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(title page) Rules and By-Laws for the Government & Discipline of the North Carolina Penitentiary During Its Management By The Commission
North Carolina Penitentiary
M. S. Littlefield, State Printer & Binder
Call number Cp 365 N87pel (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998
LC Subject Headings:
1. The stated meetings of the Commission shall be held on the first Wednesday of each month, or at such times as a majority may determine. Special meetings shall be called by the President at the request of two members.
2. At all meetings the President (or in his absence a President pro tem.,)shall take the Chair, and three members being present he shall call the Commission to order, and proceed with the business claiming attention.
3. The following order shall be adopted for the despatch of business, viz.:
a. The minutes of the last meeting shall be read, in order that errors may be corrected, and that any unfinished business may be noted.
b. All communications addressed to the Commission shall be read, and proper disposition made of them.
c. The Deputy Warden's monthly report shall be read and disposed of.
e. The report for the month of the Physician shall be read, and its contents noted.
f. The Superintendent of the work shall present his report on the progress of the building, with suggestions.
g. The report of the Committee on Supplies shall be made, and acted upon.
h. The report of the Committee to audit the bills and accounts shall also be presented to each monthly meeting.
4. The Committee on Supplies shall consist of three Commissioners, who shall purchase all the articles ordered
by the Commission for the food, clothing, etc., of the convicts.
5. The Committee to audit the accounts, etc., shall consist of two Commissioners--they shall audit the accounts of the Superintendent of the work, of the Deputy Wardens, examine all claims against the Commission, and. at each stated meeting they shall report to the Commission a list of the bills to be paid, with a resolution for their payment.
6. At each stated meeting the Commission shall pass an order in favor of the Superintendent of the work and the Deputy Warden for such sums as may be recommended by the Committee to audit accounts, for the payment of day laborers, and bills under thirty dollars.
7. All warrants for money shall be signed by the President, and countersigned by the Secretary of the Commission.
8. An annual, report of the progress of the Penitentiary building and the cost, the number and condition of the convicts the value of their labor and the expense of their keeping, etc., together with suggestions as to further legislation, shall be made to the General Assembly.
9. The Commission shall visit the prison at least once each month, examining the progress and character of the work, see that the convicts are properly fed, clothed and treated, and that they are kept regularly at work.
10. All the officers and employees of the prison shall be appointed by the Commission, and shall also fix their salaries.
11. All regulations for the orderly conduct and safety of the prisoners shall be made by the Commission, or shall be submitted to their approval.
1. The officers of the prison Shall be a Warden, Deputy Warden Clerk, Physician, Superintendent of the Hospital, Steward, Sergeant of the Guard, Guards, Overseers, Gate-keepers and Overseer of the Yard, for the present; and when further provision can be made a Chaplain, Teachers, Matron and her Assistants.
For the time during the erection of the prison the Commission will discharge the duties usually belonging to a Warden. They will see that all the laws are carried out relating to the prison and the convicts, attend to all the purchases for the use of the prison, appoint all the officers and fix their salaries subject to the General Assembly, have the entire control and management of the convicts, control their labor and make a report annually to the General Assembly of all their acts, the value of the convict labor, the cost of the convicts to the State, their condition, number etc.
The Deputy Warden shall have the charge of the prisoners day and night. He must see that all the officers and
employees faithfully discharge their duties. He must be present when the cells are opened and when closed. He must see that the food of the prisoners is good, well cooked and sufficient in quantity. Examine their clothing and see that it is clean and whole. Visit the cells and see that they are clean and neat and that the bedding is clean, properly aired and sufficient for the season. He shall see that, if possible, all the convicts are usefully and profitably employed--no abuses exist and that no inhumanity is practised by the overseers or the guard. He only shall order punishments, and he shall only confine in dark cell on bread and water once per day, diminish the quantity or quality of food, deprive of privileges, and in special cases use the gag, but in no case so as to injure the mind or the health of the prisoner. He shall keep a record of all the cases of punishment inflicted for any offenses and note the effect of it. He shall see that the Physician visits all the sick--that his prescriptions are carefully followed, and that proper care is had of the sick and appropriate diet furnished. He shall attend all the Sabbath services, and Sabbath schools, and see that the prisoners preserve order. He shall report to the Commission all cases of official delinquency--all acts of oppression by overseers or guards. He shall have the prison record carefully kept. He shall, in the absence of a Commissioner receive and dismiss all convicts, and in general, in their absence, have the entire management and control of the prison. He shall hear all the complaints of the prisoners, examine into them and report all cases when just cause exists to the Commissioners. He shalt instruct the under officers in their duties and see that such treatment is awarded the prisoners as will tend to their reformation. He shall cause the prisoners to see that he is concerned for
their welfare, point out to them their prison duties. Assure them of the solicitude for their restoration to society.
