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Useful Information Concerning Yellow Tobacco,
and Other Crops, as Told by Fifty of
the Most Successful Farmers of Granville County, N. C.:

Electronic Edition.

Hunter, J. B., Capt.


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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
2001.

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Source Description:
(title page) Useful Information Concerning Yellow Tobacco, and Other Crops, as told by Fifty of the Most Successful Farmers of Granville County, N. C.
Capt. J. B. Hunter
50 p., ill.
Oxford, N. C.
W. A. Davis, Editor and Proprietor Torch-Light
1880

Call number Cp633.71 H94u (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)


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Illustration


USEFUL INFORMATION
CONCERNING
Yellow Tobacco,
AND OTHER CROPS
AS TOLD BY
Fifty of the Most Successful Farmers
OF
GRANVILLE COUNTY, N.C.

BY

CAPT. J. B. HUNTER,
AGRICULTURAL EDITOR, OXFORD, N. C. TORCH-LIGHT.

PUBLISHED BY W. A, DAVIS, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR TORCH-LIGHT,
OXFORD, N. C.
1880.

Illustration

The Torch-Light, W. A. Davis, Editor and Proprietor, Oxford, Granville County, N. C.


Page 1

        

Illustration

"Dont' Forget It." H. McSmith, "McSmith's Music House," Charlotte, N. C.


Page 2

        

Illustration

For Bright Tobacco. Allison & Addison's "Star Brand" Tobacco Manure. Richmond, VA.


Page 3

INTRODUCTION

        WHEN God created the heavens and the earth, he stored them with substances of wealth and of power. He put away in secret places rich treasures for the future use of mankind. Far back in the past, Job wrote: "Surely there is a vein for the silver and a place for the gold where they find it. Iron is taken out of the earth and brass out of the stone. He setteth and end to darkness and searcheth out all perfection. * * * As for the earth out of it cometh bread, and out of it is turned up as it were fire, * * * There is a path which no fowl knoweth, and which the vulture's eye hath not seen. * * .* He bindeth the floods from overflowing, and the thing that is hid bringeth He forth to light."

        Nearly all the material resources of the earth have doubtless been discovered. For centuries mankind have been given mostly to material pursuits. Man is inquisitive as well as acquisitive, and he has ransacked every corner of the earth for its material wealth. He has gone from the mountain top to the sea bottom. He has explored amid polar snows and ice and burning tropics with the same energy. He has found the vein of silver and the deposit of gold. He may not have found it all, it is true. There may be mines of wealth in some form yet, and that, too, where the world has least expected it. The future may show us that we have been standing unconciously for ages right over exhaustless treasures. To have rolled all the wealth of the world at our feet at once would have dazed the intellect and corrupted the universal heart, and hence God only gives to us His good gifts as we are able to appreciate and use them. The sudden discovery of a gold mine is a great demoralizing event. Sudden wealth has ruined many.

        Dr. Franklin invented the first contrivance for economizing heat when he employed the iron frame fire-place, which still bears his name. And though the power of steam was just as great in Noah's day and a steam engine just as possible in the time of Moses as it is now, it was reserved for Watts and Fulton to startle the world with the discovery of its application.

        It is in the memory of the middle aged men of Granville county when the nearest market for the leaf tobacco produced here was Petersburg, Va. This was before the iron horse had traversed the State, and a trip to Petersburg was then accomplished with more difficulty and occupied longer time, than is now required to take a hogshead of tobbacco to Liverpool, sell it and return. Nor would the preparation for the one trip be greater, or occasion more speculation among the neighbors than the other.

        We are always interested in listening to the adventures of old men who "rolled" tobacco to market when a "very small boy." Old


Page 4

Illustration

Machinery! Wayne Alcott, Manufacturers' Agent, Raleigh, N.C.


Page 5

Peter Parley was never more communicative or entertaining. The time of which we write was a later period than that, when the tail of the ox was utilized in the place of chain traces in plowing; and still later, when in colonial times, the method of curing tobacco then was in heaps, and afterwards upon lines, which were sent here from England for this purpose. The next advancement in the art of curing tobacco consisted in driving a wooden peg into the stalk of each plant, and as fast as they were pegged hung upon tobacco sticks, "after the manner they hang herrings in Yarmouth." And yet our rude fore-fathers raised pound plants! They were "restrayned in the cultivation of the weed" to one hundred plants "ye head," and upon each of these plants there were to be left but nine leaves, which was generally conceived would be agreeable with the hundred weight allowed. These legislative restrictions were for "the drawing of the people from the excessive planting of tobacco." By proclamation of April 4,1628, it was directed that such a reasonable proportion of tobacco only shall be planted as may be cultivated without injury to a plentiful crop of corn, and that the plants should be set at least four and a half feet a part, and not more than twelve leaves should be allowed to the plant.

        John Rolfe (the husband of Pocahontas) we may believe was then as good authority in the management of tobacco as are now the Tilleys, Hobgoods, Howards, Knotts, Crews, Hesters, and others of our county of Granville. And yet John Rolfe and Capt. John Smith, with their pound plants to boast of never dreamed that this uppowac could be so marvelously transformed into a thing of beauty" as it is now done by the system of flue-curing.

"North Carolina, or Bust."

        Was the determined resolution of a wagon load of people, who had several years ago, like old Damas, left their native home, (Iredell Co., N. C.) to seek their fortunes in Illinois; and so intent were they upon putting their resolve into execution, and that others might be deterred for acting as they had done in leaving the Old North State in the hope of improving their condition, these disappointed people published to all on the road to their old home their purpose to do so "or bust."

        It is well known that the lands of Illinois are as "rich as Cream." The writer has seen corn growing in Illinois that had received only one working, and over 20 bbls. to the acre were gathered. We have seen corn so plentiful, that self-feeding corn cribs were the only kind known, with holes for the corn to empty into troughs, out of which all kinds of stock fed at will. So plentiful was corn that it was utilized as fuel. We have seen pumpkins grown there larger than a flour barrel. Indeed, as far as the fertility of the soil and its adaptation to the growth of corn, cereals and vegetables of many kinds, are concerned, the farmer could not wish for a better


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Illustration

Talbott & Sons, Shockoe Machine Works, Richmond, V.A.

        The Winston Leader. Jas. A Robinson, Editor. Winston, N.C.


Page 7

country. But nature does not lavish all her blessings upon one section, and where special blessings are poured out in such rich profusion we do not generally find them extended in a very great variety. And so it is, generally in the Western and new States.

        From extensive travels and impartial observations made in no less than fifteen States of the Union, we have several years since settled down in the honest conviction that no where on the American continent is there to be found so many and inviting inducements to the searcher after health, happiness and prosperity, as are offered by "My own, my native State."

        To enumerate the natural advantages enjoyed by the people of our section, and especially in Granville, Orange,[]Person and Caswell counties, would be to monopolize the entire space of the TORCHLIGHT for many years to come. We need only say that our climate is continental in its scope and gives our productive capacity a range by which we may duplicate the products of almost every State in the Union.

        Here, during the last few years we have witnessed a most marvelous development in the transformation of our tobacco into "a thing of beauty." Here is produced the finest grades of tobacco in the known world; the products of a single acre frequently reaching from $500 to $600, and often selling for from $1 to $3 per pound. Nor are the soils adapted to the successful growth of this fine tobacco circumscribed by narrow limits, as was formerly supposed. There is scarcely a farm containing 200 acres in the counties above named, upon which this tobacco cannot be made a profitable crop. We are in the centre as it were of this fine tobacco section, and no where else has the ingenuity and industry of man been able to produce its equal.

        This tobacco is exclusively used by the largest manufacturers of smoking tobacco in the world, and the natural excellency of Granville, Orange,Person and Caswell tobacco has given to W. T. Blackwell & Co's Durham Smoking Tobacco a reputation never before equaled.

Instructions as to the Cultivation and Curing of Fine Yellow Tobacco.

        A noted cook on being asked for a recipe to cook a hare, commenced by saying: "first, catch your hare!"

        To raise fine Yellow Tobacco, first, grow your plants! Burn and sow during the first dry season after Christmas, the Yellow Oronoko. Select a Southern exposure, a warm situation, for early plants. Use any standard Tobacco fertilizer, when sowing the seed, 100 to 150 lbs. to the 500 square yards, according to the fertility of the land. Hog-pen or hen-house manure is the next best for


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Illustration

Paces Tobacco Warehouse, Pace Bro's, & Co., Lynchburg, VA.

