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Reminiscences and Memoirs of North Carolina and Eminent North Carolinians :
Electronic Edition.

Wheeler, John H. (John Hill), 1806-1882.


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(title page) Reminiscences and Memoirs of North Carolina and Eminent North Carolinians
Wheeler, John H. (John Hill), 1806-1882.
15, lxxiv, 478 p.
Columbus, Ohio
Columbus Printing Works
1884
Call number CR970 W56r c. 2 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)


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JOHN H. WHEELER.

Born, Hertford Co., No. Ca. Aug. 2d. 1802. Died, Washington, D. C. Dec. 7th. 1882. A. M. Univ. of No. Ca. 1826; State Treasurer, 1845. U. S. Envoy to Nicaragua, 1853. Author Hist. of No. Ca. and of Reminiscences of Eminent North Carolinians.


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REMINISCENCES AND MEMOIRS
OF
NORTH CAROLINA
AND
EMINENT NORTH CAROLINIANS,

BY

JOHN H. WHEELER,
AUTHOR OF THE HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, AND MEMBER OF THE HISTORICAL
SOCIETIES OF NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, GEORGIA,
AND PENNSYLVANIA.

" `Tis well that a State should often be reminded of her great citizens."

COLUMBUS, OHIO:
COLUMBUS PRINTING WORKS,
1884.


Page (3)

TO
HON. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D.,
PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA,
AS SOME EVIDENCE OF
PERSONAL REGARD OF THE AUTHOR, AND DEVOTION TO THE FAME
AND HONOR OF THEIR NATIVE STATE,
THIS WORK IS DEDICATED.

        It is well known to you that your venerated father encouraged the preparation and publication of this work. His letters to the author prove this. But he died before it was completed. Lest the same inevitable event should occur to the author now beyond the allotted period of human life, these Reminiscences and Memories, the labor and research of a life, are now given as a grateful legacy to his kind and generous countrymen, who will admire the generous traits exhibited, and imitate the noble examples of their forefathers.


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PREFACE.

WASHINGTON CITY, No. 28, GRANT PLACE,
JUNE 10, 1878.

To Hon. William H. Battle, L.L.D., Chapel Hill:

        MY ESTEEMED SIR--Your recent letter as to "The Address on the Early Times and Men of Albemarle," has been received. For the kind opinion, that "the people of the State and especially those of the Albemarle County, owe a debt of gratitude for this and other contributions to their history," I sincerely thank you.

        Your letter further adds, that you "have seen in the Raleigh Observer, a handsome tribute to the value and usefulness of my History of North Carolina, expressing a wish for an early publication of a second edition, uniting yourself in a similar request.

        Like expressions have been received from many respectable sources.

        Recently, The News of Raleigh, The Democrat of Charlotte, and other papers call for the publication of the "Reminiscences of Eminent North Carolinians," and appeal to her sons for contributions "to the Grand Old History of North Carolina."

        It is hoped and believed this call will be heard and heeded.

        While Virginia on one side and South Carolina on the other, have presented to the world the glowing record of the patriotism, valor and virtues of their sons, North Carolina equally rich or richer in such reminiscences; and with traits of virtue, and honor, and sacrifices to patriotism, deserving of record, allows this record to be obscured by time, and to


                         "Waste its fragrance on the desert air."

        It has been truly said that no State of our Republic, has, from the earliest period of its existence, shown a more determined spirit of independence, and a more constant and firm resistance "to every form of oppression of the rights of man" than North Carolina. This is evinced on every page of her history, and exhibited on the battle field, and in the exploits of individual prowess. This patriotic spirit has been accompanied by noble traits of individual character; as integrity of purpose, a straightforwardness of intention, and by simplicity and modesty in demeanor.

        It was on the shores of North Carolina that the English first landed on this continent. It has been the refuge of the down-trodden, the oppressed and persecuted of every nation, and here they found that freedom denied to them in the old world--with gentle manners and resolute hearts, their whole history exhibits a firm devotion to liberty, a keen perception of right and a ready and determined resistance to wrong. For this and this only, was life desirable to them, and for this they were willing to die.

        The gallant patron, who first sent a colony to


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our shores was the victim of tyranny and oppression. Her first Governor was sacrificed in defence of popular rights. Such seed could but produce goodly fruits. The character of this people was graphically described by one of the early Colonial Governors, as "being insolent and rebelliousimpatient of all tyranny and ready to resist oppression in every form."

        An early historian has recorded our people, as being "gentle in their manners, advocates of freedom; jealous of their rulers, impatient, restless, and turbulent when ruled by any other government than their own; and under that and that only were they satisfied."

        It was in the natural course of events and "the inexorable logic of circumstances" that the sturdy men of the age were ever ready to defend the cause of right; and in defense of liberty to pour out their life blood, as at Alamance; on the Cape Fear, to beard the minions of power, and cause their oppressor to leave the State and seek refuge elsewhere, and that the men of Mecklenburgh in advance of every other State, should thunder to the world the eternal principles of Independence and Liberty.

        The acts and characteristics of these illustrious men, and of their descendants, we wish to preserve.

        We enter upon this "labor of love" with earnestness and pleasure. "Let it not be thought says a learned writer, on a similar subject, "that we are working for ourselves alone, nor for those now living. Let us remember that thousands yet unborn will respect and bless the patient and pious hands, that have rescued from oblivion these precious memorials."

        The Memories of the last fifty years or more, cover an interesting period of our history.

        We shall leave the history of the earlier events to some faithful historian, and be it our task to take up the biographies of the leading men who have done "the State some service" with reminiscences of their times and give the biography and genealogy of each, as far as attainable. Biography presents a more minute and accurate view of the lights and shadows of character, than general history. One is general, and the individual is a mere accessory; the other is minute, and directed to a single object. We often have a clearer idea of any event, when the motives and the character of the chief actors are minutely described. We have in the "Life of Washington," by Marshal, the best history of the American Revolution. As to our genealogy, this is the first attempt to present the record of families in our State.

        This untried path involved much research and labor. It is hoped it will be acceptable, and prove useful. We are far behind the age, on this subject. In England, Burke's great work (The Genealogical and Heraldric Dictionary of the British Empire) is a hand-book in every well appointed library.

        In New England, "Whitmore's American Genealogy" is valuable; the Genealogical Society of Massachusetts is in full vigor, sustaining a Quarterly Magazine. Every locality and family in that section has preserved and published such materials; these are commemorated by annual domestic gatherings; thus strengthening the ties of affection and refreshing the memories of the past. In many cases genealogy is valuable in preserving property to the true owners of estates, and the ties of kindred that otherwise would be forever buried, and broken.

        Some, with phlegmatic indifference may ridicule this attempt; exhibiting a supreme contempt for such vanity, as they call it; but surely no one with a discreet mind and a sound heart can be insensible to the laudable feeling of having descended from an honest and virtuous ancestry, and having industrious and intelligent connections of unsullied reputation. Such a thought instills a hatred of laziness and vice, and stimulates activity and virtue.

        Such is a grateful oblation to departed worth. Not only is this a duty discharged to the dead,


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but a moral benefit may result to the living. It acts as an incentive to others, while they admire his services and brilliant career, to emulate his patriotic example.


                         "Oh, who shall lightly say that Fame
                         Is nothing but an empty name,
                         While in that name there is a charm
                         The nerves to brace, the heart to warm,
                         When, thinking on the mighty dead,
                         The youth shall rouse from slothful bed,
                         And vow with uplifted hand and heart
                         Like him to act a noble part."

        Let us all cherish the recollection of talents, services, and virtues, of departed worth, and such faults as are inseparable from our nature, be buried in the grave with the relics of fallen humanity.

        Some pains have been taken with the table of contents and the preparation of the Index.

        Mr. Stevens, in his "Catalogue of his English Library," says, correctly: "If you are troubled with a pride of accuracy, and would have it completely taken out of you, attempt to make an Index or Catalogue."

        Dr. Allibone prints in his valuable Dictionary of Authors (I., 85), extracts from a number of the Monthly Review, which is well worthy of quotation here: "The compilation of an index is one of those labors for which the public are rarely so forward to express their gratitude, as they ought to be. The value of a thing is best known by the want of it. We have often experienced great inconvenience for want of a good index to many books. There is far more scope for the exercise of judgment and ability in compiling an index than commonly supposed. Mr. Oldys expresses a similar sentiment in his Notes and Queries (XI., 309): "The labour and patience; the judgment and penetration, required to make a good index, is only known to those who have gone through the most painful and least praised part of a publication.

        Lord Campbell proposed in the English Parliament (Wheatley on "What is an Index?" p. 27) that any author who published a book without an Index, should be deprived of the benefits of the copyright act." Mr. Binney of Philadelphia held the same views and Carlyle denounces the putting forth of books without a good Index, with great severity.

        The History of Tennessee, by Dr. Ramsay, full of research and philosophy, fails in this respect. A book with no index is like a ship on the ocean without compass, or rudder.

        In the following pages doubtless many worthy characters may have escaped notice--for the field is "so large and full of goodly prospects." Nor would we if we could, exhaust this fair field; but like Boaz, leave some rich sheaves for other and more skillful reapers in this bountiful harvest.

        To you, my dear sir, who have so kindly and repeatedly encouraged these labors, I respectfully commend them and subscribe myself

Very sincerely yours,

JNO. H. WHEELER.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS.


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MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR,
COLONEL JOHN HILL WHEELER,
Of Hertford County, North Carolina.

BORN AUGUST 2, 1806, DIED DECEMBER 7, 1882,

BY HON. JOSEPH S. FOWLER, EX-SENATOR FROM TENNESSEE.


                         "Exegi monumentum oere perennius,
                         Regalique situ pyramidum altius;
                         Quod non imber edax. non Aquilo impotens
                         Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis
                         Annorum series, et fuga temporum."

--HOR. CAR., XXX.

        FROM Moore's "Historical Sketches of Hertford County," we learn the following:

        Among the early citizens of the village of Murfreesboro, in this county, was John Wheeler. He was of an ancient family, long seated around New York. In the latter end of the 17th century, under a grant of land from Charles II., Joseph Wheeler emigrated from England, and settled in Newark, New Jersey. Like William Penn, he was the son of a gallant naval officer. Sir Francis Wheeler, an English admiral, was his father, and the grant of land from the Crown was in reward for faithful services. He and his young wife had followed soon after the conquest of the New Netherlands by the Duke of York, son of Charles I., afterwards James II.

        To them was born, in 1718, their son Ephraim Wheeler, to whom, and his wife Mary, the first American John Wheeler was born in the year 1744. John had bestowed upon him the best advantages of education--he was educated as a physician. When the Revolutionary war came on, he entered the army under General Montgomery, and accompanied him in the perilous and ill-fated campaign to Quebec, and was in the battle (December 31, 1775,) in which that gallant officer fell. In Toner's "Reminiscences of the Medical Men of the Revolution" he is prominently mentioned. Aaron Burr served also in this campaign. Dr. Wheeler accompanied General Greene in his southern campaign, and was with him in the hard fought and glorious victory at Eutaw Springs, September 8, 1781, and until the close of the war. Pleased with the genial climate of the South, he settled near Murfreesboro and brought his family with him. His wife Elizabeth Longworth, was the neice of Aaron Ogden, afterwards the Governor of New Jersey, and Senator in Congress. He lived near Murfreesboro for years, in the practice of his profession, in which he had great skill and much success.

        His death occurred on October 14, 1814, and he lies buried in Northampton County, near


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Murfreesboro. He left several works in manuscript on medical science, which evinced the depth of his acquaintance and his devotion to his profession. His son John was born in 1771. In his early youth he was engaged with his cousin, David Longworth, in business as publishers and booksellers in New York. Here he attracted, by his attention to business, the notice of Zedekiah Stone, who was then in New York, and by whom he was induced to remove to Bertie County, North Carolina. He was there married to Elizabeth Jordan, January 6th, 1796, and after the death of his friend, Mr. Stone, Murfreesboro became his home. At this place he was engaged in mercantile and shipping affairs until the day of his death. From his enterprise, industry, sagacity, and integrity he attained great success, and his memory, to this day, is cherished in that section as "the honest merchant." He was a man of unspotted integrity, so strong that venality and indirection cowered before him. After a long life of industry, usefulness and piety (for he was a consistent member of the Baptist Church for more than forty years) he died, lamented and beloved, August 7th, 1832. His family surviving him, consisted of two sons by his first marriage, John H. Wheeler, late Public Treasurer of the State, and Dr. S. Jordan Wheeler, late of Bertie County. By a second wife (Miss Woods) he left one daughter, Julia, the peerless wife of Dr. Godwin C. Moore; and by a third wife, among others, Colonel Junius B. Wheeler, now Professor of Civil and Military Engineering and the Art of War in the United States Military Academy at West Point. He is the author of several military works on civil and military engineering, and on the art of war, which have been adopted as text books by the War Department. He has thus written his name in the useful literature of the nation and discharged "that debt," which Lord Coke says, "every man owes to his profession."

        Professor Wheeler was born in 1830; educated in part at the University of North Carolina, and when only a boy volunteered as a private in Captain William J. Clarke's company in the Mexican war. He was in every battle from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. At the fiercely contested affair at the Nacional Puente, one of the lieutenants was killed, and young as he was, he was appointed by the President as the successor, on the report of his commanding officer, now on file, that "he had seen young Wheeler under heavy fire, and he had proved to the command that he was made of the stuff of which heroes are made." On his return from Mexico he could have remained as an officer in the army, but he declined on the ground of want of qualification, he therefore resigned his commission. The President determined to retain him in the service, and he appointed him a cadet at West Point, where he graduated among the first of his class. After serving for several years in the Corps of Engineers in Louisiana, Wisconsin and elsewhere, he was appointed to succeed the late Professor Mahan in the position he now occupies.

        Dr. Samuel Jordan Wheeler, brother of the above, was born in 1810; was educated at the Hertford Academy, and graduated from Union College, Schenectady; he studied medicine with Dr. Nathan Chapman in Philadelphia, and practiced for years with success. He has been an earnest co-laborer in the cause of education and religion, as the Chowan Institute and the Church at Murfreesboro bear witness; he was professor in a college in Mississippi. He recently died in Bertie County, loved and respected for his purity of character. He married Lucinda, daughter of Lewis Bond.

JOHN HILL WHEELER.

        The conspicuous services rendered the State of North Carolina, and her eminent citizens, by this accomplished man, will forever preserve


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his memory from oblivion. Born in the dawn of the present century, he has been the witness of the most remarkable events in the history of the republic. In the county of Hertford he first saw the light, August 6, 1806.

        He was prepared for college at Hertford Academy by Dr. John Otis Freeman, an eminent divine. He was then placed at the Columbian University, Washington, D. C., and graduated in the class of 1826. In the year 1828 he took his degree of Master of Arts in the University of North Carolina. He studied his profession, the law, under the direction of Chief Justice Taylor, of North Carolina. He was elected to the Legislature before he was admitted to the bar, in the year 1827. Then State Legislatures were honored bodies, and secured some of the best talent in the States.

        This Legislature contained many eminent and able men, among them were Judges Gaston, Nash and Bailey, George E. Spriuell, John M. Morehead, James Iredell, and many more. To win position in such a body was the promise of a fruitful manhood, in a youth just twenty-one years of age. For an earnest and aspiring mind, it proved a valuable school. Success was not to be hoped for without severe study and thorough preparation. To subside into reverential indifference was not the characteristic of his mind. Independent in his feelings, whilst respecting the ability of his colleagues, he claimed equal rights in the body. Conscientious in the execution of the great trust committed to him by a generous and proud constituency, he could not see their dignity overshadowed. He summoned all his powers to the work, and won for himself a conspicuous and honorable position. So well did he perform the task assigned him, that his approving constituents returned him to the body. In his twenty-fifth year, they nominated him for Congress, but after a severely contested and gallant canvass, he was defeated by the Hon. William B. Shepard.

        In the year 1831, he was appointed Secretary to the Board of Commissioners, under the treaty with France, to adjudicate the claims of American citizens for spoilations under the Berlin and Milan decrees.

        In 1836, he was placed by General Jackson in the position of Superintendent of the Branch Mint at Charlotte, but in 1841 shared the political fortune of his friends and party.

        In 1842, he was elected by the Legislature to be Treasurer of the State, in opposition to Major Charles L. Hinton. After his term had expired, he retired to his rural home on the banks of the Catawba, and, aided by the suggestion of his friend, Governor Swain, he began the patriotic labor of writing "Wheeler's History of North Carolina," on which he was employed for about ten years. How well this duty was performed, will appear from an extract of a letter of General Swain, written not long before his death, now in our possession, in which he says:

        "I have been much urged to write a completion of Hawks' History of North Carolina. The only response I have ever made is that I am too old, and too poor to venture on such an undertaking. Were it otherwise, in my opinion another edition of Wheeler's History would be more useful and acceptable than any work I could write."


        In this work, Colonel Wheeler sought to collect the interesting facts that illustrated the history of the State and give them an enduring place. He proposed to preserve, for all time, a faithful record of the illustrious deeds of a noble and patriotic people, who have characterized their presence in the new world by an intense love of liberty and the most striking individuality. They were, from their presence in the wilderness, a self governing community.

        No authority was sacred that did not eminate from themselves. Loyal to the will of the people, they resented indignantly the imposition


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of any external authority. They rejected the magnificent plan of government provided by the Earl of Shaftesbury, though he summoned the brilliant talents of the illustrious philosopher, John Locke, for its preparation.

        They adopted a plan drawn from their own experience and their wants, under the circumstances, which surrounded them. They were the first to repel the aggressions of the British parliament and crown. They well knew the rights of freeborn Englishmen and the principles of their constitution, and were determined that no invasion of them should be tolerated.

        Colonel Wheeler gave his work to the public in the year 1851. It was a complete success, and is highly esteemed as a faithful record of a most interesting and remarkable people.

        In the year 1844, he was warmly urged upon by his party as a candidate for governor, but did not receive the nomination.

        In the year 1852, he was elected to the State Legislature, which was fiercely agitated by the contest for a United States Senator.

        The Democratic caucus put forth their favorite man, the Honorable James C. Dobbin, than whom a purer, or nobler man never lived. Notwithstanding his great popularity with his party, and his admitted ability, the friends of the Honorable Romulus M. Saunders refused to support the caucus nominee, and voted for Honorable Burton Craige. The obstinate contest thus made deprived the state of its representation in the Senate for two years. In this contest Colonel Wheeler stood by his party and his warm personal friend, Mr. Dobbin, and did all in his power to secure his election.

        In the year 1853, Colonel Wheeler was appointed, by President Pierce, Minister to Nicaragua, Central America. During his residence there the country was torn by opposing political factions, that sought their ends by the sword. During the revolution General William Walker made his appearance with a company of determined men, to join the liberals, and the position held by Colonel Wheeler became one of much peril and responsibility. It soon became manifest that neither party could be relied on for any permanent and salutary government. The following of Walker, though small, was brave, determined and intelligent; their leader very soon resolved, if he had not from the beginning, to give the country an Anglo-American government. He thus expected to make Central America the seat of a new and progressive civilization, which would convert its fertile soil and generous climate into the uses of the commercial world. For the interesting incidents of this daring and romantic adventure, the reader is referred to the sketches of the incidents and characters connected with the revolution. A thrilling episode of his sojourn in that distracted country, so characteristic of the man himself, is given at pages 22 to 30 of the following Reminiscences.

        As soon as General Walker had established his authority, and his was the de facto government, the American minister promptly acknowledged it. This act was not approved by the Secretary of State, the Honorable William L. Marcy, and he requested his recall. As Colonel Wheeler had a warm friend in the President, and as his earnest and long tried friend, the Hon. James C. Dobbin, was Secretary of the Navy, he was in no danger of being recalled without a hearing. His reply to Mr. Marcy's strictures was triumphant, and the President refused to recall him.

        Colonel Wheeler not only sympathized with the object of this movement, but admired the character of General Walker. He was a quiet, unassuming gentleman, educated under the best instructors of the United States and Europe. In person, he was below the average American, by no means imposing in his presence. A ready, eloquent, and graceful writer, he would have been one of the first journalists of his age. The blood of the Norsemen coursed


Page v

through his veins, and he was alive with an enthusiasm of the old Vikings for adventure. He neither estimated the dangers of the enemy, or the climate; his courage was of the purest steel. An ardent Anglo-American, he had only contempt for the Spaniards and those mongrel races, who occupied with indolence and semi-barbarism one of the finest and most productive regions on the continent. He conceived the purpose of planting there another race of men who would open the land to a refinement and civilization that would make it the parthway of nations to the eastern world. Colonel Wheeler readily saw in the advent of this cultivated and revolutionary mind, and his brave and daring followers, the promise of hope for the country so long cursed with degeneracy and mindless inaction. He became the invited guest and welcome friend of the United States minister, who knew the men and the situation far better than General Walker. Had he listened more earnestly to the wise counsel and cautious prudence of Colonel Wheeler, he would, in all probability, have realized the bright dreams of his ardent fancy. He had many of the qualities of a successful leader--sincerity, courage, self-denial and intellectual superiority. He was not a statesman, and failed in making provisions essential to the maintainance of armies. Taking no account of the strength of the foe, or the fatality of the climate, he wasted his forces without the possibility of a supply.

        The United States minister, with far keener apprehension, saw the dangers that threatened and advised the means to insure the success of the promising enterprise. To him it was the introduction of a new civilization by a race whose destiny was to found new nations. His whole heart was with the movement, and his conduct was only limited by his duty to preserve the faith and honor of the republic which he represented. To a courage not less prompt than General Walker's, he added a sound judgment, a cautious foresight, a steady purpose, and a captivating manner. He knew how to husband his resources for the hour of trial. General Walker moved often under the influence of a whimsical impulse, careless of the demands of an insatiable to-morrow. He sought the enemy at too great a sacrifice of men who could not be restored; he took but little account of the profound causes which preserve and destroy armies. His high qualities and noble ambition will cause feelings of regret for his unhappy end, and the failure of his ambitious and magnificent purpose. Not the love of gain, nor the vulgar display, led this refined student to the unequal contest. It was the pride of his noble race and its capacity to rejoice a country blessed by nature with every bounty, and cursed only by an indolent, vicious, and monotonous race. Too soon for the demands of mankind, a more opportune period will, in time, complete the work in which he bravely fell, and vindicate his generous design.

        To the honor of Colonel Wheeler be it recorded that he used his influence to promote a revolution so fraught with unnumbered blessings to civilized man. Nor did he compromise the great republic, that had confided her good faith to his care, though he could not look with composure upon the contest, of an enlightened civilization with a stupid indifference to the demands of an intelligent and progressive age. That one entire continent, and a large portion of another, should be consigned to stolid repose without an heroic effort to unfold their almost boundless possibilities, was to him neither statesmanship nor humanity. He knew it was the destiny of his race to eradicate barbarism, and teach the inhabitants of the wilderness the arts of production, commerce, moral responsibility, social refinement, and intelligent freedom. Before its all-conquering enterprise nature had put off its savage habits for new creations of beauty and


Page vi

utility. Profoundly versed in its history, he was moved with admiration for its all-creative energy. He did not doubt that its presence would endow, with a new life, that entire isthmus, which could not fail, in a few years, to meet the advance of the United States into Mexico. With prophetic vision he beheld its gloomy forests giving place to the peaceful abodes of cultivated men. Deprecating the erratic impulses of the young leader of this promising mission, he nevertheless hailed it as the harbinger of a glorious future for Central America and the commercial world. Not even the demands of a coldly selfish diplomacy could repress his generous approval, and he gave the benign presence of a creative enterprise his counsel, his sympathy, and his substantial support.

        In the year 1857, Colonel Wheeler resigned his mission, and returned to his abode in Washington City. So long as he lived he claimed his legal residence to be in North Carolina. On his door plate was that name coupled with his own, and over the breast of his encoffined form was engraved that name so dear to him. In all his thoughts, and in all his journeyings, his heart yearned towards North Carolina, and within her borders he would have preferred interment. The amiable and charming English poet, Waller, in his old age, purchased a small property at his birthplace, saying he would like to die, like the stag, where he was roused. This poetic idea has immortality in the lines of Goldsmith:


                         "As the poor stag, whom hound and horns pursue,
                         Pants for the place where at first he flew,
                         I still had hoped my vexations past,
                         Here to return and die at home at last."

        By this time the long agony over the slavery question was culminating. Our republic was rapidly drifting towards a fierce and destructive war. Colonel Wheeler had ever been identified with the Democratic party, and had followed its faith and practices with earnestness through all its meanderings. The change from Pierce to Buchanan brought no change in the purposes or disposition of the party. Under the former, the repeal of the Missouri compromise, and the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, had dissolved the Whig party and introduced the Republican party into the field of action. The conflict between individuals had passed away with the magnificent personages that characterized that period. Principles laying at the foundation of free institutions, and deeply imbedded in the conscience, came into the field. The Republican party planted itself upon the doctrine of freedom for the territories. The Democratic party proclaimed the inviolability of slavery in the States and Territories. The former was a new and revolutionary force, the latter stood firmly by the ancient constitutional rights of slavery. The former was organized to break up and displace it, the latter resisted displacement. Trained in the school of Jackson, Colonel Wheeler's judgment was against war, and adhered to the Union; but this school had disappeared and a new Democracy had arisen, and guided by his sympathies he followed his party, drifting rapidly upon dangerous reefs and quicksands. One of his sons, C. Sully Wheeler, was in the Federal Navy; the other, Woodbury Wheeler, had joined the Confederate Army. Each remained faithful to the cause he had espoused, to the end. To those laboring under the weight of half a century that had seen the republic in the glory of its united power, it seemed now in the agony of inevitable death. The expiring hours of Democratic rule was spent shuddering before the fearful responsibility of the solemn oath "to support and defend the Constitution." The incoming administration, though sustained by an unconquerable enthusiasm in its ranks, was slow to announce any policy. Many unionists to the south, believing all to be lost, hastened into the


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ranks of the disunionists. All the companions of Colonel Wheeler's life, all that was dear to him from childhood were enveloped in the fortunes of the Confederacy. His long and strong political bias and the intensity of his friendship drew his sympathy and his hopes with them, and he came back to North Carolina to be with her in the struggle. Too far advanced in life to become an actor in the contest, in 1863, pursuant to a resolution of the General Assembly of the State, he went to Europe to collect material for a new edition of his history. Anxious to gather all that related to the subject which could render it a more perfect chronicle of his beloved people, he sought the treasures of the British Archives and buried himself in that wonderful collection, far from the desolating and sanguinary events of the war. He collected much valuable and interesting matter, which he incorporated in the new edition of his history which he left ready for the press.

        Colonel Wheeler was a sincere believer in the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, of May 20th, 1775. His studies in the Archives left no doubt upon this interesting problem in his mind. The meeting and resolution of the same body of men of May 31st, 1775, are undisputed. They did not go to the point of declaring a separation from the British government, but they went far beyond the expressions of any other colony. The reader of Wheeler's History will mark with what delight he records the resistance of these forest-born republicans to the aggressions of the royal government. The gallant struggles and heroic sacrifices of his revolutionary ancestors are set forth with care and eloquence.

        He was thoroughly versed in the opinions of democratic statesmen, and sincerely devoted to the Jefferson school. He maintained the sovereignty of the states in all local matters, whilst he held to the inviolability of the Federal authority in national affairs. Each was sacred in the realms assigned them by the Constitution. It is difficult to preserve the complicated adjustment of the relations of the states to the general government. In the South, he saw a strong tendency to magnify the powers of the states. In the North, the Federal authority was rapidly assuming new and alarming importance. The effect of the war was to give far greater importance to the nation, and to silence everywhere the principle of state sovereignty. Colonel Wheeler regarded the influence of the central power as dangerous to individual liberty, and constantly tending to imperialism. He beheld with regret the citizen disappearing in the grandeur and power of the nation. Reared among men proud of their honor and influence, he dreaded the decline of personal excellence. Its loss was the grave of liberty, and birth of imperial power.

        The integrity of the state and nation depended upon the sanctity of the ballot, and this upon the responsibility and intelligence of the individual citizen. The presence of powerful monied corporations, and a grand central government, would destroy in time its responsibility. The voter, being entirely overshadowed, would soon begin to look as lightly upon his personal worth, as he did upon his influence in the republic. He relied chiefly on character to preserve the republic through the ballot. Neither education nor wealth could be trusted with the liberties of the people, in the absence of inflexible purpose, and the habit of self government. The only safeguard for the encroachments of power was in the disposition and capacity of the citizen to resist them at the threshold. When the public ceases to be a severe censor of the conduct of officials, the end of our delicately adjusted republic will not be remote. His apprehensions of a gradual change, and a complete undermining of the nature of our institutions, was the result of close observation


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for more than half a century, of the most eventful period of the history of the government, actuated by an intense solicitude for the safety of the republic of the fathers.

        Colonel Wheeler was a sincere believer in the salutary influence of labor directed by method. Ardent labor, regulated by reason, is the price of excellence. He that would win the latter, can not dispense with the former.

        Time was a sacred trust that no one could neglect without evil. Thoroughly realizing its demands, with earnest purpose and willing hands he consecrated all to the noblest ends of life. Knowing that the brightest genius, and the most brilliant powers, could avail but little if this trust was not executed with system, he introduced the most convenient order into all his labors, so that he could call up the gleanings of years in a moment.

        A systematic and laborious scholar, he enriched his understanding from the treasures of many tongues. The English furnished him the richest stores, and he had drunk deeply at her purest fountains. Into his tenacious and fruitful memory, were joined the wealth of the prose and poetry of that wonderful people, whose intelligence, more than their arms, has filled the world. He was familiar with all the great dramatists. The great poems of Shakespeare, he could repeat with a power rarely equalled by the first actors of his time.

        His friendships were ardent and sincere, and his devotion to his friends knew no bounds; influence, purse, life itself, if in the right, were at their service. Attachments so strong and pure, insured a loving and faithful husband, an indulgent and devoted father, and a kind and generous neighbor. In all the relations of life he filled the measure of a noble manhood; tender and charitable to the afflicted, cheerful and courteous to the prosperous, he ever sought to mitigate the asperities of life, thoserude blasts that visit too often every home.

        The social qualities of Colonel Wheeler were of the highest order. His warm heart, his classic wit, and mirth-creating humor, made him the favorite of all circles in which intelligence, refinement, and graceful address were desired. Living in that age of the republic which gave the noblest development of individual excellence, he had ample opportunity of mingling in its most delightful associations. Bountifully supplied with instructive and interesting anecdote, his conversation never lost its interest and inspiration. He drew from ancient and modern literature their richest gems, and with consummate taste he pleased and instructed his ever attentive auditors. The fountains of Greek, Roman, English and French history were open to his never flagging memory. It was in the richer developments of American life that he enjoyed the greatest pleasure. Above all periods of human history, he esteemed the characters of our revolutionary era. It had furnished the grandest expression of freedom and integrity, as it had of civil and political institutions. With pious veneration he had collected and preserved every heroic act and noble utterance, unwilling to allow the corroding fingers of time to erase from coming generations the humblest name.

        Not less fortunate in his political associations, he knew personally all the presidents and cabinet officers, from Jefferson to Arthur. He had been the confidential friend of Jackson, Pierce and Johnson, and was by them called to counsel and advice. He did not look to high official station, for the richest manifestation of intellectual and moral worth. He had too often seen the most commanding positions occupied by presuming inferiority, through the labors and merits of the modest and deserving. By the fruits of their lives, he esteemed the actors of the age in which they lived and worked. This volume of reminiscences discloses his estimation of characters


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who figured in the moral and political life of the state and nation, far better than any sketch of his life. It also presents with equal force his moral, social and political preferences and appreciations.

        He had been from his first political essay, trained in the Democratic party, and his active affinities drew from the ranks of that party his warmest associations. His democracy was founded upon the lofty plane of integrity and worth. There, all who could come were equals, and entitled to the rights and honors of the state. Neither accident of birth or wealth could push from their seats the true, the industrious, and the brave. Humble worth, bending beneath the weight of sorrows and privations, had an open highway to his respect. He rejoiced to see the virtuous youth, bursting the barriers of pride and caste, and appealing to the just judgment of society for the recognition of its worth. For misfortune he had all sympathy; for unostentatious merit, reverence; for courage, that presses forward in the achievement of great and useful measures, admiration.

        Trained from childhood to industry and action, he knew the value of useful labor. No speculative theorist, he sought substantial results through methods approved of by experience. With reluctance he marked any departure from the way selected by the sages, and lined with countless blessings. The continuity of history described the march of human intelligence and could not be broken with any assurance of safety. Nor was he blindly bound to an irrational and monotinous past. He well knew that every day and every hour makes demands upon the exercise of reason and invention, that can only be appeased by advancement in time and space. A witness of all the greatest discoveries in the useful arts, he well understood their influence upon the refinement of the people. Society was undergoing perpetual change in all its varied aspects. The most venerable and sacred institutions, in time, give place to new ones, better adapted to represent its advancement, and perpetuate its usefulness.

        In all the noble actions of the great and good of the republic, he had an inheritance of imperishable glory. With pious care he has garnared all, and has labored to transmit them to posterity, as an inspiration to emulate the heroic and worthy lives of an illustrious ancestry. The conduct of the great and good is the most valuable legacy that a nation can have. The memories and the glorious deeds of the eminent personages whom North Carolina has contributed to humanity, have been sacredly collected and eloquently described by this faithful historian. They have not been left to perish "unhonored and unsung." The memory of the busy, patriotic and eloquent man, who has rescued from oblivion, so many illustrious names, will be recalled with grateful thanks, from the shores on which break the waves of the Atlantic, to the peaks of the Unaka mountains that mark the western limits of the state. Whenever the sons or daughters of the old commonwealth have escheloned into the west, his labors will be carried and read. They will be to all a reservoir of brilliant names, and a chronicle of illustrious deeds.

        This worthy and learned man attained a ripe age, in the full enjoyment of his intellectual powers, laboring cheerfully to the end.

        Though during his closing years he suffered much, his genial and sunny disposition did not desert him. He continued to receive his friends with that generous welcome, which will be fondly remembered after he has past the "sunless river's flow."

        He was married first to Mary, only daughter of Rev. Mr. O. B. Brown, of Washington City, one of the most accomplished and literary ladies of her day, by whom he had one daughter, married to George N. Beale, a


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brother of General E. F. Beale, late United States Envoy to Austria, and, second, to Ellen, daughter of Thomas Sully, one of the most distinguished artists of Philadelphia, by whom he had two sons, Charles Sully and Woodbury, a successful lawyer in Washington City.

        On Thursday, Deeember 7th, 1882, at 12:30 o'clock, a. m., the long sufferings of Colonel Wheeler were ended; and at 2 p. m., on Sunday the 10th, he was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, Georgetown, D. C.

        Eminent citizens of North Carolina then in Washington, met in the National Capitol, and adopted the following resolutions:

        "Resolved, That we, North Carolinians, present in Washington, have assembled to pay a tribute of respect to the memory of our departed friend, Mr. John H. Wheeler, whose private worth and public services have endeared him to our whole people.

        "Resolved, That by his life-work, though to him a labor of love, as the historian of the state, and the collection of vast stores of historical material, he imposed a debt of gratitude upon every North Carolinian, and upon the republic of letters, which will be remembered for generations."


        Eulogiums, attesting the high place the deceased had won in the hearts of his people, were pronounced by the Hons. Z. B. Vance, Samuel F. Phillips, Jesse J. Yeates, A. M. Scales, M. W. Ransom, and T. L. Clingman.

        The following letter of condolence was addressed to Major Woodbury Wheeler, son of the deceased:

"SENATE CHAMBER.
"MAJOR WOODBURY WHEELER.

        "DEAR SIR: We have this moment heard with deep pain, of the death of your father. His death affects us with great sorrow; his loss will be mourned by all the people of the State, which he loved and served so well. Truly a good and great man has left us.

        "We beg leave to express to you and his family our sincerest sympathy. In your sad bereavement you have the consolation arising from the memory of his illustrious life marked by conspicuous virtues.

"Yours sincerely,

"Z. B. VANCE.

"L. C. LATHAM.

"ROB'T V. VANCE.

"W. R. COX.

M. W. RANSOM.

A. M. SCALES.

R. F. ARMFIELD.

C. DOWD."



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NORTH CAROLINA IN THE COLONIAL PERIOD.

BY DANIEL R. GOODLOE.

        An article by John Fisk, which appeared in the February (1883) number of Harper's Magazine, entitled "Maryland and the far South in the Colonial period," contains statements in regard to North Carolina which have given grave offense to every citizen and native of the State. The writer assumes to portray the condition of the people and the character of their institutions, civilization and government, during the whole period of their colonial existence, while he has presented only an exaggerated and distorted picture of disorders which prevailed among the first handful of settlers on the Northeastern border, before there was a defined boundary, and when that portion of the territory, or a considerable part of it was claimed by Virginia.

        The writer may, also, have had in view the resistance made by the people called Regulators, in the middle and upper counties, at a later period, to the robbery and extortion of the county officers. But the more charitable supposition is, that he has never read a history of the Province.

        The original grant made by Charles II. to the Lords Proprietors, bears date March 20, 1663. This instrument conveyed to the noblemen and gentlemen, named all the territory lying between the parallels of thirty-one and thirty-six degrees of North latitude, and extending from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the South Sea. Wm. Byrd, Esq., the intelligent Virginia gentleman, who was one of the commissioners employed to run the boundary line between the two provinces, states, in his "Westover papers," that "Sir William Berkeley, who was one of the grantees, and at that time Governor of Virginia, finding a territory of thirty-one miles in breadth between the inhabited part of Virginia and the above mentioned boundary of Carolina, (thirty-six degrees) advised Lord Clarendon of it, and his Lordship had influence enough with the King to obtain a second patent to include this territory, dated June 30, 1665."

        It appears from this statement of Mr. Byrd, that North Carolina owes this addition of half a degree to the width of her territory, to the treachery of the Governor of Virginia, to his trust. It was the duty of the Governor to secure, if practicable, the unclaimed territory for Virginia, but it was in the interest of Sir William Berkeley to have it added to the Carolina


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Colony. However, the people of North Carolina have no reason to complain of Sir William on this account.

        In reference to this acquisition Dr. Hawks, the historian of North Carolina, remarks: "But though this second charter defined the line that was to divide Virginia and Carolina, and stated on what part of the globe it was to be drawn, viz: 36° 30' North latitude; yet astronomical observations had not fixed its precise locality, and consequently the people on the fronting of both provinces entered land and took out patents by guess, either from the King, or the Lord-Proprietors. The grants of the latter, however. were more desirable, because, both as to terms of entry, and yearly taxes, they were less burdensome than the price and levies imposed by the laws of Virginia. This statement will explain the fact that some of the earliest grants of land, now confessedly in Carolina, but lying near the border are signed by Sir William Berkeley."

        This new boundary line of 36° 30' remained undefined for two-thirds of a century--that is to say, until the year 1728; and in all that period there was a margin of territory several miles in width, in which no one knew, definitely, whether the inhabitants owed allegiance to Carolina or Virginia. The disputed territory lay within and on the southern border of the Dismal Swamp. Practically, for nearly fifty years, the territory west of the Swamp was not in dispute, as the settlements on the Carolina side lay to the east of the Chowan River. To the west of that great stream the Indians still held sway. It was not until after the Massacre in 1711, when one hundred and thirty persons were murdered in their homes in one day, that these savages were made to give place to the advancing tide of civilization. The largest of the tribes, and the most war-like, the Tuscaroras, after that event, were required to vacate their territory, when they emigrated North and rejoined the Iroquois or Five Nations, from whom they were descended. The smaller and less criminal tribes were permitted to remain on reservations.

        During the first sixty years of the colonial history, the population was chiefly confined to the territory north of Albemarle Sound, west of the Chowan River. The settlements between the two sounds, Albemarle and Pamlico, and that about New Berne, were still public, but were represented in the Albermarle Assembly. This body was composed of twenty-seven members, of whom the four counties north of the sound sent five, each. The three counties south of Albemarle had two members each, and New Berne town one. There was little intercourse with the Cape Fear Colony, which had a separate Assembly of its own, as well as a Governor. It was a short-lived enterprise. The colonists came from Barbadoes, in 1665, under the leadership of a gentleman named Yeaman. He was succeeded by a Mr. West, as Governor, who was also made Governor of the Charleston settlement, a few years later, and persuaded the Cape Fear people to follow him. During the year 1690, the last of these Cape Fear settlers abandoned their homes and went to Charleston. The writer, whose statements are complained of, assumes that these Barbadian colonists became a permanent part of the population of North Carolina.

        In 1729 seven of the eight Lords Proprietors surrendered their rights in and authority over the colony, to the crown, for a valuable consideration, of course; Earl Granville retained his claim of right to the soil, and a large strip of country (about half the State) on the northern border was set off to him as his private property, while he surrendered his right to share in the Government of the people.

        Francis Xavier Martin, one of the most judicious historians of the Province, estimated the white population at the date of this transfer of authority from the Lords Proprietors to the Crown (1729) at about 13,000. He gives no opinion as to the number of the blacks; but


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there is reason to believe that they were fewer in proportion to the whites than were to be found in either Virginia or South Carolina.

        A reference to the map will show the reader that the original boundary of 36° passes up the Albemarle Sound; and the acquisition made by the new patent of 1665 embraces, therefore, the whole territory north of the Sound. In other words, it embraced three-fourths of the population of North Carolina in 1729. This date of the purchase by the Crown from the Proprietors is, also, coeval with the separation of North from South Carolina, and the incorporation of the whole territory of the former under one Governor and Assembly.

        Besides the small scattered settlements south of Albemarle Sound, the relative importance of which is indicated by their proportion of representation in the Assembly, as above stated, the population had begun to spread out beyond, that is to say, west of the Chowan River; and in the year 1722, the County or Precinct of Bertie was organized; but up to that date, if not later, the people on that side of the river voted as of Chowan Precinct.

        The immigration of Swiss and Palatines under Baron De Graffenreidt and Mr. Mitchell came to North Carolina in the years 1709-10. No definite statements as to their numbers, have come down to us, but it is believed that the two classes of immigrants combined, did not exceed two thousand. Some loose guesses make them larger. They settled in the vicinity of New Berne, which town received its name from the Swiss. Some of these foreigners were murdered by the Indians the next year, after their arrival, when the great Massacre of the whites occurred. De Graffenreidt narrowly escaped being burned at the stake by the Indians, in company with Lawson, the Surveyor General, who had invaded their territory with his compass and chain. It is probable that the massacre was the main hindrance to further immigration from Switzerland and the Palatinate; but De Graffenreidt failed to give them titles to the lands he sold them, which must have greatly added to their discouragements.

        The foregoing preliminary statement as to the nature and extent of the ground occupied by the early settlers of the Province has been thought necessary to a thorough understanding of the character of the aspersions of the writer referred to, and of the answers that will be made to them. But in the first place it will be proper to present them in the language of their author. They form a compact mass of misrepresentation. I understand the writer to be a Massachusetts man. "Prof. John Fisk" of Harvard. He says:

        "At the time of the Revolution the population of North Carolina numbered about 200,000, of which somewhat more than one-fourth were negro slaves. The white population was mainly English, but the foreign element was larger than in the case of any other of the colonies which we have thus far considered. There were Huguenots from France, German Protestant from the Palatinate, Moravians, Swiss, and Scotch, and what we have to note especially is that this foreign population was, in the main, far more respectable and orderly than the English majority. The English settlers came mostly from Virginia, though in the south-eastern corner of the colony there was a considerrble settlement of Englishmen from Barbadoes.

        "Now, the English settlers who thus came southward from Virginia were very different in character from the sober Puritans, who went northward into Maryland. North Carolina was to Virginia something like Rhode Island was to Massachusetts--a receptacle for all the factious and turbulent elements of Society; but in this case the general character of the emigration was immeasurably lower. The shiftless people who could not make a place for themselves in Virginia society, including many of the "poor whites," flocked in large numbers into North Carolina. They were, in the main, very lawless


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in temper, holding it to be the chief end of man to resist all constituted authority, and above all things to pay no taxes. The history of North Carolina was accordingly much more riotous and disorderly than the history of any of the other colonies. "There were neither laws nor lawyers," says Bancroft, with slight exaggeration. "The courts, such as they were, sat often in taverns, where the Judge might sharpen his wits with bad whiskey, while their decisions were not recorded, but were simply shouted by the crier from the inn door, or at the nearest market place.

        "There were a few amateur surgeons and apothecaries to be found in the villages, but no regular physicians. Nor does the soul appear to be better cared for than the body, for it was not until 1703 that the first clergyman was settled in the colony. The Church of England was established by Government, without the approval of the people, who were opposed on principle to church rates, as to all kinds of taxes whatsoever. Owing to this dislike of taxation, most of the people were Dissenters, but no Dissenting Churches flourished in the colony. There was complete toleration even for Quakers, because nobody cared a groat for theology, or for religion. The few ministers who contrived to support life in North Carolina, were listened to in a mood like that in which Mrs. Pardigle's discourses were received by the brickmakers, while the audience freely smoked their pipes within the walls of the sanctuary during divine service.

        "Agriculture was conducted more wastefully and with less intelligence than in any of the other colonies. In the northern counties tobacco was almost exclusively cultivated, but it was of very inferior quality, compared with the tobacco of Virginia.

        "All business or traffic about the coast was carried on under perilous conditions: for pirates were always hovering about, secure in the sympathy of the people, like the brigands of southern Italy in recent times. It was partly due to this, no doubt, as well as partly to the want of good harborage, that a very large part of the commerce of North Carolina was diverted northward to Norfolk, or southward to Charleston.

        "The treatment of the slaves is said to have been usually mild, as in Virginia, but their lives were practically, at the mercy of their masters. The white servants fared better, and the general state of society was so low that when their time of service was ended, they had here a good chance of rising to a position of equality with their masters.

        "The country swarmed with ruffians of all sorts, who fled thither from South Carolina and Virginia. Life and property were very insecure, and lynch law was not infrequently administered. The small planters led, for the most part, a lazy life, drinking hard, and amusing themselves with scrimmages, in which noses were broken with blows of the fist, and eyes gouged out by a dexterous use of the long thumb nails. The only other social amusement seems to have been gambling. But, except at elections and other meetings for political purposes, people saw very little of each other.

        "There were no roads worthy of the name, and every family was almost entirely isolated from its neighbors. Until just before the war for Independence, there was not a single school, good or bad, in the whole colony. It need not be added that the people were densely ignorant.

        "The colony was a century old before it could boast of a printing press; and if no newspapers were published, it was doubtless for the sufficient reason that there were very few who would have been able to read them. A mail from Virginia came some eight or ten times in a year, but it only reached a few towns on the coast, and down to the time of the Revolution the interior of the country had no mails at all. Under such circumstances it is not strange that North Carolina was in a great measure cut off from the currents of thought and feeling by which the


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other colonies were swayed in the middle of the eighteenth century.

        "In the War for Independence, North Carolina produced no great leaders. She was not represented at the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, and she was the last of the States, except Rhode Island, to adopt the Federal Constitution."


        The reader cannot have failed to note in these statements, supposing the writer to be well informed, a spirit in sympathy with the arbitrary rule of the Lords Proprietors and the Crown of England, and with their persistent efforts to compel an unwilling people to pay taxes for the support of the Church of which they were not members. The whole tenor of the writers criticism would justify this inference; and that his sympathies are also with the corrupt county officials whose illegal exactions provoked and justified the efforts of the Regulators to resist them. But it is charitable to assume that he has only a vague idea of these events, derived from second-hand sources. For he could not read the history of the Province, without being convinced that the causes and grounds of resistance to the constituted authorities were, in the first instance, the efforts of the Lords Proprietors to impose the absurd "Fundamental Constitutions" of Locke, upon the people, followed by the persistent, and never quite successful attempt to establish the Church, with a system of Church rates. Mr. Bancroft has brought out these facts with more distinctness than the historians of the State; and even Dr. Hawks has only paraphrased the lucid statement of the great historian.

        The second great source of disturbance, the robbery of the people in the name of law, by the county officers, at a later period, is equally well attested, and no one acquainted with the history of those times, will venture to vindicate or palliate their conduct. These events will receive further notice in their order, as well as other arbitrary and unjust measures of the British rulers of the Province.

        Another thing observable in this pretentious criticism is a proneness to jump to general conclusions from single instances. The writer has seen the statement that at an out-of-doors religious meeting, in the Albemarle region, in one of the first years of the last century, some rough fellow smoked his pipe while the services were going on; and this fact is sufficient to warrant the statement that such was the universal custom throughout the colonial period, in all parts of the Province. He has read that a noted pirate infested the Sounds before there was so much as a village upon their borders, and that the pirate obtained supplies of provisions from the first squatters on the coast whom he would have exterminated if they had refused compliance with his demands; and, without mentioning that the pirate was at length captured and put to death, the swift conclusion is drawn, that piracy was the order of the day, all along the coast, with the connivance of the people, for the century and more of colonial vassalage; and that the effect was to render legitimate commerce a hazardous and dangerous occupation. To this cause the writer would have the world believe is due the alleged fact that the people of the colony carried their produce to Norfolk through the Dismal Swamp; although there was neither road nor canal. Or else to Charleston through a wilderness two to three hundred miles in width, without roads or navigable waters; whereas, at the period when the pirates infested the coast, the commerce of the colony was chiefly in the hands of New Englanders, who came with their vessels through the Sounds.

        A traveler has at some time witnessed a fight, somewhere in the Province, accompanied by the brutal practice of "gouging," in which the lower class of whites sometimes engage, and this is sufficient to justify the critic in the sweeping statement that "scrimmages" of this sort constituted the favorite amusement of the small planters--"their only other entertainments being


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drinking and gambling." It would be as fair to charge the whole body of respectable people in a Northern city, at the present day, with participation in all the vice and crime which are daily and nightly enacted in the dens of infamy that are to be found in every street.

        These are only specimens of the illogical inferences of this writer, with whom the rule seems to be, that every isolated fact warrants a generalization.

