainly seen, and their meaning readily understood.

        The characters used in punctuation are as follows:--

        PERIOD.--A period must be placed at the end of every complete sentence, and after every abbreviated word; as, God is love. Mr. Dr. N. C.

        INTERROGATION POINT.--An interrogation point must be placed after every interrogative sentence.

        EXCLAMATION POINT.--An exclamation point must be placed after every exclamatory expression, and after every interjection except O.

        COLON.--1. A colon must be placed between the great divisions of a sentence, when the subdivisions are separated by semicolons.

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        2. A colon must be placed before a formal enumeration of particulars, and before a direct quotation, when referred to by the words, thus following, as follows, this, these, &c.

        SEMICOLON.--1. A semicolon must be placed between the members of a compound sentence, unless the connexion is very close, and between the great divisions of a sentence, when there are subdivisions separated by commas.

        2. When a colon is placed before an enumeration of particulars, the objects enumerated must be separated by semicolons; but a semicolon may be placed before such enumeration, when given without any formal introductory words.

        COMMA.--1. A comma must be placed before and after every parenthetical expression; and when such expressions or clauses introduce or conclude a sentence, they must be separated by a single comma.

        2. Appositional words and clauses must be separated, by commas, from the rest of the sentence.

        3. When a clause that would naturally follow a verb is introduced before it, a comma is necessary to develop the sense.

        4. A comma must be placed between short members of a compound sentence, connected by conjunctions, expressing purpose.

        5. A comma must be placed before or, when it introduces an equivalent, or explanatory word or clause.

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        6. To avoid repetition, a conjunction or a verb is often omitted and its place supplied by a comma.

        7. Words used in pairs take a comma after each pair; and words repeated for the sake of emphasis are followed by commas.

        8. A comma must be placed before the infinitive mood denoting a purpose.

        9. A comma must be used, even when not required by the grammatical construction, wherever it serves to develop the sense or prevent ambiguity.

        10. When in doubt as to the propriety of inserting commas, omit them; it is better to have too few than too many.

        DASH.--1. The dash is used to denote a break in the construction, a suspension of the sense, an unexpected transition in the sentiment, a sudden interruption, and hesitation in the speaker.

        2. When letters, figures, or words are omitted, their place should be supplied by a dash.

        PARENTHESIS.--Marks of parenthesis are used to enclose words which explain, modify, or add to the leading proposition of the sentence, when introduced in such a way as to break the connexion between dependent parts, and interfere with their harmonious flow.

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        1. Begin with a capital the first word of every sentence.

        2. Begin with capitals all proper nouns, and titles of office, honor, and respect; as John, Governor, Reverend.

        3. Begin with capitals all adjectives formed from proper nouns; as, American, French.

        4. Begin with a capital the first word in every line of poetry.

        5. Begin with capitals all appellations of the Deity, and the personal pronouns He and Thou, when standing for His name.

        6. Begin with a capital every noun, adjective, and verb in the titles of books and headings of chapters; as, Our Own Third Reader.

        7. The pronoun I and the interjection O must always be written in capitals.


        1. When reading, you should look forward a little, as you do in walking, to see what is before you, what things will make you pause, and where you must stop.

        2. Read so slowly that you can speak all the words distinctly; but do not drawl or sing your words.

        3. Do not read as though you were reading or talking

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to yourself, but as though you were telling something to others.

        4. Read to any person as loudly as you would speak it talking to him.

        5. Sit or stand erect, when you read. Leaning the head and shoulders forward causes the voice to sound badly.

        6. Be careful to learn and remember the pauses and marks so well that you will know their meaning whenever you see them.

        7. Do not repeat your words; and do not omit the sound of f in of, where it always sounds like v.

        8. Read questions as you would ask them; and let your voice fall at the end of answers to questions.

        9. Both poetry and prose that relate to religious subjects should be read more slowly, distinctly, and seriously, than what relates to other subjects.

        10. In reading humorous pieces, the reader must not laugh; but in reading melancholy tidings or pathetic pieces, he may properly manifest emotion.

        11. Above all things, when reading or speaking, endeavour to think only of the subject of discourse.

        12. Avoid the habit of coughing and making other unpleasant noises, just as you are beginning to read.

        13. When you are alone, think of your faults; when with others correct those faults. Apply this rule in all things.

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        14. Listen to corrections and heed them, being willing to be corrected.

        15. All the words used to designate the Almighty should be pronounced reverently, seriously, and with a low, but distinct tone of voice.

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Page 13




        1. One fine morning in the month of May, a little boy, by the name of Willie Stevens, was seen going to school, with his sister Ellen.

        2. He was a good little boy, and his sister was a kind and gentle girl; she was larger and older than Willie, and loved her little brother very much.

        3. They lived a great way from the school-house, but they did not object to the long walk; it was such a pleasant road, and Willie loved to be with his sister.

        4. On the left side of the road was a stream of clear, cool water. The banks were covered with grass and wild flowers. Sometimes they would stand on the bridge that passes over the stream, and watch the little fishes playing in the water.

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        5. The fish would occasionally spring up from the water, to catch flies, or other insects. Sometimes they would chase one another in the stream, or turn over and over, and show their bright little fins, that sparkled like gold or silver.

        6. On the right side of the road were some tall, beautiful trees, that threw their cool shade over the path. Here the birds built their nests; and every morning Willie and Ellen could hear them singing their sweet songs.

        7. The cows and sheep used to come to drink; and on warm days, the cows would stand in the water under the shade of the large trees that grew near the stream.

        8. Willie was very happy this morning, though he had not once thought of these beautiful things. What do you think made him so happy? I will tell you.

        9. He had attended school during all the cold weather,

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and had tried so hard to learn to read, that he could read all the lessons in the Second Reader, and could spell all the words given in it, without looking at his book.

        10. Willie had a book in his hand. It was a new book. His father bought it for him the day before, and his class were to read the first lesson in it that morning.

        11. It was a very pretty book. Its name you can see on the first page of the book you hold in your hand, for his book was like yours.

        12. It was the new book, then, that made Willie so happy. As he was thinking of it, he asked his sister Ellen, how long it would be before he could read all the lessons in this book and have another.

        13. "My dear brother," said his sister, "that depends on yourself. If you study your lessons with care, see how the words are spelled, and attend to what your teacher says, you will soon be able to read all the lessons in your new book."

        14. I hope, my young reader, that you will remember what Ellen said to her little brother. If you study your lessons with care, and learn to spell and pronounce all the hard words, you will soon be able to read all the lessons in this book, and then you can have a new one.


        When God had made the sun, and moon, and stars, and this earth, and all the things that are in it, He saw the things that He had made, and said they were very good.

        He called them good, because He had so made them that they all would do good.

        You also should try to do some good every day, and every hour, so that you may be the children of God.

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        He loves all those persons who spend their time in doing good; and He will make them happy in this world, and in the world to come.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. JEW'ELS, ornaments.
  • 2. AD MIRE', to be pleased with.
  • 3. RO'MAN, belonging to Rome.
  • 6. CON SID'ER, to think.
  • 7. GRAC'CHI, two celebrated Romans.


        1. A rich lady, who had many fine dresses and costly jewels, was very fond of wearing them in public. She thought that they would be admired by every one.

        2. One day she paid a visit to a Roman lady, and, showing all her fine jewels, told her how costly they were. After she had shown these beautiful rich jewels, she found that the Roman lady did not seem to admire them so much as she expected.

        3. She therefore thought that this lady must have some jewels more beautiful than hers, and she asked her to show them to her.

        4. The Roman lady told her that they were not in the house, but that they would be there in a short time, and then she would show them.

        5. By and by, two bright little boys, the sons of the Roman lady, came into the house from school. Their mother, taking them by the hand, led them to the rich lady, and pointing to them, she said, "These are my jewels."

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        6. Now, if any of my little readers wish that their own kind mothers would call them their jewels, they must be good boys and girls at home and at school. Then their parents will consider them as their best and brightest jewels.

        7. The name of the Roman lady who prized her sons above the most costly jewels was Cornelia. Her sons were called the Gracchi; and they both became great men.


        Honor the aged, for some day, if you live, you will be as old as they are.

        Honor the aged, for they are wiser than you, and honor is due to them.

        Honor the aged, for God says, "Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honor the face of the old man."

        When a boy honors the aged, it is a credit to him; but when he does not honour them, it is a shame to him.

        Honor the aged, if you wish to have honor when you become old.


    Spell and define--

  • IN'NO CENT, harmless.
  • FIERCE, savage, furious.
  • AF FEC'TIONS, desires, inclinations.
  • PREY, to seize and devour.
  • TER'ROR, fear, fright.
  • PAS'SIONS, the feelings of the mind, as fear, love, hatred.


        Mother. Take care of that wolf, my son; you are saying harsh things about William.

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        Alfred. What wolf, mother?

        Mother. The wolf in your heart. Have you forgotten what I told you last evening about the wild beasts within you?

        Emily. But you told us, too, about the innocent lambs. There are gentle and good animals in us, as well as fierce and evil ones.

        Mother. Oh, yes. Kindness and love are the innocent animals of your hearts, and evil passions and hatred are the cruel beasts that are always ready, if you will permit them, to rise up and destroy your good affections. Take care, my children, how you permit the wild beasts to rage.

        Emily. But what did you mean by saying that there was a wolf in brother Alfred? Tell us the meaning of that, mother.

        Alfred. Yes, do, mother. I want to know what the wolf in my heart means.

        Mother. Do you know anything about the nature of wolves?

        Emily. They are very cruel, and love to seize and eat up dear, little, innocent lambs.

        Mother. Yes, my children, their nature is cruel; and they prey upon innocent creatures. Until now, Alfred, you have always loved to be with your playmate, William Jarvis. Was it not so, my dear?

        Alfred. Yes, mother; I used to like him.

        Mother. Often, you would get from me a fine, large apple, or a choice flower, from the garden, to give him. But the tender and innocent feelings that moved you to do this have perished. Some wolf has rushed in and destroyed them. How innocent, like gentle lambs, were your feelings, until now! When you thought of William, it was

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with kindness. But it is not so now. Only the wolf is there. Will you still let him rage and eat your lambs, or will you drive him out?

        Alfred. I will drive him out, mother, if I can. How shall I do it?

        Mother. Try to forget the fault of William; think how good he has been to you, and try to excuse him, for he did not mean to offend you. Then, when you love him, the innocent lambs will again be seen, and the wolf must flee.

        Alfred. I don't think I am angry with William, mother.

        Mother. But you were just now.

        Alfred. Yes; but the wolf is no longer in my heart. He has been driven out.

        Mother. I am glad of it. Do not again, Alfred, do not, any of you, my children, let wild beasts prey upon the lambs of your flock. Fly from them in as much terror as you would fly from a wolf, a tiger, or a lion, were one to meet you in the woods. Wild beasts injure the body, but evil passions injure the soul.


        The worst load a person can carry is a heavy heart.

        The worst enemy is sin; and the worst evil is the anger of God.

        The best book is the Bible; the best home is heaven; and the very best news that ever came into the world is, That Jesus Christ came to save sinners.

        Without Christ all sinners must perish for ever.

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    Spell and define--

  • VERS'ES, lines of poetry.
  • RE PEAT', recite.
  • PLAIN, level land.
  • BOUNDS, limits,
  • DEEP, the ocean.
  • SHIELDS, protects.
  • THRONE, the seat of a king, (here it means heaven.)


        One fine morning in the spring, Edgar and his sister Mary walked out with their nurse, Jane. The sun shone, and the air was fresh and sweet. Edgar and Mary ran along the road, and peeped into the fields to see the sheep and lambs.

        "Let us open the gate, and walk in the field," said Edgar to Jane.

        Jane. No; the grass is wet. The sun has not yet dried up the dew. Do you not see the drops on the grass?

        Mary. But the lambs do not mind the wet.

        Jane. They have wool to keep them dry and warm. The dew-drops do not get through that, as they would through your shoes. You might take cold, if you were to run about in the damp, as the lambs do.

        Edgar. I wish I could get some flowers. There are some in the field; but they do not grow in the road.

        Jane. We will go up the hill, and then walk in the lane. I think we shall find some flowers on the banks.

        Mary. And is there no dew in the lane?

        Jane. No, not where we shall walk; and the banks are so steep that you will be able to reach the flowers without wetting your feet by stepping on the grass. I will gather those that grow too high on the bank for you to reach.

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        "Thank you, thank you, Jane," said the little boy and girl; and away they ran up the hill. It was not a very high hill; but they ran so fast that they were tired when they got to the top of it.

        They sat down to rest upon the root of a large tree, while Jane gathered some pretty flowers that grew upon the high banks. The little joyous birds sang sweetly and seemed so happy this bright morning.

        "Why do birds sing?" Mary asked.

        Edgar. They sing for joy, I think. I daresay they are glad that warm weather is come. Do they mean to thank God, I wonder?

        Jane. If they knew as much as we do, I daresay they would thank Him as well as they could. But they do not know, as we do, who it is that feeds them and makes them happy.

        Edgar. I wish you would say those verses again, Jane, which you tried to teach me one day. Will you, Jane, now we are sitting here?

        Jane. Yes; if you will listen, while I repeat them. And you, too, Mary.

        Mary and Edgar both said they would listen; and Jane began.

                         Who gave the sun its warmth and light?
                         Who made the moon that shines so bright,
                         And all the stars that glow at night?
                         'Tis God.

                         Who made the earth that gives us rain?
                         Who feeds it both with dew and rain?
                         Who made each beast that treads the plain?
                         'Tis God.

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                         Who, by His will, in bounds doth keep
                         The great and wild waves of the deep?
                         Who made all things that swin and creep?
                         'Tis God.

                         Who gave the air, and made the sky?
                         Who form'd the bird that soars on high?
                         Who taught its wings the way to fly?
                         'Tis God.

                         Who gave us life, and all we prize?
                         Who shields us when we close our eyes?
                         Who guards us when at morn we rise?
                         'Tis God.

                         Who sends the sweet sleep to my bed?
                         By whom are all the wild beasts fed?
                         Who gives to me, each day, my bread?
                         'Tis God.

                         Who knows each thing, by night or day,
                         I dream or think, or do or say?
                         Who hears me when I kneel to pray?
                         'Tis God.

                         Who gave His Son for me to die,
                         Then raised Him to His throne on high,
                         And bids me in His name to cry?
                         'Tis God.

        "Thank you, Jane," said Edgar; "I think I shall soon know the verses. They are very pretty."


        SALT.--The salt which we eat with our food is found

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almost everywhere. The waters of the mighty ocean contain salt.

        People collect a great quantity of water, and place it so that the water evaporates and leaves the salt.

        A child could make salt in this way.

        Take some salt water in a saucer, and set it in the sun; the water will dry up in time, and leave the particles of salt sticking to the saucer.

        Much of the salt we use is obtained by evaporating the water or salt springs, found in Virginia and other States.


    Spell and define--

  • 2. HEDGE, a thick row.
  • 7. BRANCH'ES, limbs.
  • 11. GEN'TLY, softly.
  • 12. RE TURN', go back.


        1. While Jane repeated the verses in the last lesson, Edgar and Mary were resting after their race up the hill. The sun had dried up the dew from the grass, so that they could walk through the fields without getting their feet wet.

        2. They passed along a lane with a high bank on each side. There was a hedge of cedars on the top of the bank, and may wild flowers grew on either side of their path. There were daisies, and wild roses, and violets, which they gathered for their mamma.

        3. Then Edgar ran down the lane before Jane and Mary. He saw a pretty flower on the bank, and stopped to gather it. Then there was a loud noise in the bushes,

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and a bird flew out of them. Edgar did not see the bird, and he felt almost afraid.

        4. Jane had seen the bird fly; and she said there might be a nest in the hedge.

        "Oh, how I should like to see it!" said Edgar.

        "And so should I," said Mary.

        5. Then they went to the place that the bird flew from and Jane looked into the bushes. At first she could not, find the nest; but soon she said, "Oh! here it is."

        6. "Please let me look;" and "me, too, Jane--do, do, Jane," called out Edgar and Mary. And the kind nurse lifted them both, one by one, to peep into the nest.

        7. There were two small limbs growing out near the root of one of cedars, that made a snug place for the nest. The branches which grew around hid it, but Jane parted these, while Edgar and Mary looked in.

        8. It was like a little round basket made of moss and twigs. When the children looked closely, they could see that the nest was partly made of clay, but the inside was nicely lined with soft hay. There were four blue eggs in the nest. Edgar took one in his hand; it was smooth and light.

        9. "May we not take the nest home?" Edgar asked.

        Jane. What will the poor, the poor bird do, if we take her nest away?

        Mary. Oh, the bird is gone; she has left the nest for us.

        10. Jane. No; she did not leave it for us. She will come back when we are gone. She flew away for fear of us.

        Edgar. What will she do with the eggs?

        11. Jane. She will sit gently on them, to keep them

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warm; and in a short time, the inside of them will become young birds, which will break through the shells. Would you like to see them then? "Oh, yes; that we should," said the children.

        12. Jane. Then you must put the eggs back in the nest, and we must go away. We will come here again in a few days, and see if the eggs have hatched. But now we must return home.

        13. Jane lifted Edgar up, and he put the egg back in the nest. They ran home, and told their mamma what they had seen.


        GOLD.--Gold is not the most useful metal, but it has always been highly prized; partly because it is scarce, and partly because it does not rust, but retains its brightness for a long time.

        Gold is used for money in most countries. It is also beaten into very thin sheets, called gold leaf, in which state it is used for many purposes.

        Gold is found in considerable quantities in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. HAND'SOM EST, prettiest.
  • 2. THRUST, forced.
    EX TRACT, to draw out
  • 4. IM I TATE, to be like.
  • 8. PLU'MAGE, feathers.
  • 9. CAP'TIVE, a prisoner.
  • 12. PROV O CA'TION, cause of anger.


        1.The humming-bird is the smallest of all birds, and it is also one of the handsomest. It is almost always on

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the wing, and it flies so fast, that the wings can scarcely be seen.

        2. It has a very long bill, in the shape of an awl. The bill is sharp at the point, so that it can be thrust into a flower, and extract the sweet honey from the bottom of the cup.

        3. The cup of a flower is called the calyx. The calyx is sometimes deep, and it has a very narrow opening. With its long, sharp bill, the humming-bird can reach to the bottom of the flower, where all its sweetness lies.

        4. The tongue of the humming-bird is forked; that is, it is divided, so that it looks like two tongues, or like the prongs of a fork. The feathers on its wings and tail are black, but those on its body, and under its wings, are of a greenish brown, with a fine reddish gloss, which no silver, or gold, or velvet can imitate.

        5. It has a small crest or tuft of feathers on its head. This crest is green at the bottom, but brighter than gold at the top. It sparkles in the sun like a little star in the middle of its forehead. The bill is small, straight, and slender, about the length of a small pin.

        6. This bird keeps its wings in such rapid motion, that their beautiful colour can only be seen by their glitter. This rapid motion of its wings causes a humming sound, and from this sound it has the name of humming-bird.

        7. The humming-bird lays but two eggs, and they are about the size of small peas. The eggs are as white as snow, with a few yellow specks on them. These birds hatch their eggs in ten days.

        8. When the young first appear, they are of the size of a blue-bottle fly. The plumage of the young is not so bright as that of the old birds.

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        9. The humming-bird is easily tamed. In an hour after it has been caught, the cheerful little captive will often come and suck the honey, or sugar and water, from flowers held out to it.

        10. In few hours more it becomes tame enough to sip sweets from a saucer, and soon it will come to the hand that feeds it. In dark or rainy weather, it seems to pass most of the time dozing on the perch, or roost in its cage.

        11. The humming-bird is a brave little fellow. It sometimes dares to attack other birds much larger than itself, if they go too near its nest. He attacks even the king-bird, and drives the martin to his box.

        12. Sometimes it will attack the yellow bird and the sparrow without any provocation. I hope none of my little readers will follow the bad example of these pretty little-birds, and quarrel with other children, larger or smaller than themselves.


        ROANOKE ISLAND.--Roanoke Island lies on the coast of North Carolina, between Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds.

        The first English settlement in North America, was made on this island, in the year 1585.

        The colony was sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh. But the colonists all perished, or strayed off and mingled with the Indians.

        Here the first English child was born on American soil. Her name was Virginia Dare.

        It was the first spot, on the American continent, pressed by the foot of an English woman, and it was the first spot cultivated by the hand of an Englishman.

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    Spell and define--

  • 2. FOUN'TAINS, springs, the source from which anything flows.
  • 3. MOUN'TAINS, very high lands.


                         1. Our little Viola was sad in her play,
                         And said, as she felt in the world quite alone,
                         "I don't know that any one loves me to-day--
                         Yes, there is one Friend--I know there is one."

                         2. "And who is that Friend?" asked Mary, her mate,
                         As started the tears from pity's quick fountains;
                         "Oh, he is the Man with a heart very great,
                         He is the dear Friend who lives over the mountains."

                         3. "Over the mountains, so far, far away!
                         Viola, then say does He ever come near?"
                         "Yes, He is the Saviour; He comes when I pray,
                         And whenever I think of Him, then He is here."

                         4. "And when I sit down to read His good Word,
                         He speaks to my heart in a whisper so mild;
                         And you too may hear the dear voice of the Lord,
                         If you'll read it, and pray, and be a good child."

                         5. I will tell you what once a little girl said,
                         Who was going to heaven to drink of its fountains,
                         She whisper'd it softly, she was not afraid,
                         "The strong Man will carry me over the mountains."

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                         6. Over the mountains! O, there is His home,
                         And there all His people for ever will rest;
                         To all of His dying ones, Jesus will come,
                         And the strong Man will carry His lambs on His breast!


        PRAISE.--The noblest thing that an angel can do is to praise the Lord, and we have as much reason to praise Him as angels have.

        We praise God when we believe His holy Word. We praise Him when we obey His commands, and do His will.

        Rather forget to eat, to drink, and to lie down to rest, than forget to praise God.

        Oh, give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good. Bless the Lord, O my soul; and all that is within me, bless His holy name.

        Let everything that hath breath praise the Lord.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. OR'I GIN, source.
  • 2. BRIST'LY, like bristles.
    FA TIGUE', labor, toil.
  • 3. DIG'NI FIED, noble.
  • 4. CU RI OS'I TY, desire to know.
  • 6. MUZ'ZLE, the nose and mouth.
  • 8. SYMP'TOMS, signs.
  • 8. SUS PI'CIOUS, imagining evil.
    SCRU'PU LOUS, strict.
  • 9. PE CU LI AR'I TIES, qualties belonging to one only.
    A VER'SION, dislike.
    POR'TRAIT, a likeness.
  • 12. SCULP'TURED, carved.


        1. A hound is a dog, with long, smooth, hanging ears, and long limbs, that enable him to run very swiftly. The

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greyhound is not so called on account of his color, but from a word which denotes his Grecian origin.

        2. The Scotch greyhound is a larger and more powerful animal than the common greyhound; and its hair, instead of being sleek and smooth, is long, stiff, and bristly. It can endure great fatigue.

        3. Sir Walter Scott had a very fine dog of this kind. His name was Maida. He was one of the finest dogs of the kind ever seen in Scotland, not only on account of his beauty and dignified appearance, but also from his great size and strength.

        4. When Sir Walter Scott travelled through strange towns, Maida was usually surrounded by crowds of people. He indulged their curiosity with great patience until it began to be troublesome, and then he gave a single short bark, as a signal that they must trouble him no more.

        5. Nothing could exceed the fidelity, obedience, and attachment of this dog to his master, whom he seldom quitted, and on whom he was a constant attendant, when travelling.

        6. Maida was a high-spirited and beautiful dog, with

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black ears, cheeks, back, and sides. The tip of his tail was white. His muzzle, neck, throat, breast, and legs were also white.

        7. The hair on his whole body and limbs was rough and shaggy, and particularly so on the neck, throat, and breast. That on the ridge of the neck he used to raise, like a lion's mane, when excited to anger.

        8. His disposition was gentle and peaceable, both to men and animals; but he showed marked symptoms of anger to ill-dressed people, whom he always regarded with a suspicious eye, and whose motions he watched with the most scrupulous jealousy.

        9. Among several peculiarities which Maida possessed, one was a strong aversion to artists, arising from the frequent restraints he was subjected to, in having his portrait taken, on account of his majestic appearance.

        10. The instant he saw a pencil and paper produced, he prepared to beat a retreat; and, if forced to remain, he showed the strongest marks of displeasure.

        11. Maida's bark was deep and hollow. Sometimes he amused himself with howling, in a very tiresome way. When he was very fond of his friends he used to grin, tucking up his whole lips, and showing all his teeth; but this was only when he very much desired to recommend himself.

        12. Maida lies buried at the gate of Abbotsford; Sir Walter's country-seat, which he long protected. A grave stone is placed over him, on which is carved the figure of a dog. It bears the following inscription:--

                         "Beneath the sculptured form which late you wore,
                         Sleep soundly, Maida, at your master's door."

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        NEW ORLEANS.--New Orleans is the largest commercial city in the Confederate States. It lies on the bank of the Mississippi River, 100 miles from its mouth.

        The city is built around a bend in the river, and on this account it is often called the Crescent City.

        The levee of New Orleans is an embankment constructed along the bank of the river, four miles in length, and one hundred feet wide. This was built to prevent the inundation of the city by the river, at high water.

        The dwellings in the suburbs are surrounded by gardens, decorated with orange, lemon, and magnolia trees.


    Spell and define--

  • 2. WREATHS, ornaments.
  • 3. BOUGH, the limb of a tree.
  • 6. GAR'RET, the upper part of a house, next to the roof.
  • 7. CHEER'FUL, pleasant.
  • 8. HUGE, large.
  • 9. EAR'NEST, ardent, loving. GUARD, protect.


                         1. I mark'd at eve the snow-flakes fall
                         So gently all around;
                         Like lightest feathers down they came,
                         And softly touch'd the ground.

                         2. And as with ceaseless shower they fell
                         Upon each shrub and tree,
                         The brilliant wreaths which there they hung
                         Were beautiful to see.

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                         3. But when the early night closed in,
                         The winds came howling by;
                         They tore the wreaths from off the bough,
                         And whirl'd them through the sky.

                         4. Hark! how they dash the driving snow
                         Against the window pane;
                         While now they murmur sad and low,
                         Now rage and roar amain.

                         5. Where are the poor and friendless now--
                         Children of want and woe?
                         How many feel the bitter wind,
                         And cold, and driving snow!

                         6. How many, chill'd and pale with fear,
                         To some lone garret creep;
                         And there, with scarce a covering,
                         Lie down to wake and weep.

                         7. While I beside a blazing fire
                         My cheerful hours can spend;
                         And see, whene'er I lift my eye,
                         A kind and smiling friend.

                         8. And when the huge clock tells the hour
                         That I to bed must go;
                         That friend will see me wrapp'd up well
                         With covering white as snow.

                         9. And then with sweet and earnest voice,
                         Will breathe a gentle prayer,
                         That God would bless her darling boy
                         And guard him sleeping there.

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                         10. And oh! to Him who rules the storm,
                         How thankful should I be,
                         For such a home, and such a friend,
                         To watch and care for me.


        THOU SHALT NOT STEAL.--We must never take anything that does not belong to us; not so much as a pin.

        When we walk in the garden, we must not take a pear, or a peach, or a flower, unless we have permission, for that would be stealing; and one of the commands of God is, "Thou shalt not steal."

        If we see anything that belongs to another person, and which we should like to have, we must learn to be content without it; for we must not covet, or desire other men's goods.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. IN'DIA, a country in Asia.
  • 3. COM'FORT A BLE, pleasant.
  • 5. RE PLIED', answered.
  • 8. DREAD'FUL, terrible.
  • 11. GUID'ED, directed.
    HOWL, a cry of distress.
    RUSHED, ran swiftly.


        1. Lucy and Fanny were two little girls who lived with their father and mother in London. When Lucy was seven and Fanny five years old, their uncle George came home from India. This was a great joy to them; he was so kind, and had so much to tell them about distant places, and strange people, and animals, and things such as they had never seen.

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        2. One day after dinner, they both climbed on his knees, and Lucy said,

        "O uncle, do tell us a tiger story."

        "Very well," said he, "I will tell you a story about a tiger and a baby. It is a true story, for what I am going to tell you happened to some friends of mine."

        3. A gentleman and lady had one sweet little baby, and they had to take a long journey with it through a wild part of India. There were no houses along their road, and they had to sleep in a tent. That is a kind of house made by driving high stakes firmly into the ground, and then drawing curtains all over them. It is very comfortable and cool in a warm country where there is no rain; but then there are no doors nor windows to shut, as we do at night, to make all safe.

        4. One night they had to sleep in a very wild place, near a thick wood. The lady said, "Oh! I feel so much afraid to-night; I cannot tell you how frightened I am. I know there are many tigers and wild beasts in the woods; and what if they should come out upon us."

        5. Her husband replied, "My dear, we will make the servants kindle a fire, and keep a watch, and you need have no fear; and we must put our trust in God."

        6. So the lady kissed her babe, and put it into its cradle; and then she and her husband knelt down together, and prayed to God to keep them from every danger, and they repeated that pretty verse, "I will both lay me down in peace, and sleep; for thou, Lord, only makest me to dwell in safety."

        7. In the middle of the night, the lady started up with a cry: "Oh! my baby! my baby! I dreamed just now,

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that a great tiger had crept below the curtains, and ran away with my child."

        8. And when she looked into the cradle, the baby was not there! Oh! you may think how dreadful was their distress! They ran out of the tent, and there in the moonlight, they saw a great animal moving towards the woods, with something white in his mouth."

        9. They woke all the servants, and got loaded guns, and all went after it into the woods. They went as fast, and as quietly, as they could, and very soon came to a place where they saw through the trees, that the tiger had lain down, and was playing with the baby, just as a cat does with a mouse, before she kills it.

        10. The baby was not crying, and did not seem hurt. The poor father and mother could only pray to the Lord for help, and when one of the men took up his gun, the lady cried, "Oh! you will kill my child."

        11. But the man raised the gun, and fired at once, and God guided his aim. The tiger gave a loud howl, leaped in the air, and then fell down again, shot quite dead. They all rushed forward, and there was the dear child, quite safe, and smiling as if it were not at all afraid.

        12. "And did the baby really live?" Yes, the poor lady was very ill afterwards, but the baby was not at all. I have seen it often since then. You may be sure that when they looked at their child afterwards, the parents gave thanks to God. It was He that made the mother dream and awake just at the right time, and made the tiger hold the baby by the clothes so as not to hurt it, and the man to fire so as to shoot the tiger, and not the child.

        13. But, now, good night, my dear little girls; and before you go to bed, pray to God to keep you safe, as my friend did that night in the tent.