        C. Billups' Climax Cotton Plow, Norfolk, VA.


Page 9

plant beds. Stable manure should not be used as it breeds flies. Make frequent applications of either, hen-house manure or other fertilizer of known value--only, when the plants are not wet with rain or dew. Grey soils, with dry, porous subsoil, the fresher the better, are best suited to the growth and maturity of yellow tobacco. From 100 to 300 lbs. of fertilizer may be profitably used to the acre. Apply in the drill, except on new-ground, where it is best to broadcast. Plant in hills, as soon after the 1st of May as plants and seasons will admit. Commence cultivation as soon after the first rain as the plants have taken root. This gives them a start; but this working should be light--only with the hoe. Continue to stir the land with the plow and sweep, until the tobacco begins to come in top. If the sweep is used, there is but little need for hoe work.

        Topping must be done according to the appearance and promise of each plant, strength of soil and time the work is done. First topping for medium tobacco, should be from ten to fourteen leaves, priming off lower leaves, just high enough, so that when the plant ripens, the lower leaves may be well off the ground. As the season advances, top lower and lower, as to advance the late plants, that they may be cut before frost. Never cut before fully ripe, and enough fully and uniformly ripe to fill a barn. Cut the tobacco of uniform size, color and quality, putting eight plants to a stick. Get the plants to the barn as soon after they are cut, and with as much care as possible. Place the sticks about eight inches apart on the tier poles.

        The first step in curing, is called the steaming or yellowing process. Medium tobacco will require about 36 hours steaming, at about 90 degrees Fahr., but tobacco with more or less sap, larger or smaller, may require longer or shorter time to yellow. Here judgment must be exercised.

        The next step in curing yellow tobacco, is called fixing the color. When the tobacco is sufficiently yellowed at ninety degrees, the best leaves of a uniform yellow, and the greener ones of a light pea-green color, the heat should be advanced gradually. Keep the heat from ninety to ninety-five degrees about one hour, then run up from ninety-five degrees, to one hundred degrees, keeping the heat between these figures for about two hours. Should the tobacco get into a sweat at this or any future stage, raise the fires a little and open the door. This creates a current of heated air that will soon dry out the leaf. The thermometer may fall even ten degrees here without injury to the color. If possible, keep the tobacco from sweating. Next, advance the heat running from 100 to 105 degrees for about two hours. When at 105 degrees, you have arrived at the most critical point. The condition and appearance of the tobacco must be the guide.

        Too little heat in fixing color operates to stain the face side of the leaf of a dull Spanish-brown color, and is called sponging, and may be known to the novice by its effects being visible only on the


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Illustration

Powell's Prepared Chemicals. The Brown Chemical Co., Baltimore, MD.


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face side; too much heat reddens the leaf, first in spots, visible on the edge of the leaf, redder than the former, and visible on both sides of the leaf. Now to prevent sponging on the one hand, and spotting on the other, is the aim of the experienced curer. Therefore no definite time can be laid down to run from one hundred and five to one hundred and ten degrees. Sometimes one hour is sufficient, sometimes three is fast enough. The same may be said in running from one hundred and ten degrees to one hundred and twenty degrees. While it is usual to advance in this stage about five degrees every two hours for medium tobacco, the condition of the tobacco often indicates to the practiced eye the necessity for slower or faster movements. Remember not to advance over one hundred and ten degrees, till the tails begin to curl up slightly it the ends.

        The curing process begins at 120 degrees, here the heat should remain till the leaf is cured, which be in from 4 to 8 hours. When the leaf appears cured, advance five degrees every hour up to one hundred and eighty degrees, and here remain until stem and stalk are cured.

        To bring the tobacco in order, that it may be taken to the packing house, cover the flues with brush or wet straw, and keep it constantly saturated with water. Raise the heat to about ninety degrees. This causes the steam to rise and softens the tobacco enough to handle. Bulk down in a dry dark house; when it will be protected, both from dampness and light. If allowed to get in too []high order," it will lose its yellow color, and all the work will be lost.

        When ready to ship, it should be assorted well, the several grades put together, making about three grades of leaf and two of lugs. Tie in neat bundles five or six leaves of "leaf " and eight to ten of "lugs." Place twenty-five bundles on the stick, and strike down as soon as stripped, unless in too high order. But it is not safe to permit tobacco thus struck down in winter order to remain down longer than 1st of June. Watch it closely to preserve from injury. It is better to market in winter order than to hang up in the barn to dry out and be "re-ordered;" for tobacco once bulked down, and then hung up in the barn again, loses that sweet, mellow flavor, so desirable, and never regains it.

        A RAILWAY COMPLIMENT TO A DESERVING LANDLORD.--A gentleman from New York was heard to say that he had spent most of his time in traveling for thirty years; that for the last nine years he had been an occasional guest at the Yarboro House, Raleigh, and during this whole time he had never met so square a host as Dr. G. W. Blacknall, of the Yarboro House, Raleigh. We paint a moral from this incident: Business men should not be so absorbed in the matter of profits as to lose sight of the comfort, ease and requirements of their patrons. Dr. Blacknall not only knows this, but he devotes himself to all the minutia which make up the homelike comforts of his hotel with the same gentlemanly bearing that he practices in his own private parlor.


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Illustration

Peruvian Guano, and Bone Fertilizer, for the Large and Rapid Growth of Cotton and Especially Adapted to the Growth of Tobacco.
C. L. Upsher, Manufacturer, and Dealer in All Kind of Chemicals and Materials for making Compost & Fertilizers at Home, Norfolk, Va.


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Crops of Granville

        We publish actual figures obtained from gentlemen, whose post-offices we also give, and who will take pleasure in corresponding with any parties who may be attracted by these reports:

        Mr. B. F. HESTER, OXFORD, N. C., sold of last year's crop 800 lbs. leaf tobacco at sixty cents per lb.; 1,500 lbs. at forty-five cents per lb; has cured this fall fifteen barns--average weight 500 lbs.: has cured tobacco for fifteen years with wood and coal, and never lost a barn by fire; thinks most barns are burned by allowing the rock of which the flues and furnaces are constructed to touch the wood work, or logs of the barn; prefers the cupped sheet-iron flue; thinks it safer and cheaper; estimates cost of flues at $10 to $12 per barn, though regulated by the price of iron; uses brick in preference to rock--350 will build the furnace and flues to one barn; wants the body of barn "as tight as a gun-barrel"; ventilates at top and bottom, opposite the point where the flues enter the furnace; thinks the draft of air at this (dangerous) point lessens probability of fire. Again, ventilates at top by means of long plank secured by means of hinges; long pole attached to this by means of which plank can be raised or lowered at will. When cured, packs in wind-rows, leaving butts out; never takes tobacco off stick after it is cured until ready for market. Wants pack house as "tight as a drum," if possible, and "dark as a dungeon." This house is 18x30 feet; two floors, each eight feet pitch. Two windows and two doors below; one door and two windows on second windows have shutters attached to expel light here and to furnish light when picking. Expenses of present crop not over $200 paid out for labor; employs colored labor; treats them kindly; pays them promptly and when they fail to comply with their contract settles with them and they are told to "git up and git." By adopting this rule (and it is understood when he hires them) he avoids all difficulty with them, each party simply "agreeing to disagree." Is reducing quantity of commercial fertilizers used every year. Pays attention to saving and composting home-made manures, which he used this year in combination with six bags Peruvian Guano on 30,000 tobacco hills. Thinks well of Gilliam's fertilizers; has used both with satisfaction. Does not use hog-pen or cattle manure on tobacco; has tendency to make tobacco brittle and tender; will "scald" more easily, owing to large quantity of sap produced; leaves break off more easily when handling; thinks hog-pen manure better for melons; uses on plant beds if free of cobs. Uses Gilliam's fertilizers on plants. Thinks stable manure should not be used on plant-beds as he is confident it breeds flies. Owns and manages 1,200 acres of land; one-half of which is in original growth, one-quarter in second growth and broom sedge, balance cleared. The soil is a light sand, with yellow subsoil, and is slightly undulating and flat; well watered by good springs and


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Illustration

Yarborough House, Raleigh, N.C. G. W. Blacknall, Pro.

Tappy & Steel; Petersburg, VA.


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branches; situated four miles West of, and extending within two a half miles of Oxford. Well adapted to all the crops raised in this section of the State. In curing tobacco runs heat to 180 degrees--the pith in the stalk is not thoroughly dried at less heat. Thinks this "cooks out" the green tips and changes to yellow color. While curing leaf, thinks the danger of failure lies more in running too slow than too fast. Selects for fine tobacco land such as grow chinquepin, whortleberry (black) and sour wood; if any rock, white flint. For litter uses pine and wheat-straw--only enough to keep stables dry. Pine-straw is preferable.