        In view of reiterated charges against the people of lawlessness, idleness, "shiftlessness," and general inability to make their way in the world, it is worth while to notice the first statement quoted from the writer, to the effect that at the period of the Revolution, North Carolina contained about 200,000 inhabitants; and if this statement were true, it would afford evidence of an extraordinarily rapid increase of population during the next fourteen years, and especially so, as seven of those years were spent in civil and foreign wars, accompanied by the expatriation of thousands of the conquered, and the escape of not a few of the servile class. The census of 1790, which was taken just fourteen years after the Declaration of Independence, or fifteen years after the commencement of hostilities, showed the population of the State to be 393,000, or nearly 100 per cent. more than the supposed number of 200,000. In consideration of the destructive war through which the people had passed during those eventful years, we are bound to conclude that the population at the beginning of the war was nearer three hundred than two hundred thousand. In 1729, it will be remembered, the total white population was estimated to be only 13,000; and if we add 7,000 for the black, the aggregate forty-six years before the beginning of the Revolutionary War, would be but 20,000. Here, then, is evidence of an extraordinary increase of these "idle," "shiftless," "outlaws" and "renegades" from Virginia.

        We are told that "the foreign population was in the main far more respectable and orderly than the English majority." By the foreign population, the writer means those of non-English origin. There can be no question about the moral worth and respectability of the Moravians and German Lutherans, of the Swiss and Palatine. They all made orderly, good citizens, but they were not more conspicuous for these virtues than were the Quakers, who, in early times, exercised a controlling influence in the Albemarle settlement. Nor were the "foreigners" more distinguished for sobriety and love of learning than the Presbyterians who came to the Colony from Pennsylvania and Virginia, or directly from Scotland and England. Neither is it true that any of these classes were more respectable than the native Virginians and other Americans, mostly of English ancestry, who came in from time to time, during the whole colonial period, and constituted a large majority of the population of the Province; and it is a baseless calumny to say otherwise. They constituted a majority, and a controlling majority of the people. They were part and parcel of the best element in Virginia society--embracing not many of the oldest, or more aristocratic families, but the solid, respectable, and well-to-do classes of planters and farmers--the classes that produced such men as Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Henry Clay, and others who became eminent for talents and virtue; and they imparted these characteristics to their children. Many of the poorer classes came with these planters and farmers. Some were, no doubt, vicious characters, who added nothing to the strength and respectability of the Province. But what country under the sun is free from such a class?

        "North Carolina" we are again told, "was to Virginia something like Rhode Island was to Massachusetts--a receptacle for all the factious and turbulent elements of society." There was, it must be owned, a resemblance in the two situations. Massachusetts expelled Roger Williams


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and his Baptist followers, with Quakers and Presbyterians, as heretics; and most good people of the present day are apt to believe that when the exiles shook the dust from their feet, they left not their equals in moral worth behind them. And it was in like manner that Virginia intolerance drove many of her best inhabitants into the wilderness of Carolina, as will now be shown.

        Durant's Neck in Perquimans county, was the first permanent settlement made in the Province, and it was made by Quakers who fled from Virginia and Massachusetts persecution. "The oldest land title that we know of in North Carolina," says Dr. Hawks, "and that which we think was actually the first, is still on record. It is the grant made by Cistacanoe, king of the Yeopim Indians, in 1662, to Durant, for a neck of land at the mouth of Little and Perquimans rivers, which still bears the name of the grantee. In 1633, Berkeley confirmed this grant by a patent under his own signature."

        This patent by the Indian Chief to the Quaker, antidates the first patent given by the king to the Lords Proprietors. It became the nucleus of a large Quaker settlement, which remains to the present day. It is said that a company was formed some years previous to this purchase by Durant, for the purpose of taking up lands and making settlements in the unclaimed territory; and it is probable that the plan may, to some extent, have been carried into effect--or this purchase by the Quakers may have been a part of it. The cautious terms in which the Quakers gave in their adhesion to the "Fundamental Constitutions," show that they were neither illiterate nor reckless vagabonds. Their signature and assent are qualified as follows:

        "Francis Tomes, Christopher Nicholson, and William Wyatt did before me, this 31st July," &c., &c., "and so far as any authority by the Lords constituted, is consonant to God's glory, and to the advancement of his blessed truth, with heart and hands we subscribe, to the best of our capacities and understandings."


        In regard to these earliest settlers of North Carolina, Mr. Bancroft states that the adjoining county in Virginia, Nansemond, had long abounded in non-conformists; and it is certain, he says, that the first settlements in Albemarle were the result of the spontaneous overflowing from this source. A few vagrant families, he thinks, may have been planted in Carolina before the Restoration. Such settlements would have been made voluntarily, as under Cromwell the Church would not have been permitted to persecute Dissenters. But on the restoration of Charles, men who were impatient of interference with their religion, "who dreaded the enforcement of religious conformity, and who distrusted the spirit of the new Government in Virginia, plunged more deeply into the forests. It is known that in 1662, the Chief of the Yeopim Indians granted to George Durant the neck of land which still bears his name; and, in the following year, George Cathmaid could claim from Sir Wm. Berkeley a large grant of land upon the Sound, as a reward for having established sixty-seven persons in Carolina. This may have been the oldest considerable settlement; there is reason to believe that volunteer emigrants preceded them."

        It has already been stated that Sir William Berkeley was Governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina at this time. He was also a Church man, intolerant of dissent--in Virginia; but his pecuniary interests impelled him to be very liberal and tolerant of Quakers, Presbyterian, and other sectarians who would agree to remove to their territory. His proprietary colleagues cordially concurred with him in this left-handed spirit of toleration, by which they hoped to be enriched; and in conformity with it, the Carolina colonists were allowed to indulge in whatever eccentricities of faith and worship their tastes or their consciences might suggest.


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        Indeed, it was very plain to the common sense of the Proprietaries, that zeal for the Church north of 36° 30', if enforced by rigorous persecution, was as conducive to the peopling their Carolina territory, as the liberty of conscience which was granted south of that line. These seemingly hostile principles, or moral forces were thus made to work harmoniously for the advantage of their Lordships, while narrow-minded bigots, by enforcing conformity on both sides of the line, would have spoiled everything.

        Howison, the historian of Virginia, describes Sir William, who was appointed Governor of Virginia in 1642, by Charles I, as an accomplished gentleman whose winning manners captivated all hearts, but, "His loyalty was so excessive that it blinded his eyes to the faults of a crowned head, and steeled his heart against the prayers of oppressed subjects. He loved the monarchical constitution of England with simple fervor; he venerated her customs, her Church, her Bishops, her Liturgy; everything peculiar to her as a kingdom; and believing them to be worthy of all acceptation, he enforced conformity with uncompromising sternness.Had Sir William Berkeley descended to his grave at the time when Charles II gained the English throne, we might with safety have trusted to those historians who have drawn him as adorned with all that could grace and elevate his species. But he lived long enough to prove that loyalty when misguided, will make a tyrant; that religious zeal, when devoted to an established Church, will beget the most revolting bigotry: and that an ardent disposition, when driven on by desire for revenge, will give birth to the worst forms of cruelty and malice."

        Yet this excessive zeal for religion and "revolting bigotry," had a practical side to them which the historian overlooked. For they tended rapidly to people Sir William's Carolina plantation with sober and industrious Quakers and Presbyterians &c., who bought land or paid rent at prices fixed by the Proprietaries. The Virginia Assembly, under such a champion of orthodoxy, passed laws of the most stringent character for the enforcement of uniformity. Tithes were imposed and exacted inexorably: the persons of the Clergy were invested with a sanctity savoring strongly of superstition: papists were excluded from the privilege of holding office, and their priests were banished from the Province; the oath of supremacy to the king as head of the Church, was imposed, dissenting ministers were forbidden to preach; and the Governor and Council were empowered to compel "non-conformists to depart the colony with all convenience." It is not surprising that the Carolina Colony, where toleration was established by the Proprietaries, flourished, when the Governor and Assembly of Virginia were so active in stimulating emigration. But it is obvious that these intolerant laws of Virginia, on the subject of religion, were not calculated nor intended to drive out the lawless and vicious classes. On the contrary, wherever Religion is established by law, whether the creed be Protestant or Catholic, the vicious and criminal classes are rarely arraigned for denying the authority of the Church, however much they may disregard its injunctions, and stand in need of its discipline. It is the sober, earnest men who suffer the pains and penalties of heresy, whether those penalties be the rack, the fagot or banishment.

        But the persecuted Dissenters were not the only classes that preferred the free air of North Carolina to the intolerance of Berkeley. Thousands of Churchmen, real and nominal, joined them; and without being eminently religious, they soon became sufficiently numerous to form a strong party in favor of a Church establishment.

        Mr. Bancroft thinks that the first Governor of the Albemarle Colony, Drummond, appointed by Berkeley, and hanged by him without a trial, for alleged participation in Bacon's Rebellion,


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was a Presbyterian. If this opinion be correct, it serves to illustrate more fully how tolerant of heresy the bigoted Govenor of Virginia could be, when it tended to advance his pecuniary interests.

        Two or three of the Lords Proprietors were cabinet ministers of Charles II, and they could not only procure a grant of territory half as large as Europe, but they could stipulate the terms of the grant, and the sort of government its future inhabitants were to live under. For the reasons already explained, the Second Charter, dictated by themselves, authorized the establishment of the utmost toleration, without so much as naming the Church, and this liberty was confirmed to the people. They were granted "an Assembly," says Mr. Bancroft, "and an easy tenure of lands, and he (Berkeley) left the infant people to take care of themselves; to enjoy liberty of conscience and conduct, in the entire freedom of innocent retirement; to forget the world till rent day drew near, and quit-rents might be demanded. Such was the origin of fixed settlements in North Carolina. The child of ecclesiastical oppression was swathed in independence."

        It is appropriate in this place to notice the citation of Mr. Bancroft by the critic, as an authority for one of his aspersions. He says: "There were neither laws nor lawyers, says Bancroft, with but slight exaggeration," and he represents the historian as applying this remark to North Carolina throughout its whole Colonial existence. The truth is, that Mr. Bancroft has nowhere made such a remark, for the two-fold reason that he is too well informed, and has too much regard for truth to make it. On the contrary, he has done more to vindicate the character of North Carolina than any of its special historians. And since he is a deservedly high authority throughout the nation and the world, it is worth while to show what he has said on the subject. The statement from which the above garbled quotations are made are but the conclusion of an elaborate account of the settlement of the Colony which every citizen and native of the State reads with pride and pleasure. After mentioning the arrival of emigrants from New England and from Bermuda, he says that the Colony lived contentedly with Stevens as Chief Magistrate, "under a very wise and simple form of government. A few words express its outlines: a Council of twelve, six named by the Proprietaries and six chosen by the Assembly; an Assembly, composed of the Governor, the Council and delegates from the freeholders of the incipient settlements, formed a government worthy of popular confidence. No interference from abroad was anticipated; for freedom of religion and security against taxation, except by the Colonial Legislature, were solemnly conceded. The Colonists were satisfied; the more so, as their lands were confirmed to them by a solemn grant on the terms which they themselves had proposed."

        Mr. Bancroft proceeds to state that the first Legislature, in 1669, enacted laws adapted to the wants of the people, "and which therefore endured," he says, "long after the designs of Locke were abandoned." Again he states that "the attempt to enforce the Fundamental Constitution of Locke, a year or two later, was impossible and did but favor anarchy by invalidating the existing system, which it could not replace. The Proprietaries, contrary to stipulations with the Colonists, superseded the existing government; and the Colonists resolutely rejected the substitute."

        The historian then gives a brief account of the visits of the celebrated Quaker preachers, William Edmundson and George Fox, to the settlements at Durant's Neck; of the favor with which they were received by the people, and by the Governor, and adds: "If the introduction of the Constitution of Locke had before been difficult, it was now become impossible."

        The death of Stevens, says Mr. Bancroft, left the Colony without a Governor; and by permission


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of the Proprietaries, the Assembly elected Cartwright, their Speaker, to act as Governor. "But the difficulty of introducing the model (Locke's Constitution) did not diminish; and having failed to preserve order, Cartwright resolved to lay the state of the country before the Proprietaries, and embarked for England." At the same time the Assembly sent Eastchurch, their new Speaker, to explain their grievances. Mr. Bancroft resumes:

        "The suppression of a fierce insurrection of the people of Virginia had been followed by the vindictive fury of ruthless punishments and runaways, rogues and rebels, that is to say, fugitives from arbitrary tribunals, non-conformists, and friends of popular liberty, fled daily to Carolina as their common subterfuge and lurking place. Did letters from the government of Virginia demand the surrender of leaders in the rebellion, Carolina refused to betray the fugitives who sought shelter in her forests."


        Such is the account given by Mr. Bancroft of the refugees from Virginia oppression; and he rejects the idea of our historian Martin, that these fugitives were runaway negroes. Equally does he reject the Tory estimate placed upon them by the Virginia Governor, Smallwood, and other writers of that school, that they were lawless vagabonds and "runagates"--a phrase which our own Hawks applies to these non-conformist refugees from priestly tyranny. These and similar passages in Bancroft occur in his first and second volumes, which were published long before Hawks' history of the State. The latter author, in some places rallies to he defence of the State and the South, against which he deems to be northern injustice; but in dealing with this subject of our early history, he would have done well to follow the lead of the great northern historian, instead of that of the English and Virginia Tories. But no careful reader of Dr. Hawks can fail to see that his patriotic feelings, as a North Carolinian were in this regard overborne by his reverence for the Church of England, and its then feeble off-shoots in the Colonies. This feeling blinded him to the virtues of Quakers and other dissenters, who resisted the attempts to form an establishment, and compel the payment of tithes or Church rates. It is true that he has presented a mass of facts which should convince every wise and dispassionate son of the Church, that the attempt to establish it in the Colony, and by such agencies, in spite of the determined opposition of a majority of the people, did it lasting injury, as well as equal injury to the cause of religion. He has shown, as he could not fail to do, without grossly perverting history, that the Church suffered, as well from the unjust attitude which its friends assumed, of attempting to force it upon the people, as from the character of the clergymen who were sent over from England. Of the seven who came on this mission during the Proprietary government, three turned out to be disreputable in character--drunken, dissolute and knavish. The others were intelligent and good men, whose teaching and example, supported by the voluntary offerings of the Church at home, would have been eminently salutary. But as the representatives of an arbitrary plan of enforcing uniformity of worship, and with their good example off-set by the bad conduct of their associates, their labor was almost in vain. It was unfortunate for the Church, also, that the jealousy of the British Government would not allow America to have a Bishop during the whole Colonial period, but turned a deaf ear to the appeals in this behalf, which were sent up by the Colonists. The consequence was, that there were few native Church clergymen in America, since it was necessary to send them to England, at great expense, to be ordained and properly educated. The clerical "carpet-baggers" sent to the Colonies, were, with honorable exceptions, of course, exact prototypes of the lay species which have visited the South in more recent years.

        Mr. Bancroft has answered so many of the


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misrepresentations of North Carolina, that the reader will excuse a few more brief references and citations. He denounces the meanness of the British Government in applying their navigation act, passed in 1672, to the Colonies, accompanied by a tax on their products. Its application to North Carolina was cruel. The population was barely four thousand. Its exparts consisted of a few fat cattle, a little corn and eight hundred hogsheads of tobacco. This trade was in the hands of New Englanders, whose small vessels came into the sound laden with such foreign articles as supplied the simple wants of the people, and exchanged them for the raw products. But the act referred to required that these products should first be sent to England, where a duty was imposed on them, before their re-exportation to the West Indies, or elsewhere. The tobacco was taxed a penny on the pound, which was equivalent to three cents at the present day. From this source these poor people were made to pay twelve thousand dollars per annum, and to receive only British goods, or foreign articles through British ports, in return. A revolt was the consequence of these oppressive measures, incited, Mr. Bancroft says, by the Virginia refugees, who came over after Bacon's rebellion, and by New Englanders who were trading in the Albemarle country. The Deputy Governor and Council were arrested and imprisoned; and Culpepper, an Englishman who had come over some years before, was made Governor. This rebellion, therefore, was on grounds identical with those which moved the American colonies to resistance a century later, and which resulted in their independence. The people of New England, also, resisted the enforcement of this Navigation Act. The motive assigned for this rebellion was, "that thereby the country may have a free Parliament, and may send home their grievances." In connection with these facts Mr. Bancroft remarks:

        "Are there any who doubt man's capacity for self-government, let them study the history of North Carolina; its inhabitants were restless and turbulent in their imperfect submission to a government imposed on them from abroad; the administration of the colony was firm, humane and tranquil, when they were left to take care of themselves. Any government but one of their own institution was oppressive.The uneducated population of that day formed conclusions as just as those which a century later pervaded the country."


        The people rebelled again, a few years later against the misrule of Seth Sothel, one of the Proprietors who was sent over as Governor. This man, says Mr. Bancroft, found the country tranquil, on his arrival, under laws enacted by the people, and under a Governor of their own choice. "The counties were quiet and well regulated, because not subjected to foreign sway. The planters in peaceful independence, enjoyed the good will of the wilderness. Sothel arrived, and the scene was changed. Many colonial Governors displayed rapacity and extortion toward the people; Sothel cheated his Proprietary associates, as well as plundered the colonists." He was deposed by the people, who appealed again to the Proprietaries; and the planters, says Bancroft, immediately became tranquil, when they escaped foreign misrule.

        And here follows a remark of the historian made with reference to the four or five thousand people who constituted the whole population in 1668, but which the maligner of the Province misquotes, and makes applicable to them throughout the one hundred and thirteen years of colonial dependence. Under the marginal date, 1688, which the garbler could not fail to see, and just at the close of the account of the rebellion against Sothel, Mr. Bancroft says:

        "Careless of religious sects, or colleges, or lawyers, or absolute laws, the early settlers enjoyed liberty of conscience, and personal independence; freedom of the forest and of the river."



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        By "absolute laws," he clearly refers to the "Fundamental Constitutions" prepared by Mr. Locke for the Lords Proprietors. He could mean nothing else; for he had just completed an elaborate eulogy of the people for their practical wisdom in enacting laws adapted to their own circumstances. This remark about "absolute laws" follows what has been quoted above from his pages. He had also praised the virtue and devotion of the Quakers and non-conformists, who sought refuge in the wilderness from the persecutions of the English church in Virginia. These men who had suffered together under the same tyrannical laws and government, and whose safety in their new common home depended on a cordial union with each other, would naturally subordinate their differences, and become less tenacious of mere names. The Quakers were an organized body of religionists, who, until they were able to build meeting-houses, worshipped in the beautiful groves, or in their private dwellings. The other unorganized non-conformists would naturally attend these Quaker meetings; and we are assured, even by their enemies, that the Quakers made many converts to their Society from the others, not excepting the established Church.

        But if it were literally true that in 1688, the refugees in the Albemarle settlement, from Virginia oppression, had neither laws nor lawyers, what must be thought of the candor or the intelligence of a writer who attempts to impose upon the world the statement that Mr. Bancroft applies the remark to North Carolina during her whole colonial history from 1663 to 1776. (I suggest to April, 1775).

        The facts here brought out on the authority of Mr. Bancroft, refute at the same time another statement of the writer, which he couples with his comparison of the several sorts of people who made up the emigrations respectively to Rhode Island, and to North Carolina, from Massachusetts and Virginia.

        In regard to the Virginia emigrants to Carolina, he says, "their general character was immeasurably lower," than that of the Massachusetts emigrants to Rhode Island. There is no respectable authority for this statement. The victims of Massachusetts persecutions were excellent people, no doubt; but there is no reason to suppose that the Puritans of that colony were more select in regard to the characters of those whom they expelled from their borders, than were the Churchmen of Virginia. There has been nothing in the subsequent careers of the two classes of emigrants, or in their posterities, to warrant the invidious comparison; and there remains but one judgment to pronounce upon it, viz: that whether proceeding from ignorance or malevolence, it is no less a wholesale calumny, and this calumny is repeated in other connections and forms, but the above answer must suffice for them all.

        "They were, in the main, very lawless in temper," we are told, "holding it to be the chief end of man to resist all constituted authority, and above all things, to pay no taxes." Here again this ready writer shows his ignorance of the history of the Province. The absurdity of the statement becomes apparent if we compare it with other statements made by him. He tells us in one breath, and tells truly, that these Virginia and American-born emigrants constitute a large majority of the people; and in the next that they are lawless, riotous, indolent, "shiftless," and utterly opposed to paying taxes. Who, then, made the colonial laws of which there are large volumes extant? Who imposed the taxes? Was it the handful of Swiss and Palatines, not above two thousand in number, and not one of whom. when they arrived, understood the language? Was it by the Gaelic-speaking Scotch Highlanders, who came to the Province after the middle of the eighteenth century--two or three thousands in number? Was it by the German Lutherans and Moravians who came still later--all of whom spoke a foreign language? These emigrants


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were most valuable acquisitions; and many of their descendants have become distinguished citizens; but during the twenty or thirty years of their residence here prior to the Revolution, they knew too little of the English language to take a leading part in making the laws. The conclusion is a necessary one, then, that the colonial statutes, constituting a complete body of laws, adapted to the wants of the people, correctly and concisely written, in parliamentary style, were the product of the class which this writer would have the world believe, was composed, "in the main," of worthless renagades and law-breakers from Virginia. The character of these laws will be shown in another place.

        "The Colony was a century old," says our censor, "before it had a printing press: and if no newspapers were published, it was doubtless for the sufficient reason that there were very few who would have been able to read them."

        The first of these statements contains full eighty per cent. of truth, which is so much above the average that it may be allowed to go uncontradicted. But at the same time it admits of extenuation. The Colony was planted in 1663, and the first printing press was brought into it in 1749, and was employed in printing the laws, and a few years afterward, a newspaper.

        The further statement of the writer, that "A mail from Virginia came some eight or ten times a year, but it only reached a few towns on the coast, and down to the time of the Revolution the interior of the country had no mails at all," is quite true; and it fully explains to any fair mind how newspapers could not flourish under such circumstances, and without assuming that the people could not read. Another obstacle to the success of newspapers is presented in the fact that North Carolina was, and still is, more exclusively agricultural than any other part of America; and contained and still contains, in proportion to aggregate population, fewer people resident in towns.

        In New England there was a far greater population, and at the beginning of the eighteenth century, Boston, according to Rev. Cotton Mather, and other authorities quoted in the "Memorial History" of that city, contained not far from ten thousand inhabitants. But there was the same deficiency of mail facilities, though not in equal degree, which existed in North Carolina. I find in a little work published by a Postoffice official, that so early as 1672, a monthly mail was established between Boston and New York; and that in 1711, Massachusetts established a weekly mail between Boston and her out-lying territory of Maine. And yet, with these relatively great advantages and facilities--a town of ten thousand inhabitants, and at least one weekly mail--no newspaper was established in Boston, nor in Massachusetts, until the year 1704. This was eighty-four years after the founding of the Colony. It is true that there was a printing press introduced at an earier date, which was employed in the publication of pamphlets and books of theology, and the laws of the colony; but no newspaper until the settlement was eighty-four years old. Isaiah Thomas a Massachusetts man, in his valuable history of printing, gives an interesting account of this first American journalistic enterprise. It was called the Boston News-Letter.The first number appeared in April, 1704. John Campbell, a Scotchman, and Postmaster of the town, was the proprietor, or "Undertaker," as he styled himself. It was printed on a halfsheet of what was called "Pot" paper, once a week; but after the second number it appeared on a half-sheet of fools-cap. Whether this was an enlargement on Pot paper, or a reduction in size, is not stated; but the change in dimensions, whether in one way or the other, was no doubt inconsiderable. At any rate the News Letter continued to be printed for four years on a half-sheet of fools-cap, once a week. It rarely contained more than two advertisements, one of them by the proprietor, in which he enumerated


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the articles he was ready to advertise, at reasonable rates, among them "runaway servants." The ill-omened style of undertaker, assumed by the proprietor, may in some sort, account for the unhealthy childhood and youth of Boston's first-born journal. At any rate, the undertaker, after fifteen years of sad experience, informed the public that he could not dispose of three hundred copies weekly; and that he was thirteen months behind time in the publication of the foreign news.

        This was the case in 1719, when Boston must have had a population of nearly or quite 25,000, for in 1710, according to the high authority of the "Memorial History," it was already 18,000.

        Mr. Thomas states that the first press introduced into North Carolina (at New Berne) was in the year 1754 and Mr. Bancroft makes the same statement; but Martin, the intelligent historian of the Province, who resided about thirty years at New Berne, during all of which time he was engaged in printing--and most of the time, as a newspaper publisher, as well as public printer for the Colony, says that James Davis came, by invitation of the Assembly, with a printing press, in the year 1749. Davis began the publication of a newspaper in 1765. New Berne contained at that time, perhaps, five hundred white inhabitants; and the fact that his paper was sustained was wonderful, in view of Campbell's discouragements at Boston.

        It would not be fair to assume that this inability to support, or indifference to the worth of a newspaper, on the part of the people of Massachusetts, was due to their ignorance or inability to read, for we know that such was not the case. It is more just to say that new inventions and new methods of doing particular things are slow in finding their way into common use. Fifty years hence people may wonder that their ancestors of this our day, did not, one and all, use the telegraph or telephone, instead of the slow process of sending letters by mail, by which days are consumed in doing the work of a few minutes.

        "In the war for independence North Carolina produced no great leaders," says the essayist. It would be easy to retaliate that other colonies or States, more favorably situated, failed to produce great leaders. New England furnished a majority of the rank and file, and probably, most of the material aid; and yet she failed to produce the great leader; nor did she produce but one great soldier, and he came from the despised little colony of Rhode Island, and from the persecuted class of Quakers, who were driven into exile by Massachusetts orthodoxy. There were many good officers produced by the war of the Revolution--men who were brave, sagacious, and enterprising--but history fails to point to more than two who were equal to the greatest emergencics, in which the disciplined and well armed soldiers of Britain were to be met and foiled by the comparatively raw and ill-appointed recruits of the provinces. Those two men were Washington and Greene. Perhaps there was one other thus endowed; but he turned traitor to the cause.

        North Carolina produced in the Revolutionary era a number of good officers--Howe, Davidson, Davie, Caswell, Lillington, Moore, Nash, and many others--the equals in merit with those of the same rank, in other States. And during those eventful days, a North Carolina boy was trained by the discipline of adversity, to take the foremost place in the Nation's regard, as a great captain, hero, and statesman. A New England author of celebrity, Parton, has demonstrated that Andrew Jackson was born on North Carolina soil. His childhood was spent in South Carolina, though within two miles of his birth-place; which circumstance gave rise to the impression that he was a native of that State. While still a boy, he returned to North Carolina, where he spent his youth and early manhood. At length he emigrated to Tennessee, which was then only a western county of his


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native State, and there he lived and died. For greatness of soul--for the possession of those qualities of intelligence, of courage, and firmness, which inspire respect and confidence, and constitute a nature "born to command," Andrew Jackson has had, certainly, not more than one superior in this country.

        "She was not represented at the Stamp Act Congress of 1765," says Fisk, and the purpose of the statement is to convey the impression that the absence of North Carolina from that Congress was due to a want of sympathy in the common cause. If this was not his purpose, he could have had none. He failed to add that New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Georgia were also unrepresented in that Convention. If he had had any acquaintance with the history of North Carolina, he could not have been ignorant of the fact that her failure to be represented on the occasion was caused, in the language of Martin, viz: "the lower House not having had the opportunity of choosing members," Martin suggests that a similar obstacle may have prevented the other three colonies from being represented. He states that, "In the Province of North Carolina, the people, at all their public meetings, manifested their high approbation of the proceedings of the inhabitants of the other Provinces; and Lieutenant Governor Tyron, judging from the temper of the people that it would be unsafe and dangerous to allow them the opportunity of expressing their feelings, by allowing a session of the Legislative body, in these days of ferment, on the 25th of October, issued his proclamation to prorogue the General Assembly, which was to have met on the 30th of November, till the 12th of March, assigning as a reason for the step, that there appeared to be no immediate necessity for their meeting at that time."

        In January, 1766, the British Sloop of War Diligence arrived in the Cape Fear, having on board the stamp paper. The Governor issued his proclamation calling on the stamp distributors to apply for it to the Commander of the Sloop. But Colonel John Ashe of New Hanover, and Colonel Waddell of Brunswick embodied the militia of the two counties, and marched at their head to Brunswick, where the Diligence was anchored, and notified the commander that they would resist the landing of the stamp paper. A party was left to watch the movements of the ship, while their comrades seized a boat belonging to the ship, and ascended the river to Wilmington, where the Governor resided, for the time. They placed the boat on a cart and marched with it through the streets, amid the plaudits of the people. The next day, Colonel Ashe, with a crowd of the people, called on the Governor, and demanded to see the Stamp Master, James Houston, who it seems, had taken refuge with His Excellency. The Governor at first declared his purpose to resist the demand, but was induced to yield by a threat that his house would be burned over his head. Houston then came out, and accompanied Colonel Ashe and the citizens to the market, where he took a solemn oath not to attempt the execution of his office. Whereupon the people gave him three cheers, and conducted him back to the Governor's quarters. This statement is condensed from Martin, who has given a fuller account of the resistance of the Colonies to the Stamp Act, than even Mr. Bancroft, and other historians of the United States.

        The Whigs of North Carolina, owing to peculiar circumstances, had to confront formidable bodies of tories at home, where there was less glory, or at least, less reputation to be achieved, than in the struggle with the foreign foe. These internecine conflicts, though fierce and bloody, and calling forth physical courage and military conduct of a high order, were not of a character to place their leaders in the line of promotion in the Continental service.

        The existence of Toryism in North Carolina called forth all the more courage and firmness on the part of her lovers of liberty. This local,


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defection was the result of a combination of circumstances which have never been fully appreciated beyond the limits of the State.

        The Scotch Highlanders who came to North Carolina about the middle of the eighteenth century, would, under other circumstances, have been an excellent class of immigrants. They were good people. But they had rebelled against George II, in favor of Charles Edward, a descendant of their ancient kings of the House of Stuart. These adherents of the Stuarts constituted or formed a part of the Tory party of Great Britain; and the Highlanders were, therefore, Tories by inheritance; that is to say, they belonged to the party which believed in the divine right of kings. They had been defeated at the battle of Culloden, and their last hope of a restoration of the Stuarts was gone. The leaders were hanged, and their followers were allowed to emigrate to America, after taking the oath of allegiance. While these North Carolina Highlanders, therefore cannot be supposed to have felt an ardent love for the British Government, they were still further removed in sentiment from that form of Whigism in America, which had armed itself for the establishment of a Republic. They were at the same time suffering the terrible consequences of an unsuccessful rebellion against an established government; and having renewed their allegiance to it, nothing was more natural than that they should shun, and even resist, a second rebellion. Under these circumstances the Royal Governor Martin, authorized Donald McDonald, their recognized head, to raise a brigade. He did so; but was soon defeated and made a prisoner, together with Allan McDonald, the husband of the celebrated Flora McIvor. The leaders were exchanged, and returned to Scotland.

        The yeomanry of the upper counties had for years chafed under the illegal exactions of the county officers. The Clerks of Courts demanded two to six times the amount of the lawful fees for registering deeds and wills; for issuing marriage licences and all legal processes. The Sheriffs exacted double and treble the amount of the taxes. The people protested, but to no purpose. At length an indictment was found against the Clerk of the Orange County Circuit Court. He was convicted, and was fined by the Judges--a sixpence. This conduct of the Court in conniving at the fraudulent extortion of the Clerks, rendered the people desperate, and provoked them to take up arms in defence of their violated rights. No fair-minded man who reads the history of these events will hesitate to say that these people were subjected to greater injustice than was imposed by the Crown and Parliament on the American Colonies. They took the name of Regulators, and organized rude military companies, which were very poorly armed and equipped. They were poor, and for the most part ignorant; and without arms or military training, they were in no plight to cope with the forces under Governor Tyron. They were ingloriously defeated at Alamance, in May, 1771; and like the defeated Highlanders at Culloden, they were required -- such as were not hanged -- to take an oath of allegiance. Governor Tyron was a man of the world, unscrupulous, but polished in manners. His wife, and her sister Miss Esther Wake, were ladies of rare beauty and accomplishments. The gentry in all the eastern counties were completely led captive by the fascinations of the Provincial Court. In those days, the lawyers and wealthier classes exercised far more control over the people than they have done in later years. As illustrative of this statement it may be mentioned that Tryon, by these social influences, was able to carry through the Assembly a measure which was regarded at the time as one of startling extravagance. This was an appropriation of fifteen thousand pounds for the erection of a Governor's palace. The house was built at New Berne, and was, no doubt, one of the finest mansions in America, in its day. It added considerably to the burden of taxes, and to the irritation of the people.


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        It was in like manner, by social blandishments that Tryon was able to rally around him the gentry of the lowlands, when he marched into the up-country to the suppression of the revolt of the Regulators. These gentlemen, three and four years later, became the staunchest of Whigs, and were not a whit behind the Adamses and Hancock, of Massachusetts, or of Henry and Jefferson of Virginia, in their early and firm support of the rights of the Colonies. But the active part taken by these men in the suppression of the revolt of the Regulators, tended strongly to alienate the latter from the cause of the country in 1775, and the years following.

        This antipathy of the Regulators to the leading Whigs; the suffering they had undergone, as a result of unsuccessful revolt, together with the oath they had so recently taken to be faithful to the Crown, made it an easy matter for Tryon's successor, Josiah Martin, to fix them in their allegiance. He visited their region of country, redressed their grievances, pardoned such as were still amenable to trial or punishment, and gave them his confidence by appointing their leading men to office. Martin, in all these respects showed great good sense and sagacity. But he led a forlorn hope; and was compelled in April, 1775, to abandon the seat of government at New Berne, and fly for safety to Fort Johnston, on the banks of the Cape Fear. In July, feeling insecure in the Fort, he took refuge on board the British Sloop of War, Cruiser, and from this safe retreat he fulminated his Proclamation, and issued his orders to his Tory adherents; but never again could he set foot on North Carolina soil, as Governor of the State.

        The knavish conduct of the county officers in extorting illegal fees and taxes, which the Regulators resisted to the best of their ability, belongs to the class of occurrences in the history of the Province which half-informed scribblers have, for a century and more, harped upon as affording evidence of the lawless character of the people.

        In Virginia, the old aristocratic families, who gave tone to public sentiment, were strongly biased, by the force of habit, education, and attachment to the Mother Country, to the Church of England. They were not a particularly religious class of people; nor were they deeply learned or interested in theological controversy. But the religion of the Church was that of the Monarch, and of the aristocracy, and therefore, they argued, it must be the true church. They had sufficient influence with the people to establish it, and maintain it at the public expense. But there was a large and growing element of dissent, which was destined under the lead of Jefferson, to overthrow the establishment, and to place all denominations on an equality before the law. A large proportion of the wealthy and well-to-do classes who emigrated to North Carolina from Virginia, were attached to the Church; and, backed, at first, by the Lords Proprietors, and afterwards by the King's Government, they succeeded in establishing the Church as the Religion of the Province, accompanied by the imposition of a tax for its support. The Province was divided into Parishes, and glebe lands were set apart, out of the public domains, with the same end in view. At the same time all other forms of religion were tolerated without the slightest restraint. The provision of law for the support of the clergy, and for other church purposes, was wholly inadequate, and the payment of taxes for that purpose was evaded as much as possible. The odium which attached to the establishment from a sense of the injustice of compelling Dissenters to pay taxes for its support, was a fatal obstacle to its usefulness. The Proprietors might without offense to the people, have endowed the Church out of their more than princely domains, with lands, which, in the course of time, would have made it wealthy; but the imposition of taxes for the support of the clergy was a fatal mistake which deprived it of the love and veneration of the people, which its unrivaled


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liturgy is so well calculated to inspire. At the outbreak of the Revolution there were not many clergymen in the Colony, and scarcely one of these remained with their flocks, to share in their fortunes, when the shock of revolution and war came.

        The failure of the Church to take root in the Colony, owing to the persistent efforts that were made to force it upon the people, was sufficient reason, with British Tory writers of those times (and is sufficient reason still, with an American writer who wishes to calumniate the State) for the declaration, "Nor does the soul appear to be better cared for than the body, for it was not until 1703 that the first clergyman was settled in the Colony.

        The Church of England was established by the Government, without the approval of the people, who were opposed on principle to Church rates, as to all kinds of taxes whatsoever. Owing to this dislike of taxation, most of the people were Dissenters. But no Dissenting Churches flourished in the Colony. There was complete toleration, even for Quakers, because nobody cared a groat for theology, or for religion." This remark, like the others quoted from the writer, is made with reference to North Carolina, "in the Colonial Period"--that is to say, throughout that period. It has been shown on preceding pages, that the earliest settlements in the colony were made by people who fled from religious persecutions in Virginia. It is never the indifferent and careless, the vile and the vicious, who become the victims of religious persecution--they would rather bend the knee; than brave the storm. On the contrary it is only the sincere and earnest believers--those who are inspired by an unconquerable love of truth and duty--that prefer exile and martyrdom to a recantation or abandonment of their faith. And such, we have seen, was the character of the Quaker and Presbyterian emigrants from Virginia to the Albemarle settlements. They were, after a few years, followed by large numbers who were members or adherents of the Church. The proportion of sincere believers of this class was quite as large as the average in communities; while the Quakers and Presbyterians were eminently religious--else they would not have been exiled by persecution. The first necessity of all was to build cabins to shelter them from the elements, to clear the forests for cultivation, and to enclose them with fences. For they brought horses, cattle and other live stock, which roamed at large, and helped themselves to the bounties supplied by nature, and needed little attention from their owners. The colonists were not in a condition to build stately churches, nor to pay salaries to ministers; and it was, and is, a principle with Quakers, to pay no salaries to their preachers. This fact has been familiar to every man of ordinary intelligence for two centuries. They met at private houses for purposes of worship, or when the weather was favorable, in the stately groves. The Presbyterians whose circumstances were similar, imitated the Quakers in the simplicity of their religious exercises. They were often under the necessity of putting up, for the time, with the ministrations of laymen, or of a minister who had some secular occupation for his support.

        The Baptists formed a congregation in Perquimans, as early as 1727. Paul Palmer was the minister. He began with thirty-two members, whose names are given. Joseph Parker succeeded him. A Baptist congregation was founded in Halifax, in 1742. "This, says Mr. Benedict, the historian, "is the Mother Church in all that part of the State, which still abounds with Baptists." In 1752, the Baptists had sixteen congregations in the Province. In 1765, they had become numerous, and formed the Kehukee Association. "About this time," says Mr. Benedict, "the separate Baptists had become very numerous, and were rapidly increasing in the upper regions of North Carolina." This schism, however, was soon afterwards healed, and the two branches of the denomination were cordially united.


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        Mr. Moore an able historian of the State, mentions a Baptist congregation known as Shiloh, which was organized in Pasquotank County, as early as 1729, and refers to John Comer's Journal of that year, as his authority. Mr. Moore states, also, that "six years later, Joseph Parker, ordained by this church, had established, where Murfreesboro now stands, the church still known as Meherin; that in 1750 a congregation was formed at Sandy Run in Bertie; and about the same time, chapels were in existence at St. John's, and St. Luke's or Buckhorn, in Hertford.

        In the year 1736 there was an immigration of Presbyterians into Virginia and North Carolina, from the North of Ireland. Henry E. McCullough, the agent of Lord Granville--himself a large land owner--induced a colony of these people to settle on his estate in Duplin county, in the southeastern part of the Province. From this time forward colonies of Presbyterians came and settled in the Province, from year to year, and became a powerful influence, from their superior education and strong characteristics. From the Virginia border to that of South Carolina, in all the Piedmont region, and as low down as the county of Granville, their settlements were numerous; and in conjunction with the Moravians in Surry, the Quakers in Guilford, and Lutherans, and German Reformed Churches in Rowan, they imported a high moral and religious tone, to society, in all that portion of the Province, accompanied by a love of learning and of liberty. The Presbyterians were strongly planted in Granville and Orange; and wherever they formed a settlement they built a church. These settlements date back to the year 1740.

        To the Rev. Mr. Foote, who composed his valuable Sketches of North Carolina from the records of the Presbyteries and congregations, I am indebted for many valuable facts. The Rev. Mr. Caruthers, also, in his Life of the Rev. David Caldwell, and his sketches of the history of the Province and State, has contributed many valuable facts and incidents. Mr. Foote, in this connection, says:

        "While the tide of emigration was setting fast and strong into the fertile regions between the Yadkin and Catawba, from the North of Ireland, through Pennsylvania and Virginia, another tide was flowing from the Highlands of Scotland, and landing colonies of Presbyterian people along the Cape Fear river. Authentic records declare that the Scotch had found the sandy plains of Carolina many years previous to the exile and emigration that succeeded the crushing of the hopes of the House of Stuart in the fatal battle of Cullodon in 1746. But in the year following that event, large companies of Highlanders seated themselves in Cumberland County; and in a few years the Gaelic language was heard familiarly in Moore, Anson, Richmond, Robeson, Bladen and Sampson. Among these people and their children, the warm-hearted preacher and patriot, James Campbell labored more than a quarter of a century; and with them, that romantic character, Flora McDonald passed a portion of her days." This lady worshipped at a little church among the sand-hills of Cumberland, called "Barbacue." It is still a place of public worship, but whether in the same building or not, is not stated.

        In the year 1750 the Moravians, or United Brethren purchased 100,000 acres of land from Lord Granville, in Surry County, in sight of the mountains. They began their settlements the next year. There were several of these settlements in the purchase, and each settlement immediately built a house of worship. Their descendants still inhabit that fine district of country, and give tone to society. Like the Quakers, they are an eminently religious people; and like the Quakers, too, they are conscienciously opposed to war and fighting. It is a fact highly honorable to the Province and State of North Carolina, that the scruples of these two classes of Religionists have always been respected; and


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men whose consciences forbid the bearing of arms, have ever been excused by the payment of a moderate tax. The ill success of the Church of England has already been explained. But it was not wholly inefficient. Every Parish--and the Province was divided into Parishes--had its lay Reader, who, in the absence of a clergyman, read the services, and a sermon, selected generally from the works of some eminent Englishman, such as Tillotson, South or Barrow. And thus, every heart which remained loyal to the faith of our English ancestors, was nourished and instructed. But the desertion of their posts by the clergy, on account of inadequate salaries, and the open revolt of their parishioners, in 1775, prepared the way for the reception of Methodism, which, at that time, was only a new method of propagating the faith of the Church. Most families which were not distinctively of the Presbyterian, Baptist, Quaker or some other denomination, during and immediately after the Revolution, became attached to the Methodists. There was no interregnum of Religious worship and observance in the State.

        There remain two more serious misrepresentations to be noticed, viz: the denial that there were schools or Courts of law in North Carolina, during the era of Provincial dependence. And first, as to schools, the writer says:

        "Until just before the war for Independence there was not a single school, good or bad, in the whole Colony. It need not be added that the people were densely ignorant."


        If the people of North Carolina were as ignorant of letters as this historical critic has shown himself to be of his subject, their condition was pitiable indeed.

        Dr. John Brickell, an intelligent naturalist, resided in and traveled throughout the settlements in the early part of the eighteenth century, and published, in Dublin, in the year 1737, "The Natural History of North Carolina; with an account of the trade, manners and customs of the Christian and Indian inhabitants." This intelligent writer says:

        "The Religion by law established is the Protestant, as it is professed in England; and though they seldom have orthodox clergyman, (he means those of the Church) among them, yet there are not only glebe lands laid out for that use, commodious to each town, but likewise for building churches. The want of these Protestant Clergy is generally supplied by some schoolmasters, who read the Liturgy, and then a sermon out of Dr. Tilotson, or some good practical divine every Sunday. These are the most numerous and are dispersed through the whole Province." This gentleman traveled and made his observations in the Province between the years 1730 and 1737, as is shown by the imprint of the book; and it appears from his statement, that at that early day the "schoolmaster was abroad" "through the whole Province." Next in numerical strength were the Quakers, the Presbyterians, the Baptists and the Catholics, and the author says that the latter, who were scattered over the Province, had a clergyman at Bath-town.

        In 1704, Mr. Blair, a Church missionary, and a good man, came to the Colony, and reported that the settlers had built small churches in three precincts, and appointed a lay Reader in each, who were supplied by him with sermons. These lay-Readers were schoolmasters, as appears from the specific statement of Dr. Brickell; and there is additional incidental evidence of the fact, The lay-Readers were to be supported, and to employ them as teachers of schools was the natural resource. But there is other positive evidence of the fact.

        Dr. Hawks gives an account of some small subscriptions made by the wealthy clergy and nobility for the propogation and support of the Gospel in America, from which it would appear that those well-to-do Christians of the father-land had an idea that a very little money would diffuse a great deal of Gospel truth; or that a very little of the truth would be sufficient for the Colonies. But the King, (William III,) we are told, did better. "On the report of Dr. Bray,


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a missionary, Bishop Compton went to the King, as he had done before, and obtained from him a bounty of £20 to every minister or schoolmaster, that would go over to America."

        The Rev. William Gordon, an intelligent English clergyman, who came as a missionary to North Carolina in the year 1708, and who was a man of character and piety, after returning home, wrote a long letter to the Secretary of the Society of the Propagation of the Gospel, in regard to the Colony. It bears date May 13, 1709. In this letter he incidentally alludes to the fact that the Quakers in Pasquotank were sending their children to the school of a lay Reader of the Church, named Griffin. The same clergyman established a church at the head of Albemarle Sound, in the settlement which afterward became the town of Edenton, and introduced a schoolmaster, with school books. He states that there were no Quakers in that precinct, (Chowan) and that the people were extremely ignorant and poor. Yet Edenton, long before the Revolution, became the centre and the abode of the wealthy and refined. The reader of the life of Judge Iredell, of the United States Supreme Court, by McRee, is charmed by the picture presented of a polished society of well-bred and educated people in that secluded little nook of the Province of North Carolina.

        At the session of the Assembly which met at Wilmington, November 20, 1759, says Martin:

        "An aid was granted to the King for the subsistence of the troops and militia now in pay of the Province; it was directed to be paid out of the fund heretofore appropriated for the purchase of glebes and the establishment of schools, the King not having signified his pleasure on that appropriation."


        As a rule the Kings of England had to be bribed into acquiescence in any measure proposed in behalf of the Colonists, however essential to their welfare, by the grant of money to which was no doubt dropped out or omitted, as himself or his favorites, The foregoing is a specimen of this system of government. I fail to find in the Colonial statutes the Act referred to, it never became a law. But Martin published one or more editions of the laws, and there can be no question that the Assembly, about the middle of the last century, passed an Act for the support of Common schools--a measure of benificence, which was frustrated by the selfish stupidity of George II.

        The subsequent Act of the Assembly for diverting the school fund from its original purpose, in order to defend the Colonies against the combined attacks of the French and Indians, was justifiable; but the withholding the royal assent, before the emergency arose, was simply in keeping with the heartless policy, with reference to the Colonies, which governed in the British Cabinet.

        In 1764, "An Act was passed for the erection of a schoolhouse, the Academy in the town of New Berne, which," says Martin, "is the first effectual Act for the encouragement of literature." Why this was the first, we have already explained. In 1767, the Academy was incorporated, and about the same time a charter was given to the Edenton Academy. Careless writers have misunderstood these remarks of Martin, with reference to these Charters, as implying that they were the first schools ever established in the Province. The pretentious Harper's Magazine Critic belongs to this class of superficial readers and writers.

        The condition of these Charters was, that the schools were to be taught by members of the established Church. And it was for lack of this restriction that the Royal authority was withheld from the Charter of Queen's Museum, at Charlotte, which was to be under the control of the Presbyterians. At the next session of the Assembly, 1771, the Charter was modified, in the hope of securing the Royal favor, but without success. But as there is no royal road to science, so also, the classics and sciences may be taught


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in institutions from which the Royal assent is withheld--and there were many such in North Carolina, long before the Revolution.

        The Rev. Mr. Foote, whose sketches of North Carolina have been quoted in preceding pages, says "Almost invariably, as soon as a neighborhood was settled (by Presbyterians,) preparations were made for the preaching of the Gospel by a regular stated pastor; and wherever a pastor was located, in that congregation was a classical school--as in Sugar Creek, Poplar Tent, Centre, Bethany, Buffalo, Thyatira, Grove, Wilmington and the churches occupied by Patillo in Orange and Granville." The Presbyterian settlements commenced in 1738; and although each settlement did not, at first, have a minister, and a classical school, there can be no question that they had schools in which the children were taught to read and write.

        The history of the Moravian settlements at Wachovia, or Salem, shows that they founded churches and schools immediately on their arrival; or as soon as they had provided humble dwellings for themselves and their children. On their hundred thousand acre purchase they formed several settlements, each of which had a place of worship. Salem is the centre; and now for nearly eighty years it has had one of the largest and finest female schools in America, in which, during that long period, thousands of young ladies have been educated, who have gone thither from every State of the South, and not a few from the North and West.

        In the eastern and middle counties the common schools were taught, as has been shown, by the lay readers of the Church, and by others; while the most wealthy classes sent their sons to William and Mary in Virginia, to Princeton, to New England, and even to Old England, for higher education.

        The libel which the writer attempts to attribute to Mr. Bancroft, has been exposed, and need not be repeated. He follows up that statement with another, however, which requires notice. He says:

        "The Courts, such as they were, sat often in taverns, where the Judge might sharpen his wits with bad whiskey; while their decisions were not recorded, but were simply shouted by the crier from the Inn door, or at the nearest market place."


        Of all the statements of the writer, the above shows the greatest degree of ignorance; for it is incredible that a sane man who has read the history of the Colony, would deliberately make assertions which are contradicted on almost every page of our annals. A large portion of Martin's history of the Province is devoted to an exposition of the court systems. But to begin at the beginning,--Dr. Hawks, in his history of the early colonization of the Province, which he brings down to the year 1730, has a lengthy chapter entitled "The Law and its Administration." He prefaces this chapter, as is his method, with his authorities; and these consist of extracts from the Records of the Courts. The first extracts from the Records of the "General Court," refutes two of the statements above. It is dated 1695, and is an order of the Court to the Marshal to take into custody Stephen Manwaring, an attorney, "to answer for his contemptuous and insolent behavior before the Court."