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        Come, ye children, hearken unto me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord.

        What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many days that he may see good?

        Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile.

        Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it.

        The Lord is gracious, and full of compassion, slow to anger and of great mercy.

        The Lord is good to all, and His tender mercies are over all His works.

        All Thy works praise thee, O Lord; and Thy saints shall bless Thee.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. STAR'TLED, alarmed.
  • 2. RE PORT', noise.
  • 7. AG'O NY, severe pain.
  • 8. OINT'MENT, salve.
  • 11. RE MOVED', taken off.
    MIS'ER A BLE, unhappy.
  • 14. SPAR'KLED, glittered.
  • 16. LEI'SURE, not occupied.
  • 17. PA'TIENT, contented.
    GRIEVE, to be sorry.


        1. One beautiful summer morning Lucy Parker was swinging upon the gate of the front yard. She was looking along the road that led to the village, and wishing that her mother had let her go there with her brother Thomas to see the soldiers; when suddenly she was startled by a loud noise, like the firing of a pistol.

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        2. While she was wondering, she heard a loud laugh, and Thomas jumped out from under the fence close by the house, and threw something at her feet. It burst with another loud report; and Lucy ran screaming, and hid herself behind a tree. Thomas was following her, when his mother caught his arm, and asked him what he was doing.

        3. "Only shooting off fire-crackers, mother," said he. "See, they are nothing but only rolls of paper, with a little powder in them, and a string to them. I set fire to the string, and when it has burnt up to the paper, the powder goes off, and they burst with a great noise; but they do no harm."

        4. "I do not know that," said his mother. "Your father has told you never to play with gunpowder."

        "Oh," said Thomas, "all the boys in town throw them; but they never hurt anybody; and I will be careful. I only want to scare Lucy a little, and off he ran after his sister.

        5. Soon he saw her white dress among the lilac trees, and he crept softly up, and tossed one of his crackers into the bush. Lucy jumped up, and ran, and Thomas after her, throwing the crackers at her all the time.

        6. After a while, finding that they did her no harm, Lucy began to laugh; and she stopped to take breath, and to pick up little stones, to throw back, in play, at Thomas. But, oh! as she stooped down, one of the crackers burst close to her face, and the burning powder all flew into her eyes, those bright black eyes of Lucy.

        7. She screamed in great agony; and as she ran wildly around, she hit herself against the trees, for she could not see anything. Thomas was so frightened at first, that he

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could not stir; but soon he went as fast as he could, to call their mother.

        8. She came in haste, and carried poor Lucy to bed. But she could not sleep any that night, her eyes burned, and smarted so dreadfully. They were all red and swollen, and it hurt her either to shut or open them. The doctor gave her mother an ointment, which cooled her face and eyes very much, and directed that she should have a bandage over her eyes.

        9. After several days, she begged her mother to take off the bandage which was tied over her face; "for," said she, "it seems dark to me all the time; I am tired of it, and want to look about again." Her mother loosened it a little, and said, "Does it seem lighter now? Does the light hurt your eyes?"

        10. Lucy said, "I do not see any light at all." Her mother took the bandage quite off, and Lucy sat up and said, "Why mother, you were making fun of me. I cannot see any light, I am sure; it is as dark as night."

        11. Then Mrs[.] Parker wept very much, for she knew her poor child was blind. Thomas who was present when the bandage was removed, felt very miserable, indeed, to think that he had put out his sister's eyes, so that she could not see.

        12. The next day Lucy was able to sit up for the first time since she was burnt. She asked her sister Jane to bring her box of toys, as she felt strong and able to play with them.

        13. The first thing Lucy pulled out of the box was a long string of beads. This had always been her favourite toy. She passed her fingers slowly over each bead, and then she held them up before her eyes and shook them.

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        14. "They used to be of a beautiful color," she said; "and when I shook them this way, they sparkled. Jane, when shall I be able to see them again?" Jane said, "I do not know, dear Lucy. I am afraid not for many, many days, if ever."

        15. Other toys that she loved to play with were taken from her box, but she could not see them or play with them; Lucy burst into tears, and said, "Here, Jane, you may have all my pretty toys, I can never play with them again."

        16. Days, weeks, and months passed away, and Lucy became used to being blind. She learned to feel her way about the house and garden; and to amuse herself in many ways. Thomas and Jane were very kind to their little blind sister, and spent much of their leisure time in reading pretty books to her, telling her stories, and teaching her what they had learned at school.

        17. Lucy was no longer sad. She was so patient, so gentle, so cheerful, that every one loved her; and it was only when something uncommon happened, that she seemed to grieve that she could not see.


        THE MOON.--The moon, like the earth, is a dark soli body, and also like the earth receives her light from the sun.

        If the moon were to shine by her own light, she would always appear full; but as we only see that part which is turned towards the sun, it is evident that she shines only by reflecting the light of that body.

        This gives her different shapes according to her situation with regard to the earth. These shapes are called phases.

Page 41


    Spell and define--

  • 3. EX PEC TA'TION, hope.
    PREP A RA'TION, making ready.
  • 5. BECK'ONS, calls by a sign.
    EX CLAIMED', cried out.
  • 7. RE JOICING, expression of joy.
    EAR'NEST LY, intently.
  • 8. FA'MOUS, celebrated.
  • 10. FALTERED, stammered.
  • 11. PRO CUR'ING, obtaining.
  • 16. FEAR'LESS LY, without fear.


        1. "Good news! good news!" shouted Jane one Monday morning, as she came into the room, dancing and clapping her hands. The children started, to see their quiet sister Jane so lively.

        "Good news!" cried she again. "Our dear father has landed from the ship, and he will come home to us this week."

        2. I should have told you that Mr[.] Parker was all this time attending to some business in a country far off over he sea. Many months had passed since the children had seen their father, and they were glad enough to hear that he was coming home.

        3. All was eager expectation and preparation during the next two or three days. Every time a carriage passed, the children would rush out to see if it was not their father.

        4. On Thursday evening Thomas was leaning over the gate. "Hark! look!" said he; "yes, I do, I do see a cloud of dust, far up the road yonder, and it comes nearer and nearer. And there!--is not that a horse?"

        5. "Yes, and I can see wheels now," said Jane. "It is a carriage."

        "And look! look!" cried Fanny. "I see some one

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leaning out of the window, and looking at us. He nods his head! He beckons to us! Yes, it is father! it is father!" And off they all ran to meet him.

        "Oh!" exclaimed Lucy, "I wish--I wish I could see!" and she sat down on the ground and cried aloud.

        6. The sound of the wheels stopped; she heard her father jump out, she heard the happy voices and the kisses; but her tears would only come faster and faster, till Mr[.] Parker himself, fondly lifting her up, said, "My poor little darling, what is the matter now?" Lucy threw her arms around his neck, laid her head on his bosom, and sobbed out, "Oh, my dear, dear father, I do so want to see you."

        7. Lucy's sorrows never lasted long. Soon she began to laugh again, and to join in the general rejoicing. But her father would often look at his blind little daughter with pity and sorrow in his face; and when she climbed up on his knee, to kiss him good night, he looked earnestly in her face, and said, "It does seem to me that these eyes might see again."

        8. Mr[.] Parker then told his family that one of the gentlemen who came over in the ship with him was Dr[.] Hutton, who was famous for his skill in curing blindness. He is a very pleasant man, and when I told him about our unfortunate little daughter, he seemed to feel very much for her and for me. He said, perhaps it was not too late to do something for her; and if we would commit her to his care, he would do all he could for her. Indeed, he almost made me promise that I would bring her, that he might try to cure her.

        9. "Now," added Mr[.] Parker, "the sooner Lucy is taken to Dr[.] Hutton the better; for if anything can be done for

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her eyes, it must be done soon. So now what do you think of it? Shall I take her to him next week?"

        10. "Oh, go this week," cried Fanny. Thomas jumped up and clapped his hands with delight. Her mother tried to speak, and faltered out, "Oh, if my darling child can only be made to see," and then burst into tears.

        11. The next day they all agreed that Lucy had better go to Dr[.]Hutton, and Mrs[.]Parker said that Jane should go with her. Mr[.]Parker took them to the city where Dr[.] Hutton lived; and after procuring board at the house of a friend, left the girls under the doctor's care, and returned home.

        12. Jane often wrote to her father and mother. In one of her letters, she says--"No one could be kinder than Dr[.] Hutton is to Lucy. He speaks to her and touches her as gently as possible. Yet he has to hurt her a good deal, and the poor little thing looks weak and pale. But he seems to think that, with the help of God, he will be able to do her good."

        13. Another letter from Jane began thus--"O father! mother! the doctor has done to Lucy's eyes all he was going to do; and he says everything is as he wished it. He will not tell me that she can see now, but he hopes she soon will. However, she must stay several weeks yet in a dark room, with bandages round her face, and be kept very quiet."

        14. Another of Jane's letters said--"Every day the doctor feels more-certain that Lucy's eyes are really well again. He seems as happy as any of us, and says he will certainly come with us when we return home, for he would not miss seeing our meeting for anything. So you had better have everything ready, for I do not know how soon he may think it safe for Lucy to travel. But, dear father and mother, and brother and sister, do not be too sure

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about Lucy. The doctor says that if she were to take cold now, or if anything were to happen to her, all would be lost--she would be blind again."

        15. One warm evening, as they were all sitting together in front of the house, Thomas cried out, "Hush! what is that noise?" It was the sound of wheels rolling along the road. They all flew to the gate. Yes, it was a carriage coming. Was it Dr[.]Hutton's?

        16. They ran to meet it. But long before they reached it, a hand from its window opened the door, and out jumped Lucy, and Jane after her.

        "Oh," cried Lucy, as she came running fearlessly toward them, and raised the shade from her eyes, "O Thomas--Fanny, how tall you have grown!"

        17. The next moment she was in her mother's arms. And as Mrs[.] Parker exclaimed, "God bless you, my child!" Lucy said, "I thought I should never see that sweet, kind look of yours again." And them, catching a sight of her father, she cried, "O father, when you came home, I could not see you; but now"--she looked long and earnestly in his face, and tears of joy fell upon her dress.

        18. "What, Lucy crying! I thought you were a happy child to-day," said Jane.

        "And, oh, I am!" said Lucy; "indeed, I am. Mother; as we were coming home, the doctor often let me look out at the trees, and people, and horses, and everything. And now here it all looks as it used to. Oh, how good it is to be able to see."

        19. "But where is Dr[.] Hutton?" said Mr[.] Parker.

        "Oh," said Jane, "he did not want to spoil our happy meeting; so he got out at the beginning of the bushy path, and came along it on the other side of the fence."

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        20. They all went to meet him. How the children kissed the doctor's hand, and thanked him again and again! And how fondly they led him to the house! And how they ran to get him fruit, and cake, and milk, and everything they had! It seemed as if they could not do enough for him since he had made Lucy able to see.

        21. My young reader, God has made you able to see, and that, too, without hurting you at all. He has made you able to hear, too, and to smell, and taste, and move, and think, and feel. He is kinder to you than Dr[.] Hutton was to Lucy.


        SILVER--Silver is a fine metal of a whitish color, which has for many years been used for money.

        It is also much used for watch-cases, spoons, forks, and many other things.

        It may be beaten out into sheets, nearly as thin as gold-leaf; and it may be drawn into wire finer than a human hair.

        Gold and silver are called perfect metals, because they do not waste by passing through the fire, and because they do not rust like other metals.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. SHEP'HERD, one who takes care of sheep.
  • 3. DE FEND'; protect.
  • 5. PRE'CIOUS, valuable.
  • 6. VAL'LEYS, low lands between hills.
  • 7. MIN'GLED, mixed.
  • 9. GIRT, fastened with a die.
  • 10. PER'ISH, to die.
  • 11. DE SIRE'; wish.
  • 12. A NOINT'EST, rubs over.


        1. Keeping flocks was common in old times. Kings

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an rulers were often called shepherds. God himself is called a shepherd; and the Lord Jesus Christ says, "I am the good Shepherd." I wish to tell you something about the flock of Christ, and about Christ as a shepherd.

        2. The flock of Christ has in it some old sheep, that have been with Him a long time. Some of these are strong and healthy, others are feeble and sickly. Some have been with Him but a little while. We do not call them sheep. They are young, and we call them lambs, and some of them we call little lambs. Christ said to Peter, "Feed my sheep; feed my lambs."

        3. Christ's flock is not very large. It has no strength of itself. It cannot defend itself. If left alone, it would be eaten up by the wolves. Even old sheep, left alone, cannot protect themselves from wolves. All that love

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Christ and hate sin belong to this flock. If we do not love Him, we are but goats.

        4. I must tell you something about the Shepherd. The Bible calls Him "the good Shepherd." He is both God and man. He knows what His flock needs. He is mighty to save, and strong to deliver. He is ever loving. He loved us so that He laid down His life for us. He died for the lambs as well as for the sheep. Jesus Christ shed His blood for little children.

        5. All the children that are now in heaven were washed in His precious blood. David was once a shepherd, and there came a lion and a bear to carry off some of his lambs. But he went after them and slew them at the risk of his life. But Jesus Christ knew that to save His flock He must die. He is the best friend little boys and girls have. He has done more for them than all the world besides. He is the chiefest among ten thousand. There is none like Jesus.

        6. Some years ago, a friend of mine was in Greece, in the month of March. He was travelling in the country where the shepherds live. He came to three shepherds with their flocks. One had about six hundred and fifty sheep another had about seven hundred, and the other had about seven hundred and fifty. In all, they had about twenty-one hundred sheep. They were out in the valleys where the grass grew.

        7. All the flocks were mingled together; but every sheep had its own name. It would neither come nor go, if called by any other name; nor would it come or go, if called by any but its own shepherd. Every shepherd knew all his own sheep. He knew their names also. If any one was about to go into a wrong place, he called it,

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and it turned back. If the way was narrow or steep, he would go before, and they would follow him. This is just like what the Bible says about Christ and His flock.

        8. "The sheep hear his voice; and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out. And when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him; for they know his voice. And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him; for they know not the voice of strangers. I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine. I lay down my life for the sheep."

        9. The day my friend saw the shepherds was a cold day. Some of the lambs were quite strong and full of play; but some of them were very young and tender. The cold chilled them, and they could not walk. The shepherds had on something like a large cloak tied round their necks, and girt about their waists. So they took up the little lambs, and put them in their bosoms. They did not smother them. They left their heads out, so that they could breathe well. But they kept them snug and warm.

        10. It was a pleasing sight to see an old shepherd with his long gray beard, and his bosom full of lambs. Just so the Bible says of Christ, "He shall gather the lambs in his arms, and carry them in his bosom." Many little children have loved Christ. And He has never let such perish. He is as good to little children as to old people. He says, "I love them that love me, and those that seek me early shall find me."

        11. If little boys and girls are wise, they will desire above all things to belong to Christ's flock. I hope all of you will commit to memory the Twenty-third Psalm.

        12. "The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. He

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maketh me to lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside the still waters; he restoreth my soul; he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil; for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. Thou preparest a table for me in the presence of my enemies; thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over. Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life; and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever."


        SUGAR.--Sugar is found in the juice of many plants, but is obtained principally from the sugar-cane, which is largely cultivated in the Southern parts of the Confederate States.

        The cane is crushed, and the juice, mixed with a small quantity of slacked lime, is heated to near the boiling point.

        The, clear liquid thus obtained is placed in shallow pans, and left to crystallise, during which time it is frequently agitated, to prevent the formation of large crystals. It is then drained from the syrup or molasses. This is called muscovado sugar, which is afterwards refined.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. PUN'ISH, to inflict pain for a fault.
  • 2. CON SULT', to seek advice.
  • 3. PUZ'ZLED, confused, perplexed.
  • 5. WON'DER FUL, surprising.
  • 5. IN CLINED', disposed.
  • 6. SE'RI OUS LY, in earnest.
  • 7. HEARK'EN, to listen.
    A STRAY', out of the right way.
  • 8. SO LU'TION, explanation.

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        1. "Mother, I should not think God would punish children for doing wrong when they can not help it," said James, who sat looking out of the window a long time, thinking.

        "Can't help it?" said his mother.

        "No," said James, "I don't think they can."

        2. "Is it not because they don't use God's helps to do right?" asked his mother.

        "God's helps?" said James. "What?"

        "He has given them a guide-book, in the first place. It clearly tells the right way and the wrong way, and where they lead to--one to heaven and the other to hell. If anybody consults that book, he cannot mistake about the way," said the mother.

        3. "Is it the Bible you mean?" asked James.

        "Yes," she answered, "and lest we should get into the dark, or be puzzled about the meaning of our guide-book, God has given another help; that is, His Holy Spirit, 'who,' He says, 'will open the eyes of the blind,' and 'will guide you into all truth,' and you need make no mistake, and have no excuse."

        4. "I don't know what that means," said James, quickly.

        "When we see a person weakly, sickly, and not able to do what he wants to do, we say he is infirm, he needs help. God sees how we stumble, and miss the right way, and how weak we are; He, therefore, offers His Holy Spirit to make us strong."

        5. "That is wonderful," said James, "how God knows everything?"

        "Besides all this," said his mother, "He has put a little voice within you, which, when you are inclined to go

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wrong, says, 'No, no, no!' and when you do right, says, 'Yes, yes, my dear child,' very sweetly, indeed."

        6. "Yes, my teacher told me about the conscience."

        "Do you not think, James," asked his mother, seriously, "that God has done His part to make little boys and girls do right? Not only to know the right, but to do right, also?"

        "Mother," answered James, after a few moments' thinking, "I think God has. It is not God's fault, I am sure. Then why do they not always do right?"

        7. "Because they do not mind God's helps," said his mother. "If they would study their guide-book, ask the Holy Spirit to enlighten and help them, and hearken to that kind little voice within, and try to do right, I am sure no child would go astray."

        8. The little boy was lost in thought for some time; at length he said--

        "Mother, we have got no excuse for being wicked. God is good--very good."

        And, dear children, this is a true and happy solution of the matter.


        RICHMOND.--Richmond is the capital of Virginia; and also, at present, the capital of the Confederate States of America.

        It is situated on the north bank of the James River, at the head of tide-water.

        It is the largest city in Virginia, and one of the most beautiful in the Confederate States.

        The situation of the city and the scenery of the environs are much admired, combining in a high degree the elements of grandeur, beauty, and variety.

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        The river, winding among verdant hills which rise with graceful undulations, is interrupted by numerous islands and granite rocks, among which it tumbles, and foams for a distance of several miles.

        The city, situated on several hills, is laid out with regularity.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. GLOW'ING, bright.
    RA'DIANT, shining.
  • 2. CE LES'TIAL, heavenly.
    BLIGHT, that which withers.
  • 3. SIG'NET, seal.
  • 5. FOLD in enclosure for sheep.
  • 6. JEWELS, ornaments.
  • 8. SHEL'TER ING, protecting.
  • 9. THRILL'ING, exciting.
    CEASE'LESS, endless.


                         1. We sat beside the glowing hearth, my cherish'd ones and I,
                         The light of pure and truthful love beam'd in each radiant eye.
                         "Tell me of Jesus, dear mamma," was said in sweetest tone,
                         "Oh, tell me some sweet tale of Him, the high and holy One."

                         2. "Tell me of Jesus," precious truth! it raised my heart above
                         To that celestial clime of light and all-enduring love,
                         Where change, and blight, and pain, and death can never, never come,
                         Where Jesus calls the little flock, and bids them welcome home.

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                         3. The love of childhood, precious trust, to erring mortals given,
                         Sweet buds of immortality, that speak to us of heaven
                         So full of truth and precious hope, like kindred spirits there,
                         That even here the signet bright of heavenly love they wear.

                         4."Tell me of Jesus!" Mother's heart and can you still delay,
                         And from that tender touching tone in coldness turn away?
                         Oh, clasp these folded hands in thine, and, with a tearful eye,
                         Raise heart and voice in earnest prayer to Him above the sky.

                         5. The gentle Shepherd, ask His care, His precious love untold--
                         Oh, ask that He will guide thy lambs unto His heavenly fold,
                         Sweet fold, where happy millions now in spotless beauty rove,
                         And sing and chant for ever there the strains of Jesus' love.

                         6."Tell me of Jesus"--sweetly tell of Him who died to save,
                         To take the sting of death away, and rob the gloomy grave
                         Of all its boasted victory--who died that we might rise
                         As jewels in His starry crown, to shine above the skies.

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                         7. O mother, take thy little ones, and tell of Bethlehem's Star,
                         Whose glorious light still brightly shines in beauty from afar,
                         And tell of peaceful Olivet and dark Gethsemane,
                         And tell the little trusting ones, yes, tell of Calvary.

                         8. Then point to heaven where Jesus is, the Saviour's precious home,
                         And where He sweetly, gently says, "Let little children come."
                         Oh, suffer them to come to me and be for ever blest,
                         And find within my sheltering arms their everlasting rest.

                         9. And when the Angel's thrilling blast shall sound the death of time,
                         Oh, may we meet our cherish'd ones within that blissful clime,
                         And through the ever-ceaseless round of ages as they roll,
                         May love to Jesus ever thrill and tune the raptured soul.


        RULES AND MAXIMS.--Never put off till to-morrow what you can do to-day.

        Never trouble others for what you can do yourself.

        Never buy what you do not want, because it is cheap.

        Pride costs us more than hunger, thirst, and cold.

        We never repent of having eaten too little.

        Nothing is troublesome that we do willingly.

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        How much pain those evils cost us which never happen.

         When angry, count ten before you speak; if very angry, count a hundred.


    Spell and define--

  • 2. AP PROACH'ING, drawing near.
  • 4. DE LIGHT'ED, much pleased.
    DIS O BLIG'ING, unfriendly.
  • 8. TRAIT, a feature.
  • 11. ADVANCE', offer of kindness.
  • 14. MEAN'WHILE, intervening time.
  • 16. CRIM'SONED, become red.
  • 17. AU'DI ENCE, an assembly addressed by a speaker.
    TRANS FER', give over.


        1. Four little-bare white feet toasted on the fender, in front of the blazing fire, four cheeks as round and rosy as apples, and four dimpled hands, stretched out toward the fire to warm, before the two children, to whom they all belonged, went into the next room to bed.

        2. Kitty and Ruth Howitt were their names; and their mother sat just behind them, in her low rocking-chair close by the pine table, with a stocking in her hand, and, oh! such a basket of clothes to be mended, at her side! The little girls were talking about their school examination, which was just approaching.

        3. They were good scholars, both of them; but Kitty was first in her class, which was the highest in the grammar school. She was looking forward to the first prize as certain, and they were now talking about a girl named Jane Bangs, who had stood next her for the last half year.

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        4. "She is the crossest girl I ever saw," said Kitty. "She tries every way she can to make me miss, and I know she would be perfectly delighted to get above me; but she will not."

        "She is always teasing the smaller girls," said Ruth; "and she is so very disobliging. There is not one in the whole school that loves her."

        5. "Poor child!" said Mrs[.] Howitt, dropping her work and looking at Ruth. "She is to be pitied, if no one loves her. Where does she live?"

        "Down by the Cross Roads, in an old barn of a house, with her aunt, Karin Bangs--that horrid, homely woman that sits back under the gallery in church. Don't you know?"

        6. "O yes; she is a very high-tempered person. And nobody loves Jane?"

        "Not one. She will not give them a chance."

        "By whom does she sit in school?"

        "By herself. There is not a girl that would sit by her."

        7. "My dear children, have either of you ever tried to make her love you?"

        Kitty and Ruth both hung their heads, and were silent. Mrs[.] Howitt went on in a serious tone--

        "She thinks that no one cares for her. She is neglected at home and shunned at school; but she is a good scholar, is she not?"

        "Yes, ma'am; next best to Kitty."

        8. "Then she is trying to learn; that is one good trait in her character. How do you know that she will not give anybody a chance to love her? Has any one tried?"

        "I don't know, mother," said Kitty, taking her feet down from the fender, and stealing to her mother's side.

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        "Suppose you try, Kitty."

        9. "I will, but I know she will not let me; and if she should make faces or be sulky, then I shall very likely get angry, and say something that I shall be sorry for."

        "Be patient, and remember how long your heavenly Father has borne with your sins, and although you refuse to love Him, He has not given you up."

        10. Tears were in Kitty's eyes as she kissed her mother good night, and went away to bed; and she determined to try very hard to win the love of poor neglected Jane Bangs.

        11. Of course the girls at school all wondered, and talked, and laughed, when they found what Kitty Howitt was doing. But no one wondered more than Jane herself. At first she repelled every advance with a frown or a cross word, for she could not understand the changed manner of her rival.

        12. But Kitty persevered, and was rewarded, one morning at recess by this question from Jane:--

        "Do you really care anything about me, Kitty Howitt?"

        "Yes, I am sure I do, if you will let me."

        "I don't see why you should. I am homely, and poor, and cross."

        13. "I don't think you would be cross, if the girls would be pleasant to you. I want you to love me, and we will be good friends."

        "I don't know about that," said Jane. "I guess it will be the best to stay just as we have been all the time."

        "No; I am not going to do any such thing" cried Kitty, laughing, and throwing her plump little arms around Jane's neck. "I shall love you at any rate."

        14. That very evening Kitty was taken ill with fever,

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and was sick two or three weeks. In the meantime, Jane went on with her studies, and, of course, took her place first in the class. Examination-day came at last, and Kitty, though thin and pale, was able to be present. Just before the exercises began, she whispered to Jane--

        "I am glad you are to have the prize. I think you deserved it more than I all the time, because you have studied so hard."

        15. Jane made no reply; but Ruth, who was looking saw her turn away and draw her hand over her eyes. At the close of the afternoon, the teacher stood up before the desk on which the rewards were temptingly spread out, and said in a clear, distinct tone,

        "The first prize for good scholarship is awarded to Jane Bangs."

        16. Jane's face crimsoned, for every eye in the room was bent upon her; but she rose in her seat, and replied, firmly,

        "If you please, Mr[.] Carrol, I can not take the prize. It belongs by right to Kitty Howitt. If she had not been sick, I should never have been first in the class. Please give it to her."

        17. A little rustling movement all over the room, and the many smiling faces, told the pleasure which was felt by the audience at this act of self-denial.

        Mr[.] Carrol remarked that what Jane had said was true, and in accordance with her request he would transfer the first prize to Kitty Howitt.

        18. Jane came to her after school was dismissed, and whispered in her ear, "One month ago, I wished almost every day that something would happen to prevent you from having the prize. I hated you and everybody else,

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and was as miserable as I could be; but you came to me with kind words, and asked me to love you. O Kitty, you don't know how different everything seemed after that! And when you were lying sick, I prayed every day that God would make you well. What should I have done if He had let you die!"

        19. After that, Kitty and Jane were firm friends. They entered the high school together, were in the same class, and studied from the same books; and when, a few months later, Miss Karin Bangs died, Mrs[.] Howitt took Jane to her own home.

        20. Children, remember the power of a single kind word. The very hardest heart may be touched and softened by a loving smile.

                         "Kind words can never die;
                         Cherished and blest,
                         God knows how deep they lie,
                         Stored in the breast."


        MAMMOTH CAVE.--Among the natural curiosities of Kentucky, the most noted is the Mammoth Cave. It is situated 130 miles south-west of Lexington.

        In the extent and number of its chambers, the length of its galleries, and the variety of interesting objects, it has no equal on the globe.

        This remarkable cavern has been explored for ten miles, without any indications of coming to a termination.

        In a river, which flows through the cave, are found a kind of white fish that have no eyes.

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    Spell and define--

  • 1. BE WARE', take care.
    CHORD, the string of a musical instrument.
  • 2. DE SIGNED', intended.
    RAN'DOM, by chance.
  • 3. HAUNT, follow.
  • 4. WORM'WOOD, a bitter plant.
  • 5. CAN'KER ING, becoming corrupt.
    AIMED, directed.


                         1. Beware, beware of careless words,
                         They have a fearful power;
                         And jar upon the spirit's chord
                         Through many a weary hour.

                         2. Though not design'd to give us pain--
                         Though but at random spoken--
                         Remembrance brings them back again,
                         The past's most bitter token.

                         3. They haunt us through the toilsome day,
                         And through the lonely night,
                         And rise to cloud the spirit's ray,
                         When all besides is bright.

                         4. Though from the mind, and with the breath,
                         Which gave them, they have flown;
                         Yet wormwood, gall, and even death,
                         May dwell in every tone.

                         5. As burning tears can well attest,
                         A sentence lightly framed
                         May linger, cankering, in the breast
                         At which it first was aim'd.

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                         6. Oh, could my prayer indeed be heard--
                         Might I the past live o'er--
                         I'd guard against a careless word,
                         E'en though I spoke no more.


        CHARLESTON.--Charleston is the commercial capital of South Carolina. It is situated on a peninsula between Ashley and Cooper rivers, which unite below and form a spacious harbor, about seven miles from the sea.

        The streets of the city are in some quarters lined with the "Pride of China," and other trees. Many of the houses are beautifully ornamented with verandas, reaching from the ground to the roof, and surrounded by gardens, profusely adorned with orange trees, magnolias and palmettoes.

        Hear was fought the first battle in the War of Independence of the Confederate States. The bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbor, constitutes a glorious era in our national history. General Beauregard commanded the Confederate forces.


    Spell and define--

  • COM PUL'SION, force, constraint.
  • REC'OG NIZ ING, acknowledging a former acquaintance.
  • MOR TI FI CA'TION, disappointment, vexation.
  • DE GRADE', to disgrace, to lower.
  • AP PLAUSE', praise.
  • RUF'FIAN, a robber.
  • DI LEM'MA, a difficult situation.


        Ralph. Good morning, cousin Laura! I have a word to say to you.

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        Laura. Only a word? It is yet half an hour to school-time, and I can listen.

        Ralph. I saw you yesterday speaking to that fellow Leslie--Frank Leslie.

        Laura. Of course I spoke to Frank. What then? Is he too good to be spoken to?

        Ralph. Far from it! You must give up his acquaintance.

        Laura. Indeed, cousin Ralph! I must give up his acquaintance! On what compulsion must I?

        Ralph. If you do not wish to be cut by all the boys of the academy, you must cut Frank.

        Laura. Cut! What do you mean by cut?

        Ralph. By cutting, I mean not recognising an individual. When a boy who knows you passes you without speaking or bowing, he cuts you.

        Laura. I thank you for the explanation! And I am to understand that I must either give up the acquaintance of my friend Frank, or submit to the terrible mortification of being "cut" by Mr[.] Ralph Burton and his companions!

        Ralph. Certainly. Frank is a boy of no spirit,--in short, a coward.

        Laura. How has he shown it?

        Ralph. Why, a dozen boys have dared him to fight, and he refuses to do it.