        Mr. B. F. Hobgood, OXFORD, N. C., lives at the old homestead with his father J. B. Hobgood, Esq. and manages the farm. Cured 39 barns this fall, and will average 550 lbs.; thinks one-fifth of which fancy. Thinks well of Gilliam's fertilizers; uses them on their new ground and Peruvian Guano on old field, the latter in connection with home-made manure, in drill, at the rate of 40 to 50 lbs. to 1,000 tobacco hills. To make fine yellow tobacco it must yellow on the hill. Burns plant land in January or February; gives the young plants frequent and light dressings of fertilizer; plants are doing well when ground is green from fertilizers. Works colored labor; has no trouble with them. If they fail to comply with their contract, they are paid up and discharged. Gives employment to 20 hands, and 10 horses. Lost 3 barns last year by fire. Uses wood obtained in cleaning new grounds, seasoned oak and hickory. Consumed fifty cords of wood in curing present crop. Carelessness in putting wood in furnace, whereby brick or rock are displaced, causes most fires. Prefers the double return flue covered. The Smith patent is only used. (Smith and Bowden both claim to have introduced the pipe flue.) Bowden uses one furnace; his flue is not used. Lot tobacco is better than new ground this year. Two hands will pick four tiers. Best to have light from the North--is more steady. Hands accustomed to have the light fall over the right or left shoulder cannot pick as well if their position is changed; hence there is never any squabbling among pickers for each other's seats. Often never puts tobacco on stick after it is picked. This depends upon the tobacco and weather. Mr. Hobgood, Sr., has obtained several premiums at various agricultural fairs, for the finest yellow tobacco, when the competition was very great. Never put tobacco stalks on tobacco land unless rotted in horse stable. They produce the flea bug: besides, they retard the early growth of the plant. Plows up tobacco stubble with cultivator by running two furrows. Then the hoes follow and knock the roots. The wheat is put in with cultivators. We never saw wheat put in with as much care and so beautifully done. The land looked as if it had been passed over by a machine made for the purpose of leveling it as well as plowing it. Corn crop cut off one-third; estimates crop at 150 barrels. Harvested 350 bushels wheat. Is partial to the Fultz variety; requires


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Illustration

The North Carolina Home Insurance Co., of Raleigh, N.C., John Gatling, President.

Ellington, Royster & Co., House Building.


Illustration

The Star Warehouse, for the Sale of Leaf Tobacco, Danville, Virginia. Hutchings, Thomas & Co., Proprietors.


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more seed to the acre, as a larger proportion of this wheat is split in threshing than any other. Raises the Gooch or Tilly tobacco. Thirty thousand dollars worth of tobacco (last year's crop) was sold within a radius of five miles, his farm included. Barns, packaging, and packing houses, as well as all necessary farm building, are constructing in the most substantial and convenient manner. Good stock, well kept, and everything indicates being directed by good judgment and skill. Evidences of thrift and plenty are met one very hand.

        Mr. R. G. CHAPPEL, TALLY HO, N. C., is from Wake county, and has been accustomed to the cultivation of cotton. Thinks there is much money to be made in raising fine tobacco. Has refused an offer of $400 for present crop. Worked only himself and one horse.

        JNO. R. KNIGHT, MT. ENERGY, N. C., worked himself and one hand in the present crop. Cured five barns fine yellow tobacco--average weight 450 pounds; one bale cotton (500 pounds), 40 barrels corn. Wheat crop on low grounds and nearly ruined by freshet. Be ore freshet thought it good for 100 bushels; only saved 22 bushels. Never bought but two bags fertilizer. More than twenty years ago, when living near Hobgood's mill, bought these two bags of T. L. Williams, Esq. which he put on wheat land. Used for the first and last time cotton seed on plant beds--16 bushels on three beds. Both cotton seed and tobacco seed came up together; had a better cotton patch than plant bed; the cotton seed "raised up the whole earth," and the tobacco plants perished before they could settle and take root. Cabbage plants sowed in same bed did well. Thinks it would be best to kill the germ of the cotton seed before attempting to use them on plant beds. Though he is "sufficiently amused" with the experiment. Thinks there is no better manure for tobacco than the scrapings of yard. A shovel full of this was put down and hills made upon it. Beats stable manure where hand full was put in hill. Prefers rock flues. Heat is more regular, and tobacco cures more uniformly all over barn. Can sleep half night while curing. Has always hung tobacco in pack house before this year. Has this crop bulked down in curing barn with raised floor. Unless the air can cirulate between the ground and floor the tobacco, when bulked, will become injured by white mould. Will hang, to come in order, as wanted to strip. Owns 150 acres: one-half in original growth--hickry, oak, and ash. Has white oak trees "sixteen years around" and 100 feet to the first limb! Often makes bark hickory, pine and gum higher than a man's head when the trees are felled! Has 50 acres low grounds on Beaver Dam Creek which he has just commenced clearing. Thinks it pays to keep two good horses to make a one-horse crop. A man can kill a horse by


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Illustration

Nissen Wagon Manufacturing Co., Wagons, Carts, Wheelbarrows, &c.
P. Nissen, Salem, N.C.


Page 19

work, but a horse can not kill a man in the same way! Lost one barn by fire this season. He is a hard working man, a good manager or his farm and a most worthy citizen.

        MESSRS. HOBGOOD & HUNT, OXFORD, worked this year two hands eight months, and two horses. Expense of labor $112. Cured 12 large barns fine yellow tobacco; average weight 600 pounds, or a total of 7,200 pounds, which, at average price, obtained for last crop, ( $25) is worth $1,800. In addition to this they raised corn, tobacco best. Ten years ago these lands could have been purchased for $5 per acre; their market value now may be put down at $12 per acre. Tract contains 150 acres, equal portion being in original growth, old fields and cleared.

        MR. MEDICUS MORRIS, WILTON, N. C., manufactures tobacco. Time and attention is divided between farm and factory. Has not cultivated "the weed" for the last five or six years. Lands are finely adapted to wheat, oats, corn and potatoes. In 1875 averaged for evry bushel of wheat seeded 27 bushels. Is confident of 20 bushels to every one seeded if he can put it in during the month of October. Finished this year on the 16th. Dug and measured this fall 100 bushels of potatoes to the acre; land that had been cleared four years, soil red gravel, unimproved. Raises bacon enough for family use. Lands finely suited to clover and grasses.

        MR. MILLINGTON BLALOCK, (Granville Greys) Berea, Granville county, N. C., who upon his return home at the close of the war, applied himself to farming. Two eyes, two hands and two feet, were the capital he started with. Worked on shares four years. Then he bought 120 acres of land with no improvements on it, at $7.50 per acre. Since which time he has not only paid for his land, but has built a fine dwelling and every necessary out-house, all of the most convenient and substantial model. Indeed his place is as convenient and well arranged, as any in the county; all paid for and could sell the place for $25 per acre. Has cured this fall 15 barns yellow tobacco at 10 to 14 leaves; is partial to high priming. For a crop of tobacco prefers corn land rested one year. Does not do well after wheat. Uses three kinds of flues; likes Blalock's (his own invention) best. This flue consists of a pipe (12 inches) as Smith's, running in a drum at farther end of

        REAMS' WAREHOUSE
Has not been excelled, because the farmers know it so well.
Reams, the H. A. M.



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Illustration

LEN H. ADAMS, Raleigh N. C. Cotton and Country Produce.

        A. Landis, Jr.; Oxford, N. C. Dry Goods, Ready-made Clothing, Boots, Shoes, Rubbers, Sewing Machines.


Page 21

barn. Drum made of sheet iron, oval shaped, extending across the barn, returning with two smaller (8 inch) pipe. Made 130 bushels wheat. Not partial to an oat crop. Good plow teams and other stock. Corn crop was well cultivated, but suffered from drouth. Thinks the farmers' Friend plow the best he ever used. Peruvian Guano mixed with Gilliam's or chemicals (equal parts) and applied in the drill is a good dressing for tobacco. Peruvian Guano mixed with stable manure, say 30 or 40 pounds guano to the thousand hills and full single handfull stable manure the best compound he ever used; the guano starting and manure finishing it. Yellows better than any other. Has lost no barn by fire.

        MR. SAM'L. C. HOBGOOD, OXFORD, N. C., with three hands and three horses 24 barns yellow tobacco. Each barn will weigh 600 pounds or more. Putting the barns at 600 pounds, we have 14,400 pounds. In addition to this, he harvested 150 bushels wheat, 100 barrels corn, 250 bushels oats and killed 3,000 pounds pork. Last year worked two hands and two horses. Sold his crop of tobacco for $2,800. These figures only represent the products of his home plantation. At the close of the war, his estate was valued at $1,200. Since which time he has built up an attractive and well-arranged dwelling, stables, barns, packing-house and all necessary farm buildings, all on the most approved plans, and of the best material and workmanship. Owns 850 acres of land, all paid for.

        Has money at interest. Owes no man. Never bought a barrel of corn since he has been farming. Sells corn every year. Last year sold sixty barrels of corn. Raises his own supplies. And in addition to all this, has a happy home, composed of a most amiable wife and eleven interesting children.