        Then follows an order debarring him; and another, allowing him till the next term to answer; and finally, in 1697, was ordered "that the said Stephen Manwaring shall not, from henceforth, be permitted to plead as an Attorney in any Court of Record in this Government."

        The next extract bears date the same year, 1695, and is of the same character. Two gentlemen of the bar were debarred for contempt. One of them, Henderson Walker, Esq., afterward made a distinguished figure in the history of the Colony; and four years after this contempt of Court, he became its Governor.

        In 1697 we have the record of a "Summary proceeding for a false accusation." In 1714, the "Proceedings on an Information against a


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militia-man;" and in 1722, an "Abatement of suit by reason of the plaintiff's outlawry." Next follows the whole proceedings in the General Court, on a writ of error. This was in the year 1723. The introductory lines in this proceeding will show that the forms of law, brought from England, were substantially observed. It begins as follows:

        "John Gray of Bertie precinct, gentleman, comes to prosecute his appeal from certain proceedings had against him, at the Precinct Court of Bertie, on Tuesday, the 14th day of May, Anno Domini, 1723, at the suit of John Cotton, Esq.

        "And the said John Gray, by Edward Moseley, his attorney, brings into court here, a copy of the Record and proceedings of said Court, in these words," &c.


        This precinct or county of Bertie, was the youngest of the settlements, and it had just been given corporate authority. This may have been the first court--and it was certainly among the earliest. Yet we see that it was a Court of Record, and thus brands as a calumny the statement referred to in Harpers Magazine. It is a part of the Record that the Court was held at the house of James Howard at Akotsky. The date was Tuesday, May 14, 1723. Bertie is just across the Chowan river from Edenton, the principal town of the Province; and the writ of Error seems to have been sued out on the day the judgment was rendered.

        Dr. Hawks gives the writ of arrest of John Gray, and his declaration, signed by John Henneman, his Attorney, "pro pl'ff." The suit was an action of detimee for a patent, for "six hundred and forty acres of ground." The Declaration is endorsed, "I do not detain the patent.--John Gray." Next follows a formal summons for George Wynn as a witness; then the statement of the issues joined, the plea of non-detinet , the impannelling of the jury, and their verdict for the plaintiff. All this in the lowest court of the Province, held by three or more Justices of the Peace, in the youngest county in the Province, in the year 1723. Mr. Mosely, afterwards distinguished in the history of the Province, was the attorney for the plaintiff in error. He recites the foregoing facts, and excepts to them in the usual form and assigns four reasons why the court below manitestly erred.

        The General Court reversed and annulled the verdict, and ordered that Cotton pay the costs. Dr. Hawks, who was a lawyer before he became a clergyman, remarks on these proceedings as follows:

        "We have presented the whole Record of the General Court in this case, that the reader might see the forms of writ and subpoena in use as set forth in the Record from the Precinct Court. It furnishes, also, incidentally, evidence that the practice of the day seems to have been in the Precinct Court, to endorse the pleas on the declaration. It illustrates also, the formality with which the minutes of proceedings were kept in the General Court. There are numerous other cases to be found, more fully even, than this, and where the errors assigned involved some interesting and really doubtful points of law; but we selected this, as being one of the shortest, and yet sufficient for all purposes of illustration."


        Dr. Hawks fills sixteen pages with extracts from "tho Records of the General Court of Oyer and Terminer," beginning in 1697, and ending in 1726. Nothing could have been further from his purpose than to furnish proof that North Carolina had courts of record at that early day: for how could he imagine that any man would make such a display of his ignorance as to dispute the fact? How could he suppose that a pretentious Magazine would commit such a blunder, in an article of historical criticism--and that it would apply the stupid remark to the condition of the Province, during the whole time of colonial dependence? Yet that is the predicament in which Harper's Magazine has placed itself.


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        The first case copied by Dr. Hawks from the Records of the General Court of Oyer and Terminer, is erroneously placed under the date of 1697, when William III. was on the throne. For the writ runs in the name of "our Sovereign Lady, the Queen"--meaning, doubtless, Queen Anne.

        It was on an indictment against Susannah Evans, for witchcraft, under an old English statute, as amended in the reign of James I. It was not a colonial statute; yet the courts were required to enforce it. But the result of the trial shows that our ancestors were not abreast with the civilization of that age, as illustrated further north, and it was lucky for Susanah that they were not. The indictment is as follows:

        "The Jurors for our Sovereign Lady, the Queen, present upon their oaths, that Susanah Evans of the precinct of Currituck, in the County of Albemarle, in the aforesaid Province, not having the fear of God before her eyes, but being led by the investigation of the Devil, did, on or about the twenty-fifth day of July last past, the body of Deborah Bouthier, being then in the peace of our sovereign lady, the Queen, devilishly and maliciously bewitch, and by assistance of the devil, afflict, with mortal pains, the body of the said Deborah Bouthier, whereby the said Deborah departed this life. And also did diabolically and maliciously bewitch several other of her Majesty's liege subjects, against the peace of our sovereign lady, the Queen, and against the form of the statute in that case made and provided," &c.


        This indictment was laid before the Grand Jury, by the Attorney General; but that body failed to find a true bill, and Susanah was turned loose upon society to work her "devilish arts." This seems to have been the only case in which a person was brought before the Courts of North Carolina, on a charge of witchcraft, and whether the fact was due to the isolation of the Province, by which it "was in a great measure cut off from the currents of thought and feeling by which the other colonies were swayed," or whether to a more enlightened sense of justice than prevailed in colonies which sent witches to the gallows "by the cart-load," as Upham informs us, was the case in Massachusetts, the reader may determine.

        But if North Carolina suffered from its seclusion, a loss of sympathy with the great movement for the suppression of witchcraft, it was from no lack of zeal for religion and good morals, as the Magazine critic would have the world believe. Among the numerous extracts from the Records of the General Court of Oyer and Terminer, made by Dr. Hawks, are the proceedings on the indictment of John Hassel, of Chowan Precinct, in the year 1720, on charge of profanity. Hassel was one of the "advanced thinkers" of that age, who declared publicly on Sunday, March 13, 1718, "That he was never beholden to God Almighty for anything; for that he never had anything from him, but what he worked for;" and much more of the same sort. He plead "not guilty," but the jury convicted him. His counsel moved in arrest of judgement, that the indictment was not brought within six months after the words were spoken; nor was it prosecuted within ten days, "according to the form and effect of an act for observing the Lord's Day." The court overruled the motion, and ordered that the culprit should receive "thirty-nine lashes on his bare back," and give security "in the sum of fifty pounds for his good behavior for a year and a day."

        Here is incidental proof that these colonists, who are represented as devoid of law and religion, and of learning, had laws against profanity, and requiring the observance of the Lord's Day, as early as 1718; and that these laws were enforced against any "lawless and vile fellows" who might come into the Province, and offend against them. But our ancestors failed in the matter of hanging witches, and selling Quakers, and are voted ignorant and irreligious.

        The proceedings on an indictment for "forcible


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entry and trespass," are given by Hawks, under date of 1729. And of the same date there is the written refusal of the Governor to sign a death warrant on account of informalities in the trial.

        Numerous specimens are given of the sentences of the Court for theft, and similar offences, in which the lash was generally brought into requisition.

        Some pages are devoted to the Records of the Chancery Court, during the early period of colonial history, prior to 1730; but the foregoing must suffice.

        It is probable that the assailant of the good name of the State may have deduced many of his conclusions from the following remark of the elder Josiah Quincey, which he recorded in his Memoir. That gentleman passed through eastern North Carolina in the Spring of 1773, and was greatly pleased with the character and spirit of the people, all along his route. He was especially pleased with the gentlemen he met at Wilmington, where he spent some days. He mentions with honor several whose names have come down to us. Passing on further north, he states, under date of April 5th, that he "breakfasted with Colonel Buncombe[in Tyrrell County] who waited upon me to Edenton Sound, and gave me letters to his friends there. Spent this and the next day in crossing Albemarle Sound, and in dining and conversing in company with the most celebrated lawyers of Edenton." [Among these lawyers were, doubtless, Samuel Johnston, who, a few years later was chosen to the office of President of the Continental Congress, which he declined; but became Governor of the State, and a United states Senator. Mr. Quincey more than likely met, also, James Iredell, who afterwards became a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.] Mr. Quincey continues: "From them I learned that Dr. Samuel Cooper of Boston, was generally (they said universally) esteemed the author of "Leonidas," who, together with "Mucius Scaevola," was burnt in effigy under the gallows, by the common hangman." And here follows the misleading remark of Mr. Quincey, which a person, entirely ignorant of the history, and of most other things, might be excused for taking as conclusive proof that North Carolina, prior to the Revolution, never had any laws or courts, although she possessed "celebrated lawyers." Mr. Quincey says: "There being no courts of any kind in this Province, and no laws in force by which any courts could be held, I found little inclination or incitement to stay long in Edenton, though a pleasant town."

        This statement was literally true at that day and date; but the circumstances which brought about the peculiar state of things, being well understood throughout the colonies, Mr. Quincey did not stop to explain them. They constituted one of the most serious grievances against which the people of the Province had long had reason to complain of the Crown and Government of Great Britain. The explanation is as follows: For more than twenty years a struggle had been going on between the Assembly on the one side and the Governor and Council, appointed by and impelled by the Sovereign, on the other, in regard to the constitution of the courts, Superior and Inferior.

        The Crown insisted on the appointment and removal of the Judges, at pleasure, and to import them from Great Britain, while the Assembly was required to provide them fixed and liberal salaries.

        The Assembly resisted this unjust pretension, and insisted that lawyers resident in the Colony should alone be appointed to Judgeships over them; that their tenure of office should be permanent, and that their salaries should depend upon the free offering of the Assembly from year to year.

        This controversy dated back to the middle of the century. An act of the Assembly of 1754, for the regulation or reorganization of the courts had never received the royal sanction, and at


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length, after it had been in force for several years, it was annulled, or vetoed. In 1760 a new court act was adopted, which provided, among other things, that no person should be appointed a Justice of the Superior Court, unless he had been regularly called to the degree of an outer barrister in some of the English Inns of Court; unless he were of five years standing, and had practiced law in the principle Courts of Judicature of the Province. The act also required that the commissions of the Judges should run during good behavior.

        The Governor, Dobbs, held that the clause defining the qualifications of the Judges, was an unconstitutional restraint on the King's prerogative, almost precludeing the appointment of any one from England; and that the clause defining the tenure of the Judges was at variance with the principle of keeping all great colonial officers under a strict subordination to, and dependence on the Crown.

        The Assembly plead earnestly with the Governor, alleging the necessity for courts of Justice and the sacredness of the right they contended for. They were, indeed, fighting over again the parliamentary battles of Hampden and Pym, for regulated liberty; and they fought them with a courage, an intelligence, and a dignity worthy of the cause. They were fighting just such battles as Massachusetts had fought throughout her whole history, and which constitute her chiefest glory.

        As illustrative of the Crown officials in the Province, and as throwing further light upon the causes which provoked the Regulation movement, I will be excused for presenting more fully, the nature of this controversy between the people and their imported rulers.

        Of the new court system, which was introduced and passed in the Assembly which met at Wilmington, November 20, 1759, Martin says that it provided for the establishment of a court of king's bench and common pleas. It forbade the Chief Justice to receive any part of the fees of the clerks, which seems to have been an unauthorized practice of that eminent person--or rather, of one or more persons who had held the office. The Council, which was appointed by the Crown, would not consent to the passage of the bill until this prohibition was expunged, which that body held to be derogatory of the dignity of the Chief Justice. The Assembly replied that "the practice which had hitherto prevailed of the Chief Justice exacting from the Clerks a considerable proportion of their legal fees, had been one cause of their being guilty of great extortions, whereby the Superior Courts had become scenes of great oppression, and the conduct of the Chief Justice and Clerks, a subject of universal complaint, they admitted that the late Chief Justice, Peter Henly (whose death was lamented by all who wished to see the hand of Government strengthend, the laws duly executed and justice impartially administered) from a pious sense of the obligations of his oath, had conformed to the act of 1748, for regulating officers fees, but they thought themselves bound in duty to their constituents to provide against the pernicious effects of a contrary conduct."

        On this and other grounds of disagreements the two Houses did not come to terms, and the bill failed. At the next session the Assembly passed a court bill not materially different from that of 1759. It was sent up accompanied by an address, in which its importance to the welfare of the Province was urged.

        But the Governor, who was very anxious to have an aid bill passed, in compliance with a demand by the Crown, for the prosecution of the war against the French and Indians, temperized while urging the paramount duty of passing that measure. The Assembly prepared an address or petition to the King, in which the grievances of the Colony were strongly set forth, and the great importance of the "court law" was urged.

        In the same address, serious complaints were made against the Governor, Dobbs, who, it was


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charged had appointed corrupt and incompetent men to office.

        No agreement was reached and the Superior Court bill was rejected.

        An act, however, was passed, for establishing county courts, accompanied by a provision for the support of the clergy; and this was sanctioned.

        The Governor then prorogued the Assembly, from the 23d to the 26th of May; when he again called on that body to pass a Superior Court bill, and grant an aid to the King. These measures were accordingly adopted; and the Governor gave his sanction to the "Court law" on the condition that if the King did not confirm it within two years from the 10th of November following, it was to be null and void.

        In December, 1761, the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, laid the Court laws, passed in May of the preceding year, before the King and Council, asking the royal disallowance and repeal; and accordingly the act was annulled. The Governor was severely censured for allowing it to go into operation before it received the royal sanction.

        In 1762, a Superior Court law, temporary in its character, was agreed upon by the two Houses, and was permitted to go into operation. The Assembly still maintained its position of withholding permanent salaries from the Judges. In 1764, the Act was renewed, or extended; and in 1767, a new Act was passed, and limited to five years duration. The County Court law was also renewed, and continued for the same period. These laws would therefore expire in 1772--probably at the close of that year; and hence it was that Mr. Quincey, in February, 1773, was correct in saying, that there were "no Courts of any kind in the Province, and no laws in force by which they could be held." The people of all the Colonies were aware of this state of things and the reason for it, and hence he deemed it unnecessary to explain them. A man of ordinary intelligence, and especially one who assumes the office of historical critic--even at a distance of a century--should have, at least surmised as much.

        The remark quoted from Mr. Bancroft, on a preceding page, that whoever doubts the capacity of man for self-government, should study the early history of North Carolina, was made with reference to the people of the Albemarle settlement during the Proprietary Government; but its truth receives additional, and even fuller, illustration, in the subsequent career of the Colonists, when they had spread over a territory as large as the Mother Country, and laid the foundations of a great State. No true man can read that history without admiring the courage, and the unconquerable firmness, exhibited under the most trying circumstances with which they vindicated their rights as men. The whole history of the Province, from 1663 to 1776, was a struggle of the people against arbitrary power and corrupt administrative officers; and people of the present day who imagine that Colonial dependence in the 17th and 18th centuries was an easy yoke to bear, only show their ignorance of the history of that period.


Page xxxix

EARLY GERMAN SETTLERS IN EASTERN CABARRUS COUNTY.

        An Address of Gen. Rufus Barringer, delivered at the Lutheran Commemoration in Concord, N. C., November 10th, 1883.*

        * The reader should remember that many of these remarks were local and personal and understood by the audience only.


        From a variety of causes, so far as I can learn, not a record exists exactly fixing the date of the first German settlement in this section of North Carolina, nor has a single pen told the story of the wanderings of our German fathers nor the part they bore in our early wars.

        Less than five generations have passed away since these German fathers first struck the banks of the Cold Water and Dutch Buffalo Creeks. Yet who, in this large assembly can tell when, whence, why, and how these hardy pioneers came? If direct from Europe, what part? If from or through Pennsylvania, what County? What routes did they travel? When and where was the first settlement made? And especially what were their peculiar characteristics? Did they have any distinct religious creed? Any known political polity? How did they bear themselves in the numerous Indian and other early wars? Especially in the great revolutionary struggle for freedom and independence, what troops did they furnish? What sufferings and losses did they endure, and what sacrifices did they make for the cause? Who were Whigs and who Tories?

        All interesting questions; the very doubt and confusion in which they are shrouded greatly embarrasses one. I shall, therefore, rather seek to excite interest and enquiry into the subject before us than undertake to decide or debate disputed issues. If I should chance to fall into errors of any kind, I will be only too glad to be fully and promptly corrected. My great aim is historic truth.

        Before proceeding to the main enquiries, it is proper to disabuse the popular mind of certain prejudices in regard to the so-called Dutch or Germans, generally, of this country and more particularly as regards the religious faith and fighting, or rather non-resisting tenets, of certain Teutonic sects amongst us.

        It is true that many of the earlier Dutch and German colonists were non-armbearing sectarians, such as the Mennonites in Pennsylvania, the Moravians here in North Carolina, and the Saltzbergers in Georgia. But there were none amongst our Germans. From the days of Braddock's defeat and the advent of Maj. George Washington, down to the last battle under Gen. Robert E. Lee, our Dutch have proved a most pugnacious set.

        Then, again, the first German settlers are constantly confounded with Hessians, who fought against us, and numbers of whom, after the revolution, found an asylum in this country, and were not unwelcome.


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        The facts are these: The Hessian contingents of George III came from a region, and were raised at a time, when the bulk of the common people, the world over, were little better than beasts of burden for their rulers. The Swiss Guards were not the only mercenaries. They, too, came from the only Republic of Europe. But these Hessians happened to be mostly Protestants. The marvelous light of Luther's teachings had struck deep into even their dark minds. General Washington, with that tact and wisdom peculiarly his own, readily saw this, and ventured to turn it to account. He accordingly managed, when any of these Hessian soldiers were captured, to send them off into the interior of the country, and quarter them upon the soundest German settlements. In this way many of them were very naturally left in America. Or if exchanged, they had but to take the chances of war, to release them from their military oaths and obligations. This happened, notably, at the siege and surrender of Savannah, and under the articles of Peace 1782, when hundreds of these Protestant Hessians chose to remain in this land of liberty, and enjoy the untold blessings they were surprised to find here. They very sensibly sought their German countrymen, who knew the facts of their case, and who pitied their forlorn condition. As a well-known circumstance, they almost universally make good citizens--strikingly faithful to every trust and obligation. Hence they soon intermarried with other classes, and thus it happens that hundreds of those now before me, are the descendants of the once "Hated Hessians."

        But I have lately obtained information quite curious in regard to these Hessian contingents: At the very time that George III. was gathering up his foreign levies, to help to conquer us, Silas Deane, the American Commissioner in Germany, was offered large numbers of the same people to fight for us; and only an accident and a scarcity of money defeated the scheme.*

        * [See American Archives--series 5,--(1779), vol. III, page 887.]


        Another class of German immigrants who entered largely into our population of foreign descent, and who are commonly thought to have cast a stain on the name of freedom, were the so-called Redemptioners--a term now well nigh obsolete in popular speech--but once indicating a body of immigrants, who took an eventful part in the development of this New World. The term was first used in connection with white indentured apprentices. It was afterwards applied to a large class of very poor emigrants, who could not pay their passagemoney to America in cash down; but who were willing to enter into contracts of limited service, on their arrival here, in order to re-imburse the funds advanced for that purpose.

        Still again, it was an artful scheme often resorted to, by the down-trodden of Europe, to escape the thraldom of feudal bondage.

        Some of our first German settlers no doubt belonged to all of these three different classes of redemptioners. A few of the most prominent pioneers certainly came in the way last indicated.

        The story of the wrongs, the sufferings, the trials and troubles of these humble heroes, is so full of interest and instruction, nay of sublime courage and christian fortitude, that I pause to explain it. The facts, too, shed a reflected light on the mooted and somewhat mysterious question of where these first adventurous Germans came from, and of their national characteristics.

        In one of the quiet out-lying districts of Wŭrtemburg, the traveller now sees standing a plain stone pyramid, erected by the peasants of Germany in 1789, as a monument to Prince Charles Frederick of that Duchy, for his voluntary


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abolition of serfdom in that year. And its simple history is this:

        The thunder of Luther's fire struck deep and fast into the hearts of the peasantry class, as you have heard here to-day. This resulted in all sorts of insurrectionary outbreaks, which had to be put down by force. This stayed somewhat the progress of the reformation and grieved Luther. But the mighty work went on and soon the minds and consciences of men became comparatively free. And yet it was a long time before the light of political truth reached the prerogatives of power and property. At that time very few, if any, of the peasant class, as such, could hold real estate in Central Europe. On the contrary, they themselves were often bought and sold with the land they worked, and had to serve their landlords a certain number of days each week, the year round, and all through life. The Protestant peasants, naturally enough, became restive under such hard and cruel restraints and restrictions. And they ere long sought in every possible way to avoid and escape them. This was next to impossible to do, and still remain in the country. But to flee their homes was also extremely hazardous. The law of expatriation was not then fully recognized, and all sorts of treaty stipulations and alliances provided for their recapture, return to slavery, and, usually, a barbarous beating besides. But go they would, and their safest course was stealth, under this scheme of indentured apprenticeships. In this way, the young men could gradually remove themselves from one State or province to another, and little noticed, reach a seaport; and so escape to America or some other foreign country where life, liberty, limb and land were somewhat free. To us of this enlightened age and free republican government, it is simply incredible that such a state of things should have existed in any Christian country, especially in the English colonies, less than one hundred and fifty years ago. But so it was. White men not only indentured themselves as apprentices, but gladly sold their persons into long but limited slavery, for the blessed privilege, or chance of escaping feudal serfdom. But listen while I read this advertisement from an old Philadelphia newspaper, The American Mercury, of date November 28, 1728:

        "Just arrived from London, in the ship Borden, William Harbert, commander, a parcel of young likely Men Servants, consisting of Husbandmen, Joyners, Shoemakers, Weavers, Smiths, Brickmakers, Bricklayers, Sawyers, Tailors, Staymakers, Butchers, Chairmakers, and several other trades, and are to be sold very reasonable, either for ready money, wheat, bread or flour, by Edward Horne, Philadelphia."


        Among the classes thus named were, no doubt, the ancestors of many now high in the Free Citizenship of this great country, and possibly the ancestors of some of those present here to-day.*

        * It was the honest boast of the distinguished John Covode, of Pennsylvania, "that his father had been held as a Redemptioner."

        John Reed, the discoverer and first owner of the famous "Reed gold mine" in Cabarrus County, was one of the Hessians of the Revolutionary war. He died a wealthy man, but did not know, when he found the first lump of gold, what it was or what it was worth. Nor did he know until he was more than eighty years old that he had a right to citizenship in this country. He was naturalized at Concord about 1843. For the discovery of the Reed gold mine, see Wheeler's History of North Carolina, Vol. II, page 64.


        After the American revolution, the exodus from Europe under this process was enormous; so much so as almost to depopulate certain German States and countries, notably Würtemberg, where serfdom was so absolute and grinding. Then it was, in 1789, that the reigning Grand Duke, Prince Charles Frederick, rose to the supreme height of voluntarily abolishing all serfdom in his dominions. And


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in return, a grateful Protestant peasantry cheerfully erected this simple monument to his memory. Würtemberg again prospered; population grew and she soon became a kingdom.

        In all this may be noticed the marked characteristics of the German mind and temper. According to their light, the German Princes generally had a fatherly love for their people, and the latter, ever reverential and grateful, accepted the great boon conferred by Providence not in a spirit of fanatical pride and resentment, but as a gracious concession and blessing.

        And what may seem strange to us, as touching this custom of voluntary slavery, no sense of degradation seems to have attached to it. It simply shows that parties resorting to it, were in dead earnest to reach the goal of freedom, and meant real work and business. As just and proper labor contracts, such indentures were almost invariably carried out in good faith by all parties concerned.

        For one, therefore, I rather commend the patient fortitude, the unfaltering faith and courage, and the Christian fidelity, with which certain of the redemptioners worked their way to the fertile fields of the Cold Water and Buffalo Creeks. As the darkest shades often reflect the most beautiful tints; and as the purest gold is usually found in the roughest rock, so the finest characters are always evolved through the severest trials and tribulations. We are the more perfect through suffering. Our Redemptioner fore-fathers had realized in their own persons the inestimable privileges and blessings they had come so far, and at such fearful risks and sacrifices, to secure. The sequel will show that when the day of trial came, and they were called upon to fight for their dear-bought benefits, they were equal to every emergency.

        The first Germans known to have reached this immediate section, now called the Dutch Side, consisted of three young farmers--all foreigners and probably all three Redemptioners. One certainly was, and he the best known, a man in fact, of rare strength of will, and singular force of character. He was a native of Würtemburg; left there, with the consent of his father, in his 21st year; tarried a while in Hanover; finally sailed from Rotterdam in the ship Phoenix, and landed at Philadelphia Sept. 30th, 1743. He had some education but no money or friends. He left home and country, because he was not allowed to buy or hold real property. His term of service was three years; but he worked so well, and faithfully, that he managed, some way, to make favor with his master, and wiped the whole debt out in one short year. Whether he married his master's daughter or some other good Pennsylvania girl, it is not certain; but she, too, was poor; and he often told, with much glee that he got with her "just one silver dollar."

        With this wife and two small children, and accompanied by his two countrymen and their little families, the youthful Redemptioner, now free, set out from Pennsylvania, for the rich region of the Yadkin and Catawba--then the aim and end of the adventurous immigrant.

        When this trio of enterprising Germans*

        * The names of these three pioneer Germans were Barringer, the grand-father of the speaker, Dry, (Deer) and Smith.


started on their perilous march, the buffalo, bear and the wolf still roamed our forests. The savage Indian and the frontier French often marked the camping grounds of the lonely immigrant with the blood of slaughtered innocents. They crossed the mountain ridges and the flooded streams by following the old buffalo trail, then known as the "Indian Trading Path." At last they reached the end of their wanderings, and they safely forded the
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broad and beautiful Yadkin at the "Trading Ford," the sole memorial amongst us, of this once famous "Indian Trading Path." But here a new difficulty beset these peaceful fugitives from the land of the "Broad-brimmed Quaker." The free and tolerant principles of Penn had gathered into his Province, all the odds and ends of civil and religious persecution, the world over. Jarrings and conflicts naturally ensued; notably, among the Scotch-Irish and some of the quaint Mennonites of that State. When our German friends crossed the Yadkin, and began to cast their wistful eyes over the wide plains and spreading prairies of this lovely region, they were surprised to find the Scotch-Irish just ahead of them.

        The latter had occasional squatters, here and there, on the choicest spots, especially on its western borders, up and down the Catawba. Our German Pilgrims had seen enough of strife and resolved to "avoid all such." They accordingly abandoned the "Trading Path," just east of the present site of Salisbury and turned square to the left and followed the right bank of the Yadkin, down towards the lighter slate soils of that broken region. They were however, not afraid of their Scotch-Irish allies, in the mighty struggle to subdue the wilderness and enter its broad acres. So they gradually turned their steps to the better lands above them, and finally located on the high ground between the present Cold Water and Buffalo creeks. The exact spot was the old Ovenshine place, near the Henry Propst homestead.

        How long these people had resided in Pennsylvania does not appear--long enough, however, to have lost somewhat their native German, and picked up, in its stead, that strange but popular gibberish of all tongues, universally known as "Pennsylvania Dutch." Our immigrants themselves were called Dutch. They recognized the term and proceeded to designate their surroundings accordingly. Their nomenclature, however, was quite limited, and they usually followed nature. Hence we have Big and Little Dutch Buffalo, Big and Little Bear Creek, Big and Little Cold Water, and Jenny Wolf Branch. Above and west of them, was the English or Irish Buffalo, and south was Johnson, now Rocky River.

        This would seem to have been a long time ago. Ours was then Bladen, or probably Pee Dee County--a County never legally recognized. But after all, it was only about one hundred and forty years back--as near as I can fix it--1745-6. One hundred and forty years! Only the life-span of two or three of the stout old German fathers. And yet what marked and momentous changes have taken place amongst us, in that eventful period! How the panorama of history has crowded upon us, in one short century and a half! How slowly time has passed; and how utterly the footprints of these wandering fathers have fled from sight and memory! They numbered only three families, and their nearest neighbors, on one side, were sparse settlers, in the present limits of Popular Tent and Coddle Creek, and on the other, the Highland Scotch of the Pee Dee hills. But our wanderers were not long alone.

        Soon the news of a goodly land flew back, first to Pennsylvania, and then on to the far off, struggling, toiling, teeming, millions of the war-racked and priest-ridden Fatherland. And now they poured in from all directions, mainly still from and through Pennsylvania, but often through Charleston and occasionally through Wilmington, following the routes along the high ridges dividing the principal rivers. And it was thus, that this particular section, embracing parts of the present Counties of Cabarrus, Rowan and Stanly, came to be so rapidly settled, and almost exclusively by Germans. By the time of the revolution, the


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"Dutch side" of old Mecklenburg was its most densely peopled portion.

        I here propose to correct a partial error, into which many have fallen (at one time myself,) in regard to the distinctive nationality of these first German settlers. They are often supposed to have come from the central and northern parts of Germany, and sometimes from the low countries of Europe. But I now have ample proof that they came from the upper or Castle Rhine regions--Würtemburg, Baden, Bavaria, and the ancient Palatinate--so mercilessly wasted by that grand ogre of France--miscalled Louis the Great. It was the fiercest and bloodiest of persecutions that then desolated all this part of Southern Germany, and scattered its honest, liberty loving, intelligent, industrious Protestants to every quarter of the globe. And I am able to state from positive knowledge, that the common German names of this section, so numerous amongst us to-day, are all now found in the upper Rhine region, referred to, notably in and around the skirts of the Black Forest and its borders.

        Our familiar name of Blackwelder (German, Schwartzwalder) means not black wood, but a Black Forester. So the names of Barnhart, Barrier, Bost, Dry, Misenheimer, Propst, Sides, Bosheimer, Barringer, and hundreds of others are there to-day. No doubt the emigrants, and especially those escaping under the guise of apprenticeships or as indentured servants, often stopped over in the countries through which they passed, working their way along. And it may have served their purpose occasionally, to hail from the Continental dominions of the Georges of England. But this much is certain, very few of them were Dutch proper, or natives of the low countries, or even the level parts of Germany. Our first German settlers, nearly all built their houses on reaching here, on the high grounds, and often on the tops of the hills, after the castle times of their own rugged country. Their removal to the level lands and bottoms was afterwards. But be that as it may, they came; they came to stay; and that they did so, is fully proved by the immense numbers of their descendants here to-day, and the vast regions the "Dutch Side" has peopled elsewhere. They were a hardy, healthful, handy race, self-reliant, self-helpful, and they have made their mark wherever they have struck.

        The intellectual and religious qualities of such a people were almost sure to be marked and enduring. Many of them had fought in the battles of Europe; others had left home and country for conscience sake; all had endured toil, suffering and sorrow for the freedom they came so far to find. They learned to live almost entirely within themselves. Their wants were few and simple. Only two things seemed absolute essentials: (1.) In all their wanderings--in shipwreck at sea, and in storm on land; in serfdom and in voluntary slavery; under the iron heel of Power in Europe, and in the boundless freedom of America--they clung to their Luther Bibles. Without any distinctive notions of formal creeds, and profoundly indifferent to the mere forms of religion, they grasped the fundamentals of the Bible as taught by Luther, and so they lived and died. (2.) They tolerated no idlers--no drones in either the Church, the State, or the family. In fact, however, the family was everything. With a proper start in the family, all government was simple and easy. There was an intense regard for all lawful authority. The husband and father felt his responsibility both to God and the powers that be. The wife and mother was, indeed a help-meet, and shared alike the joys and sorrows of the husband. The young all worked, and grew up trained and skilled in every ordinary labor and handicraft. Both sexes were strong and active--morally,


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mentally, and physically. The men were manly, and the women matronly. When trials and troubles came, such people knew how to meet them. They had, at last found delightful homes, and tasted the sweet freedom they had so much longed for. And when, therefore, they were summoned to defend those homes and to vindicate the rights and privileges they had secured, no people ever responded more heroically.

        I am able to show that these German settlers participated in almost every expedition against the Indians, and that they took a very active part in the forced march of General Rutherford against the Cherokees in 1776. A young German was one of the very few killed in action on that expedition.*

        * Matthias Barringer of the Catawba family.


        It is not generally known that the settlers of this section were ever disturbed by the French enemy on our distant frontiers. But I have here (holding it up,) a petition in 1756 to Governor Dobbs, from the Rowan and Anson settlers, complaining (among other things) of the dangers that threaten them from the "savage Indians in the interest of their French allies." Also a curiously carved powder-horn that was worn by Archibald Woodsides of Coddle Creek, in one of the long and hazardous marches against Fort Duquesne. It has on it a good description of "Fort Pitt" and its picturesque surroundings. The history of this singular memorial of our early wars is, that the owner chanced to meet in one of his marches with German soldiers from this settlement, and they persuaded him to return with them.

        But I come now and chiefly to speak of the revolutionary services of the German fathers. Here the evidence is full and complete. But, unfortunately, it is only in old musty army rolls, not accessible to the general public; and no one has been found to tell the story of their deeds. But this was then the most populous part of old Mecklenburg; and it was, from first to last, true, indeed, entirely unanimous in its fidelity to the great cause of freedom and independence.

        That the Germans do not figure prominently in the famous meetings at Charlotte, May 20, 1775, is not strange. Their settlement lay mainly in the extreme limits of the old County, with numerous intervening streams, and scarcely any roads. They spoke a different language, and nearly all their trade and travel was in other directions--with Salisbury on the north, with Cross-creek (now Fayetteville) on the east, and Cheraw Hills and Camden, South Carolina, to the south--the three last thriving points at the head of navigation, on their respective rivers, then a matter of vast importance. But as a mere truth, the hopes of the German settlement, then centered in one leader, Lt.-Col. John Phifer. He was a Swiss by descent. But all his ties and associations were German. His mother was a Blackwelder and his wife a Barringer. He was an unusually bright and promising man and soldier. The meetings were held at the Phifer Red Hill, three miles west of Concord. He was their delegate to the immortal convention that declared Independence, and his name so appears. But he died early in the struggle, and in his youthful grave at the Red Hill seemed to perish the hopes of his people. But not so. Old and young continued to go forth to swell the ranks of both the regular and irregular forces. I have examined the Muster Rolls and have extracts from them, and they clearly show that in proportion to population the Germans were very largely represented. On the Pension Rolls for Cabarrus County in 1835, of 21 revolutionary soldiers still drawing pensions, 12 were Germans. And old men now present will remember that when the "heroes of 1776" used to parade together at the 20th


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of May and 4th of July celebrations, the "Dutch Side" was always strong. At the last of these parades in 1839, 5 out of 8 of those present were of German blood. The Blackwelder family alone furnished eight tried soldiers to the cause.

        The silence, therefore, of the Charlotte meetings, and the absence of co-temporaneous history, as to the Dutch Side, is nothing against it.

        There is a story, too, which shows that the Dutch had some other reason for not attempting to make any display in the Queen City. It is, that on some military occasion, a Dutch captain took his company over there, and, giving his commands in most emphatic Pennsylvania Dutch, the Scotch-Irish laughed at him. His company vowed to stand by their Captain, and refused both collectively and individually ever to go back to Charlotte again. In confirmation of this story I have here an old Muster Roll, and sure enough "Martin Fifer" is the Captain! Certain it is, too, that at a very early day the Dutch demanded a new County, and at the first election, after Cabarrus was cut off, Caleb Phifer (the son of Martin) and John Paul Barringer were its highly honored Commoners. So, probably, the creation of this County is also due to the German element.

        But there is another aspect of the Revolutionary struggle, decidedly complimentary to the Germans of old Mecklenburg, and adds a new laurel to her crown.

        The Dutch Side, from their isolated and remote situation, might have easily stood aloof from the conflict, and so, possibly, have escaped the losses and sufferings I am about to describe. But they chose otherwise; and then, their very location and seclusion exposed them to the fiercest ravages of war.

        Remember, then, the surroundings of this German settlement. On its east the Scotch Highlanders of the Cape Fear and Pee Dee country, nearly all Loyalists, enabled the British to extend the royal rule up to the Narrows of the Yadkin. On its south, at Cheraw and Camden, were British posts. North of it, across the Yadkin, Fanning and his infernal crew roamed almost unmolested. While in the Forks of the Yadkin, just above, the able Tory leader, Col. Samuel Bryan, held a well organized regiment of 800 men. And then, on several occasions the British army lay at Charlotte (twice) and at Salisbury (once). Now history shows just what might be expected in such a situation as this. While indeed, no great armies traversed this region, it was greatly exposed because of its remoteness and isolation, to the more frightful depredations of irregular and lawless bands of marauders and other desperadoes, passing to and fro. It is a historical fact, that Col. Bryan marched his whole Tory Regiment of 800 men through the eastern end of this settlement, to Cheraw, S. C., spreading fear and desolation in all directions. It is equally true, that when the British occupied Salisbury, several parties of Tories and Royalists, from the east of Yadkin, sought to join Cornwallis, but were driven back, mainly by Home Militia.

        But the one expedition that still lives in the memory of the Dutch Side, and never fails to fire the German blood, even to this day, was that organized by the Fanning men east of the Yadkin; and crossing the river, swept this German settlement in its whole length, up and down the two Dutch Buffalos, and thence on to the British post at Camden. S. C. They robbed hundreds of Whigs,destroyed much property in purest wantonness, and seized and carried off to British prison, under most brutal circumstances, more than twenty leading citizens. In this number was Major James Smith, of the then County of Rowan, (now Davidson,) a regular officer at home, wounded, and Caleb Blackwelder and his son-in-law, Jno. Paul


Page xlvii

Barringer, both old men--far past the military age. Smith and several others died in prison of small pox. Blackwelder and Barringer were promised their release provided some member of their families would come in person, and make certain pledges as to their conduct. No male of either family could risk the venture when old Mrs. Blackwelder mounted her horse and went herself to Camden, on the hopeless errand. She failed in her object, and in its stead, was the innocent means, through her clothing, of spreading the small pox all over the country she passed, and far and near among her friends at home. I need not tell this audience, that these terrible events drew the lines, once and for all, between Whig and Tory in the whole Dutch settlement. Up to that time, there had been no division whatever; no man who had ever taken protection, or given the enemy any sort of aid or comfort, could stay on the Dutch side and live. Now two individuals were charged with bad faith or infidelity. One of them, Rufus Johnson, who was no German, simply disappeared. The other, Jacob Agner, was run out of the country and his valuable property--the present House Mill-- was confiscated. Of one or two others there were vague suspicions of disloyalty, or mean cringing in the hour of trial; and to this day, their names are mentioned with bated breath.

        Such, my friends, is the proud record of our German ancestry.

        I am glad of the occasion to pay this just tribute to their noble memory. Especially am I happy to do so, on this day commemorative of the immortal Luther. His fame belongs to all mankind. But in its simple strength and enduring might, it is strikingly reflected by the unpretending life, and elasticity of German character. And we here draw a most instructive and useful lesson. It marks the mysterious workings of an allwise Providence.

        These people came here as poor, presecuted, wandering exiles. But in all their wanderings, they were an honest, sober, industrious, faithful, peaceful, law-abiding, God-fearing, Godserving and God-loving people. Against the early Protestant peasantry of Southern Germany scarcely aught has ever been said. Respecting just authority, and rendering proper obedience themselves, they have everywhere and under all circumstances, secured confidence and consideration. Here, in this distant land, and this secluded section, they are able to develope without contact with that effeminate degeneracies of the outside world, or the dangerous tendencies of modern civilization. You see the result in an enduring, expanding, wide-spreading, self-reliant, and ever advancing community. They had, too, their sports and amusements, their holidays and gala-days, their Easter fun and Kris-Kingle frolics; but under all, life had a serious, an intensely earnest aspect. Even their sports and amusements partook rather of skill and labor, than dissipation and debauchery, such as quiltings, spinning matches,corn-shucking, log-rolling, houseraisings and the like; all tending to manly vigor and modest woman-hood. In their outdoor hunts and games we discern the same harmless tendencies. In an old unprinted diary I have before me, kept by a sort of trader and traveller of the revolutionary era, I find the fox and deer skins came mainly from the English and Irish, while the Dutch are death on coons!

        In the family, especially, each and all felt the responsibilities resting upon them. Old and young had their assigned spheres and duties. Male and female learned some test of skill, art or handiwork. Life was not all one strain at display, nor one round of frivolity and frolic. There was in their family government a wonderful combination of duty, devotion, and discipline, with proper rest and recreation. In a


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word, the family with them, combined the State, the Church, and the School. And the training was more in the family than in the school. Again, see the result. They bought but little, and sold much. They made no debts or contracts they did not expect to pay or execute. They scorned to live on the labor or favor of others. And as a consequence, they were a gallant, brave, and public-spirited community. They and their descendants have ever stood to the front in the time of trial and danger. In the war of 1812, in the Mexican war, and in the great Confederate conflict, they rallied to the bugle-blast, in hundreds and thousands. They have not only maintained their ground at home, but they almost peopled the regions round about them, and settled, in turn, whole sections in distant States and Territories. I honestly and firmly believe that much of this success and great prosperity, is eminently due to the sound. civil, religious, and family training of the early fathers; and that, under the providence of God, it has its power and strength in their deep devotion to to the simple Protestant faith, as taught by Luther.

        But let it not be supposed, my friends, that I have lost faith in our modern civilization, and that I would live only in the past. On the contrary, I believe implicitly in the progress of human society. There is only one thing I dread: There is too much liberty--too much license and licentiousness. The home, the school, society, the State, and the Church--each and all--seem to me to pander too much--greatly too much--to the false sentimentalism of the day.

        Life is all sensation and pretense. Religion, morality, and the simple virtues of truth and honesty are powerfully preached; but their practice is much more doubtful.

        Nor would I, by any means, imply that the descendants of the early settlers of the "Dutch Side" have in any way, declined or deteriorated. On the contrary, while Germans are, usually, not pretentious, or ambitious of place or position, these people have always and everywhere held their ground. And as a striking fact, they have ever managed to get their full share of the best land in the country. And I am happy to learn from others, the evidence of your good faith, energy and industry. A distinguished judge, who has often ridden all over the State, pronounces the tillage and thrift of Mt. Pleasant region the best in North Carolina. And a prominent Gentile physician says the Dutch Side is still the best paying people we have. My prayer is, that you may go on in well-doing. Neither individuals or communities can hope to prosper without these virtues. And, withal, may you never cease to cherish the memory of the Fathers, and practice, as they did, the precepts of the pure and lowly Jesus, as preached by the mighty Luther, whose thunders are still shaking principalities, kingdoms and crowns, and subduing commonwealths and continents.


Page xlix

DR. EDWARD WARREN (BEY).

        A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF DR. EDWARD WARREN (BEY).

        The eminence in his profession attained by Dr. Edward Warren (Bey) and the prominence he has acquired in the two hemispheres, commends the following most interesting sketch to the readers of these Reminiscences of Eminent North Carolinians, we make the following extract from the Medical Journal of North Carolina; it has been enlarged and continued to date of this publication, and is eminently fit to be preserved in this form.

        Dr. Edward Warren (Bey) was born in Tyrrell County, North Carolina, on the 22nd of January, 1828, of parents who emigrated from Virginia, and who belonged to two of the oldest and most distinguished families of that State. His father, Dr. Wm. C. Warren, was also a physician of eminence and a man of unusual intelligence and purity of character.

        When the subject of this sketch was only four years of age, his father removed him with his family to Edenton, North Carolina, where the son was educated up to his sixteenth year, when he was sent to the Fairfax Institute, near Alexandria, Virginia; and two years afterwards to the University of Virginia. In the latter institution he greatly distinguished himself, having secured honors and diplomas in many of its Academic Schools, and having graduated after a single course in its Medical Department. In 1850 he delivered the valedictory oration before the Jefferson Society, which was then esteemed the honor of the College.

        In 1851 he graduated in the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, and whilst pursuing his studies in that city, conceived the idea of injecting a solution of morphia under the skin for the relief of pain, using for the purpose a lancet-puncture, and Anel's syringe. In this mode of medication, he was therefore, four years in advance of the inventor of the hypodermic syringe.

        This device was made the subject of a thesis prepared for presentation to the Faculty upon applying for his degree, but one of the Professors, to whom he had confided the idea, so forcibly expressed the opinion that it was both chimerical and dangerous, that the thesis was witheld and another substituted in its place.

        Dr. Warren, however, soon after his grad uation, found occasion to put his idea into practical operation.

        During the years of 1854 and 1855 he studied medicine in Paris, where he formed an intimate friendship with some of the leading medical men of France, and occupied himself by corresponding with The American Journal of Medical Sciences, and other leading American Medical Journals.

        Returning to America in the summer of 1855, he settled as a practitioner in Edenton, N. C., where he soon acquired an extended reputation, both as a physician and as a surgeon. In 1856 he delivered the annual address before the State Medical Society, which was most favorably received, and also obtained the "Fiske Fund Prize" for an essay on the "Effects of Pregnancy on the Development of Tuberculosis," which was subsequently published in book form, and has ever since been regarded as a leading work on the subject.

        In 1857 he was elected editor of the Medical Journal of North Carolina; made a member of the Gynæcological Society of Boston; and chosen a delegate from the American Medical Association.

        On the 16th of November of the same year, he married Miss Elizabeth Cotten Johnstone, of Edenton, a lady of rare beauty and most lovely character. By referring to Wheeler's History of North Carolina, it will also be seen that the Johnstones are directly descended from


Page l

two Royal Governors of the Colony, Gabriel and Saml. Johnstone, who were cousins and the representatives of the Cadet branch of the family of Annandale in the Peerage of Scotland.

        In 1860 he was elected Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the University of Maryland; first Vice-President of the Convention to revise the Pharmacopoea of the United States; and a member of the Committee on Literature of the American Medical Association. He at once acquired an enviable reputation in the city of Baltimore as a graceful, fluent and able lecturer.

        In 1861 he joined his fortunes with those of the South, and was, successively, Chief Surgeon of the Navy of North Carolina: a member of the Board to examine candidates for admission into the Medical Staff of the Confederate Army; Medical Director of the Department of the Cape Fear; Chief Medical Inspector of the Department of Northern Virginia (Gen Lee's Army;) and Surgeon-General of the State of North Carolina.

        Two of these positions were conferred upon him on the field of battle as rewards for personal courage and professional work. At the battle of New Berne, although at that time on medical board duty at Goldsborough, Dr. Warren volunteered his services and remained under fire with the wounded, under circumstances of peculiar difficulty and danger. For this he was made Medical Director of the Department of Cape Fear.

        Upon the battle-field of Mechanicsville, in 1862, while again acting as volunteer surgeon, he was verbally appointed by Gen. Lee, Medical Director of the Army of Northern Virginia; but knowing that Surgeon Guild, who ranked him, was but a few rods distant, Dr. Warren called the General's attention to the fact, and Surgeon Guild was made Medical Director, and upon his immediate suggestion Dr Warren was retained as Medical Inspector.

        By a special act of the Legislature of North Carolina his rank as chief medical officer of the State was raised from that of "Colonel" to that of "Brigadier-General;" for "devoted and efficient services rendered to the sick and wounded." He was also chosen by the Legislature one of the Trustees of the University of North Carolina.

        During the war he wrote a work entitled "Surgery for Field and Hospital," which passed through two editions. Among many other valuable suggestions which this book contained, was that for the treatment of "retracting flaps and conical stump," by means of extension with "adhesive strap, with cord and weight"--a procedure which is now very widely adopted, and the origination of which, after much discussion in the journals, both at home and abroad, has been finally conceded to Dr. Warren.

        This method was put into practical operation in the hospital of the University of Virginia, as early as August, 1861, whereas Dr. Hodges, of St. Louis, who alone seriously disputed the priority, finally and very courteously acknowledged Dr. Warren's claim, stating that his own first use of the method was in 1863.

        Subsequently, in a controversy conducted in the London Lancet, the claims were again settled in Dr. Warren's favor, by the publication of an extract upon the subject taken from the book which had been published during the war.

        In the summer of 1865, Dr. Warren returned to Baltimore, ruined in fortune by the results of the war, and expecting to resume his Professorship in the University of Maryland. A refusal to return the chair to Dr. Warren furnished sufficient ground for legal proceedings by mandamus or quo warranto,but in view of the ruined fortunes of the contestants and of the financial and social influence of the Faculty, the suit promised to be a protracted one,


Page li

and as the practical benefits to be gained in the event of success were so small, it was concluded not to resort to the Courts but to leave the issue to public opinion, which it was thought fully sustained Dr. Warren.

        Then came one of the most brilliant efforts in the life of the subject of our sketch. Under his direction the Washington University Medical School was revived, rising like a phoenix, putting itself at once on a plane with the old University, which in the effort to maintain its lead made fundamental changes in its management and in the personnel of its Faculty.

        Dr. Warren filled the chair of Surgery in the Washington College with great brilliancy, and became the idol of the large number of students who resorted annually to the school.

        When a law was passed creating a board for the examination and registration of the physicians of the State, he was made a member of it. He was also elected Vice-President of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Maryland. In 1868 he established The Medical Bulletin--a journal which obtained an extensive circulation.

        In 1872 he appeared as principal medical expert for the defense in the celebrated Wharton trial. The circumstances of this trial were full of absorbing interest, it being characterized by great divergence of professional opinion among the physicians and chemists engaged in it.