        Laura. And is your test of courage a willingness to fight? If so, a bull-dog is the most courageous of gentlemen.

        Ralph. I am serious, Laura; you must give him up, Why, the other day, Tom Harding put a chip on my hat, and dared Frank Leslie to knock it off. But Leslie folded

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his arms and walked off, while we all groaned and hissed.

        Laura. You did? You groaned and hissed? O Ralph, I did not believe you had so little of the true gentleman about you!

        Ralph. What do you mean? Come, now, I do not like that!

        Laura. Frank Leslie refused to degrade himself to the level of the brute--to engage in a rough-and-tumble fight--and so you joined in insulting him! Shame upon you, cousin Ralph!

        Ralph. Oh, it is easy to say "shame!" but if a fellow of my own size dared me to fight him--

        Laura. You would not have the courage to refuse. And why? Because you are afraid of being hissed! Now Frank had the manhood to despise your hisses, and value his own self-respect far above the applause of boys silly enough to make fighting the test of courage.

        Ralph. Cousin Laura, let me suppose a case. You are walking with Frank in a solitary place, when a ruffian comes up and tries to carry you off. Would you have a fighting boy like Tom Harding, or a fellow like Frank, to stand by you in such a dilemma?

        Laura. I should have all the more confidence in Frank's readiness to do his best to protect me, because of his refusal to fight without a cause. The truly brave are always the least quarrelsome. They are not in the habit of defying others to knock chips off their hats. They reserve themselves for the right occasion.

        Ralph. Well, cousin Laura, I have given you fair warning. So if the fellows of our academy do not bow

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to you hereafter, you will know what it means. Good morning.

        Laura. Good morning! Perhaps time will show which of us has taken the correct view of the matter.


        NATURAL BRIDGE.--The Natural Bridge, one of the most sublime of Nature's works, is situated in Rockbridge county, Virginia, on the ascent of a hill, which seems to have been cloven through its length by some great convulsion.

        This bridge of limestone rock spans a chasm of ninety feet in width, at the distance of about two hundred and fifteen feet above Cedar Creek which flows beneath.

        The average width of the bridge is eighty feet, and its thickness fifty-five. A portion of this thickness is composed of earth, on which large trees are growing, and the remainder is of solid limestone.


    Spell and define--

  • RES O LU'TION, fixed purpose, decision.
  • IN'MATES, inhabitants.
  • VEN'TURE, dare to go.
  • RI'VAL RY, competition.
  • EN SUED', followed.
  • IN TENT'LY, with eager desire.
  • DE STRUC'TIVE, ruinous.
  • SUS PENSE', anxious waiting, doubt.
  • IL LUS'TRI OUS, celebrated, famous.
  • A CHIEVE'MENT, a heroic deed.


        Ralph. Good morning, once more, cousin Laura.

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        Laura. Good morning! But I thought you did not mean to speak to me again.

        Ralph. Oh, the fire of last evening put my resolution out of my head.

        Laura. A terrible fire it was! Were you present?

        Ralph. I and Tom Harding were with one of the fire-companies, and worked at the engine.

        Laura. Did you see that boy go up the ladder?

        Ralph. Yes; I would like to be in his shoes, for they say the Humane Society are going to give him a gold medal.

        Laura. I wish I had been there to see him! How did it happen?

        Ralph. Why, you see, the firemen thought they had cleared the house of all its inmates; but, all at once, a poor Irishwoman began crying out that her sick baby was in bed in the corner room of the third story. "Too late! too late!" said the firemen.

        Laura. But why was it too late?

        Ralph. You shall hear. The only ladder that was long enough to reach up to that window was so burned and charred in the middle, that the men were all afraid to trust their weight on it. When the poor woman learned this, she screamed so that you could hear her above all the noise of the engine.

        Laura. Poor woman! I do not wonder at it. But why did she not make the attempt herself?

        Ralph. She had been badly lamed by the fall of a beam, and could not climb. The chief fireman called out, "Is there no boy that will venture up? We men are all too heavy."

        Laura. I think I see you and Tom Harding starting

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in generous rivalry to try which will be first to go up the ladder!

        Ralph. No, you don't see any such thing. Tom and I perceived the danger too clearly. But, all at once, a little fellow, whose face was so blacked with smoke that nobody knew who he was, darted up the ladder, swift as a monkey. Such a silence as ensued! There was no more shouting. Everybody looked intently on the boy. "The ladder will break when he gets to the weak place," whispered one. "No," said another; "he has passed it safely."

        And so he had. On he went, and suddenly disappeared through the window. The next moment a burst of flame flashed on him, shewing him at the top of the ladder, with the baby swung over his back. "Hush! hush!" said the firemen. Nobody spoke. Down came the boy steadily--down to the weak place--and then--

        Laura, It did not break?

        Ralph. No, but it bent. He passed it, however, and then slid down the rest of the way and placed the baby in its mother's arms. You should have heard her go on! You should have heard the shouts from the crowd! You should have seen the people press to get a sight of the boy! But he slipped away under their arms, and ran off.

        Laura. And does nobody know the name of the young hero?

        Ralph. Nobody that I have heard of. But here is a morning newspaper, which I have not yet opened. Let me unfold it. Here's the account. (Reads.) "Destructive fire last evening;--house occupied by Irish families!" That column is all about the fire. Here it tells of the Irishwoman and the baby.

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        Laura. How long you are in finding it! Give it to me. (Takes and reads.) "The infant would, in all probability, have perished, had it not been for the courage of a lad, who, hearing the chief fireman's appeal, darted up the ladder, dashed through a window into the room where the infant lay sleeping, bore it out in safety, descended the ladder, and gave the little creature into the arms of its lately despairing, but now overjoyed mother."

        Ralph. Is the boy's name mentioned?

        Laura. Yes! Here it is! Here it is! And who do you think he is?

        Ralph. Do not keep me in suspense!

        Laura. Well then, he is the boy who was so much afraid of knocking the chip off your hat--Frank Leslie--the coward, as you called him!

        Ralph. No! Let me see the paper for myself. There is the name, sure enough, printed in capital letters!

        Laura. But, cousin, how much more illustrious an achievement it would have been for him to have knocked off that chip! Then he would have stood in no danger of being "cut" by Mr[.] Tom Harding and Mr[.] Ralph Burton.

        Ralph. Don't laugh at me any more, cousin Laura! I see I have been in the wrong. Frank Leslie is no coward. I will ask his pardon.

        Laura Will you? My dear cousin, you will in that case show that you, too, are not without true courage.


        MAXIMS.--Diligence, industry, and proper improvement of time, are the most important duties of the young.

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        The acquisition of knowledge ought to be the chief occupation of youth.

        Whatever talents we may possess, virtue is a necessary requisite, in order to their shining with proper lustre.

        Sincerity and truth form the basis of every virtue.

        The veil which covers from our sight the events of future years is a veil woven by the hand of mercy.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. SUB'URBS, places near a city.
    SUB SIS'TENCE, living.
    ALMS'SEEK ING, begging.
  • 2. RE LI'ANCE, trust.
  • 3. RE LUC'TANT LY, unwillingly.
  • 4. AN'GUISH, extreme pain or sorrow.
  • 5. WIST'FUL LY, anxiously.
  • 6. SUB'SE QUENT, following.
  • 7. PRE SCRIP'TION, direction.
  • 8. IN'CI DENT, occurrence.


        1. Many, many years ago, in a desolate little cabin in the suburbs of Philadelphia, sat a lonely widow, surrounded by her fatherless children. Her husband had fallen in defence of his country. Since his death she had earned a scanty subsistence, by her own hands, without being burdensome to any one; and her little ones, though but poorly fed and clothed, had never felt that bitterest ingredient of poverty--alms-seeking from the public.

        2. But recently sickness had laid its heavy hand upon her, and stern want, starvation, almost, had followed closely in its footsteps. Yet did not her faith fail. She repeated the words that so often before had cheered her sad heart, "Leave thy fatherless children, and I will preserve

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them alive, saith the Lord;" "I have been young, and now am old, yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed begging bread;" and her heart rose in humble yet firm reliance upon their Divine Author.

        3. As her children had eaten nothing all day, and she was still too feeble even to rise from her bed, she now felt compelled, though almost reluctantly, to send forth the eldest of her children on his first mission of begging, to seek from some charitable stranger a few shillings to buy bread, hoping she should soon be again able to earn it by her own efforts.

        4. The child, a noble little fellow of ten years, shrank from such an errand; but seeing his poor mother's look of anguish, he hushed his own regrets, and rushed forth into the streets, little heeding, in his grief, what course he took; but a higher power, though unseen, directed his steps.

        5. As the child walked mournfully on, looking wistfully into the faces of the people he met, he was too much disheartened by their cold or indifferent looks to venture to address them. The longer he put it off, the more reluctant he was to ask the alms he feared might be refused, and weeping bitterly, he hurried on, unknown and unheeded by the busy throng.

        6. Suddenly a kind voice spoke to him, and looking up, he saw a mild, benevolent-looking gentleman, dressed in black, and wearing a three-cornered hat. Taking the child's hand in his, and leading him gently onward, the gentleman soon drew from the little boy their whole history--the father's name and death, the mother's struggles to gain a support, her recent sickness, and their subsequent sufferings; and then he bade the child lead him to

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his home, though stopping at a provision-store on the way to order a supply for the poor family.

        7. Entering the house, the quick eye of the stranger soon discerned the cause of the mother's feebleness, introducing himself as a physician, quite suited to her case, though not a regular practitioner, he offered to write a prescription, which he said he was sure would prove beneficial. Leaving the paper on the table, after saying a few kind cheering words to the mother, he left the house, promising to return in a few days, and renew the prescription if necessary.

        8. When he was gone, the widow looked at the paper, and found it an order for a hundred dollars to be paid on demand, and signed by George Washington.

        9. This is a true incident. Such was the father of his country, a man fearing God, not less pitiful to the sorrows of a weeping child, and the anxieties of a widowed mother, than great in the armies of his country, and the councils of the nation. Thus were the widow's prayers answered, and the seed of this faithful Christian not suffered to "beg bread."


        MAXIMS.--Time once past never returns; the moment which is lost, is lost for ever.

        There is nothing on earth so stable as to assure us of undisturbed rest; nor so powerful as to afford us constant protection.

        He that cannot live well to-day, will be less qualified to live well to-morrow.

        When we have no pleasure in goodness, we may certainly conclude that our pleasure is drawn from an opposite quarter.

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    Spell and define--

  • 3. DIS COV'ER ING, finding out.
    SUS PEND'ED, hung.
  • 5. ENCOURAGEMENT, support.
  • 6. AN'CIENTS, men of old times.
  • 7. EN COUN'TER, to contend with.
    DE FERRED', delayed.
    SCHEME, plan.
  • 8. HE RO'IC, fearless.


        1. In the middle of the fourteenth century, with the help of the newly-invented compass, some Spaniards ventured out from the shore of Spain into the Atlantic Ocean, farther than they had ever been before, and discovered the Canary Islands; but they did not venture to go farther over the ocean.

        2. Fifty years after this, a Portuguese captain sailed along the coast of Africa, and got far enough to see a great headland which he thought must be the end of it. This he called the Cape of Storms, because of the dreadful tempests he met with there. But when he came back to Portugal, the king told him he ought rather to have called the headland the Cape of Good Hope, for there was now good hope that the way to India was found.

        3. These things set many persons to thinking about discovering new countries; but no one thought so much to the purpose as a man named Christopher Columbus, an Italian. He believed that the earth was round, and suspended in air, without any support except the law of God; and that, could we set out from a certain point, and travel in one direction, we should, in time, arrive at that same

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point again. Take an orange, and let your finger travel over it in one direction, and you will see what I mean.

        4. Columbus thought a long time, without saying much, about the shape of the earth, and the reasons there were for thinking that; by going out into the Atlantic Ocean, and sailing on toward the west, he should come to land. When he felt quite sure, he began to speak of his plan, and tried to get some one to send him out in a ship to prove that he was right.

        5. First he went to his native city of Genoa ; but there he met with no encouragement. Then he applied to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain ; but they kept him five years waiting for an answer, and when the answer came it was a refusal.

        6. A number of learned men had consulted about the plan of Columbus, and had decided that it was all nonsense. One said that if there had been anything to discover the ancients would have discovered it; another, that if Columbus sailed so far over the round globe, and got down to the bottom of the watery hill, he would never get up again.

        7. Poor Columbus! Many and bitter were the disappointments he had to encounter. Long and wearily did he have to wait and hope, and then have his hope deferred. Some persons called him foolish ; others said he was mad. Boys, who had heard their parents talk about him, used to jeer at him in the streets, and call him the man with the wild scheme in his head.

        8. Should it ever be your lot in life to be misunderstood, and laughed at for holding to a sincere conviction, or doing what you believe to be your duty, remember what the great Columbus had to endure, and let the

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thought nerve you to a more heroic resolution to persevere.


        COLUMBIA.--Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, is situated on an extensive plain on the east bank of the Congaree River.

        The town makes a beautiful appearance, being regularly laid out in long and broad streets, highly ornamented with shade trees.

        Some of the private gardens of Columbia are among the most extensive and beautiful upon the American continent.

        The new State-house, when completed, will be one of the most elegant structures in the Confederate States.

        A large force has been occupied in building it for a number of years, and it will yet require several years to complete this superb structure.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. PRI'OR, the chief of a convent.
  • 2. OP POR TU'NI TY, fit time.
    EX PANSE', extent.
  • 3. TER'RI FIED, much frightened.
    MU'TI NOUS, rebellious.
  • 4. SOUND'ING LINE, a line with a weight attached, to measure the depth of water.
  • 5. FU'RI OUS, violent, frantic.
  • 6. GAZ'ING, looking intently.
  • 7. SHORE, land bordering on the sea.
    DIS TINCT'LY, plainly.
    IN SPIRED', guided by divine influence.
    EU RO PE'AN, an inhabitant of Europe.


        1. There was a good and intelligent man, named Juan,

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who was prior of a convent not far from the seaport of Palos in Spain. He listened to the reasoning of Columbus, and became persuaded that he was right, notwithstanding so many people ridiculed him.

        2. Juan watched a favorable opportunity, and talked to Queen Isabella till she became of his opinion. She resolved that Columbus should be encouraged; and as money was needed for the purpose, she pledged her own jewels. On the 3d of August 1492, three little vessels were seen leaving the coast of Spain, under the command of Columbus, to cross the untried expanse of waters which we now call the Atlantic Ocean, in search of a new world.

        3. The crews of the ships were terrified, when they lost sight of land, and found themselves sailing on and on towards the West, and that there was still nothing to be seen around them but sky and water. But when day after

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day, and week after week passed, and no signs of the promised land appeared, they grew angry and mutinous, and threatened Columbus that, if he did not turn back, they would throw him overboard.

        4. Most likely these men would have carried out their threat, but they thought they would not know how to get back without him. Day and night he stood upon the deck, with his sounding-line in his hand, watching every little sign in the sky or the water that might show whether land was near; but still no land was to be seen.

        5. At last the sailors grew quite furious, and then Columbus, despairing, perhaps, of keeping them quiet any longer, promised that if, in three days more, the land did not appear, he would give up all his long-cherished hopes, and go back to Spain.

        6. On the very next day, as some of the crew stood gazing on the water, they saw floating towards them a branch of a tree with red berries, and, at the same time, there alighted on the mast some birds that live on land. Joyfully were these signs hailed; but again the sun set, and still no land was to be seen.

        7. But just before midnight the welcome cry of "Land, land!" was heard. A light had been seen quite distinctly moving along, as if carried by some person on a shore. The seamen rushed into one another's arms, quite wild with joy. They now knelt at the feet of Columbus, and praised, as an inspired man, him whom they had been disposed to throw overboard a few days before.

        8. They asked his pardon, and he readily granted it. They wept, they sang hymns of thanksgiving. No eye was closed in sleep during that night; and at the early dawn

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a beautiful green island lay before them in full sight This was on the 12th of October, in the year 1492.

        9. The island was one of the Bahama islands, and was called St[.] Salvador, by Columbus. He was the first European that set foot on the soil of the New World. He landed in a rich dress, and with a naked sword in his hand; and then all the Spaniards knelt, and rendered thanks to God for the great event.


        RALEIGH.--Raleigh the seat of government of North Carolina, is situated nearly in the centre of the State, six miles distant from the Neuse river.

        It was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, that conspicuous statesman, who makes so interesting a figure in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

        He manifested great zeal in prosecuting discoveries, and planting colonies in this part of America.

        The capitol, which was destroyed by fire a few years ago, contained the finest and most valuable piece of sculpture ever seen in America,--a statue of Washington by Canova. This perished in the flames.

        The present State-house is of granite, on the plan of the celebrated temple of Minerva at Athens, called the Parthenon.

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    Spell and define--

  • 3. DIS CHARGE', dismission, release.
    LI'BRA RY, a collection of books.
  • 5. AP PREN'TICE, a person bound to another to learn a trade.
    GRAT'I FY, indulge.
  • 6. MATH, E MAT'ICS, Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, &c.
  • 9. MAN'U SCRIPTS, written papers.
  • 10. DE MON'STRATED, explained.
    PROB'LEM, a question to be solved.
    MIN'IS TER, an agent of government.
  • 11. WIT'NESSED, seen.
    AM'PLE, abundant.
    OUT'FIT, equipment.
  • 12. PRO TECTION, care.


        1. A few years ago, as a gentleman was walking in the streets of one of our cities, there came running up to him a poor boy. His clothes were coarse and ragged, but his fine bright eye fixed the attention of the gentleman, as the boy inquired:

        "Sir, can you tell me of any man who would take me to work for him, and teach me to read?"

        2. "Whose boy are you, and where do you live?"

        "I have no father or mother," was the reply, "and I have just run away from the poor-house, because they would not teach me to read."

        3. The gentleman became deeply interested in the boy, obtained his discharge from the poor-house, and took him into his own family. There he soon learned to read. Nor was this all. He was honest, truthful, and industrious, so that he soon gained the confidence of his new friends. He was allowed the free use of the books in the

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gentleman's library, and made rapid progress in knowledge.

        4. After a while it became necessary for George Wilson, for that was the boy's name, to leave the family of his kind friend, and do something for his own support.

        5. He became an apprentice to a cabinet-maker. There the same honesty and industry won for him the favour of his new friends. To gratify his desire for study, his employer had a small room furnished for him in the upper part of the shop.

        6. Instead of running in the streets at night with wicked, and idle, and profane boys, George spent his leisure hours in study. Here he made rapid progress in mathematics, in the French language, and in other branches.

        7. After working at his trade, and devoting every spare hour to study for some years, while sitting with the family at tea one evening, he, all at once, remarked that he wanted to go to France.

        8. "Go to France!" said his master, surprised that a boy who seemed so happy and contented, should thus suddenly wish to change his situation ; "and for what?"

        "Ask my old friend to tea to-morrow evening," said George, "and I will explain."

        9. His kind friend was invited to tea the next evening, when George presented himself with his manuscripts in English and French, and explained his singular desire to go to France.

        "In the time of Napoleon," said he, "a prize was offered by the French Government for the simplest rule for measuring plane surfaces. I have discovered that method, and as the prize has never been given to any one. I wish to go to France and claim it."

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        10. He then demonstrated his problem, to the surprise and delight of his friends. They furnished him with money to pay his expenses and with letters to the American minister at the Court of France. He was introduced to Louis Philippe, and there in the presence of the king, nobles, and learned men, this American youth demonstrated his problem. He received the prize which he had clearly won, besides several presents from the king.

        11. He then went to England with letters of introduction, and took a similar prize offered by the Royal Society. Honoured by the great and learned he returned home. Soon he received a letter from the Emperor of Russia, one of whose ministers had witnessed his demonstrations in England, inviting him to make his residence at the Russian Court and sending him ample means for his outfit.

        12. He accepted the invitation, and George Wilson is now Professor of Mathematics in the Royal College at St[.] Petersburg, under the special protection of the Emperor of Russia.


        MAXIMS.--Temperance, by fortifying the mind and body, leads to happiness; intemperance, by enervating them, ends generally in misery.

        What avails the show of external liberty, to one who has lost the government of himself?

        Agesilaus, king of Sparta, being asked, "What things he thought most proper for boys to learn," answered, "Those which they ought to practise when they become men."

        A wiser than Agesilaus has taught the same sentiment:

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        "Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it."

        Art thou poor? Show thyself active and industrious, peaceful and contented.

        Art thou wealthy? Show thyself kind and charitable, condescending and humane.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. TOW'ER ING, very tall.
    SOM'BRE, dark, gloomy.
    SE RENE', calm, undisturbed.
  • 2. MYS'TE RY, something obscure.
    WAIL'ING, moaning.
  • 4. DAL'LY, to sport.
  • 5. LORE, learning.
    MEET, fit, suitable.
    AN'TI DOTE, cure, remedy.
  • 7. CUM'BER ER, unworthy occupant.


                         1. The pines! the towering, dark old pines,
                         So full of sound and sombre shade;
                         Among them weave no flowering vines,
                         No bowers among their branches made,
                         In nature's majesty they stand,
                         Serene and stately, stern and grand.

                         2. The breath of winter only leaves
                         A deeper, darker shade of green,
                         And wild, low whispering, strangely weaves
                         A lay of mystery at e'en:
                         As if young summer's shade was there,
                         And floating through the wailing air.

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                         3. The pines! the stately, towering pines,
                         For me they have a wondrous charm,
                         As, gazing on them, fancy twines
                         A wreath of every varying form--
                         Of love and hate, and joy and sorrow;
                         Of life to-day, and death to-morrow!

                         4. Lo! from my window, you dark grove
                         Doth cloud the gently swelling hill:
                         All brown beneath and green above--
                         All full of life, yet strangely still:
                         Strong linked to earth those branches high,
                         Seeming to dally with the sky!

                         5. Each page of nature with the lore
                         Of highest grandeur--noblest truth;
                         And the wide pages to explore
                         Is meet for age or glowing youth.
                         From thoughts which burn and deeds that soar,
                         A soothing antidote is here.

                         6. And there, those wild and gloomy pines,
                         Which seem to frown upon me now,
                         Seem traced with deep and wide-drawn lines;
                         And warning shadows seem to bow,
                         Lifting and spreading their fingers high,
                         As if to grasp the bright blue sky.

                         7. What is the lesson? Slave of earth
                         And worthless cumberer that I am,
                         A thousand holy thoughts have birth,
                         All floating upwards, pure and calm--
                         Beyond the sky those thoughts are given,
                         Entering in the gates of heaven!

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        MILLEDGEVILLE.--Milledgeville is the capital of Georgia. It is situated on the West bank of the Oconee river, and is built on elevated ground, surrounded by a beautiful and fertile cotton country.

        The streets cross each other at right angles; those running in one direction lie parallel with the river.

        At the distance of three quarters of a mile from the bank of the river is a fine public square, on the summit of a hill, which is adorned with the State-house.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. MAG NIF'I CENT, pompous.
    AS SER'TION, declaration.
    PRO FOUND', deep.
  • 4. O MIT'TED, left out.
  • 8. EX'CEL LEN CY, goodness.
    EX CEED'ING, very great.
    DIS TRIB'U TED, dispensed.
  • 10. SUG GEST'ED, inquired.


        1. Some children were in my room the other day, and I asked them to tell me "what water was good for."

        "Good to drink," said one.

        "Good to wash clothes with," said a second.

        "Good to wash dishes with," said a third.

        "And a little timid, blue-eyed girl, whose cheeks were so clean they fairly shone lisped, "Good to wash our faces with."

        2. "Pshaw!" exclaimed her brother John, "I should be ashamed to say that, Fan; I say it's good to swim in." This magnificent assertion produced a momentary silence. At length some one said:

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        "Good to make tea with."

        "And coffee," said another.

        "Good to paddle a boat in," said John.

        "And steamboats," added another.

        "And ships; great big ships with sails," shouted a third. Then came a pause, in which all seemed buried in profound thought.

        3. "It's good to rain with," said the clean-faced little Fanny.

        "And for snow," added John.

        "Why, snow isn't water, by a great deal," stoutly asserted Mary T--, a child of five years old, with very rosy cheeks.

        "I should like to know if it's any thing else?" said John. "Melt it, and you'll see what it's made of."

        4. Another pause. "You have remembered many of the uses of the water," said I; "but there are some important ones still omitted. There is one I should expect you to think of now," I said, as a train of cars went whizzing by, not twenty rods from my window.

        5. "Cars don't go by water?" inquired little Fanny.

        "No, indeed," said some one in reply.

        "It's good for cows to drink."

        "Yes; and for horses, and dogs, and sheep."

        "And our little canary birds," said Mary T--.

        "Yes, every animal drinks water," I said, "but there are still some things forgotten. Who will think?"

        6. "O, I don't love to think," said little Fanny.

        "It's good to turn mills with," said John, "Why didn't I think of that before? Saw-mills and grist-mills, and all kinds of mills go by water."

        "Yes," said I; "that opens a wide field of usefulness

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before us, for our manufacturing machinery is carried by water. Who will think again?" Finally, all declared they could think of nothing else, and even John Patterson gave out, as he called it.

        7. "Water is good for steam," said I; "and steam is one of the most important agents known. It is doing wonders in our day."

        "Why, how many things water is good for!" exclaimed little Fanny; "I never thought of them all before."

        8. "Little girls ought to think," said I. "To go through such a world as this without thinking, is very much like taking a journey with your eyes shut. Unless the eyes of your mind are wide open, you will never perceive the excellency and beauty with which you are surrounded, or know the exceeding kindness of your heavenly Father. Having now seen how useful water is, you will understand why it is found in all portions of the earth, and so plentifully distributed.

        9. "Just imagine for a moment a world without water. What would be the consequences? Every human being, man, woman, and child, would perish of thirst, whether living in city or country; whether rich or poor; whether American or European, Asiatic or African; all would die a dreadful death."

        10. "But couldn't they drink milk?" suggested Mary.

        "Why; the cows wouldn't give any milk if they didn't get water to drink?" inquired John.

        11. "No. Not only all human beings, but all the races of animals found on the face of the earth would perish. Every beast that prowls through the lonely forest; every animal that loves the dwelling of man, or ministers to his wants; all the feathered tribes; and all

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the fishes in the great sea, would at once die for want of water. All these are thirsty as well as man, and to all God has given drink. He is a kind Father, who never forgets the wants of His creatures, or fails to supply them. Let us be thankful for His goodness, and praise Him for it with loving hearts continually."


        THE PULASKI MONUMENT.--The Pulaski Monument was erected in the city of Savannah, in the year 1825, in memory of Generals Pulaski and Greene, of the Revolutionary army.

        It is a neat and simple obelisk of white marble, fifty-three feet high.

        The base of the pedestal is ten feet four inches by six feet eight inches, and its height is thirteen feet, the shaft which surmounts the pedestal being thirty-seven feet in height.

        It is built upon a platform of granite, three feet above the ground, and is enclosed by a cast-iron railing. It has a very advantageous position in the middle of one of the public squares.

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    Spell and define--

  • 1. TRI'UMPHED, obtained a victory.
  • 2. HAB I TA'TION, a dwelling place.
    EX ALT', praise.
  • 7. CON SUMED', destroyed.
  • 8. CON GEALED', frozen.
  • 13. RE DEEMED', saved.
  • 15. A MAZED', astonished.
  • 16. PUR'CHASED, bought.
  • 17. SANC'TU A RY, holy place.
  • 20. PROPH'ET ESS, a female prophet.
    TIM'BREL, a Hebrew drum.


        1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, and spake, saying, I will sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

        2. The Lord is my strength and song, and he is become my salvation; he is my God, and I will prepare him a habitation; my father's God, and I will exalt him.

        3. The Lord is a man of war; the Lord is his name.

        4. Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea; his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red Sea.

        5. The depths have covered them; they sank into the bottom as a stone.

        6. The right hand, O Lord, is become glorious in power; thy right hand, O Lord, hath dashed in pieces the enemy.

        7. And in the greatness of thine excellency, thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee: thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble.

        8. And with the blast of thy nostrils, the waters were

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gathered together, the floods stood upright as a heap, and the depths were congealed in the heart of the sea.

        9. The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.

        10. Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them; they sank as lead in the mighty waters.

        11. Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders?

        12. Thou stretchedst out thy right hand, the earth swallowed them.

        13. Thou in thy mercy has led forth the people which thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation.

        14. The people shall hear, and be afraid; sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestine.

        15. Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them: all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away.

        16. Fear and dread shall fall upon them; by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; till thy people pass over, O Lord, till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased.

        17. Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, O Lord, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in; in the sanctuary. O Lord, which thy hands have established.

        18. The Lord shall reign for ever and ever.

        19. For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and the Lord brought again the waters of the sea upon them;

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but the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea.

        20. And Miriam, the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her, with timbrels and with dances.

        21. And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.


        VIRTUE.--Guard well your heart. Shut up every crevice by wholesome thoughts, and the evil atmosphere by which you are surrounded will never enter.

        He who would tempt you for one moment to turn from the path of truth, must receive no favour at your hands.

        Slumber not when evil associates are pressing to your side. To be virtuous is to be respected; to be respected is to be happy; to be happy is to be good.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. FIR'MA MENT, the sky.
  • 4. TAB'ER NA CLE, dwelling place.
  • 5. BRIDE'GROOM, a newly married man.
  • 7. TES'TI MO NY, the sacred Scriptures.
  • 8. STAT'UTES, laws.
    EN LIGHT'EN ING, supplying with light.
  • 9. EN DUR'ING, continuing.
  • 13. PRE SUMPTU OUS, irreverent.
    DO MIN'ION, power.


        1. The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth his handiwork.

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        2. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge.

        3. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.

        4. Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun.

        5. Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.

        6. His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.

        7. The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.

        8. The statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes.

        9. The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.

        10. More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.

        11. Moreover, by them is thy servant warned; and in keeping of them there is great reward.

        12. Who can understand his errors? Cleanse thou me from secret faults.

        13. Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not have dominion over me: then shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression.

        14. Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of

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my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O Lord, my strength, and my redeemer.


        FACTS.--There are two thousand five hundred different species of fish known; forty-four thousand species of insects; seven hundred of reptiles; four thousand of birds; and five thousand mammiferous animals.


    Spell and define--

  • 2. AL LOT'TED, given, assigned.
    GRAT'I FY ING, pleasing.
  • 3. ME MO'RI AL, a monument.
    GRAT'I TUDE, thankfulness.
  • 4. POUND, a place where stray animals are confined.
    LIB'ER A TED, set free.
  • 5. FOR'AG ING, seeking provisions.
    PRO CEED', go on.
  • 6. LAN'GUISH ED, become feeble.
    EX TRACT'ED, taken out.
    DUN'GEON, a dark prison.