        Now if any one doubts anything in the above report, they are invited by Mr. Hobgood to go to his house and see that it is "even so." We can assure any "Doubting Thomas" that a visit to Mr. Hobgood's place will be time well spent, and they will meet a most cordial welcome.

NO. XIII.

        MR. R. T. STONE, KITTRELL, GRANVILLE COUNTY, worked in last crop 3 hands and 2 horses. Cured 3,600 pounds fine yellow tobacco This was his first experience with flue curing; succeeded admirably, and so soon as he gets fixed to take care of a crop of yellow tobacco we expect to hear of his getting very high prices, for his land is well suited and he has the industry and good judgment to handle it successfully. Corn crop, 35 bbls.; wheat was ruined by smut, seeded eight bushels, and harvested only sixteen.


        REAMS' WAREHOUSE
The farmers all know. They have been selling with him long ago. Average high they do attain, so call and see Reams again.



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Illustration

Results Show Which is Best. Anchor Brand Fertilizer.


Page 23

        The year before averaged 12 1/2 bushels to every bushel seeded. Cotton, nine bags, 600 pounds of which paid his fertilizer bill and $75 paid for labor. Farm contains 140 acres; situated on R. & G. R. R., 3 miles North of Kittrell. Sold pork and raised some supplies. A portion of his tobacco crop has been sold at $80 per cwt.

        W. H. BOYD, ESQ., TOWNESVILLE, GRANVILLE CO, has quite aspettlement on his plantation, the census taker will find 80 or 90 reasons here to enumerate.

        We reached this hospitable home about dusk, and were told that all the children would be present during the evening. From those then present we concluded that all the children of the neighborhood had met there in the capacity of a Sunday or Singing school, but Mr. and Mrs. Boyd are too (justly) proud of their children to let this impression possess the stranger long, and we were soon told "all of these are my jewels!" We counted twelve, but, as they were all full of fun and in and out room in such quick succession, we felt that we might be in the predicament of the old negro, who fed his master's hogs and was required to count them every morning, reported on one occasion that he "counted all but one, and he run so fast he could not count him!" This is truly a happy family, both parents and children are boys and girls together.

        Gives employment to 30 hands and 12 horses. Paid out for fertilizers $150. Thinks the Anchor Brand the best for tobacco. It pays to use this liberally. Tried rolling cotton seed in fertilizer not so good as to apply in drill. There is more profit in working share hands than renters, and still better to hire. Cleared over $100 to the hand hired last year, and expects to do better than this as last year was his first experience in flue curing tobacco. Sold part of this crop, second quality at $30 per cwt. For several years past has "slipped up", on red tobacco, sunk money in trying to "fight it out on that line." When red tobacco was king, he made as much as $5,000 per year on tobacco and cotton. We believe he will do this again with yellow tobacco. The cost of cultivation and fertilizer for an acre of red tobacco is $25, and at present prices "can't[" ]get your money back." The cost of an acre in cotton is $12.50, an average profit at 10 cents per pound for cotton would be $20. The cost of flue curing, counting extra trouble, wood, etc. would be $50 per acre. Result of last years croping: 17,550 pounds fine flue cured tobacco, 18 bales cotton; corn, 477 barrels (no guess work,) but for drouth would have made 750 barrels; 600 bushels of wheat, 1,250 bushels oats, and good crops of peas and potatoes. Pork to sell.

        Owns 1,650 acres of land all in one body, including 600 to 700

        TO REAMS' WAREHOUSE
I will go, because I have been there before. Good prices I did attain. That is the reason I am going again.

        THE HIGHEST AVERAGE
anyone can show Reams has made three years before.



Page 24

Illustration

The Raleigh Nurseries. S. Otho Wilson, Raleigh, N.C.


Page 25

acres of bottom lands; between the two Nutbush creeks and west of Little Nutbush creek, two miles on Big Nutbush on east side, on west side, one and a quarter miles beyond Little Nutbush, with dwelling situated in centre.

        On 200 acres of this land there is a natural growth of apple trees, many of which produce fine fruit, which are often found on the ground, covered with pine boughs late in the winter and early in spring, in a perfect state of preservation.

        Uses a covering for plant beds--wheat straw--light covering. Keeps a regular account book, in which are recorded all expenses and receipts, as well as results of experiments and birth of children.

        A hand can assort and strip 25 to 30 lbs. yellow tobacco.

        CAPT. S. SATTERWHITE, HENDERSON, found himself at the conclusion of the with nothing save his land and stock, but with a heart to do and ware, he was only a short time in recuperating his lost fortune. Last year he worked four hands and three horses, cost of labor and fertilizers, $432. Results: 9,450 pounds fine tobacco, 75 barrels corn, 130 bushels wheat and (small crop) 250 oats. Tobacco crop is a superior one, very large and heavy.

        His time and attention is divided between farm and
STEAM MILL,
capable of grinding 75 to 100 bushels corn, or sawing 4,000 to 7,000 feet lumber per day. Employs five hands when sawing; miller is engineer when not grinding. Grinds only two days each week, engine is twenty-five horse power. Mill house and sheds are covered with tin, and everything is kept in best possible condition. Owns 935 acres of land. Saw mills have been within striking distance of his lands for the last 30 years and very large quantities of pine lumber has been cut, until the present supply is limited.

        The share hands on his lands produced 4,500 pounds flue cured tobacco, 62 barrels of corn, 77 bushels wheat, and 45 bushels oats.

        Has never fed ashes and salt to his bogs, consequently has lost a great many with worms, more generally called hog-cholera.

        MR. W. H. GREEN, P. O., WILLIAMSBORO, GRANVILLE Co., worked self and his three boys and three horses; made 5,500 lbs. fine yellow tobacco, 75 barrels corn, 70 bushels wheat and 100 bushels oats, besides other small crops. Present tobacco crop is the best he ever made, and his average for former crops has been $30. The only outlay upon this crop except for plows and other farming implements

        REAMS' WAREHOUSE
Pass Word, bright wrappers and fancy smokers pass the most of farmers home with the highest average.

        REAMS' WAREHOUSE, DURHAM, N. C.,
is the leading warehouse in the State. In high average bright wrappers and fancy smokers, the "Pass Word."



Page 26

Illustration

State of North Carolina: Office of Agricultural Department, Raleigh, N.C. The Best Home for Immigrants.

Insurance. L. Henderson, Oxford or Henderson, N.C.

Tobacco Seeds. R. L. Ragland, Hyco, Halifax Co., Virginia.


Page 27

was for ton of Fertilizer, $51. The Farmer's Friend plow is his favorite of all plows he has ever seen at work. Four years ago he had the misfortune to have his dwelling burnt. Since then he has rebuilt. Pack house and other farm houses have recently been built, all first class.

        Tobacco crop at former prices, (and it will sell for more) will bring him $1,650; corn crop at $4, will be $300; wheat crop at $.50 is 105; oats at 75 cents per bushel, $10. To say nothing of his pork for family use, and other small crops we have a total of $2,175 made at an outlay of less than $75. This farming will compare favorably with that of any section in America, and there is room enough in the country for 10,000 farmers, who can do just as well, if they will come here and exercise the same push and good judgment.

        In reading the description given by Col. William Byrd, of Westover, in 1728, of a Mr. Kinchin's farm located in Northampton county, we could but apply the same remarks to the plantation of
BALDY A. CAPEHART, ESQ.
Kittrell, Granville Co., and we can do no better than to quote the words of Col. Byrd of a century and a half ago: "It is an observation, which rarely fails of being true, that those who take care to plant good orchards are, in their general characters, industrious people. This held good in our landlord, who had many houses built on his plantation, and every one kept in decent repair. His wife, too, was tidy, his furniture clean, his pewter bright, and nothing seemed to be wanting to make his home comfortable."

        On the first of December, we were at our friend's house and were shown by him the winter Nelis pear in excellent keeping condition and delicious. We were informed by him that there is not a day in the whole three hundred and sixty-five and a quarter that the family are not supplied with fruit of his own growing. His orchards are laid off in plats and numbered; a record of which he carefully preserve. Standard pears are planted 10 feet each way, and dwarfs in checks between which at first appear to be too much crowded, but the dwarfs only last ten or twelve years and leave room for standards. Dwarfs should be planted a little underground; hill up high, and many will take root above ground and make good standards, (from dwarf plantings)[] The Sickle stands first among the pears of its season, and in this climate grows to greater perfection than anywhere in the known world. His favorite

        FARMERS,
do you know why Reams' Warehouse has less cramming down than any other? Because Reams is willing for his high averages to do his cramming.

        REAMS' WAREHOUSE
is one of the largest in the State--capacity 800; lots, with everything convenient for farmers.



Page 28

Illustration

Important to Tobacco Growers. Fertilizer for Tobacco. Baugh & Sons, Philadelphia and Baltimore.