        General Ketchum was an eccentric old bachelor who died in the house of his friend, Mrs. Wharton, a lady of wealth and high social position. He was attended during his short illness by a physician whose line of treatment was somewhat varied, but who, although he did not arrive at a positive diagnosis, for some cause requested that an autopsy should be permitted. A thorough examination was not made of the rachidean and cranial cavities, and some of the abdominal viscera was submitted to an antiquated chemist, who, after a very slovenly analysis, pronounced the presence of antimony, and upon this an indictment was found against Mrs. Wharton. Dr. Warren was then requested, "in the interest of truth and justice," to examine the medical testimony taken by the grand jury, and he promptly declared that the symptoms described by the attending physicians and nurses were more typical of a certain form of cerebro-spinal meningitis than of antimonial poisoning. Resting upon this, and upon the evidence of the insufficiency of the chemical analysis, the defense went to trial, with the result of a prompt verdict in favor of the accused.

        Dr. Warren acquitted himself with great distinction on the witness stand, receiving congratulations and moral support from a host of medical men both at home and abroad; and although he had opposed to him a number of gentlemen of recognized professional ability, it was conceded on all sides that he came off with the advantage, his testimony--which was brilliant in the opportunity for retorts afforded by the cross-examination--losing none of its force from the assaults of the experts for the prosecution. This is fully borne out by letters and telegrams spontaneously sent to Dr. Warren, after the trial, by Dr. Fordyce Barker, of New York, Dr. Stevenson, of London, and many other prominent medical men, and even by the Hon. A. K. Syester, Attorney-General for the State of Maryland, who personally conducted the prosecution of the case. Support, so unsolicited, and from such unbiassed sources, speaks volumes for the acumen and ability of Dr. Warren. Those from the medical men are all uniform in declaring that Gen. Ketchum's symptoms could not have been caused by tartar emetic, but more resembled those of cerebrospinal meningitis; and the letters received from chemists declare that the chemical evidence for the State utterly "broke down.


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While the limits of this sketch do not permit the publication of these communications, it seems appropriate to reproduce the following extract from a letter from Professor Fordyce Barker, who is so favorably known for his high personal character and great professional learning and ability:

        "In all my long experience I have never met with anything which displayed more thorough research and sounder logical reasoning than the testimony which you have just given in the Wharton-Ketchum case; and I am sure that intelligent, thinking men, both in and out of the profession, will agree with me in this opinion. When I read the evidence given by the medical attendants during the sickness of General Ketchum, I said that it was absurd to ascribe his death to poisoning from Tart: Antimonii. I came to the conclusion, some days before you gave your testimony, that he died of cerebro-spinal meningitis, and expressed that conviction whenever the case was the subject of conversation."


        One incident in this case attracted a good deal of attention and brought many compliments from the daily press: it was a rencountre between the Attorney-General, Mr. Syester, and the witness, and is given here as extracted from the phonographical reports in the New York newspapers:

        Attorney-General.--"Where will this lead to, Dr. Warren?"

        Doctor Warren.--"It is impossible to tell, as the hypothesis itself is absurd."

        Attorney-General.--" But you medical men ought to know all about these medical matters."

        Doctor Warren.--"We know, at least, as much about these medical matters as you lawyers."

        Attorney-General.--(Springing from his seat, and with great emphasis.) "But you doctors have the advantage of us; you bury your mistakes under the earth."

        Doctor Warren.--"Yes, but you lawyers hang your mistakes in the air."

        This reply "brought down the house" to such an extent that the judges had to adjourn Court for a quarter of an hour so as to give the officers an opportunity to restore order.

        In attestation of the impression made upon the Attorney-General, the following letter was written by that gentleman to Dr. Warren upon the eve of his departure for Egypt, a short time after the trial:

From the Attorney-General of the State of Maryland.

State of Maryland,
Office of Attorney-General.
HAGERSTOWN, March 25, 1873.

        MY DEAR DOCTOR:--I cannot describe the unfeigned regret I experience in your loss to us all, especially to me; for although I have not seen and been with you as much as I desired--I always looked forward with pleasure to sometime when our engagements would permit a closer acquaintance, and become warmed into a firmer and more fervid friendship. I dare not indulge the hope of hearing from you in your new position, but not many things would prove more agreeable to me. Present my compliments to your wife. That you and she may ever be contented and happy in life, that you may be as prosperous as your great talent and unequalled acquirements so richly deserve, is the earnest hope of

Your humble, but undeviating friend,

A. K. SYESTER.


        In 1872, Dr. Warren was chosen Chairman of the Section of Surgery of the American Medical Association, and presented to that body a new "Splint for Fractures of the Clavical," which attracted much attention, and really is an apparatus of great utility. Whilst it retains the fragments in opposition and gives no inconvenience to the patient, it permits all the normal movements of the forearm. Having retired from the faculty of the Washington University, he then devoted himself to the organization of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, which has finally absorbed the former, and attracts classes as large as those of any school in Baltimore. The institution has wisely retained Dr. Warren's name at the head of the list of Professors, as Emeritus Professor of Surgery.

        Having become dissatisfied in Baltimore on account of a severe domestic affliction, he determined to remove elsewhere. His first idea was to procure a professorship in the University of a neighboring city, and with that end in view he presented to its Faculty, testimonials of recommendation from a number of the


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most prominent physicians in the United States. Among the letters sent to the Doctor for use in this connection, there were several, which, from the distinguished reputation of their authors, and the enthusiastic manner in which they indorsed Dr. Warren, seem especially to deserve a reproduction here--space will, however, only permit the publication of the following:--

From Professor S. D. Gross.

PHILADELPHIA May 8th, 1872.

        My Dear Dr. Warren:--It is difficult for me to say anything respecting one who is so well known throughout the country as a gentleman, a practitioner, and a teacher of medicine. Any medical school ought, I am sure, to be proud to give you a place in its Faculty. As a teacher of surgery--off-hand, ready, and even brilliant--there is no one in the country that surpasses you. As an operator and a general-practitioner, your ability has long been everywhere recognized. Your success as a popular lecturer has been remarkably great. As a journalist you have wielded a ready and graceful pen. Some of your operations reflect great credit upon your judgment and skill. Of your moral character, I have never heard anything but what was good and honorable.

        I hope with all my heart you may obtain a position in one of the New York Schools. Your great popularity in the Southern States could not fail to be of service in drawing Southern Students. My only regret is that we have no place to offer you in Philadelphia.

        Wishing you every possible success, I am, dear doctor, very truly your friend.

S. D. GROSS,
Professor of Surgery, Jefferson Medical College.


        Professor Edward Warren,

        Baltimore, Md.

From Professor Hunter McGuire.

RICHMOND VA., May 10th, 1872.

        Gentlemen:--I beg leave to state that Dr. Warren enjoys a most enviable reputation both as a physician and as a gentleman, and from all I know and have heard of him, I have no doubt he would prove a most valuable addition to any college. Dr. Warren held a prominent position in the Medical Department of the Confederate Army, and enjoyed the respect and confidence of all who associated with him. He has recently resigned the chair in one of the medical schools of Baltimore. He filled this chair with great ability and attracted to the school a large number of students, especially from his native State, North Carolina.

Very respectfully, etc.,

HUNTER McGUIRE, M. D.
Professor of Surgery, Medical College of Virginia.


        To the Trustees of the

        University of New York.

From Hon. E. J. Henkle.

BALTIMORE May 15th, 1872.

        Dear Sir:--I have been informed that my friend, Prof. Edward Warren, recently Professor of Surgery in the Washington University in this place, is an applicant for the same position in the University of New York.

        I have known Dr. Warren for many years past; first, previous to the war, when Professor of Materia Medica in the University of Maryland, which position to my personal knowledge, he filled in a most acceptable manner to both faculty and students.

        Since the war and the reorganization of the Washington University, he has resided in Baltimore and filled the Chair of Surgery. In the capacity of President of the Board of Trustees of that Institution, I have been thrown in frequent and intimate intercourse with him, and I take pleasure in testifying to his great zeal and ability, and to his success as a lecturer and teacher. Dr. Warren has always been regarded in Baltimore as a most popular and efficient lecturer, exceedingly popular with the students, and untiring in his efforts to promote the success of the institution with which he has been identified. I have no doubt that the University of New York would be most fortunate in securing his valuable services.

Very truly yours,

E. J. HENKLE,
President of the Board of Trustees of
Washington University, M. D.


        Prof. Henry Draper, New York City.

From Professor W. H. McGuffey, of the University of
Virginia.

U. OF VA., May 18th, 1872.

TO THE FACULTY OF THE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL
COLLEGE OF NEW YORK.

        Gentlemen:--It gives me great pleasure to recommend to your favorable consideration Dr. Edward Warren.

        I have known Dr. Warren from his boyhood, and can testify to his excellent character, fine talents, indominitable perseverence in the pursuit of knowledge and the discharge of professional duty.

        Dr. Warren's attainments are of a high order in genuine scholarship. He made unusual proficiency in Moral Philosophy, and graduated also with distinction in other schools in the University, Va.

        Of his professional attainments I am not competent to judge, but I know that he has been successful when competition was intense, and I learn from others, competent to judge, that he has every qualification to ensure success in the Chair of Surgery, and the place which I learn he seeks in your institution.

Very respectfully, &c.,

W. H. McGUFFEY,
Prof. Moral Philosophy, U. of Va.


        Unfortunately no vacancy existed at the time, and his efforts in this regard proved abortive In 1873 he accepted a position in the service of the Khèdive and removed to Egypt, having been urgently recommended for it by General R. E. Lee, General Sherman, General G. W. Smith, General Hancock, Governor Z. B. Vance, Hon. M. C. Butler, General Gary, and other leading gentlemen in the United States.

        As soon as the President of the American Medical Association heard of his intended departure,


Page liv

he sent him a commission as a Delegate to all the Medical Societies of Europe; Drs. Gross, Pancoast and other prominent American physicians gave him kind and most flattering letters of introduction to the leading medical men in Europe; and on the evening before he left Baltimore, a number of its first citizens tendered him a public dinner at Barnums' which was one of the most successful and brilliant affairs of its kind that ever came off in that city.

        His career in Egypt, though rendered brief by an attack of opthalmia, was signally brilliant.

        Having been appointed Chief Surgeon of the General Staff, he soon had an opportunity of treating successfully the Minister of War for strangulated hernia, who immediately officially requested the Khédive to honor Dr. Warren with the Decoration of the Medjdié and the title of Bey--which, when conferred, as it was in this instance, by royal charter, ennobles its possessor and his family; and in less than a year from his arrival in the country, he succeeded in reaching the highest medical position known in the service of the Khédive, that of Surgeon in Chief of the Egyptian Army.

        The incident connected with his treatment of Kassim Pasha, who was the Minister of War, shows so well the moral force which enabled Dr. Warren to perform his duty in the face of discouraging circumstances, and serves to illustrate in such an interesting way, certain phases of his life in Egypt, that it is given in full as related by the doctor.

        "Kassim Pasha was over 60 years old, and very fat, and had direct inguinal hernia, which the surgeons of Cairo failed to reduce after laboring over it three days. After he had been abandoned to die and the preparations for his funeral were progressing, I was permitted to see the case. Finding that stercoraceous vomiting had just begun, and persuaded that the profound depression which others mistook for the effects of the disease, was mainly due to the injections of an infusion of tobacco which they had employed to induce relaxation. I declared the case not a hopeless one and undertook to treat it. Having stimulated the Pasha freely with brandy and water--which the natives consider unholy treatment--I had the gratification of seeing some reaction established; and determined to administer chloroform, and either to reduce the tumor by taxis, or to perform herniotomy, if necessary. I found however, very great difficulty in getting any medical man to assist me. They all retired and said that they would have 'nothing to do with the murder of the Pasha.' The Harem, through its representative, the Chief Eunuch, declared that I should not proceed until the private physician of the Khèdive--a Frenchman--had given his consent. He was accordingly sent for and asked what he thought of the measure which I proposed. He replied that he believed the Pasha would die inevitably, but he was in favor of permitting me to proceed, as every man was entitled to his chance. I then requested him to aid me to the extent of administering chloroform. This he agreed to do on condition that I would assume all the responsibility of the case, and give him time to dispatch a messenger to the Khédive, informing him upon what terms he had consented to aid me. In the presence of all the principal Pashas and Beys of the country, and the highest officials of the Court, the Minister was removed from his bed and placed upon a mattress in the middle of the room. None of the female portion of the household were present; but they were represented by the Chief Eunuch, who stood at the feet of the invalid, shouting Allah!Allah!!Allah!!! whilst from the latticed Harem in the rear there came continually that peculiar wail which seems to form the principal feature in the mourning of the East. With the exception of the French physician, above referred to, all the surgeons had deserted the chamber, and stood in the little garden outside of the house, some praying that the sick man might be saved, but the majority cursing the stranger who had the temerity to undertake that which they had pronounced impossible.

        "At this moment the Chief of the Staff took me aside and said: 'Dr. Warren, consider well what you are undertaking; success means honor and fortune in this country, whilst failure means ruin to you and injury to those who are identified with you.' I replied: 'I thank you for your caution; but I was taught by my father to disregard all personal considerations in the practice of medicine and to think only of the interests of my patients. I shall therefore do what my professional duty requires for the sick man and let the consequences take care of themselves.' Having made all the preperations necessary to perform herniotomy, should that operation become necessary, I boldly administered chloroform, although the patient was still in a state of great depression. To my delight anæthesia was promptly developed, while the circulation improved with every inspiration--just as I have seen it improve in some cases of shock upon the battlefield. Confiding then the administration of the chloroform to the French physician, above referred to, I proceeded to examine the tumor and attempt its reduction. I found an immense hydrocele and by the side of it a hernia of no unusual dimensions--which by rather a forcible manipulation I completely reduced, after a few moments of effort. By this time the surgeons, unable to restrain their curiosity, had entered the room and crowded around me, anxiously awaiting the failure which they had so blatantly predicted. Turning to Mehemet-Ali-Bey--the Professor of Surgery in the Medical School of Cairo--I said to him: 'The hernia is reduced, as you can see by pushing your finger into the external ring.' 'Excuse me,' said he, in the most supercilious manner, 'you have undertaken to cure Kassim Pasha and I can give you no help in the matter.' My French friend immediately introduced his finger into the ring and said: 'Gentlemen, he needs no help from anyone; the hernia is reduced and the Pasha is saved.' The doctors slunk away utterly discomfitted; the Eunuchs, Pashas, Beys,


Page lv

and officers uttered loud cries of 'Hamdallah!Hamdallah!!Kismet!Kismet!!Kismet!!!' (Thank God! Thank God!! It is fate! It it fate!!) and the Harem in the rear, catching the inspiration of the scene, sent up a shout of joy which sounded like the war-hoop of a whole tribe of Indians. In a moment I was seized by the Chief Eunuch, embraced in the most impressive manner and kissed upon either cheek--an example which was immediately followed by a number of those present;--and I found myself suddenly the most famous man in the country. The Pasha at once had a letter addressed to the Khédive narrating what I had done for him, and asking that I might be decorated and made a Bey. His Highness sent for me, thanked me warmly for having saved the life of his favorite Minister, and said he was happy to honor one who had done so well for him; the Harem of the patient presented me with a beautiful gold watch and chain; my house was thronged afterwards with the highest dignitaries of the country who came to thank and congratulate me; and I immediately secured an immense practice among the natives--including nearly every incurable case in Cairo.


        The spectacle of a stranger in a strange land without support, undertaking duties which had deen declined by others, and boldly pushing forward, in spite of the jealous mutterings which fell upon his ears, has something of true sublimity in it, and should make us appreciate the benignant nature of that moral and ethical code under whose guidance the subject of our sketch acquired that devotion to duty which enabled him to dare and do. For, behold the alternative, which, surely, he must have recognised:-had he failed, and had the Pasha died, his audacity would have wrought his ruin, and he would have been driven from the land in disgrace.

        As it was, however this signal triumph resulted in Dr. Warren being made the "Chief Surgeon of the Egyptian Army." Colonel William McE. C. Dye-formely an officer in the United States Army and late a Colonel of the Egyptian Staff-- in his interesting book entitled, "Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia," refers in the following terms to Dr. Warren's career in Egypt: "Dr. Edward Warren, Chief Surgeon of the Staff, by performing a surgical operation on the Minister of War for a complaint that had baffled the skill and courage of the other Cairo surgeons, and by his energy in the erection of hospitals and his faithful discharge of other duties, established a reputation which soon lifted him into place as Surgeon-in-Chief of the Army;" and the London Lancet chronicled his success and advancement in these terms: "We understand that M. Edward Warren of Cairo has been promoted by his Highness the Khedive of Egypt to the position of Chief Surgeon of the Egyptian Army. Mr. Warren's promotion in the East has been exceptionally rapid."

        In 1875, having obtained a furlough for six months, he visited Paris for the purpose of securing proper treatment for his eyes, and, on being informed by the leading occulists that a longer residence in Egypt would involve the loss of his left eye, he obtained an honorable discharge from the service of the Khedive who, in view of the services which Dr. Warren had rendered in Egypt, treated him with great consideration and kindness.

        Through the influence of his own well-established reputation, aided by the cordial endorsement of his friends, Drs. Charcot and Ricord, of Paris; Sir James Paget, Alfred, Swain Taylor, and Dr. Stevenson, of London; Drs. Fordyce Barker and J. J. Crane, of New York; Professors Gross and Pancoast, of Philadelphia, he was soon able to commence the practice of medicine in Paris as a Licentiate of the University of France, a very great compliment in itself, and one rarely paid to a foreigner.

        Dr. Warren's success in Paris has been exceptionally rapid and brilliant. Practice and honors have flowed in an unbroken stream upon him. Foreigners of all nationlaities and of the highest titles have been as ready to avail themselves of his professional skill as have been his fellow-countrymen. The London Lancet promptly secured him as its "Special Correspondent." The Ottoman Government confided to him the delicate task of selecting surgeons and raising contributions for


Page lvi

the wounded in the recent war with Russia. He received a special invitation to participate in the International Medical Congress which recently assembled in Philadelphia, being the only American residing abroad who was thus honored. The College of Physcians and Surgeons of Baltimore made him a Master of Surgery at a late commencement. The Governor of North Carolina made him a "Special Commissioner" to the Paris Exposition; while the Commissioner-General of the United States appointed him the Medical Officer of his Commission, and the French Government awarded him a "medal of merit" for the services which he rendered in these regards. The Spanish Goverment, in 1877, created him a Knight of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, as a reward for the professional skill displayed in the successful treatment of a Spaniard of high position. The French Government, in 1879, created him a Chevalier of the National Order of the Legion of Honor, as a special mark of distinction for his professional devotion and work in France. The Egyptian Government, in 1882, made him a "Commander of the Imperial Order of the Osmanlie," for "valuable and important services rendered in Egypt and for great Medical skill displayed in Paris." He has recently been made an Officer of the Order of the redemption of the Holy Sepulchre, an Officer of the Royal Order of the Samaritan of Geneva--all as rewards for professional services and successes. He was also selected by the American Medical Association as one of its delegates to the International Medical Congress which recently assembled in London and has been made a member of the Historical Society of Virginia and of the American Institute of Christian Philosophy, respectively, and the University of North Carolina at the last Commencement, conferred upon him the title of Doctor of Laws (LL. D.)

        The followiug letter announces the accession of this honor.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA,
CHAPEL HILL, N. C., June 20th 1884.

DR. EDWARD WARREN (BEY).

        SIR:--In recognition of your distinguished ability and learning, and services to humanity, the Board of Trustees and the Faculty of the University of North Carolina have unanimously conferred on you the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. [LL. D.]

        They hope that you will accept this evidence of the regard of the University of your native State.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant.

KEMP P. BATTLE, President


        While space does not permit the publication in this connection of the multitudinous essays, reports, lectures, letters, addresses, etc., which have emanated from his prolific pen and active brain, enough has been said of Dr. Warren to justify the statement with which a distinguished American surgeon (Professor S. D. Gross, of Philadelphia) concludes a letter in regard to him--viz.: "from these facts it is plain that he (Dr. Warren) has performed a great deal of work, that he is a man of indomitable energy; that he possesses great and varied talents; and that he has enjoyed a large share of professional and public confidence." Surely, no North Carolinian has had a more brilliant and remarkable record, or one which the State has a greater right to regard with pride and admiration.

        Dr. Warren's general culture and his great literary ability are widely known. His prose writings are lucid and chaste, though sufficiently ornate to be very attractive. His farflights into the domain of poesy attest a rich imagination, and considerable knowledge of rhythm and versification.

        In politics the Warren family were old line Whigs, and the Doctor's affiliation brought him into intimate relations with North Carolina's great war Governor, Zebulon B. Vance, which time has only served to ripen into an affectionate and enduring friendship.


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THE BLOUNT FAMILY
Genealogy of the Blount Family.*

        * To be read in connection with pages 130-132.


        

Illustration

James Blount

        The late Gov. Henry T. Clark considered this the oldest of North Carolina families. No family, he believed, whose name is still extant as a family-name in North Carolina, came into the Province so early as James Blount, who settled in Chowan in 1669. This James Blount is said to have been a younger son of Sir Walter Blount, of Sodington, Worcestershire, England, and a Captain in Charles I's Life Guards. His Coat of Arms engraved on a copper plate, which he brought with him, was in the possession of his descendants until about the year 1840, when it was destroyed by its possessor, the late James B. Shepard of Raleigh. A cut of it is given above, taken from an impression of the original plate.

        For convenience, the family may be divided into two branches; the descendants of James, the Chowan Blounts, and the descendants of his younger brother who settled about Chocowinity in Beaufort County, the Taw River Blounts. The latter is much the more numerous branch of the family, and has become too extensively spread throughout the Southern and South-Western States, to be fully traced here. This brief genealogy is complied chiefly from the family Bible of the Edenton family of Blounts, and from a Manuscript by the late Thomas H. Blount of Beaufort, and is as accurate as such accounts can ordinarily be made.

THE CHOWAN BLOUNTS.

        James Blount, who settled in Chowan in 1669, on a tract of land which remained in the possession of his descendants until the death of Clement Hall Blount in 1842, was a man of some prominence in his day. He is spoken of in contemporary documents as a member of the Governor's Council, as one of the Burgesses of Chowan, and as a leading character in the infant and very disorderly Colony. He left one son, John.

        This John Blount (I) born 1669: died 1725,


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left ten children, six daughters and four sons. Three of the daughters married and left descendants in Hyde County and about Roanoke Island. They are the Worleys, Midgets and Manns. The sons were--

        I. John (II) born 1706, married and left three sons and two daughters:

        (a) James Blount, who married Ann Hall and and left three children: Clement Hall Blount (died unmarried in 1842); Sarah, left no issue; and Frederick Blount, his eldest son who married Rachel Bryan, (nee Herritage) and left among others, Frederick S. Blount, who moved to Alabama and became the father of a large family, Alexander Clement Blount, and Herritage Wistar Blount of Lenoir County.

        (b) Wilson Blount.

        (c) Fredrick Blount, whose daughter Mary (died 1856) married Wm. Shepard of New Berne and bore him Wm. B., Charles B., and James B. Shepard, Mrs. John H. Bryan, of Raleigh, Mrs. Ebenezer Pettigrew, and several others.

        (d) Elizabeth, married J. B. Beasley.

        (e) Mary married Rev. Charles Pettigrew 1st Bishop (elect) of N. C. and left two sons, one of whom, Ebenezer became a member of Congress; married Ann Shepard of New Berne, and left several children: the Rev. William S. Pettigrew, General James Johnston Pettigrew, Charles L. Pettigrew and two daughters.

        II. Thomas born 1709, left one daughter Winifred, who married Hon. Whitmel Hill of Martin. Among their numerous descendants are Thomas Blount Hill Esq. of Hillsboro' and the family of the late Whitmel J. Hill of Scotland Neck.

        III. James, born 1710, left two daughters; (a) Nancy married Dempsey Connor (son of Dempsey Connor and Mary Pendleton, great-granddaughter of Governor Archdale) and left one daughter Frances Clark Pollock Connor, married 1st, Joseph Blount (III) and 2nd, Wm. Hill, late Secretary of State of North Carolina; and (b) Betsy who was married to Jeremiah Vail.

        IV. Joseph (I) born 1715, died 1777, who married 1st, Sarah Durant, born 1718, died 1751, (a descendant of George Durant, the first known English settler in N. C.) and left only one child Sarah, (born 1747, died 1807,) who married in 1771, William Littlejohn, by whom she became the mother of a large family, well known in this and other Southern States. After the death of his first wife, Joseph Blount(I)married, (1752) Elizabeth Scarboro, by whom he had(besides one son, Lemuel Edwards, drowned at sea in 1778) one son:

        Joseph Blount (II) born 1755, died 1794, who married 1st, (1775) Lydia Bonner, and left two children:

        (a) John Bonner Blount, born 1777, married Mary Mutter: they were the parents of Thomas M. Blount, late of Washington city (whose son, Maj. Thomas M. Blount was killed at Malvern Hill), of Mrs. Thomas H. Blount, Mrs. Henry Hoyt and Mrs. James Treadwell of Washington N. C. and of Mrs. Henry M. Daniel, of Tenn. His sons Joseph and John died without issue.

        (b) Mary born 1779, married William T. Muse, and had two sons, (I) William T. Muse, late of the U. S. and C. S. Navy, who married and left issue; (2) John B. Muse, died unmarried.

        For a second wife Joseph Blount (II) in 1782, married Ann Gray (born 1757, died 1814,) daughter of Wm. Gray of Bertie, and left issue.

        (c) Joseph Blount (III) born 1785, died 1822, who married (1808) Frances Clark Pollock Connor, and left one son Joseph Blount (IV) who died unmarried.

        (d) Frances Lee married Henderson Standin, left one son, William H. Standin.


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        (e) Sarah Elizabeth married Thomas Morgan but left no issue.

        (f) Elizabeth Ann, (born 1790, died 1869,) married in (1812) John Cheshire (born 1769, died 1830,) and left issue the Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, D. D., Mrs. E. D. Macnair, of Tawboro, and Mrs. James Webb of Hillsboro.

        (g) Eleanor Gray, married John Cox, left one daughter, Ann B. P., married Willie J. Epps of Halifax.

THE TAW RIVER BLOUNTS.

        A younger brother of James Blount of Chowan, is thought to have settled on Taw or Pamplico River about 1673. He left six sons Thomas, John, James, Benjamin, Jacob and Esau, the last two being twins. The Tuscarora Chief, King Blount, a valuable ally of the whites in the Indian war of 1711, is said to have assumed that name from his attachment to one of these brothers. Nothing is known definitely of the descendants of any of the six, except the eldest, Thomas.

        This Thomas Blount married Ann Reading and left four sons, Reading, James, John and Jacob. All of these left families, and from them are descended, no doubt, many persons of this name in Beaufort and the adjacent Counties; but we can trace the descendants of the last named only.

        Jacob Blount (born 1726, died 1789) was an officer under Gov. Tryon in the battle of Alamance; a member of the Assembly frequently, and of the Halifax Congress of 1776; married 1st, (1748) Barbara Gray, of Bertie, sister to William Gray, mentioned in the genealogy of the Chowan Blounts; 2nd, Mrs. Hannah; Baker (nee Salter); 3rd, Mrs. Mary Adams. By his last wife he had no children; by his wife, Barbara Gray, he left among others--

        I. William Blount, born 1749, died 1800.

        II. John Gray Blount, born 1752, died 1833.

        III. Reading Blount, born 1757, died 1807.

        IV. Thomas Blount, born 1759, died 1812;

        V. Jacob Blount, born 1760, died --. By his wife, Hannah Salter, he left:

        VI. Willie Blount, born 1768, died 1835.

        VII. Sharp Blount, born 1771, died 1810.

        Of these William, John Gray, Reading Thomas and Willie became prominent and distinguished men; among the most eminent in North Carolina and Tennessee for their high talents, public spirit, enterprise and wealth. Their marriages and descendants were as follows:

        I. William Blount, (born 1749, died 1800,) a Member of Congress in 1782 and 1786; of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, was defeated for the U. S. Senate by Benjamin Hawkins, on the adoption of the Federal Constitution in 1789; appointed by Washington in 1790 Governor of the Territory south of the Ohio; removed to Tennessee and founded the city of Knoxville; was chosen one of the first Senators from Tennessee. In 1797, he was expelled by a vote of the Senate, and subsequently impeached by the House of Representatives, for alleged treasonable practices in endeavoring to incite the Indian tribes on our Southwestern frontier to hostilities against Spain. The articles of impeachment were after argument quashed in the Senate. On his return to Knoxville the Speaker of the State Senate resigned, and William Blount was unanimously chosen by the people to succeed him in the Senate, and by that body to succeed him in the Chair, as an expression of popular confidence and affection. His death early in the year 1800, alone prevented him from being elected Governor of Tennessee. He married (1778) Mary Grainger, daughter of Col. Caleb Grainger, of Wilmington, and left issue:

        I. Ann married 1st, Henry I. Toole (II) of Edgecombe, to whom she bore Henry I. Toole (III), and Mary Eliza, married Dr. Joseph Lawrence: she married 2nd, Weeks Hadley, of


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Edgecombe, by whom she had several children.

        2. Mary Louisa, married (1801) Pleasant M. Miller and left a large family; one of her daughters, Barbara, married Hon. Wm. H. Stephens, late of Memphis, now of Los Angelos, California.

        3. William Grainger Blount, member of Congress from Tennessee; he died unmarried in 1827.

        4. Richard Blackledge Blount, married and left children in Tennessee.

        5. Barbara married Gen. E. P. Gaines, left one son, Edmund Gaines of Washington city, D. C.

        6. Eliza married Dr. Edwin Wiatt and left two sons and one daughter.

        II. John Gray Blount (I), born 1752, died 1833, in his youth a companion of Daniel Boone in the early explorations of Kentucky, but settled permanently in Washington, N. C. He was frequently a member of the Assembly, and though not ambitious of political office, probably the most influential man in his section of the State. He is said to have been the largest land-owner in North Carolina. He married (1778), Mary Harvey, daughter of Col. Miles Harvey of Perquimans, and left issue:

        1. Thomas Harvey Blount, (born 1781, died 1850,) who married 1st: (1810) Ellen Brown, by whom he had no children, 2nd. (1827) Elizabeth M. daughter of Jno. Bonner Blount, of Edenton, and left issue, three sons and three daughters: Elizabeth M. (Geer), Polly Ann (Hatton), John Gray Blount (III), Mary Bonner (Willard), Thomas Harvey Blount and Dr. Wm. Augustus Blount.

        2. John Gray Blount (II), born 1785, died 1828, married Sally Haywood but left no issue.

        3. Polly Ann, (born 1787, died 1821,) married Wm. Rodman and left issue: William Blount Rodman, late a Judge of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, Mary Marcia Blount, and Mary Olivia Blount who married J. G. B. Myers.

        4. William Augustus Blount, married 1st Nancy Haywood and 2nd Nancy Littlejohn: For him and his family see post, page 11, under Beaufort County.

        5. Lucy Olivia (born 1799, died 1854,) married Bryan Grimes, and left, issue: Mary, Annie, Olivia, and John Gray Blount Grimes.

        6. Patsy Baker, born 1802, still living unmarried.

        III. Reading Blount, (born 1757, died 1807,) a Major in the Revolutionary War; married Lucy Harvey, daughter of Col. Miles Harvey, and left five children:

        1. Polly who married John Myers and left a large family in Washington, N. C.

        2. Louisa, married Jos. W. Worthington, of Maryland.

        3. Willie Blount, married Delia Blakemore of Tennessee.

        4. Caroline Jones, married Benjamin Runyan.

        5. Reading Blount, married Polly Ann Clark, and left one son, Reading Blount.

        IV. Thomas Blount (born 1759, died 1812), an officer of distinction in the Revolution, Major in Col. Buncombe's Regiment. Settled at Tawboro; was frequently a member of the Assembly from Edgecombe; a member of Congress for several sessions, and died in Washington City in 1812. He married 1st Patsy Baker; 2nd Jacky Summer (afterwards known as Mrs. Mary Sumner Blount) daughter of Gen. Jethro Sumner of Warren. He had no children by either marriage.

        V. Jacob Blount, (born 1760 died--,) married 1st (1789) Ann Collins, daughter of Josiah Collins of Edenton, by whom he had two daughters, (a) Ann; and (b) Elizabeth, who married Jno. W. Littlejohn, of Edenton. He afterwards married Mrs. Augustus Harvey;


Page lxi

but had no children by the second marriage.

        VI. Willie Blount (born 1768: died 1835); went to Tennessee in 1790 as private Secretary to his eldest brother Gov. William Blount; was elected Judge of the Supreme Court in 1796; Governor from 1809 to 1815. He raised on his private credit the money with which to equip the three Tennessee regiments sent under Andrew Jackson to the defense of New Orleans during the war of 1812. In recognition of his eminent public services, the State of Tennessee in 1877 erected a monument to his memory in Clarksville, Tennessee. He married Lucinda Baker, and left two daughters, Mrs. Dabney and Mrs. Dortch, of Tennessee. For his second wife he married the widow of Judge Hugh Lawson White.

        VII. Sharp Blount (born 1771; died 1810,) married Penelope Little, daughter of Col. George Little of Hertford, and left three sons: (a) William Little Blount, (b) Jacob Blount, (c) George Little Blount. The first two died without issue. George Little Blount married a Miss Cannon of Pitt, and resided at Blount Hall in Pitt County, the seat of his grandfather Jacob Blount.

        It has been impossible to give more than a summary of the genealogy of this extensive family. It is hoped that the above is sufficient to enable any one to trace the connections of its principal branches.

        It may be added that William and Willie Blount were both, in all probability, born at Blount Hall in Pitt County, and not in Bertie, as is sometimes stated, and as is inscribed on the monument erected by the State of Tennessee to the memory of the latter. There is no reason to suppose that their father, Jacob Blount, ever lived in Bertie. Also the story of the absurd inscription on the stone on Mrs. Mary Sumner Blount's grave in Tawboro, is entirely untrue.

Genealogy of the Barringer Family.

        John Paul Barringer, born in Germany 1721, came to America 1743; settled in Pennsylvania, where he married (1) Ann Elizabeth Iseman called Ain lis; came to Mecklenburg Co. N. C. about 1746, and there married (2) Catherine Blackwelder. He died in 1807.

        Issue: I. Catherine married 1st to John Phifer, one of the signers of (20th of May 1775) Declaration of Independence: Issue (a) Paul, who married Jane Alexander and had George, Martin, John N., Nelson and Caleb; (b) Margaret married to John Simianer; she (Catherine) married a second time to George Savage and had (a) Catherine, who married Noah Partee, and Mary, who married Richard Harris.

        II. John (Mt. Pleasant family.)

        III. Paul, born 1778, died 1844; married Eliz abeth Brandon, born 1783, died 1844; issue: (a) Daniel Moreau, born 1806, died 1873; in legislature 1829 to '34; '39, '54; Member of Congress 1843 to 1849; U. S. Envoy to Spain, 1849; in Peace Congress of 1861; married Elizabeth Withered, of Baltimore, and had (1) Lewin, born 1850; University of Virginia; married Miss Miles; (2) Daniel M., born 1860; (b) Margaret, married 1st to John Boyd; 2nd to Andrew Grier; (c) Paul, married Carson; (d) Mary, married C. W. Harris; (e) Matthew; (f) William, married Alston, and had John, Paul, William, Charles, Victor and Ella; (g) Elizabeth,


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married Edwin R. Harris; (h) Alfred; (i) Rufus, Brig. Gen. C. S. A., married 1st Eugenia Morrison, and had Anna and Paul; 2nd, Rosalie Chunn, and had Rufus; 3rd, Margaret Long, and had Osmond; (k) Catherine, married Gen. W. C. Means. Issue: Paul, Robert, James, William, Bettie, George and Victor; (l) Victor, legislature of 1860; Judge of International Court in Egypt; married Maria Massie.

        IV. Matthias; V. Martin; VI. Elizabeth, married to 1st, George Pitts; 2nd, to John Boon, of Guilford; VII. Sarah, married to Jacob Brem, of Lincolnton; VIII. Esther, married to Thomas Clarke, of Tennessee; IX. Daniel L. Barringer, born 1788; died 1852; legislature 1813-'19-'23; in Congress 1826 to 1835; married Miss ---- White, granddaughter of Governor Caswell; removed to Tennessee, and was Speaker of the House; X. Jacob, married Mary Ury; XI. Leah, married 1st David Holton, 2nd Jacob Smith; XII. Mary, married to Wesley Harris, of Tennessee.

Genealogy of the Clark Family.

        Christopher Clark, a sea-captain, and merchant in Edenton, came from North of England about 1760. After some years removed to Bertie County, near the mouth of Salmon Creek.

        He married 1st, Elizabeth ----, by whom he had Elizabeth, Mary and Sarah.

        I. Elizabeth Clark married Judge Blake Baker, of Tarboro', and left no issue.

        II. Mary Clark married George West; born 1758, died 1810, and left issue: [a] Robert West, who married Ann Dortch, by whom he had Isaac D., Robert, George Clark. Martha, married W. B. Johnson; Mary, married Chas. Minor; Arabella, married Q. C. Atkinson; Ann; Laura, married Robert McClure; Elizabeth and Sarah.

        [b] Mary West, married Judge P. W. Humphrey, and left Judge West H. Humphrey, married Pillow; Elizabeth, married Baylis; Georgianna, married Powell; Charles and Robert.

        [c] George West married Ann Lytle, and left Robert, George, Ann, married Gillespie.

        III. Sarah Clark married William Clements, and left:

        [a] Sarah; [b] Arabella, married C. Baylis; [c] Mary, married R. Collier; [d] Dr. Christopher C.; [e] John H., and [f] Robert W.

        After the death of his first wife, Christopher Clark married about 1778 or 1779, Hannah Turner, of Bertie, daughter of Thomas Turner, and left:

        IV. James West Clark, born 1769, died 1845, who married Arabella E. Toole, born 1781, died 1860, daughter of Henry I. Toole, of Edgecombe, and left issue:

        [a] Henry Toole Clark, born 1808, died 1874, University of North Carolina, 1826; North Carolina Senate, 1859-'60; Governor, 1861; he married, 1850, Mrs. Mary Weeks Hargrove [nee Parker] daughter of Theophilus Parker, of Tarboro', and left the following children: Laura P., Haywood, Henry Irwin, Maria T. and Arabella T.

        [b] Maria Toole, born 1813, died 1859; married, 1852, Matt. Waddell; left no issue.

        [c] Laura Placidia, born 1816, died 1864; married, 1832, John W. Cotten, and left Margaret E., married J. A. Englehard; Arabella C., married Wm. D. Barnes; Florida, married Wm. L. Saunders, and John W., married Elizabeth Frick.

        [d] Mary Sumner, born 1817, married Dr. Wm. George Thomas, and have issue: George G., Arabella and Jordan T.


Page lxiii

Genealogy of the Haywood Family

        John Haywood, the founder of the family in North Carolina, was born in Christ Church Parish, near St. Michael's, in the Island of Barbadoes. He was the son of John Haywood, a younger brother of Sir Henry Haywood a Knight and magistrate in the old country and must have been a man of some note as Evelyn in his Memoirs speaks of having met him at court and was not favorably impressed with his arrogant manner. He settled in 1730 at the mouth of Conecanarie in Halifax, then a part of the great county of Edgecombe. He was Treasurer of the northern counties of the Province from 1752, until his death in 1758.

        He married Mary Lovett, by whom he had six children.

        I. Elizabeth married Jesse Hare, she died in 1774 and had issue: [a] Ann married Isaac Croom and his son Isaac married Sarah Pearson; [b] Mary married, first Richard Croom and second to----Hicks.

        II. Mary Haywood married to the Rev. Thomas Burgess, 1761, whose son Lovett, married first Elizabeth Irwin, second Priscilla Monnie, third Mrs. Black; to the last named were born [a] Mary married to Alston, 1824, [b] Elizabth married, 1812, to Alston, of Bedford county, Virginia; [c] Melissa married to Gen. William Williams, whose daughter, Melissa, married to Col. Joseph John Long and their daughter, Ellen married to Gen. Junius Daniel, who was killed at Chancellorsville;-- [d] John married Martha Alston and [e] Thomas, a distinguished lawyer in Halifax, who left no issue.

        III. Deborah married to John Hardy but had no issue.

        IV. Col. William Haywood, of Edgecombe, married Charity Hare; he died in 1779, and had ten children. [1] Jemima, married to John Whitfield of Lenoir, died 1837, with following issue; [a] William H. twice married and left seven children; [b] Constantine, left five children; [c] Sherwood, unmarried; [d] John Walter, left three children; [e] Jemima, left six children, married first to Middleton, second to Willams; [f] Mary Ruffin; [g] Kiziah Arabella, had three children; [h] Rachel Daniel. married John Jones and had five children; [i] George Washington, not married.

        [2] John Haywood, State Treasurer for forty years; married 1st Sarah Leigh, and 2nd Eliza, daughter of John Pugh Williams and had issue; by last marriage [a] John, unmarried; [b] Geo. Washington, unmarried; [c] Thomas Burgess, unmarried, [d] Dr. Fabius Julius, married Martha Whitaker by whom he had issue; Fabius J., John Pugh, Joseph and Mary, married to Judge Daniel G. Fowle; [e] Eliza Eagles, unmarried, [f] Rebecca married to Albert G. Hall, of New Hanover County; [g] Frances, unmarried; [h] Edmund Burke, who married Lucy Williams, and had issue; E. Burke, Alfred, Dr. Hubert, Ernest, Edgar, John and Eliza Eagles, married to Preston Bridgers. [3] Ann, born 1760, died 1842; married to Dr. Robert


Page lxiv

Williams, surgeon in the Continental Army, and had issue; [a] Eliza, married to Rev. John Singletary, issue; three sons: Col. George B. killed in battle, Col. Richard, and Col. Thomas. [b] Dr. Robert Williams jr., who left issue; [4] Charity married to Col. Lawrence of Alabama and had three children; [5] Mary married to Etheldred Ruffin, and had issue; [a] Sarah, married to Dr. Henry Haywood; [b] Henry J. G. Ruffin who married Miss Tart and was the father of Col. Sam. and also of Col. Thomas Ruffin, who fell at Hamilton Crossing, in Virginia.

        [6] Sherwood, born 1762, died 1829; married Eleanor Hawkins, born in 1776, died in 1855, issue; [a] Ann, who married Wm. A Blount; their issue were Major Wm. A. Blount jr. of Raleigh and Ann, widow of Gen. L. O' B. Branch, to the last named were born Susan O' Bryan, married to Robert H. Jones; William A. B.; Ann married to Armistead Jones; Josephine married to Kerr Craige of Salisbury, [b] Sarah married first to John Gray Blount, and second to Gavin Hogg, she left no issue; [c] Delia, married first to Gen. William Williams, and second to Hon. George E. Badger, issue to the first marriage Col. Joseph John Williams of Tallahassee, Florida, and to the second marriage: [1] Mary married to P. M. Hale; [2] George, [3] Major Richard Cogdell, [4] Thomas, [5] Sherwood, [6] Edward Stanley [7] Ann, married first to Bryan, second to Col. Paul Faison; [d] Dr. Rufus Haywood, died unmarried; [e] Lucy, married to John S. Bryan and had issue: [1] Mrs. Basil Manly, [2] Mrs. Thomas Badger, [3] Mrs. Wm. H. Young, and [4] John S. Bryan of Salisbury.

        [f] Francis P., married first Ann Farrall, second Mrs. Martha Austin, daughter of Col. Andrew Joyner of Halifax;

        [g] Robert W. married Mary White and left one child, Mary;

        [h] Maria T. unmarried.

        [i] Dr. Richard B., married Julia Hicks, issue: [1] Sherwood, [2] Graham, [3] Effie, married to Col. Carl A. Woodruff, U. S. A., [4] Lavinia, [5] Howard, [6] Marshall, [7] Eleanor, [8] Marian.

        [7] Elizabeth, born 1758, died 1832; married Henry Irwin Toole, [I] born 1750, died 1791, of Edgecombe, and left issue: Henry I. Toole [II] born 1778, died 1816; Arabella, born 1782, died 1860, and Mary, born 1787, died 1858.

        Henry I. Toole [II] married Ann Blount, daughter of Gov. Wm. Blount, of Tenn.; and left issue: [a] Henry I. Toole [III] born 1810, died 1850; married Margaret Telfair; [b] Mary Eliza, born 1812, died----; married Dr. Joseph J. Lawrence, of Tawboro'.

        Arabella Toole, married to the Hon. James West Clark. For their descendants see the Clark Genealogy, page lxii.

        Mary Toole, married Theophilus Parker, born 1775, died 1849, of Tawboro', and had issue: [a] the Rev. John Haywood Parker, born 1813, died 1858; [b] Catharine C., born 1817, married 1st John Hargrave, 2nd Rev. Robert B. Drane, D. D.; [c] Elizabeth T., born 1820, married Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, D. D.; [d] Mary W., born 1822, married 1st Frank Hargrave, 2nd Gov. Henry T. Clark; [e] Col. Francis M. Parker, and [f] Arabella C. Parker.

        [8] Wm. Henry, born 1770, died 1857, married Anne Shepherd, issue; [1] Hon. Wm. H. Haywood, born 1801; U. S. Senator, who married Jane Graham, had issue: Wm. H. killed at the Wilderness, Duncan Cameron, killed at ColdHarbor; Edward G.; Minerva, married to----Baker; Jane, married to Hon. Sion H. Rogers; Ann married to Samuel Ruffin; Margaret married to Cameron; Gertrude married to George Trapier; Elizabeth unmarried. [2] Charity, daughter of Wm. Henry Haywood, married Governor Charles Manly, and left issue: Col. John H., married Caroline Henry; Langdon C.; Cora, married to Col. George B. Singletary;


Page lxv

Helen married to John Grimes; Julia, married to Col. McDowell, who was killed in battle; Sophia married to Harding; Ida married to Dr Jos. Baker of Tarboro, and Basil, commander of Manly's Battery, married Lucy Bryan.

        [9] Stephen born 1772, died 1824, married, first Miss Lane 1798, by whom he had Dr. John Leigh Haywood and Benjaman Franklin Haywood; married second Delia Hawkins 1809, by whom he had Wm. Dallas, married Mary Cannon, Margaret Craven married to George Little, Lucinda, married to Sasser; and Sarah; and Philemon H. Haywood, U. S. Navy.

        [10] Elizabeth, married to Governor Dudley, died 1840, and had issue: Edward B.; Wm. Henry, married Baker; Christopher; Eliza Ann, married to Purnell; Jane, married to Johnson, Margaret married Col. McIlhenny.

        V. Sherwood [son of John Haywood of Conecanarie,] married Hannah Gray and had Adam John, who married his cousin, Sarah the daughter of Egbert, issue: one daughter Margaret, (died 1874,) who became the wife of Hon. Louis D. Henry, born 1788, died 1840, and had Virginia, married to Col. Duncan K McRae; Caroline married to Col. John H. Manly; Augusta, wife of R. P. Waring; Margaret, married to Col. Ed. G. Haywood; Mary, married to Matt. P. Taylor; Malvina, to Douglas Bell, and Louis D., married Virginia Massenburg.

        VI. Egbert, the sixth child of John Haywood, died 1801, married Sarah Ware and had issue: [a] Sarah, married Adam John Haywood. [b] John, a Judge in North Carolina and in Tennessee, the historian, died in 1826; [c] Dr. Henry, who married Sarah Ruffin, [d] Mary married Robert Bell, and had [1] Margaret, married to Duffy, [2] Dr. E. H. Bell. [3] Col W. H. Bell, [4] Admiral Henry H. Bell U. S. Navy, [e] Betsy married to William Shepperd and had issue: [1] Sarah married to Hon. Wm. B. Grove of Fayetteville, a Member of Congress, 1791-1892; [4] Betsy married Col. Saml. Ashe, born 1763 died 1835, and to the last named were born Betsy, married to Owen Holmes; Mary Porter married to Dr. S. G. Moses of St. Louis; Hon. John B. Ashe, Member of Congress from Tennessee, married his cousin Eliza Hay, and moved to Texas; Hon. Wm. S., married Sarah Ann Green; Thomas married Rosa Hill; Richard Porter of San Francisco, married Lina Loyal; Susan married to her cousin David Grove; Sarah married Judge Samuel Hall of Georgia.

        [3] Susan Shepperd married David Hay;

        [4] Mary married Samuel P. Ashe of Halifax;

        [5] Margaret married Dr. John Rogers;

        [6] William, [7] Egbert and [8] Henry. [See ante page 326.]

        VII. John, who died unmarried.


        Since the aforesaid sketch of the Haywood family had been put in "forms," a note from Dr. E. Burke Haywood, of Raleigh, was received, in which he corrects the sketch in these particulars: The children of John Haywood, the founder of the family in North Carolina, should be sketched in the following order:

        I. William Haywood, of Edgecombe; II. Sherwood; III. Mary, wife of Rev. Thomas Burgess: IV. Elizabeth, wife of Jesse Hare; V. Deabora; VI. Egbert, and VII. John, who died unmarried.



        The children of John Haywood, (State Treasurer for forty years, after whom Haywood County and the town of Haywood were named,) the second child of William and Charity Hare, should be named in the following order:

        [a] Eliza Eagles; [b] John Steele; [c] George Washington; [d] Fabius Julius; [e] Alfred Moore; [f] Thos. Burgess; [g] Rebecca; [h] William Davie; [i] Benjamin Rush; [k] Frances Ann; [l] Sarah Wool; [m] Edmund Burke.



Page lxvi

Genealogy of the Phifer Family.

        

Illustration

[Phifer Family Crest]

        The name Pfeiffer is an old and honored one in Germany. Very many of the name have held high and honored positions in the management of the Civil and Military affairs of the Empire. A copy of the records of State, together with information sufficient to establish the identity of the American branch of the house has been elicited by a recent correspondence with branches of the family at Berne, Switzerland, and in Breslau, Germany.

        The two brothers, John and Martin Pfeiffer who came to America, were descendants from the family of "Pfeiffers of Pfeiffersburgh."