This office is temporary and relates to the erection of the prison building. The Superintendent of the Building shall have the entire oversight of all the work that belongs to the erection of the Penitentiary. He shall receive and inspect all the material delivered on contract or otherwise and determine whether it meet the conditions of the contract or be such as is required. He shall allow in no case improper or unfit material to be used. He shall also be careful that every part of the work is done according to the specifications and in a workmanlike manner whether by contractors or others. He shall insist that contractors for work fill all the conditions of their contract. He shall have control of the labor of the convicts while out of their cells and shall so dispose of it as to make it the most valuable to the State. He shall, however, not interfere with the rights of contractors when convict labor is included in a contract for work. He shall be over the overseers of the several gangs, and they shall carry out his orders as it relates to the work to be done. He shall keep a regular record of the labor done by the prisoners and of its market value. He shall also keep a correct account of the money disbursed by him in the payment of small accounts and for transient labor. He shall generally have control of the building and carry out the design of the Architect and the intentions of the Commission.
Shall visit the prison once each day and personally examine all the sick and complaining prisoners. In cases
of serious sickness he shall visit as often as needful. When sent for he shall at once repair to the prison to attend to the case--make in all cases such prescription as he deems necessary and do all that in his judgment may be required. He shall always when prisoners are brought to the prison be present when they are cleansed and examine them--make record of their condition of health, &c., and determine whether they be fit for labor. Whenever he shall discover that the labor, the diet, the confinement or the regimen of the prison unfavorably effects the health of a prisoner he shall order him to the hospital or such change of condition as he may think best. He shall make strict examination into the mental condition of every prisoner, and if he finds that the discipline or confinement of the prison or any other appreciable cause accounts, for any prejudicial influence on thee mind that he may discover he shall order such change as in his judgment he may deem best. He shall pay strict attention to the diet, clothing, nursing, &c., of the sick and shall report any neglect in these things or the observance of his prescriptions to the Deputy Warden or Commissioners. He shall often examine the food supplied to the prisoners, and finding any article not sound or wholesome he shall condemn it to be removed. He shall daily any prisoners that may be confined in the dark cells for punishment to learn whether such punishment is likely to effect the health of the prisoner either of body or mind unfavorably and if so to order a discharge from the dark cell, and this order shall at once be carried out. He shall keep a book in which he shall register the names of all the prisoners sick or complaining who require medical treatment with disease and the prescriptions ordered. He shall make out a list of such medicines and other supplies as always should be at hand in the Hospital for the Commissioners
that they may provide them. He shall in all cases give careful and minute orders to the Hospital Superintendent. He shall note all cases of death, with the probable or certain cause--the age, habits, crime, &c. of the deceased, and all other matters relating to his department that may be or value to his annual report which be shall make to the Commission.
It shall be his duty to keep all the records of the Prison, and make all statements, reports and certificates that may be required of him. He shall make the record required when a convict is admitted. He shall prepare certificates of delivery for Sheriffs who may bring convicts. He shall record all releases from confinement, whether by expiration of sentence, pardon, escape or death. He shall carefully keep all the records, reports, books, papers, etc., of his office, and allow no one to take them from his files, unless it be the Commissioners or Deputy Warden. He shall assist in making out all inventories of property, orders for supplies, and shall make himself generally useful in the business of the Prison; shall conduct distinguished visitors over the Prison, as also officials of the prisons of other States or countries, and give them all proper information at his command. Keep a list of all visitors, with date of visit, and note those who pay entrance fee. He shall attend in the office in the absence of the Deputy Warden, and take charge of any business that may require present attention.