Page 29

pears are the Sickle, Flemish Beauty, White Doyenne, Dutchess D--, Bartlett, Vicar of Wakefield, Lawrence, (late keeper,) Clapp's Favorite (similar to Flemish Beauty,) and Triumph (French)[] But, of the later pears introduced into our section, and yet very rare, are the Beure Bosc, Urbanite, and Dana--the finest of all fruit, especially the first named. The earliest variety he has is the Osborn Summer and thinks it worthy of the best attention. The Winter Nelis is the best for winter. The Lawrence is the next best keeper. We saw them in perfection on his table, Dec. 1st. After the Osborn, for a Summer pear, he regards the Bousock the most valuable--this is a later pear.

APPLES

         claim his favor in the following order: The old-fashioned May, Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, Summer and Autumn Pearmain, (this above all others,) Maiden's Blush, Summer Sweet Paradise, and Sweet Pippen. Regards the Wine-Sap as the king of apples for early winter and even spring use, if well cared for. The Albemarle Pippen originated in Albemarle county, Va., and it has been contended that it would not grow to perfection outside of this location. We saw perfect samples of them as also the Pilot and Smoke-house, all of which he was the first to introduce in this section. They are beautiful and good keepers. Thinks in every orchard there should be a limited number of these three last named varieties.

OF THE PEACHES

         that have done quite well, he names the Beatrice, Louise, and Hale's Early. But would recommend for our own section as the next best and earliest varieties, the Early Tillarston, Large Early York. Nobless and Crawford's Early--while it will be safe to plant largely of the Heath-cling, Old Mixed-cling, Norris' White and Saddler's late Yellow. But last and best, Madame Eaton.

CHERRIES

         are valued in the following order: Our common Black-hearts, Little Honey-heart, Knight's Early Black, Waterloo, Tekumpsey, May Bigarew, Napoleon Bigarew, May Duke, ond Ox-heart. Thinks this as complete a variety as could be wished; only adding the never failing old Morilla for preserving.

UPON THE GRAPE

         question our friend is eloquent! Has bougt no wine for ten years past. Makes several barrels every year for family use. Mixed grapes make the best wine. His wines have been pronounced by Foreign Ministers, Presidents, Governors, Senators, and other less

        FARMERS,
if making the highest average for the year on all Tobacco sold is not good, and the best evidence that Reams can get you the full market price, then don't sell with him.



Page 30

Illustration

Allen's Old Really Original Reliable Hardware House, Winston, N.C.


Page 31

personages, noted but equally good judges, as not inferior to the best imported. Thinks the general production of home made wines would do more to prevent drunkenness than all the temperance movements ever put forth. The Concord, Ives' Seedling, Hartford and Clinton, equal quantities, make a choice wine, in a few years equal to any imported Claret or other kinds. Three-quarters (3/4) of a pound of sugar is used to a gallon of the juice. The Ives' seedling, Concord, Hartford, and Martha, with abundance of the natives, Catawba and Scuppernong, will furnish a family through the grape season, and wine for family use.

        The original Scuppernong vine from which the present stock is said to have been taken is located on Roanoke Island, in or near the Albemarle Sound, N. C., and is reported to have been discovered by Sir Walter Raleigh in the sixteenth century. This vine covers over one acre of ground and is assessed to produce over 2,000 gallons of must in one season.

        There were produced on his farm this year, the work of 17 hands and 9 horses, 700 barrels of corn, 400 bushels of wheat, 300 bushels of oats, 10,000 lbs fine yellow tobacco, 70 stacks of fodder, 6 tons of hay and 24 bales of cotton. Home-made manures were largely used; only four tons of Commercial Fertilizers entering into tills account. Has 25 acres in clover and grasses. Is partial to Orchard Grass. Thinks clover mixed with grasses is a freaky crop; the clover will disappear and return about every third year. Hay should not be cut before the seed is ripe. The grass is softer and more nutritious when ripe. If cut too early the strength passes out; must mature to make good hay; when cut green the sap, passes out leaving woody fibre. Never grazes until cold weather sets in. In the spring rakes off trash and droppings, carries to farm pen where it is "worked over." On the lots where his hay is cut all rocks are removed by hand.

        Since 1862 he has not bought for table use over 100 pounds of bacon, 2 barrels of flour and one barrel of meal--and then under peculiar circumstances. Thinks the Osage Orange tree should be more generally cultivated--the wood will last as long as a brick.

        The beauty of his yellow tobacco is only exceeded by that of his two pet apples, the Smokehouse and Lady's Finger.

MR. NIELDING KNOTT, OXFORD, N. C.,

         Boasts of belonging to the hard knuckle aristocracy, and the results of his hard licks are told in the following statements:


         FARMERS, TAKE FACTS, AND DON'T BE DECEIVED
when you are told that anyone can get more for your Tobacco than REAMS. Ask them how, when Reams can and does show the highest average on all sold.

        FARMERS,
when a warehouse-man tells you that he has orders for Tobacco, and can and will pay you more than anybody else, that the men that give them sort of orders are all dead.



Page 32

        

Illustration

Piedmont Warehouse for the Sale of Leaf Tobacco. M. W. Norfleet, Winston, N.C.


Page 33

        To obtain pure seed winter oats, sow in spring, and thus it escapes all "filth," such as cheat, cockel, spelt and the like; the oats ripening before these "pests." (We have been told since that if seeded in the spring the filth will not appear even.)

        The day was damp, and in his packing-house we found "fire pans" in full blast. These pans contained coal, and made of sheet iron, set on logs; also pots and ovens used for the same purpose. Tobacco was hung up as close as it could be forced together in this packing-house. The object being to prevent its coining in too high order and thereby endangering its color.

        Cured this year ninety and nine barnes of fine yellow tobacco, average weight 500 lbs. Never lost a barn by fire. Renters lost two last year. Last year's crop averaged over $40 per cwt., the highest price obtained being $90, the lowest $7.00 for dark tips. Has sold one two-horse wagon load of 1,800 lbs. for $1,226--an average of over $65,50 per cwt. Often sells loads that bring him $800, $900, and $1,000.

        Has on the top of each barn three trap windows, which he keeps closed while yellowing and until yellowed; then uses them as ventilators, as needed. After the tobacco is thoroughly cured, bulks in wind-rows and weights it down, where it remains for two days, then hangs in packing-house as close as possible. Keeps most tobacco hanging--thinks it keeps better.

        Three years ago sold from one acre in tobacco $600. In 1878 average sale of every acre planted was $500.

MESSRS. WM. A. & C. G. HARRIS, OXFORD, N. C.,

         Live with their mother, Mrs. S. E. Harris, cured 33 barnes of yellow tobacco this fall; average weight 500 lbs; lost no barn by fire. The highest price obtained for any portion of last year's crop, was $71,50, and their entire crop averaged $30 per cwt. Use the ditch flues; prefer them to all others. Worked this year eight hands and four horses. Cultivated 120,000 tobacco hills. Two bales of cotton have been raised to the acre on the land they now produce this fine tobacco. Wages paid for men from $80 to $125 per year, and extra compensation during the season of cutting and curing, when their services are required day and night as needed. Think the crop raised on new ground better than that on lots. Stands drought better. Prepares tobacco and, first, by thorough plowing, then use sweep in cultivation. Plants in checks. Run sweep, if possible, after every rain, and scrape with hoe after first rain when planted. Raised this year in addition to tobacco crop 100 bbls. corn, 250 bushels of oats, and 60 bushels of wheat. Think tobacco should not follow wheat; prevents its yellowing. Cannot

         FARMERS REAMS' DONT CLAIM TO HOLD THE LARGEST orders ever sent to this country, but claims to have good and liberal buyers that will pay the full market price for all Tobacco sold at Reams' Warehouse.



Page 34

Illustration

John Armstrong, Bookbinder, and Blank Book Manufacturer, Raleigh, N.C.

Bingham & Wagstaf, Manufacturers of Plug and Twist Tobacco, and Small Caddies, Raleigh, N.C.

The North Carolina Farmer, An Illustrated Farmers' Journal. Published by James H. Enniss; Raleigh, N.C.


Page 35

make yellow tobacco after Irish potatoes; will turn black in spite of all efforts to yellow.

NO. VI.

        If the average farmer in Granville possessed the energy and knew as much about farming as
MRS. MARTHA TAYLOR, OXFORD, N. C.,
the general result would be many times augmented in the county of Granville.