        The records show the family to be "Pfeiffer of Pfeiffersburgh, knights of the order of Hereditary Austrian Knighthood; with armorial bearings as follows: Shield, lengthwise divided; the right in silver, with a black, crowned Eagle looking to the right; the left in blue, from lower part of quarter ascending a white rock, with five summits, over the center one an eight-pointed star pendant. (Schild der Lange getheilt; rechts in Silber ein rechtsselhender, gekrönter, Schwarz Adler und links in Blau ein auc dem Feldesfusse aufsteigender, Weisser Fels mit fünf Spitzen uber desen mittlerer ein achtstahliger, goldener Stern Schwebt.) They were descended from Pfeiffer Von Heisselburgh. A diploma (patent,) of nobility was issued to Martin Caspar Pfeiffer and Mathias Pfeiffer in 1590, with armorial bearings of Knights of Heisselburg order of Nobility of the Empire. Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer Von Pfeiffersburg, Knight, with armorial bearings as above stated was descendant of Knights of Heisselburgh and hereditary heir of Pfeiffersburgh; Achenranian Mining and Smelting works; with exclusive privilege granted by the Crown, to trade in the "Brass of Achenrain and Copper of Schwatz. A diploma was issued to him May 10th, 1721. He received an increase of arms on the 4th of March 1785, (right field and second helmet.) The pedigree flourished, and a great-grandson of Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer, Knight of Pfeiffersburg; Leopold Maria, Knight of Pfeiffersburgh, born 1785, possessor of Hannsburg, county Hallein, was matriculated into the nobility of the Kingdom of Bavaria after the investment of the same."

        "Caspar Pfeiffer Von Pfeiffersburg, Knight, second brother to Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer, Knight of Pfeiffersburg, possessor of Trecherwitz, County Oels, Germany, lived in the year 1713 on his estates. In 1725 he permanently located in Berne, Switzerland, and had control


Page lxvii

of the sale of brass and copper from the Achenranian mines. He had two sons to come to America in the spring of the year 1737. John Pfeiffer and Martin Pfeiffer."

        Martin Pfeiffer carried on quite an extensive correspondence with his relatives in Berne and in Germany. All these letters, together with an immense quantity of his son's (Martin Phifer Jr.) correspondence with the family in Berne and elsewhere; and all the records which Martin Pfeiffer and all his sons placed so much value upon and which had been so carefully preserved by the first members of the family, seem to have fallen into disfavor with John Phifer (born 1779.) They were packed away in trunks and kept up in the garret at the "Black Jacks."

        All the members of the family had spoken German up to the time of John Phifer (1779.) He never spoke German to any of his children. It was with him the change in spelling the name to Phifer occurred.

        The papers were consequently unknown to any of the various children who, when at play in the large old garret, saw them. These papers were all destroyed by the burning of George Locke Phifer's house.

        An old gold watch set around with diamonds, and thought to bear the arms of the family, together with various old trinkets, were also destroyed.

        The sketch of this family is writtsn from knowledge communicated by different members of the family.

        The will of Martin Pfeiffer, sr., was kept until the year 1865, when it was lost. Some of the Bibles of the family have also been lost. The present history however is accurate and can be relied upon in every respect. The information in regard to the family in Germany has been obtained by recent correspondence with a branch of the family in Berne, Switzerland and in Breslau, Germany. Great pains have been taken that every thing should be exact, and in many instances, the preparation of this paper has been delayed for months that a date should be correct. To the sketch of the life of John Phifer, the first son of Martin Pfeiffer, sr., a great deal of valuable aid was afforded by Mr. Victor C. Barringer.

        The Phifer family has been for five generations the most wealthy and prominent in Cabarrus County. For many successive years they have been appointed to places of honor and responsibility by the people of the Counties of Cabarrus and Mecklenburg, some in each generation have occupied prominent positions in the legislative halls of the State. Their love for truth, honor and justice, their liberality of opinion and their sterling qualities of mind and of heart have necessarily made them leaders of the people for generations. They have exercised great influence in directing the political and social development of their county and State. Not one single instance can be found of a family quarrel, the contesting of a will or any bankrupt proceeding by which the name could suffer. The men have all been noble men, the women have all been good and pure, and have well sustained the good and ancient name.

        Martin Pfeiffer was an educated man, and must have come to America rather well provided with money, as he immediately became possessed of large tracts of land; and became a prominent and influential man, a very short time after he settled in the State. The prominent place taken by his son John, as a leader, and as an orator in the early days also goes to show that his father must have been a man of unusual ability and distinction.

        John Pfeiffer the younger of the two brothers who came to America in 1738, from Berne, settled in what is now known as Rowan County, N. C. Very little is known of his life. He died some years before his brother Martin Pfeiffer. He left his home in the upper


Page lxviii

portion of Rowan county, to come down and visit his brother; after he had been gone for a week his family became alarmed about him and a messenger was sent to Martin Pfeiffer's. It was found that he had not reached that point. The neighborhood was aroused and search was made for him. His body was found a day or so afterwards near the main road in an advanced state of decomposition. He is supposed to have become ill, to have fallen from his horse and died, as no marks of violence were found on his person. He had it is supposed, only two children; a son Mathias and a daughter who married a Mr. Webb' Mathias Pfeiffer jr. had one child, Paul, who was a Baptist preacher and had one daughter whose name is now unknown.

        The above is all the information available as to this branch of the family. Their offspring does not seem to have been very numerous, and the two branches appear to have drifted apart.

        Martin Pfeiffer, born October 18th, 1720, in Switzerland, died January 18th, 1791, at "Cold Water," Cabarrus county, N. C. Reached America in 1738; in Legislature of 1777 from Mecklenburg county; married 1745, Margaret Blackwelder, who was born 1722, died 1803. Issue three sons: (I) John; (II) Caleb; (III) Martin

I.

        John born at "Cold Water," March 22nd, 1747; died at "Red Hill," 1778; married 1768 Catherine, daughter of Paul Barringer, (who was born 1750, died 1829; after John Phifer's death she married Savage of Rowan county,) as a member of the Charlotte convention, John Phifer signed the Declaration of May 20th, 1775; member of Provincial Assembly at Hillsboro, August 21st, 1775, and at Halifax April 4th, 1776, and of the Constitutional Convention of November 12th, 1776; commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, in Colonel Griffith Rutherford's Regiment December 21st, 1776; served in the campaign against the Cherokee Indians and the Scovelite Tories. Broken down by exposure and his own tireless energy, he fell an early sacrifice in the cause of freedom.

        A man of distinguished character and superior attainments, and appears to have been one of the most conspicuous of the remarkable men, who figured in the foreground of the movement which resulted in the independence. His burning and fervid eloquence did much to ignite the flames of indignation against the usurpations of the mother country. He left the following issue: (A) Paul, born at Red Hill, Nov. 14th, 1770; died May 20th, 1801; educated at "Queen's Museum" afterwards "Liberty Hall" in Charlotte; married 1799 Jane Alexander, born 1750, who, after his death married Mr. Means of Mecklenburg.

        Issue: (I) Martin jr., born 1792, died in childhood, (II) George Alexander, born 1794, died 1868; at the University; in 1835 moved to Bedford county, Tennessee, then to Union county, Arkansas, where he died. Four of his sons were killed in the battle of Shiloh. In 1820 he married Elizabeth Beard of Burke county, N. C. Issue: (a) George; (b) Margaret married to Mr. Pool; (c) Andrew Beard; (d) William; (e) Locke; (f) John; (g) Paul; (h) Mary Locke.

        (III) John N., born March 19th 1795, died September 7th, 1856, married (June 10th 1822) Ann Phifer, the daughter of Caleb Phifer; moved to Tennessee, then to Coffeeville, Mississippi, where he died. Issue: (a) Paul, died in youth; (b) Caleb same; (c) Barbara Ann, who married Dr. Phillips of Alabama; (d) Sarah Jane; (e) Charles W., at the University; graduated at West Point Military Academy; commissioned Lieutenant of Dragoons and sent to Texas. Entered C. S. Army as a Captain, promoted, for gallantry at Shiloh, to be Colonel;


Page lxix

in 1864 made Brigadier General; the youngest General officer of the Confederacy; (f) Josephine,

        (IV) Nelson born December 1797.

        [B.] Margaret, born 1772, died 1806, second child of John Phifer; she married John Simianer, who for many years was Clerk of the Court, they had one child, Mary, who married Adolphus Erwin of Burke County and to them were born seven children; (1) Simianer, (2) Bulow married and had a family, (3) Matilda; (4) Alfred; (5) Mary Ann; (6) Harriet, married to Colonel J. B. Rankin and has a family; (7) Louisa, married James W. Wilson, and has a family.

II.

        Caleb, born at Cold Water, April 8th, 1749; died July 3rd, 1811; in legislature 1778 to 1792 from Mecklenburg; Senator from Cabarrus 1793 to 1801 Colonel in the Revolutionary War, served with distinction, married Barbara Fulenweider, born 1754; died 1815. Issue; seven daughters and one son: (A) Esther, married April 10, 1793, to Nathaniel Alexander, issue ten children: (1) Margaret, married Robert Smith and had only one child, Sarah who married Wm. F. Phifer, and they had only one child, Sarah, who married John Morehead and had Annie, Margaret, William, Louisa and John. (2) Caleb, married Lunda Chisholm; moved to West Tennesse and there died. They had Charles and John, both now dead; (3) Jane, married 1st to Geo. F. Graham, and had one child, Ann Eliza, who married to Col. Wm. Johnson; 2nd to Dr. Stanhope Harris and had Sarah, who married Jno. Moss; Jane married to Dr. Bingham, and Henrietta married to Caldwell.

        (4) Eliza married first, February 19th, 1821, to James A. Means and 2nd, to Dr. Elim Harris,

        (5.) Sarah married (1825) to Francis Locke moved to Montgomery Co. N. C., issue to them: Caroline, married to Dr. Ingram; James killed in the civil war; Elizabeth married to Underwood and has a family.

        (6) Mary, married to Dr. Elim Harris, removed to Missouri, and there both died.

        (7) Nancy, born 1810, married 1833 to John Moss, of Montgomery County, N. C., issue: Esther, wife of Adolphus Gibson; Mary, wife of D. F. Cannon; Margaret, wife of James Erwin; Edward; John.

        (8) Esther, married to Dr. James Gilmer.

        (9) Charles, moved to Memphis, Tenn., and acquired great wealth, died unmarried.

        (10) John moved to Tenn., but died in Cuba.

        (B) Margaret, second child of Caleb, born Nov. 14, 1777, died Aug. 14, 1799; married in [1794] to Matthew Locke of Rowan Co., had one son, John, who married Miss Bouchelle, but left no issue.

        [C.] Elizabeth, born 1781, married [1802,] to Dr. Wm. M. Moore, Salisbury; on his death moved to Bedford Co., Tenn., then to Marshall Co., Miss., there died in 1845. Issue [1] Abigail died in infancy; (2) Moses W., born Jan. 7, 1807, died 1851; married Rebecca McKenzie, [1840,] moved to Washington Co., Texas. Issue: William; Sarah, who married to Dr Ferrill, of Anderson, Texas; they had three children, Bertie; Elizabeth and Robert; [3] Margaret E., born at Salisbury, Feb. 14, 1809, married 1824, to Edward Cross, who was born at Chestnut Hill, Penn., 1804, died 1833; moved to LaFayette Co., Tenn. Issue; seven children: (a) Caroline V., born 1826, married 1849 to Wm. Sledge of Panola county, Mississippi, moved to Washington county, Texas in 1851, then to Memphis, Tennessee in 1872. They had Wm. M. born 1850: Margaret E., born 1853 and Edward C. born 1854.

        (b) Elizabeth M., born at Salisbury, 1827; married (1843) Samuel P. Badhget, died in Texas in 1866; issue: Ophelia, died in infancy


Page lxx

        (c) Daniel F., died in infancy, as did (d) Susannah.

        (e) Edward born April 1st, 1833, lives in Austin, Texas:

        (f) Mary Ann born 1835 in Lafayette county, Tennessee, married first, 1856, to Leonidas B. Lemay of Wake county, N.C.; in 1862 to Col. Allen Lewis of Maine, who was lost at sea in 1870. Issue: Ida, Elizabeth, Mary Ann who are dead; Leonidas B. Lemay, born January 21st, 1857 and Allen Lewis, who are living in Memphis, Tennessee.

        (D.) Sarah, the fourth child of Caleb Phifer, married Dr. Wm. Houston of Mecklenburg, a successful practitioner of great wealth. They moved to Bedford County, Tennessee. Issue: Lydia married 1823 to Dr. Wm. Rhoan, they moved to Tennessee and reared a large family; Caleb married and has a family, lives at Shelbyville, Tennessee; Wm. married Miss Steele and has a family; Louisa married and has a family.

        (E.) Barbara born 1770, died 1819; married (1809) Abram C. McRee of Cabarrus. Issue: (1) Cornelius, married Margaret Means and moved to Alabama, where they reared a family; (2) Mary Ann married to Dr. Robert Means, and had one child, Poindexter, they live in Alabama; (3) Margaret, and (4) Phifer who married Miss Burt of Alabama and has a family.

        (F) Mary, married Dr. Robert McKenzie, an eminent physician of Charlotte; removed to Bedford county, Tennessee, then to Mississippi, Lousiana and finally settled in Grimes county, Texas, where they died and were buried on the same day. Issue: (1) Rebecca, wife of Dr. Moses W. Moore (see ante page lxix.) (2) Joseph, unmarried; (3) John, married and has three children; (4) Mary, died in infancy; (5) Lucy married Pinkston, living in Grimes county, Texas, has a family of tour children.

        (G) Ann, as has been stated became the wife of John N. Phifer.

        (H.) John Fulenwider, born 1786, died 1826; educated at Dr. Robertson's school, at Poplar Tent; entered the University; married Louisa Morrison of Lancaster S. C. Issue: a son and a daughter, who died in infancy, and Caleb, born 1825, died 1844, distinguished for scholarship at school, and afterwards at Prince ton; then read law with Judge Pearson. So young and full of high promises of usefulness, he died in his 19th year, and so the Caleb Phifer branch of the family became extinct, as he was the last male member of that branch

III.

        Martin jr. born at "Cold Water," March 25th, 1756, died at the "Black Jacks," November 12th, 1837; married (1778) Elizabeth Locke, who was born 1758, died 1791; he was Colonel of a Regiment of horse, on duty at Philadelphia, and was distinguished for gallantry in the field. And received high mention for his personal bravery in the papers of State. He was the largest land-owner in the State, and had a great number of slaves. Had issue: John, George, Mary, Margaret and Ann.

        Issue:(A) John, born at Cold Water, September 1st, 1779; died October 18th, 1845; entered at Dr. McCorckle's school at Thytira church in Rowan county: at the University in the first year of that institution, graduated in 1799, with first honors; married August 27, 1805, Esther Fulenwider, a daughter of John Fulenwider of "High Shoals," Lincoln county N. C., who was born 1784, died 1846. Member of the Legislature 1803 to 1806; in House of Commons 1810 to 1819; and in the Senate in 1824. Defeated by Forney for Congress by twenty-five majority. "He lived a blessing, and his name will ever remain an honor to his family, his county and his State."

        He was one of the most intellectual and highly cultivated men of his time. His speeches


Page lxxi

in the House and Senate show remarkable ability. His public career, which promised to be one of unusual brilliancy, was cut off by the failure of his eye-sight. He became almost totally blind in the latter part of his life. He was noted for his wonderful popularity, his great decision of character, and his eloquence as a speaker.

        Had issue: Martin, John Fulenwider, Caleb, Elizabeth, Mary Simianer, George Locke, Sarah Ann, Margaret Locke, Esther Louisa, Mary Burton. (1) Martin, born December 30th, 1806, died September 11th, 1852; married Eliza, daughter of Jacob Ramseur, of Lincolnton, N. C.; had no issue. (2) John Fulenwider, born August 13, 1808, died January 10, 1850; educated by Dr. Wilson near Rocky River church; a merchant and planter, died unmarried. (3) Caleb, born June 16, 1810; died March 11, 1878; educated at Dr. Wilson's, most prominent in financial and manufacturing schemes; director of N. C. R. R. for years. Member of House of Commons in 1844; and of Constitutional Convention of 1861-62. He was a student all during his life, and was well posted in both the scientific and current literature of the day. He married [1838] Mary Adeline, third child of David Ramseur, of Lincolnton, who was born Aug. 5th, 1817, died Sept. 20th, 1881. Issue: [a] Esther, born December 23, 1840, died September 5th, 1857; [b] David Ramseur. born April 14th, 1839; a graduate of Davidson and of William and Mary in Virginia; served in the C. S. Army; became a merchant in Newberry; married Sarah Whitmire; had issue: Mary, Henry, Martin and Elizabeth.

        [d] John Locke, born October 28th, 1842, died January 26th, 1880; was educated in Philadelphia; served in 20th, N. C. Vols.; became a most sucessful merchant; [e] Charles Henry, born September 28th 1847; served in the Confederate Artillery; then graduated at Davidson College (1866); a civil engineer by education. Now successful as a merchant; [f] Robert Fulenwider, born November 17th, 1849; graduate of Davidson [1866] successful as a planter and cotton buyer; [g] Martin, born June 26th, 1855, died March 10th 1881; [h] Sarah Wilfong, born February 26th, 1859, married [1883] to Marshall N. Williamson in Winston.

        [4] Elizabeth, fourth child of John Phifer born April 20th, 1812, married Dr. Edmund R. Gibson at the "Black Jacks," February 25th, 1835. Dr. Gibson was born July 6th, 1809, died May 28th, 1872, in Rowan County, an eminent physician, of large estate. Issue: [a]Esther Margaret, born 1836, died an infant; [b] William Henry born June 2nd, 1837, killed at Gettysburg, 1863; [c] John Phifer born January 5th, 1839; served as Lieutenant in the civil war; married Martha M. Kirkpatrick, [1864,] and had Mary Grace. Now a merchant of Concord; [d] James Cunningham, born November 10th, 1840, served in the Confederate Army, also Clerk of Court; married Elizabeth Puryear [1876] and has Elizabeth, William Henry, Richard Puryear and Jennie Marshall; [e] George Locke, born March 15th, 1844, died 1877;[f] Robert Erwin, born March 15th, 1844, married [1876] Emily Magruder of Winchester, Virginia, issue: Emily Magruder and Robert Magruder; successful merchant in Concord.

        (5) Mary Simianer, fifth child of John Phifer, born December 7th, 1814, died an infant.

        [6] George Locke, sixth child; born June 7th, 1817, died June 6th, 1879; entered the school of Robert I. McDowell, and then at Greensboro; a planter; married [1847] Rosa Allen Pennick, daughter of Rev. Daniel Pennick, of the Virginia Presbytery; issue: [a] Agnes Tinsley born August 24th, 1850, married [1876] to Albert Heilig of Rowan, had George.

        [b] Esther Louisa born May 24th, 1852.

        [c] Sarah Maria born July 25th, 1854.


Page lxxii

[d] Annie Rosa born March 29th, 1857.

        [e] Mary Elizabeth born July 11th, 1859, died August 25th, 1882 married [1881] Will-Ramseur of Newton.

        [f] Daniel Pennick born December 14th, 1861.

        [g] John Young, born June 5th, 1864.

        [h] George Willis born February 1st, 1868.

        [i] Emma Garland, born September 4th, 1869.

        [7] Sarah Ann, born October 23rd, 1819; married May 31st, 1842, to Robert W. Allison of Cabarrus, who was born April 24th, 1806, a man of prominence, chairman of County Commissioners, in legislature of 1865-66; delegate to Convention of 1875.

        Issue: [a] Esther Phifer, born November 27th 1843, married [1866] Samuel White of York county S. C., Capt. 7th N. C. Vols., C. S. A. issue: four children, Grace Allison, the only one living.

        [b] Joseph Young, born July 16th, 1846, educated at the University of Virginia; read law with Chief Justice Pearson, became a presbyterian clergyman, married [1876] Sarah Cave Durant.

        [c] John Phifer, born August 22d, 1848; a merchant in Concord; married [1880] Annie Erwin, daughter of Hon. Burton Craige.

        [d] Mary Louisa, born March 27th, 1850, died 1878.

        [e] Elizabeth Adeline, born March 26th, 1852, married [1875] to John M White of Fort Mills, S. C.; he was Colonel 6th S. C. Vols. C. S. A., and died 1877. She lives near Fort Mills.

        [f] William Henry, born February 26th, 1854, died in infancy as did the three following.

        [g] Caroline Jane, born October 23d, 1855.

        [h] Annie Susan, born December 16th 1857. [i] Robert Washington born March 15th 1862.

        [8] Margaret Locke, eighth child of John Phifer, born December 7th, 1821, died in infancy.

        [9] Esther Louisa, born May 31st, 1824; married to Robert Young of Cabarrus, Capt. C. S. A.; killed July 1864; she died July 9th, 1865; had John Young, Capt C. S. A., killed at Chancellorsville, May 3d, 1863,

        [10] Mary Burton, tenth child of John Phifer, born November 10th, 1826; educated in Philadelphia, married [1850] John A. Bradshaw of Rowan, now lives in New York. Issue: Harriet Ellis, Mary Grace, Annie, Elizabeth, John who died 1866.

        [b] George, second child of Martin Phifer, jr., was born February 24th, 1782, died January 23d, 1819; merchant and planter; Clerk of the Court; married [1808] Sarah, daughter of John Fulenwider of High Shoals, Lincoln county, N. C. She was born 1786, and and after the death of George Phifer married Joseph Young, whom she survived, and died January 24th, 1868, at Hon. J. H. Wilson's house in Charlotte.

        Issue to George and Sarah Phifer: [a] William Fulenwider, born February 13th, 1809; graduate of Hampden-Sidney College; merchant at Concord; married [1833] Sarah Smith, and had Sarah, wife of John Morehead; who had Annie, Margaret, William, Louisa and John. On the death of his wife, William [a] removed to Lownds County, Alabama; cotton planter there; returned to North Carolina and married [1849] Martha White, issue: [1] William; [2] Robert Smith, educated in Germany; remarkable musical talent, he married Bella Mc. Ghee of Caswell county, and has Wilhelmine, Thomas Mc. Ghee and Robert; [3] George; [4] Mary married [1882] to M. C. Quinn; [5] Cordelia; [6] Josephine married [1880] William G. Durant of Fort Mills, S. C., they have Mary and William Gilmore; [7] Edward.


Page lxxiii

        [b] John Fulenwider, born May 1st, 1810, married [1839] Elizabeth Caroline, a daughter of David Ramseur, she was born 1819; removed to Lownds county, Alabama; returned to Lincolnton. Issue: [1] George, born February 10th, 1841; educated at Davidson; served with distinction as Captain in the line, [C. S Army,] and afterwards on General R. F. Hoke's staff; married [1879] Martha Avery of Burke county; issue: John; Moulton; George; Edward; Isaac; Walton; Maud; Waightstill. He is a cotton manufacturer at Lincolnton; [2] William Locke, born February 17th, 1843, killed at Chickamauga, Tennessee, September 20th, 1863; [3] Edward born May 8th 1844; Captain C. S. Vols. He died from wounds received before Petersburg, June 18th, 1864; [4] Mary Wilfong born December 25th, 1856, married [1881] to Stephen Smith of Livingston, Alabama, has one child Stephen.

        [c] Mary Louisa, born December 3d, 1814: married [1846] to Hon. Joseph Harvey Wilson*

        * We copy from the Raleigh News-Observer, of September 15th, 1884, the following notice of Hon. Joseph Harvey Wilson, who was born in the county of Mecklenburg. His father, the Rev. John McKamey Wilson, was a Scotch Presbyterian, and a divine of considerable influence in that section of the State. The son inherited the talents and sterling qualities of the father, and was early imbued with the father's piety and he had been since his early manhood a consistent member of the Presbyterian church.

        He was admitted to the bar and began the practice of the law in Charlotte soon after he became of age, and for about fifty years he enjoyed a large and lucrative practice in Mecklenburg and the surrounding counties. After the retirement of William Julius Alexander and the death of his contemporaries of a past generation, Mr. Wilson and the late Judge Osborne, who were nearly of the same age and always friends, contested the leadership of the profession in Mecklenburg, though Mr. Wilson, on account of his painstaking industry, always commanded a larger share of the routine and remunerative business of the county. He never found it advisable to take an extended circuit as was the rule among the lawyers before the war; but in Union, Cabarrus and Gaston counties he enjoyed a leading business and was generally on one side or the other of every important case. Ever diligent and careful in the preparation of his cases, and eminently faithful to the interests of his clients, of sound judgment and throughly versed in the principles of the law, that he was a very successful practioner is not remarkable. Probably no lawyer of his day reaped larger rewards in the legitimate prosecution of the legal profession in the State; and being ecnomical in the proper sense of the term, while he was at the same time liberal when calls upon his charity and public spirit commended themselves to his judgment, he succeeded in accumulating a considerable fortune, of which he continued in possession to his death. In his success in his profession, as the result of patient, honest, faithful work, without any of the shining qualities of the genius, Mr. Wilson is one of the best examples to the younger members of the bar. He proved to the satisfaction of all who knew him that a lawyer can be a good Christian and at the same time a successful business man. While he ever took a lively and patriotic interest in public affairs, he could never be seduced from the prosecution of his profession by the offer of political place or office, and he persistently refused even to serve his people in the State legislature until he was forced [by a sense of public duty] to represent his county in the Senate in 1866-67 when he was elected president of that body, a rare compliment to one who had never before served in a legislative body. It showed the very high esteem in which he was held in the State.

        Mr. Wilson was twice married, his first wife being Miss Patton of Buncombe, and the second, Miss Phifer of Cabarrus, who survives him, and he leaves three children of the first marriage and two of the second, one of whom, George E. Wilson Esq., was his partner at the bar, and an other is the wife of our esteemed neighbor, Mr. Charles E. Johnson, of this city. Besides his widow and children, a large circle of loving friends mourn his departure. He died September 13th, 1884, in the fullness of years and maturity of time, the loss of but few citizens in the State could create a more profound sensation in the communities in which they respectively live than did the death of this good and honored man in the county of Mecklenburg. The whole community were his friends; we doubt if he left an enemy.


; issue: [1] George married Bessie Witherspoon of Sumter, S. C., who have Mary Louise, Hamilton, and Annie Witherspoon. He graduated at Davidson and at the University of Virginia; [2] Mary married Charles E. Johnston, who have Mary Wilson and Charles.

        [d] Elizabeth Ann, the twin sister of Mary Louisa; educated at Hillsboro; married [1837] to E. Jones Erwin of Burke, who died in 1871. Issue: Phifer married [1875] Corrinna Morehead Avery; and have Annie Phifer; Corrinna Morehead and Addie Avery; [2] Mary Jones married (1874) to Mitchell Rogers and have one child Francis; [3] Sallie married [1882] to Dr. Moran and have one child, Annie Rankin.

        [e] Martin Locke born January 25th, 1818, died March 9th, 1853; educated at Bingham's school; removed to Lownds county, Alabama; a planter. Returned to N. C. [1848] married Sarah C. Hoyle of Gaston county.Left no issue

        [c] Mary Phifer, third child of Martin Phifer, jr., born December 1st, 1774; died 1860,


Page lxxiv

and is buried at Tuscaloosa, Ala. Married [1803] to William Crawford, of Lancaster, S. C. Issue: Elizabeth and William. After Mr. Crawford's death she married James Childers, of N. C., and moved to Tuscaloosa. Issue:

        [a] Elizabeth Crawford married John Doby, and had [1] Joseph, who married Margaret Harris and has a family; [2] Martin married Sallie Grier, and had one child; on her death he married Sallie Sadler; [3] James married Mary Walker and has a family; [4] William married Altonia Grier, and had children.

        [b] William Crawford married Lucretia Mull, and had [1] Thomas, married 1st Mary Price, 2nd Mrs. Klutz, and has a family; [2] William married Miss Smith, and has a family; [3] James married Sallie Heilig, and have children; [4] Robert married Miss Crawford, and they have children; [5] Lee married Miss Peeden, and has children.

        (c) Ann Childers married to -- Walker; issue: (1) Mary; (2)--; (3) Martin; (4)--.

        (d) Susan Childers married Reed, but has no issue.

        (e) Jas Childers, married, and has a family.

        (D) Margaret, fourth child of Martin Phifer, jr., born December 7th, 1786; married [January 7th, 1808,] James Erwin of Burke, Co., N. C. Issue, seven children: [1] William, married Matilda Walton, and they had five children; merchant in Morganton; his second wife was Mrs. Gaston, but had no issue; after her death he married Kate Happoldt, and to them were born two children. His children are [a] Clara, married to McIntyre, and has a family, the oldest named Matilda; [b] Anna, married Robert McConnehey, and they have children; [c] Laura, married to M. Jones, but had no issue; [d] Henrietta, married to Gray Bynum; [e] Ella married George Greene, and they have three children. By his third wife he had [f] Margaret and (g) Evelyn.

        (2) Joseph Erwin, married Elvira Holt. He has been in the Legislature several terms, and once served as clerk of the court. Issue: Mary L.; Matilda; Margaret, married to Lawrence Holt, of Company Shops, and have five children; Cora, married John Grant, of Alamance Co. [3] Martin, married Jane Huie, of Salisbury, issue: five children; then to Miss Blackmann; issue: three children; moved to Maury Co., Tenn., and there died. (4] George, married Margaret Hinson, of Burke Co., moved to Tenn.; they have nine children.

        (5) Elizabeth, married Hon. Burton Craige, of Salisbury; issue: [a] James; [b] Kerr, a prominent lawyer, in Legislature from Rowan, declined nomination for Congress; married Josephine, daughter of Gen. L. O'B. Branch, and their children are Nannie, Burton, Branch, Josephine, Bessie and Kerr; [c] Frank, married [1877] Fannie Williams, of Williamsport, Tenn., have three children; [d] Mary Elizabeth, married Alfred Young, of Cabarrus, and have Lizzie, Fannie, Annie and Mary; [e] Annie, married to John P. Allison, of Concord.

        (7) Alexander.

        (6) Sarah, married John McDowell, of Burke; they have seven children, none of whom are married; James E., Margaret, John, William, Frank Elizabeth and Kate.

        [E] Ann, the fifth and last child of Martin Phifer, jr., born March 8th, 1788, died at Lancaster, S. C., July 1st, 1855; married John Crawford, of Lancaster, brother of William, who married her sister Mary.

        Issue: [1] Martin married Alice Harris, they had four children: Charles Harris, married Sadie Baskins; Anne, James and John.

        [2] Elizabeth, married George Witherspoon, a lawyer of Lancaster, S. C., where they live, they have four children: John, who married Addie White, of Rock Hill, S. C.; James, Annie and George.

        [3] Robert, married Malivia Massey, and have three children: Martin, Robert and Ella. They live in Lancaster, S. C.


Page 1

CHAPTER I.
ALAMANCE COUNTY.

        THIS COUNTY preserves the memories of the first conflict of arms between the Royal Troops of England, [16th May, 1771,] and the people of the Colonies. Then and there was the first blood of the Colonists spilled in the United States, in resistance to the oppressions of the English Government and the exactions of its unscrupulous agents. Tryon, the Royal Governor of the Province of North Carolina, exhibited in his administration the bloodthirsty temper of "the great wolf," as he was so appropriately termed by the Indians of the State.

        The officers of the Government, by exactions in the shape of fees and taxes, grieviously oppressed an industrious and needy people. The people bore these exactions with patience; remonstrating in their public meetings, in respectful but decided terms. This simple-minded people, without aid from much learning or books, knew and laid down the great fundamental principles of good government, "that taxation and representation should go together, that the people had the right to resist taxation when not imposed by their legal representatives, and also the right to know for what purpose taxes were imposed, and how appropriated." These principles were derided by the imperious Tryon, and terminated in open conflict of arms. The Regulators were vanquished by superior force and discipline, but the great germs of right and liberty were firmly planted in their minds, and a few years later bore the fruits of victory and independence. Had this battle terminated differently, (and under skilful leaders, and at a later period, this would have been the case,) the banks of the Alamance would have rivaled Bunker Hill and Lexington; and the name of Husband, Merrill and Caldwell would have ranked with the Warrens and Putnams of a later day.

        A writer on North Carolina History, as to this revolt, states that "the cause of the Regulators has been the subject of much unmerited obloquy, clouded as it has been by the heavy pages of Williamson and Martin and the ignorant disquisitions of untutored scribblers. Although on the occasion they were overthrown, their principles were intimately connected with the chain of events that directly led to the Revolution, and struck out that spark of independence which soon blazed from Massachusetts to Georgia." (Jos. Seawell Jones' Defence of North Carolina.)


Page 2


                         For Time at last sets all things even,
                         And if we do but watch the hour,
                         There never yet was human power,
                         That could evade if unforgiven,
                         The patient search, the vigil, long,
                         Of him who treasures up a wrong.

        I copied from the Rolls Office when in England, a dispatch from the Royal Governor of North Carolina, (Martin) dated Hillshoro, 30th August, 1772, never before published. The Governor describes his journey to the western part of North Carolina, through the Moravian settlements, which he pronounces "models of industry," to Salisbury. He passed through the region of the late disturbances. He records: "My eyes have been opened in regard to these commotions. These people have been provoked by the insolence and cruel advantages taken of their ignorance by mercenary, tricking attorneys, clerks, and other little officers, who have practiced upon them every sort of rapine and extortion. The resentment of the Government was craftily worked up against the oppressed; protection denied to them, when they expected to find it, and drove them to desperation, which ended in bloodshed. My indignation is not only disarmed, but converted into pity."

        Thus by the highest cotemporaneous authority are the acts and principles of the Regulators fully justified. These acts were but connecting links in the chain of events which led to the Revolution. Soon followed the events on the Cape Fear in 1772-'73 and '74, then the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence of 20th May, 1775, then the actual conflict of arms at Moore's Creek in February, 1776. All acts done in North Carolina, with few exceptions, before any similar events had occurred elsewhere in this country. How bright are such glorious records and how proud are we of the memories of the people who present them to coming posterity!


                         They never fail who die
                         In a great cause: --
                         -- Though years
                         Elapse, and others share as dark a doom,
                         They but augment the deep and sweeping thoughts
                         Which overpower all others, and conduct
                         The world at last to freedom."--

[BYRON.]

        This county was long the residence of Thomas Ruffin. [Born 1787--Died 1870.]

        On entering the Supreme Court room of North Carolina, now more than fifty years ago, we observed on the bench of this exalted tribunal the commanding person of Thomas Ruffin, for twenty years one of the Justices of that Court, and for many years its Chief Justice. During this long period he was called upon to decide questions involving the life and interest of individuals, and complicated and intricate points of constitutional, common and statute law. The able opinions delivered by him have established his reputation as one of the first jurists of his age in this or any other country. His opinions are models of learning and logic, and are quoted as authority not only in our own courts but in those of other countries. Recently one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, on reading one of Judge Ruffin's opinions, pronounced him "one of the ablest common law-jurists in America."

        In his ministration of the law he was by some considered stringent and at times severe, but he was always conscientious and inflexibly just.

        He was not demonstrative in his feelings, but was cautious in his words and acts, select and sincere in his friendships, and steadfast in his attachments.

        In his finances he was prudent even to rigid economy. This he adopted as a principle, not believing in wastefulness or extravagance. His house was open to his friends and was well known as the abode of unstinted hospitality. He was exact and precise in his engagements, and punctual in performance.

        In person he was spare, uniform and neat in


Page 3

his dress, of a presence at once striking, commanding and venerable. To many who knew them both, he resembled, not only in mental qualifications but in person, Thomas Jefferson; both highly educated; both of the same profession; both of the same political faith; both, in all the domestic relations of life, devoted and affectionate, and both natives of the same State; and in person about same height, same colored hair, and the same expression of countenance, indicating great energy, resolution and decision of character.

        Not only as a jurist was Judge Ruffin distinguished, but as an able financier, and skilful and successful as an agriculturist.

        He was born in King and Queen county, Virginia, 17th November, 1787, the eldest son of Sterling and Alice Ruffin. He graduated at Princeton, 1805. Read law with David Robinson, an eminent lawyer in Petersburg, in same office at the same time with Winfield Scott. He came to North Carolina in 1807 with his father and settled at Hillsboro, where he married on 7th December, 1809, Ann, eldest daughter of William Kirkland, by whom he had a large family of thirteen children, among them was William Kirkland, (recently deceased;) Sterling; Peter Brown; Thomas; John, doctor; Mrs. Roulhac; Ann, who married Paul C. Cameron; Alice died unmarried; Mrs. Brodnax; Mrs. Edmund Ruffin; Patty, (unmarried;) Sally married Upton B. Gynn, Jr.

        He was elected to the Legislature from Hillsboro in 1813, 1815 and 1816; the latter year he was chosen Speaker; and the same year elected Judge of the Superior Court, which after two years' service he resigned. In 1825 he was again elected Judge, and in 1829 was elected one of the Justices of the Supreme Court, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Judge Taylor, which in 1852 he resigned. He was again elected in 1856, and again resigned in 1858. For several years after his retiring from the bench of the Supreme Court the served his fellow citizens as presiding Judge of the county court. In the Spring of 1861, he attended that barren convention at Washington, "The Peace Congress," with John M. Morehead, David S. Reid, Daniel M. Barringer, and George Davis as colleagues.

        "The judicial ermine so long and so worthily worn," says Mrs. Spencer, "not only shielded him, but absolutely forbade all active participation in party politics." But he was no idle or uninterested spectator of the current of events. He was opposed to nullification in 1832, and did not believe in the rights of secession in 1860. In private circles he combatted both heresies with all that "inexorable logic" which the London Times declared to be characteristic of his judicial opinions. He declared "the sacred right of revolution" as the remedy for the redress of our grievances.

        But the cloud in the political horizon grew thicker and heavier. When the State took the final step of secession, he felt it to be a duty to follow her fortunes.

        He was elected to the State Convention at Raleigh, and voted for the Ordinance of Secession. Then was his last public service.

        He was a communicant of the Episcopal Church, and warmly attached to that mode and form of worship; but liberal and tolerant to the worth and virtues of other denominations, and in the consolations of Christian faith and hopes of its promises, in the full possession of his mental faculties, in charity and peace with all, he died on 15th January, 1870, at Hillsboro, loved and lamented by all who knew him.


                         --Sure the end of the good man is peace.
                         How calm his exit! Night dews
                         Fall not more gently to the ground
                         Nor weary, worn out winds expire more soft.

        Rufus Yancy McAden represented Alamance County in 1865, and was elected Speaker of the House.

        He graduated at Wake Forest College, studied law and achieved prominence and position


Page 4

at the bar; but his fame rests chiefly on his reputation as a skilful financier. He is the grandson of the distinguished statesman and orator, Bartlet Yancy, and inherits much of the ability of his distinguished ancestor.

        Thomas Michael Holt was born in Orange County, now Alamance County, on 17th October, 1855; is by occupation a farmer and a manufacturer.

        He is the President of the State Agricultural Society since 1872. He is the principal owner of the "Haw River Mills," which has done much to encourage the cotton manufactories in the South. They are an ornament to the State. He was elected President of the North Carolina Railroad in 1874; and senator from Alamance and Orange in November, 1876. He is by all acknowledged to be a farmer of unequalled success; a manufacturer of great skill, and a friend and patron of internal improvement, believing with the poet that--


                         Art, commerce and fair science, three,
                         And sisters linked in love,
                         They traverse sky, land and sea,
                         Protected from above.

CHAPTER II.
ANSON COUNTY.

        ANSON at one time [1749] comprehended the whole western part of the State. Its early history is full of incident, of the sturdy opposition of her sons to oppression, and sympathy with the Regulators of Orange County against the unrighteous exactions of the administration of the Government officers, which rose to such a height that the people in 1768 entered the court house and by force violently expelled the officers of the court, and each took an oath of self-defence and mutual protection.

        I copied from the Rolls Office in England the oath prescribed, transmitted to the Earl of Hillsboro by Gov. Tryon, in a dispatch dated

"BRUNSWICK, 24th Dec., 1768.

        "I do solemnly swear that if any officer or any other person do make distress of any goods or any other estate of any person sworne herein, being a subscriber, for non-payment of taxes, that I will, with sufficient assistance, go and take, if in my power, the goods or other property thus distressed, and restore the same to the party from whom the same was taken. And in case anyone concerned herein should be imprisoned, or under arrest, I will immediately do my best endeavours to raise as many of the said subscribers as will be a force sufficient to set said person and his estate at liberty. If any of our company for such acts be put to any expense or confinement, I will bear an equal share to make up the losses to the sufferer.

        "All these I do promise, and subscribe my name."


        This paper has never before been published.

        In a memorial of the people of Anson County to Gov. Tryon, they complain of the conduct of "Col." Samuel Spencer, the clerk and member of the county, who purchased his office of Col. Frohawk, and gave £150 for it, and they allege that the people should not be taxed but by consent of themselves or their delegates,


Page 5

and they recommend that the magistrates, clerk, and sheriff should be elected by the people.*

        * For copy of this memorial, see Wheeler's History of N. C., II, 24.


        What an early and rapid stride did these patriotic men take, at this early day, in the right of the people to govern themselves, and declare a principle that fifty years after became the law of the land!

        I find among the early records the name James Cotten, and from curiosity more than a hope that the memory of such a man may be useful, we present his infamous conduct. We could wish in describing the men of our State, to present only the patriotic, the virtuous, and the good; and, like the motto of the Roman sun-dial--


                         "Non numero horas, nisi screnas."

        But truth demands that we should present facts. Such men as Cotten, in these perilous times, were only


                         "Vermin gendered on the Lion's mane--"
                         whose acts consign them to contempt.

        Among the Colonial records in London, I find the following letter:

"CRUISER SLOOP OF WAR,
"21 July, 1775.

        "I have received your letter of the 15th inst., by Mr. Cunningham, and highly approve of your proper and spirited conduct, while I cannot sufficiently express my indignation and contempt of the proceedings of Captain-General Spencer and his unworthy confederates. You and other friends of the Government have only to stand your ground firmly!

        "Major Snead may be assured of my attentions to all his wishes.

        "I beg my compliments may be presented to Colonel MacDonald.

"I am, Sir,
"Your humble servant,

"Jo. MARTIN.

"To Lt. Col. James Cotten, "Anson Co., N. C."


        I found, also, among the Colonial records in London, the deposition of James Cotten, taken 14th Aug., 1775, on board of His Majesty's sloop of war, the "Cruiser," where he had been for succor and for safety. Anson County had become rather too hot for him, which proves the determined spirits of the patriots, and whose names should be cherished in history. This deposition states--

        "I was called before the committee for Anson County; and Samuel Spencer, the chairman, stated that they had sent for me as one of the burgesses of the county, to know if I would sign and approve of the resolves of the Continental Congress, which were read to me by Mr. Thomas Wade. I refused. They said that they should proceed against me, and gave me two weeks to consider.

        "On the Tuesday following, David Love, accompanied by William Love, Samuel Curtis, William Covington, and another, all armed, came to my house and took me, notens volens, towards Mask's Ferry, on the Pedee.

        "I escaped from them, traveling as secretly as possible, sleeping in the woods at night, and reached this vessel on Sunday night last."


        Deposition of Samuel Williams, who escaped with Colonel Cotten, taken at the same time and place:

        From dispatch of Gov. Martin, dated--

"NEW YORK, 15th Sept., 1777.

        "Two vessels have arrived here from North Carolina, bringing refugees.

        "A Mr. James Cotten, of No. Ca., who went hence some time ago, will probably have waited on your Lordship.

        "He is a man of vulgar life and character, and is a native of New England, and I do not estimate him very highly."

        We now will bid "Good-bye to James."


        Allusion has been made to Samuel Spencer.

        He was a member of the Colonial Assembly at an early day, and in 1774 elected to the Provincial Congress at New Berne, which was the first organized movement of the people in a legislative capacity in open opposition, and independent of the Royal Government. This body sent delegates to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia.


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        It may be interesting for reference, to note the Provincial Congresses, the place and time from the first to the last, which formed the Constitution.

        1st met on 25th August, 1774, New Berne; 2d met on 4th April, 1775, New Berne; 3d met on 21st August, 1775, Hillsboro; 4th met on 12th April, 1776, Halifax; 5th met on 12th November, 1776, Halifax; which latter body formed the Constitution on 18th December, 1776.

        He was repeatedly elected to the State Congresses, and in 1777 was chosen one of the three judges of the Superior Courts, first elected under the State Constitution, which elevated position he held until his death.

        He was a member of the convention at Hillsboro, in July, 1788, to deliberate upon the Federal Constitution, its able and active opponent, and contributed greatly to its rejection.

        Of his character and career as a judge (since of this early day there do not exist any reports of the decisions of the courts) we know but little; but from his long exercise of this high office with the approbation and respect of his associates, he was esteemed a faithful and able jurist. He died in 1794. The account of the singular cause of his death, as stated in my History of North Carolina, having been doubted, we extract from the Fayetteville Gazette of 1794 the following:

        "DIED.--At his seat in Anson County on the 20th ulto., the Honorable Samuel Spencer, L. L. D., and one of the Judges of the Superior Courts of this State. His Honor's health had been declining for about two years, but he performed the last circuit three months since, and we understand intended to have left home in a few days for this town, where the Superior Court is now sitting, had it not been for the following accident which it is thought hastened his death.

        "He was sitting on the piazza with a red cap on his head, when he attracted the attention of a large turkey gobbler. The judge being sleepy began to nod; the turkey mistaking the nodding and the red cap for a challenge to battle, made so violent and unexpected an attack on his Honor, that he was thrown out of his chair on the floor, and before he could get any assistance, so beat and bruised him that he died in a few days."


        A Philadelphia paper, at the time, as to this occurence, makes the following jeu d'esprit.


                         In this degenerate age,
                         What hosts of knaves engage,
                         And do all they can
                         To fetter braver men;
                         Dreading they should be free,
                         Leagued with the scoundrel pack,
                         Even turkey cocks attack
                         The red cap of Liberty.

        In this county resides Thomas Samuel Ashe, one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of North Carolina.

        The maxim is correct in history as in other matters, "Viventes non licet nemium ludare."But our Reminiscences of the State would be incomplete without a sketch of this worthy citizen. In doing so, however, the advice of Othello will be observed:


                         --Speak of me as I am;
                         Nothing extenuate, or set down aught in malice.

        There is no name more familiar to the people of North Carolina, or more highly appreciated by them, than that of Ashe. In every contest for liberty, from the earliest period of our history, whether on the field of actual battle or in the conflicts of politics, there is no period when persons of this name have not been first and foremost in the defence of our country's rights and liberty, and in the prompt resistance to oppression. In grateful appreciation, the State has preserved the name of Ashe, by inscribing it on one of her counties and on two of her most flourishing towns.*

        * Asheville and Ashboro.


Surely, then, none of us of the present age, who have inherited the rich legacy won by their efforts and their blood, can refuse the respect and honor due to their sacrifices and their valor.


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        The ancestor of this name, John Baptista Ashe, a century and a half ago, [1730], opposed the abuses and usurpations of the Royal Governor Burrington, by whom he was oppressed and imprisoned. His eldest son, in the carliest dawn of our Revolution, was the decided advocate and defender of popular rights, and the resolute and unyielding opponent of tyranny and official abuse. He was the daring patriot that "bearded the Douglas in his castle," and defied "the wolf of the State," Gov. Tryon, to execute the infamous Stamp Act of his master. He seized, in his very presence, the stamp master, and compelled him to pledge himself not to execute the odious enactment. It was he that drove the last of the Royal Governors from his palance, destroyed his fort, and compelled him to seek refuge on board of the English man-of-war in the Cape Fear River. For these acts he was denounced by the Government in a Royal proalamation. In the cause of popular rights he was willing "to spend and be spent," and did spend his substance, and was ready to lay down his life in the cause of the people. His course and conduct received, as it deserved, the support of the people. "They loved him because he first loved them." "None feared to follow where an Ashe led." So far from heeding or fearing the fulminations of power, he resigned the commission he had held in the Royal service, and by pledging his estate he soon raisod a reginment, which he was unanimously called to command, and rendered important services in the Revolutionary War to the day of his death.

        "This family," says Mr. Davis, in his address at the University, [1855,] "contributed largely to the cause of the country in the Revolution--every grown male of the family." Deep, then, should be our gratitude. They and their descendants have since pervaded our country, from the Cape Fear to the mountains; to Tennessee, California, Missouri, and elsewhere. Wherever they have gone they are respected for their virtues, and esteemed for their abilities. They have occupied, in their adopted homes, positions of honor, trust, and profit, illustrated and elevated such positions, as Jones, in his Fefence, has expressed it, "by genius, talent, and accomplishments."

        Another son of John Baptista Ashe, and whose patronomic the subject of our sketch bears, was his direct anecestor.

        Judge Ashe was born in June, 1812, at Hawfields, then Orange County, now Alamance. He received his education from William Bingham, the elder, and at the University of the State, where he graduated with high honors in 1832, in the same class with Thomas L. Clingman, James C. Dobbin, John H. Haughton, Cadwallader Jones, and others. Those who know these names, and their splendid endowments, and their brilliant career in life, will appreciate the honor attained in such competition. He read law with Judge Ruffin, with whom he always was a special favorite. After being licensed to practice law, by the Supreme Court, he settled at Wadesboro, where he now resides. He was elected a member of the House of Commons in 1842, and a member of the Senate in 1854.

        In the troubled times of the evil war, he was elected a member of the Confederate Congress, and in 1864, a member of the Confederate Senate, but never took his seat.

        In 1868, he was nominated to lead a forlorn hope, as the Democratic candidate for Governor, in opposition to Governor Holden, and made a gallant, but unsucesssful, campaign. In 1872, he received the unexpected and unsolicited nomination for the Congress of the United States; and again in 1874. He was triumphantly elected, and served faithfully and usefully. No member of either party stood higher in Congress for integrity, intelligence, and fidelity to the Constitution. A member of


Page 8

one of the most important committees (the Judiciary), he commanded the confidence and respect of his associates, and many of their most important reports were the results of his acumen and patient investigation. He was most attentive to thse onerous duties; always puctual in his attendance, and rendered essential service in their deliberations.