He shall have the supervision of the sick room. If possible
shall have knowledge of the properties of medicines and be able to compound the physician's prescriptions. He must sleep in the prison and be ready to attend on any imminent case and act as resident physician. He shall have control of the nurses detailed for that purpose. He shall see that the diet ordered is properly prepared for the sick. He shall closely notice all the symptoms and note changes. He shall see the sick every hour during the day from five o'clock A. M., until ten o'clock P. M. He shall see that all proper attention is given all the patients. He shall superintend the burial of those who die, have all done decently, and carry out any orders of the Commissioners in such cases.
Shall have charge of the kitchen, bakery and laundry. He shall go into the market from time to time and purchase such supplies of vegetables, etc., as may be needed and the market afford. He shall see that the prisoners' clothes are nicely washed, and ironed, mended and aired. He shall personally give attention to the duties that pertain to his office, and the Deputy Warden shall detail for his service such convicts as can best be employed in his department and may be expert in cooking and washing. He shall be responsible for the food being well cooked and baked; the proper care and purity of the utensils and for the regularity and sufficiency of the meals. He shall see that no waste is allowed of any of the supplies, and to this end shall carefully weigh out such quantities as are needed, and then see that they are forthcoming in proper form. He may be consulted by the Deputy Warden and Commissioners, and in emergencies employed by them in determining
the amount of supplies, and in purchasing them. He shall also take charge of all the stores of food and clothing. He shall be charged with the amount of each, and shall make weekly returns of the amount of each that has been issued by him, and it shall be put to his credit. He shall keep an accurate account of all the expenses of his department, to be reported to the Deputy Warden.
He shall have charge of the Guard-Room and all the keys of the cell houses and gates are committed to his keeping. He shall be subordinate to the Deputy Warden and the Commissioners only. He shall have control of the Guards, and he shall put them on duty so as to make their labors equal. He shall report all cases of disobedience or insubordination to the Deputy Warden, or a Commissioner, if present, who shall have power to suspend any official so offending, until the meeting of the Commissioners, who shall investigate the case and take final action on it. It shall be required of the Sergeant of the Guard that no one be permitted to enter the prison enclosure except as provided for in these rules. All the arms shall be in his care, and shall be kept in the Guard House when not in use. He shall have plenty ammunition always on hand; see that the arms are in good order and ready for use in any emergency. He must be careful to guard against all surprises, and must be at hand day and night, except when necessarily absent, and then the Deputy Warden only shall depute some one in his stead. He is to acquaint himself with the features of every convict. He shall not suffer any collecting of the prisoners near the gates or Guard House. He shall pass around every hour in the night and see that the guard are awake and on duty.
Shall all be at the Prison day and night, unless specially excused and then only one at a time. They shall obey all the orders of the Sergeant. They must keep diligent watch that no convict escapes. They are not allowed to converse with the prisoner unless as part of their duty. When released from duty, they shall repair to the Guard House and always be ready for any emergency. They shall never leave their posts until properly relieved. The Sergeant only shall fix the time or relief and who shall relieve the guard. They must keep their arms clean and ready for use and it is required of them, at all hazards, to prevent the escape of prisoners. They are required to observe closely the conduct of the prisoners, and all exceptional and suspicious actions. They shall not allow any one to loiter near where the prisoners are confined or at work. They shall not allow prisoners to ask themselves or others any questions. They must not be boisterous in their conduct or discuss exciting questions and never indulge in any words or conduct that might create unpleasant feelings or disturb their harmony. They shall not converse with each other while on duty or with any one, only as it relates to their duties; nor shall they read or write, or do anything that will interfere with their watchfulness. They shall not curse, abuse, ridicule, threaten or strike a convict, nor shall they use their arms unless in self-defense, to quell insurrection, or to prevent an escape. They shall not deliver to prisoners any message, letter or any thing else. They shall not suffer any noise in the cell houses at night after the signal to retire.