        1. A gentleman was visiting the house of a lady, and when he went away, her little daughter opened the door to let him out. "I wish you a better office, my dear," he said. "Yes, sir," was the reply, "to let you in!" Can you have any doubt that she was a kind and well-behaved little girl?

        2. I was once walking in a garden with a little boy, who was showing me the parts of it allotted to himself and his two brothers. As I passed on, I stopped to gather some currants from a bush, but he asked me not to do so. "Those," he said, "belong to Frederick, and those to Charles, who are now from home, and I should like them to have fruit when they return; but here, you

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see, mine are quite ripe; please to take some of these." This was truly gratifying, and I loved that little boy move dearly for his thoughtfulness.

        3. His request reminded me of a pleasing circumstance. A very poor and aged man was busy in planting and grafting an apple tree, when some one rudely asked, "Why do you plant trees, who cannot hope to eat the fruit of them?" With great calmness he raised himself up, and leaning on his spade, replied, "Some one planted trees before I was born, and have eaten the fruit; I now plant for others, that the memorial of my gratitude may exist when I am dead and gone." I should think that the old man had once been a kind little boy.

        4. In other cases a similar feeling appears. A horse happening to stray into the road, a neighbor of its owner put the animal into the pound, and soon after, meeting him, he told him what he had done, and added, "And next time I catch him in the road, I will do so again." "Neighbor," replied the owner of the horse, "I looked out of my window in the night not long since, and saw your cattle in my meadow, and I drove them out, and shut them in your yard; and next time they stray in this manner, I will do so again." Struck with a reply so truly Christian, the man liberated the horse, and paid the charges himself.

        5. During a war in Germany, some soldiers in a foraging party called at the house of a venerable man, demanding aid. He led them forth, and on arriving at a field of corn, they said, "This will do;" but he begged them to proceed a little farther; having done so, he pointed to a field which he said was quite at their service. The soldiers, observing that this was not so good as the last,

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thought that the aged man was cunningly passing off what was inferior on them, and hastily demanded the reason he did not let them take the former. "That field was my neighbor's; this is mine."

        6. Another incident is equally deserving remembrance. Captain, afterwards Sir David Baird, having been taken prisoner by Hyder Ally, an East Indian chief, was with other British officers, thrown into prison. The wounds he had received were not merely unhealed, but in a state which threatened mortification, and his general health was rapidly declining. When he and his companions had languished some time in confinement, one of Ally's officer's appeared, bearing with him fetters weighing nine pounds each, which were intended for the unhappy prisoners. To resist was useless; they therefore submitted. On the officer coming to the captain, one of his companions sprang forward, and urged the cruelty of fettering limbs still festering with wounds, from one of which a ball had recently been extracted, and stated that death was likely to follow such treatment. The reply was, "that as many fetters had been sent as there were prisoners, and that they must all be put on." "Then," said the noble advocate of his wounded friend, "put a double pair on me, so that Captain Baird may be spared wearing them." This moved the officer; a delay arose, the irons were dispensed with, and the captive in the dungeon of Seringapatam was spared to become its conqueror, and, for a time, its master.

        7. Let it be constantly remembered, that we are not left to act as we please. The Bible says, "Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." "If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is

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a liar; for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen? And this commandment have we from him, That he who loveth God, love his brother also." (1 John iv. 20, 21)


        MONTGOMERY.--Montgomery, the capital of the State of Alabama, is situated on a high bluff, at the head of steam-boat navigation on the Alabama river.

        The surrounding country is one of the richest cotton regions in the State, and large quantities are shipped from this port.

        Montgomery is a handsome city, and an elegant State-house has recently been completed: It is situated on a commanding eminence, and from the top of this there is an extensive view of the surrounding country. Many fine residences adorn the city.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. IN TRO DUCED, brought into notice.
    CIV'IL IZED, refined, cultivated.
    PROVINCE, a division of a country.
  • 2. AS TON'ISH MENT, surprise.
    A MAZED', filled with wonder.
  • 3. DIS CUS'SIONS, debates.
    SUC CES'SOR, one who follows in the same office.
  • 5. COMMERCE, trade, traffic.
    A DAPTED, suited.
  • 7. DE VOUR', to eat up.
    MA TURED', ripened.


        1. The use of tobacco was introduced among civilized nations after the discovery of America. The Spaniards,

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who were among the first settlers on this continent, and the neighboring islands, carried the plant to Europe about the year 1560; and the name by which it is known is derived from Tobacco, in the province of Yucatan.

        2. Sir Walter Raleigh was the first man, perhaps, who carried tobacco to England, and a number of anecdotes are related in regard to the astonishment which its use excited. It is said that he at first smoked in private, and becoming thirsty, he called to his servant to bring him some water. When the man brought it, he was amazed at seeing the smoke issuing from his master's mouth, and, supposing him to be on fire, threw the water on him to put it out.

        3. It is reported that Queen Elizabeth, observing the profit which Sir Walter was making on tobacco, and on the habit of smoking which he introduced, remarked that, while other men's plans for making fortunes often ended in smoke, Sir Walter was turning his smoke into gold. Violent discussions sprang up in regard to the use of this plant; and Queen Elizabeth's successor, King James the First, wrote a book against it, called "The Counterblast to Tobacco."

        4. Still the practice of using this weed extended among all classes; and finally the cultivation and manufacture of tobacco became very important branches of industry, employing a great number of persons. Virginia, almost from its first settlement, became famous for the production of tobacco; and it was soon a staple in North Carolina and Maryland. Virginia and North Carolina produce a large portion of the tobacco used in the world; but Cuba is also celebrated for its production, and it is

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made to some extent in Spain, France, Germany, Holland, Russia, Denmark, and in some places in Asia.

        5. Still much of the tobacco of commerce comes from Virginia and North Carolina, where the climate and soil seem to be peculiarly adapted to its growth, maturity, and flavor; and as the demand for it rapidly and steadily increases over the whole world, it is likely to be a source of wealth and influence to the Confederate States.

        6. The seed is first sown early in the spring, in beds prepared by burning heaps of logs and brush; and when the plants are sufficiently large to be removed, they are pulled up and planted in hills.

        7. The fields are kept clear of grass and weeds; and as the tobacco grows, the top bud is taken out, and the lowest leaves are pulled of, in order to let the strength of the plant go more fully into the upper ones. A large, ugly green worm feeds on the leaves; and these worms must be carefully picked off and destroyed, or they will devour or injure much of the crop. When the plant has properly matured, it is cut, and hung on poles in the sun, or in houses over a fire to dry; and after this the leaves are stripped from the stalkes, sorted, and packed in hogsheads In this condition the planter generally sells or ships his tobacco, and it is bought by manufacturers who prepare it for chewing, for smoking in pipes, or make it into segars and snuff.


        FLORIDA.--Florida, the land of flowers, is one of the few great peninsulas of America, and presents several peculiar features, one of which is its very important position.

        It nowhere presents any considerable elevation; and

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the greater part of the surface is a perfect level, raised but little above the ocean.

        It has a delightfully mild and uniform climate. This is owing to the uniformity of the surface, and the proximity of the sea.

        Tallahassee is the capital of Florida.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. RE LAT'ED, told.
  • 2. CHOICE, excellent.
    NURS'ER Y MAN, one who raises young trees.
  • 3. EX PRESS', particular.
  • 6. REL'ISHED, enjoyed.
  • 8. GRA'TED, made a harsh noise.
  • 10. TRUNK, the body.
  • 11. VIV'ID, bright, clear.
    AW'FUL, terrible.
  • 12. CON DEMNED', pronounced guilty.
    CRIM'I NAL, one guilty of a crime.
    IN VOL'UN TA RILY, without thought.


        1. These four little words did me more good when I was a boy, than almost anything else, said a gentleman the other day. "I cannot reckon up all the good they have done me; they were the first words my mother taught me." He then related the following story:--

        2. My father grafted a pear-tree; it was a choice graft, and he watched it with great care. The second year it bloomed, but it bore but one pear. It was said to be a superior kind of, pear, and my father was quite anxious to see if it came up to the promises of the nursery-man.

        3. This single pear, then, was an object of some concern

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to my father. He wanted it to become fully ripe; the high winds, he hoped, would not blow it off; and he gave express directions to all the children on no account to touch it. The graft was low and easily reached by us. It grew finely.

        4. Everybody who came to the garden; he took to the tree, and they all said, "It will prove to be a most excellent pear." It began to look very beautiful; it was full and round; a rich red color was gradually dyeing its cheeks, and its grain was clear and healthy.

        "Is it not almost ripe? I long for a bite," I cried, as I followed father one day down the ally to the pear-tree.

        5. "Wait patiently, my child, it will not be fully ripe for a week," said my father.

        I thought I loved pears better than anything else. I often stopped and looked wistfully at this one. "O, how good it looks," I used to think, smacking my lips; "I wish it was all mine."

        6. The early apples did not taste as good; the currants were not so much relished, and the damsons I thought nothing of in comparison with this pear. The longer I remained alone under the pear-tree, the greater my desire for it. "O, I wish I had it!" was the selfish thought that gradually filled my mind.

        7. One night after we were in bed, my brothers fell asleep long before I did; I tossed about and could not go to sleep. I crept up and went to the window. It was a warm, still summer night; there was no moon; no noise except the hum of numberless insects. My father and mother were gone away. I put my head out of the window and peeped into the garden. I traced the dark outline of the trees. I glanced in the direction of the pear-tree.

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The pear-tree--then the pear! My mouth was parched; I was thirsty. I thought how good a juicy pear would taste. I was tempted.

        8. A few moments found me creeping down the back stairs, with neither shoes nor stockings on. The slightest creaking frightened me. I stopped on every step to listen. Nancy was busy somewhere else, and John had gone to bed. At last I fairly felt my way to the garden gate. It was fastened. It seemed to take me ages to unlock it, so fearful was I of making a noise, and the bolt grated. I got it open, went in, and latched it after me. I ran down the walk. My feet made no noise on the damp earth. I stopped a moment and looked all round, and then turned in the direction of the pear-tree. Presently I was beneath its branches.

        9. "Father will think the wind has knocked it off;" but there was not a breath of air stirring. "He will think somebody has stolen it;--that some boys came in the night and robbed the garden." I trembled at the thought of what I was about to do.

        10. I leaned against the trunk of the tree and raised my hand to find it, and to pull it. On tiptoe, with my hand uplifted, and my head turned upward, I beheld a star looking down upon me through the leaves. "Thou, God, seest me!" escaped from my lips. The star seemed like the eye of God spying me out under the pear-tree, I was so frightened I did not know what to do. "THOU, GOD, SEEST ME!" I could not help saying over and over again.

        11. God seemed on every side. I was afraid to look, and hid my face. It seemed as if father aud mother, and all the boys, and everybody in town, would take me for a

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thief. It appeared as though all my conduct had been seen by the light of day. It was sometime before I dared to move, so vivid was the impression made upon my mind by the awful truth in these four words, "Thou, God, seest me!" I knew He saw me. I felt that He saw me.

        12. I hastened from the tree; nothing on earth would have tempted me to touch the pear. With very different feelings did I creep back to my room again. I lay down on the bed, feeling more like a condemned criminal than anything else. No one in the house has seen me; but O! it seemed as if everybody knew it, and I should never dare to meet my father's face again.

        13. It was a great while before I went to sleep. I heard my parents come home, and I involuntarily hid my face under the sheet. But I could not hide myself from a sense of God's presence. His eyes seemed everywhere, diving into the very depths of my heart. It started a train of influences which, God be praised, I never got over. If I was ever tempted to any secret sin, "Thou, God, seest me!" stared me in the face, and I stood back restrained and awed.

        14. The gentleman finished; his story interested me greatly. I hope it will interest my young readers, and do them much good. Children, learn these four words. Impress them upon your heart. Think of them when you lie down, and when you rise up, and when you go by the way, when alone or with your companions, both at home and abroad; remember "THOU, GOD, SEEST ME!"


        MOBILE.--Mobile is the commercial capital of Alabama. It stands on a low plain, only about fifteen feet

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above the water at high tide, but commands a fine view over the spacious harbor, and lies open to the sea-breezes.

        The distance from the coast of the gulf of Mexico is thirty miles, and from New Orleans one hundred and sixty-four.

        The cotton trade of this port is very great, the amount received and exported being greater than that of any other Southern city except New Orleans.

        There are several fine public buildings, among which is a handsome market-house with rooms for the municipal officers in the upper story.


    Spell and define--

  • ENTER PRISE, undertaking.
  • SCHEME, plan.
  • DE SPAIR', entire loss of hope.
  • EN COUN'TER, meet with.
  • AD VEN'TURE, strange occurrence.
  • RE PULSED', drove back.
  • KO'PECK, a Russian coin about the size of a cent.
  • TER RI FIED, frightened.
  • PER'IL, danger.
  • PRO TEST ED, asserted, proved.
  • FER VENT'LY, earnestly.
  • GLEAMING, glittering.
  • FEIGNED, pretended.
  • STUB'BORN, hard to be moved.
  • IM PE'RI AL, belonging to an emperor.


        Prascovie Lopouloff (pronounced, Prasko-vee Lo'poo loff) was the real name of a girl who, about the year 1795, made her way many hundreds of miles, from Siberia to St[.] Petersburg, to beg the Emperor of Russia to release her father from exile. She was eighteen months in making the journey. Siberia is a part of the Russian empire, and one of the coldest countries in the world. The adventures of Prascovie have been made the subject of a popular story, entitled, "Elizabeth, or the Exiles of Siberia," by

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Madame Cottin, a French lady. The incidents of the following dialogue between Prascovie and the Empress, at St[.] Petersburg, are strictly true.

        Empress. Come near to me, child. Sit by my side. I wish to hear more of your story. What first prompted you to this undertaking? Did your father urge it?

        Prascovie. O, no! lady. My father opposed it strongly. It was long before I could get his consent. But I prayed to Heaven that he might be made to yield, and, at length, my prayer was granted, and I set forth on my way with a glad heart.

        Emp. And was your mother equally opposed to your enterprise?

        Pras. At first she laughed at me for what she called my wild scheme; but after a year or two, seeing that I did not give it up, she believed that Heaven had put the thought into my mind, and so she began to favor it.

        Emp. But how could you suppose you would be able to gain access to the Emperor? You were very poor, and without friends. How did you expect to get a hearing?

        Pras. I believed that God would raise up friends to a daughter whose object was to save her parents from exile and despair. I had faith in his protection, and it never failed me.

        Emp. But did you encounter no adventures on your long and dangerous journey? Were you never in peril?

        Pras. O, yes! I was twice taken ill, and once came near being drowned. On one occasion I arrived late at a village, and sought a lodging in vain. At last an old man, who had previously repulsed me, followed and invited me into his hut. There I found an old woman. But both these people had a bad expression, which alarmed me.

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        The woman closed the door silently and securely, after I had seated myself. They asked me whither I was going. I told them to St[.] Petersburg; on which the man remarked that I must have plenty of money about me, to be able to undertake so long a journey. I told them what was true, that I had only a few kopecks; but they, in a harsh manner, accused me of lying.

        Emp. Dear child, were you not greatly terrified? These people must have been robbers. How did you support yourself under such peril?

        Pras. They told me to go to bed. I did so; but took care to leave my wallet exposed, so that they might see I had told the truth, if they chose to examine it. About midnight I was roughly wakened, and saw the old woman standing over me. My blood ran cold. She had examined the wallet, and been disappointed on finding it so empty.

        I begged hard for my life; and protested that I had no more money. But the old woman, without replying, searched my dress, and made me take off my boots, that she might look also into them. The old man held a light while the search was going on. Finding that all was in vain, they left me.

        Emp. Did you not at once try to make your escape? How did you know that they might not attempt some serious violence--angry at not finding anything worth stealing upon your person?

        Pras. At first I thought of trying to make my escape. But then, dear lady, I remembered that God had protected me thus far, and I fully believed he would continue to care for me. I prayed to him fervently. I prayed for my parents--for myself--for the wicked old man and woman

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in whose hut I was--and, at last, I sank into a sweet sleep.

        When I awoke in the morning, the sun was shining brightly in at the frosty window, gilding the icicles, and gleaming on the snow. The old man and woman were bustling about to get breakfast. Expecting cruel treatment, I descended fearfully to the floor.

        What was my surprise on being kindly greeted by the old woman with, "Well, dear, have you had a nice sleep?" I told them I had slept well, and now wished to go. But they begged me to sit down and take some soup.

        Emp. It was a trick to poison you, I fear; and their good-humour was feigned, most like. I hope you did not eat anything.

        Pras. Indeed, but I did, dear lady; I ate heartily, for I was very hungry. The old people questioned me, and I told them my whole story; how I had left Ischim without money, and was begging my way to St[.] Petersburg, to entreat the emperor to release my father from exile.

        Will you believe it, dear lady? I saw the tears come into the eyes of these old people, as they listened to my story. The old woman drew me aside, and begged me to forget what had happened. "Think it was a dream," she said. "Your goodness and pitiable condition softened our hearts; and you will find, when you next count your money, that we are not the people you take us for."

        They both kissed me, and I bade them good-by. After I had walked a few miles, I had the curiosity to open my wallet, and found, to my astonishment, that they had added forty kopecks to my little stock. And yet, this wretched old couple, as I afterwards learned, had the reputation of being robbers.

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        Emp. Your artless manner and affecting errand melted even their sinful, stubborn hearts; or, it may have been that your prayer for them was not unheard in heaven; and that a seed of redeeming goodness was planted in their souls, and watered by those tears which you made them shed.

        Pras. I will hope it. But tell me, dear lady, is there any hope for my father? When will his case have a hearing? O how encouraged he will be when he learns that I have been admitted here--into the imperial palace--and treated kindly by the empress herself!

        Emp. I have delightful news for you, my child. This paper, which I hold in my hand, is an order from the emperor for your father's release, and for the payment to him of a sum of money, sufficient to defray the expense of his journey to the interior of Russia. There! Take a glass of water, dear. Do not faint with joy. Bear up! bear up!


        TOCKOA FALLS.--The most beautiful of the natural curiosities of Georgia, is the Tockoa Falls. The Tockoa Creek flows from the Southern extremity of the Alleghanies, at Canawhee mountain.

        It descends one hundred and eighty-seven feet from a precipice, in a narrow stream, twenty feet in breadth, which, in the rainy season, forms an unbroken sheet of foam.

        At the ordinary height of the water, the supply is so small, that it is said to be dissipated in vapor before it reaches the level below.

        The mountains of Georgia abound in beautiful cascades and picturesque scenery.

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    Spell and define--

  • 2. THRILL, to affect.
    STRAINS, songs, tunes.
    RAPTURE, delight.
  • 4. ACHING, feeling pain.
  • 6. CLING, hold fast, adhere.
    AL LOY', corrupt, injure.
  • 3. AYE, ever.


                         1. In this bright world that God hath made--
                         Which is perfection's own--
                         If this, his footstool, is so fair,
                         O, what must be his throne!

                         2. If thrill us so, the strains which float
                         Up from the feathered throng,
                         O, with what rapture shall our souls
                         List to the angels' song!

                         3. If peace, upon extended wing,
                         Can make our life so blest,
                         How great will be her bliss when she
                         Shall fold them on her breast!

                         4. If earthly love, the aching of
                         A wounded heart can calm,
                         How sweet shall fall the love of God--
                         Like Gilead's healing balm!

                         5. If cheers us so, the golden light,
                         That flies so soon away,
                         O, with what rapture shall we hail
                         That never-ending day!

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                         6. If so we cling to this poor life,
                         That sorrow doth alloy,
                         How shall we love the life to come,
                         The life of endless joy!

                         7. Then, little children, while we walk
                         Upon this lower land,
                         O, let us keep the narrow way,
                         Led by our Father's hand.

                         8. And gain at last the peace and love,
                         The morning pure and bright,
                         The life that never ends, to walk
                         With him for aye in white.


        NATURAL BRIDGE.--Alabama possesses a natural bridge, which is spoken of as rivalling the far-famed one of Virginia.

        It is situated in Walker County, in the midst of scenery beautiful and picturesque.

        This grand structure of the Great Architect spans about one hundred and twenty feet, while its height is about seventy feet. A smaller bridge connects it with the bluff beyond.

        Lofty hemlock and beech trees grow on the bridge, and throw their cool shade on the little stream below.

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    Spell and define--

  • 2. PALL, covering thrown over the dead.
    FREIGHT, burden, load.
  • 4. WRAP'PINGS, coverings.
    PLUME, feathers worn as an ornament.


                         1. "It's only a little grave," they said,
                         "Only just a child that's dead;"
                         And so they carelessly turned away
                         From the mound the spade had made that day.
                         Ah, they, did not know how deep a shade
                         That little grave in our home had made.

                         2. I know the coffin was narrow and small;
                         One yard would have served for an ample pall;
                         And one man in his arms could have borne away
                         The rosewood and its freight of clay;
                         But I know that darling hopes were hid
                         Beneath that little coffin-lid.

                         3. I know that a mother stood that day
                         With folded hands by that form of clay;
                         I know that burning tears were hid
                         'Neath the drooping lash and aching lid;
                         And I know her lip, and cheek, and brow,
                         Were almost as white as her baby's now.

                         4. I know that some things were hid away,
                         The crimson frock and wrappings gay;
                         The little sock, and the half-worn shoe,
                         The cap, with its plume and tassels blue;
                         And an empty crib, with its covers spread,
                         As white as the face of the guileless dead.

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                         5. 'Tis a little grave; but, oh, have care,
                         For world-wide hopes are buried there;
                         And ye, perhaps, in coming years,
                         May see, like her, through blinding tears,
                         How much of light, how much of joy,
                         Is buried up with my only boy.


        INTOXICATING DRINKS.--It is a fearful thing to trifle with intoxicating drinks. Every indulgence helps to nourish the insatiable desire, and weakens the power to resist the terrible appetite.

        Who can tell the moment when the equilibrium of the mind will be destroyed,--the moment when the power to refrain from the cup of confusion will leave him.

        It has left, and is daily leaving hundreds, who but a week before would have laughed at any suggestion of danger.

        When this equilibrium is destroyed,--this power to refrain is gone,--with what fatal energy, despite the highest, the holiest, the tenderest considerations, does the victim go on his downward way!

        There is scarcely a family among us, into which the demon of intemperance has not entered. Scarcely a mother's heart that has not trembled with fear, or been wrung with the keenest anguish.

        "Touch not, taste not, handle not," is the only safe rule.

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    Spell and define--

  • 1. IS'O LAT ED, separated.
    CON SID'ER A BLE, deserving notice.
  • 2. AC CLIV'I TY. ascent.
    PIN'NA CLE, summit, top.
    EN CHANTING, delightful.
  • 3. WIL'DER NESS, a wild tract of country.
  • 5. PY RAM'I DAL, like a pyramid.
    GI GANTIC, very large, vast.
  • 6. AP PEL LA'TION, name.
    AB O RIG'I NES, first inhabitants.


        1. This wonder of nature is situated in the eastern part of Surry, N. C., near the line which divides that county from Stokes. It rises, an isolated pile, in the midst of a plain; no other mountains, or even any considerable hills, being within many miles of it.

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        2. The ascent of the mountain to "the spring," an agreeable post of refreshment, more than half the distance to the top, is so gradual that the visitor may proceed on horseback. From this spot the acclivity becomes steeper until you reach the pinnacle, which presents an elevation of some two hundred feet. The only pass to the summit is on the north side, narrow, steep, and difficult of ascent; yet it is considered by no means a difficult achievement; and the visitor is rewarded for his toil by an enchanting prospect of the surrounding country and mountain scenery in the distance.

        3. The dense and wide-stretching forest appears dotted with farms and hamlets. The Blue Ridge reposes in a long line of mountain heights on the north-west. Eastward, in Stokes county, the Saura Town Mountains rise to the view, some of whose summits exceed the Pilot in height. And the Yadkin River, flowing down from the hills of Wilkes, and washing the western base of the mountain, "rolls its silvery flood" in a mazy line of light through the wilderness.

        4. The result of measurements taken by President Caldwell and Professor Andrews, is as follows:--

  • Height of the Pilot Mountain, from a base near Grassy Creek to the top of the trees, . . . . . 1551 feet.
  • Elevation of the pinnacle, on the north side, at the place of ascent, . . . . . 205 feet.
  • Elevation of the same, on the south side, . . . . . 250 feet.
  • Highest perpendicular rock, on the south side, . . . . . 114 feet.

        5. At a point on the road between the Little Yadkin and Mount Airy, the traveller may obtain the most singular, and perhaps the finest view of the Pilot. One end of the mountain is there presented to the beholder in its

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most perfect pyramidal form. Its vast sides are seen sweeping up from the surrounding forest, gradually approaching and becoming steeper, until they terminate at the perpendicular and altar-like mass of rock which forms the summit. It here gives an idea of some gigantic work of art, so regular and so surprisingly similar are the curves of its outlines, and so exactly over the centre does the towering pinnacle appear to be placed.

        6. The name is said to be a translation of an Indian appellation, signifying Pilot, called so by the aborigines, because the mountain served as a beacon to pilot them in their forest wanderings through a great extent of surrounding country.

        7. It satisfies the eye, and fills the soul with a calm and solemn delight to gaze upon the Pilot. Whether touched by the fleecy wings of the morning clouds, or piercing the glittering skies of noon, or reposing in the mellow tints of evening; whether bathed in the pale light of the moon, or enveloped in the surges of the tempest, with the lightning, flashing around its brow, it stands ever the same, its foundations in the depth of the earth, and its summit rising in solitary grandeur to the heavens,--the twin of Time and emblem of Eternity,--just as it rose under its Maker's hand on the morning of creation, and just as it will stand when the last generation shall gaze upon it for the last time.


        PRODUCTIONS OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES.--No country in the world excels the Confederate States in the richness of its soil, and the variety and value of its productions. Here are combined all the elements of national

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wealth and greatness, so far as climate and productions are concerned. We will enumerate a few of the principal products of these States: wheat, rye, corn, oats, tobacco, cotton, sugar, rice, hemp, turpentine, fruits, and vegetables, abound in almost endless variety.

        The most valuable timber is found abundantly in our widely extended forests.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. DI'A DEM, a crown.
    BAT'TLE MENTS, high walls.
  • 3. BAN'NERS, military flags.
    RE SPLEN'DENT, brilliant, bright.
  • 4. NUMBERS, song, notes
    A BODE', home.
  • 5. JOUR'NEY, to travel.
    HAUGH'TY, proud, arrogant.


                         1. All-shadowing Pilot! high, and lone, and cold,
                         Thou rear'st thy form in grandeur, and the light
                         Which gilds thy brow at sunset, as of old,
                         Shall be to thee a diadem all bright,
                         Amid the ages distant and untold,
                         To guide the pilgrim's dim and failing sight
                         Along thy battlements. And now the sun
                         Goes down behind the mountains--day is gone.

                         2. 'Tis night upon the Pilot! come and see
                         The startling of the mighty pile;
                         Look how the lightnings glance--and now the free
                         Wild winds are rushing o'er this earth-born isle,

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                         Thrown up amid the wide and desert sea.
                         The clouds are gathering, and no lovely smile
                         Of the bright stars is ours. Hark! the tone
                         Of the loud thunder from its flashing throne!

                         3. Night on the Pilot! From the stormy west
                         The clouds are mustering, and their banners gleam
                         In shadowy glory, and their folds are dress'd
                         In the mild livery of Orion's beam
                         And now each glen and lofty mountain's crest
                         Grows bright beneath the moon's resplendent stream
                         Of living radiance. Now the light is gone,
                         And darkness girds us with her rayless zone.

                         4. The morn is up--the bright and dewy morn--
                         And darkness rolls from off the lofty pile,
                         And voices, deep and wild, and mountain-born,
                         Go up in thankfulness; for now the smile
                         Of day is on us; now the huntsman's horn
                         Winds its rich numbers through each deep defile,
                         Startling the eagle from his high abode
                         'Mid the rough crags where mortal foot ne'er trod.

                         5. Journey we eastward. Hail! old Guildford, hail!
                         Thy soil is sacred. Thine the battle-ground
                         Where England's strong and haughty hosts grew pale
                         In victory's presence. Here the brave were crown'd
                         With fame immortal. Here the loudest gale
                         Of battle sounded, while the blue profound,
                         Rent with thy shouts of triumph, clear'd away,
                         And pour'd upon thee Freedom's perfect day.


        MINERALS.--The mineral productions of the Confederate

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States are not less varied and valuable than the agricultural.

        Gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, and coal, are diffused in the greatest abundance.

        The coal-fields of North Carolina alone are sufficient to supply the entire Confederacy with this valuable article of fuel, for centuries.

        Enterprise and industry will find a rich reward in the abundant treasures which our Southern lands may be made to yield.


    Spell and define--

  • BE AT'I TUDE, the blessedness assigned by our Saviour to particular virtues.
  • 3. BRIL'LIANT, bright.
  • 4. PER'SE CUT ED, punished on account of belief.
  • 5. RE VILE', reproach, abuse.
  • 6. DIS CI'PLE, a follower.
  • 7. CROSS, trial of patience, opposition.
  • 8. HOUSE'HOLD, family.


        1. A little circle of mother and children was gathered on the Sabbath evening around the fireside. They had been reading the fifth chapter of Matthew, those precious words of blessing with which the Saviour began His ministry on earth. Their hearts were full of tender feeling as they silently sat, and each pondered on the beatitude sweetest to him.

        2. "Blessed are they that mourn," thought the mother, while tears fell fast on her widow's

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went up in prayer, that here might be that holy mourning which should be comforted.

        3. " 'Blessed are the poor in spirit' is what I choose," said a little blue-eyed girl, nestling close to her mother's side, "for I want to be in the kingdom of heaven."--"I would have, 'Blessed are the meek' for my motto," said another whose brilliant eyes were full of spirit; "it would help me most, I think."--" 'But blessed are the pure in heart' must be best of all, 'for they shall see God,' " exclaimed a thoughtful-looking boy of twelve.

        4. Another, two or three years older, remained silent, though his tearful eye and glowing cheek showed that he too had a beatitude dear to him. "Which do you choose, George?" asked his mother.--"Blessed are they that are persecuted for righteousness' sake," he answered, with a quivering lip.--"Oh! George, that cannot be for any of us," cried the children; "that was for the martyrs who died for Jesus' sake."--"It is sweet to me too," said George.

