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Alexander Jeffrey McKelway, 1866-1918, A. E. Seddon, A. H. Ulm, and Lewis Wickes Hine, 1874-1940
Child Labor in the Carolinas: [A]ccount of Investigations Made in the Cotton Mills of North and South Carolina, by Rev. A. E. Seddon, A. H. Ulm and Lewis W. Hine, under the Direction of the Southern Office of the National Child Labor Committee.
[New York]: [National Child Labor Committee], [1909].
List of Illustrations


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[Cover Image]

No. 1--NEW YEAR'S DAY AT ATHERTON MILLS, CHARLOTTE N. C.
Mr. Hine was refused permission to photograph children in the mill. These doffer boys were photographed at the noon hour.
No. 2.--HIGH SHOALS.
Mill running at eight p. m. Mr. Hine was forbidden to photograph children. This mill and one at Atherton, where also photographing was forbidden, are under the management of D. A. Tompkins, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the "National Child Labor Commission."

No. 3.--CATAWBA COTTON MILL, NEWTON, N. C.
Of forty employees ten were not larger than these. The girl is spinning, the boy is a doffer.
No. 4.--NEWTON COTTON MILL, NEWTON. N. C.
Boy has worked two years at warping machine. It is usually stated that children work only in spinning rooms. Among 150 employees twenty appeared to be twelve years of age or less.

No. 5.--COTTON MILL, WHITNEL, N. C.
On the night shift, waiting for the whistle. Smallest boy and girl about fifty inches tall. Smallest girl had been in mill two years, six months at night. One medium sized boy had doffed four years, partly at night, and gets sixty cents a night. Work after eight p. m. is illegal for children under fourteen years.
No. 6.--COTTON MILL, WHITNEL, N. C.
Spinner, fifty-one inches tall, runs four sides, earns forty-eight cents a day. Two years in the mill. Ten boys and girls about this size on day shift and ten on night, among fifty employees on each shift.

No. 7.
KESSLER MANUFACTURING
CO.
SALISBURY N. C.
Superintendent Mason (only man in the picture) consented to taking photograph on condition that "things must be represented as they were." Here they are!
No. 8.
LORAY MILL,
GASTONIA, N.C.
Closing hour after twelve-hour day. One of the smallest boys said he had been in the mill two or three years. He is now twelve years old.
No. 9.
WAMPUM MANUFACTURING CO.
LINCOLNTON, N. C.
Photograph taken at noon hour. Investigator not allowed to take pictures inside the mill.

No. 10.--DANIEL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LINCOLNTON, N. C.
Six years old. Stays all day in the mill where his mother and sister work. Is beginning to "help" a little and will probably soon be regularly at work, though his name may not appear on the payroll.
No. 11.--GASTONIA, N. C.
Boy on right of picture is ten years old. Has worked three years in the mill, though in school part of the time. Boy on left said he was twelve years old. Has worked in the mill two years and at night nine months. Work below the age of twelve years in factories, even as apprentices, is illegal. Work at night is illegal before the fourteenth birthday.

No. 12.--SCOTLAND MILLS, LAURINBURG, N. C.
Tallest lad about fourteen years old, has worked eight years in mill, six years at night. The next in height has worked there three years.
No. 13.--DICKSON MILL, LAURINBURG, N. C.
Children of night superintendent. Bessie runs four sides, his worked two years at night. Frank (smallest) doffer, has worked two years at night. George (largest) doffer, has worked three years at night. Was proud that he could write his name. Night work of all these children is illegal.

No. 14.--ANOTHER NIGHT SHIFT.
Going to work at 6 o'clock on a cold, dark, December night. They came out at 6 o'clock in the morning, drenched by a cold rain. Two of the smaller girls, with three other sisters, support a big, lazy father, who complains that he is not well enough to work, the oldest of the sisters having been in the mill for seven years and the two youngest for two years each. Three smaller children at home will recruit the family purse soon. The two girls at the extreme left of the picture looked to be twelve years old. Both had been in the mill two years and one had worked six months and the other one year at night.

No. 15--1. DILLON MILL, DILLON, S. C.--Tallest girl has helped six months in mill; Mamie, holding baby, three years. 2. MAPLE MILL, DILLON S. C.--Larger sister one year in the mill; the mother said the little sister "helps", but a bystander said "She works regularly". 3. IVEY MILL, HICKORY. N. C.--Doffers and sweepers. The president of this mill says: "Not over ten per cent of the mills observe it" (the child labor law). 4. SPRINGSTEIN MILLS, CHESTER, S. C.--Saturday ball game. Boy with ball is twelve years old, fifty-two inches tall, a weaver running six looms. Two years in mill. 5. EUREKA COTTON MILL, CHESTER, S. C.--Tallest, ten years in the mill; second three years; shortest, ten years old fifty-two inches tall, two years in the mill, spinning, earns sixty cents a day.

No. 16.--NEWBERRY MILLS, S. C. Noon hour. All are employees. The unguarded wheel and belt at the left are sinister neighbors for little girls' arms, skirts and braids. There was no factory inspection in South Carolina.

No. 17
WYLIE MILL, CHESTER,
S. C.
The barefoot lad, now thirteen years old, has worked since he was six. He has lost part of a finger in machinery. The other boy, now eleven, has worked a year.
No. 18.
TYPES OF ADULT OPERATIVES,
CLINTON, S. C.
No. 19.
MAPLE MILLS, DILLON,
S. C.
Taller boy has doffed four years, gets forty cents a day. Shorter boy, ten year old, three years in the mill, runs three sides; gets thirty cents a day.

No. 20.--WHERE MILL CHILDREN GO TO SCHOOL AT LANCASTER, S. C.
Enrollment 163, attendance usually about 100. There are more than 1,000 operatives in the mill. The mill is geographically part of Lancaster, but on account of the taxes has been kept just out of the corporate limits.

No. 21.--WHERE OTHER CHILDREN GO TO SCHOOL AT LANCASTER, S. C.
This is a public school.

No. 22.--LANCASTER S. C.
Spinner. A type of many in the mill. If they are children of widows or of disabled fathers, they may legally work until nine p. m., while other children must legally quit at eight p. m.
No. 23.--LANCASTER, S. C.
Has worked six months, is forty-eight inches tall. One of many small children at work in Lancaster Cotton Mills. Children may legally work at any age in June, July and August if they have attended school four months that year and can read and write.

No. 24.--NOT A VIOLATION OF THE SOUTH CAROLINA LAW.
The girl at the machine was seven years old last spring when this photograph was taken by Rev. A. E. Seddon in a South Carolina mill. She had then been at work a year and a half. But as she was an orphan she was allowed to work by the law.

No. 25.--GOING HOME AFTER DARK.
A group of employees at the Clinton, S. C. Mill, going home from work after dark. The photograph was taken by flashlight, as the superintendent would not allow pictures to be taken in the mill. From this it appears that even where there is no night work, the eleven-hour day requires children to go to work while it is yet dark and to work till after nightfall.
No. 26.--"BACK TO THE FARM."
Wylie Mill, Chester, S. C.--The boy holding the calf, which he is raising for beef, has worked in the mill two years. Next to him is his little brother, a "helper" in the mill. Next stands another worker. The father says: "Just as soon as the boys get big enough to handle a plow we go straight back to the farm. The factory is no place for boys." Let us hope that this plan will be realized in time to save the two babies!