Each Overseer shall have charge of a fixed number of convicts while at labor. He shall lock them in their cells whenever shut up and shall unlock them when required, and always return the keys to the Guard Room. They shall each have a roll of the prisoners in their charge--shall always be careful that every one is locked up and that all come forth when the cell houses are opened. They shall note all absent on account of sickness. If any one be missing when they come to lock or unlock the cell houses, such absence shall at once be reported to the Sergeant, and the Deputy Warden and no Overseer must be relieved until all are accounted for in satisfactory manner. They must never be absent from their post unless sick. They will see that each convict labors faithfully--does as good work as he is able with his skill--does not damage the work or tools. They will report all cases of disobedience, abusive words, refusal to work or any other improper conduct to the Deputy Warden. They will not suffer any one to talk with the convicts except the Superintendent of the Building or some superior officer. They shall not permit the prisoners to talk to each other except on their work while so engaged. They must not talk with prisoners only to instruct them. All their intercourse with the convict must be manly and determined, yet gentlemanly and kind. No offensive words or gestures will be allowed. No Overseer shall curse, threaten, insult or strike a convict, and shall never use their arms except to defend themselves from violence, to save the life of one convict from the fury of another, or to prevent an escape. They are to observe the conduct of the convicts and report anything unusual or suspicious they may notice to the Deputy Warden. They
will see that the prisoners in their charge are properly cared for as to food, clothes, medical attention, beds and bathing. They will march them in order and quiet to and from their work--will never allow any disorder or irregularity going to or from work or meals.
Each gate shall have a Keeper to open and close it. No visitor, stranger or any person not an officer, shall enter or leave by any gate but through the Guard Room. The other Gate Keepers shall only open their gates for the ingress of convicts and persons bringing material for the building and stores, etc., and for the return of such vehicles and their drivers. The gate shall never be opened when convicts are near nor until ordered by the Superintendent of the Building or the Deputy Warden. The gates shall not be open longer than necessary and forthwith closed and locked. At the hour when the business of the day ends, the Keepers shall return their keys to the Sergeant at the Guard-Room and not receive them until business hours in the morning. They shall report every noon and evening who or what passed their gate during the half-day.
Shall have the oversight of the enclosure within the stockade He shall not allow any filth or garbage to accumulate on it. He shall see that each prisoner dumps his night bucket at the proper place, that they are cleaned and are returned to the cell-houses with gypsum sprinkled over the bottoms. He shall see that the material used in building, when provided by the State is carefully piled up and defended from
weather and waste. He shall see that no material of any kind is placed near the Stockade wall. He will remove all tools not used and that might aid in escape; see that no ropes, axes, etc., are left accessible at night, and place all such things under lock and key. He will every day examine all the shops and store-houses, and see that the locks are safe, and that no attempt has been made to force them. He will every day either alone or with the Deputy Warden examine every cell-house, carefully scrutinize every part of it, especially the doors and locks, in order to detect any attempt to escape. He shall also examine the beds that they clean and neatly made up, and that no filth is found in the houses. Should he discover vermin or anything unhealthy about the cell-houses lie will report it to the Deputy Warden. Every night, two hours after the convicts are locked up, he will pass over the yard to see that all fires about the engine, the kitchen or elsewhere are safely guarded against. Should he discover anything amiss, or suspect mischief on hand, he will report to the officer in the guard room.
1. Every convict conveyed by the Sheriff or his Deputy of the County where sentenced, shall be delivered to the Deputy Warden; or in case of his absence, to one of the Commissioners only, at the prison; and no receipt for their delivery, except signed by either of them, shall be valid for the discharge of the Sheriff.
2. In all cases of the delivery of convicts, the Sheriff or his Deputy shall present to the Deputy Warden or the Commissioner a certified transcript of the records of the County from the Superior Court Clerk, giving the name,
the crime of which convicted, and the term for which sentenced; which, together with the prisoner's age, place of birth, degree of education, moral habits, and the date from which the sentence runs, shall be recorded by the Clerk in a book kept for the purpose.
3. The delivery of a convict shall forthwith be notified to the Physician of the prison, who shall examine the state of the convict's health and make a record of it, and, on his judgement, shall be assigned to hospital, the, cell or to labor.
4. The convicts shall, before being put in a cell, or allowed to associate with other prisoners, be stripped of their clothing in the presence of the Deputy Warden, or Matron if females, thoroughly washed, cleaned, hair dressed, and then clothed with the prison suit.
5. The convict shall then be examined by the Clerk and, Deputy Warden in the Presence of as many of the overseers and guards as conveniently can be present, in order to their becoming acquainted with the convict's person, countenance, name, height, apparent or alleged age, place of nativity, trade, complexion, color of hair and eyes, length of the feet, (to be accurately measured) together with such other natural or accidental marks or peculiarity of feature or appearance as shall seem to identify such convict; and these shall all be recorded in a book kept for that purpose; and if the convict can write, subscribe it with his or her name.