        5. "Tell us why," said his mother.--"It is dearest to me," answered the boy, "because it seems as if Jesus was saying to me; and oh! mother, it helps me so when the boys at school laugh and call me the 'pious boy.' Only yesterday, as I was going to school, some of them called after me, 'There's the boy that goes to prayer-meeting;' and then they dared me to fight, and called me a coward, because I walked on without speaking; but oh! mother," and the boy's eyes shone clearly as he spoke, "I did not feel their words touch me. I only heard Jesus saying, 'Blessed are ye when men shall revile you.' "

        6. There was a pause. The tears which filled the

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there was any persecution now," said one of the children at length.--"It is true no one is put to death now for believing in Jesus," replied the mother; "but few can enter the Christian life without meeting it in some form. Much courage is often needed to bear being laughed or sneared at for our trust in Jesus. This kind of persecution is often the first cross the young disciple has to bear for his Lord; and his Lord sweetly cheers him with the glorious words, 'Blessed are ye when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad; for great is your reward in heaven.'"

        7. "Mother, shall we sing that hymn I learned to-day?" asked George; and the little circle sang:--

                         "Shall Jesus bear that cross alone,
                         And all the world go free?
                         No; there's a cross for every one,
                         And there's a cross for me."

        8. The Sabbath evening passed away; and this Christian household came down, like Jesus, from the mount of blessing of the work of daily life, each bearing a beatitude which proved a "well of water" in the soul "springing up into everlasting life."


        JACKSON.--The capital of Mississippi is Jackson. It is situated on Pearl River, on a plain about a quarter of a mile from the left bank.

        The streets are regular, and the town contains several beautiful public buildings. The State-house is a handsome edifice.

        About thirty thousand bales of cotton are shipped annually from Jackson.

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    Spell and define--

  • 2. MAIN TAINED', kept.
    PRI'OR, former.
    PRIN'CI PLE, rule of action.
    CON CES'SION, yielding.
    CON VICTIONS, settled belief.
  • 3. RE SULT'ED, ended.
    CON SOLED', comforted.
  • 4. YIELD'ING, giving up.
  • 5. IN JUNC'TION, command.
    ES TEEM', think.


        1. Two neighbors, whose names were Self and Will, attempted to cross a stream from opposite sides upon a foot bridge so narrow as to allow of but a single footman at the same time. They met about midway of the stream, where each insisted that the other must turn back and give the right of way.

        2. Each claimed to be the first on the bridge, and maintained his ground as a prior right. Each contended for this right as a matter of principle, which would allow of no concession. Each pleaded urgent and important business. Will felt himself morally bound to maintain his rights. Self could not in conscience make concession without sacrificing his honest convictions.

        3. Arguments resulted in angry words, and from hard words they came to blows; and in the struggle to maintain each his own rights, both fell together into the stream. Each with great difficulty gained the shore exhausted and shivering from a cold bath. Each consoled himself with the idea of "personal suffering for righteousness' sake," and both became bitter enemies for life.

        4. While they were muttering revenge upon each other, two other neighbors, Love and Kindness, met in like

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circumstances upon the same bridge. It was a meeting of glad surprise. They exchanged cheerful and happy greetings, and each insisted on yielding the right of way to his brother. Each desired to be first in the concession, and to carry out each other's principles, both twice crossed the bridge together.

        After a friendly chat they parted company, finding in their experience a practical reason for the injunction: "Let each esteem the other better than himself."


        BATON ROUGE.--Baton Rouge, the capital of Louisiana, is situated on a bluff about thirty feet in height, on the east bank of the Mississippi River.

        Below the city the river passes through a plain, occupied by rich plantations of sugar-cane, splendid villas, and numerous groves of tropical fruit trees

        The State-house and Baton Rouge College are the most prominent public buildings; though many of the private dwellings are worthy of notice.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. SCANT, not sufficient.
    BIL'LOWS, waves.
  • 2. EA'GER LY, earnestly.
    GLAR'ED, shone brightly.
  • 3. TEM'PEST, a violent storm.
  • 4. PEARL, a precious substance found in the shell of oysters.
  • 5. BOW'ERS, places of shelter.


                         1. Two little children thin and pale,
                         With clothing scant and poor.
                         Stood where the foam-capped billows leaped
                         Upon the rock-bound shore.

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                         Hand clasped in hand, silent they gazed
                         Upon the surging sea,
                         Until the youngest whispered low--
                         "Where can our father be?"

                         2. The elder brother only gazed
                         More eagerly away,
                         Where they had sought their father's ship
                         For many a weary day;
                         No snowy sail glared o'er the wave,
                         No vessel proud and free,
                         Then bursting into tears he cried
                         "He's lost, he's lost at sea!"

                         3. "No, brother, no," the little one
                         More eagerly replied,
                         "Tell not my mother he is lost,
                         At sea my father died.
                         He is not lost, his boat was not
                         By storm or tempest driven,
                         Come, let us tell her, brother,
                         That father's lost in Heaven!

                         4. "We will tell her he was wand'ring
                         Along the streets of gold,
                         Where gates of pearl and beauteous walls
                         The heavenly world enfold;
                         And that amidst the angels,
                         Where all were bright as day,
                         And he as glorious as the rest,
                         Our father lost his way.

                         5. "And that he never will forsake
                         Again those heavenly bowers,

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                         To seek a world of pain and want,
                         Of sorrow such as ours.
                         Come, let us tell our mother
                         He's not by tempests driven,
                         And we'll go and seek our father,
                         The loved one lost in Heaven."


        NASHVILLE.--Nashville, a handsome and flourishing city, the capital of Tennessee, is situated on the left bank of Cumberland River, 200 miles above its entrance into the Ohio.

        The Cumberland is here crossed by a magnificent wire suspension-bridge.

        The Capitol is constructed of pure white limestone, and upon a plan of the most liberal magnificence. It is built entirely of stone and iron, without any wood about it.

        Chaste, yet grand, it will stand through coming ages, as a noble monument of the taste and patriotism of the age; and to the youth of the State who gaze upon its complete and faultless proportions, it will irresistibly convey a lesson in architectural symmetry and beauty, that books may never teach them.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. U NI VER'SI TY, a seminary of learning of the highest class.
  • 3. VER'SION, a translation.
    AN'CHOR, that which confers stability or security.
  • 4. PO'TENT, powerful.
    STER'E' O TYPE, firmly fixed.
    PEN'I TENT, sorry for sin.
    CON TRO VER SY, opposition.
    BI OG'RA PHY, history of an individual.


        1. Martin Luther, at the age of twenty years, had never

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had a copy of the Bible in his hands. When a student at the University of Erfurth, he discovered an old Latin copy in the library. The Bible proved a "light to his feet and a lamp to his path."

        2. The entrance of God's Word brought light into Germany; it will carry light into Africa and Japan. Happy are the people that can freely read it in their own language. Happy is the soul that searches for it, as for hid treasure, and hides it in the heart.

        3. The Bible is a book of untold power over all who come in close contact with its great truths. An old writer says of our common version, "Who will say that the uncommon beauty and marvellous English of the Bible is not one of the great strongholds of Protestantism in this country? It lives on the ear like music that can never be forgotten. It is part of the national mind, and the anchor of national faith.

        4. "The memory of the dead passes into it; the potent traditions of childhood are stereotyped in its verses; the power of all the griefs and trials of a man is hidden beneath its words. It is the representative of his best moments, and all that there has been about him that is soft and gentle, and pure and penitent and good, speaks to him for ever out of his English Bible. It is his sacred treasure, which doubt has never dimmed and controversy never soiled. In the length and breadth of the land, there is not-a Protestant with one spark of religion about him, whose spiritual biography is not in his Saxon Bible."


        ANNAPOLIS.--Annapolis is distinguished as the capital of Maryland. It stands on the right bank of the Severn

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River, three miles above its entrance into Chesapeake Bay.

        The State house is an old building, and has long served for public purposes.

        The American Congress assembled here during some of the most interesting periods of the Revolution. The Senate chamber in which they held their sessions remains unaltered. It was here that General Washington resigned his commission, after the close of the war.


    Spell and define--

  • 2. PLEDGE, a gift.
    SOURCE, fountain, origin.
  • 3. IN CENSE, an honorary offering
  • 4. SCOF'FER, one who ridicules
    SCORN, contempt, derision.
  • 5 CLING, to hold fast.


                         1. Remember, love, who gave thee this,
                         When other days shall come;
                         When she who had thy earliest kiss,
                         Sleeps in her narrow home.
                         Remember, 'twas a mother gave
                         The gift to one she'd die to save.

                         2. That mother sought a pledge of love,
                         The holiest for her son;
                         And from the gifts of God above
                         She chose a goodly one;
                         She chose for her beloved boy
                         The source of life, and light, and joy:

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                         3. And bade him keep the gift--that when
                         The parting hour should come,
                         They might have hope to meet again,
                         In her eternal home.
                         She said his faith in that would be
                         Sweet incense to her memory.

                         4. And should the scoffer, in his pride,
                         Laugh that fond gift to scorn,
                         And bid him cast that pledge aside,
                         That he from youth had borne,
                         She bade him pause and ask his breast,
                         If he, or she, had loved him best.

                         5. A parent's blessing on her son
                         Goes with this holy thing;
                         The love that would retain the one,
                         Must to the other cling.
                         Remember, 'tis no idle toy;
                         A mother's gift--REMEMBER, BOY.


        AUSTIN.--The capital of Texas is Austin, situated on the north bank of the Colorado River, two hundred miles from its mouth.

        The scenery around Austin is highly picturesque, and the view from the Governor's house remarkably beautiful.

        A fine State house has recently been erected, occupying a conspicuous position on an eminence, and overlooking an extensive region.

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    Spell and define--

  • 1. DIS AS'TROUS, unfortunate.
    GEN'ER OUS, honorable.
  • 2. RECK'LESS LY, carelessly.
  • 3. TACT, cleverness.
  • 4. RIG'OR, severity.
  • 5. IN'SO LENCE, impudence.
  • 6. DIS'CI PLINE, training.
  • 7. DEIGN'ING, condescending.
  • 8. VIG'OR OUS, energetic.
  • 9. PRE CIS'ION, accuracy.
    JUNC'TURE, a critical point of time.
  • 11. RE MORSE'LESS, cruel.
  • 13. AP PRE'CI A TING, properly estimating.
    CHID'ING, reproving.


        1. The circumstances which led to the battle of King's Mountain are briefly these:--After the disastrous battle of Camden, in which De Kalb so heroically died the death he had long coveted, and Gates showed himself as expert in running away from an otherwise nobly-contested field, as he had been fortunate on a former occasion in reaping laurels so well earned by Schuyler, upon the Hudson, the American cause seemed utterly without hope in the Carolinas, and might have been so in fact for an indefinite period, if a generous course of conduct had been pursued by the British.

        2. Instead of this, however, a course, rigid and almost shameless; was adopted. Property was recklessly destroyed, men, with little formality, were shot or hung, and women were driven from their homes and in many cases treated with the most shocking brutality. Not satisfied with these rigors, Cornwallis took another step, in keeping with the rest.

        3. Among the officers under him was one Colonel Patrick Ferguson, who stood high in his esteem as a man

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of skill and tact, and also of well-tried bravery. Cornwallis instructed him to go toward the mountains, quiet opposition, and hasten the royalists to the British camp. Ferguson received his instructions with much satisfaction, and left the presence of his superior, nothing doubting that he should return with additional reputation.

        4. He took with him nearly two hundred select British regulars and a thousand tories, chosen and disciplined by himself, and turning his face to the west, he set forth in high spirits. For a season everything worked admirably, but British rigor had overshot the mark, and "a speck of war" was beginning to show itself in the mountains.

        5. Ferguson took the alarm, and wrote to inform Cornwallis, but at the same time assured his lordship that, if all the rebels in the land should attack him, he was able to defend himself. The despatch fell into the hands of the Americans, who were collected together to the number of nearly three thousand men. It was "an extemporaneous host," as Irving calls it, drawn together from various quarters, many of them poorly equipped for battle, but all eager to check the insolence of Ferguson.

        6. After reading the despatch of the enemy, and ascertaining distinctly his whereabouts, selecting about nine hundred of their best mounted and equipped men, they pushed on in pursuit. There was little discipline among them, but there was one influence which abundantly supplied the place of a knowledge of the arts of war--each man was fearless, and willing to risk his life to secure the destruction of Ferguson and his party. Each colonel was allowed to lead his own men in his own way, but Colonel Campbell, of Virginia, was chosen a sort of chief-commander of the whole party.

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        7. Ferguson had taken a position on King's Mountain, a place so well suited to his case, that he did not doubt his ability to resist all attacks until reinforcements arrived from the British camp, for he was not aware that his messengers had been captured by the Americans, who now began to appear in the distance. At first he eyed the motley crowd before him with scorn, not deigning to think that they really meditated an attack, but when his practical eye convinced him of his mistake, he chafed like a lion at bay.

        8. Without loss of time, the Americans, so soon as their arrangements were complete, began a vigorous attack. They were divided into three parties of nearly equal size--Campbell and Shelby, leading the centre, Sevier and M'Dowell the right, and Cleveland and Williams the left.

        9. Ferguson met the attack with the push of the bayonet, before which the Americans fell back, for there was not a bayonet among them but they were now attacking from another quarter, which Ferguson wheeled about to meet. His fury knew no bounds when he perceived that the party he had driven down the hill with the bayonet, were renewing the attack with more vigor than at first. He wheeled from point to point, leading his men to the charge with desperate bravery, but the precision of the American fire was thinning his ranks with fearful rapidity, and his case was becoming utterly hopeless. At this juncture, a rifle ball brought Ferguson to the ground, and the battle was at an end.

        10. The American loss in killed was only some twenty- five

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the most heroic and valuable of the party. The British loss was 150 killed and as many wounded. Nearly nine hundred men were made prisoners.

        11. A court-martial was held the day after the battle, and a number of tories who had been bitter and remorseless in their persecution of their countrymen, were hung and though such rigor is always to be regretted, yet men have seldom been more provoked to use it, than in the present case.

        12. The battle of King's Mountain, notwithstanding the smallness of the numbers engaged, put a new face on the affairs in the South; and when news of the total destruction of Ferguson reached the British camp, it was received with a heavy heart by Cornwallis, who now was made to tremble for his own safety.

        13. The heroes of King's Mountain having so well accomplished their purpose, returned in triumph to their homes, many of them scarcely fully appreciating the immense service they had rendered their country, but the value of that service was soon to be realised by Greene, who had been appointed commander in the South, and who, whether fighting or retreating, chiding the tardy or encouraging the resolute, was to justify the confidence by which he had been chosen for such a post, at so important a crisis, by the Father of his country.


        FRANKFORT.--Frankfort, a handsome town, the capital of Kentucky, is beautifully situated on the right bank of the Kentucky River, sixty miles from its mouth.

        It stands on an elevated plain between the river and the bluff, which rises a short distance behind the town to the height of about one hundred and fifty feet.

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        A chain bridge crosses the river near the middle of the city and connects it with South Frankfort.

        The State house stands on a small eminence nearly mid-way between the river and the northern limit of the valley.

        It is a handsome edifice, built of Kentucky marble, quarried in the vicinity, with a portico supported by six columns in the Ionic style.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. FANGS, sharp teeth.
  • 2. IN GE NU'I TY, power of invention.
    AN NI'HI LATE, to destroy.
  • 7. SOL'I TA RY, alone.
  • 8. DIS SO LU'TION, destruction.
    IM PRAC'TI CA BLE, impossible.


        1. Ernest had accompanied his father into the vineyard, which was rich with promise for the coming autumn. There he found a honey bee struggling in the web of a large garden spider, which had already opened its fangs to seize upon its prey; but Ernest set the bee at liberty, and destroyed the glistening snare.

        2. The father, observing what had passed, inquired of his son how he could so lightly esteem the skill and ingenuity of the little artist, as to annihilate its work in a moment.

        "Did you not see with what beauty and order those slender threads were interwoven? How could you then be at the same moment so pitiful and yet so hard-hearted?"

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        3. But the boy excused himself, saying--

        "Is there not evil in the spider's art? for it only tends to destruction, whereas the bee gathers honey and wax within its cells; so I gave freedom to the bee, and destroyed the spider's web."

        4. The father was pleased at the decision of a simple child, who saw no beauty in ingenuity, when its aim was destruction.

        "But," continued the father, "perhaps you have been unjust towards the spider. See how it protects our ripening grapes from flies and wasps, by means of the net which it weaves around the branches."

        5. "Does it do so," asked the boy, "with the intention of protecting our grapes, or merely that it may satisfy its own thirst for blood?"

        "Truly," replied his father, "it troubles itself very little about our grapes."

        6. "Oh!" said Ernest, "then the good it does cannot be worth much; for I have heard you say that it is a good will alone which can impart beauty or goodness even to the most useful actions."

        "Very true, my boy; we may be thankful, however, that in the course of nature that which is evil often fosters what is good and useful without intending to do so."

        7. "Wherefore," inquired Ernest, "does the spider sit so solitary in its web, whilst the bees live sociably together, and work in union? Why might not the spiders also make one huge web, and use it in common?"

        8. "Dear child," answered his father, "a good object alone can assure friendly co-operation. The bond of wickedness or selfishness contains within itself the seeds of dissolution. Therefore wise nature never attempts that

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which men too often learn by their own experience to be vain and impracticable."

        9. On their way homeward the father observed:--"Have you not learned something from the spider to-day, my boy? Remember that in this world we shall often find good and evil mixed together--our friends and foes side by side, so that what is good may, from the contrast, appear all the more beautiful. Thus may we learn a lesson even from what is evil in itself."


        HOT SPRINGS.--The Hot Springs of Arkansas are regarded as among the greatest natural curiosities of this State.

        They are about sixty miles south-west of Little Rock There are about one hundred of these springs, differing in temperature from 135° to 160°.

        They are much resorted to by invalids, and have been found very beneficial in some diseases.


    Spell and define--

  • 5. MON'U MENT, tombstone.
    DES'IG NA TED, called.
  • 7. PAU'PER, one too poor to support himself.
  • 8. SCHEM'ING, planning, cunning.
  • 10. UN RE MIT'TING, unceasing.
    CAL'UM NY, abuse, slander.
  • 12. FRAUD'U LENT LY, dishonestly.
  • 13. EX CHEQ'UER, means, money.


        1. Paul threw down the book he had been perusing during a long summer's morning, and sat in a deep reverie.

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        "Well, Paul," said his uncle Wilton, who had watched him for some time, "have you found out how many leaves my Japonica has?"

        "Sir!" cried Paul, starting.

        "You were looking at my Japonica so intently that I did not know but that you were counting its leaves."

        2. "I did not know I looked at it--I was not thinking of it."

        "What were you thinking of, if the question is a fair one?"

        "The last article in this book tells of a visit to Napoleon's tomb. I was thinking how I should like to see a hero's grave. If I could see Cæsar's grave, or Alexander's, or Peter the Great's, or Wellington's, or Washington's, uncle."

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        3. "Oh, if you are anxious to see a hero's grave, I will take you to one this afternoon."

        "A real hero's, uncle, as great as those I have mentioned?" "Ay, every whit."

        "Surely, you must be jesting?" "I never was more in earnest."

        "Is it a revolutionary soldier's?" "A soldier's most certainly."

        "Perhaps it is an Indian chief's like Philip, or Seneca, or Red Jacket?" Mr[.] Wilton smiled mysteriously.

        4. "Do tell me whose it is." "You shall know when we come to it," said Mr[.] Wilton, leaving the room.

        Paul Verney was visiting his uncle Wilton, who was the pastor of a flourishing church in a pretty village.

        5. About three o'clock Paul, with an expectant face, entered the village graveyard. His uncle passed the great monument that the boy supposed must mark the hero's resting-place, and approached the part designated "the potter's field." Here he paused by a grave over-grown with rank grass and unsightly weeds, with no stone to mark it--there was no grave among the hundreds near more desolate and neglected.

        6. "Why, uncle, this cannot be a hero's grave!" cried Paul.

        "I may be mistaken, though I think not. Ask the sexton who sleeps here."

        Paul put the question as directed. The sexton, who was digging a grave, lifted up his head and wiped the moisture from his brow with the back of his hand as he replied, "Carl Hertz."

        7. "There, uncle, I knew some one had told you wrong. I was sure this could not be a hero's grave. Who ever

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heard of a hero Carl Hertz!" cried Paul, with a disappointed look.

        "I'm sorry you feel disappointed, my boy; suppose I tell you the story of this Carl Hertz. Ask the sexton who he was."

        Paul looked more cheerful while he asked as desired, and when the sexton replied, "A sick pauper, young master," he seated himself on the grass beside his uncle, close by the grave.

        8. "Carl Hertz's father died poor, and, moreover, deeply in debt, and people found great fault with the way in which these debts were contracted, and reproached his memory. After his father's death, Carl was adopted by a rich uncle, who designed to make him his heir. The uncle died when Carl was eighteen, and a scheming aunt secured the property for her son, while Carl was turned adrift without a farthing to support him, and, moreover, his uncle had only given him a very common education. Carl found work as a day laborer.

        9. "Year after year, early and late, Carl toiled--eating the plainest food, wearing the coarsest clothes, and sleeping in a poor little hut that, though clean, was destitute of every comfort. Nearly everybody said Carl was a miser--his wages were good, but he never spent them. Some few there were who shook their heads when Carl was called a miser, saying that he came regularly to church, always dropped his mite into the contribution box, and often, when his daily toils were ended, sat by some sick man's bed reading the Word of God, or carried to some starving family a loaf or a bowl of broth.

        10. Carl was a mystery--ten, twenty, thirty years passed and then what news did we hear? Through all

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those years of unremitting toil, of scorn and calumny meekly borne, of lowliness and privation, Carl had been paying his father's debts, and now the heirs of the creditors declared that they had 'received their own with usury.'

        11. "Now the tide of public opinion set strongly in favor of Carl Hertz. Men who had once passed him with averted eyes now shook his labor-hardened hand, women met him with a smile, and children, sharing in the universal feeling, cried, 'God bless you!' for the story of his filial love and his honest heart had gone abroad. Carl was fifty, bowed and worn with cares; but now he might rest. His failing strength could not command as large wages as before, but yet enough for his simple wants.

        12. "But now a new theme for wonder arose. The scheming aunt, now in the course of years, became a babbling idiot; was turned by her cruel son from the home she had fraudulently obtained for him. In the depth of winter the poor creature was sent out alone. Then Carl--the wronged, forgiving Carl--took her home; for her sake he hired rooms more comfortable than he had desired for himself; he hired a little girl to work for her part of the time, and, like a son, he humored the poor old creature's whims, and soothed her in her moments of anger.

        13. "With the caprice of insanity, the woman clung to Carl; she followed him to his work, sat near him while he toiled, called him 'her son,' 'her own boy,' and seemed to think him indeed the son whose childhood she had nursed. For ten long years she lived--more weak more whimsical and exacting as each rolled away, and every year drawing on Carl's slender exchequer. He had

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no time to lay up for his own years of want. She died. The winter came, and Carl was taken sick. Acute inflammation destroyed the use of his limbs, and when, the next summer, he was again able to go out, he rested on two crutches, dragging his withered, helpless limbs along.

        14. "No word of complaint escaped him. He obtained a meagre support by basket-weaving, for two years, even in his decrepitude rendering himself useful by his patient, humble example, and his words of rare knowledge in heavenly things. By an accident he lost an arm, and was taken to the almshouse to spend the remainder of his days. Here he lived quiet, meek, a bright ensample of a heart at peace with God, until his heavenly Father called him from the cross to the crown."

        15. Paul's bright eyes lingered on his uncle's face after the story was ended. Mr[.] Wilton called the sexton to him.

        "What sort of a man was Carl Hertz, sexton?"

        "A brave man, sir! God bless him, a hero in enduring labor, and scoffing, and pain, and doing his duty to God and men through all."

        16. "O uncle, you have indeed shown me a hero's grave--greater than all the battle heroes of earth!" and Paul gathered a sweet blue violet that lingered late among the grass and weeds on the pauper's grave, and carried it away as a memento of Carl Hertz.


        THE MISSISSIPPI.--Mississippi is an Indian name, meaning "Great Water." This is the most important river in North America. With the Missouri, its principal tributary, it is the longest river in the world.

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        It rises in the dividing ridge which separates the Red River of the North from the streams flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, 3160 miles from the gulf.

        If we regard the Missouri as a continuation of the Mississippi above their junction, the entire length will amount to about 4350 miles.


    Spell and define--

  • PON'DER OUS, very heavy.
  • WIELD'ING, handling.
  • EX CES'SIVE, immoderate.
  • AC QUIRED', obtained.
  • FORGE, a place where iron is worked.
  • SLEDGE'HAM MER, a large, heavy hammer.
  • PA'TIENT, one under the care of a physician.
  • SU PER SED'ED, set aside.
  • CON SPIR'A CY, a plot to injure.
  • DE SIGN', intention.
  • DIF'FI CUL TIES, troubles, obstacles.
  • RES O LU'TION, determination.
  • U NI'TED, joined.


        Richard Sayer accompanied his father one morning to the blacksmith shop of Mr[.] Beckwith. As they entered, Mr[.] B. was beating a large piece of red hot-iron with a ponderous hammer.

        Richard was much interested in the work, but wondered how any man could use with so much ease the heavy hammer with which the iron was formed into the shape desired.

        As they left the shop Richard said to his father, "What a strong arm Mr[.] Beckwith has! what makes it so strong?"

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        Mr[.] S. He has made it strong by exercise--by wielding his heavy hammer.

        R. I should think that would wear it out instead of making it strong.

        Mr[.] S. Excessive labor would have that effect, but hard labor only tends to give additional strength. The way to get a strong arm is to work hard with it; what is the way to get a strong mind?

        R. I suppose one must work hard with the mind.

        Mr[.] S. Certainly, strong minds are acquired in the same way that strong arms are.

        R. I should think, then, that everybody would have strong minds.

        Mr[.] S. Why so?

        R. Because, when a man has a strong mind, he is much more respected.

        Mr[.] S. And so you think if strength of mind depends on the will, all men would have it?

        R. Yes, sir.

        Mr[.] S. But you forget that a necessary condition of having it is hard work. Men do not like hard work of any kind, but least of all, hard work with the mind. It is much easier to get a man to work hard over a forge than over a book. It is much easier to induce him to swing the iron sledge-hammer than the intellectual sledge-hammer.

        R. Our teacher told us that our minds grew strong by acquiring knowledge.

        Mr[.] S. That is true; but the knowledge must be acquired by your own labor. Suppose your teacher could pour all the knowledge he possesses into your mind at once, just as all the water can be poured from one cup into another, you would have more knowledge than you

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have now, but your strength of mind would not be increased. That can be increased only by exercise.

        R. Then, the more help a person gets in his studies, the less benefit he gets from them.

        Mr[.] S. Certainly; suppose a physician should tell his patient that he must walk a mile every day in order to strengthen his limbs, and that, instead of doing it, he gets another person to do it for him; do you think his limbs would grow strong in consequence of the other person's walking?

        R. No, sir. One would be very foolish to think so.

        Mr[.] S. And the patient would be very foolish to pursue the supposed course. But not more so than the student who gets another to learn his lesson for him.

        R. If it is better for one to get his lessons without help from any one, I should think it would be better for him not to have books with notes and explanations.

        Mr[.] S. It certainly would be. I have no patience with those school-books in which all labor on the part of the student is superseded. The makers of such books would seem to have entered into a conspiracy against mental labor and mental strength.

        R. John Gale has a Latin book, which has a great many notes, and he always gets his lesson sooner than the rest of his class; because when he comes to anything hard, he has nothing to do but to turn to his notes. He gets his lesson, and then laughs at the other boys, and tells them to dig away. Once in a while, he will lend one of them his book, but not very often.

        Mr[.] S. He does them a kindness by refusing to lend his book, though he has no design of so doing. I wish you to form the habit of getting your lessons yourself,

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and of performing your own mental labor. That is the only way to become a man. I will now ask you how a person can become strong in goodness?

        R. By taking pains to be good.

        Mr[.] S. Yes, by diligent exercise in goodness. He must do right, not only when it is easy to do right, but when it is difficult to do so. It is indeed hard work, but then we were made for hard work. The very difficulties in the way may be the means of giving one greater strength in goodness. Every time there is a struggle in the soul between good and evil, and you overcome, you gain strength.

        On his way to school, that morning, Richard formed a resolution to become strong in mind, and strong in goodness--rightly judging that strength of mind, united with goodness, would make him a great man.

        But he felt that he had no power in himself to do good, or to avoid evil. He had often tried and been overcome by temptation. He now prayed earnestly, "Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me."


        LITTLE ROCK.--Little Rock, the capital of Arkansas, is situated on the south bank of the Arkansas River, 300 miles from its mouth.

        The city is built upon a rocky bluff, one hundred and fifty feet above the river, and commands an extensive view of the surrounding country.

        The State house is a brick building handsomely stuccoed.

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    Spell and define--

  • 1. DEAL, very much.
    SOOTH'ING, calming.
    BE TIDE', happen.
  • 2. BIL'LOW, a large wave.
    SCAN'DAL, evil report.
  • 3. SPURNS, treats with contempt, kicks.
  • 4. CRAVE, to entreat.
    LEN'I ENT, mild.
    VER'DICT, decision.
    UN SEEM'LY, improper.


                         1. Oh, 'twould save a deal of trouble.
                         And many a sigh would cease;
                         `Twould pour on Life's rough water
                         The soothing oil of peace;
                         It would give us ease of conscience,
                         Whatever did betide,
                         If before we pass'd our judgment,
                         We'd hear the other side.

                         2. Dame Rumor never stereotypes
                         A story that she tells,
                         But as it rolls, a little wave
                         Into a billow swells.
                         There is not a tale of scandal,
                         Of treachery, wrong, or pride,
                         But might be somewhat brighten'd,
                         Did we know the other side.

                         3. When a poor, frail, pilgrim brother
                         Does from the pathway stray,
                         The world proclaims him "fallen,"
                         And spurns him from the way;

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                         Nor do they once consider
                         How sorely he was tried;
                         How he struggled with the current
                         Ere he yielded to the tide.

                         4. And we are all so erring--
                         So oft through life must crave
                         A lenient verdict from our friends,
                         For actions dark and grave.
                         It is surely ill becoming,
                         And shews unseemly pride
                         For us to sit in judgment
                         Upon the darkest side.

                         5. Then let us seek the sunbeam,
                         However dark the day,
                         Let us hope the wanderer will return,
                         How far so e'er he stray;
                         And with the blessed charity
                         Which many a sin doth hide,
                         Let us always judge the erring
                         By the best--the brightest side.


                         Be kind to thy mother--for lo! on her brow
                         May traces of sorrow be seen;
                         Oh, well mayst thou comfort and cherish her now,
                         For lovely and kind hath she been.
                         Remember thy mother--for thee she will pray,
                         As long as God giveth her breath;
                         With accents of kindness, then, cheer her lone way
                         E'en to the dark valley of death.