        After four years' service in Congress, to the universal and profound regret of his associates, he was retired from Congress by the nominating convention of his district, and he returned to his profession, which was far more germane to his tastes and his talents than the bustle and excitement of political strife. It is well remembered by the writer of this sketch, how universal and sincere, in Congress and out of it, were the expressions of regret at his retirement. The prediction was then made which soon became prophecy, that "North Carolina was too proud of such a son to allow him to remain long in retirement; that son he would be called on to occupy other and more elevated positions" This precition has been verified; for, without any intimation or exertion on his part, in June, 1878, he was nominated by the State Convention, on the first ballot, as one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, in preference to a score of the ablest lawyers of the State.

        He was triumphantly elected, at the head of the ticket, by the people at the polls, and we predict, again, that the ermine worn so long and so gracefully by our Hall, Henderson, Taylor, ruffin, Daniel, Gaston and others will suffer no detriment from Judge Ashe.

        Judge Ashe is now in the meridian of life, and there are years of strength and usefulness yet to be employed by him in the interest of the people of a State that love and honor him. He married a daughter of the late George Burgwin, and has a large and interesting family. He is a member of the Episcopal Church, and a consistent and sincere follower of its sacred tenets.

        We conclude our feeble sketch in the words of Cardinal Wolsey of Sir Thomas More:


                         --He is a learned man?
                         May he continue long in the people's favor,
                         And do justice for truth's sake and his conscience;
                         That his bones, when he has done his course and sleeps in blessings,
                         May have a tomb of orphans' tears wept over them.

        [See Appendix, Genealogy of the Ashe Family.]

        Richard Tyler Bennett was born near Wadesboro. He was prepared for college by the Anson Institute, under the superntendence of Professor MeIver, and was for a time a student at the University. He read law under Chief Justice Pearson, and finished his legal studies at Lebanon College, Tennessee.

        He ardently entered the Confederate service in the Civil War as a private, refusing the position of an officer; but afterwards, from his gallantry and usefulness, was promoted to a colonelcy. He was engaged in several battles, severely wonded, and finally taken prisoner, and confined in Fort Delaware until the close of the war.

        Since the war he has continually resided at Wadesboro, and for some years was the partner of Hon. Thomas S. Ashe.

        He was a member of the Convention of 1875, and of the House in 1873-'74. He was selected as elector for his [7th] district on the Hancock ticket, and was doing yeoman's service in this position when he was nominated as Superior Court Judge, in place of Judge Buxton, resgiend, in August, 1880.

        "He is," says the Charlotte Democrat, "a gifted advocate, and highly esteemed by the profession."


Page 9

CHAPTER III.
BEAUFORT COUNTY.

        BEAUFORT COUNTY preserves the name Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, and although it is not within our proposed project, yet we cannot refrain from recording, in a short note, the worth and character of this illustrious statesman.

        We copy from the "Gentleman's Magazine," (London, 1803, vol. 73, 994,) as a beautiful description of a model gentleman:

        "DIED.--At his seat Radmenton, County of Gloucester, on 11 Oct., 1803, in his 59th year, the most noble, Henry Sommerset, Duke of Beaufort.

        "His Grace will be much lamented by his family, friends, and his numerous tenantry. He maintained the dignity of his station rather by the noble simplicity of his manners, and his proverbial hospitality, than by any attention to exterior splendor or display of fashion. It was not his taste to solicit notice by any of those atractions at which the public gaze with temporary admiration.

        "In politics, he supported a tranquil, dignified independence, and the support he generally gave to His Majesties' Ministers, could never be attributed to any motives but such as were perfectly consistent with the integrity which distinguished his life."


        He was a distinguished Free Mason; was Grand Master of England, and as such commissioned Grand Master Montford, of North Carolina, in 1771, to establish lodges in America, and from whom the Grand Lodge of North Carolina holds its charter. He became, by purchase of the Duke of Albemarle, posessed of the right as one of the Lord's Propietors of the Province, which in 1729, revested in the crownh. Worthy is the name preserved in our State.

        The capital of Beaufort preserves the name (clarum et venerable) of the immortal Washington.

        This name has been so frequently the subject of eulogy and admiration, that any attempt to enlarge on his character and services would be ridiculous excess. But we cannot refrain from printing and preserving the exquisite and truthful extract from Mr. Jefferson's works:

        Jefferson's Character of Washington.*

        * From the Domestic Life of Thos, Jefferson, by his grandaughter Sarah N. Randolph; New York, Harper & Brothers, 1872, p. 356.



        Letter from Jefferson to Dr. Walter Jones, 2d Jan., 1814:

        "I think I knew General Washington intimately and thoroughly. His mind was great and powerful without being of the very first order; his penetration strong, though not so acute as that of a Newton, Bacon, or Locke, and as far as he saw, no judgment was ever sounder; it was slow in operation, being little aided by nvention or imagination, but sure in conclusion, hence the common remark of his officers of the advantage he derived from councils of war, where, hearing all suggestions, he selected whatever was best, and certainly no General ever planned his battles more judiciously. But if deranged during the course of action, if any member of his plan was disclocated by sudden circumstances, he was slow in a readjusmtent. The consequence was that he often failed in the field, as at Monmouth, butrarely against an enemy in station, as at Boston and York. He was incapable of fear, meeting personal danger with the calmest unconcern. Perhaps the strongest feature in his haracter was prudence; never acting until every circumstance, every consideration, was maturely weightd, refraining if he saw a doubt; but, when once decided, going through with his purpose whatever obstacles opposed. His integrity was most pure; his justice most inflexible I have never known; no motives of interest, or consanguinity of friendship or hatred, being able to bias his decision. He was, indeed, in every sense of the word, a wise, a good, and a great man. His temper was naturally irritable and high-toned; but reflection and resolution had obtained a firm and habitual ascendency over it; if ever, however, it broke its bounds, he was most


Page 10

tremendous in his wrath. In his expenses he was honorable, but exact; liberal in contribution to whatever promised utility, but frowning and unyielding on all visionary projects, and all unworthy calls on his charity. His heart was not warm in its affections; but he exactly calculated every man's value and gave him solid esteem proportioned to it. His presence, you know, was fine; his stature exactly what one could wish. His deportment was easy, erect, and noble; the best horseman of his age, and the most graceful figure that could be seen on horseback.

        "Although in the circle of his friends, where he might be unreserved in safety, he took a free share in conversation, his colloquial talents were not above mediocrity, possessing neither copiousness of ideas nor fluency of words. In public, when called on for a sudden opinion, he was unready, short, and embarrassed; yet he wrote readily, rather diffusely, in an easy, correct style. This he had acquired by conversation with the world, for his education was merely reading, writing, and common arithmetic, to which he added surveying at a later day.

        "His time was employed in action chiefly, reading little, and that only in agriculture and English history. His correspondence became necessarily extensive, and with journalizing his agricultural proceedings, occupied most of his leisure hours within doors.

        "On the whole, his character was, in its mass, perfect; in nothing bad; in a few points indifferent, and it may truly be said, that never did nature and fortune combine more perfectly to make a man great, and to place in the same constellation with whatever worthies have merited from man an everlasting remembrance, for his was the singular destiny and merit of leading the armies of his country successfully through an arduous war to the establishment of its independence; of conducting its councils through the birth of a Government, new in its forms and principles, until it settled down into a quiet and orderly train, and of scrupulously obeying the laws through the whole of his career, civil and military, of which the history of the world furnishes no other example.

        "He has often declared to me that he considered our new Constitution as an experiment on the practicability of republican government, and with what dose of liberty man could be trusted with for his own good; that he was determined the experiment should have a fair trial, and would lose the last drop of his blood in support of it."


        To a friend, on one occasion, Mr. Jefferson exclaimed, in a burst of enthusiasm, "Washington's fame will go on increasing until the brightest constellation in yonder heavens shall be called by his name."


                         'His memory sparkles o'er the fountain,'
                         His name's inscribed on loftiest mountain--
                         The gentle rill, the mightiest river,
                         Rolls mingled with his name forever!

        Washington, like the great patromia of Beaufort, was an enthusiastic Mason.

        In the language of Mr. Knapp, in his admirable sketch of Judge Gridley, Grand Master of Massachusetts--

        "It was fortunate for the Masonic fraternity that a man of such fine elements should become engaged at this early period in the cause of the craft; his weight of character, his zeal and his ability to defend and support its cause, was important, and did much to diffuse Masonic light and knowledge. This order of benevolence had just been established in this new world when he was appointed its Grand Master, and he wore its honors unsullied to the last hour of his life. His coadjutor in planting and cultivating this exuberant vine of charity, with whose fruit all nations have been blessed, was the sage and patriotic Franklin, under whose hands, by the smiles of Providence, its roots have struck deeper and deeper, and its branches spread higher and wider; while the fondest hopes of philanthropy have been more than realized in the permanency and the prosperity of our country and our craft. If their spirits could revisit the earth and take note of what is doing here, with what joy would they witness the extension and progress of every branch of knowledge among their descendants; and with what pleasure would they count the number of charitable institutions which, like the dews of Heaven, so gently spread their blissful influences and shed their healing balsams upon the wounds of life.

        "The history of benevolent and useful intitutions are as valuable to the community as are the lives of eminent men. These institutions are like rivers which spring from remote and hidden fountains, and are in their course


Page 11

enlarged by a thousand tributary streams, which all unite in one grand current, to swell the amount of human happiness and lessen the ills which flesh is heir to."


        This truthful enlogium may well be applied to North Carolina, for the men who fought for and framed her Constitution were earliest and devoted friends to the cause of Free Masonry. Among her Grand Masters were Samuel Johnston, [1788,] Richard Caswell, [from 1789 to '92,] Wm. R. Davie, ['92 to 1799,] William Polk, [1800 to 1802,] John Louis Taylor, [1803,] John Hall, [1804,] Robert Strange, [1824,] Edwin G. Reade, [1865,] Robert B. Vance, [1866.]

        These distinguished men were proud to lay aside for a time the sword of the soldier, the ermine of the judge, and the laurels of the statesman, to labor as fellow-crafts in the cause of "Free and Accepted Masons."

        The craft is in a flourishing condition in North Carolina. There are now about 400 Lodges and about 12,000 members, sustaining in asylums at Oxford and Mars Hill 134 orphans, and advocated by the Orphans' Friend, a periodical.

        An incident worthy of record as to the humanizing influence of Masonry, even in the face of "grim-visaged war," occurred at the battle of Manassas. A gallant Georgia officer was shot down as he was forming his company in line of battle. He refused to be taken from the field. His regiment, under an overwhelming charge of the enemy, was compelled to fall back, and the poor fellow, unable to move, was made prisoner. He was about to be bayoneted, when he gave the Masonic sign of distress. The uplifted weapon fell harmless, and he was taken up by brotherly hands, his wounds attended to, and his sufferings alleviated. This was Orderly Sergeant O. B. Eve, of the Miller Rifles, of Rome, Georgia.

        Many such incidents occurred at other times and places, proving the influence and value of Masonry.

THE BLOUNTS OF BEAUFORT.*

        * We present under Craven County a careful and elaborate genealogy of the Blount family, which will, we trust, be acceptable for reference and worthy of study.


        As early as 1782, General John Gray Blount represented the county of Beaufort in the Legislature. He was enterprising and successful in business, and a large land owner. His father was Jacob Blount, who was an officer at the battle of Alamance and in the Revolutionary War. Jacob was also the father of Governor William Blount, (for sketch of whom see Craven,) who was Governor of Tennessee, and of Thomas, who was a volunteer in the Revolutionary army at the age of sixteen, and commanded as major at the battle of Eutaw; was a member of Congress in 1793-'99 and 1805-'09, and died at Washington City 1812. Jacob was also the father of Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee from 1809 to '15.

        General William A. Blount, born 1794, died 1867, was the son of General John Gray Blount, and was well known in North Carolina, and much esteemed for his genial qualities, his extended and varied abilities, and his public services. At the early age of eighteen he entered the army of the United States as a subaltern, in the war of 1812, and continued in the army until the war was over. Such were his faithful services that he was promoted to the rank of captain.

        On his return from the army he was elected major-general of the third division of North Carolina militia, a position at that time, in the unsettled condition of our affairs, of much distinction and responsibility. His next public service was as a member of the Legislature from Beaufort County, in 1825, and such was the acceptability of his course that he was re-elected in 1826 and '27.

        When in the public councils, he advocated the most liberal system of public improvements,


Page 12

and was for years a member of the Board of Internal Improvements. He was the devoted friend of public schools, and for a long time a member of the Board of Trustees [appointed 1825] of the University; its steady, active, and consistent friend.

        He was intensely southern in his whole course of life; the active opponent of all protection and class legislation; the devoted advocate of free trade and the rights of the States. His course in the Free Trade Convention at Philadelphia, one of the ablest bodies that ever assembled in this country, proves his ardent devotion to principle.

        But it was at home, in the exercise of the kindly charities of life, the affectionate parent, the obliging and symphathizing neighbor, the sincere and uncalculating friend, his openhanded charity--


                         Charity that feels for another's woes,
                         And hides the faults that we see;--

        that specially marked the life and character of General William A. Blount.

        None that knew him (and the writer knew him long and well) can ever cease to remember his genial manner, his commanding presence, and his knightly bearing.

        His conversational powers were unrivaled; though often incisive, pointed and witty, they were never coarse or offensive. These qualities made him always a welcome guest, and "the flashes of his wit often set the table in a roar."

        Of him may be truly said as Anthony of the noble Brutus--


                         -- His life was gentle; and the elements
                         So mixed in him, that nature might stand up
                         And say to all the world, this was a Man.

[Julius Cæsar, V, 5.]


        He was twice married; first to Nancy Haywood, and second to Miss Littlejohn. By the first he left a son, Major Wm. A. Blount, and a daughter, Nancy, who still resides at Raleigh, and who married the lamented Gen. L. O'B. Branch.

        "Being thus fathered and thus husbanded" is the peerless rival of the Portias of ancient Rome.

        Mr. Cambreling, of New York, born 1786, died 1862.

        Although the public services of Churchill Caldom Cambreling have redounded to the fame of another State, yet he is a native son of North Carolina; and we believe in the divine injunction, to "give unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's." We intend to claim the merits, character, and services of every son of North Carolina, wherever we can find them.

        The following is a partial list of the native sons of North Carolina who have distinguished themselves as citizens of other States:

        In every portion of our nation may be found some native sons of the State, who, although separated, have never ceased to love their dear old mother; and who cherished to the last an abiding affection for her--a love unsurpassing the love of woman.

        We can say with Æneas to his fidus Achates--


                         -- Quis jam locus?
                         Quæ regis in terris nostri, non plena laboris.*

        * What place, what country, on the globe is not full of our labors--Virgil I, 459.



        Nor has North Carolina been selfish or churlish to those of other States who have settled and made her borders their home.

        Of the members of the Continental Congress Burke was from Ireland; Caswell from Maryland; Hooper from Massachusetts; Penn from Virginia; Williamson from Pennsylvania.

        Neither of the signers of the Declaration of Independence for North Carolina was a native of the State. Hewes was a native of New Jersey; Hooper, of Massachusetts; Penn, of Virginia.

        Penn, of Virginia, also signed the Constitution as a Delegate from North Carolina.

        Of the 1st Congress, [1789 to 1791,] Samuel Johnston was a native of Scotland; Hugh Williamson, of Pennsylvania.

        Of the 6th Congress, [1799-1801,] William H. Hill was a native of Massachusetts.

        Of the 10th Congress, James Turner was a native of Virginia.

        Felix Walker of Virginia was a member of the 15th, [1817-'19,] 16th, ['19-'21,] and 17th, ['21-'23] Congresses.

        Henry W. Connor, of Virginia, was a member of the 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d, 23d, 24th, 25th, and 26th Congresses.

        Abram W. Venable, of Virginia, was a member of the 30th, [1847-'49,] 31st, and 32d, Congresses.

        Richard C. Puryear, of Virginia, was a member of the 33d [1853-'55] Congress.

        H. M. Shaw, of Rhode Island, was a member of the 35th Congress.

        Nathaniel Boyden, of Massachusetts, David Heaton, of Ohio; John T. Deweese, of Arkansas, and John R. French, of New Hampshire, were members of the 40th [1867-'69] Congress.

        James C. Harper, of Pennsylvania was a member of the 41st [1871-73] Congress.

        And these are distinguished wherever they roam by their intrinsic worth, their unobtrusive demeanor, their abhorence of vice and love of virtue, their fidelity to their promises and contracts, their obedience and respect to law. And when elevated by an appreciative people, have been always equal to and never above or below the position they occupied, but discharged every duty with integrity, intelligence, to the satisfaction and approbation of their constitutents, and honor to the country.

        To return to our subject: Mr. Cambreling was a member of Congress from New York City from 1821 to 1839; chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means at one time, and of Foreign Affairs, which important posts were evidence of the high appreciation of his transcendent ability as a statesman. In 1840 he was appointed Minister to Russia.

        His name was derived from his great-grandfather, Churchill Caldom, whose father came from Scotland and settled on Pamlico River. On the maternal line he was the


Page 14

grandson of John Patton, a gallant officer of the Revolution, major of 2d Regiment of the N. C. Line in the Continental Army, and was engaged in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth. He was born in Washington, Beaufort County, N. C., and educated in New Berne. From the situation of his family, for he was early an orphan, he left school before his education was complete, and went into a store as a clerk. He moved in 1802 to New York, and engaged in mercantile pursuits with John Jacob Astor, and as his confidential clerk traveled extensively over the world. His reports in Congress, especially on commerce and navigation, were models of research and logic, and were republished in England. He died at West Neck, New York, on 30th April, 1862. (See "Demo. Review," VII, No. 14--"Lanman's Biographical Annals.")

        George E. B. Singletary.--On the 5th June, 1862, in a skirmish which ensued across Tranter's Creek, near Washington, in this county, between the 44th North Carolina and a heavy force of Union troops, fell the gallant commander of the North Carolina troops, Colonel Singletary.

        Colonel Singletary was an experienced and gallant officer, and had seen some service in the war with Mexico.

        Colonel S. was the oldest son of an Episcopal clergyman, and much esteemed for his legal acquirements and his genial social temper.

        He had married Cora, eldest daughter of Governor Manly.

        He was succeeded by his younger brother in command of the regiment.

        Captain John Julius Guthrie who was drowned near Nag's Head in November, 1877, while endeavoring to succor the passengers and crew of the U. S. Steamship "Huron," was a native of the town of Washington, the son of Dr. John W. Guthrie and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Captain William McDaniel.

        Captain Guthrie was no ordinary man, and well deserves remembrance for his virtues in private life, and his heoric gallantry. His education was conducted by Rev. Dr. Wm. McPheeters at Raleigh, and in 1833 he was appointed a cadet at West Point; but prefering the adventurous life of a sailor, after one year's probation at West Point, his friends procured in 1834 a midshipman's warrant in the Navy. He served with great acceptability at home and abroad, especially in the war with Mexico, and in the Anglo-French war in China; when our flag was insulted, displayed great gallantry and captured Barrier Forts, hauling down the China flag, which trophy he presented to the State, and for which he received the thanks of the Legislature.

        The following is a copy of the letter of the Governor, and of the resolutions of the Legislature:

TESTIMONY TO GALLANTRY
[Communicated to the National Intelligencer.].

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,

Raleigh,Aug. 23, 1859.

        SIR: I have this day received from Capt. A. J. Lawrence a Chinese flag, taken by you in an assault upon the barrier forts in the Canton river in November, 1856, by the forces of the United States ships "San Jacinto," "Portsmouth," and "Levant," as a present in your name to the State of North Carolina.

        Having been apprised of your desire to make this disposition of the flag, the last General Assembly, by resolutions, authorized me to receive it from you in behalf of the State, and at the same time to express to you the high appreciation of that body of your gallantry on the occasion referred to, and of this evidence of your veneration for the State of your birth.

        Believing that I cannot discharge this pleasing duty in a more acceptable manner than by transmitting these highly complimentary resolutions, I herewith enclose a copy of them as transcribed from the statute book.

        These resolutions, I am well assured, are


Page 15

none the less expressive of the sentiments of the people of the State than of their representatives who enacted them; for they have ever manifested a lively pleasure at the honorable distinctions achieved by the sons of North Carolina in every department of the public service. Every distinguished action of the citizens proves useful to the State in the example it affords to the youths of the country, who are thus apprised of the gratifying rewards that ever await a faithful discharge of duty.

        This flag, so gallantly taken by you in the maintainance of the rights and protection of the persons of American citizens in a distant land, will be placed among the valued treasures of the State, and will be looked upon by posterity, impressing all who may see it with the sentiments of esteem in which are held the brave conduct of the faithful soldier in the service of his country; and to our youths, to whom from time to time the story of its capture may be narrated, will be told that it is a trophy for which the State is indebted to one of her courageous sons who entered the service of the country when a mere boy, and who, without the aid of fortune or the influence of powerful friends, won his way to honorable distinction by his own upright deportment and gallant spirit. Thus, sir, will a valuable lesson be taught them, exciting in their bosoms a laudable ambition to emulate like honorable actions.

        Trusting that your career will prove one of continued usefulness to the country and distinction to yourself, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

JOHN W. ELLIS.

Lieut. JOHN JULIUS GUTHRIE, U. S. Navy.


RESOLUTIONS authorizing the Governor of the State to receive a flag tendered to the State of North Carolina by Lieut. Guthrie, of the U. S. Navy.

        Whereas John Julius Guthrie, a lieutenant in the United States Navy and a native of the State of North Carolina, now on official duty at the National Observatory, Washington, D. C., did, on the 20th day of November, 1856, capture and carry off as a trophy of war a Chinese flag from the first of four barrier forts captured in a combined engagement by the "San Jacinto," "Portsmouth," and "Levant," on the part of the American naval force, and other vessels under the command of Rear Admiral Seymore, on the part of the English, in the Canton River:

        And whereas the chastisement inflicted on that occasion was in defence of American and English citizens residing in that locality, and had the happy effect of securing to them immunity from violence and insult to their persons and property:

        And whereas said Lieut. Guthrie has been induced by his friends in the city of Raleigh and elsewhere to express a willingness to tender this flag to his native State, with a desire that she would accept it as an humble evidence of filial sentiments and affectionate recollection: Therefore--

        Resolved: That the Governor of the State be authorized and requested to accept the flag thus tendered by Lieut. Guthrie at such time and place and in such way and manner as may appear suitable and proper.

        Resolved further: That he be requested, in behalf of this General Assembly, to express to Lieut. Guthrie its high appreciation of his gallantry on that occasion and this evidence of his veneration for the State of his birth.

        Resolved thirdly: That the Governor be further requested to make such disposition of the flag, when received, as he may think this trophy of her son deserves.

        Ratified February 15, 1859.

        True copy from the original.

GRAHAM DAVES,
Private Secretary.

Raleigh, August 22, 1859.

        After service of nearly thirty years, when the civil war broke out, he was under the necessity of resigning, and entered into the Confederate service, where he did efficient and active duty at New Orleans and elsewhere. He was at one time in command of the "Advance," running the blockade between Wilmington and the Bermudas. After the war was over, he removed with his family to Portsmouth, Va., and in the Fall of 1865 was pardoned by the President, (Johnson.) being the first officer of the regular service who had received Executive clemency. His disabilities being removed by a unanimous recommendation from the members of Congress, he was appointed by General Grant to the "Superintendency of the Life-Saving Stations from Cape Henry to Cape Hatteras," in the discharge of the duties of which he lost his life.


Page 16

He left a wife (Louisa, daughter of Benjamin Spratly,) and children to mourn his loss. It was near the dreaded Cape Hatteras so often before and since the death-place of the brave, did the gallant Guthrie meet his death.

        This fearful spot has been beautifully and fearfully depicted in poetry by another son of North Carolina, now, too, no more:

HATTERAS.


                         The Wind King from the North came down.
                         Nor stopped by river, mount, or town;
                         But like a boisterous god at play,
                         Resistless, bounding on his way,
                         He shook the lake and tore the wood,
                         And flapped his wings in merry mood,
                         Nor furled them, till he spied afar.
                         The white caps flash on Hatteras Bar,
                         Where fierce Atlantic landward bowls,
                         O'er treacherous sands and hidden shoals.


                         He paused, then wreathed his horn of cloud,
                         And blew defiance long and loud;
                         "Come up! Come up, thou torrid god,
                         That rul'st the Southern Sea!
                         Ho! lightning-eyed and thunder-shod,
                         Come wrestle here with me!
                         As tosset thou the tangled cane
                         I'll hurl thee o'er the boiling main."


                         The angry heavens hung dark and still,
                         Like Arctic night on Hecla's hill;
                         The mermaids sporting on the waves,
                         Affrighted, fled to coral caves;
                         The billow checked its curling crest,
                         And, trembling, sank to sudden rest;
                         All ocean stilled its heaving breast.
                         Reflected darkness, weird and dread,
                         An inky plain the waters spread--
                         So motionless, since life was fled!


                         Amid this elemental lull,
                         When nature died, and death lay dull,
                         As though itself were sleeping there--
                         Becalmed upon that dismal flood.
                         Ten fated vessels idly stood,
                         And not a timber creaked!


                         "Come up! Come up, thou torrid god,
                         Thou lightning-eyed and thunder-shod,
                         And wrestle here with me!"
                         `Twas heard and answered: "Lo! I come
                         From azure Carribee,
                         To drive thee, cowering, to thy home,
                         And melt its walls of frozen foam."


                         From every isle and mountain dell,
                         From plains of pathless chaparral,
                         From tide built bars, where sea-birds dwell.
                         He drew his lurid legions forth--
                         And sprang to meet the white-plumed North


                         Can mortal tongue in song convey
                         The fury of that fearful fray?
                         How ships were splintered at a blow--
                         Sails shivered into shreds of snow--
                         And seamen hurled to death below!
                         Two gods commingling, bolt and blast,
                         The huge waves on each other cast,


                         And bellowed o'er the raging waste;
                         Then sped, like harnessed steeds, afar,
                         That drag a shattered battle-car
                         Amid the midnight din of war!


                         Smile on, smile on, thou watery hell,
                         And toss those skulls upon thy shore;
                         The sailor's widow knows thee well;
                         His children beg from door to door,
                         And shiver, while they strive to tell
                         How thou hast robbed the wretched poor!

[JOS. W. HOLDEN.]

        This theme has also inspired the pen of an earlier poet:

*THE PILOT OF HATTERAS.

        * Written off the Cape, July, 1789, on a voyage to South Carolina, being detained sixteen days with strong gales ahead.


[From the National Gazette, Philadelphia, Monday, January 16, 1792.]


                         In fathoms five, the anchor gone,
                         While here we furl the sail,
                         No longer vainly laboring on
                         Against the western gale;
                         While here thy bare and barren cliffs,
                         O Hatteras, I survey,
                         And shallow grounds and broken reefs;
                         What shall amuse my stay?


                         The Pilot comes. From yonder sands
                         He shoyes his barque so frail,
                         And hurrying on, with busy hands,
                         Employs both oar and sail.
                         Beneath this rude, unsettled sky
                         Condemn'd to pass his years;
                         No other shores delight his eye,
                         No foe alarms his fears.


                         In depths of woods his hut he builds,
                         Where ocean round him flows,
                         And blooming in the barren wilds
                         His simple garden grows.
                         His wedded nymph, of sallow hue,
                         No mingled colors grace.
                         For her he toils, to her is true,
                         The captive of her face.


                         Kind nature here, to make him blest,
                         No quiet harbor plann'd,
                         And poverty, his constant guest,
                         Restrains the pirate band.
                         His hopes are all in yonder flock
                         Or some few hives of bees,
                         Except, when bound for Ocracock,*

        * All vessels from the northward that pass within Hatteras Shoals, bound for New Berne and other places on Pimlico Sound, commonly, in favorable weather, take a Hatteras pilot to conduct them over the dangerous bar of Ocracock, eleven leagues W. S. W. of the Cape.



                         Some gliding barque he sees;


                         His Marian then he quits with grief,
                         And spreads his tottering sails,
                         While, waving high her handkerchief,
                         Her commodore she hails.
                         She grieves, and fears to see no more
                         The sail that now forsakes,
                         From Hatteras' sands to banks of Core,
                         Such tedious journeys takes.


                         Fond nymph! your sighs are breath'd in vain,
                         Restrain those idle fears.
                         Can you, that should relieve his pain,
                         Thus kill him with your tears?
                         Can absence thus beget regard,
                         Or does it only seem?
                         He comes to meet a wandering band
                         That seeks fair Ashley's stream.


Page 17


                         Tho' disappointed in his views,
                         Not joyless will we part;
                         Nor shall the god of mirth refuse
                         The balsam of the heart.
                         No niggard key shall lock up joy;
                         I'll give him half my store,
                         Will he but half his skill employ
                         To guard us from your shore.


                         Where western gales once more awake
                         What dangers will be near.
                         Alas! I see the billows break.
                         Alas! why came I here?
                         With quarts of rum and pints of gin,
                         Go, pilot, seek the land,
                         And drink till you and all your kin
                         Can neither sit nor stand.

SINBAD.

        Edward Stanley represented Beaufort County in 1844-'46 and '48, and was often Speaker of the House.

        He was elected Attorney-General in 1847, and a member of Congress from 1837 to 1843 and from 1849 to 1853. He removed then [1853] to California, to practice his profession.

        In 1857 he was the Republican candidate for Governor, and was defeated, receiving 21,040 votes to 53,122 for the Democratic candidate, Weller.

        After the capture of New Berne [14th March, 1862,] he was appointed by Mr. Lincoln Military Governor of North Carolina, which, after a few months, he resigned, and returned to San Francisco, where he died, on the 12th July, 1872.

        We would fain tread lightly on the ashes of the dead, but faithful history demands, like Cromwell of his artist, "Paint me as I am, warts and all."

        Mr. Stanley was considered as a decided party leader in Congress, and acquired an unhappy reputation for an over-indulgence in vindictive feelings and ultra denunciation of his political opponents. This unhappy trait of character, as was to be expected, involved him in frequent difficulties, political and personal. Perhaps it was constitutional, and a fatal inheritance; for his father bad, in a political quarrel, killed Governor Spaight, and was considered aggressive and violent in his political conduct. Inheriting this trait, Mr. Stanley had, in Congress, involved himself in a violent personal altereation with his colleague, Hon. Thomas L. Clingman; another with Hon. Mr. Inge, of Alabama, which terminated in a duel, and with Governor Wise, of Virginia, who applied a riding-whip to his shoulders.

        His career as Military Governor of North Carolina was a failure, not meeting the approbation of those who sent him, and destroying his reputation with those with whom he was reared, and by whom he had been honored. The most notable achievement of his mission was his letter to General D. H. Hill, of 24th March, 1862, abounding in bitterness, in which he declared that he "preferred serving in a brigade of negroes" than to belong to the troops commanded by General Hill, who then was defending Mr. Stanley's native land.

        Whatever motives influenced Mr. Stanley to undertake so hopeless a mission, all his attempts to compromise the difficulties were idle and abortive. The bloody chasm had Opened its ponderous jaws.
and any endeavor to heal the dissensions between the excited belligerents only tonded to bring suspicion from one side, and hatred from the other.

        The following letter, from one of the first men in point of ability in North Carolina, and a near kinsman of Mr. Stanley, shows public option as to Mr. S.'s course, and the state of public affairs at the unhappy period, and deserves to be preserved. It was written to Hon. Alfred Ely, who was a member of Congress from New York, and was at the battle


Page 18

of Bull Run as a spectator. He was taken prisoner, and at the date of this letter was an inmate of the Libby Prison in Richmond:

        "Mr. ELY:--Your letter to Mr. Stanley, proposing to him to cherish the feeling of "Unionism" in North Carolina, came to my hands in an unsealed envelope, directed to my wife. I take the liberty of setting you right upon a fact, and showing you what a hopeless task you have proposed to Mr. Stanley.

        "There is no Union feeling in North Carolina, as you suppose, and is probably supposed by the generality of Northern men.

        "There was in this State a very strong Union feeling--a strong love for the Union as established by our forefathers--but as soon as Mr. Lincoln's proclamation of April, 1861, appeared, offering us the alternative of joining an armed invasion of our Southern Sister States, for their subjugation, or resisting the authorities of the United States, our position was taken without a moment's hesitation. A Convention was promptly called, and instantly, without a dissenting voice, that Convention resolved to take our sides with the already seceded States, and share their fate for good or evil. From that moment, however we may have differed in other things, there has not been, and there is not, any difference; hence our people with one heart sprung to arms. Our people have now nearly sixty regiments in the field, (not skeletons, but full regiments,) and among them not a single conscript or drafted man. Hence we have taxed ourselves freely; have used our credit freely in making loans to support the war. The spirit which has produced this has never flagged; but is now as high and active as at first.

        "Mr. Ely, think a moment! We have been invaded by an enemy as unrelenting and ferocious as the hordes under Attilla and Alaric, who overrun the Roman Empire; he comes to rob us; to murder our people; to insult our women; to emancipate our slaves, and is now preparing to add a new element to this most atrocious aggression, and involve us in the direful horrors of a civil war. He proposes nothing else than our entire destruction; the desolation of our country; universal emancipation--not from a love of the slaves, but from hatred to us. 'To crush us;' 'to wipe out the South;' to involve us in irremediable misery and hopeless ruin.

        "Now, Mr. Ely, if your own State of New York was so threatened, what would be your feelings and purposes? From these, you may judge of ours.

        "We look with horror at the thought of being again united in any political connection with the North. We would rather, far, that our State should be a Colony of England, or France, or Sardinia.

        "The North may be able (though we do not believe it) to conquer us, and even to keep us conquered, and if it should be the wise and good purpose of the Almighty that this should happen, we shall endeavor to suffer with patience whatever ills may befall us; but a voluntary return to any union with the North, we cannot, will not, accept on any terms--a revival of any Union sentiments is an impossibility.

        "I think, therefore, Mr. Ely, you would do well to advise Mr. Stanley to abandon his enterprise.

        "He a Governor of North Carolina! a Governor deriving his authority from a commission of Mr. Lincoln!

        "The very title is an insult to us. The very appointment is the assumption of the rights of a conqueror. But we are not yet conquered. And do you think Mr. Stanley's coming here, in such a character, supported by Northern bayonets, serves to commend him to our favor; to breathe in us the gentle sentiments of amity and peace toward himself or those who sent him here? Mr. Ely, as you have opened a correspondence with Mr. Stanley, you had better write to him yourself, and say this to him:

        "If he wishes the honored name of Stanley to become a bye-word and a reproach, and to be spoken with scorn and hatred by all North Carolinians henceforth and forever, let him prosecute his present mission. If he does not wish this, let him return whence he came, and leave us to fight out the contest as best we may, without his interference.

"GEORGE E. BADGER."


        Whether Mr. Stanley ever received this letter or read it we are not advised; but, as already stated, he soon resigned his post, went to California, from whence he never returned. But as to Judge Badger, when the finale of the unhappy contest was settled, and all the hopes, as expressed in the foregoing graphic letter, were destroyed, his majestic mind sunk under the blow. Like some gallant ship in her


Page 19

proud career is suddenly thrown on hidden and perilous rocks, quivers under the disaster, and finally sinks under the overwhelming waves to darkness and to death. He died soon after the war, [1866,] paralyzed in body and enfeebled in intellect.


                         The ruins of the noblest man
                         That ever lived in tide of times.

        Richard Spaight Donnell, born 1820, died 1865, represented this county in the Senate in 1858, and in the Commons in 1860, '62 and '64; and in the latter two sessions he was elected Speaker. In 1847 he was elected a member of the 30th Congress, at the early age of twenty-seven.

        He was educated partly at Yale, and graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1839.

        He studied law and arose to high distinction in the profession. He wrote in 1863 a letter on "the rebellion," which gave him much reputation as a statesman.

        Blest with a competency, if not a superfluity of estate, he pursued his profession and politics more as an amusement than for profit or promotion.

        He was much loved by all who knew him for his genial and gentle manners, his modest, unassuming temper, and high-toned principles. As a man, he was just and faithful; as a lawyer, of learning and probity, and as a statesman, above all intrigue or reproach.

        He died unmarried, and his memory is enbalmed in the affections of all who knew him.

        William Blount Rodman, born 29th January 1817, represented Beaufort County in the Convention of 1868. He was elected one of the Justice of the Supreme Court, the term of which expired in 1878.

        He was educated at the University of North Carolina, and graduated in 1836 with the first honors.

        His mother was the daughter of General John Gray Blount, and the sister of General Wm. A. Blount, whose biography we have just presented.

        He studied law and has attained the highest rank in his profession. His opinions as a Judge of the Supreme Court are considered by many as models of research and learning. To some, however, "that glorious uncertainty" so proverbial to the law, is apparent in his rulings. Yet he is much esteemed by the profession as a just and learned jurist. He has never mingled much in politics, for, like Michael Angelo of his profession, he thinks the law too jealous a mistress to allow any rival in his affections. Like Hooker in his Ecclesiastical Polity, he believes "of law there can be no less acknowledged than that her seat is the bosom of God; her voice the harmony of the world. All things in heaven and earth do her homage; the very least, as feeling her care; and the greatest, as not exempt from her power. Both angels and men and creatures of what condition soever, though each in different sort and manner, yet all with uniform consent admiring her as the mother of their peace and joy."

        Edward J. Warren lived and died in Beaufort County. He was a native of the State of Vermont. Came to North Carolina and settled in Washington, as a teacher.

        He read law and attained great eminence in the profession. He represented the county in the Senate in 1862 and 1864, and was Speaker of the Senate. He was appointed by Governor Worth one of the Judges of the Superior Court.

        He married Deborah, daughter of Richard Bonnor. He died in 1878, much esteemed and regretted, leaving Charles F. Warren, now at the bar, and Lucy, who married William Rodman Myers.

        James Cook, late a captain in the Confederate Navy, says Dalton, was a native of Beaufort, Carteret County, N. C. His name should be preserved among "the men of North Carolina."


Page 20

His terrific engagement while commanding the Confederate steamer "Albemarie" with the Federal fleet, and clearing the Sound and the Roanoke river, after the capture of Plymouth by General Robert F. Hoke, who was so ably seconded by General M. W. Ransom, was a feat unparalleled in the annals of our naval warfare. Never before had the size of such guns and the weight of their crushing missiles been directed against any single vessel. Yet she struggled through it, having had the misfortune to have carried away one-half of one of the two guns she took into the action. She was literally loaded down by the enemy's shot, and in this condition had to fight to the end, until she gained a port of refuge.

        During the perilous ordeal, Captain Cook was calm and collected; no excitement marked his conduct. Quietly did he give his orders, and his men partaking his spirit, promptly and quietly obeyed.

        Captain Cook was as modest in his deportment as he was brave and fearless in action. Had such an exploit occurred under the English flag, Cook would have ranked with the Nelsons and Wellingtons of his age; but, as it is, he sinks into obscurity, forgotten, almost, by his native State, upon which he shed such imperishable honor. He was then in very delicate health and after this terrible conflict, never completely recovered again. Soon after this battle his brave spirit winged its flight from the bosom of his family, in Portsmouth, Virginia, to join the spirits of his gallant comrades that had gone before him, where merit is rewarded, and not success alone, as in this vale of sorrows.

        Charles Frederick Tayloe, son of Colonel Joshua Tayloe, who represented Beanfort County, in 1844, in the Senate of the State Legislature, should not be forgotten. His short and eventful life, his chivalric and daring character, and his tragic end, make his history interesting.

        He was born in October, 1828, near the sea, (his father being for years collector of customs at Ocracock Inlet,) and possessed naturally a love for the ocean, which became the ruling passion of his life, and eventually his grave.

        At the early age of 16, he left home on his first voyage, and in 1848, he shipped as an ordinary sailor before the mast, on the United States steamer "Oregon," on a voyage from New York to San Francisco, via Cape Horn. His diligence, attention, and good conduct, were so marked that he was make first officer of the ship "Columbia," on the dangerous and then unknown coast of Oregon. When some days at sea, the ship was discovered to be on fire. She had on board 400 troops, under the command of General Wool. The coolness, intrepidity, and energy of young Tayloe, on this perilous occasion, contributed greatly to the saving of the ship, passengers and crew. This was expressed in the grateful thanks of the passengers by resolutions.

        On his return to San Francisco, the war in Nicaragua was found to be the exciting question of the day, and offered allurement to the daring. He tendered his services to General Walker, and was assigned to the command of the fleet of steamers and gunboats on the Lake of Nicaragua. He more readily engaged in this expedition of "the gray-eyed man of destiny," since his younger brother, James, was an officer in Walker's army, and had borne a conspicuous part in many desperate battles from the breaking out of the war. It was then and here that I formed the acquaintance of these two gallant young men. I was at this time the Minister Resident of the United States near the Republic of Nicaragua, and I was much pleased with their modest and intelligent conduct. James fell in battle in the desperate endeavor to raise the seige of Grenada, thus relieving General Henningsen


Page 21

and his command, beleaguered by the troops of Guatemala. It may not be uninteresting to record here the true facts in relation to this expedition in which so many of our countrymen took part, and where so many and valuable and enterprising lives were sacrificed. The character and the objects of this expedition have never been understood or fairly stated. Now, when more than a quarter of a century has passed, and prejudice and passion subsided, the truth should appear. When I arrived in Nicaragua, I found the republic convulsed in civil war. War is the normal condition of Central America. The two parties, the Democratic, headed by General Castellon, and the Legitimists, by General Chamora, waged a fierce and bloody internecine contest. The Democratic party sent agents to California for men and arms. These engaged the services of General Walker and others, who became enlisted in their service, and Walker was placed in command of a regiment, and became a naturalized citizen of Nicaragua. He soon, by his energy and activity, trained the ragged, barefooted and half-naked natives to become disciplined troops, and as such led them to victory. He soon took the towns of San Juan del Sur, Virgin Bay, and the cities of Rivas and Grenada, the latter the capital and a city of 10,000 inhabitants. I witnessed this battle, which was of short duration, and which completed the conquest of the republic. The President of Nicaragua fled, and after a short interim, Walker was elected President. Americans from New York, New Orleans and California, and almost every State of the Union, flocked to "this El Dorado." Peace and prosperity for the time smiled on this beautiful country.

        From the natural fondness of these people for war and revolution, the other republics of Central America (as Costa Rica and Guatemala) proclaimed hostility, and determined to drive the Americans from the country. They alone could not have effected this, but our Government, under lead of Governor Marcy and others, denounced Walker, although President Pierce received Padre Vijil as the Envoy and Minister Plenipotentiary of Walker's government, and authorized Captain Davis, of the United States Navy, to take Walker and bring him to the United States; which was done. But soon Walker again returned to Central America, when, under orders, he was again seized by Commodore Paulding and brought to the United States. This act was pronounced by the President "a grave error," and severely denounced in Congress, and very generally by the press of the country as unjust and unconstitutional.

        Walker again embarked for Central America, and landed with a few troops in Honduras, where, after some bloody and successful skirmishing with the Honduras troops, he encamped near Truxillo. While here a superior force, dispatched by Captain Salmon, of the British man-of-war "Icarus," under command of Alvarez, of the Honduras army, demanded of Walker his surrender. Walker then surrendered to the British officer, who delivered him to the Honduras authorities. The next day [12th September, 1860] he was shot. His fate was melancholy and undeserved. Doubtless Walker had faults, but he supplanted a government of ignorance, superstition, indolence, imbecility, and treachery. Had he succeeded, he would have rivaled the fame of Houston, and added to the area of human liberty and enjoyment. Compare the present condition of Texas and California now with what it was under the rule of Mexico. There is a destiny in the affairs of nations, as well as of men.

        Captain Tayloe, after the failure of Walker, was ordered to conduct his command through a trackless and almost inaccessible route, from Rivas to Point Arenas, during which march they suffered every privation that famine, disease,


Page 22

savage foes, venomous reptiles, and a torrid climate could inflict. They reached Point Arenas worn down by exertion. He then embarked in a brig to Panama, and from thence on the regular steamer to California.

        After remaining in San Francisco a few weeks to recruit his exhausted system, in 1857 he embarked for his home and his native land, a passenger on the steamer "Central America." This gallant ship had nearly completed her voyage, and was in sight of the home and birthplace of our hero, where his affectionate parents anxiously were awaiting the return of their "war-worn son" when the alarming discovery was announced that the ship had sprung a leak. Young Tayloe, although only a passenger, was the first to tender his services to the noble Herndon; and from that time until the brig "Marine" rounded to under her lea, he was foremost in relieving the steamer; working at the pumps until they were exhausted and useless. When all hope of saving the steamer was abandoned, he remained at his post, an example of coolness, of courage and seamanship. He was indefatigable in aiding the ladies, children and others in embarking on the relieving ship, and could have saved himself but for his attention to others. But on consideration with the officers it was decided that the ship would continue afloat till daylight, and as did Captain Herndon and our lamented John V. Dobbin, (brother of James C. Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy 1853-'57,) Captain Tayloe retired to his stateroom, seeking that repose that his continued labors demanded.

        In the course of the night a huge wave swept with violence the ship's decks, and she went suddenly down with all on board.

        Thus perished, off his native coast of North Carolina, near Cape Hatteras, one of her boldest, bravest sons.

        The eternal sea in its dark waves have swallowed up the mortal remains of our gallant countryman; but neither sea nor time can bury his virtues and his gallantry from our memories, our sympathies, or our affections.


                         Toll for the brave!
                         The brave that are no more;
                         All sunk beneath the wave,
                         Fast by their native shore.


                         Toll for the brave!
                         Brave Tayloe! he is gone;
                         His last sea fight is fought,
                         His work of glory done.


                         Toll for the brave!

        It has been suggested as proper to recall some further memories of Central America, and of a long residence in that interesting country at a most exciting period. Even at this day this country is of rare interest, forming as it does the connecting link between the two great oceans, and which from recent surveys by Captain Lull, of United States Navy, and others, will be the probable route of the oceanic canal.

        The resignation of Hon. Solon Borland caused a vacancy in the Mission to Central America, and without any solicitation or expectation on my part, my name as Minister Resident to the Republic of Nicaragua, was sent to the Senate, and on the 2d August, 1854, (my birth-day) I received from the State Department my commission. This was considered, from the position of the country and the complications as to the protectorate assumed by England, as an important and delicate mission. Mr. Everett, of Massachusetts, in March, 1853, stated in the Senate that "it was more important than the mission to London or Paris." After waiting for instructions and arranging my private affairs for a long absence, with my family I departed from Norfolk, Virginia, on 31st October, 1854, on board the U. S. steam frigate "Princeton," commanded by Captain Henry Eagle. We touched at Havanna for a supply of coal, and at Pensacola we went on board the "Columbia," the flag-ship of the home squadron, commanded by Commodore Newton, a model officer


Page 23

and accomplished gentleman, who landed us in December, 1854, after a long voyage of nearly thirty days, at San Juan del Norte. The mild climate, the gorgeous foliage and rich scenery, created pleasure and surprise. One can hardly realize, who has never visited the tropics, the mildness and beauty of the climate; the very air is redolent with the fragrance of fruits and flowers, to breathe which renders existence itself a luxury. The evenings are still more delicious. These have been graphically described.

        "By and by night comes on; not as it comes to our northern latitudes, but it falls suddenly, like a rich drapery, around you. The sun goes down with a glow, intense and brief. There is no lingering twilight, but suddenly the stars burst forth, lightening, one by one, the horizon. They come in a laughing group, like bright-eyed children relieved from school, and reflected from the lake they seem to chase each other in frolicsome play, printing sparkling kisses on each other's luminous lips. The low shores, lined with heavy foliage of the mangroves, looked like a frame of massive antique carving around the mirror of the quiet lagoon, across whose quiet surface streamed a silvery shaft of light from 'the Southern Cross,' palpitating like a young bride at the altar. Then there were whispered 'voices of the night,' the drowsy winds hushing themselves to sleep, and the gentle music of the little ripples of the lake, pattering with fairy feet along the sandy shore. The distant heavy and monotonous beatings of the sea, and the occasional sullen plunge of some marine animal, gave a novelty and enchantment to the scene, and entranced my senses during the delicious hours of my first evening alone with nature on the Mosquito Shore."*

        * "Waikna, or Adventures on the Mosquito Shore;" by Samuel A. Baird.



        We could well ask, with Rodgers:


                         This region is surely not of earth.
                         Was it not dropped from Heaven?
                         Not a grove but is of citron, pine, or cedar;
                         Not a grot, sea worn, and mantled with the gadding vine,
                         But breathes enchantment.

        This lovely region, where Providence has done so much and man so little for himself, we found, as already stated, involved in the tumults of civil war. As we journeyed to Castillo, some seventy miles up the river, the marks of blood spilled in a battle fought on the day before on the wharf on which we landed were seen. As before stated, both parties claimed to be the supreme power of the government. The Democratic party, headed by Castillon, held most of the republic except Grenada, and had that city under close siege. I was assured that this would be soon raised, and the Legitimists resume the authority of government. I was instructed to present my credentials to "the President of Nicaragua." Now a knotty diplomatic problem came up, which I alone must solve. A mistake would be fatal. I applied for instructions, but none came. Mr. Stephens, a predecessor, was involved [1841] in a similar quandary. He tried in vain. Once, as he states, he thought "he came very near discovering a live President. But suddenly he vamosed on the back of a mule." Mr. Squire [1849] did find a President in Ramirez. But when Mr. Kerr [in 1851] came he was not so successful, for the republic, as now, was in civil war. Mr. Borland, my immediate predecessor, did find a President, (Don Fruto Chamoro,) but he is now beleagured by superior force, and inaccessible.

        By instructions of the Government, I remained some time in Greytown, or San Juan del Norte, engaged in collecting testimony as to the destruction of property by the bombardment of Greytown [9th July, 1854] by Captain Hollins, and then went to Virgin Bay, on Lake Nicaragua, where I remained three months, during which time the siege of Grenada was raised, General Chamoro died of cholera, and General Estrada was declared President and assumed the duties, and in April, 1855, I was recognized by him as the Envoy Resident, and raised the flag of the United States at Grenada.