6. All the effects on the person of the convict as well as the clothes shall be taken from the convict, specially mentioned and preserved under the care of the Deputy Warden, to be restored on the discharge of each prisoner, unless the clothing be worthless and filthy, when it shall become destroyed.
7. The clothing of the male convicts shall be a jacket and trowsers of heavy gray cloth or other warm stuff for winter, and of lighter goods for summer--with drawers and undershirt in winter, and two changes of linen each week; two pair socks and stout brogan shoes; a neat, light cloth cap, two handkerchiefs--all to be marked with the No. of the convict's cell or name.
8. No prisoner shall receive anything in the way of food or clothing but prisoner's allowance except in the hospital, and then only on the order of the Physician. Relatives or friends will not be allowed to introduce anything of this kind.
9. No tobacco in any form, or wine, or spirituous or intoxicating fermented liquors shall be allowed or used by the convicts unless by order of the Physician, and any one who shall supply them with it shall be forbidden access to the prison; or if any officer, guard or overseer do so, he shall be dismissed.
10. The clothing of the female convicts shall be a linsey jacket, one quilted and one woolen skirt, one striped cotton frock, stockings, shoes, under garments, handkerchiefs, combs and brush.
11. Every convict for two days may be confined in the cells where the Chaplain, Deputy. Warden, or one of the Commissioners shall visit them, assure them of interest in their welfare; explain the object of the incarceration; urge upon them motives to reform; explain their duties as prisoners; read to them the prison regulations and perform such other acts as will serve to win the confidence of the convict and inspire them with hope for the future.
12. The prisoners must obey all orders promptly and without questioning, labor steadily and faithfully, and observe all the rules respecting silence.
13. They are only allowed to speak to their Overseers respecting their work, to the officers in regard to their wants, and always respectfully.
14. They shall not speak to persons who do not belong to the institution, nor receive from such persons any letter, paper or any other thing, or to leave their work under any pretense without permission of the overseer.
15. Such prisoners as behave to the satisfaction of the officers, will be allowed once each month to converse with their friends in thee presence of the Deputy Warden or Clerk; they will be permitted to write once a month to their friends, and to receive all letters written to them at the discretion of Clerk or Deputy Warden.
16. The prisoners are not allowed to injure their clothes, tools, bedding, work or any thing belonging to the prison and must do their work as their skill and ability enables them.
17. Each convict must occupy the same cell every night; must take their night buckets with them; must draw the cell door to after them so that it may be locked.
18. The prisoners shall not sleep with their clothes on, and if any one becomes sick at night, they shall call the guard, who shall report to the officer on duty in the guard room at once. When too unwell in the morning to labor, they will report to the Overseer.
During the erection of the Penitentiary, and before the convicts can be securely confined, and the prison regulations properly enforced, it will be necessary to limit visiting.
1. None but official visitors of the prison and such persons
as have thee written permission of the Commissioners shall be allowed to visit the prison.
2. The official visitors are the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, members of the General Assembly, Judges of the Supreme and Superior Courts, Attorney General and the Solicitors of several Judicial Districts, the Sheriffs of the several Counties, and the Clergymen of the City of Raleigh having charge of congregations.
3. None but the official visitors can have any communication with the convict, nor shall any visitor whatever, be permitted to deliver to or receive front any convict any letter or message whatever, or supply them with any article of any kind.
4. Any visitor who may discover any abuse of authority, violation of law, or any act of oppression, shall forthwith report the same to one of the Commissioners.
5. The Deputy Warden shall allow the relatives of the convicts to visit them at proper times, and they may converse freely with them, but in the presence of the Deputy Warden or Clerk who shall see that no improper communications are made, and that nothing is passed to the convict.
6. It shall be the duty of the Deputy Warden, in cases where officers of penal institutions, or Board of State Charities may visit the prison to permit then free access to all parts of it, to converse freely with the convicts, and to afford them all information desired, and to treat them with all courtesy and kindness.
7. Such persons as are not official visitors, nor representatives of other institutions, or relatives of the convicts shall pay a fee of twenty-five cents on admission to be applied to the purchase of a prison library.
8. Visitors shall not be permitted to enter the prison
enclosure unless accompanied by an officer or guard, and while there will be under his surveillance.
9. Visitors, not official, shall have no conversation with the convicts when passing about the prison, and will conduct themselves in a quiet and orderly manner, as all loud talking, laughing, and all personal allusion to convicts by remark or gesture is positively forbidden.