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    Spell and define--

  • 1. HAL'LOWED, sacred.
  • 2. RUS'TIC, rough.
    HEED'LESS, careless.
    FRU'GAL, careful.
  • 3. SEN'TI NELS, guards.
    RE'QUI EM, a song in honor of the dead.
  • 4. STERN, harsh, severe.
  • 5. VIG'ILS, night watches.
    AL A MANCE', a place in North Carolina, where armed resistance was first made to British tyranny.


                         1. No stately column marks the hallow'd place
                         Where silent sleeps, unurn'd, their sacred dust,
                         The first free martyrs of a glorious race,
                         Their fame a people's wealth, a nation's trust.

                         2. The rustic ploughman, at the early morn,
                         The yielding furrow turns with heedless tread;
                         Or tends with frugal care the springing corn,
                         Where tyrants conquer'd and where heroes bled.

                         3. Above their rest the golden harvest waves,
                         The glorious stars stand sentinels on high,
                         While in sad requiem, near their turfless graves,
                         The winding river murmurs, mourning, by.

                         4. No stern ambition waved them to the deed,--
                         In Freedom's cause they nobly dared to die--
                         The first to conquer, or the first to bleed,
                         God and their country's right, their battle-cry.

                         5. But holier watchers here their vigils keep
                         Than storied urn or monumental stone--
                         For Law and Justice guard their dreamless sleep,
                         And plenty smiles above their bloody home.

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                         6. Immortal youth shall crown their deathless fame,
                         And as their country's glories still advance,
                         Shall brighter blaze, o'er all the earth, thy name,
                         Thou first-fought field of Freedom, Alamance.


                         Be kind to thy father--for when thou wert young,
                         Who loved thee so fondly as he?
                         He caught the first accents that fell from thy tongue,
                         And join'd in thine innocent glee;
                         Be kind to thy father--for now he is old,
                         His locks intermingled with gray;
                         His footsteps are feeble (once fearless and bold)--
                         Thy father is passing away.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. BAB'BLING, foolish talk.
  • 2. DE MO'NIAC, one possessed by a devil.
  • 4. PRE CED'ED, gone before
    DE BAUCH'ED, polluted.
    HALT'ING, limping.
  • 5. IM PROV'I DENCE, imprudence.
    MUF'FLED, covered.
  • 5. HAP'LESS, unfortunate.
  • 6. PRO CES'SION, a company of persons marching.
  • 7. FRE QUENT', go often to.
  • 8. RE FLEC'TION, thought.
    PHI LAN'THRO PIST, a lover of mankind.
  • 9. AS SENTS', agrees.
  • 11. BEN E DIC'TION, blessing.


        1. "Wine is a mocker, and strong drink is raging. Who hath woe? who hath sorrow? who hath contentions?

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who hath babbling? who hath wounds without a cause? who hath redness of eyes? They that tarry long at the wine."

        2. How often do men meet in good humor, then drink to excess, talk nonsense, fancy themselves insulted, take fire within, rave, threaten, and then come to blows? A long time ago, Seneca spoke of those who "let in a thief at the mouth to steal away the brains." In such a case the stupidity of a brute is often united with the fury of a demoniac. Nay, the man among the tombs was comparatively harmless; he only injured himself. But how often does the drunken revel end in the cry of murder!

        3. How often does the hand of the intoxicated man, lifted against his dearest friend, perhaps the wife of his bosom,

                         "In one rash hour,
                         Perform a deed that haunts him to the grave!"

        4. Could I call around me, in one vast assembly, the young men of this nation, I would say:--Hopes of my country, blessed be ye of the Lord, now in the dew of your youth. But look well to your footsteps; for vipers, and scorpions, and adders surround your way. Look at the generation who have just preceded you. The morning of their life was cloudless, and it dawned as brightly as your own. But behold, now, the smitten, enfeebled, inflamed, debauched, idle, poor, irreligious, and vicious, with halting step, dragging onward to meet an early grave.

        5. Their bright prospects are clouded, and their sun is set, never to rise. No house of their own receives them, while from poorer to poorer tenements they descend, as improvidence dries up their resources. And now, who are those that wait on their footsteps with muffled faces

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and sable garments? That is a father, and that is a mother, whose gray hairs are coming with sorrow to the grave. That is a sister, weeping over evils which she cannot arrest; and there is the broken-hearted wife; and these are the children--hapless innocents!--for whom their father has provided no inheritance, save one of dishonor, and nakedness, and woe!

        6. And is this, beloved youth, the history of your course? In this scene of desolation, do you see the image of your future selves? Is this the poverty, and the disease, which, as an armed man, shall take hold on you? and are your relatives and friends to succeed those who now move on, in this mournful procession, weeping as they go?

        7. Yes, bright as your morning now opens, and high as your hopes beat, this is your noon, and your night, unless you shun those habits of intemperance which have thus early made theirs a day of clouds and of thick darkness. If you frequent places of evening resort for social drinking; if you set out with drinking daily, a little, prudently, temperately; it is yourselves, which, as in a glass, you behold.

        8. "One of the greatest consolations afforded to my mind by the success of the temperance cause, is the reflection that my child will not be a drunkard." Such was the language of a distinguished philanthropist, as he held a listening assembly, chained by the voice of his eloquence.

        9. To this remark the heart of every parent assents; for that the progress of the temperance cause will be so great, at the period when the child, which is now an infant shall come upon the theatre of life, as to render all use of ardent spirits, as a drink, disreputable, can scarcely be questioned.

        10. If any father or mother could lift the veil of futurity,

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and read on the page of coming years, that the son now so loved, so idolized perhaps, would become a bloated, polluted and polluting creature, reeling under the influence of ardent spirit, the remainder of life would be wretched. To such a parent, this world would indeed be a vale of tears; and the silence and solitude of the tomb would be welcomed as the place where the weary might be at rest.

        11. The temperance reform does in fact lift the vail of years, and disclose to the parents of the present generation, their children and their children's children freed from all the woes and curses of drunkenness, the smile of gratitude upon their countenance, and the language of benediction upon their lips.

        12. "My child will not be a drunkard!" Cheering thought! How it swells the heart with emotions too big for utterance! What an animating prospect does it open to the mind! Alms-houses, and jails, and penitentiaries, and state-prisons, will then stand only as so many monuments of the vices of an age gone by; and the evils consequent upon the use of ardent spirits shall exist only upon the historian's page, as so many records of the former degeneracy and the errors of mankind.


        HICKORY-NUT GAP.--The scenery along the Hickory-Nut Gap, in the mountains of North Carolina, is among the finest in the world.

        As you approach the Gap from the south, the mountains seem to hem you in--looming up before you like an impassable barrier. On a nearer approach, the Gap is discovered, a narrow defile between lofty peaks.

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        "Bald Mountain," so called from its rocky brow, rises on the right, presenting to you a front of almost solid rock, rising perpendicularly to the height of several hundred feet.

        Just beyond it is the "Pinnacle," the highest peak for many miles around. The view from its summit is grand and extensive. On the left rise various peaks, known by local names.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. STRUG'GLE, strive, contend.
    SOLE, only.
  • 2. CHER'ISHED, nursed, fostered.
    GALL, bitterness.
  • 8. BE SOT'TED, stupefied.
    BURLESQUED', ridiculed.
  • 4. RE VEAL'INGS, discoveries.
    FATE, end.
  • 5. GLOW, brightness.
    A TONE', to expiate.
    FLA'VOR, taste.
    PRO CLAIMED', declared publicly.


                         1. Go, feel what I have felt;
                         Go, bear what I have borne;
                         Sink 'neath a blow a father dealt,
                         And the cold proud world's scorn;
                         Thus struggle on from year to year,
                         Thy sole relief, the scalding tear.

                         2. Go, weep as I have wept,
                         O'er a loved father's fall;
                         See every cherish'd promise swept--
                         Youth's sweetness turn'd to gall;
                         Hope's faded flowers strew'd all the way
                         That led me up to woman's day.

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                         3. Go, kneel as I have knelt;
                         Implore, beseech, and pray;
                         Strive the besotted heart to melt,
                         The downward course to stay--
                         Be cast with bitter curse aside--
                         Thy prayers burlesqued--thy tears defied.

                         4. Go, hear what I have heard--
                         The sobs of sad despair--
                         As memory's feeling fount hath stirr'd,
                         And its revealings there
                         Have told him what he might have been,
                         Had he the drunkard's fate foreseen.

                         5. Go, bear, and see, and feel, and know,
                         All that my soul hath felt or known,
                         Then look within the wine-cup's glow--
                         See if its brightness can atone;
                         Think if its flavor you would try,
                         If all proclaim'd, "'Tis drink and die."


        MOUNT VERNON.--Mount Vernon in Virginia, the former residence of General Washington, lies on the west side of the Potomac River, eight miles south of Alexandria.

        It contains the Mansion and Tomb of the "Father of his Country." To an American this place is interesting, in a degree which no language can either heighten or describe.

        Washington died on the 14th of April, 1799.

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    Spell and define--

  • 1. MA NŒV RES, evolutions in military tactics.
    ELUD'ED, avoided, shunned.
  • 2. JU DI'CIOUSLY, wisely.
  • 3. HAR'ASSED, teased.
    AN TAG'O NIST, enemy.
  • 4. VET'ER ANS, old soldiers.
  • 8. BRI GADE', a division of troops.
  • 9. FLANK, the right of left side of an army.
    FIELD'PIE CES, small cannon.
  • 10. DE FIL'ING, marching into line.
  • 11. AG'I TA TED, excited, disturbed.
    UN DAUNT'ED, bold, fearless.
    TRA DI'TIONS, reports handed down from one generation to another.


        1. Perhaps the most brilliant event in the military career of General Greene was his celebrated retreat from the Catawba river to Virginia. By a series of masterly manoeuvres, and occasional skirmishes of great spirit, he eluded the superior forces of Cornwallis, and placed the American army on the northern bank of the Dan.

        2. "Your retreat," said Washington, "is highly applauded by all ranks." And Tarleton, the most active of the British officers, says, "Every measure of the Americans, during their march from the Catawba, was judiciously designed and vigorously executed."

        3. Greene soon received supplies and reinforcements, and recrossed the Dan. It was now the turn of Cornwallis to retreat. He fell back upon Hillsboro, followed and harassed by Pickens, Caswell, and other gallant American officers. Every day the situation of the British

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General was becoming more critical, and every effort was made to draw his prudent antagonist into the open field.

        4. Though not yet strong enough to give battle to Cornwallis, General Greene yielded somewhat to the popular opinion, and took position near Guilford Court-house, where he awaited the approach of his brave and persevering foe. A large portion of Greene's troops consisted of raw and inexperienced militia, who had never been in battle, while those of his adversary were veterans who had been schooled in warfare, and had been conquerors on many a hard-fought field.

        5. It was on the 15th of March 1781, that the American General drew up in order of battle. The ground was chosen with regard to the nature of his troops. It was broken and irregular. Greene's first line was drawn out across the road by which the enemy was approaching.

        6. The position was protected in some measure by a rail fence. This line consisted of untrained militia from North Carolina, who had never crossed arms with an enemy. But they were practised marksmen. They were commanded by Generals Butler and Eaton.

        7. The second line, arranged about three hundred yards behind the first, consisted of raw troops also; Virginians commanded by Stevens and Lawson. Both these lines extended across the road.

        8. The third line, about four hundred yards in the rear of the second, was composed of regular or continental troops. The Virginia brigade, under General Huger, consisted of two regiments, one commanded by Colonel Green, and the other by Lieutenant-Colonel Hawes, and composed the right. The Maryland brigade, under the command of Colonel Williams, consisting of two regiments,

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one led by Colonel Gunby, the other by Colonel Ford, formed the left. In conformity with the nature of the ground, they were drawn up so as to present a double front.

        9. Colonel Washington with a body of dragoons, Kirkwood's Delaware infantry, and a battalion of Virginia militia, covered the right flank; Lee's legion, with the Virginia riflemen under Colonel Campbell, covered the left. Two six-pounders were in the road, in advance of the first line; two field pieces, with the rear-line near the Court-house, where General Greene took his station.

        10. About noon the head of the British army was seen advancing in a spirited manner along the road, and defiling into the fields. A cannonade was opened from the two six-pounders in front of the American line. It was answered by the British artillery. Neither produced much effect. The enemy now advanced coolly and steadily in three columns; the Hessians and Highlanders under General Leslie, on the right, the Royal Artillery and Guards in the centre, and Webster's brigade on the left.

        11. The militia, who composed the first line, waited until the enemy were within one hundred and fifty yards, when, agitated by their martial array, and undaunted movement, they began to fall into confusion; and delivering an irregular and not very effective fire, they gave way and fled. Some fled to the woods, others fell back upon the second line; while many, according to the traditions of the country, acted nobly, stood firm as long as practicable, and then joining other corps, took an active part in the subsequent events of that memorable day.

        12. When the front line gave way, the British rushed

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forward with a loud shout of triumph to encounter the Virginians, and expected similar success. They were suddenly checked by a galling fire from the flanking parties under Lee and Washington. Cornwallis ordered up his reserve, and drove the second line slowly before them, suffering severely from their fire. The battle now began with double spirit. The fire of the militia told with deadly effect upon the assailants. But the British bayonet again succeeded; the second line gave way, and Stevens, who had kept the field for some time after being wounded, ordered a retreat.


        VICKSBURG.--Vicksburg is situated on an elevated bluff upon the east side of the Mississippi River. It is four hundred miles above New Orleans, and is a place of great commercial importance. It annually exports about one hundred thousand bales of cotton.

        This city has recently become memorable, by its heroic and successful resistance to a long-continued and terrific bombardment by the gunboats of the United States.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. AR'DOR, zeal.
    RE'TRIEVE, to regain.
  • 2. FLUSHED, animated.
    CON FOUND'ED, thrown into disorder.
  • 3. IM PET'U OUS LY, violently.
  • 4. EX PE'DIENT, continuance.
    SCRU'PLE, hesitate.
  • 5. IM PEND'ING, threatening.
  • 6. IN TREP'ID, fearless, daring.
  • 7. AS CER TAINED', found out.
  • 8. QUO TA'TION, a passage taken from an author.
  • 9. DE SIGN', plan.
    CON SUM MA'TION, completion.
  • 10. EVENT', occurrence.

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        1. The enemy pressed with increasing ardour against the third line, composed of continental troops, and supported by Washington's dragoons, and Kirkwood's Delawares. Greene counted on these to retrieve the day. They were regulars; they were fresh and in perfect order. He rode along the line, calling on them to stand firm, and give the enemy a warm reception.

        2. The veteran regiment of Gunby was the first to feel the British fire, as General Webster, with his division, flushed with the successes already won, advanced upon the American line. Discipline met discipline. They were received by a steady blaze of fire, general and well-directed, under which they reeled, stunned and confounded, and before they could recover from the shock, the Americans were upon them with the bayonet. The rout was complete, and Webster was driven across a ravine.

        3. The second Maryland regiment was not so successful. Impetuously attacked by Colonel Stuart, with a battalion of Guards, and a company of Grenadiers, it faltered, gave way, and fled, abandoning two field-pieces, which were seized by the enemy. Stuart was pursuing, when the first regiment which had driven Webster across the ravine, came to the rescue with fixed bayonets, while Colonel Washington spurred up with his cavalry. The fight was now fierce and bloody. Stuart was slain; the two field-pieces retaken, and the enemy in their turn gave way, and were pursued with terrible slaughter.

        4. Cornwallis beheld the peril of the day. The field could be saved only by an expedient, at once bold and

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terrible. He did not scruple to use it. The ground was covered with his favourite but flying troops. The Americans were close upon their footsteps. All was about to be lost when the stern Briton commanded his artillery to open on the mingling masses, though every bullet told equally on friend and foe.

        5. "It is destroying ourselves," remonstrated O'Hara. "Very true," was the reply of Cornwallis, "but it is necessary we should do so, to arrest impending destruction." The expedient was successful; the pursuing Americans paused from the work of death; but one-half of the British battalion was cut to pieces by their own artillery.

        6. There was intrepid fighting in different parts of the field; but Greene, unwilling to risk the utter destruction of his army, ordered a retreat from a field at once of defeat and victory. The American army retired in good order, about three miles, where they halted to rest and collect stragglers. Cornwallis was too much crippled to pursue. In fact, he was utterly ruined; and it soon became necessary for him to retire from the barren field that he boasted to have won.

        7. The destruction of life was great on both sides; but owing to the use of the rifle and the protected situation of the militia, it was greater on the part of the enemy. Cornwallis admitted a loss in killed and wounded of five hundred and thirty-two; but General Greene thought he had good authority for saying that the British loss was six hundred and thirty-three. The loss of the Americans could never be ascertained with entire certainty, but it was between two and three hundred.

        8. The following quotation from an American statesman will show his estimate of the results of this conflict:--"The

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philosophy of history has not yet laid hold of the battle of Guilford, its consequences and effects. That battle made the capture at Yorktown. The events are told in every history; their connexion and dependence in none. It broke up the plan of Cornwallis in the South, and changed the plan of Washington in the North. Cornwallis was to subdue the Southern States, and was doing it until Greene turned upon him at Guilford.

        9. "Washington was occupied with Sir Henry Clinton, then in New York. He had formed the heroic design to capture Clinton and his army in that city, and thereby put an end to the war. All his preparations were going on for that grand consummation, when he got the news of the battle of Guilford, the retreat of Cornwallis to Wilmington, his inability to keep the field in the South, and his return northward through the lower part of Virginia. He saw his advantage--an easier prey--and the same result, if successful. Cornwallis or Clinton, either of them captured, would put an end to the war.

        10. "Washington changed his plan, deceived Clinton, moved rapidly on the weaker General, captured him and his seven thousand men, and ended the revolutionary war. The battle of Guilford put the capture into Washington's hands; and thus Guilford and Yorktown became connected; and the philosophy of history shews their dependence, and that the lesser event was father to the greater. The State of North Carolina gave General Greene twenty-five thousand acres of western land for that day's work, now worth a million of dollars; but the day itself has not yet obtained its proper place in American history."

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        SPONGE.--Sponge is a soft, light, very porous and compressible substance, readily imbibing water and as readily giving it out again. It was formerly supposed to be a vegetable production, but it has lately been found to be an animal substance. The inhabitants in several of the Greek islands have been trained from their infancy to dive for sponges which adhere firmly to the bottom of the sea, and are not detached without a good deal of trouble. The extraordinary clearness of the water aids the divers.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. PHAR'I SEES, a sect among the Jews.
  • 2. RAB'BI, master.
  • 3. VER'I LY, truly.
  • 7. MAR'VEL, wonder.
  • 8. LIST'ETH, chooseth.
  • 11. TES'TI FY, bear witness.
  • 14. WIL'DER NESS, an uncultivated region.
  • 17. CON DEMN', to judge.
  • 21. MAN'I FEST, plain, evident.


        1. There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:

        2. The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.

        3. Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.

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        4. Nicodemus saith unto Him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?

        5. Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

        6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

        7. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.

        8. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.

        9. Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?

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        10. Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things?

        11. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness.

        12. If I. have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?

        13. And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.

        14. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up;

        15. That whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have eternal life.

        16. For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

        17. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through Him might be saved.

        18. He that believeth on Him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.

        19. And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.

        20. For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.

        21. But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that

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his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.


        SCRIPTURE MAXIMS.--A soft answer turneth away wrath; but grievous words stir up anger.

        Pride goeth before destruction; and a haughty spirit before a fall.

        Hear counsel, and receive instruction, that thou mayest be truly wise.

        He that hath pity on the poor, lendeth to the Lord; that which he hath given, will he pay him again.

        A fool despiseth his father's instruction: but he that regardeth reproof is prudent.

        The heart of him that hath understanding seeketh knowledge: but the mouth of fools feedeth on foolishness.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. SPEEDS, hastens.
    SERE, dry, withered.
    TRESS'ES, locks of hair.
  • 2. TOR'RENTS, rapid streams.
    UN DER MINES', digs under the foundation.
  • 3. STAGE, the distance between stopping places.
    FATH'OM LESS, unmeasurable.


                         1. Time speeds away, away, away;
                         Another hour, another day,
                         Another month, another year,
                         Drop from us like the leaflets sere--

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                         Drop like the life-blood from our hearts,
                         The rose-bloom from the cheek departs,
                         The tresses from the temples fall,
                         The eye grows dim, and strange to all.

                         2. Time speeds away, away, away;
                         Like torrents in a stormy day;
                         He undermines the stately tower,
                         Uproots the tree, and snaps the flower,
                         And sweeps from our distracted breast,
                         The friends that loved, the friends that blessed,
                         And leaves us weeping on the shore,
                         To which they can return no more.

                         3. Time speeds away, away, away;
                         No eagle through the skies of day,
                         No wind along the hills can flee
                         So swiftly or so smooth as he,
                         Like fiery steed, from stage to stage,
                         He bears us on--from youth to age;
                         Then plunges in the fearful sea
                         Of fathomless eternity.


        SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS.--Seest thou a man wise in his own conceit? There is more hope of a fool than of him.

        It is better to be a door-keeper in the house of the Lord, than to dwell in the tents of wickedness.

        He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? he that formed the eye, shall he not see?

        I have been young, and now am old; yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed begging bread?

        I have seen the wicked in great power; and spreading

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himself like a green bay-tree. Yet he passed away: I sought him, but he could not be found.

        Happy is the man that findeth wisdom. Length of days is in her right hand; and in her left hand riches and honor. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace.


    Spell and define--

  • 3. PRE'CIOUS, valuable.
  • 6. JEST, something to be laughed at.
    MIRTH, merriment.
  • 7. STAT'UTES, written laws.
    WON'DROUS, wonderful.
  • 8. DOC'TRINE, that which is taught.
    STRAIGHT'WAY, immediately.


        1. The Scriptures are the word of God. In them He speaks to every man that hears or reads His holy Word. "Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy." It is every one's duty to "search the Scriptures." Christ so commands us. Let me ask you to attend to some things which I wish to say on this subject.

        2. The study of the Bible is a great matter. That holy book treats of God, of man, of time, of eternity, of heaven, and of hell. It speaks only truth on all matters. He who knows the Bible well, may be wise and good, and happy, though he never reads any other book.

        3. The Bible is full of truths, even of the very greatest truths. As there is no God like the true God; so there

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is no book like God's book. It does more good in the world than all other books beside. All whose hearts have been changed by the Holy Spirit, have found it sweeter than honey, and more precious than gold.

        4. It is true you will find some hard things in the Bible. "It is like a lake, so deep in the middle that an elephant may swim in it, but along the shore a lamb may wade and not be drowned." If you are a child, like the lamb, you can walk near the shore.

        5. There may be things in the Bible, that you will never fully know; but if your heart is right with God, you can learn all that you need know. It is true our minds are very weak. The greatest man knows very little of what might be known. But where was there ever a man, or even a child, that searched the Scriptures, and did not learn that which would do him good?

        6. I have known some people to make a jest of the truths of Scripture. I hope you will never do that. The great and good Luther said: "When God would destroy a man, He lets him make a jest of sacred things." If you wish to have mirth, let it not be profane, but innocent. If you would learn much, you must search the Scriptures often, and day by day. A very wise man said: "Get a little at a time, and as often as you can, and you will soon know a great deal."

        7. You must also be patient, and not hasty. No one expects children to think and study as much as old people ought to do. Still they may search the Bible much more than most of them do. You must also pray to God to open your eyes. David was a great and good man. Yet he often prayed thus: "Teach me thy statutes; open thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out

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of thy law." If David had need to pray thus, surely you ought to ask God to teach you.

        8. The best way to keep the Word of God in mind, is to keep it in your life. Jesus Christ says: "If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God." James says: "If any man be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man, beholding his natural face in a glass; for he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he is." The Bible is a looking-glass. It shews us what we are, and we ought to look into it very often, and do what we find it teaches. Practice is the very life of piety. To know what is right, and not to do it, is wicked, for "to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin."

        9. He who will thus search the Scriptures, shall come to know a great deal about the greatest things. David says that he knew more than all his teachers, and more than the ancients, because he studied and kept God's Word. You need not be afraid that you will soon learn all that is in the Bible. It is like a gold mine, where a man may dig every day of his life, and find much gold, and yet there will be plenty left for all his children to dig as much as they want all their lives.

        10. How thankful you ought to be to God for the Bible. Thousands and millions of children have it not. I hope you will do what is in your power to help to send the Bible all over the world. Let us therefore deny ourselves, in order that we may be enabled to give more towards the spread of the gospel.

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                         We shall go home to our Father's house--
                         To our Father's house in the skies,
                         Where the hope of our souls shall have no blight,
                         Our love no broken ties.
                         We shall roam on the banks of the river of peace,
                         And bathe in its blissful tide;
                         And one of the joys of our heaven shall be,
                         The little girl that died.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. LO CAL'ITIES, places.
  • 2. A DAPT'ED, suited.
  • 4. STA'PLE, a principal production.
  • 8. SUS TAIN', support.
    RE SOUR'CES, means of support.
  • 9. SPE'CIES, kind.
    CA NOES, small boats.


        1. Rice is a grain used for the food of man, and is one of the most wholesome and nourishing of all the products of the soil. As it cannot be raised to advantage in all parts of the world, and is in much demand, it is a source of wealth to those localities suited to its growth.

        2. It requires a low moist soil, so situated that it can be covered with water, and then drained; and on this account the lands along the Atlantic coast, in America, from the Bay of Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico, are more or less adapted to its cultivation.

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        3. Within the limits of the Confederate States, especially, there is a very large and fertile region peculiarly suited to this plant; and here it can be raised with more profit and in larger quantities than anywhere else in the world. It is, however, not yet extensively cultivated in this country, except in a few of the States; and the Carolinas, North and South, produce most of the rice used in North America.

        4. It is an important staple in both of these States, though a larger amount of land is devoted to this purpose in South Carolina than in her sister State; and those engaged in this pursuit receive an ample reward for their labor and capital.

        5. Rice is cultivated in other parts of the world, especially in Asia; and in China it is a crop of great importance, and constitutes the principal food of the inhabitants. The rice plant resembles wheat in shape, color, and the figure of its leaves; but the stem generally is not more than three or four feet high; the grain is white and enclosed in a husk from which it is separated by flails, by tramping, or by mills constructed for the purpose.

        6. The fields on which the crop is to be raised are level, situated near rivers or other bodies of water, and sometimes surrounded by embankments or walls of earth; and through these fields channels are cut from the water with which they are to be flooded. When the soil has been properly prepared, and the seed sown or planted, the water is let in until the whole soil is covered to a certain depth, and allowed to remain until the crop has grown for a considerable time, and finally the fields are drained, and the rice matures and ripens.

        7. As already stated, rice is the principal food of the

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Chinese, and it may be said that half the people of Asia live upon it. It is also largely cultivated and used in Africa, and to some extent in parts of Europe. But the rice of the Carolinas, in the Confederate States, is most esteemed. The climate and soil of this region seem to suit it best, and the grain is larger than that of the East Indies, and can be more easily cooked.

        8. The more it is used, the more it is esteemed, and a small portion of it will sustain life in a healthy condition. If all the lands suited to the production of rice in the Carolinas were devoted to this purpose, they would furnish food enough to sustain life in more than two millions of people--and still there would be left more than seven-eighths of the territory of the two States for other crops; facts which give us some idea of the resources of the Confederate States.

        9. There is also in the inland parts of North America a species of wild rice, much used by the Indians. It grows in places where the water is about two feet deep. The Indians gather it in the following manner:--About the time it begins to ripen, they go into the midst of it in their canoes, and tie together large bunches of it, just below the heads. When it becomes fully ripe and dry, they return, and running their canoes under these bunches, beat out the grain, and catch as it falls.


        GLASS.--Glass is a compound of silex and an alkali, usually the carbonate of potash or soda. Lime or oxide of lead is added to produce different qualities of glass. These substances are melted together at a high temperature. The mass is left to cool until it is in a proper state for working.

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Glass may be colored by the addition of metallic oxides.

        Few compounds are more valuable or more extensively used than Glass. It is beautiful as well as useful. It is the most brittle of all substances.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. SA LU'BRI OUS, healthful.
    RE IN FORCE'MENTS, additional troops.
    LE'VIES, regular soldiers.
  • 2. PROX IM'I TY, nearness.
    IN DE FAT'I GA BLE, persevering.
  • 3. PRE'VI OUS, going before.
  • 4. PAL I SA'DOED, enclosed with stakes set in the ground.
  • 5. EN COUN'TERED, met with.
    PAR TI'CI PATE, to take part.
    GALLED, annoyed.
    IN FANT'RY, foot soldiers.
  • 7. RE SERVE', select troops kept in the rear to give assistance when required.
  • 9. CHASM, an opening.


        1. After the unsuccessful attack upon Ninety-Six, General Greene retired to the salubrious hills of the Santee, to refresh his wearied and exhausted troops, and wait for reinforcements; but he was disappointed as to reinforcements. During the two months that he remained among the hills of the Santee, he had received only two hundred North Carolina levies and five hundred South Carolina militia; still he prepared for a bold effort to drive the enemy from their remaining posts.

        2. On the 22d of August 1781, General Greene broke up his encampment on the Santee, to march against Colonel

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Stuart, the British commander, who lay at Eutaw Springs in a pleasant security, never dreaming of the proximity of his active and indefatigable foe.

        3. On the night of the 7th of September, Greene, wrapped in his cloak, slept beneath the shadows of an oak, within seven miles of the British camp. For three days previous to this, the American army had advanced by easy marches towards the enemy's position. But to the astonishment of Greene, the British commander seemed to have no intimation of his approach; although the march was conducted without any special attempt at concealment.

        4. The position occupied by Colonel Stuart was one of considerable strength. On his right was the Eutaw Creek, which issued from a deep ravine, thickly fringed with brush and underwood. The only open ground was an old corn-field, through which the public road now ran. This was commanded by a strong brick-house, with a palisadoed garden, which Colonel Stuart intended as a protection, if too much pressed by cavalry. The British lay in the field, under cover of the house.

        5. At four o'clock on the morning of the 8th, Greene put the American army, consisting of about two thousand men, in motion, arranged in two columns. Lieutenant-Colonel Lee formed the advance, and Lieutenant-Colonel Washington the rear. After advancing cautiously within four miles of the British camp, Lee suddenly encountered a party of the enemy and halted. The echoing of musketry through the woods, soon gave notice to the American commander that an action had commenced, and the cavalry were hurried on to participate. The hot fire in front so severely galled the British that they began to give way. At the same moment the cavalry dashed into the

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rear, driving before them the enemy's horse, and scattering the infantry in all directions. Many of the British were killed and wounded, and about forty with their captain taken prisoners.