Page 24

        Under instructions, a treaty was formed [20th June, 1855] of amity and commerce.

        The President was kind and polite, and more of a poet and musician than a soldier or statesman. Our intercourse was kindly and pleasant, and the republic was quiet. But it was only the lull that precedes a fearful storm. The agents of the Democratic party succeeded at San Francisco in engaging the services of William Walker, and on the 4th of May, 1855, he embarked on the brig "Vesta" for Nicaragua, with fifty-two followers, to invade a territory of more than 200,000 people. Was the act of Cortez in burning his ships after landing his troops more daring or desperate?

        He and his force landed at Realejo, and was strengthened by three hundred native troops under General Valle. After a repulse at Rivas by Colonel Bosque, in which Achilles Kewen and Timothy Crocker and some of Walker's best troops were killed, he attacked Guardiola at Virgin Bay, whom he defeated with heavy loss. He captured, without loss, the steamers on the Lake of Nicaragua, and on the 12th October, after a sharp conflict, he captured Grenada, which, as before stated, completed the conquest of the republic. The President and Cabinet fled, and many resorted to my house and placed themselves under the flag for protection. I met now, for the first time, General William Walker. He appeared to be about thirty-one years of age [born in Nashville, Tennessee, on 8th May, 1824.] He was liberally educated, and graduated at the University of Tennessee in October, 1838.

        He studied medicine, and received a diploma from the Medical University at Philadelphia, in April, 1843. He then went to France and England, where he completed his studies. He then traveled extensively on the Continent, where he learned to speak and write the French, German, Italian, and Spanish languages. He returned to the United States in June, 1845. Although he had a fondness for the profession of medicine and acquired knowledge from the ablest masters, yet he saw and felt that it was not as auspicious as the profession of the law for an ambitious and aspiring temperament. He entered the law office of Edward and Andrew Ewing, and remained there two years. He was admitted to the bar in June, 1847, at New Orleans.

        His active temper still sought additional action, and he entered the stormy sea of politics. He became editor of the New Orleans Crescent.

        In July, 1850, he went to California, and was connected with the Daily Herald, just then established by John Nugent. He had some difficulty with Judge Parsons as to some articles he wrote for the paper, and he removed to Marysville, and devoted himself to the law.

        In October, 1853, he visited Sonora, and, with Gilman, Emory, Crocker, and others, made an unsuccessful attempt on the Mexican authorities. Walker returned to San Francisco, and was arrested and tried for violation of the neutrality law, but was acquitted.

        The Democratic party of Nicaragua forwarded to him a commission as colonel and an extensive grant of land, through agency of Byron Cole.

        Gathering a band of sixty-two followers, (among whom were C. C. Hornby, of North Carolina, and Julius de Brissot,) he landed at Realejo, in the northern part of Nicaragua. His history will now be connected with Nicaragua for all time.

        He had, as already stated, captured Grenada, and was now "master of the situation," and had the possession of the capital. Had Walker possessed some portion of that quality which General Lee called "a rascally virtue," he could have attained complete success. The history of every nation repeats only the history of nations gone before. First comes the adventurous pioneer, with his rifle; then the schoolmaster, with his books; then the clergyman


Page 25

man and his creed; then the merchant, the railroad, and the telegraph.

        The advent of Walker was not unpleasant nor unexpected to the simple-hearted and gentle natives of Central America. They had been grievously oppressed by the Spanish dominion; nor was their condition much better under their successors. "There was a tradition among them," says Crowe, in his "History of Central America," published in London in 1850, "founded on an ancient prophecy made years ago, that these people would only be delivered from cruel oppression by 'a gray-eyed man.' " Mr. Crowe adds in a note the prophetic remark: "We would remind those who attach any importance to this prophecy, that it may be reserved for our trans-Atlantic brethren to fulfill this prophecy."

        "Last week we saw many of the native Indians," says the Grenada Nicaraguense,"in our city, who desired to see General Walker; and they laid at his feet the simple offerings of their fruits and fields, and hailed his appearance, with fair skin and gray eyes, as 'the gray-eyed man of destiny,' so long and so anxiously waited for by them and their fathers."

        The next day after the capture of Grenada, an election was held by the people for a provisional President, and under the policy of Walker, and at his suggestion, General Ponciano Corral was chosen. General C. was at this time at Rivas, at the head of a large force of troops, preparing to march on Grenada and drive Walker out of the country. Walker knew that with his small force and his unreliable allies, that an attack by Corral (who had some military genius and experience, and much desperate courage) would be serious if not disastrous. He knew that Corral was very ambitious, and fond of power and place. Hence this election.

        But how to get this information to Corral was the point. Not one of Walker's native troops would venture, for they knew that no power could save them if once in the hands of Corral. Appeals were made to the Consuls from Sardinia, Prussia, and France, resident at Grenada, without success. Finally, the Archbishop of Grenada, with the agent of the Transit Company, called on me, and besought me to act as a messenger of peace. Thus urged by them, I agreed to go. Accordingly a steamer was made ready, and with Mr. Van Dyke, of Philadelphia, who was acting as Secretary of the Legation, and Don Juan Ruiz, late Secretary of War, we went to Rivas with the certificate of election of General Corral.

        Rivas is a walled town about fifty miles from Grenada.

        We found it closely picketed and full of infuriated soldiers, commanded by General Zatruche.

        On inquiry for General Corral, I was informed that he had just left Rivas with all his forces, to attack Walker at Grenada. A courier was immediately dispatched to Corral with the communication of his election as President. Zatruche, the General in command, was one of the most bloodthirsty and perfidious men in Central America. Smarting under the defeat he had met with at Virgin Bay, from Walker, he was insolent and imperious. After waiting for some hours for Corral, (and we since ascertained that he was still in Rivas,) I directed the horses to be brought, purposing to return to Virgin Bay and there await Corral's coming. My servant then came and informed us "that Zatruche had taken the horses, and that a guard was then approaching to seize me and my secretary." They entered, and I never saw a more ferocious and villainous looking crowd, armed to the teeth; their uniform was a scanty shirt that hardly reached the knee, a dilapidated straw hat, with a red ribbon, and barefooted. We were then placed in the quartel with a guard over us. Our poor


Page 26

boy (Carlos), after the doors were locked, with sobs and tears, informed us that we were to be shot at sunrise to-morrow. Mr. Van Dyke, with great emotion, said that he cared but little for himself, but much for me and my little ones and wife at Grenada. I felt buoyed up by the consolation that I was in the line of duty--on a mission of mercy and peace. Never did I spend a more unhappy night; the dim lamp revealed the army officials peering at intervals to ascertain our confinement, and the watch-word, ALERTO, (all well,) sounding in our ears from the line of guards. But early in the morning the sound of cannon and rifles was heard firing on the town. Zatruche had felt their fatal accuracy and danger. He rushed in and exclaimed, "In the name of Christ! Senor, what does this mean?" He was informed that my friends had expected me to return last night; that they had determined to rescue me, and in doing so would not spare one of his party; that they were well-armed with rifles that were certain, and with cannon. "Won't you write a small letter (un billitte), to them to cease their fire?" This was pre-emptorily declined. He then said. "You know, Senor Minister, that we are friends; you are very dear to me. Go out to them, forthwith, your horses are at the door, and I will send a guard of honor to escort you and your flag." Accepting the leave, but declining the honor of the escort, we soon mounted and were soon at the steamer where Captain Scott was with only six men and four small brass cannons. We soon reached Virgin Bay, where Judge Cushing, the agent of the Transit Line, was, and who had dispatched the steamer to relieve me, and who stated that when I set out on the day before, he had never expected my return. Judge Cushing, late our Minister at Bogota, and agent at this time of the Transit Company, had, only a few days before, been seized and imprisoned by Zatruche and only escaped murder by paying a rausom of two thousand dollars in gold. That my destruction was imminent, is proved by the letter of General Corral, that "he would not be responsible to what might happen to me personally," as he had issued orders to Zatruche to execute me. But the kindness of Scott, and a gracious Providence prevented his atrocious purpose.

        The following letter, the original of which is in my possession, was received by me at Virgin Bay:

"COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE
"REP. OF NIC'A, HEADQUARTERS,
"Marching, 17th Oct., 1855.

"To the Minister of the United States:

        "I am placed under the imperious necessity to manifest to the Minister of the United States that in consequence of his leaving the city of Grenada in the steamer of the Accessory Transit Company, taken by the chief commanding the forces who occupy that place with the object to hurt the forces of the Supreme Government, whom I have the honor to command at Rivas, I now inform you that I am not, or will not be responsible for what may happen to you personally, for having interfered in our domestic dissensions to the prejudice of the Supreme Government, by whom he has been recognized; and has made himself the bearer of communications and proclamations against the legitimately recognized authority. Therefore I now protest and give you notice that in this same date I have informed Governor Marcy and the newspapers of New York.

I am your dear servant, D. F. L.,

"PONCIANO CORRAL."


        To which the following reply was sent:

"LEGATION OF UNITED STATES,
"NEAR REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA,
"VIRGIN BAY, 18th Oct., 1855.

"To Gen'l Ponciano Corral:

        "I have honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday, in which you inform me that you are compelled to manifest your protest against me for leaving the city of Grenada with the intent of injury of the forces under your command in the town of Rivas.

        "I reply, I had no such object in visiting Rivas, as will appear more fully by a letter which I wrote to the military governor of that department, a copy of which I enclose.


Page 27

        "I had no personal desire to leave Grenada; and for some time positively objected; but influenced by the chief citizens of Grenada (your own friends) the venerable fathers of the church, the tears of your own sisters, and your daughters, I consented to visit you, accompanied by Don Juan Ruiz, the Secretary of War, and your superior in office, bearing the olive branch of peace; and a proposition from the commander-general of the Democratic forces, to make you the provisional President of the Republic. When it was stated you were absent, I desired to return to this place. Judge my surprise, when I was informed by the Prefect and Governor, that I should not return, my life threatened, and my person (with my secretary, servant, and the national flag) imprisoned in the quartel under strict guard.

        "For this violation of the laws of nations and my personal rights, I protest, and be assured, General, that my Government will hold you and your Government to a severe responsibility for such law less conduct.

        "You further inform me that 'you will not be responsible for what may happen to me for my personal safety,' and that you will inform Governor Marcy, the Secretary of State, and the newspapers of New York of my conduct in this matter. In reply, I inform you that when I have kept my word of honor to the Governor of Rivas to remain here two days to await your reply, I shall return to my post at Grenada; and that I do not request, nor have I ever expected, you to be responsible for my personal safety. The flag of the United States is sufficiently powerful for my protection, backed as it is by a patriotic President and thirty millions of people.

        "I have myself fully informed Governor Marcy of all these matters; and feel in no way responsible to you and the newspapers of New York for my official conduct.

"Yours faithfully,

"JOHN H. WHEELER,
"Minister of U. S. A. near
"the Republic of Nicaragua."


        As I left Rivas a parting salute from a heavy cannon was fired at us, which struck near us an adobe gate, and covered us with dust and dirt, but with no other effect than to make us mend our gait in retreat.

        On my return to Grenada, General Walker called on me. On learning the cause of my delay, my imprisonment by Zatruche, he expressed but little surprise, but remarked quietly, that he expected I would come to grief; and "it would have been a fortunate event had Zatruche carried out his intention to shoot me; for then," he added, "your Government must have resented such outrage, and taken my part." This was cool, rather than consoling, and characteristic of Walker, who looked upon men as the mere titulary pawns of the chess board, to be moved and sacrificed to advance the ambitious plans of others. His conduct can only be justified or apologized for by the fact that he was at the time in imminent peril himself. The enemy had now the possession of that portion of the country on which the Transit Company had their route. From this reservoir he could only receive reinforcements. The enemy, exasperated to madness, and infuriated by defeat in every battle by an inferior force, their capital taken, their President and Cabinet fugitives, were ready for the most desperate deeds. The agent of the Transit Company, Judge Cushing, as already stated, was seized and the office broken open, and his life jeopardized. The steamer, loaded with passengers from New York and San Francisco, was fired on by Fort San Carlos, to the imminent peril of every one on board, and several persons killed, among them Mrs. White, of Sharon, New York; and many wounded, among them J. G. Kendrick, then of Cincinnati, Ohio, now of St. Louis. Many whose names were unknown were found murdered, with their throats cut, and their bodies robbed even of their elothes. The steamer, unable to pass the fort at the outlet of the river, or to land at Virgin Bay, on the 22d Oct., 1855, came to Grenada, with 250 passengers, to claim the protection of the American Minister. To add to the misfortunes, the cholera was raging among the crowded passengers. A committee called on the Minister for relief, and I went on board. Such a scene I never before witnessed.


Page 28

Dead and wounded, sick and dying from cholera, crowded the decks. One died (Nicholas Carrol) with the cholera, while I was on board. Many of these were wealthy; all respectable, and all my countrymen. I persuaded them all to leave the crowded and infected ship, took them into my own house, as many as I could accommodate, and rented a large house for the others.

        Added to these miseries, evident preparations were making for a sanguinary battle which was near at hand. Arrests were hourly made and imprisonments, and continual applications for protection and relief.

        The Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the late Government, Don Mateo Mayorga, for the out-rages at San Carlos and other places, was lying dead at this time in the plaza, shot by order of Walker; leading and wealthy citizens arrested and imprisoned.

        What a scene of horror! what a night of anxiety and excitement was experienced!

        An anxious and fearful morning came; but General Corral, instead of attacking Grenada, made his appearance in the plaza accompanied by his staff and General Walker, with some of his officers. A treaty of peace between these generals was made, (23d October, 1855,) by which Don Patrico Rivas was named as provisional President--an oblivion of past differences. Walker was made Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Corral Minister of War, the barricades of the streets destroyed, the prisons all opened, and peace dawned on the land. Corral marched his forces into the city, wearing the blue ribbon, and they were incorporated into the army of Walker. The two chiefs embraced each other on the plaza, and the officers, military and civil, proceeded to the church "to return thanks to the God of Peace for the termination of the war."

        Everything now seemed quiet. But it was only temporary. At this very time, when the real strength of Walker was known to Corral, with the instincts of his race and color, he was planning treason and murder. Letters from him to Gardiola and Zatruche were intercepted, urging them to come with arms and force, and overthrow the new government. He was arrested, imprisoned, tried for treason by a court-martial, and condemned to be shot, which sentence was executed in the plaza of Grenada, at 2 p. m., on 8th November, 1855.

        I was on the plaza of Grenada on the 8th November, 1855, in company with Captain Scott, Judge Cushing, and some friends, when the tolling of the Cathedral bell, the solemn air of crowds of spectators, indicated some event of deep and solemn importance.

        A guard of soldiers marched out from the quartel, with whom appeared General Ponciano Corral. On one side of him was a priest, bearing in his hand a small cross, and on the other his faithful friend, Don Pedro Rouhard, the Consul of France. The splendid person of Corral seemed borne down with calamity; his features bore the marks of extreme mental suffering. He took his seat in the fatal chair, which was placed with its back to the wall of the Cathedral. He calmly took out his hand-kerchief, folding it in his hands, and bound it around his eyes; then, folding his hands in an attitude of prayer, uttered the word "pronto"--ready. A detail of Mississippi rifles, at the distance of about ten paces, at the word, fired, and every ball pierced through and through his body; he fell dead from the chair, and his spirit departed to answer for the deeds done on earth--


                         --With all his crimes broad blown,--
                         And how his audit stands, who knows, save heaven?
                         But, in our circumstance and course of thought,
                         'Tis heavy with him.

        I witnessed, with painful emotion, this tragic scene. General Corral was of a soldierly demeanor and commanding presence. He was rather portly in size, weighing about two hundred pounds, social in his character, of daring courage and indomitable purpose. he was excessively


Page 29

polite, and profuse in his expressions of friendship. He was as sincere as his nature, education, and mixed blood would allow. So natural was intrigue and treachery ingrained in his nature that he practiced these vices when it were easier to be honest and sincere. He was popular among the people, and his death caused a profound sensation in the State.

        It would be foreign from the plan of this work to record all the spirit-stirring events in the career of Walker, or to attempt to describe the character of the country or its inhabitants.

        The career of General Walker, after many battles between the Nicaraguan forces and Costa Rica, as well as Guatemala, had varied fortunes; from his injudicious interference with the Transit Company, and other causes, his career was checked by defeat, and in May, 1857, an agreement was entered into by him and Captain Charles Henry Davis, a Commander in the United States Navy, ship "St. Mary," by which "General Walker, with sixteen officers of his staff, marched out of Rivas with their side-arms, pistols, horses, and personal baggage, under guarantee of said Davis not to be molested by the enemy, and be allowed to embark on the 'St. Mary,' then in the harbor of San Juan del Sur; and the said Davis undertaking to transport them safely to Panama, in charge of a United States officer." From Panama, Walker returned to the United States. He was received with much enthusiam; nor was he disturbed by the Government of the United States for any violation of law.

        He soon embarked again for Nicaragua, with men and arms, when, whether with orders from the Government of the United States or not, he was seized by Captain Paulding, as already alluded to. He was brought back to the United States. He again embarked for Central America, and landed in Honduras, where he had some skirmishes near Truxillo, when he surrendered to the English officer commanding Her Majesty's steamer "Icarus," who delivered him to General Alvarez, of the Honduras army, and on the 12th September, 1860, he was shot.

        This is a copy of the last note that Walker ever wrote:

        I hereby protest, before the civilized world, that when I surrendered to the captain of Her Majesty's steamer, the "Icarus," that officer expressly received my sword and pistol, as well as the arms of Colonel Rutler, and the surrender was expressly, and in so many words, to him, as the representative of Her Brittanic Majesty.

WILLIAM WALKER.

ON BOARD THE STEAMER "ICARUS," September 5th, 1860.

        Thus perished, in the prime of life, William Walker, at the early age of 36, as fearless a man as our country ever produced. Necessarily brief has been this sketch, which the stirring events of the time afford ample material and might have much extended. But it is only a glance at these events, comprehending the salient points of interest, are attempted with truth and justice. Much that I have endeavored to describe, if not

        Pars fui; mesiriema vidi,


        and had Walker been prudent and successful, the battles of Grenada and Rivas would have rivaled the triumph of San Jacinto, and Walker ranked with the Houston of other days. His enterprise and valor deserve our respect, and his tragic end our sympathy.


                         --Duncan is in his grave.
                         After life's fitful fever he sleeps well.
                         Treason has done his worst, nor steel nor poison,
                         Malice domestic, foreign levy,
                         Nothing can touch him further.

MACBETH.


        From the disordered condition of this country, and from individual danger incident to any foreigner, I was instructed by the State Department to retire from Grenada to San Juan del Norte. In impaired health, I was allowed to return home, and in 1857 resigned. The events of these three years can hardly be classed in my life as among "The Pleasures of Memory."


Page 30

CHAPTER IV.
BERTIE COUNTY.

        Whitmill Hill, (born 12th February, 1743. Died 12th September, 1797,) was born in Bertie County, and the ancestor of a large and wealthy family in Eastern Carolina.

        He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, and was the early and earnest advocate of the rights of the Colonists in the Revolution, and served faithfully in all the legislative bodies--Provincial, State, and National--the devoted patriot and statesman.

        He was a member of the Provincial Congress that met at Hillsboro, 20th August, 1775, and at Halifax, on 4th April, 1776, and elected to House of Commons from Martin County, in 1777; Senator, 1778-'79 and '80. He was Speaker of the Senate in 1778. In 1778 he was a delegate from North Carolina to the Continental Congress, and served until 1781.

        He survived the perils of the Revolution, and was one of the ablest advocates of the Constitution of the United States in the Convention which met at Hillsboro in July, 1788, which rejected the Constitution by a vote of 184 to 84. He died at Hill's Ferry, Martin County, on 12th of September, 1797.

        His letters to Governor Burke, while a member of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, 1780, have been preserved, (see Uni. Mag. x, No. 7, March, 1861,) and breathe the pure spirit of patriotism and valor. We regret that so little has been preserved of this patriotic statesman, whose character and whose services deserve the regard of posterity.

        The name of Jonathan Tayloe is remembered with vencration and regard in Bertie County. One of this name is recorded as a freeholder in Bertie County far back in Colonial times, and one of the name yet lingers upon the scene of his long pilgrimage, though he was old enough to be a soldier under Lieutenant Gavin Hogg and Captain James Iredell, and marched in 1812 in defence of Norfolk. He was for a period of years a pillar of the Baptist Church, universally loved for his noble Christian qualities, and was for a long time the clerk of the county court.

        David Stone, born February 17, 1770. Died 7th of October, 1818.

        Among the distinguished names in the earlier history of North Carolina, is that of David Stone.

        His father, Zedekiah Stone, came early to North Carolina from New England (Vermont, we have understood,) and having purchased lands from the Tuscarora Indians, settled in Bertie County and married Mrs. Elizabeth Hobson, (nee Shrivers,) of Martin County.

        He lived at Hope, five miles from Windsor, and carried on mercantile and farming business.

        He was a devoted and a ready friend to the cause of liberty and independence, and was a member of the Provincial Congress, at Halifax (1776) which formed our State Constitution.

        He was, for many years, annually elected a Senator of the Legislature from Bertie, and was distinguished for his intelligence and shrewdness of character.

        His son, David Stone, was born at Hope, 17th of February, 1770.

        His early education was conducted by the best teachers that the country could afford, and he was diligent, laborious, and apt to learn.

        After his academic studies were completed, young Stone was sent to Princeton College, where he graduated in 1788, with the first honors. Dr. Witherspoon, then the President of the College, often referred with approbation to his studious and exemplary conduct,


Page 31

and predicted for him a bright career of honor and usefulness.

        He studied law with General William R. Davie, whose knowledge and successful practice well qualified him to prepare and fit upon his students that armor which would enable them to endure the tilts of the legal tournament. His teachings were inculcated with an elegance of manners, and a suavity of temper, that, while they instructed, gave satisfaction and pleasure. Judge Daniel, long one of the Judges of our Supreme Court, who also read law with him, pronounced General Davie one of the most able jurists and accomplished gentlemen he ever knew. Under such a teacher, Mr. Stone was well fitted for the duties of his profession; and from his solid acquirements, his signal ability, his close attention to the interests of his clients, the skillful and careful preparation of his cases, he won the confidence of the community, and attained the highest rank in his profession. When in the 26th year of his age, he was elected by the Legislature a Judge of the Superior Court of Law and Equity.

        He early embarked on the stormy sea of political life, in which, from the suavity of his manners and the solidity of his acquirements, he enjoyed a long and brilliant career. From 1790 to 1794 he was a member of the House of Commons. In 1795 he was elected one of the Judges of the Superior Court, the duties of which he discharged with dignity and ability until 1799, when he was chosen Representative in Congress. In 1801 he was elected Senator in Congress, which place he resigned in 1807, on being again elected Judge of Superior Court. Whilst a member of the Senate his distinguished colleague, Jesse Franklin, was President pro tem. of that body. It is a fact worthy of record that at this time the presiding officers of both Houses of Congress were from North Carolina, Mr. Macon having been Speaker of the Lower House during the 7th, 8th, and 9th Congresses, 1801 to 1806. In 1808 Mr. Stone was elected Governor of the State. He discharged all the duties of that elevated position with great dignity during his constitutional term. In 1811 and 1812 he again appeared as a member of the Legislature, and his experience, abilities and principles gave him commanding influence. This was a stormy period in the political history of the State. A bill to confer the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States upon the Legislature, so as to give an undivided vote (instead of the district system then in vogue,) was introduced and advocated by Governor Stone; this failing, he introduced a similar measure to choose the electors by a general ticket system, which he advocated with great ability and unequaled eloquence. This measure was opposed by Duncan Cameron, John Stanly, and others; and also miscarried. He opposed the proposition of Mr. Phifer to make a choice of electors by the district system, but this was adopted. At this session he was again elected a Senator in Congress to serve for six years, from the 4th of March, 1813.

        He possessed extraordinary and highly cultivated intellectual powers, cautious and shrewd in business transactions, fond of money, and successful in the accumulation of property.

        He was twice married, first to Miss Harriet Turner, by whom he left several children; second to Miss Dashield, of Washington City.

        (For Genealogy of the Stone family of Bertie County, North Carolina, see Appendix.)

        General Stone entered the Senate again at a period of intense national excitement. The United States were at war with the most powerful nation on earth, and party spirit raged with unwonted violence. The majority of the people of North Carolina supported Madison and the war, and the Legislature elected Governor Stone to sustain that policy; but, unfortunately, he differed from the Legislature and


Page 32

the people. His reasons were, as stated in Niles' Register, (vol. vii., 163,) that "these measures had led to division among ourselves, and to bankruptcy and ruin to the nation." The embargo, a measure strongly recommended by the President, had passed the House. It was rejected in the Senate by two votes only, and one of them was Governor Stone's. He also voted against a bill to raise by direct tax revenue to support the war. He complained, personally, that to a call for information from the Committee of Ways and Means, the reply was that "there was not time to furnish the desired information."

        In this course he differed from his colleague, Governor Turner, of the Senate, and from Willis Alston, Peter Forney, John Culpepper, Meshack Franklin, William R. King, Nathaniel Macon, William H. Murfree, Israel Pickens, Richard Stanford, and Bartlett Yancey. His course called down the censure of the Legislature.

        In December, 1814, Mr. Branch, afterwards Governor, as chairman of the special committee upon the subject, reported a resolution that "the conduct of David Stone had been in opposition to his professions, and had jeopardized the safety and interest of the country, and had incurred the disapprobation of this General Assembly."

        This passed, 40 to 18, and Governor Stone forthwith resigned his seat in the Senate. This closed his distinguished and eventful public life, and four years afterward he died, in the 48th year of his age.

        Governor Stone was in person tall and commanding; of reddish hair, which he wore, as was then the fashion, in a queue.

        Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee, was born in Bertie County 1768; died 1835.

        He was the son of Jacob Blount, already referred to in a sketch of the Blounts of Beaufort. He was the brother of Governor William Blount, the first Governor of Tennessee, (see Craven County,) and was his private secretary.

        He was a lawyer by profession, and so highly esteemed that, at the age of 28, he was elected Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee.

        He was the Governor of Tennessee from 1809 to 1815. This long period of public service, in so elevated a position, proves the wisdom and prudence of his conduct and his acceptable service. It was his fortune to be Governor in a most exciting period of our history--during the war with England--and he gave to the administration his cordial and constant support. He tendered to President Madison 2,500 troops, and placed them under command of Andrew Jackson, who won for his country the glorious victory at New Orleans.

        He was equally active in the Creek war, raising 2,000 volunteers and $300,000.

        He married Lucinda, daughter of John and Anne Norfleet Baker, of Bertie County.

        He died at the residence of Wylie Johnson, near Nashville, in 1835. A monument was erected by order of the Legislature unto his memory at Clarksville. He left several children, among them Mrs. J. T. Dabney; Mrs. Dortch, whose son, Willie B. Dortch, married a daughter of Governor A. V. Brown.

        The names of Cherry and Outlaw are preserved by a patriotic and talented race full of generous feeling and kindly dispositions.

        George Outlaw was born, lived and died in Bertie County. He was distinguished, says Mr. Moore in his History of North Carolina, for the blandness of his manners, and was as noted for his usefulness in the Church, as for his talents as a statesman. He entered public life as a member of the House of Commons in 1796 and in 1799, and a member of the Senate from 1806 to 1822, with some intermissions, of which body he was Speaker in 1812, '13, and '14, and elected a member of the 18th Congress, 1823-'25, to supply a vacancy occasioned


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by the resignation of H. G. Burton, elected Governor. He was the first Moderator of the Chowan Baptist Association, established in 1806.

        His fine personal appearance, his kind, genial manners, and his generous, charitable temper, rendered him universally popular. His son, George B. Outlaw, succeeded him in the State Senate, in 1823 and 1824, whose widow (nee Jordan) married Governor John Branch.

        Thomas Miles Garret was a resident of this county, and lived near Colerain. His education was good. He was prepared for college by John Kimberly, and graduated in 1851, in same class with David M. Carter, Bartholomew Fuller, Francis E. Shober and others. He read law, and by his diligence and capacity attained renown. But the war broke out, and he joined the army. He was brave and devoted to the cause, and fell in battle as colonel, at the head of his regiment, amid the horrors of that fearful conflict. He remarked on the eve of the engagement that the day would end with a general's wreath or with his life. Both were verified. A commission arrived next day as brigadier, but too late!

        There are but few persons in North Carolina who did not know David Outlaw (born about 1805 and died 1868,) and appreciate his estimable character. He was born, lived and died in Bertie County. He was endowed by nature with a clear and penetrating mind, which was highly improved by a liberal education. He graduated in 1824 at the University of the State, at the head of his class. When it is recollected who composed this class, and their mental material, this high honor will be appreciated. Among them were Daniel B. Baker, Benjamin B. Blume, John Bragg, member of the Legislature, member of Congress, and Judge in Alabama; James W. Bryan, distinguished lawyer, Senator 1836 from Jones County; Thomas Dews, of Lincolnton; William A. Graham, Governor of North Carolina, Senator in Congress, Secretary of the Navy; Matthias E. Manly, Judge of the Superior and Supreme Courts; Augustus Moore, Judge of Superior Courts; Edward D. Simms, member of Congress, 1824, from South Carolina. In even this galaxy of merit and talent Mr. Outlaw was conspicuous.

        He studied law with that able and accomplished jurist, William Gaston, and by his assiduity, ability and labor did credit to his accomplished preceptor. He was admitted to the bar in 1827, and soon rose to the front rank of his profession. For years he was the Solicitor of the Edenton Circuit, in which responsible position he won the respect, confidence and admiration of the bench, bar and juries. When to his discriminating judgment, oppression or persecution was attempted, he was mild and yielding, but when the law was violated, no matter by whom, high or low, indigent or wealthy, it was firmly vindicated.

        Naturally generous and just, though resolute, he was universally popular. His warm and enthusiastic temper was often roused when duplicity or artifice was attempted; and he would assail his victim with resistless power and matchless eloquence. This trait in his character was well known to his associates at the bar, as also to the community at large. Often has the trembling offender of justice, when on trial, whispered to counsel, "Don't make Outlaw mad, for if you do, I shall not have any chance to escape." He was truly "a terror unto evil-doers, and a praise to them who do well." "To the just, he was mild and gentle; but to the froward he was as fierce as fire."

        Such a man could not fail to secure regard and respect. He was frequently elected a member of the Legislature, and was elected member of the 30th (1847,) 31st (1849,) and 32d (1851) Congresses. Here his unbending integrity, his unselfish patriotism, his unquestioned


Page 34

abilities, and his pure and unobtrusive virtues, commanded the respect and the affection of his associates. He was ever ready to do generous acts, while he scorned any intrigue or artifice-- the unflinching foe to corruption, extravagance or indirection. Sincere and honest himself, he was unsuspicious of deceit or fraud in others.

        In his person Colonel Outlaw was but little favored by nature. He was very near-sighted, and constantly were glasses that were green, and which to strangers made him appear distant, reserved, and awkward. Yet, with these disadvantages, to those who knew him well, this rugged exterior did


                         Hide a precious jewel in its head,

        and present every quality of honor, truth, and justice that can dignify human nature.

        His last public service was as a member of the State Senate in 1863. He died on 22d October, 1868.

        His latter days were clouded by misfortune. The vicissitudes of war, his confidence in friends, and his carelessness in financial matters, had wrecked his fortunes. The natural infirmity (defective eyesight) terminated in total blindness. But his generous qualities triumphed over calamity. To such men may North Carolina proudly point as the mother of the Gracci did to her sons, and sincerely say,


                         These are my jewels.

        James W. Clark, born 1779, died 1843, was a native of Bertie County, son of Christopher Clark, who died at Salmon creek.

        He was liberally educated, and graduated at Princeton in 1796. He was elected a member of the Legislature from his native county in 1802-'3. He removed to Edgecombe County which he represented in 1810 and 1811, and in the Senate 1812-'13 and '14, and elected a member of the 14th Congress--1815-'17. He served out his term and declined a re-election. He was succeeded by Dr. Thomas H. Hull.

        He served in 1827 as Chief Clerk of the Navy Department under Governor Branch.

        He was an enterprising, patriotic and honest man, loved and respected by all who knew him. He married Arabella, daughter of Henry I. Toole. He died in 1843, leaving one son, who became Governor of the State, 1861, and two daughters, Maria, who married Mat Waddell, and Laura, who married Cotten.

        (For the Genealogy of the Clark family, see Appendix.)

        Patrick Henry Winston resides in Bertie County, but is a native of Franklin County. He was educated at Wake Forest, and at the Columbian University, at Washington City, where he graduated. He read law at Chapel Hill, and after receiving a license to practice, settled in Windsor. He represented Bertie County in the Legislature in 1850 and 1854.

        In 1861, he, together with Hon. B. F. Moore and Sam'l F. Phillips, were elected by the Legislature as Judges of the Court of Claims. This was a delicate and severe duty, and this able court discharged it with fidelity and ability.

        After his term in the court had expired, he was appointed by Governor Vance Financial Agent of the State in her fiscal relations with the Confederate Government.

        In 1864 he was elected one of the Council of State, and by that body chosen President, a position at this time involving great responsibility.

        In 1865 he was chosen a member of the Constitutional Convention from Franklin, whither he had taken refuge during the troubles of the war, and no one did more to build up the broken down walls of our political Zion than Mr. Winston. He was of the few men who declined to sign an open letter to Governor Holden, requesting him to be a candidate for Governor. In 1868 he was


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offered and declined the nomination for Congress, preferring to pursue the practice of his profession, of which he is alike a pillar and an ornament. He posseses untiring industry, profound learning, and unspotted reputation.

        He has a family likely to be as distinguished as their father for ability, influence and integrity.

        A fearful epidemic appeared in Bertie County, as recorded in Niles' Register, vol. x, 364, which was most fatal among the people, in May, 1816. Some sections, especially Cashie Neck, were nearly depopulated. The statement says that "the most robust constitutions melted before it as wax before a fire."

CHAPTER V.
BLADEN COUNTY.

        With this county are associated many stirring events connected with the war of the Revolution, which attested the patriotism of her sons, and their devotion to liberty.

        The battle of Elizabethtown, fought in July, 1781, was a complete victory of the Whigs, led by Thomas Brown, over the Tories, commanded by Slingsby and Godden. This has been already so fully recorded from authentic documents in the History of North Carolina (II, 36,) that its repetition is unnecessary here. The heroic character of Denny Porterfield is detailed in The Memories of Cross Creek.

THE MEMORIES OF CROSS CREEK.

        The Highlanders of Scotland, after their defeat at Culloden in 1746, migrated to North Carolina, under the advice of Neill McNiell. They found a resting-place on the banks of Cape Fear, at what has remained the head of navigation on that river to the present time.

        As early as 1762 Cross Creek and Cambellton (now Fayetteville) began to assume importance in a commercial point of view, the fame whereof attracted many from abroad, and amongst others James Porterfield, an Irishman by birth, but who for some years had been a resident of Pennsylvania. Mr. Porterfield had five children--Eleanor, who intermarried with Col. Thomas Owen, the father of Gen. James and the late Gov. John Owen; one son who died in early life; John and James, who for many years were merchants in Fayetteville, and Denny, who is the subject of this brief sketch.

        On the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, the whole family of Porterfields espoused the Whig cause. In the death of James Porterfield, senior, the Whigs lost an able and influential friend. But his widow, animated by the same ardent temperament, made her mansion headquarters for the Whigs of Cross Creek. She was celebrated as an expert cartridge-maker, and frequently spent nights in preparing bullets to be used by the Americans. At that time she lived in the house that has for many years been known as the residence of John McLeran, deceased, and now of his son William.

        Under such a father and mother, and in such times, Denny Porterfield grew to manhood.


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He became a soldier, served with distinction in the American army, and attained the rank of Major. It is not our object to give a detailed account of the exploits of Denny Porterfield, but will simply endeavor to record his daring bravery as exhibited in his last battle.

        It is a well known fact that while Cornwallis retreated from Guilford Court House via Fayetteville and Wilmington to Yorktown, where he was compelled to surrender to the prowess of Washington, Gen. Greene, instead of pursuing him, determined to relieve North and South Carolina from the persecutions of Lord Rawdon, and so pressed upon him, that in July, 1781, he took post at the Eutaw Springs, where the Americans attacked him and drove him from his entrenchments. Foremost in this intrepid charge was the high-souled and valorous Denny Porterfield who seemed to have a charmed life, as he exposed himself upon his mettled charger, with epaulettes and red and buff vest on, to the murderous fire of the enemy. Lieut. Col. Campbell received a mortal wound while leading the successful charge. Porterfield and his brave companions rushed on to avenge his death, and took upwards of five hundred prisoners.

        In their retreat the British took post in a strong brick house and picqueted garden, and from this advantageous position, under cover, commenced firing.

        At this crisis in the battle Gen. Greene desired to bring forward re-inforcements to storm the house. To save time it became important that some one should ride within range of the British cannon. It was in reality a forlorn hope. The American General would detail no one for the enterprise, but asked if any one would volunteer. Instantly Denny Porterfield mounted his charger and rode into his presence. Gen. Greene inquired if he was aware of the peril, if he knew that his path lay between converging fires, and in full sight of the British army. Porterfield modestly replied, that when he entered the American army he had subjected his powers of mind and body to the glorious cause, and if needs he was prepared to die in its behalf.

        Greene communicated the command, which was to order into service a reserved corps that lay in ambuscade, ready to advance upon receiving the signal agreed on.

        With a brave and undaunted bearing Major Porterfield dashed off upon his fleet courser, and so sudden and unexpected was his appearance among the British, and so heroic the deed, that they paused to admire his bravery, and omitted to fire until he was beyond the reach of their guns; but on his return, they fired, the shot took effect in his breast, and the brave Denny Porterfield fell, and sealed his devotion to the cause with his blood, on the plains of Eutaw. His horse escaped unhurt galloped into the American lines, and never halted till he reached his accustomed place in the ranks.

        Gen. Greene, who witnessed the instinct of the animal, shed tears, and ordered David Twiggs, father of Miss Winny Twiggs, now of Fayetteville, to take charge of the horse and carry him to Mrs. Porterfield at Cross Creek. And upon a Sunday afternoon the mother of the distinguished gentleman who communicated some of the facts detailed, remembered to have met David Twiggs coming into Cross Creek, who in one breath announced the fall of his beloved Major and the success of the American arms at Eutaw. He brought with him the red buff vest that Major Porterfield wore, and Gen. James Owen has informed me that he remembers to have seen it, and that there was a rent or tear on one side and slightly blood-stained. On the retreat of Lord Rawdon, Gen. Greene retained possession of the field, and there the body of Denny Porterfield found an honorable grave. His


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horse lived for several years, a pensioner roaming at pleasure on the banks of Cross Creek--known and beloved by all who venerated the valor and chivalry of Denny Porterfield.

        John Rutherford, or Rutherfurd, resided in Bladen County.

        He married Penelope Eden, the widow of Governor Gabriel Johnston, and lived on the place in Bladen, where the Governor had built a house. (Moore, I, 147.)

        He was one of the Council of Governor Martin, and should not be confounded with the name of General Griffith Rutherford, who did great military service in the Revolution.

        John Owen, (born 1787; died 1841,) was the grandson of Major Porterfield, above alluded to, and the son of Thomas Owen, who died in 1803, and was a brave officer of the Revolution, and commanded a regiment at Camden.

        To many of our State, he was well known, and by all he was highly appreciated for his amiable character, his generous disposition, and pure and upright demeanor. It was not his taste, or his fortune, to command in the field of war, or even

        The applause of listening Senates to command.


        He preferred rather to enjoy the quiet comforts of home and his family, and the kindly intercourse of neighbors and friends.

        Such was his popularity that he was often elected by the people of Bladen a member of the Legislature, (1812-'27, and in 1828;) during the last year he was chosen Governor. He was within one vote of being elected Senator in Congress in 1831.

        He was President of the Convention at Harrisburg, in 1840, that nominated General Harrison for President. He was offered the nomination as Vice-President; he declined, and Mr. Tyler was nominated. Had his modesty allowed his acceptance, as was the course of events, he would have been President of the United States. But his health was very precarious, and would not allow him to accept any position. He died October, 1841, at Pittsboro.

        He married, at an early age, the daughter of General Thomas Brown, the hero of the battle of Elizabethtown, leaving an only daughter, who married Haywood Guion, deceased, and who now resides at Charlotte.

        Governor Owen was a true type of a North Carolinian. Sincere, but chary in his professions and promises; and faithful and exact in his performances; varied and deep in his acquirements, but modest, reticent and unobtrusive in his demeanor; firm and gallant in maintaining his convictions of right. His name is worthy to be classed with Bayard of France: "Sans peur, sans reproche."

        His brother, General James Owen, was well known for his urbane and intellectual character. He was elected a member of the 15th Congress (1817,) and President of the North Carolina and Raleigh Railroad.

        His sister married Elisha Stedman, of Fayetteville.

        James J. McKay, (born 1793; died 1853,) of this county, was distinguished as a lawyer and statesman. He was often a member of the Legislature in the Senate (1815, '16, '17, '18, '22 and '26;) district attorney of the United States, and a member of Congress from 1831 to 1849, serving at one time with great acceptability as Chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means. In the National Convention of 1848 General McKay received the undivided vote of North Carolina as a candidate for Vice-President. As a statesman he was of unquestioned ability, of stern integrity, capable of great labor and patient investigation. He was in public, as in private life, a radical economist, and belonged to that school of which Mr. Macon was the father, and he, with George W. Jones, Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, and John Letcher, of Virginia, were faithful disciples.


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General McKay died very suddenly at Goldsboro in 1853.

        In closing our sketches of "The memories of fifty years or more," as regards the men of Bladen County, we should do injustice to the integrity of history and to merit and virtue to pass over the name of Thomas David McDowell, one of the purest men in public and private life that I ever knew.

        He was born in Bladen County, the son of Dr. Alexander McDowell, on the 4th of January, 1823.

        His education was liberal, conducted at the onaldson Academy and the University, where he graduated in 1843, in the same class with Hon. John L. Bridgers, Hon. Robert P. Dick, Philo P. Henderson, Judge Samuel J. Person, and others. He served in the Legislature in 1846 to 1850 in the House, and 1854 and '58 in the Senate, and in the Congress of the Confederacy.

        He is a planter by profession, and now lives in dignified retirement like Cincinatus, until he is called, like him, by the people, to position of responsibility and honor, which his merits entitle him, and his talents so admirably qualify him to adorn.

CHAPTER VI.
BRUNSWICK COUNTY.

        There are so many memories that cluster around the early times of this ancient county, associated with the chivalric daring of her patriotic sons, that the historian is embarrassed by the riches the glowing record presents. The difficulty arises not so much in finding material for his study as in selecting events and subjects most worthy of preservation. Here was the ancient borough of Brunswick.*

        * The ancient town of Brunswick, once the seat of the Royal Government, was on the left bank of the Cape Fear River, about 10 miles from the present town of Smithville. It was nearly destroyed on the 7th of September, 1769, by a hurricane, which is depicted in a dispatch from Tyron. (Colonial Doc's from Rolls Office, London.)


This section was the home of Howe, of Harnett, and of Hill, where wealth and enterprise reared stately mansions; where generous hospitality, gentle courtesy, and social harmony prevailed, and where wit, science and refinement found a habitation.

        These people were happy when left to themselves; never yielded quiet obedience to the rule of the lords proprietors, nor were they even on good terms with the rulers of Royalty. Governor Dobbs, with amiable traits of character and with all the patronage of the Government, could win but few advocates. Governor Tryon, his successor, by turns threatened and flattered them, but in vain; and finally they drove out Gov. Martin, the last of the Royal Governors, from the country, to whom, like the guests of Macbeth, the people of Brunswick said, with more decision than comity,


                         --At once, good night!
                         Stand not upon the order of your going--
                         But go at once.

        These people, when the Stamp Act was before the Parliament, saw the storm approaching; without fear they watched its course, and when it came, they breasted its fury with firm and manly spirit. When its final passage was announced, the Chevalier Bayard of the day,


Page 39

John Ashe, then Speaker of the House of the Colonial Assembly, boldly proclaimed to the Royal Governor, surrounded by his satraps, that "he would resist the execution of the act to death!"

        It was here occurred a scene which excels in daring any event of the age; and which leaves the Boston Tea Party a secondary legend in point of courage and patriotism.

        In the year 1766, an English sloop-of-war, (the "Diligence") is seen entering the harbor. "The meteor flag of England" flaunts proudly from her mast, and her cannon, loaded and ready, frowned upon the devoted town. She sails gracefully into the harbor, and drops her anchor. Governor Tryon, anxiously expecting her, announces her arrival by a proclamation dated 6th January, 1766, and the reception of stamps, and directs "all persons authorized to distribute stamps to apply to the commander."

        But other eyes than Tryon's were watching. Colonel Hugh Waddell forthwith sent from Brunswick a messenger to Ashe, announcing the arrival of the "Diligence" with stamps; he immediately repairs to Brunswick. Now comes the tug of war. Will the arrogant Tryon, with his armed men, triumph; or will the daring Ashe


                         Beard the Douglas in his castle?

        Will he and Waddell commit acts that are treason, and will send them to prison and death?

        They felt the importance and the peril of the occasion. Like the ancient Romans they felt


                         Gods! can a Roman Senate long debate
                         Which of the two to choose, liberty or death?
                         No, let us rise at once, and at the head
                         Of our remaining legions, gird on our swords
                         And charge home upon him.

        They with force prevent the landing of any one from the ship; and intimidating the commander, seizing the ship's boat, brought it on shore, mounted it on a cart, raised on it a flag, and marched in triumph to the residence of the Governor at Wilmington. The whole town was wild with excitement, and was illuminated at night. The next morning Colonel Ashe, at the head of a crowd of people, went to the house of the Governor and demanded the Stamp-master, (William Houston,) who had fled to the Governor for safety. The Governor refuses to deliver him up, and forthwith preparations are made to surround and burn the house, in which was the Governor, Stamp-master and others. Terrified, although a practiced soldier, the Governor yields, and Houston is delivered up. They do no act of bloodshed; but firmly conduct Houston to the Market-house, where he makes a solemn pledge in writing "never to receive any stamped paper which may arrive from England, nor officiate in any way in the distribution of stamps in the Province of North Carolina."

        Three loud cheers ascend to Heaven, and ring says Davis, "through the old market place, and the Stamp Act is dead in North Carolina." This was more than ten years before the Declaration of Independence, and more than nine before the battle of Lexington, and nearly eight years before the Boston Tea Party, which was in the night, and by men in disguise, and upon the harmless carriers of freight. History has blazoned this act of Boston to the world, but the act of the people of the Cape Fear was far more daring; done in open day by men of character, with arms in their hands, under the King's flag; and who has heard of it? Who remembers it? Who tells it? "When," concludes the eloquent address of Mr. Davis, from which I am proud to copy, "will history do justice to North Carolina? Never until some faithful and loving son of her own shall gird up his loins to the task, and with unwearied industry and unflinching devotion to the honor of his dear old mother, narrate the virtues and valor of her sons.


Page 40

        This decided conduct on the part of the people, as was to be expected, infuriated Tryon; and he fulminates in his dispatches to the Earl of Hillsboro his threats of vengeance. He enclosed a copy of the pledge extorted from his Stamp-master, which is filed in the Rolls Office, and which, for future historians, I copy and here record.

        From Rolls Office, London; extract from Governor Tryon's dispatch; dated 26th December, 1765; a pledge extorted from William Houston by John Ashe and others.

        "I do hereby promise that I never will receive any stamp paper which may arrive from Europe in consequence of any act lately passed in the Parliament of Great Britain, nor officiate in any manner as Stamp-master in the distribution of stamps within the Province of North Carolina, either directly or indirectly.

        "I do hereby notify all the inhabitants of His Majesty's Province of North Carolina that notwithstanding my having received information of my being appointed to said office of Stamp-master, I will not apply hereafter for any stamp paper, or to distribute the same, until such time as it shall be agreeable to the inhabitants of this Province.

        "Hereby declaring that I do execute these presents of my own free will and accord, without any equivocation or mental reservation whatever."

        "In witness hereof I have hereunto set my hand this 16th November, 1765.

"WILLIAM HOUSTON."



                         There are deeds which should not pass away;
                         And names that must not wither, tho the earth
                         Forgets her empire with a just decay.
                         The enslavers and enslaved, their death and birth.

        Among the records I find a letter from Houston to Tryon, in which he states, "I am hated, abhorred and detested, and have no friend," that he thinks John Moses DeRosset would not refuse a copy of his bond lodged in his hands, dated at Socrate, 21st April, 1766.

        Such was the enthusiasm and spirit of the aroused people, that fears for the personal safety of Governor Tryon were excited, and required all the efforts and popularity of Ashe to allay them.

        I find among the public records in London, never before published, the following letter:

"February 19, 1766.

"TO GOVERNOR TRYON:

        "SIR: The inhabitants, dissatisfied with the particular restrictions laid upon the trade of this River only, have determined to march to Brunswick, in hopes of obtaining, in a peaceful manner, a redress of their grievances from the Commanding Officers of His Majesty's ships, and have compelled us to conduct them. We, therefore, think it our duty to acquaint Your Excellency that we are fully determined to protect from insult your person and property, and that if it will be agreeable to your Excellency, a guard of gentlemen shall be immediately detached for that purpose.

        "We have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, sir,

"Your Excellency's most
"Obedient, humble servants,

"JOHN ASHE,

"THOMAS LLOYD,

"ALEXANDER LILLINGTON."


        This shows the well balanced temper of Ashe and his associates. He had raised a tempest, fierce and furious, in the cause of right and opposed to illegality and oppression. But he was a sufficiently potent Prospero to allay its excess.

        The position of the Governor was humiliating and galling to his pride. As a soldier he had been trained to arms. His temper was imperious, daring and desperate, as he afterwards evinced at Alamance. But he saw that he was no match before the people with the popular and fearless Ashe.