10. All visitors must enter and depart by the guard-room gate.
11. On Sunday no visitors will be allowed entrance, except such as teach in the Sabbath School or attend Chapel service, when such may be held in the prison.
12. Any persons found within the prison enclosure, contrary to or in violation of these rules, by any overseer, guard or officer, will be arrested and ejected from the premises.
1. The officer on duty at the Guard-Room will ring the bell at five o'clock A. M., in the summer, and at six A. M. in the winter as a signal for all the prisoners to rise, dress, wash and make up their beds, etc., and that all the overseers and guards off duty may assemble at the Guard-room.
2. After sufficient time for these purposes, the guard being stationed, the morning rations ready, the keepers will unlock the cell doors, see that all prisoners are accounted for, when they shall be marched to receive their rations and back to the cells and locked up.
3. The keepers will report their convicts ready for labor, the sick, &c., and then repair to their own breakfast, leaving only such guard as is necessary
4. At seven o'clock A. M., all the well convicts will begin work and continue till 12 M. One hour will be given
for dinner in summer and 45 minutes in winter--after which they will return to labor until sundown in the winter and seven o'clock, P. M., in summer
5. An overseer will be assigned to each gang of convicts and shall have charge of them from the time the cells are unlocked in the morning until they are locked up at night, except when he is at meals, and shall not be relieved for the day until he has reported the safety of all his men.
6. At nine o'clock P.M., at a signal all the prisoners will be required to repair to their beds. No talking, laughing or noise will be permitted in any cell at any time, and the guard on duty will report any unusual commotion he may hear in a cell-house, whether caused by calls of any one taken sick, or any other way, at once to the officer on duty in the Guard Room.
All the rules and regulations adopted are only to ensure the safe keeping of the convicts and to enforce order and quiet subordination in the prison and the proper discharge of duty by all the officers.
1. The convicts may at all times, speak to the Commissioners when visiting the prison, and the Deputy Warden may appoint stated times when any convict may have opportunity to converse with him about any matters relating to himself, the safety of prisoners, etc.
2. Any guard who shall sleep at his post, get drunk, bring any wine, spirituous or fermented intoxicating liquors into the prison, provoke a quarrel or otherwise behave improperly shall at once be dismissed by the Deputy Warden.
3. No gambling shall be allowed by the convicts or any of the officials or employees of the prison.
4. No person but those whose duty requires it shall be present when a convict is stripped to be examined and cleansed or when they attend to their weekly bathing.
5. The gate opening into the Guard House is the only place where visitors or persons on business can enter the prison. This gate will be closed in the evening at nine o'clock not to be opened until seven o'clock in the morning unless it be to call the physician or in cases of death.
6. All the Houses, &c., in the yard will be carefully kept locked.
7. No articles but those allowed by the prison rules shall be allowed to any convict or in any cell-house. This does not relate to the Hospital.
8. It is not permitted to point out prisoners to visitors or subject them to the gaze and remark of the light and curious.
9. All contractors and employees on the building shall, as far as possible, be subject to all the regulations concerning visitors.
10. Any laborers or employees on such contract who shall tamper with the convicts shall be required to be dismissed.
11. The keeper of the gate by which visitors and persons on business enter the enclosure shall diligently observe all persons coming in or going out and allow no one to enter who is not officially connected with the prison--a contractor or workmen on the building known to him, unless he have a written permission from one of the Commission.
12. No one shall be allowed in the Guard Room except officers after the hour at which the convicts are locked up for the night or before the cells are opened in the morning.
13. No officer or employee of the Penitentiary shall give any information in regard to the affairs, business of the
prison, the treatment, conduct, &c., of the prisoners only in the most general terms.
14. Guards, overseers and other subordinate in ate officials in must give one months' notice of their intention to leave.
15. The intercourse of the prison officers must be respectful and kind--no improper language should be used among themselves or before the convicts. They shall exhibit uniform equanimity of temper with determined enforcement of the regulations of the prison. A deep respect for morals and religion should mark their conduct before the prisoners. Also great and unaffected interest in their welfare and concern for their reformation, so that harmony may mark the official conduct of the prison--that its moral tone and influence of example may benefit the convicts and the great end of penal confinement shall be most successfully realized in the reformation and restoration to society and the State of many valuable citizens.