        6. The soldiers had marched but a little distance after this skirmish, when they encountered a second corps, and the action recommenced. The artillery now opened on both sides, and, while the soldiers were falling beneath its fire, each army formed its line of battle.

        7. The first column of the American army consisted of the militia of North and South Carolina, led by Marion, Pickens, and Malmedy. In the second came the continentals--chiefly from Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Colonel Lee with his legion covered the right flank, Colonel Henderson the left, Colonel Washington, with his dragoons and the Delaware troops, formed the reserve. Each column had two field-pieces. The British formed but one line, drawn up in front of their tents, with two separate bodies of infantry and cavalry in their rear, and their artillery distributed in different roads along the line.

        8. While the skirmishing continued, one corps after another came into action, until the greater part of both armies were engaged. The fire ran from rank to rank, raking the long-extended lines, and bringing infantry, cavalry, and artillerymen to the ground. The militia fought with the spirit and firmness of veterans. They yielded only to the whole weight of the British army, enforced by the forward movement of the bayonet, but not until each man had fired seventeen rounds.

        9. As the militia retired, Greene dashed towards his second line, and ordered its centre under General Sumner

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to fill the chasm. These troops poured into action with loud shouts; the battle grew darker and bloodier, and the enemy in their turn fell back to their first position unable to stand the galling severity of the American fire.


        ST[.] AUGUSTINE.--St[.] Augustine is the principal town and seaport on the Atlantic coast of Florida. It is the oldest town settled by Europeans on the American continent, having been founded by the Spaniards in 1565.

        The houses are built chiefly of the shell limestone which abounds along the coast. Orange and lemon trees, which grow luxuriantly in the mild climate of Florida, add much to the beauty of this town.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. GLEAM'ING, glittering.
    HEL'METS, armor for the head.
    SA'BRES, short swords.
  • 2. DEEM'ING, thinking.
  • 3. CRIT'I CAL, decisive.
  • 4. AS SAIL'ED, attacked.
    RE COILED', gave back.
  • 5. DENSE, close.
    IN TER POSED', interfered.
  • 6. A CHIEVED', accomplished.
    IN TOX'I CAT ED, drunk.
  • 7. FU'GI TIVES, those running away.
  • 8. WREST ED, forced.
  • 9. CE LER'I TY, swiftness.


        1. The British commander felt that everything was at stake, and ordered up his reserve. The conflict was then terrible. Regiments were sweeping along under galling fires; the hot sun was gleaming and dancing over thousands

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of bayonets, and helmets, and sabres; cavalry were rushing along from rank to rank; while the ground, air, and woods rocked with the rushing of angry thousands, the rattling of musketry, and the loud roar of cannon. Charge after charge was crushing scores into the earth; and the love of life, the strong, universal tie, was suspended in the whirling of passion.

        2. Pressed by superior numbers the American line gave way, and the British rushed forward with a shout, deeming the field already won. This was the moment for Greene's unemployed battalion; and his voice rang wildly through the fearful uproar, "Let Williams and Campbell sweep the field with the bayonet."

        3. They hastened to obey, and having delivered a deadly fire at forty yards' distance, advanced at a brisk rate, with loud shouts and trailed arms, prepared to make the deadly thrust. Colonel Campbell in command of the Virginians received his death-wound at this critical moment. But the ardor of his men was unchecked by the fall of their beloved and heroic commander. The eye of Greene was upon them, and the war-worn defenders of the South led them on.

        4. At this moment Colonel Lee, observing that the line extended beyond the British left, instantly ordered a company to turn their flank and charge them in the rear. Assailed in front by the bayonet, and in flank by musketry, the enemy recoiled. For a moment they rallied--the armies closed--bayonets plunged at opposing bosoms. The next moment the British line was broken, the troops fled in all directions, and left their camp the undisputed prize of the victors. Many were captured, many hurried off madly along the Charleston road, and others threw themselves into the brick house.

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        5. A party of English under Major Majoribanks still held a dense thicket where they had been stationed at the commencement of the battle, and poured a destructive fire upon the pursuers. Greene ordered Colonel Washington to dislodge them. But the thicket was impassable for cavalry. Horses and riders were shot down or bayoneted; most of the officers were killed or wounded. Colonel Washington had his horse shot under him; he himself was wounded, and would have been slain, had not a British officer interposed and taken him prisoner.

        6. Victory now seemed certain on the side of the Americans. They had driven the British from the field, and had taken possession of their camp; unfortunately the soldiers, thinking the day their own, crowded the tents, and gave themselves up to the gratification of their appetites. The dainties and strong drink of their enemies achieved what their weapons and valor had not done. Many of them became intoxicated and unmanageable--the officers interfered in vain; all was riot and disorder.

        7. The enemy in the meantime recovered in a measure from their confusion, and opened a fire from every window of the brick house, and from the palisadoed garden. General Greene sent his artillery to batter the house, but his guns were not heavy enough to make any impression upon its strong walls. Colonel Stuart was by this time rallying the fugitives and advancing to support that part of the right wing that had taken refuge in the house and garden; when Greene, finding his ammunition nearly exhausted, determined to give up the attempt to dislodge the enemy from their strongholds, since he could not do it without severe loss.

        8. Thus ended the battle of Eutaw Springs, in which

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accident wrested a complete victory from the hands of the American general. It lasted more than three hours, and was fiercely contested, the corps in both armies bravely supporting each other. Both sides claimed the victory, but the advantages were altogether with the Americans.

        9. The enemy decamped in the night after destroying large quantities of stores and arms, and leaving behind them seventy of their wounded, who might have impeded the celerity of their flight. Their loss in killed, wounded, and captured, in this action, was six hundred and thirty-three, of whom five hundred were prisoners in the hands of the Americans; the loss sustained by the latter in killed, wounded, and missing, was five hundred and thirty-five. One of the slain most deplored was Colonel Campbell, who had so bravely led on the Virginians. He fell in the shock of the charge with the bayonet. It was a glorious close of a gallant career. In his dying moments he was told of the defeat of the enemy, and is said to have uttered the celebrated ejaculation of General Wolfe, "I die contented."


        BEWARE OF BAD BOOKS.--"Why, what harm will books do me?" The same harm that personal intercourse would with the bad men who may have written them. If a good book can be read without making one better, a bad book cannot be read without making one the worse.

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    Spell and define--

  • 1. YORE, in time past
  • 2. RE'COM PENCE, reward.
  • 3. YEARN'ING, intense desire.
    LONG, wish earnestly.
  • 4. A BIDES', continues.
    CHARM, to allay by secret power.
  • 5. THRONG, to come in crowds.
  • 6. LUL'LA BY, a song to quiet infants.


                         1. Backward, turn backward, O Time, in your flight,
                         Make me a child again, just for to-night:
                         Mother, come back from the echoless shore,
                         Take me again to your heart as of yore--
                         Kiss from my forehead the furrows of care,
                         Smooth the few silver threads out of my hair--
                         Over my slumbers your loving watch keep--
                         Rock me to sleep, mother--rock me to sleep!

                         2. Backward, flow backward, O tide of years;
                         I am so weary of toils and of tears;
                         Toil without recompence--tears all in vain--
                         Take them, and give me my childhood again:
                         I have grown weary of dust and decay,
                         Weary of flinging my soul-wealth away,
                         Weary of sowing for others to reap--
                         Rock me to sleep, mother--rock me to sleep!

                         3. Tired of the hollow, the base, the untrue,
                         Mother, O mother, my heart calls for you:

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                         Many a summer the grass has grown green,
                         Blossom'd and faded--our faces between;
                         Yet, with strong yearning and passionate pain.
                         Long I to-night for your presence again;
                         Come from the silence so long and so deep--
                         Rock me to sleep, mother--rock me to sleep!

                         4. Over my heart in days that are flown,
                         No love like mother-love ever has shone;
                         No other worship abides and endures,
                         Faithful, unselfish, and patient, like yours.
                         None like mother can charm away pain
                         From the sick soul and world-weary brain;
                         Slumber's soft calm o'er my heavy lids creep--
                         Rock me to sleep, mother--rock me to sleep!

                         5. Come, let your brown hair, just lighted with gold,
                         Fall on your shoulders again as of old--
                         Let it fall over my forehead to-night.
                         Shading my faint eyes away from the light--
                         For with its sunny-edged shadows once more,
                         Happily will throng the sweet visions of yore;
                         Lovingly, softly, its bright billows sweep--
                         Rock me to sleep, mother--rock me to sleep!

                         6. Mother, dear mother, the years have been long
                         Since I last hush'd to your lullaby song--
                         Sing, then, and unto my soul it shall seem
                         Womanhood's years have been but a dream,
                         Clasp to your arms in a loving embrace,
                         With your light lashes just sweeping my face,
                         Never hereafter to wake or to weep--
                         Rock me to sleep, mother--rock me to sleep!

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        CHINA WARE.--The art of manufacturing China ware, as may be supposed from its name, was originally obtained from China. The commercial term for China ware is porcelain. This, however, is not a Chinese word, but comes to us from the Portuguese, who first brought over these beautiful wares, and with whom the word porcelain means a cup.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. MIGHT, power.
  • 2. GEN'U INE, true.
    RE VEAL'ING, making known.
  • 4. DOZ'ING, sleeping lightly.
    PROS'ING, dullness.
  • 6. FOE'MAN, enemy.


                         1. Give us the nerve of steel,
                         And the arms of fearless might,
                         And the strength of will that is ready still
                         To battle for the right.

                         2. Give us the eye to weep
                         That honest tear of feeling
                         That shuts not down for the world's dread frown,
                         The genuine heart revealing.

                         3. Give us the mind to feel
                         The sufferings of another,
                         And fearless power in the dying hour
                         To help a suffering brother.

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                         4. Give us the clear, cool brain,
                         That is never asleep or dozing:
                         But sparkling ever, with bold endeavor,
                         Wakes the world from its prosing.

                         5. Ah! give us the nerve of steel,
                         And the hand of fearless might,
                         And the heart that can love and feel,
                         And the head that is always right.

                         6. For the foeman is now abroad,
                         And the earth is fill'd with crimes:
                         Let it be our prayer to God,
                         Oh! give us the men for the times.


        TURPENTINE.--Turpentine is obtained from the pine trees which abound in the eastern portions of the Carolinas.

        Deep notches, called boxes, are cut in the trunk of the tree in which the turpentine collects as it exudes from the wood where the bark has been removed.

        The turpentine thus obtained is distilled, and furnishes spirits of turpentine and rosin.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. FRUIT'FUL NESS, abundance.
  • 2. SLUG'GARD, a lazy person.
  • 3. PRO LIE'IC, fruitful.
  • 4. VINEY'YARD, a plantation of grape vines.
    TOILS, labor.
  • 5. EN CUM'BERED, loaded.
  • 6. POS SESS'ING, having.
    TRANS PLANT'ED, removed and planted in another place.

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        1. As the beauty of summer, the fruitfulness of autumn, and the support of winter, depend upon spring; so the happiness, wisdom, and piety of middle life and old age depend upon youth. Youth is the seed-time of life.

        2. If the farmer does not plough his land, and commit the precious seed to the ground in spring, it will be too late afterward; so if we, while young, neglect to cultivate our hearts and minds, by not sowing the seeds of knowledge and virtue, our future lives will be ignorant, vicious and wretched. "The sluggard will not plough by reason of the cold; he, therefore, shall beg in harvest, and have nothing."

        3. The soil of the human heart is naturally barren of every good thing, though prolific of evil. If corn, flowers, or trees, be not planted, and carefully cultivated, nettles and brambles will spring up; and the mind, if not cultivated, and stored with useful knowledge, will become a barren desert, or a thorny wilderness.

        4. "I went by the field of the slothful, and by the vineyard of the man void of understanding, and lo! it was all grown over with thorns, and nettles had covered the face thereof, and the stone-wall thereof was broken down." When our first parents had sinned, the ground was cursed for their sake, and God said, "Thorns, also, and thistles shall it bring forth;" but this curse is turned into a blessing by the diligent and industrious, who are never happy when unemployed, who delight in labor and exertion, and receive an ample reward for all their toils.

        5. As the spring is the most important part of the year, so is youth the most important period of life. Surely, God has a claim to our first and principal attention,

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and religion demands the morning of our days, and the first season, the spring of our lives: before we are encumbered by cares, distressed by afflictions, or engaged in business, it becomes us to resign our souls to God.

        6. Perhaps you may live for many years; then you will be happy in possessing knowledge and piety, and be enabled to do good to others; but if, just as youth is shewing its buds and blossoms, the flower should be snapped from its stalk by the rude hand of death, oh, how important that it should be transplanted from earth, to flourish for ever at the foot of the tree of life, and beside the waters of the river of life in heaven.


        THE SEASONS.--The four seasons are Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. Spring includes March, April, and May, Summer includes June, July, and August; Autumn includes September, October, and November; Winter includes December, January, and February.

        The year begins with January and ends with December.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. AS SAULTS', attacks.
    IL LUS'TRA TIVE, explanatory.
  • 2. BEACH, the seashore.
    ES PIED', discovered.
  • 3. IN CONSIDER ATE, thoughtless.
    A WARD'ED, given as a prize.
  • 4. LOATH, unwilling.
    RI'VALRY, competition.
  • 5. IN CEN'TIVES, inducements.
  • 6. RE LIN'QUISH, give up.
  • 8. BAF'FLED, defeated.
  • 9. IM'MI NENT, near at hand.

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        1. Presence of mind is the power of maintaining one's faculty of reason and calculation in the midst of danger, and against the assaults of fear and surprise. I will relate an incident illustrative of the advantage of presence of mind in times of peril.

        2. A wealthy gentleman, of the name of Manning, was at a port in the West Indies. With two friends, he went down to the beach to bathe. While he remained upon the shore, and his companions were sporting in the waves at a considerable distance, he espied an enormous shark making straight for the unconscious swimmers.

        3. The first impulse of a hasty and inconsiderate person would have been to alarm the bathers by a loud outcry of danger. But Manning knew that such a course would, by frightening them, deprive them of all power of escape. He therefore preserved his unconcerned appearance, and playfully shouted to them, holding up his watch, "Now for a swimming match! This watch shall be awarded to him who first touches the shore."

        4. Nothing loath to try their powers of speed, the two swimmers struck out for the shore with all the swiftness of which they were capable. All this while the shark had been silently nearing his prey; and as they turned for the shore, he shot through the waves with increased velocity. The race for life, unconsciously on the part of the pursued, was now fairly begun. The swimmers, in their friendly rivalry, strained every nerve; but the shark gained rapidly upon them.

        5. Manning, though inwardly tortured with anxiety, still preserved his calm and smiling appearance, as he continued to utter incentives to increase the speed of his

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unfortunate friends. "Look at it, gentlemen!" he exclaimed; "a watch that cost me a hundred pounds in London. Think of the glory of winning it! Faster! faster! Don't give up!"

        6. They were still a long way from the shore, when one of them showed some signs of fatigue, and was apparently about to relinquish the race. That was a moment of agony to Manning. "What, Farnum?" he exclaimed to this friend, "do you grow a laggard so soon? Fie, man, fie! A few more good strokes, and you will be the conqueror! Bravo! That's it! that's it!"

        7. The tired competitor, thus encouraged, struck out his arms with new vigor. On came the shark behind the still unconscious swimmers, nearer and nearer, his enormous fins flashing in the sunlight. The swimmers approached the shore; the shark was so near them that he turned upon his side to make the final plunge at them, and begin the work of death.

        8. At this moment Manning rushed into the water, and with his cane frightened the shark, and then dragging his amazed and exhausted friends upon the bank, pointed to the baffled sea-monster, now angrily lashing the waves with his fins.

        9. Then the swimmers comprehended the imminent danger from which they had escaped, and one of them fell fainting to the earth. They never forgot the unconscious match with the shark, nor the admirable presence of mind of their friend Manning, to which they were indebted for their lives.


        THE LION.--The lion, which is the strongest and most

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courageous of the cat tribe of animals, has been called the "king of beasts" and "monarch of the forest." He is a native of Africa and of Southern Asia. The greatest size of the African lion is nearly eight feet in length and four and a-half in height.

        The roaring of the lion is loud and dreadful: when heard in the night it resembles distant thunder: his cry of anger is more shrill and piercing.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. CON'CERT, by agreement.
  • 2. VI CIN'I TY, neighborhood.
  • 3. CON JUNC'TION, union.
    DE VI'CES, stratagems.
    DES TI NA'TION, a place to be reached.
  • 4. EN CIR'CLE, surround.
    IN VIN'CI BLE, unconquerable.
    EX'TRI CA TING, setting free.
  • 5. CA PIT U LA'TION, a surrender by treaty.
  • 6. AN TIC'I PA TING, expecting.
  • 7. RIV'ET ED, fixed immovably.
    IG'NO MIN Y, disgrace.
  • 11. EX UL TA'TION, great joy.
    PEALED, sounded.
  • 12. RE IT'ER AT ED, repeated.


        1. Soon after the battle of Guilford Court-house, Lord Cornwallis left North Carolina, and acting in concert with the other detachments of the British army, overran the lower counties of Virginia.

        2. Cornwallis established himself at Yorktown, but a few miles from Chesapeake Bay. There was no American force in the vicinity seriously to annoy him. Relying upon the supposed superiority of the British fleet in the Chesapeake, he regarded his position as favourable to the accomplishment of his designs in the South.

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        3. Washington resolved, in conjunction with our allies from France, to make a bold movement for his capture. By various devices he succeeded in deceiving the English into the belief that he was making great preparations for the siege of New York. Before the British commander was aware of the destination of the American army, it had accomplished a considerable part of the journey toward Virginia. Thus Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander-in-chief, was prevented from rendering any aid to Yorktown.

        4. By rapid marches, Washington hastened to encircle the foe. On the 28th of September, 1781, the combined American and French armies moved from Williamsburg, and laid siege to Yorktown. The French fleet appeared in invincible strength off the harbour. The siege was pressed with great energy and spirit. Cornwallis was hopelessly

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caught. There was no possibility of extricating himself. Neither by land nor by sea could he obtain any supplies. Shot and shell carried destruction into the midst of his despairing forces, while famine stared him in the face.

        5. On the morning of the 17th of October, Cornwallis asked a cessation of hostilities for twenty-four hours, that commissioners might meet and settle the terms of the surrender of Yorktown and the army under his command. After some little delay, articles of capitulation were signed by the respective commanders, and Cornwallis and his army, that had so long been a terror to the South, became prisoners of war.

        6. The 19th of October was the day appointed for the surrender. At twelve o'clock, the combined army was drawn up; the Americans on the right, commanded by Washington, in full uniform; on the left were the French troops under Count Rochambeau. In every direction, thousands of spectators, grouped into crowds, were eagerly anticipating a sight of that formidable army, whose presence they had so often fled.

        7. At length a movement was observed in the British lines, and General O'Hara appeared mounted on a noble charger. Every eye was riveted upon the spot, in order to get a view of Cornwallis. Slowly and gracefully O'Hara rode toward Washington, and yet the earl appeared not. When the British general approached Washington, he raised his hat, and was referred to General Lincoln. The mystery was explained. The proud spirit of Cornwallis could not submit to the ignominy of delivering up his sword in person.

        8. Slowly following their general, came the British troops, with shouldered arms, cased colors, and marching

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o the solemn tones of a national air. They were met by General Lincoln near the centre of the enclosed space, and conducted to the field where the ceremony was to take place.

        9. The march of the captured army was irregular and disorderly. But when the last act of their humiliation came, when they were to resign the arms with which they had so frequently swept everything before them, shame and mortified pride could no longer be concealed. The command to ground arms seemed torn by compulsion from most of the officers; and was obeyed by many in a manner irritable and sullen. Observing this, Lincoln rode along the line and restored order.

        10. Seven thousand two hundred and forty-seven English veterans laid down their arms to the victors. Seventy-five brass, and one hundred and sixty-nine iron cannon, upwards of seven thousand muskets, with corresponding military stores, graced the triumph.

        11. This glorious capture roused hope and joy all over the country; one wild shout--the burst of a nation's exultation--pealed through the land. The Hector of the British host had fallen, and all felt that his cause could not long survive. The English became disheartened by the indomitable perseverance of the Americans; and the surrender of Cornwallis was virtually the end of the revolutionary war.

        12. The day after the capitulation, Washington devoutly issued the following order to the army:--"Divine service is to be performed to-morrow in the several brigades and divisions. The commander-in-chief earnestly recommends that the troops not on duty should universally attend, with that seriousness of deportment and gratitude

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of heart which the recognition of such reiterated and astonishing interpositions of Providence demand of us."


        YORKTOWN.--Yorktown, seventy miles from Richmond is situated on the right bank of York river, and is distinguished for the closing scene of the American revolution, the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, which put an end to the struggle between Great Britain and the United States.

        The ruins of the old church have a sad and solemn aspect. It was built above one hundred and fifty years ago, and destroyed by fire in 1814. The bell is preserved, and bears this inscription--"County of York; Virginia, 1725."


    Spell and define--

  • 1. AN'NALS, a species of history.
    EL'O QUENCE, the power of speaking well.
  • 4. CAN'OPY, a covering overhead.
  • 5. AS SI DI'ITY, close application, diligence.
    GRAN'A RIES, corn-houses.
  • 6. PRO PENS'I TIES, bent of mind, inclination.
  • 7. LAV'ISH, profuse, wasteful.
  • 10. SUPER FLU'I TIES, something beyond what is wanted.


        1. Let Virgil sing the praises of Augustus, genius celebrate merit, and flattery extol the talents of the great. The short and simple "annals of the poor" engross my pen; and while I record the history of Flor Silin's virtues, though I speak of a poor peasant, I shall describe a noble man. I ask no eloquence to assist me in the task; modest worth rejects the aid of ornament to set it off.

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        2. It is impossible, even at this distant period, to reflect, without horror, on the miseries of that year, known in Lower Wolga by the name of the "famine year." I remember the summer, whose scorching heats had dried up all the fields, and the drought had no relief but from the tears of the ruined farmer.

        3. I remember the cold, comfortless autumn, and the despairing rustics, crowding round their empty barns with folded arms, and sorrowful countenances, pondering on their misery, instead of rejoicing, as usual, at the golden harvest; I remember the winter which succeeded, and I reflect, with agony, on the miseries it brought with it; whole families left their homes, to become beggars on the highway.

        4. At night the canopy of heaven served them as their only shelter from the piercing winds and bitter frost; to describe these scenes, would be to harm the feelings of my readers; therefore to my tale. In those days I lived on an estate not far from Simbirsk; and though but a child, I have not forgotten the impression made on my mind by the general calamity.

        5. In a village adjoining lived Flor Silin, a poor, laboring peasant: a man remarkable for his assiduity, and the skill and judgment with which he cultivated his lands. He was blessed with abundant crops; and his means being larger than his wants, his granaries, even at this time, were full of corn. The dry year coming on, had beggared all the village except himself. Here was an opportunity to grow rich. Mark how Flor Silin acted. Having called the poorest of his neighbors about him, he addressed them in the following manner:--

        6. "My friends, you want corn for your subsistence;

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God has blessed me with abundance; assist in thrashing out a quantity, and each of you take what he wants for his family." The peasants were amazed at this unexampled generosity; for sordid propensities exist in the village, as well as in the populous city.

        7. The fame of Flor Silin's benevolence having reached other villages, the famished inhabitants presented themselves before him, and begged for corn. This good creature received them as brothers; and, while his store remained, afforded all relief. At length, his wife, seeing no end to the generosity of his noble spirit, reminded him how necessary it would be to think of their own wants, and hold his lavish hand before it was too late. "It is written in the Scripture," said he, " 'Give, and it shall be given unto you.' "

        8. The following year Providence listened to the prayers of the poor, and the harvest was abundant. The peasants who had been saved from starving by Flor Silin now gathered around him.

        9. "Behold," said they, "the corn you lent us. You saved our wives and children. We should have been famished but for you; may God reward you; He only can; all we have to give is our corn and grateful thanks." "I want no corn at present, my good neighbors," said he; "my harvest has exceeded all my expectations; for the rest, thank Heaven, I have been but an humble instrument."

        10. They urged him in vain. "No," said he, "I shall not accept your corn. If you have superfluities, share them among your poor neighbors, who, being unable to sow their fields last autumn, are still in want--let us assist them, my dear friends, the Almighty will bless us for it."

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"Yes," replied the grateful peasants, "our poor neighbors shall have this corn. They shall know that it is to you that they owe this timely succor, and join to teach their children the debt of gratitude to your benevolent heart." Silin raised his tearful eyes to Heaven. An angel might have envied him his feelings.


        HAPPINESS.--Many persons go abroad for happiness, instead of seeking it where it must be found, if anywhere, within themselves. So have I seen an absent-minded man hunt for his hat, while it was in his hand or on his head.


    Spell and define--

  • 1. MOURN'FUL, sad.
  • 2. GOAL, end.
  • 3. DES'TINED, appointed.
  • 4. FLEET'ING, flying swiftly.
  • 5. BIV'OU AC, encampment in the open air.
  • 8. MAIN, ocean.
  • 9. A CHIEV'ING, accomplishing.


                         1. Tell me not, in mournful numbers,
                         Life is but an empty dream;
                         For the soul is dead that slumbers,
                         And things are not what they seem.

                         2. Life is real! Life is earnest!
                         And the grave is not its goal:
                         Dust thou art, to dust returnest,
                         Was not spoken of the soul.

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                         3. Not enjoyment, and not sorrow,
                         Is our destined end or way;
                         But to act, that each to-morrow
                         Find us farther than to-day.

                         4. Art is long, and time is fleeting,
                         And our hearts, though stout and brave
                         Still, like muffled drums, are beating
                         Funeral marches to the grave.

                         5. In the world's broad field of battle,
                         In the bivouac of life,
                         Be not like dumb, driven cattle;
                         Be a hero in the strife!

                         6. Trust no future, howe'er pleasant,
                         Let the dead past bury its dead;
                         Act! act in the living present!
                         Heart within, and God o'erhead.

                         7. Lives of great men all remind us
                         We can make our lives sublime,
                         And, departing, leave behind us
                         Footprints on the sands of time;

                         8. Footprints, that perhaps another,
                         Sailing o'er life's solemn main;
                         A forlorn and shipwreck'd brother,
                         Seeing, shall take heart again.

                         9. Let us, then, be up and doing,
                         With a heart for any fate;
                         Still achieving, still pursuing,
                         Love to labor and to wait.

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        VALUE OF TIME.--As every thread of gold is valuable, so is every moment of time; and as it would be great folly to shoe horses (as Nero did) with gold, so is it to spend time in trifles.

        Our time should not be estimated by days and years merely, but by the number of our good deeds.


    Spell and define--

  • 2. SAT'IS FIETH, gives content.
  • 3. EVER LAST'ING, never ending, lasting always.
    COV'E NANT, a mutual agreement.
  • 4. COM MAND'ER, one who directs or governs.
  • 7. UN RIGHT'EOUS, evil, wicked.
    A BUND'ANT LY, fully, amply.
  • 11. VOID, empty, in vain.
    AC COM'PLISH, effect, bring to pass.


        1. Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk, without money and without price.

        2. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? and your labor for that which satisfieth not, hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness.

        3. Incline your ear and come unto me; hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David.

        4. Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people.

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        5. Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, and nations that knew not thee shall run unto thee, because of the Lord thy God, and for the Holy One of Israel: for He hath glorified thee.

        6. Seek ye the Lord while He may be found, call ye upon Him while He is near:

        7. Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts; and let him return unto the Lord, and He will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon.

        8. For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord.

        9. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.

        10. For as the rain cometh down and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater:

        11. So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return to me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it.

        12. For ye shall go out with joy, and be led forth with peace: the mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands.

        13. Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir-tree; and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle-tree; and it shall be to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off.

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    Spell and define--

  • MIM'IC, one who imitates.
  • EX CEED'ED, surpassed.
  • COPIED, imitated.
  • SPORTS'MAN, a hunter.
  • AT TEMPT'ED, tried.
  • RUE, to regret.


                         A mimic I knew, who, to give him his due,
                         Was exceed'd by none and was equall'd by few.

                         He could bark like a dog; he could grunt like a hog;
                         Nay, I really believe he could croak like a frog.

                         Then, as for a bird,--you may trust to my word,
                         'Twas the best imitation that ever you heard:

                         It must be confess'd that he copied birds best:
                         You'd have thought he had lived all his life in a nest.

                         It happen'd, one day, that he came in the way
                         Of a sportsman,--an excellent marksman, they say.

                         And near a stone-wall, with his little bird-call,
                         The mimic attempted to imitate all.

                         So well did he do it, the birds all flew to it;
                         But, ah! he had certainly reason to rue it.

                         It turn'd out no fun,--for the man with the gun,
                         Who was seeking for partridges, took him for one.

                         He was shot in the side, and he feelingly cried,
                         A moment or so ere he fainted and died:

                         "Who for others prepare a trap, should beware
                         They do not themselves fall into the snare."

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    Spell and define--

  • WEALTH, riches.
  • BE SIEGED', hemmed in.
  • CON CEALED', secreted, hid.
  • IN'DUS TRY, habitual diligence.
  • HU MIL'I TY, freedom from pride.
  • POV'ER TY, want, indigence.
  • BUL'WARKS, fortifications.
  • O VER LOOKED', passed by without notice.
  • AR'RO GANCE, pride, presumption.
  • RE MOVE', to take away.


        1. It is very pleasant when you meet with a passage from an old Greek or Latin author that is not blown upon, and which you have never met with in a quotation. Of this kind is a beautiful saying in Theognis:--"Vice is covered by wealth, and virtue by poverty;" or, to give it in the verbal translation, "Among men there are some who have their vices concealed by wealth, and others who have their virtues concealed by poverty."

        2. Every man's observation will supply him with instances of rich men who have several faults and defects that are overlooked, if not entirely hidden, by means of their riches; and I think we cannot find a more natural description of a poor man, whose merits are lost in his poverty, than that in the words of the wise man:--"There was a little city, and few men within it; and there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it. Now, there was found in it a poor wise man, and he, by his wisdom, delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor man. Then, said I wisdom is better than strength; nevertheless,

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the poor man's wisdom is despised, and his words are not heard."

        3. The middle condition seems to be the most advantageously situated for the gaining of wisdom. Poverty turns our thoughts too much upon the supplying of our wants, and riches upon our enjoying superfluities; and, as Cowley has said, in another case; "It is hard for a man to keep a steady eye upon truth, who is always in a battle or a triumph."