        Worked 14 hands and 5 horses. Cured 15,000 lbs. of fine yellow tobacco. Made 218 barrels of corn, which was not over a half a crop on account of the drought. Made 460 barrels of corn on the same land 2 years ago. Sowed a small crop of wheat; harvested 80 bushels, and 400 bushels of oats. Paid out $110 for fertilizers. Prefers the "Anchor Brand" for tobacco. Her farm is tended on shares, and yet it receives her personal attention and supervision. Has had tobacco flue cured for four years. Never lost a barn by fire. The present crop is well cured and in every sense a No 1 crop of yellow tobacco. We doubt if there is a plantation in the county managed with more comfort, satisfaction and profit. All stock are fat and sleek, and receive their bountiful meals at her hands. Always has corn and bacon for sale, and neither crib nor smoke-house is ever empty. Regular work-horses are allowed 24 ears of corn per day, and are fed in the following order: 6 ears in the morning, 8 at noon, and 10 at night. Mules are allowed 15 ears of corn a day, in this order; 5, 4 and 6. Will kill over 2,000 lbs. of pork. Has paid cook and washer-woman out of smokehouse this year, and sold to other parties, and yet, like Wyman's egg-bag, there is no end to its supply--that is, the end is never reached before a new supply is on hand. The old ham we ate at her table has but "few equals and no superiors." Here is her recipe for curing them: Tablespoon full of black pepper and teaspoon full of salt-petre, to be applied before salting; put pepper under the bone and salt-petre on the thick (fleshy) part; then salt and let it remains in bulk from 4 to 5 weeks, according to size. Then make a paste of hickory ashes and apply on flesh side. Hang and smoke with hickory wood. Keep hanging and there will be no danger of bugs. Her smokehouse is ceiled and filled in to the top with earth. This keeps the house cool and excludes rats; and the floor (earth) is dug out and filled in with pounded flint rock.

        To fatten a pig: Bake ash-cakes and feed it to them in buttermilk.

        There are few farmers in our comity who could not learn most valuable lessons from her excellent management

FRANK J. TILLEY, KNAP OF REEDS,

         worked on home place hands and 4 horses. Cured 18 barns of

         REAMS' WAREHOUSE SELLS
Tobacco for the highest average, and sells Fertilizers to the farmers at manufacturers' prices.



Page 36

Illustration

Mrs. Elliott's Housewife, Oxford, N.C.

Mrs. S. A. Elliott's plant holder. Stephen Freeman & Son, Racine, Wisconsin.

Parrish & Blackwell's Brick Warehouse, Durham, N.C.


Page 37

fine bright tobacco. The barns will average 550 lbs--which gives him a tobacco crop of 9,900 lbs--all nicely cured and handled. Last year's crop of tobacco was destroyed by hail. His crop of 1877 averaged him $52 per cwt. Uses stable manure broadcast; but would advise, for general use, to be applied in the hill. Drills the fertilizer. On thin land has used wheat-straw in connection with fertilizer to great advantage on tobacco crop. Used fertilizer at the rate of 75 to 80 lbs. to the thousand plants; from which he made 300 lbs to the thousand hills. 150 lbs is an average crop. Turns over green broom-sedge in the month of August; lets it "go over" one year, then makes a crop of fine tobacco. Prefers the "Oronoka' tobacco--it will cure quicker and stand heat better; runs heat to 120 degrees in ten hours, 130 degrees in twenty-four (24) hours; and when killing out the stem and stalk runs to 220 degrees, Finishes a barn in three days and three nights; 24 hours for coloring; 24 hours for curing the leaf and 24 hours for killing out stem and stalk. Has the genuine "Oronoka," and will plant entire crop of it in the future. The leaves compare in growth with the "Gooch" tobacco--there is a little difference in shape--the "Oronoka" being somewhat shorter.

        Has had no experience in bulking, either before or after it, is picked--save for a few days after picking. By hanging it is sweeter and becomes more uniform in color. Raises the sweetest tobacco that is sold. There is no loss of weight by hanging.

        For plant beds he digs in (deep) stable, hog pen or hen-house manure. If, after the plants are up, the land indicates looseness, from freezing or any other cause, the beds are thoroughly packed with the feet. Gives young plants frequent top dressing with Peruvian Guano before rains; this Guano acts quicker and is preferred for plant beds.

        Both tips and lugs of the "Oronoka" tobacco color well. Barns are located in his grove, where they are protected against the wind. In addition to his tobacco crop, raises home supplies in abundance.

ALEX. H. BRAGG, TALLY HO,

        thinks the Anchor Brand fertilizer the best he ever used on tobacco. Nothing yellows tobacco on the hill like it. Worked one man, a boy and one horse. Time mostly given to the manufacture of tobacco. Product of farm the present year was 2,000 lbs. of fine yellow tobacco. Corn crop was cut short by the drought, but he made 30 barrels. The farm upon which he lives is well suited to

        REAMS' WAREHOUSE IS THE
farmers' friend. This you will find out if you sell your tobacco there.

        REAMS' WAREHOUSE DOES NOT BLOW
over orders as loud as many others. But will say to the farmers hat as near all sold goes to manufacturers.



Page 38

Illustration

Make Your Own Fertilizers. William Simpson, Wholesale and Retail Druggist, and Dealer in Agricultural Chemicals, Raleigh, N.C.


Page 39

the production of wheat and oats; one half of it being of a red, stiff clay.

MR. CALEB ADCOCK, WILTON,

         Granville County, N. C., has cured tobacco with coal and flues for twenty years and never lost a barn by fire. Works self, plow-boy and one share hand. Present crop is 4,000 lbs. of fine yellow tobacco, which, at prices he has obtained for several years past $25 round for entire crop) will bring him $1,000. Makes corn, wheat, pork, &c., for family use. Soil is a light sand--sub-soil is yellow, sand clay, and generally 5 or 6 feet before a stiff red clay is reached. Makes finest tobacco on old field land, using stable manure in drill.

MR. LEE MINOR,

         living on the plantation of Alex. H. Bragg, Esq., with a man and woman, and one horse cured 4,000 lbs. of fine tobacco. Made 50 barrels of corn, 40 bushels of wheat and other home supplies. Uses and prefers the Anchor Brand fertilizer.

M. C. WASHINGTON, KNAP OF REEDS,

         Granville County, N. C., worked three hands and two horses, cultivated 50,000 tobacco hills, which he has cured and handled nicely, and will weigh out 7,500 lbs. Last crop was totally ruined by hail. Thinks Gilliam's fertilizer the best he ever used on tobacco land. Besides tobacco crop made 55 bushels of wheat, (short crop,) 70 bushels of oats, and 50 bbls. corn..

        THE OXFORD TORCH-LIGHT, AND ITS FARM REPORTS.--The farm reports published from week to week in the TORCH-LIGHT are prepared with the design of giving, in a condensed form, a general idea of the great resources-- developed and undeveloped--of Granville county. We claim for these reports the utmost accuracy of detail. Those into whose hands the TORCH-LIGHT may fall can rely upon the truthfulness of the subject matter therein. No reports are published that have not a first-rate basis in fact. The sources drawn from in making up these reports have been carefully looked to. We would have no increase to the population of Granville drawn hither by misrepresentations, and with this idea prominently in mind these reports have been prepared. Many of them are of great value to the tobacco grower, and we hope will be found more or less interesting to the general reader.

        Inquiries are frequently made as to the opportunities of renting lands and in the sections of Granville that produce the fine yellow tobacco by parties not having the means to purchase. To such it may be said that leases generally run from January to January, and may be renewed so long as the renter does his duty. There are many renters living in these sections who have remained without

        REAMS' WAREHOUSE CAN SELL
the farmers' tobacco the full market price, and furnish them the best fertilizers at the lowest market price.



Page 40

Illustration

Jno. F. Griffith, of Davie County. Isaac H. Nelson, of Stokes County. F. L. Moore, of Stokes County. "Griffith, Moore & Co.".


Page 41

ever saying a word as to renewing leases--so well pleased have they and their landlords been with each other that the idea of changing never occurs to either until the renter, in a few years, has made money enough to purchase and stock a small farm. The most usual custom is to rent for a share of the crop. If the renter furnishes every thing necessary to make the crop, he has three-fourths of all that is made. If the land-owner furnishes team, implements, seed and forage, he receives one-half the crop. The matter of dividing the cost of fertilizers is expressed in contract, and most generally divided according to the portion of the crop that each is to receive. With this beginning, parties once poor have realized a comfortable independence, and have all their reasonable wants supplied.

        To succeed at the business of raising high priced tobacco, the great need is industry and an average business capacity. As an encouragement to those entering upon this business with no other capital than that which nature has supplied them, we could cite many instances among our most independent farmers where the road over which they have traveled is the same as the one you are contemplating entering upon. Indeed, the wealthy persons in Granville are most generally those who, by their own industry, have obtained it, and not those who have had "greatness thrust upon them."

        The young man who intends to make agriculture his business, can find no where so inviting a field for profitable employment as is offered in Granville. The opportunities presented were never better than now.

        Subscription to THE TORCH-LIGHT, is only $1.50 per year. Address, W. A. DAVIS, OXFORD, N. C.

        ROBT. J. STEM, ESQ., TALLY Ho, N. C., worked this year four hands and two horses. Cured 12 barns fine yellow tobacco; average weight of barns 450 pounds, or a total of 5,400 pounds. Last crop, highest price $101 per cwt.; lowest price $10 per cwt. for "trash." Tops at 12 to 24 leaves; latter on very rich lot land to make it fine; on thin land would top at 10 leaves. Thinks well of Gilliam's fertilizers. Drills stable manure with these. Never lost a barn by fire. Corn crop short--100 barrels; wheat 100 bushels; oats killed out by severe winter. For fine tobacco prefers corn land rested one year. Uses slab flue. Some of his neighbors use no sheet iron in the construction of their flues--only rock. Takes less wood and can keep a more uniform heat. Ventilates over furnace

         REAMS' WAREHOUSE SELLS THE
Anchor Brand Fertilizer. The best made for tobacco and price reduced to suit the times.

        FARMERS DON'T BE INFLUENCED
against your interest by the host of drummers. Try Reams and if satisfied, try him again.



Page 42

and in gable ends at top. He knows what to do with a crop of fine tobacco!

MR. HENRY HAILEY, MT. ENERGY, N. C.,

         worked the past summer two hands and one horse. Result: 3,--200 pounds fine yellow tobacco, 40 barrels corn (short crop,) 50 bushels wheat and 40 bushels oats. Purchased no fertilizers. Used cotton seed composted with stable manure. The result was as satisfactory as that of any fertilizers ever used. Thinks his tobacco crop more than an average in quality, owing to the favorable fall. Used sweep altogether in cultivation of tobacco. Keeps tobacco hanging in pack-barn as tight and dark as can be made in frame house that is not ceiled. Keeps hanging, after picked, until May (if not sold before,) then bulks and lets it remain until marketed.

W. R. AVERETT, OXFORD, N. C.,

         cured 16 barns yellow tobacco this fall; average weight 500 pounds. Never lost a barn by fire. Last year's crop of tobacco averaged $25.50; highest price $96; lowest $8. Corn crop suffered from drought. Lost half his hogs with worms! Has some very fine porkers--300 pounds.

MR. JOSEPH BIRCHETT, TALLY HO,

         hired one hand, worked one horse and cultivated 20,000 tobacco hills; cured 2,500 lbs. fine tobacco. Made better crop of corn than he made last year. Has lived for several years past on Mr. Clement's land. Has recently purchased land.

MR. J. W. CURRIN, OXFORD, N. C.,

        never lost a barn by fire; has cured 25 barns this fall, average weight 600 lbs. Last crop averaged $22 per cwt. Present crop is superior to last. Highest price obtained for any of last crop $70; lowest (sand lugs) $8 per cwt. Uses Smith's return-heat flue. Thinks fires occur from having flues too near logs, and carelessness in firing. Wants large furnaces. Ventilates two or two and a half feet above furnace and pipe; heat escapes at top under comb. Corn crop very good; estimated at 100 barrels; wheat crop 182 bushels; 250 bushels oats; peas and potatoes for home consumption. Keeps improved stock of hogs; April pigs weigh 150 lbs. at 8 or 9 months old.

MR. JNO. F. CANNADY, WILTON, N.C.,

         worked five hands and four horses this year. Hires colored labor by the month for the year. Have worked very well. Cured 19 barns fine yellow tobacco, averaging 500 pounds. Corn crop 100 barrels; wheat 144 bushels; oats 150 bushels. Has sold leaf tobacco as high as $285 per cwt. Raises fine crops tobacco after peas, if not followed before Spring. Sows clover more for improvement

        REAMS' WAREHOUSE, DURHAM, N. C.,
has Basement to store the farmers' tobacco when desired free of charge.



Page 43

of land than pasture. Cuts for hay orchard grass and clover sowed together. Prefers new ground and old field (broom sedge) for tobacco. Wheat land is allowed to rest two years and then put in tobacco. Keeps tobacco in bulk in dark room; hangs only enough to keep stripping when season comes. When picked hangs again on sticks and lets it remain on sticks until loaded for market. Pack house (frame buildings is 18x18 feet, 18 feet pitch, tier, poles all the way up, starting ten feet from ground floor so as to give packing room. Shed and strip room attached; 14x18 feet with light from the north. This is important, as the light from this point is more steady and uniform. When first cured should be put in bulk; if allowed to come in order will change color. Has built every house on the place since the end of the war except dwelling, which he built in 1861. Dwelling and all necessary out buildings in excellent condition. Fertility of land is being much increased under his system of fallowing peas on light, sandy land, and clover on stiff land. Has no red land. Low grounds are stiff, and here he fallows clover with marked advantage. Acres, 350; one-third of which is in original growth, some 25 acres in second growth and old field. Balance in cultivation, affording him a three-year shift. Stock of hogs are of the Berkshire breed, which weigh 150 pounds at twelve months old. His neighbors speak of him as a model farmer, and our observation confirms this encomium.

MR. THOS. R. AVERETT, OXFORD, N. C.,

         never lost a barn of tobacco by fire. Cured this year thirty-three barns yellow tobacco, averaging 500 pounds. Peruvian Guano makes pounds. No trouble to make tobacco yellow on his land. Last crop tobacco averaged $25 per cwt. Works five hands and three horses. Corn crop 'cut short' by drought; estimated at 100 barrels. Wheat 125 bushels; oats 200 bushels. Corn land is seeded in peas at last plowing of corn. As soon as the corn is gathered and his hogs have picked the peas, he sows this land in wheat. Had rather follow tobacco after corn or oats than wheat. To make fine yellow tobacco the land must be suitable. Most profitable to raise medium size tobacco, say 18 or 20 inches. Raises this on broom straw--old fields. Thinks lot land tobacco is better than new grown this year. This is not generally the case. For several years past has worked two hands and cleared $1.200 per year. His present tobacco crop, will pay better than. this. Sells other farm produce enough to pay farm (not family) expenses.

SAM'L J. CURRIN, HENDERSON, N. C.,

         worked this year four hands. and two horses. Result, 13 barns fine yellow tobacco--average weight 550 pounds; 75 barrels corn, 50 bushels wheat (short crop) and 200 bushels oats. Last tobacco crop averaged $22.70. Highest price for any portion $95 per cwt.


        FARMERS SELLING TOBACCO WITH
Reams, if price should not be satisfactory and they desire it, he will ship it for them free of charge.



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        Expenses of producing this year's crop $170, which includes labor and fertilizers. At prices obtained for last crop present crop is worth $1500. Tops tobacco at twelve leaves. Yellows better than if topped higher. Old field will stand heavier manuring than lots.

MR. DENNIS TILLEY, KNAP OF REEDS.

         claims to have been the pioneer in the art of coal curing tobacco in this county. From him we learn the following facts: The first coal cured tobacco he over saw was exhibited to him by Mr. Jennings, of the firm of Smith & Jennings, some time before 1861. And without recipe or instructions as to curing, Mr. Tilley cured the same year, one barn coal cured tobacco. Sold the lugs (very few) at $10, and leaf at $30. If there had been coal cured tobacco in Granville county he had never seen a leaf or bundle. The next year he cured three barns, which he sold in Oxford to Messrs. Kingsbury & Taylor, at an average price of $25 or $30 (can't now say which.) The next year he cured five barns which he sold to Messrs. Hobgood & Reams, the finer grades at $90, and the balance at $25 "round." Next year sold eight barns with large crop red tobacco, fillers , at $20. This was before the war. During the war, raised but little. After the war discovered the value of this yellow tobacco, and since then has raised large and profitable crops. Has always led the market by about $25. Planted four acres, then new ground, expended $60 for fertilizers, coal cured it and sold $2.400 worth of tobacco from these four acres; 1,400 lbs of which averaged $1 per pound. Has sold 1,500 lbs in Richmond in the month of January, at an average of $50 per cwt. Thinks that since the war every pound of fine tobacco raised and handled under his immediate supervision, has averaged $50 per cwt or over--including lugs, tips, and trash. Another crop of 30,000 hills, say six acres, very thin land sold for $2.600.

        Present crop, 39 barns, average weight 450 lbs. Is always satisfied with a fair price and never holds when he can get it. Thinks this the best plan. Has never exhibited any tobacco at any count, district or state fair that it did not take the premium.

        Burns plant beds during the first good weather after Christmas. Uses stable manure freely, digging in deep. For top dressing of plants uses Peruvian Guano or "A. A." Plants stand 3 feet 2, inches each way. Cultivates with turning plow, but never throws dirt from the plants. Keeps as much hill to it as possible. If planted in hills they should be large. Tobacco stands wet and drought alike better. Thinks much of the complaint made of fertilizers of known value should be attributed to small hills. Checks and plows (old land) both ways--if position of land admits of it.