        4. If we regard poverty and wealth, as they are apt to produce virtues or vices in the mind of man, one may observe that there is a set of each of these growing out of poverty, quite different from that which rises out of wealth. Humility and patience, industry and temperance, are very often the good qualities of a poor man; humanity and good nature, magnanimity, and a sense of honor, are as often the qualifications of the rich. On the contrary, poverty is apt to betray a man into envy; riches, into arrogance.

        5. Poverty is too often attended with fraud, vicious compliance, repining, murmur, and discontent; riches expose a man to pride and luxury, a foolish elation of heart, and too great a fondness for the present world. In short, the middle condition is most eligible to the man who would improve himself in virtue: as I have before shown, it is the most advantageous for the gaining of knowledge.

        6. It was upon this consideration that Agur founded his prayer, which, for the wisdom of it, is recorded in Holy Writ:--"Two things have I required of thee, deny me them not before I die. Remove far from me vanity and lies; give me neither poverty nor riches; feed me

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with food convenient for me; lest I be full and deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord? or lest I be poor, and steal, and take the name of my God in vain."


    Spell and define--

  • CRYS'TAL, transparent.
  • DROW'SY, sleepy, dull.
  • BOUND'ING, springing, jumping.
  • HUM'MING, noise of bees, or flies.
  • MIN'STRELS, musicians, singers.
  • FAR'MER, a tiller of the earth.
  • VER'DANT, green, fresh.
  • BE HOLD', to look upon, see, lo.
  • WITH HELD', restrained, kept back.
  • BRIGHT'ER, clearer, more shining.



                         1. Now that the winter's gone, the earth hath lost
                         Her snow-white robes, and now no more the frost
                         Candies the grass, or calls an icy cream
                         Upon the silver lake or crystal stream;
                         But the warm sun thaws the benumb'd earth,
                         And makes it tender; gives a second birth
                         To the dead swallow; wakes, in hollow trees,
                         The drowsy cuckoo, and the humble bee;
                         Now do a choir of chirping minstrels bring
                         The valleys, hills, and woods, in rich array,
                         Welcome the coming of the long'd-for May,
                         Now all things smile.


                         2. I'm coming along with a bounding pace,
                         To finish the work that spring begun;
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                         I've left them all with a brighter face,
                         The flowers in the vales through which I've run.
                         I have hung festoons from laburnum trees,
                         And clothed the lilac, the birch, the broom;
                         I've waken'd the sound of humming bees,
                         And deck'd all nature in brighter bloom.
                         For this is my life, my glorious reign,
                         And I'll queen it well in my leafy bower;
                         All shall be bright in my rich domain;
                         I'm queen of the leaf, the bud, and the flower,
                         And I'll reign in triumph, till autumn time
                         Shall conquer my green and verdant pride;
                         Then I'll hie me to another clime,
                         Till I'm call'd again as a sunny bride.


                         3. Now o'er the corn the sturdy farmer looks,
                         And swells with satisfaction to behold
                         The plenteous harvest, which repays his toil.
                         We, too, are gratified, and feel a joy
                         Inferior but to his, partakers all
                         Of the rich bounty Providence hath strew'd
                         In plentiful profusion o'er the field.
                         What to the eye more cheerful, to the heart
                         More satisfactive, than to look abroad,
                         And from the window see the reaper strip,
                         Look round, and put his sickle to the wheat?
                         Or hear the early mower whet his scythe,
                         And see where he has cut his sounding way,
                         E'en to the utmost edge of the brown field
                         Of oats or barley? What delights us more
                         Than studiously to trace the vast effects
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                         Of unabated labor? to observe
                         How soon the golden field abounds with sheaves?
                         How soon the oat and bearded barley fall,
                         In frequent lines, before the keen-edged scythe.


                         4. Lastly came Winter, clothed all in frieze,
                         Chattering his teeth for cold that did him chill;
                         Whilst on his hoary beard his breath did freeze,
                         And the dull drops that from his purpled bill,
                         As from a limbeck, did a-down distil:
                         In his right hand a tipp'd staff he held,
                         With which his feeble steps he stay'd still;
                         For he was faint with cold, and weak withheld,
                         That scarce his loosed limbs he able was to weld.


    Spell and define--

  • BLESS, to make happy.
  • BEN'E FITS, advantages, uses.
  • IN I'QUI TIES, sins, errors.
  • GRA'CIOUS, merciful, virtuous.
  • COM PAS'SION ATE, merciful, tender.
  • FOR GET', to neglect.
  • COV'E NANT, a bargain, a contract.
  • HOSTS, numbers, a great many.
  • DO MIN'ION, power, authority.
  • FLOUR ISHETH, thriveth.

PSALM 103.

                         1. Bless the Lord, O my soul:
                         And all that is within me
                         Bless the Lord, O my soul,
                         And forget not all His benefits

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                         2. Who forgiveth all thine iniquities;
                         Who healeth all thy diseases;
                         Who redeemeth thy life from destruction.
                         Who crowneth thee with kindness and mercies;

                         3. Who satisfieth thy mouth with good;
                         [So that] thy youth is renewed like the eagle's.
                         The Lord is compassionate and gracious,
                         Slow to anger, and of great kindness!

                         4. He will not always contend,
                         Nor will He keep
                         He hath not dealt with us according to our sins,
                         Nor rewarded us according to our iniquities;

                         5. For, according to the height of the heavens above the earth,
                         So great is His mercy to them that fear Him.
                         As far as the east is from the west,
                         So far hath He removed our transgressions from us.

                         6. As a father pitieth his children,
                         So the Lord pitieth them that fear Him,
                         For He knoweth our frame;
                         He remembereth that we are dust.

                         7. [As for] man, his days are as grass--
                         As the flower of the field, so he flourisheth:
                         For a blast passeth over him, and he is not;
                         And his place knoweth him no more.

                         8. But the mercy of the Lord is from eternity
                         And to eternity to them that fear Him.
                         And His righteousness to children's children;
                         To those who keep His covenant,

                         9. And to those who remember His commandments to do them.
                         The Lord hath prepared His throne in heaven.

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                         And His kingdom ruleth over all.
                         Bless the Lord, ye His angels,

                         10. Great in strength, fulfilling His word,
                         In obeying the voice of His commands,
                         Bless the Lord, all ye His hosts,
                         Ye ministers of His that do His pleasure:

                         11. Bless the Lord, all ye His works,
                         In every place of His dominion:
                         Bless the Lord, O my soul,
                         And all that is within me, bless His holy name.


    Spell and define--

  • HA'TED, despised.
  • DI'VERS, many, a number.
  • O BEI'SANCE, a bow.
  • RE BUKED', reproved, corrected.
  • PLOT'TED, conspired, planned.
  • WIL'DER NESS, a desert, or barren place.
  • RENT, tore, or lacerated,
  • BALM, a spice.
  • MER'CHANT MEN, traders.
  • DIS CERN', to see, or descry.
  • DO MIN'ION, territory, power over.
  • BEAST, a brute, an animal.


        1. And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger, the land of Canaan. Joseph being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the youth was with the sons of Bilhah, and the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives: and Joseph brought to his father their evil report. Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age, and he made him a coat of divers colors. And his

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brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, and they hated him, and could not speak peace with him.

        2. And Joseph dreamed a dream and told it to his brethren; and they hated him yet the more. And he said unto them, Hear now this dream which I have dreamed: for, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about and bowed themselves to my sheaf.

        3. And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign as a king over us? Shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they hated him yet the more for his dreams and for his words.

        4. And he dreamed yet another dream, and related it to his brethren, saying, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun, and the moon, and the eleven stars were doing obeisance to me. And he related it to his father and his brethren; and his father rebuked him, saying, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I, and thy mother, and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the ground? And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying.

        5. And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem. And Israel said to Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? come, I will send thee unto them. And he said unto him, Here I am. And he said to him, Go now, see if it be well with thy brethren, and with the flocks, and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.

        6. And a man found him, and, behold, he was wandering in the field, and the man asked him, saying, What

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seekest thou? And he said, I am seeking my brethren. Shew me, I pray thee, where they feed their flocks? And the man said, They have removed from this place, for I heard them saying, Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph went after them to Dothan.

        7. And when they saw him after off, before he came near them, they plotted against him to slay him; and said, one to another, Behold, this same master of dreams cometh. And now come, and let us kill him, and let us cast him into one of the pits, we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him; and we shall see what will become of his dreams. And Reuben heard, and delivered him out of their hands, and said, Let us not kill him. And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood, cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him--that he might deliver him out of their hands, to restore him to his father.

        8. And it came to pass, when Joseph was come to his brethren, that they stripped him of his coat of divers colors, and cast him into a pit; and they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes, and, behold, a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with camels, bearing spices, and balm, and myrrh to Egypt.

        9. And Judah said unto his brethren, What gain shall we have when we kill our brother, and conceal his blood? Come, let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him, for he is our brother and our flesh. And as the Ishmaelites passed by they lifted Joseph out of the pit, and they sold him to them for twenty pieces of silver.

        10. And Reuben returned to the pit, and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes, and

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returned unto his brethren, and said, The lad is not, and I, whither shall I go? And they took Joseph's coat, and they killed a kid, and dipped his coat in the blood. And they brought the coat to their father, and said, This have we found, discern now whether it be thy son's coat or not? And he discerned it, and said, It is my son's coat; an evil beast hath devoured him.

        11. And Jacob rent his clothes, and put sackcloth on his loins, and mourned over his son many days. Then his father wept for him. And the Midianites sold him in Egypt to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, and captain of the guard.


    Spell and define--

  • HIRED, engaged for wages.
  • SIN' NERS, wicked persons.
  • NEIGH' BORS, those who live near.
  • RE JOICE', to be glad.
  • RE PENT' ANCE, sorrow for sins.
  • JOUR' NEY, travel generally.
  • WOR' THY, deserving, suitable.
  • COM PAS' SION, pity, commiseration.
  • EN TREAT'ED, importuned, begged.
  • FAM' INE, scarcity of food.


        1. Now all the publicans and sinners were resorting to Him to hear Him; and the Pharisees and scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them. And He spake this parable to them, saying,

        2. What man of you, having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it? And having found it, he layeth it on his

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shoulders, rejoicing. And coming home, he calleth together his friends and neighbors, saying unto them, Rejoice with me; for I have found my sheep which was lost. I say to you, that so there shall be joy in heaven over one repenting sinner, more than over ninety and nine righteous persons who need to repentance.

        3. Or what woman having ten pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently until she find it? And having found it, she calleth her friends and neighbors together, saying, Rejoice with me; for I have found the piece which I had lost. So, I say to you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one repenting sinner.

        4. And He said, A certain man had two sons; and the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of property that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living. And not many days after, the younger son having gathered all together took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his property in living riotously. And having spent all, a mighty famine came over that land; and he began to be in want.

        5. And he went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country; and he sent him into the fields to feed swine. And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat; and no man gave unto him. And having come to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father's have abundance of bread, and I perish with hunger! I will arise and go to my father, and I will say to him, Father, I have sinned against heaven and before thee; I am no longer worthy to be called thy son; make me as one of thy hired servants' And rising up he came to his father.

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        6. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and running, fell on his neck, and kissed him. And the son said to him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no longer worthy to be called thy son. But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet; and bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat and be merry; because this my son was dead, and is come to life again; was lost and is found. And they began to be merry.

        7. Now his elder son was in the field, and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard music and dancing. And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant. And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him in health.

        8. And he was angry, and would not go in: his father, therefore, coming out, entreated him. And he answering said to his father, Lo, these many years have I served thee, and I have never transgressed thy commandments: and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends: but as soon as this thy son, who hath devoured thy property with harlots, was come, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf. And he said unto him, Son, thou art always with me, and all that I have is thine. It was fit that we should make merry and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is come to life again; was lost, and is found.

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    Spell and define--

  • DIS CI'PLES, followers.
  • D'EBT'OR, one that owes money.
  • BEG'GAR, one who begs.
  • LIKE'WISE, in like manner, also.
  • PLUCKED, torn up.
  • STEW'ARD, a manager of another's affairs.
  • MEAS'URES, things by which articles are measured.
  • MAM'MON, riches, wealth.
  • FIELD, a piece of ground.
  • TOR MENT'ED, pained.


        1. And he said also to His disciples, There was a certain rich man that had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods. And he called him and said to him, What is this that I hear of thee? Give an account of thy stewardship; for thou mayest be no longer steward. Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do, for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship; to dig, I am not able; to beg, I am ashamed. I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. So having called every one of his lord's debtors, he said unto the first, How much dost thou owe to my lord? And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty.

        2. Then said he to another, And how much dost thou owe? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take thy bill and write eighty. And the lord gave to the unjust steward the praise of having done prudently: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.

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And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that when ye are dismissed, they may receive you into the everlasting habitations.

        3. He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much. If, therefore, ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust that which is true? And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own? No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

        4. But the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things: and they derided Him. And he said to them, Ye are they who justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts; for that which is in high esteem among men is abomination in the sight of God. The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it. But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than for one tittle of the law to fall.

        5. Every one that putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery: and every one that marrieth her that is put away from her husband committeth adultery.

        There was a certain rich man, who was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared splendidly every day: and there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, who was laid at his gate, full of sores, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs also came and licked his sores.

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        6. And it came to pass that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried; and, in the place of the dead, lifting up his eyes, being in torments, he seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom: and he cried out and said, Father Abraham, have pity on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame. But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou, in thy lifetime, didst receive thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented.

        7. And, beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed; so that they who would pass hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us from thence. Then he said, I pray thee, therefore, father, that thou wouldst send him to my father's house; for I have five brethren; that he may testify to them, lest they also come into this place of torment.

        8. Abraham saith to him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one go to them from the dead, they will repent. And he said to him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, they will not be persuaded even if one rise from the dead.

        9. Then said He to the disciples, It is impossible but that offences will come: but woe to him through whom they come! It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should cause one of these little ones to offend.

        10. Take heed to yourselves: if thy brother trespass against thee, reprove him; and if he repent, forgive him.

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And if he trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt forgive him. And the apostles said to the Lord, Increase our faith. And the Lord said, If ye had faith, as a grain of mustard-seed, ye might say to this sycamine-tree, Be thou plucked up by the root, and be thou planted in the sea; and it should obey you.

        11. But which of you, having a servant ploughing, or feeding cattle, will say to him immediately when he is come from the field, Go, and sit down to meat? and will not rather say unto him, Make ready whereon I may sup, and girding thyself, serve me, whilst I eat and drink, and afterwards thou shalt eat and drink? Doth he thank that servant because he did the things that were commanded him? I think not. So also ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants; we have done that which it was our duty to do.


    Spell and define--

  • SWAMP, a marsh, a bog.
  • CA NOE', a small boat.
  • TANGLED', knotted, interwoven.
  • SLUM'BER, light sleep, repose.
  • DEAD'LY, destructive, mortal.
  • ME'TEOR, a luminous appearance in the air.
  • VEN'O MOUS, poisonous.
  • SPARK, a small particle of fire.
  • PAD'DLE, to row, to dabble.
  • CLOUDS, vapor in the air.


        * They tell of a young man in Virginia, who lost his mind upon the death of a girl he loved, and who, suddenly disappearing, was never afterwards heard of. As he had frequently said in his ravings that the girl was not dead, but gone to the dismal swamp, it is supposed he wandered into that dreary wilderness, and had died of hunger, or been lost in some of its dreadful morasses.

                         1. "They made her a grave, too cold and damp,
                         For a soul so warm and true;

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                         And she's gone to the lake of the dismal swamp,
                         Where all night long, by a fire-fly lamp,
                         She paddles her white canoe.

                         2. "And her fire-fly lamp I soon shall see,
                         And her paddle I soon shall hear;
                         Long and loving our life shall be,
                         And I'll hide the maid in a cypress tree,
                         When the footstep of death is near."

                         3. Away to the dismal swamp he speeds--
                         His path was ragged and sore,
                         Through tangled juniper, beds of reeds,
                         Through many a fen, where the serpent feeds,
                         And man never trod before.

                         4. And when on the earth he sunk to sleep,
                         If slumber his eyelids knew,
                         He lay where the deadly vine doth weep
                         Its venomous tear, and nightly steep
                         The flesh with blistering dew!

                         5. And near him the she-wolf stirr'd the brake,
                         And the copper-snake breathed in his ear,
                         Till he starting cried, from his dream awake,
                         "Oh when shall I see the dusky lake,
                         And the white canoe of my dear?"

                         6. He saw the lake, and a meteor bright
                         Quick over its surface played--

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                         "Welcome," he said, "my dear one's light!"
                         And the dim shore echoed, for many a night,
                         The name of the death-cold maid.

                         7. Till he hollow'd a boat of the birchen bark,
                         Which carried him off from shore;
                         Far, far, he follow'd the meteor spark,
                         The wind was high, and the clouds were dark,
                         And the boat return'd no more.

                         8. But oft, from the Indian hunter's camp,
                         This lover and maid so true
                         Are seen at the hour of midnight damp
                         To cross the lake by a fire-fly lamp,
                         And paddle their white canoe.



        GENESIS xvii.--12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man-child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed.

        13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.

        23. And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham's house;

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and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin, in the self-same day, as God had said unto him.

        26. In the self-same day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.

        27. And all the men of his house, born in the house, and bought with money of the stranger, were circumcised with him.

        LEVITICUS XXV.--39. And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee; thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bond-servant,

        40. But as a hired servant, and as a sojourner he shall be with thee, and shall serve thee unto the year of jubilee:

        41. And then shall he depart from thee, both he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return.

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        42. For they are my servants which I brought out of the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold as bondmen.

        43. Thou shalt not rule over him with rigor, but shalt fear thy God.

        44. But thy bond-men and thy bond-maids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen that are round about you: of them shall ye buy bond-men and bond-maids.

        45. Moreover, of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land; and they shall be your possession.

        46. And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession, they shall be your bond-men for ever; but over your brethren the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigor.

        1 KINGS ix.--21. Their children that were left after them in the land, whom the children of Israel were not able utterly to destroy, upon those did Solomon levy a tribute of bond-service unto this day.

        22. But of the children of Israel did Solomon make no bond-men; but they were his men of war, and his servants, and his princes, and his captains, and rulers of his chariots, and his horsemen.


        EXODUS xxi.--5. And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free;

        6. Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door-post;

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and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever.

        DEUTERONOMY xv. 16. And it shall be, if he say unto thee, I will not go away from thee; because he loveth thee and thy house, because he is well with thee;

        17. Then thou shalt take an awl, and thrust it through his ear unto the door, and he shall be thy servant for ever. And also unto thy maid-servant thou shalt do likewise.

        NOTE.--The Hebrew and Greek words translated servant, bond-man, bond-maid, &c., in this and the succeeding lessons are always used in those languages when slave is meant.

        The laws so strictly forbidding the permanent servitude of their Hebrew brethren, and at the same time permitting and advising it, in regard to foreigners, are striking and decisive. Their slaves were a possession, bought, sold, and inherited, and were procured of "the heathen round about them," and of "the children of the strangers sojourning among them." So it continued all through the Bible history; all through the period from Malachi to Christ, and all through the New Testament period.

        We infer from the language of the Evangelists, the phraseology in Christ's language and parables, that there were slaves in almost every family who were able to afford them. And the apostolic epistles show that there were in all the primitive churches, believing masters and believing slaves; and there is no hint of the unlawfulness of this relation, any more than that of the husband and wife, or parent and child.

        The whole Bible has come from a slaveholding people. It is full of allusions to this institution. And any man who makes a Concordance, and omits the distinction between hireling and slave, makes the Bible contradictory to itself and absurd.

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        GENESIS xxxii.--3. And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother, unto the land of Seir, the country of Edom.

        4. And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye speak unto my lord Esau; Thy servant Jacob saith thus, I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed until now;

        5. And I have oxen, and asses, flocks, and men-servants, and women-servants: and I have sent to tell my lord, that I may find grace in thy sight.

        GENESIS xxvi.--13. And the man waxed great, and went forward, and grew until he became very great;

        14. For he had possession of flocks, and possession of herds, and great store of servants: and the Philistines envied him.

        GENESIS xx.--10. But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God; in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates.

        17. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbor's.

        1 SAMUEL xxv.--10. And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, Who is David? and who is the son of Jesse? there be many servants now-a-days that break away every man from his master.

        1 KINGS ii.--39. And it came to pass at the end of

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three years, that two of the servants of Shimei ran away unto Achish son of Maachah king of Gath; and they told Shimei, saying, Behold, thy servants be in Gath.

        40. And Shimei arose and saddled his ass, and went to Gath to Achish to seek his servants; and Shimei went and brought his servants from Gath.

        ESTHER vii.--4. For we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bond-men and bond-women, I had held my tongue, although the enemy could not countervail the king's damage.

        PROVERBS xii.--9. He that is despised, and hath a servant, is better than he that honoureth himself, and lacketh bread.

        PROVERBS xvii.--2. A wise servant shall rule over a son that causeth shame, and shall have part of the inheritance among the brethren.

        ECCLESIASTES ii.--7. I got me servants and maidens, and had servants born in my house; also I had great possessions of great and small cattle above all that were in Jerusalem before me.

        JEREMIAH xxxiv.--8. This is the word that came unto Jeremiah from the Lord, after that the king Zedekiah had made a covenant with all the people which were at Jerusalem, to proclaim liberty unto them;

        9. That every man should let his man-servant, and every man his maid-servant, being a Hebrew or a Hebrewess, go free; that none should serve himself of them, to wit, of a Jew his brother.

        EZEKIEL xxvii.--13. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were thy merchants; they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass in thy market.

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        MATTHEW xxiv.--45. Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them their meet in due season?

        46. Blessed is that servant, whom his lord, when he cometh, shall find so doing.

        47. Verily I say unto you, that he shall make him ruler over all his goods.

        48. But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;

        49. And shall begin to smite his fellow-servants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;

        50. The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of,

        51. And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him a portion with the hypocrites; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

        LUKE xvii.--7. But which of you, having a servant ploughing, or feeding cattle, will say unto him by and by, when he is come from the field, Go and sit down to meat?

        8. And will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself and serve me, till I have eaten and drunken, and afterward thou shalt eat and drink?

        9. Doth he thank that servant, because he did the things that were commanded him? I trow not.

        LUKE xx.--9. Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country for a long time.

        10. And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard;

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but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty.

        11. And again he sent another servant; and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.

        12. And again he sent a third; and they wounded him also, and cast him out.

        13. Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son; it may be they will reverence him when they see him.

        JOHN xviii.--10. Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.

        26. One of the servants of the high priest (being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off) saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?

        PHILEMON--8. Wherefore, though I might be much bold in Christ to enjoin thee that which is convenient,

        9. Yet for love's sake I rather beseech thee, being such a one as Paul the aged, and now also a prisoner of Jesus Christ.

        10. I beseech thee for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten in my bonds:

        11. Which in times past was to thee unprofitable, but now profitable to thee and to me:

        12. Whom I have sent again: thou therefore receive him, that is, my own bowels:

        13. Whom I would have retained with me, that in thy stead he might have ministered unto me in the bonds of the gospel:

        14. But without thy mind would I do nothing; that thy benefit should not be as it were of necessity, but willingly.

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        15. For perhaps he therefore departed for a season, that thou shouldest receive him for ever:

        16. Not now as a servant, but above a servant, a brother beloved, especially to me, but how much more unto thee, both in the flesh, and in the Lord?

        17. If thou count me therefore a partner, receive him as myself.

        18. If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee aught, put that on my account.

        19. I Paul have written it with my own hand, I will repay it: albeit I do not say to thee how thou owest unto me, even thine own self besides.



        GENESIS xxi.--20. If a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished.

        21. But if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished; for he is his money.

        LEVITICUS xxv.--43. Thou shalt not rule over him with rigor, but shalt fear the Lord.

        PROVERBS xxix.--19. A servant will not be corrected by words; for though he understand he will not answer.

        21. He that delicately bringeth up his servant from a child, shall have him become his son at the length.

        PROVERBS xxx.--10. Accuse not a servant unto his master, lest he curse thee, and thou be found guilty.

        EPHESIANS vi.--9. And, ye masters, do the same thing

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unto them, forbearing threatening; knowing that your master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him.

        COLOSSIANS iv.--1. Masters, give unto your servants that which is just and equal; knowing that ye also have a Master in heaven.


        GENESIS xvi.--7. And the angel of the Lord found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.

        8. And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou, and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai.

        9. And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hand.

        PROVERBS xxvii.--18. Whoso keepeth the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof; so he that waiteth on his master shall be honored.

        1 CORINTHIANS vii.--20. Let every man abide in the same calling wherein he was called.

        21. Art thou called being a servant? Care not for it; but if thou mayest be made free, use it rather.

        EPHESIANS vi.--5. Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;

        6. Not with eye-service, as men-pleasers, but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart.

        7. With good-will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men.

        8. Knowing that what good thing any man doeth, the some shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free

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        COLOSSIANS iii.--22. Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh; not with eye-service, as men-pleasers; but in singleness of heart, fearing God:

        23. And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men:

        24. Knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance; for ye serve the Lord Christ.

        1 TIMOTHY vi.--1. Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honor, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.

        2. And they that have believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brethren; but rather do them service, because they are faithful and beloved, partakers of the benefit. These things teach and exhort.

        3. If any man teach otherwise, and consent not to wholesome words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which is according to godliness;

        4. He is proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions and strifes of words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings.

        5. Perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness; from such withdraw thyself.

        TITUS ii.--9. Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again:

        10. Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.

        1 PETER ii.--18. Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but to the froward.

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        19. For this is thank-worthy, if a man for conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully.

        20. For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God.


    Spell and define--

  • DECI'DED, determined, acted upon.
  • IN AD'EQUATE, not equal to, not enough.
  • PART'NER, a sharer, an associate.
  • LIT' ER A RY, pertaining to letters.
  • AU'THOR SHIP, state of being an author.
  • PUB'LISHED, printed, issued.
  • VOL'UMES, books.
  • MIN' STREL SY, music.
  • PRESSES, machines for printing.
  • STER'E O TYPE, a solid or fixed type.


        1. Our little scholars will doubtless wonder what Walter Scott has to do with "Our Own Readers." Now if they will have patience, and read this lesson, they will find out what it was.

        2. A great many years ago there was a little newspaper published in the town of Kelso, Scotland. The great taste displayed by the printer attracted Scott's attention, and he determined that all he wrote should be published by him.

        3. Scott being one day at the office, he was begged to furnish a few paragraphs on some legal question of the day for the paper. He complied; and, carrying the

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article himself to the office, he shewed the printer some metrical translations he had made from the German, suggesting that some of them be published in a pamphlet, to let the public judge of his typography.

        4. It was done; and Scott was so much pleased with it, that he proposed to publish a neat little volume of these verses. This was highly pleasing to the printer. The result was that two volumes of "Border Minstrelsy" were published. When the book appeared, the imprint, "Kelso," was read with wonder; many persons never heard of such a place, and were astonished at such a handsome book being printed in so small a town.

        5. Scott then proposed that the office should be removed to Edinburgh. After the publication of several other volumes, this was done; and the two presses were accommodated in a small building near Holyrood Palace. About this time Scott published his first poem, the "Lay of the Last Minstrel," and its success decided him to make literature the main business of his life.

        6. The business extended so rapidly that the printer found his means were inadequate to meet the demands that were made. He stated his difficulty to Scott, and applied for aid. This was promised on condition of being admitted as a partner. This arrangement was kept a strict secret. The "Edinburgh Review," now one of the leading literary journals, made its first appearance, and was for many years printed at this office.

        7. Numerous other works were published from time to time, and about the year 1814, the first of Scott's novels, "Waverley," was published. The great popularity of the book was unparalleled, and Scott was earnestly pressed to avow the authorship, but he steadfastly refused. The other

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novels came out from time to time; some were published by other establishments.

        8. The little office was now taxed to its utmost, and it became necessary to remove to larger buildings, and to have more presses; and in 1822, one hundred and forty-five thousand volumes were issued from these presses. In 1832 Scott died, and the partnership was dissolved, but the establishment is still kept up, and keeps a number of hands employed, and many presses at work.

        9. The demand for "Our Own Series" increased to such an extent, that it became necessary for them to be stereotyped; and so an agent was sent to England to have it done. Finding that the work could be done to better advantage in Edinburgh, he had the work done in that city.

        10. Now you will want to know what this had to do with Walter Scott, and you shall know; it is, that these books were stereotyped, and the first edition printed, in the very same establishment in which his novels were published, and in which he was a partner. In the little private room which he used is still the large old leather-covered chair in which Scott sat. These little books are the first Confederate books that have been stereotyped.



Page back cover

Our Own Series of School Books.

    Richard Sterling, A. M., & J. D. Campbell, A. M.

  • I. Our Own Primer. For the children. Stereotype, edition; handsomely illustrated: pp. 48, 12mo.
  • II. Our Own Spelling Book. Stereotype edition, illustrated, pp. 128, 12mo.
  • III. Our Own First Reader. Arranged to follow the Primer' and containing easy lessons for those beginning to read, with spelling lessons accompanying each. Stereotype edition, fully illustrated, pp. 96, 12mo.
  • IV. Our Own Second Reader. The lessons in this book have been carefully selected to suit the progress of those who have finished the First Reader, and at the same time to furnish both entertainment and instruction. Stereotype edition, with numerous illustrations, pp. 192, 12mo.
  • V. Our Own Third Reader. In this book the most difficult words of each lesson are defined, to aid the pupil in understanding what he reads. Each lesson is also followed by an Exercise to be written on the black board or slate, for the purpose of teaching the pupil to spell and punctuate. Stereotype edition, illustrated, pp. 224, 12mo.
  • VI. Our Own Fourth Reader. The lessons in this book will be found to possess high literary merit, without being above the capacity of the young reader. Definitions of the more difficult words are continued. In press.
  • VII. Our Own Fifth Reader. A Rhetorical Reader for the more advanced clases in Academies and High Schools. In course of preparation.

    BY C. W. SMYTHE, A. M.

  • Our Own Primary Grammar. Designed for the use of beginners, and containing only the simple facts of the language. pp. 72, 12mo.
  • Our Own Elementary Grammar. Designed for our Schools and Academies, as a sequel to the primary Grammar, and embracing a complete elementary statement of the subject.
  • Our Own High School Grammar. In press.

    BY S. LANDER, A. M.

  • Our Own Primary Arithmetic. For the use of beginners. pp. 96, 12mo.
  • Our Own Mental Arithmetic. In course of preparation.
  • Our Own School Arithmetic. pp. 224, 12mo.
    For the use of Schools. Containing copious Exercises with Vocabularies.
    With explanatory notes and a complete Vocabulary.

        Sterling Campbell & Albright, Publishers,

        GREENSBORO, N[.] C.