        Tobacco stalks are rotted in stable with straw and composted with muck. Never puts tobacco stalks unless rotted on tobacco land. Has succeeded well in raising tobacco after wheat; does not say it is best or as good after wheat. Has succeeded well after a


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pea fallow, especially on field land, where it cures yellow on the hill.

        Worked this year twelve hands and seven horses. In addition to tobacco crop raises provisions for home supply.

        As soon after curing as the tobacco is in proper order it is taken down and put in bulks to flatten, so that it can be hung close and smooth. Here it remains for a few days. when it is hung up and remains hung until stripped. Then hangs again and, 'here it remains until marketed. To make sweet tobacco, it must be thoroughly ripe when cut.

        In damp weather runs coal fires under tobacco. Large Kettles are kept for that purpose. Ventilators over furnace, between furnace and log. If the gables are cabin style, has no ventilation at top--as these are not very tight. Consumes 3 large two horse loads of wood in curing barn of 400 sticks. Although Mr. Tilley has not been able for the last few years on account of infirm health, to give his personal supervision to all the minutia of the farm, he has still directed its operations in a judicious and profitable manner, evinced in neatness and order which everywhere prevail.

MR. JOHN PHIPPS, BEREA,

         worked 4 hands and 3 horses. Lost one barn by fire; cured fifteen, average weight 500 lbs. Land fine--well adapted to fine tobacco. Uses Peruvian Guano at rate of 50 lbs to the thousand hills; applies in drills then checks. After first plowing uses sweep; saves time and does better work. Is partial to the Farmers Friend plow. Corn crop suffered from drought; always makes corn enough and wheat to sell. Oat crop 125 bushels.

        Prefers tobacco to follow corn, land to rest one year. Uses tobacco stalks to litter stables. Would not apply them on tobacco land unless thoroughly rotted. Highest price obtained for any portion of last years tobacco crop was $130 per cwt. We risk no contradiction in setting him down as a good farmer.

MR. J. J. MEADOWS, TALLY HO,

         Granville county, may be set down as a "minute man," and a successful farmer. Result of this year's farming including five barns cured by rentors: Worked eight hands and five horses. Cured 38 barns fine yellow tobacco, crop somewhat damaged by flea bugs. Barns will average 500 lbs. Corn crop seriously damaged by drought--140 barrels. Wheat 280 bushels. Sowed oats on corn land, they died out and returns poor.

        Spent on present crop of tobacco $105 for Peruvian Guano. 200 lbs. per acre when used alone, half this quantity when used with stable manure. Stable manure and coal dust, equal parts, single handfull to the hill, and 30 lbs. Peruvian to the thousand hills will make large yellow tobacco. Lot land, if firm and sandy soil, will make finer tobacco than new ground. Has known such land to produce fine tobacco for fifteen years in succession. Never cultivated new ground in tobacco the second year. Prefers for tobacco


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crop corn land rested one year. New ground should rest the second year. Should not be sowed in wheat. The third year will make finest crop. Favors high topping, 14 to 16 leaves, and high priming, if not, the ground leaves afford too good a hiding place for worms.

        Hanging for curing: six to seven plants on a stick; and sticks ten inches apart in barn. Much tobacco is injured by putting too thick in barn. Takes a young man to cure successfully.

        Has had but little experience with commercial fertilizers. Expects to use on next crop Peruvian guano and Gilliam's fertilizer (Anchor Brand) mixed in equal parts. On twenty and a half acres in 1877 raised 12,000 lbs fine tobacco and sold for $2440.

        Sows winter oats in August or September after wheat or oats--will die out if seeded after corn, the ground being too clean--not protection enough for the young oats.

        Wages and feeding of No. 1 hand will cost $150 per year. Hires only men, don't pay to hire boys. If worked with men the men will only do as much work as the boys. Boys require too much watching.

        Is partial to the Fultz wheat. Two ounces blue stone to half gallon water will sprinkle two bushels wheat with same result as if soaked. To roll in wood ashes is equally as effective.

        Was the first man to use the double return flue. When cured, shingles in long rows, from right to left. Would prefer to pen if he had room. When stripped, hand on stocks, bulks lapping with heads out, then weights down and lets it remain here until ready for market, In loading, lays sticks cross way in wagon and then pulls stick out. Can load wagon in an hour.

        Average price of land in his neighborhood $10 per acre. Fifty years ago the same land sold for $1.50 to $2 per acre.

W. M. Blackwell, ESQ., OXFORD, N. C.,

         experimented in flue-curing a portion of his tobacco crop of 1878, and sold the same $24-75 "round.'This encouraged him, as it would "any other man," and he cured of last crop 4000 lbs. Thinks he "slipped up" on the Gooch Tobacco--not suited to his land (if to any) for flue-curing. It is light in weight, and disposed to "frog eye." And yet he succeeded in curing very well, and will carry to market a nice lot of bright tobacco. But he is satisfied with nothing unless it is "right all over," and will improve on next crop.--The secret of his success in life has depended upon practicing the precept that "what is worth doing, is worth well doing." There is not a farm in the country where this "well" is more strictly observed. No shoddy work about him. Will sow yellow Orenoka and Bald Face seeds for next tobacco crop.

        Sows the Rust Proof oat, and would pay $10 per bushel for them if he did not have them and knew their value as well as he does now. This is a heavy oat; weiging 37 1/2 lbs. to the bushel, (a gain over the standard weight of 5 per bushel.) They are equally


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as good for winter or spring seeding. From 4 bushels of the Burt oats, on 4 acres lot land, seeded the first week in March, and cut the first week in June, over 200 bushels. Prefers the Rust Proof oat. While they do not grow so high as others, they more than make up for this "short coming" of straw in weight and head.--Will make double the seed of any other he ever seeded. Thinks no more of oat straw as forage than he does of wheat straw. No crop upon which he has applied fertilizers has paid him better than the oat crop. Thinks there is no successful farming in this section without fertilizers. Experience teaches him that if judiciously applied, and the party using them does not mortgage or go in debt for them, it is a good investment.

        Has 22 acres in clover and orchard grass, and an excellent stand. Seeds in the month of February on wheat, drags in; this benefits the wheat, and secures a good stand of clover. Grazes two years, then puts in oats or corn. Will not give up his red lots, will keep them for clover, and cultivate only enough to keep down the broomsedge.

        Is partial to Dixon's Compound, which he prepares after this formula: Salt, Peruvian Guano, disoilvedbone and plaster of equal parts. This makes a No. 1 fertilizer, cheaper and better than cotton seed for tobacco or corn, 200 lbs. to the acre. Used this in drill on tobacco, and has made 1300 to 1400 lbs. red tobacco to the acre of entire crop planted.

        Thinks Alison & Adison's "Complete Wheat Manure" equal to Peruvian Guano.

        On his corn crop he applied a spoonful of Peruvian Guano and dissolved bone in hill and near corn when planted, and the same quantity by the side of corn at second plowing.

        Last crop of wheat, 190 bushels, was the shortest he has made since the war; was seriously damaged by freshet. Corn crop, 150 barrels, also short, from drought.

        Plan of applying manure for tobacco: Run off furrow, put in stable manure, cover up with plow, let it remain several weeks, then open small plow or cultivator, put in fertilizer and bed on it. Also composts stable lot manure and scrapings for tobacco.

        If the same precaution that he takes to prevent washes and gullies were exercised by the farmers of the county generally, the aspect of the country would be very different form what it is. He allows nothing of the kind on his land! We are asked, how he prevents it? We reply, by attention.

        Manages to sell a horse every year by raising colts. And there are no finer horses than these to be found in this section. Thinks many horses are ruined by being starved while growing. Many horses cannot be made fat on this account without subjecting them to rheumatic opthalmia and specific opthalmia. The condition and temperament of the colt have been ruined by improper surroundings and care while growing, and they can never, afterward, be repaired.


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        Dark or dimly lighted stables, and especially those in which what little light enters must strike the horse directly in the eye, have an injurious effect and are predisposing and exciting causes of opthalmia. His colts, are stabled and fed regularly, as everything else is on the place. The stables are constructed with an eye to convenience and comfort, and are kept well littered with pine straw and oak leaves.

        Sells pork or bacon every year. Thinks salt is as necessary for hogs as for any other stock. Has never lost a hog with cholera, because he gives them ashes and salt regularly.

        Gates, fences and all buildings are kept in "apple pie order," and were we not afraid of shocking his native modesty, we would say he is in every respect one of our model farmers, and his success is the best evidence we can give to substantiate our position.


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Illustration

Richmond and Danville R. R.


Page back cover

Illustration

High Prices for Tobacco! Where to Sale All Grades of Leaf Tobacco. H. G. Cooper, Tobacco Warehouse.