        His political sagacity induced him to change his course, for he knew well when to brag and bully and when to flatter and fawn. "He began," says Davis, "to court the people and flatter them with shows and sports." "In February, of that same year, 1766, there was a muster of militia in Wilmington. The Governor prepared, at considerable expense a fine repast for the people. But when the feast was ready the people rushed to the spot poured the liquor in the street, and threw the


Page 41

viands, untasted, into the river. He forgot that he was in the home of John Ashe, and he had seen that neither he nor the people could be intimidated or cajoled."

        I am indebted to the able address of Hon. George Davis for much of the eloquent style in which these events have been recorded, and use his language, so forcible and correct, and so much better than any I could employ.

        After the battle of Alamance, Tryon was transferred to the Governorship of New York, and he left North Carolina to the mutual satisfaction of himself and the people. He declared in a dispatch to his Government, that "not all the wealth of the Indies could induce him to remain among such a daring and rebellious people."

        His successor, Governor Martin, found his place no bed of roses, notwithstanding he used every means to reconcile the people to the mother country. He early experienced the restive spirit of the age, and as already stated, found it convenient to take refuge (on 10th July, 1775) on board of His Majesty's ship of war, lying in the Cape Fear river. In a dispatch dated 20th July, 1775, from on board the "Cruiser," he informs his Government that "Fort Johnson had been burnt, and that Mr. John Ashe and Mr. Cornelius Harnett were the ringleaders of the savage and audacious mob." Governor Martin found as little pleasure in association with such daring men as had Governor Tryon, and with English squadron left the Cape Fear country for Charleston. Thus was the State free from any foreign ruler. This same year, 20th of May, 1775, the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence was proclaimed, and the year following, (18th November, 1776), a State Constitution was formed at Halifax.

        These were the men that formed our State; these--


                         Like Romans in Rome's quarrel,
                         Spared neither land nor gold,
                         Nor son nor wife, nor limb nor life,
                         In the brave days of old.
                         Then none was for a party;
                         Then all were for the State;
                         Then the great man helped the poor,
                         And the poor man loved the great.

        It has been the subject of frequent remark and admiration, that North Carolina should haved formed, under such circumstances, so perfect a Constitution that it carried the State through the long and bloody revolution in safety, and for nearly sixty years, in honor and happiness. For any people, long inured to aristocratic forms and monarchial rule, should, bursting from the gloom of monarehy into the light of liberty, to have created so perfect a form of Government, was indeed a subject full of wonder. It has been amended several times; but to the minds of many it has not been improved. It was the work of men who knew the great principles of liberty, truth and justice, and many of them afterwards fought and died to secure them.

        It was adopted on the 18th December 1776, as reported by a committee, among whom were W. Avery, John and Samuel Ashe, Thomas Burke, Rich'd Caswell, Cornelius Harnett, Joseph Hews, Robert Howe, Willie Jones, Thomas Jones, and others.

        It is recorded that it was chiefly the production of Caswell, Burke and Thomas Jones. But whoever they were, they proved themselves master workmen in their craft.


                         Thou, too, sail on, oh Ship of State,
                         Sail on thy course, both strong and great,
                         Humanity with all its fears,
                         With all the hopes of future years,
                         Is hanging breathless on thy fate.

        By many it is stated that our Constitution was the earliest formed. But this is error. When the power of the mother country over the colonies was gone, and some Government other than England was necessary, the Continental Congress, by a resolution adopted 3d November, 1775, recommended the Colonies to adopt such Government as should best


Page 42

conduce to their safety. In accordance with this resolution--

        I. New Hampshire formed a State Constitution 28th December, 1775.

        II. South Carolina, on 26th March, 1776.

        III. Virginia, June 29, 1776.

        IV. New Jersey, July 3, 1776.

        V. Delaware, September 12, 1776.

        VI. Pennsylvania, September 21, 1776.

        VII. North Carolina, 12th November, 1776.

        VIII. Georgia, 5th February, 1777.

        IX. New York, April 20, 1777.

        (See Ben: Perley Poore on Charters and Constitutions.)

        I. The Convention which formed the first Constitution for North Carolina met at Halifax, 12th November, 1776, as above alluded to.

        II. The Convention which revised and amended the Constitution, met at Raleigh on 4th June, 1835, (Nath'l Macon, President.)

        III. The Convention (secession) met at Raleigh 20th May, 1861, (Weldon N Edwards, President.)

        IV. The Convention, under orders of the President of the United States, (Johnson,) met at Raleigh 2d October, 1865, formed a Constitution which was not ratified by the people, (Edwin G. Reade, President.)

        V. The Convention, under orders of General Canby, of the United States Army, met at Raleigh 11th January, 1868, formed a Constitution, (Calvin J. Cowles, President.)

        VI. The Convention to amend the Constitution, met at Raleigh on 6th September, 1875, which was ratified by the people by a majority in November, 1876, (Dr. Ew'd Ransom, President.)

        Lists of the persons who were members of the Conventions of 1776, 1835, 1861, 1865, 1868 and 1875, are to be found in the admirable hand-book of L. L. Polk, Commissioner of Agriculture, published at Raleigh, 1879.

        Brunswick County presented many patriotic sons to the cause of Independence, but none more worthy of our memories than Robert Howe, (born 1732; died 1785.) So little has been preserved and presented to the county of this distinguished man that the indefatigable and accurate historian*

        * Lossing II., 729.


has been compelled to state that history bears no record of his private life.

        The reproach has been removed, in some measure, by an abridgement of the memories of General Howe, compiled by Archibald Maclaine Hooper.*

        * University Magazine, vol. II., June, 1853. No. 5.


        Had his services and sacrifices been rendered in any other State than North Carolina, he would have been lauded among the statesmen and patriots of the nation. Let us try to supply this omission, and endeavor to present the character and services of General Howe as they deserve.

        His name and fame belong to Brunswick; for it was in this county he was born, lived and died.

        He was born in 1732. His father's family was a branch of the noble house of Howe, in England. He had the misfortune to lose both of his parents at any early age; and the guidance of his boyhood was entrusted to a kind grandmother, who, like all grandmothers, so completely indulged him that his education and training was much neglected. He was, however, of an active, inquisitive mind, and by even desultory reading, and conversation of literary men, he acquired much and varied information. He married at an early age a young lady of the Grange family, much against the will of her parents. With his bride be visited his relatives in England, where he remained about two years, enjoying the noble and munificeat hospitality of his friends and family.


Page 43

        On his return he commenced his public career. I copy from the Rolls Office in London the following:

"3d Nov., 1766.

        "At a meeting of the council at Newburn, Robert Howe, Esq., produced the Governor's (Tryon's) commission appointing him captain of Fort Johnston, and he took the oath and subscribed the test."


        In a dispatch of Gov. Martin to Earl of Dartmouth dated December 24th, 1772, "the Governor complains that the Colonial Assembly had passed a resolution requesting Governor Tryon to forward their petition to the King and thus overlooking him."

        "This," he adds, "was done by the influence of Robert Howe and Isaae Edwards."

        "Of Mr. Howe," the Governor says, in the same dispatch, "when he came to North Carolina, Mr. Howe was the captain of Fort Johnson, and Baron of the Exchequer; but believing the two offices incongruous, he appointed Mr. Hasell Baron of the Exchequer; by the King's appointment Captain Collet was made captain of the fort, which deprived Mr. Howe of a post of contemptible profit to a man of honor; but he, by extraordinary management of moneys that came into his hands to support the garrison, made it very lucrative, and served to keep together the wreck of his fortune. Mr. Howe is a man of lively parts and good understanding, but, in the present state of his affairs, of no account or consideration, and is trying to establish a reputation for patriotism."

        "The Legislature resolved to continue the establishment of Fort Johnston only to the next session, which, I fear, is owing to the command being held by an officer nominated by His Majesty, instead of Mr. Howe, a native of this country." (Colonial Records, London.)

        This year and in the next, 1772 and 1773, Howe was elected a member of the Assembly. He was also elected a delegate to the Colonial Congress which met at New Berne on 25th August, 1774. This was the first assemblage of the representatives of the people in a legislative capacity in the Colony in direct opposition to the Royal authority. It was violently denounced by Governor Martin. Howe was appointed chairman of a committee to whom the speech of Martin was referred, and wrote an able and eloquent reply. On the 8th August, 1775, Martin by proclamation dated 8th August, 1775, on board the British ship "Cruiser." denounced Howe for having taken the style of colonel, and for summoning and training the militia, etc.

        This closed Howe's legislative career. By the Colonial Congress that met at Hillsboro on 21st August, 1775, he was appointed colonel of the 2d Regiment, then about to be raised on the Continental establishment.

        The officers appointed to this regiment were Robert Howe, colonel; John Patton, major, (maternal grandfather of the Hon. C. C. Cambreling, already alluded to;) Alexander Martin, lieutenant colonel, afterwards Governor of the State. Among the captains were James Blount, Hardy Murfree, Henry Irwin Toole, Michael Payne, and others. In this gallant regiment Hertford County contributed her first quota of troops enlisted for the war. They constituted Company D, and were commanded by Hardy Murfree. Colonel Benjamin Wynns commanded the Hertford Battalion. Their first march under Howe was to Norfolk, and reached the Great Bridge only two days after the battle. Thence they went south under Lee. One of the best and truest of Hertford's sons was aide-de-camp to General Howe. This was young Godwin Cotten, of Mulberry Grove. Like his young kinsman, Colonel James Cotten, of Anson, he was the surveyor of the county. He was the youngest son of


Page 44

Captain Arthur Cotten, and lived at the old homestead near St. Johns. He was as amiable as he was brave, and universally beloved. He lived long after the war, and many now alive may recollect his exemplary and pious character. He was the last of his name in Hertford, for he left no sons; but he left two daughters, who were the belles and beauties of their day. One of them was the lovely mother of Dr. Godwin Cotten Moore, of whom we shall write when we come to Hertford.--(Moore's Hist., Sketches of Hertford, IX, XVI, 556)

        In December, 1775, Howe was ordered to take command of the troops raised in North Carolina, and march to aid Virginia. Unavoidable circumstances prevented him from reaching the Great Bridge until two days after the brilliant battle, [9 Dec. 1775] but he took post at Norfolk, and rendered good service in driving the Royal Governor (Lord Dunmore) and his forces out of this section of the State; for this he received the thanks of the Convention of Virginia, and of the General Congress at Philadelphia, and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general.

        When General Lee, in March, 1776, arrived in Virginia, Howe joined him with his regiment and went south. As he passed through North Carolina he received the thanks of the Convention at Halifax and at New Berne for his services, and he was received with public honors.

        As an additional evidence of appreciation of his patriotic efforts, he was especially excepted from the offer of pardon proclaimed by Sir Henry Clinton to all who should down their arms, and his estates on the Cape Fear were ravaged by the English troops. This was the second time that Howe had been the honored subject of Royal indignation and marked enmity. This second proclamation of Sir Henry Clinton was a grateful acknowledgment to General Howe for compelling Sir Henry's friend, Lord Dunmore, to leave Virginia forever.

        General Howe was placed in command of the North Carolina troops in defence of Charleston and Savannah; and the latter end of July General Lee undertook an expedition against Florida. But by an express he was ordered North, and General James Moore succeeded him. Soon after General Moore was ordered to join the Army of the North, and Howe was appointed to succeed him in the command of the Southern Department.

        On the 2d of October, 1777, Howe was appointed by Congress major general; and in the Spring of the next year he made an unsuccessful expedition against Florida. From want of proper supplies, insubordination of some of the officials of Georgia and South Carolina and the health of his troops, he was compelled to retreat to Savannah. The retreat was commenced in July, 1778; the conduct of General Howe was severely commented upon in various publications. Among these was a letter of General Gadsden, which was highly offensive to General Howe, and led to a duel near Charleston. Howe's second was C. C. Pinckney, and Gadsden was accompanied by Colonel Barnard Elliot. They fought, 13th August, 1778. Howe's ball grazed his opponent's ear, on which Gadsden fired his pistol in the air. The parties then shook hands, and became reconciled.

        He was attacked at Savannah by the British in force, and defeated.

        From the commencement of Howe's administration, South Carolina and Georgia had been urgent in memorials to Congress to recall him and to replace him by an officer of more experience.


Page 45

        In compliance with these solicitations, in September, 1778, Howe was ordered to the headquarters of General Washington, and General Lincoln appointed to succeed him, and to repair immediately to Charleston. Howe was stationed on the Hudson river, and in 1780, was in commaud at West Point, where he rendered acceptable services, and for his energy and activity at this and other important commands he received the thanks of Washington.

        In January, 1780, a committee of the Georgia Legislature, appointed to consider the situation of the State since 29th of December, 1778, and extracts from the minutes of the assembly respecting the conduct of General Howe, were transmitted to the Commander in Chief, "with a request that he be directed to cause inquiry to be made into matters therein alleged, in such manner as he should judge proper."

        In pursuance of this order General Washington summoned a Court Martial of thirteen officers--Baron DeKalb presided as President. After a rigid examination of six weeks he was acquitted "with the highest honors."

        Extract from Journals of Congress, 24th January, 1782: "The acquittal of General Howe by Court Martial with the highest honors is approved by Congress." (Journal 1782, page 271.) Although the war was over General Howe continued active in service.

        In 1781, Howe was sent by Washington to suppress a revolt of the New Jersey troops. Hildreth, III, 359.

        Extract from Journals of Congress, Monday, 1st July, 1783, page 64, ordered by Mr. Hamilton, and reported from a committee of which he was the chairman, that "Major General Howe shall be directed to march such part of his force as he shall judge necessary to the State of Pennsylvania, in order that immediate measures may be taken to confine and bring to trial such persons belonging to the army as have been principally active in the late mutiny; to disarm the remainder, and to examine into all the circumstances relating thereto."

        In May, 1785, he was appointed by Congress to treat with the Western Indians.

        He remained at the North for some time awaiting the adjustment of his claims for losses to his estates in North Carolina, ravaged by the enemy, and which were rendered useless and unproductive, and, from the depreciation of the currency, he was reduced to want.

        From the Journals of Congress, page 65:

April 12th, 1785.

        "Mr. Hawkins introduced a resolution, paying 'for depreciation, to Major General Howe, on account of monies ($7,000) advanced.' "


        In the spring of 1785 he returned to North Carolina, and was welcomed by public honors at Fayetteville and by kind friends at home He was induced to allow his name to be used as a candidate as a member from Brunswick of the General Assembly. He was triumphantly elected. But exposure during the summer produced a severe bilious fever, from which he partially recovered, and in October started for the seat of Government. His first day's ride brought him to the house of his friend, General Clarke, about thirteen miles above Wilmington. Here he relapsed, and after two weeks' illness died in November, 1785.

        He had served his country from the first dawn of the Revolution till the end of the war, with fidelity and valor, and his services demand the remembrance and regard of his country. One whose opinion is valuable, styles him "The wit, the scholar, and the soldier."

        Drake describes General Howe as an officer of approved courage, well versed in military tactics, a skilful engineer, and a rigid disciplinarian, and a man of cultivated mind.


Page 46

        After all the toils of war and the vicissitudes of fortune, he returns to his home,


                         --Life's long vexations passed,
                         Here to return and die at home at last.

        Cornelius Harnett,*

        * Drake's Biographical Dictionary; Lossing's Field ook, II, 582.


born 20th April, 1723; died 20th April, 1781.

        Associated with Robert Howe in the cause of Liberty and Independence was Cornelius Harnett.

        Both of these distinguished men, by the proclamation of Sir Henry Clinton, were excluded from all pardon from the Royal Government. Although not, like Howe, a soldier, it was not the fortune of Harnett to figure in "feats of broil and battle," yet he did equal deeds of daring and courage in the great drama of life, in which men and arms are only subordinate parts, and "the value of whose services," says Mr. Davis, "was only equalled by the extent of his sufferings and his sacrifices." We regret that so little has been accurately known of Mr. Harnett that even his birthplace is conjecture. Mr. Drake states, as does Lossing, "he was born in England," but gives no authority. Unquestionably there were two persons of the same name, both distinguished in the annals of North Carolina.

        The father, whose name the subject of our sketch bore, was not an obscure man, from the fact that he was the abettor and friend of Gov. Burrington in his quarrel with Everhard, and one of the Governor's councillors, 1730. It may be inferred that he was a man of distinction in North Carolina as early as 1725. But, as will be seen, he and Burrington did not remain friends very long.

        From the Rolls Office in London, in a dispatch dated Feb. 20th, 1732, of George Burington, Governor of the Province of North Carolina, to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, I extract the following:

        "Mr. Cornelius Harnett, another of the Council, was bred a merchant in Dublin and settled at Cape Fear in this Colony. I was assured by a letter I received in England that Harnett was worth six thousand pounds sterling, which induced me to place his name on the list of persons to be Councillors; when I came to this country he was reputed to be worth £7,000; but now he is known to have traded with other men's goods; and is not worth anything, and so reduced as to be compelled to keep a public house."


        There are other records that aid us. "At the General Court, sitting at Edenton, the 26th March, 1726, George Burrington, the Governor, was indicted, for that about the 2d of December, 1725, with Cornelius Harnett, of Chowan County, and others, he assaulted the house of Sir Richard Everhard."*

        * Williamson II, 229. Davis at Chapel Hill, 1825.


        In the Register's office in New Hanover County*

        * Book, page 71.


there is a record of a bond from Colonel Maurice Moore, of New Hanover Precinct, to Cornelius Harnett, "of the same place," dated 30th June, 1726, &c.

        Since we know from the inscription on the headstone of Cornelius Harnett, of Cape Fear, that he was born in 1723, it is clear that the Cornelius Harnett, of Chowan, was another person, probably the father, and that he was not of English birth, but of Irish descent. But we are led to believe that his son was born in North Carolina, and there was no movement from 1765 to 1780 in the cause of independence in which he was not ready and active; "The Samuel Adams of North Carolina," as he was styled by Josiah Quincy, who visited the South in 1773.

        With Colonel John Ashe, he was denounced by Governor Martin in 1775, for the burning of Fort Johnson. He was Chairman of the Wilmington Committee of Safety, and after Governor Martin's retreat the State was governed


Page 47

by a Provincial Council, of which Harnett was chairman, and de facto the Governor of the State, at a period when the affairs of the Government demanded the utmost prudence and sagacity. He was elected a member of the Colonial Congress that met at Halifax on the 4th April, 1776; Chairman of the Committee to Consider the Usurpations of the English King and Parliament. He presented resolutions directing the delegates from North Carolina in the Continental Congress to unite in declaring independence. This was unanimously adopted on 12th April, 1776, more than a month before the celebrated resolutions of Virginia. No one has ever heard of this forward step of "poor, pensive North Carolina," while the act of Virginia has been sounded by every tongue, and recorded on every page of her history.

        Mr. Harnett was of the Colonial Congress that met at Halifax on 12th November, 1776, which formed the Constitution of the State, and with Samuel Ashe, Waightstill Avery, Thomas Burke, Richard Caswell, Hews, Willie and Thomas Jones, and others, was a committee on this important subject.

        In 1777, 1778 and 1779, Mr. Harnett was a member of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. His letters which are extant breathe the spirit of a patriot, and prove him to have been a faithful and devoted public servant.*

        * Life and Letters of Cornelius Harnett, compiled by Gov. Swain; Uni. Mag., Feb., 1861.

        Notes relative to Cornelius Harnett; by Archibald McLaine Hooper.


These letters also reflect much light on the condition of the country and the proceedings of the Continental Congress during this eventful period.

        He returned home to North Carolina, and when, in 1781, the British forces, under Sir James Craig, occupied Wilmington, he was taken prisoner at the house of his friend Colonel Spicer.

        From his delicate health and his distinguished character, he was admitted to parole. He submitted to the inevitable with dignity and philosophy. But broken in spirits, health and fortune, he died in captivity on his birthday, 20th April, 1781.

        He lies buried in the northeast corner of the grave yard of St. James Church, Wilmington, with this inscription:


                         Cornelius Harnett,
                         Died 20th April, 1781.
                         Aged 58.
                         Slave to no sect, he took no private road,
                         But looked through nature up to nature's God.

        A worthy name of a worthy community.

        He is described by his biographer, Mr. Hooper, as being delicate rather than stout in person; about 5 feet 9 inches high; hazel eyes and light brown hair; small but symmetrical features, and graceful figure. Easy in his manners; affable and courteous; with a fine taste for letters, and a genius for music, he was at times a fascinating and always an agreeable companion.

        The capital of Harnett presents the honored name of Lillington.

        John Alexander Lillington was the son of Colonel George Lillington, who settled on the Island of Barbadoes, and was a member of the Royal Council in 1698.

        His grandfather, Major Alexander Lillington, emigrated from Barbadoes to the county of Albemarle, with his family.

        On the north side of the tomb of Governor Henderson Walker, five miles below Edenton,*

        * Lossing's Field Book, II, 586.


is inscribed the following:


                         Here lyes ye body of
                         George Lillington.
                         Son of Major Alexander Lillington,
                         who died in ye 15 year of his age
                         Anno 1706.

        The oldest public record in the State is a commission issued to George Durant, Alexander Lillington, and others, to hold the precinct Courts in Berkeley Precinct.*

        * Davis, IV; Wheeler, I, 34.



Page 48

        Upon the departure of Gov. Ludwell in 1693, the administration of the Province devolved upon him as Deputy Governor.*

        * Martin, I, 134.


His grandson, the subject of our sketch, was left early an orphan, and when Edward Moseley, who had married Ann, daughter of Major Alexander Lillington and the widow of Gov. Walker, (died 1712,) emigrated to the Cape Fear, young Lillington came with him, in 1734. A fine mansion, known as Lillington Hall, about 40 miles above Wilmington, on the New Berne road, is still standing, and an engraving of it is delineated in Lossing.

        When the notes of preparation for the war with the mother country were heard, Lillington responded gladly to the call.

        He was early known as an active and decided Whig, and co-operated with Ashe in opposition to Gov. Tryon. We have seen his letter, offering, with Ashe and Thomas Lloyd (see ante, page 40,) to protect from insult the person and property of the Governor.

        By the State Congress, which met on 21st August, 1775, at Hillsboro, to put the State in military order, he was appointed colonel of the Wilmington district, and Caswell for the New Berne district. Together, these gallant officers, with their forces, fought (February 27, 1776,) and won the battle at Moore's Creek Bridge, over the Scotch Tories, which has been fully described, with its important consequences.*

        * See Wheeler, I, 76.


The State deeply appreciated his services, for the Provincial Congress that met at Halifax on 4th of April following, appointed him colonel of the 6th Regiment of North Carolina troops on the Continental establishment. He served under General Gates at the ill-fated battle of Camden August 15, 1780. Though he served through the war with distinguished honor, and was promoted to rank of brigadier general, his military fame rests chiefly upon the battle of Moore's Creek.

        General Lillington remained in service to the close of the war, when he retired to his estate at Lillington Hall, where he died; near his mansion rest the remains of General Lillington and his son John, who did good service in the whole Revolutionary war as colonel.

        "General Lillington," writes one of his descendants to Lossing,*

        * Lossing, II, 385.


"was a man of Herculean frame and strength. He possessed intellectual powers of a high order, undaunted courage and of incorruptible integrity. He has left,


                         --on the footprints of Time,
                         On of those names that never die.

        General Lillington was the grandson of Major Alexander Lillington who was President of the Council, and ex officio Governor of North Carolina, in 1673. His grandmother was an Adams, from Massachusetts. One of her daughters married Governor Walker, and afterwards Edward Mosely. Another was the wife of the first Samuel Swann. General Lillington left issue at his death in 1786, one daughter, who married her cousin, Sampson Mosely, and a son George, who left a son, John Alexander, (who represented Davie County in the Senate, in 1848,-'50,-'52,) who was the last of his name, a gentleman of fine personal appearance, and talents.

        Mrs. Harden of Hickory, and Mrs. Dr. Anderson, of Wilmington, are the present representatives of the family.--(Moore, Letter of Hon. George Davis.)

THE MOORES OF BRUNSWICK.

        It is now just about fifty years ago when I first entered the House of Commons (as it was then called,) as a member from my native County of Hertford, and my attention was drawn on the first day of the session to one of the best expressed and best delivered speeches that I ever heard, and which made an indelible


Page 49

impression on my own mind, and carried conviction to all who heard it.

        The simple facts of the case were: One of the members from the Cape Fear country had lost or mislaid the certificate of his election; the question arose in the minds of many, could a member take a seat without the evidence that he was duly elected? Alfred Moore then arose and addressed the House.

        His manner of speaking, the melody of his voice, the polished periods of his sentences, commanded the attention of all, while his argument and reasoning influenced their judgments.

        There was no question of the fact that the member had been elected, and that he had lost or mislaid the certificate of the sheriff holding the election.

        Mr. Moore traced the history of the mode of elections, as had existed from the foundation of the State, and also the mode in the Colonial period, that whenever the Governor called the Legislature, which body was composed of a Council, who were appointed by the Crown to advise with the Governor, and the House, which was composed of members elected by the people from each county; he directed the Clerk of the Crown or the Secretary to issue writs of election to each sheriff, to call together the people and to elect such number of names as the county was entitled to as members, and when executed and the election made, to endorse on said writ the names of the persons elected, and to transmit the said writ to the Clerk of the House or Crown or Secretary, as the case might be. This return was filed and recorded. On the day appointed for the meeting of the Assembly, the endorsement was read by him, and the persons called and qualified.

        He further argued the person elected had no right to the custody of the certificate, no more than a party who sues out a writ. It was a part of the records of the court, and the party elected had no right to its possession.

        This able argument was more effective by the ornate and elegant manner with which it was delivered.

        No reply was attempted, and the member was unanimously admitted.

        This question, we are aware, has been since decided differently; (Ennet's Case, 1842,) but it was when party arose superior to patriotism.

        It has been often my good fortune to hear Clay in his happiest moods, and Calhoun's powerful logic, and Webster in his massive eloquence, but neither of these excelled this extempore effort of Mr. Moore, whose powers as a speaker were only excelled by courtly elegance of manners and simplicity and modesty of demeanor.

        Mr. Moore was of a family long and well known for their integrity, their intellectual powers, and their devotion to the cause of liberty and law.

        This family is of Irish descent, and claim to belong to the Chiefs O'More. The ancestor in America was James, who came to Charleston and married, in 1665, a daughter of Gov. Yeamans, who was Governor of Carolina in 1671.

        He became Governor of Carolina in 1700, upon the death of Joseph Blake. He was supposed to be the grandson of Roger Moore, the leader of the Irish rebellion of 1641, and inherited the rebellious blood of his sire.*

        * See Hume's England.

        Money's Hist, of Ireland.

        Drake's Biographical Dict.

        Carrol's Collections of S. C.

        Davis at C. Hill, 26.


By his marriage with Miss Yeamans he had ten children.

        The eldest son, of the same name, was worthy of his father. He acquired military renown in his campaigns against the Indians.

        He, in 1703, marched to North Carolina to


Page 50

ubdue the Appalachian Indians, who had done great mischief and murder in this (the Cape Fear) section, and he completely subdued them.

        He also commanded the forces sent by Gov. Charles Craven to succor the inhabitants, whose borders were ravaged by the Tuscaroras in 1713, and many of the inhabitants massacred, among them John Lawson, the first historian of North Carolina. He was accompanied by a strong force, and completely routed the savages. A severe engagement near Snow Hill in Greene County.*

        * Johnson Traditions, 230; Davis's Address, 12.


        He remained in North Carolina about seven months, when he returned home. Until 1693 the two Provinces were together, and under one Governor. The renown gained in the Indian wars was well calculated to render Col. Moore a favorite with the people. In 1719, when then quarrel between the people and the Government occurred, true to the instincts of his race, he was with the people, and was well qualified to be a leader in perilous and troubled times. Robert Johnson was at this time the Royal Governor. The people proclaimed against him and deposed him 28th November, 1719, and with this proclamation went up the expiring sighs of the Proprietory Government, and James Moore was elected by the people Governor. He was succeeded the same year, (1719) by Arthur Middleton, and as he disappears from South Carolina history it is probable he came to Cape Fear.*

        * Martin, I, 261.


        He never married. His younger brother, Maurice, accompanied him in his campaigns against the Indians.

        Such was the inviting character of this section, its genial soil and mild climate, that many of the family settled on the Cape Fear. Of these Mr. Davis was correct when he said "they inherited the rebellious stock of their race; it was not in their name or blood to be other than patriots, or to shrink from any sacrifice at the call of their country." In a dispatch from Governor Burrington as early as February, 1735, he shows his instinctive dread of such patriotic and pure-hearted men, and thus describes them:

        "About twenty men are settled at Cape Fear from South Carolina. Among these are three brothers of a noted family, by the name of Moore. They are all of the set known by the name of 'the Goose Creek faction.' These people were always very troublesome in that Government, and will be so, without doubt, in this. Already I have been told they will spend a good deal of money to get me turned out. Messengers are continually going to Mosely and his crew, to and from them." Such was the repulsion of the representative of royalty to the advocates of popular rights and equal justice.

        Colonel Maurice Moore, to whom we have already alluded as the younger brother of Governor James Moore, the second, was a soldier, brave, energetic and successful. He had accompanied his brother in his expeditions to Northern Carolina, and was impressed with the character of the country. He had two years later commanded a troop of horse in the service of Eden, (Governor of North Carolina in 1713,) and marched to the Cape Fear to subdue the Indians, who were fierce and troublesome in that section. As Governor Eden resided in Chowan, it is inferred that he first went there. Three years after his expedition he was concerned with Edward Mosely in some matters of importance. He is supposed by Martin to have settled upon the Cape Fear about 1723. The dispatch already quoted of Governor Burrington shows "that three brothers by the name of Moore were located, in 1735, on the Cape Fear." These three brothers were Colonel Maurice Moore, Roger and Nathaniel. To these three men is due the permanent settlement of the


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Cape Fear. With these came others who were distinguished for their virtues and their valor, and were the germs of a noble colony. "They were," says Mr. Davis, "No needy adventurers, driven by necessity to seek a precarious living in a wild and savage country, but gentlemen of birth and education, bred to the refinement of society, and bringing with them ample fortunes, polished manners, and cultivated minds.

        Colonel Maurice Moore, the founder of the family, was the son of Governor James Moore and Miss Yeamans, and left a family of several children. Among these were his eldest son, Judge Maurice Moore, judge under the Colonial Government, a devoted advocate for popular rights, and decided opponent of wrong and oppression.

        He was a lawyer, and was so much esteemed that he, with Richard Henderson and Martin Howard, constituted the judiciary of the Province. He was appointed 1st of March, 1768, associate justice.

        This was no empty compliment or idle service. There were five circuits at remote and almost inaccessible points; through bad roads and worse accommodations, the judge had to travel eleven hundred miles to make the circuit of these courts.

        But, although he was appointed and discharged judicial duties under the Crown, he was by no means the advocate of oppression. He sympathized with the Regulators in their sufferings, but did not sanction their violence.

        He denounced the high-handed measures of Governor Tryon, in a series of letters signed "Atticus," and showed the character of the Governor in despicable colors. This so incensed the Governor, that in a dispatch, dated 1766, he recommends "the removal of Judge Moore, and the appointment of Edmund Fanning." But he continued on the bench until the Revolution closed the courts.

        He was a favorite with the people. During the great riots at Hillsboro, in 1770, when Judge Henderson fled, Judge Howard was driven from the bench, the house of Colonel Fanning burned, and his person severely chastised. Judge Moore was unmolested.

        He was chosen a member of the Provincial Congress, at Hillsboro, in 1778, and of the same at Halifax, in 1776, and materially aided in forming the State Constitution.

        He married Anne Grange, by whom he had two children, Alfred, born in 1755, of whom we shall write directly, and Sally, who married General Francis Nash, who fell at Germantown, 1777.

        He died the next year, on the 15th of January, 1777, at home, and by a wonderful coincidence, at the same time, same hour nearly, and at the same place in an adjoining room, died his distinguished brother, General James Moore. He was the son of Colonel Maurice Moore and Miss Porter. A soldier by his taste, by education and profession. He was devoted to the cause of his country, and considered the first military genius of his day.

        He was early trained to arms, and when Tryon met the Regulators at Alamance, in 1771, Moore was one of his officers.

        On the organization of the military forces of the State, he was appointed colonel of the First Regiment of North Carolina on the Continental establishment, by the State Congress that met at Hillsboro on August 21, 1775.

        This was a high honor--to be preferred to Colonel John Ashe and others to the command of the first regiment raised by the State.

        He was employed in watching the enemy on the Cape Fear, to prevent any junction of the forces of Clinton and Martin. When Clinton appeared in the river, the clans of Scotland gathered together to connect and co-operate with the forces of Clinton. Moore marched his regiment to Cumberland County to prevent this, and give them battle; but they avoided the offer, only to meet another force,


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and experience a disastrous defeat at Moore's Creek Bridge from Caswell and Lillington.

        On the departure of General Lee to the north from Charleston, March, 1776, the Continental Congress promoted Moore to the rank of brigadier general and commander in chief of the Southern Department.

        He endeavored to discharge the duties of this important station with fidelity, but his feeble health sunk under the duty, and he returned home, there to die.

        General James Moore married Anna Ivey, by whom he had four children, Duncan Moore, James Moore, Mrs. Swann, Mrs. Waters.

        Judge Alfred Moore (born 21st May, 1755; died 10th October, 1810,) was the son of Judge Maurice Moore. He was sent to Boston to acquire his education. While there he made by his genial disposition many friends, and was offered a commission in the Royal Army. This was not accepted, but the presence of a large military garrison and the friendship of one of its officers, added to an inherited taste for the profession of arms, led him to acquire accurate knowledge of military tactics, which soon was to be called into requisition in defense of his native land. He returned home, and when all hopes of reconciliation were lost and contest commenced, the State Congress at Hillsboro, in August, 1775, organized two regiments for the Continental establishment, he was commissioned as captain in the First Regiment, of which his uncle, James Moore, was the colonel. He marched with his command to Charleston and was on duty there at the brilliant affair of Fort Moultrie, and evinced traits of character that ranked him among the first captains of his day.

        But circumstances unforeseen and disastrous crowded heavily upon him. His father, Judge Maurice Moore, and his uncle both died the same day. His brother Maurice was killed by mischance at Brunswick. General Francis Nash, his brother-in-law, killed in battle. These calamities left a helpless family on his hands, and he was forced by these untoward events to resign.

        His patriotism and his martial spirit, however, did not allow him to be idle or inactive. He raised a troop of volunteers, and so greatly annoyed the enemy that Major Craig (afterwards Sir James Craig, Governor-General of Canada,) when in possession of Wilmington, sent troops to Captain Moore's house, who plundered everything that was valuable, and destroyed the remainder. While the British were at Wilmington, his condition was deplorable--without means, or even decent clothes, driven from his home and family, his property destroyed, yet no murmur of complaint was uttered by him; no abatement of zeal.

        Dear must that independence be, purchased at such a terrible price. After the battle of Guilford Court-house (15th March, 1781,) Captain Moore with others did good service in harrassing Lord Cornwallis in his march from Guilford to Wilmington.

        But the war was soon to close. The English were then on their march to Yorktown, which proved to be the Waterloo of the contest.

        But it was not in the field, although he had done a soldier's duty with credit and gallantry, that Judge Moore's reputation was won, and which preserves his name to a grateful posterity. The General Assembly in 1782 elected him Attorney-General of the State, when it was known that he had never read a law book. This was done to alleviate, in a delicate manner, his immediate wants, and as some slight acknowledgment of gratitude for his sacrifices and sufferings. His habits of industry and acute penetration soon supplied any deficiency. In the opinion of the Supreme Court, in case of State vs. Gernigan,*

        * Judge Taylor's opinion in 3d Murphy Rep., 12.


he "discharged the
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arduous duties of the office for a series of years in a manner that commanded the admiration and gratitude of his contemporaries." A clear perspicuity of mind, methodical accuracy and pertinency of argument, a pleasing, impressive and natural eloquence, distinguished his legal efforts. He soon arose to eminence. In 1798 was called to the bench of North Carolina; the next year he was appointed by the President one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. He held the elevated position for six years, with credit to himself and satisfaction to his colleagues and the nation. His health failing he resigned. He died in 1810 at the house of Major Waddell, in Bladen County, aged 55. His private life was equally as interesting as his brilliant public career. His manners graceful and winning, threw a charm over his domestic circle. His brilliant wit and his varied accomplishments, his gentle courtesy and unstinted hospitality, has, in the language of Mr. Davis, "handed his memory down to posterity as a finished model of a North Carolina gentleman."

        Judge Moore married Susan Eagles, and left four children; Maurice, colonel in war of 1812; Alfred, with whom we opened this sketch of Brunswick County; Anna, who married Hugh Waddell, senior, son of General Hugh Waddell, of the Regulation war; Sally, unmarried.

        The best evidence of the high appreciation of the name and fame of Judge Alfred Moore, by the people of the State, is at this time, 1878, there are two members of Congress, and hundreds of others in North Carolina, who proudly bear his name as their patronomic, and who reverence his memory and virtues.

        The genealogical diagram printed in the Appendix will explain the branches and descent of this distinguished family, and has been compiled with some care from historical documents, by aid of Mrs. Harvey, one of the descendants.

        The capital town of Brunswick County preserves the name of Benjamin Smith, who was governor of the State in 1810, and a sketch of whom may be found in the history of North Carolina, vol. II, p. 49.

        Governor Smith was at one time immensely wealthy, having large possessions on the Cape Fear river. His liberal donation to the University in 1789, of 20,000 acres of land, proves his friendship for learning.

        His temper, "sudden and quick in quarrel," involved him in several duels. In one of them, with a man by the name of Leonard, he received the ball of his adversary in his hip, which he carried to his grave.

        He died in Smithville in February, 1829, entirely penniless, and was buried the same night he died by Major Wilson and Captain Frazier, of the United States army, under the cover of the night, to prevent the sheriff from levying upon the dead body for debt, which was allowable in those days, that when a ca. sa. was levied, once levied on the body it could be kept out of the grave in order to force the friends to redeem it by satisfying the claim in hands of the sheriff.*

        * Letter from Woodsides hotel, Smithville, to the "Observer," Raleigh, October 4, 1878.


        There are many other names connected with the early history of this county, as Thomas Allen, Archibald McLaine, Roger Moore, William Lord, Thos. Leonard, William R. Hall, Parker Quince, John Rowan, and others, well deserving of our remembrance and record.

        It is hoped that some son of Brunswick will gather together the rich materials before they are forever lost, and present their lives and services to posterity. A recent and graphic sketch of Gov. Smith, from the polished pen of President Battle, is well worth preserving.


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BENJAMIN SMITH, SOLDIER, STATESMAN, PHILANTHROPIST.

        Near the mouth of the beautiful Cape Fear river, on its right bank, is a pleasant little town. It is fanned by the delicious sea breezes; huge live oaks gratefully shade its streets. In its sombre cemetery repose the bodies of many excellent people. Its harbor is good. It is on the main channel of the river. From its wharves can be seen not far away the thin white line of waves as they break on the sandy beach. But the ships to and from its neighbor, Wilmington, pay little tribute as they pass and repass. Its chief fame is that it contains the court-house of the county of Brunswick. Its name is Smithville.

        Opposite this good old town is a desert island composed of undulating sand hills, with here and there occasional green flats and dwarfed pines to relieve the general monotony. It is exposed to the full fury of the Atlantic storms. New Inlet once poured a rapid stream between the island and the mainland. But daring and industrious man seeks to force by walls of stone the impetuous floods through the river channel to the west, and thus float larger ships up the river to the port of Wilmington. Its southern end forms the dangerous cape which Mr. George Davis so eloquently describes:

        "A naked, bleak elbow of sand jutting far out into the ocean. Immediately in its front are the Frying Pan Shoals, pushing out still further twenty miles to sea. Together they stand for warning and for woe; and together they catch the long majestic roll of the Atlantic as it sweeps through a thousand miles of grandeur and power, from the Arctic toward the Gulf. It is the play-ground of billows and tempests, the kingdom of silence and awe, disturbed by no sound save the sea-gull's shriek, and the breakers' roar.

         There it stands, bleak and threatening and pitiless, as it stood three hundred years ago, when Greenville and White came nigh unto death upon its sands. And there it will stand, bleak and threatening and pitiless, until the earth and sea shall give up their dead. And as its nature, so its name, is the Cape of Fear."


        The name of the sandy reach which I have described, so desolate, yet so full of interest, is Smith Island.

        The University of North Carolina has amid its group of buildings, one, in its shape and portico and columns, imitating a Greek temple. Its basement was until recently the home of the State Agricultural Experiment Station, which has done so much to protect our farmers from frauds, but now is the laboratory of the professor of chemistry. Above is a long and lofty room containing the library of the University.

        On its shelves are many ancient books of great value, but vacant spaces plead piteously for new books in all the departments of literature and science. The names of this building is "Smith Hall."

        What member of the widely-spread family of Smiths has thus given his familiar name to a county town, an island, and a University Hall? His Christian name was Benjamin. He was an active officer of the Revolution and a Governor of our State, and the first benefactor of the University.

        Governor Smith had many vicissitudes of fortune. In his youth he was aide-de-camp of Washington in the dangerous but masterly retreat from Long Island after the defeat of the American forces. He behaved with conspicuous gallantry in the brilliant action in which Moultrie drove the British from Port Royal Island and checked for a time the invasion of South Carolina. A Charleston paper of 1794 says, "he gave on many occasions such various proof of activity and distinguished bravery as to merit the approbation of his impartial country." After the strong Union superseded the nerveless Confederacy, when there was danger of war with France or England, he was made general of militia,


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and when later, on account of insults and injuries of France, our Government made preparations for active hostilities, the entire militia of Brunswick County, officers and men, roused to enthusiasm by an address from him full of energy and fire, volunteered to follow his lead in the legionary corps raised for service against the enemy. The confidence of his countrymen in his wisdom and integrity was shown by their fifteen times electing him to the Senate of the State. From this post he was chosen by the General Assembly as our Chief Executive in 1810, when war with England was constantly expected, and by large numbers earnestly desired. The charter of the University was granted in 1789. The trustees were the great men of that day--the leaders in war and in peace.

        Of this band of eminent men, Benjamin Smith was a worthy member. He is entitled to the signal honor of being the first benefactor of the infant institution, the leader of the small corps of liberal supporters of education in North Carolina. For that reason alone his name should be revered by all the long line of students who call the University their Alma Mater--by every one who desires the enlightenment of our people.

        The Trustees met, for organization, in Fayetteville, on November 15th, 1790, choosing as their chairman Colonel William Lenoir, the Speaker of the Senate. General Smith gladdened these hearts by the munificent donation of patents for twenty thousand acres of land in Western Tennessee. A large portion of them was a gift to him for his gallant services during the dark hours of the Revolution. They were the price of liberty. They were the offering of a generous heart and a wise head, which knew well that liberty could not be preserved without education--that ignorance must be slain or vice will be the ruler of our land.

        Generation after generation grew up and passed away. Year after year young men, their mental armor supplied and burnished through his wisdom and liberality, went from the University walls to become sources of good influence in all our land, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande. The institution he loved so well, after many vicissitudes of trials and sufferings, had become wealthy and prosperous. Nearly five hundred matriculates every year entered their names on its roll to partake of its instruction. The revered donor had drunk to its dregs the cup of bitterness. His too generous disposition and misplaced confidence in others had deprived him of his wealth. His once strong and vigorous body had been wasted by disease and racked by pain. In poverty and in wretchedness he had long since sunk into his grave under the weeping moss of the great swamp trees. Sixty years after his generous gift the trustees of the University honored themselves by bestowing his name on a beautiful structure devoted to literature and to science. The sacrifices of the old hero were not in vain. His monument is more enduring than marble or brass. Centuries will come and go. Men's fortunes will wax and wane. But the blessings of the gift of Benjamin Smith nearly a hundred years ago will never cease, and his name will keep green forever.

KEMP P. BATTLE.


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CHAPTER VII.
BUNCOMBE COUNTY.

        Buncombe worthily preserves to all time the name of Edward Buncombe, a patriot and a soldier, who served his country faithfully, and who gave up his life in her defence, a more minute account of whom is presented in the sketch of the men of Tyrrell County, of which he was a resident.

        There is perhaps no section of the State more familiar by name, and less known abroad. "Talking for Buncombe" has become as familiar as a household word, not only in our own native, but has pervaded other countries.*

        * Attache in England, by Judge Halliburton.


This slang phrase had this origin. Some years ago the member in Congress from this district*

        * General Felix Walker was member in the House of Representatives from the Buncombe District from 1817 to 1823.


arose to address the House on a question of local importance; some of the members left the Hall, which he observing, very naively said to those remaining, that they might go too; as he should speak for some time and was only "talking for Buncombe."

        Ample materials for description of the lovely scenery and the genial climate, the fertile soil, and its gold giving ore, exist, but these are not germane to our object; it is of the men of Buncombe only we propose to write.

        Many of the earlier inhabitants and pioneers of this lovely region of the State we are compelled to pass over. It were a pleasing duty to dwell upon the character and services of the Alexanders; the Barnetts, (the first men that ever piloted a wagon over the mountains;) The Beards, Readon and Zebulon; Thomas Case, (who died in 1849, aged 82, "who lived longer, easier and heartier, and left more descendants than any man of his day;") the Davidsons; the Edneys; the Lowries; the Irwins; the Pattons, (especially James, who died 1845, aged 90, the founder of the Warm Springs;) Rev. Humphrey Posey; James McSmith, the first white child born in the State west of Blue Ridge; and many others.

        We leave these for some son of Buncombe as indicated by Hon. George Davis, "who shall gird up his loins to the task, with unwearied industry and unflinching devotion to the honor of his dear old mother."

        David Lowry Swain, born 4th of January, 1801; died 27th of August, 1868.

        Few men have lived in North Carolina who have made a deeper or more lasting impression on her history than the subject of our present sketch.

        Without fortune or thorough education, or any personal advantages, but by his own intrinsic merits, his unspotted character and sterling virtues, he was called on to fill the highest offices in the State.

        If his education was, from his limited circumstances, not complete, he was blessed with an unquenchable thirst for knowledge, habits of unremitting labor that was never satisfied until it exhausted a question, and a powerful memory. He remained a short time (1821) at the University, "but he did not need, (as Johnson says of Shakespeare,) the spectacles of books to study the great works of nature or the character of men." He was a student all his life. Truly--


                         --He sought rich jewels
                         From the dark caves of knowledge,
                         To win his ransom from from those twin jailors of the daring heart,
                         Low birth and iron fortune--
and so successfully did he labor, that at the time of his death he had no superior in the


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country upon the science of Constitutional law, moral science, or political economy.*

        * These were the subjects of which he was Professor in the University, and upon which he delivered lectures.


        His ancestors were English. His father, George Swain, was a native of Roxboro, Massachusetts, (born 1763.) He came South and settled in Georgia. He was a man of mark and influence. He was a member of the convention that revised the Constitution of Georgia, and served in the Legislature for five years. His health failing, he moved to the health-giving climate of Buncombe, and was many years postmaster at Asheville. He married Mrs. Caroline Lowry, widow of Captain Lowry, (who had been killed by the Indians,) and the daughter of Jesse Lane, of Wake County, who was the grandfather of General Joseph Lane, of Oregon, and Governor Swain; by her Mr. Swain had seven children, all now dead.

        Governor Swain was born, as stated, in 1801, at Asheville. His early education was conducted by Rev. George Newton and Rev. E. M. Porter. He often referred in gratitude to their patient labors, and they were proud of their diligent pupil. His father was ambitious for him. He taught his son early to choose only good society, and to aim at excellence in whatever pursuit he followed. After his early education was completed he came (in 1821) to Raleigh, where he entered the law office of Hon. John Louis Taylor, and was admitted to the bar in 1823.

        On the 12th of January following, he married Eleanor White, daughter of William White, late Secretary of State, and the grand-daughter of Governor Caswell. He then returned to his mountain home, and commenced the practice of law with great success.

        In 1824-'25-'26-'28 and '29 he was a member of the Legislature from Buncombe County. During this period (1827) he was elected Solicitor of the Edenton District, and rode this circuit only once, when he resigned. IN 1830 he was a member of the Board of Internal Improvements, and was active in promoting the best interests of the State. In the winter of this year he was elected Judge of the Superior Court of Law and Equity.

        In December, 1835, he was called to the presidency of the University. Here was his proper element, and here he spent the best years of his life, (till 1868.)

        "Never," says his able biographer, Governor Vance, "did a Grecian philosopher gather around him his disciples with more pride and delight than did Governor Swain. In the midst of his three or four hundred 'boys' who annually surrounded him at Chapel Hill, he was entirely at home and happy, and such society was the charm of his life. His knowledge was encyclopedic in its range, especially in English literature. So overwhelming were his stores, that the writer remembers with grateful pleasure, when forgetting altogether the subject on hand he would stand up in front of his class, and in an outgush of eloquence, poetry, history, anecdote and humor, wrap us all as with enchantment. His most remarkable trait of mind was his powerful memory, and the direction in which that faculty was notably exercised, was in biography and genealogy. In this particular he had no superior in America. A youth coming to college needed no letter of introduction. Not only was it so in his own State, but from the most distant Southern and Southwestern States it was the same. Knowing all the principal families of the Southern Atlantic States, he took note of their migrations westward; and when their sons returned East for education he would generally tell them more of their family history than they knew before.

        "Amazed at his display of this genealogical history," Governor Vance continues, he once asked him, "Don't you, Governor, know when


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every man of North Carolina cut his eye teeth?" "Oh no," said he, "but I know very well when you, sir, had the measles."

        "Thus for a period of an ordinary lifetime (33 years) he devoted himself to the highest and noblest service to his State and country in training the future statesmen, jurists and divines of our country. Eternity alone can reveal the influence which he thus indirectly exerted on the intelligence and morals of society; not only of his native State, but of all that vast region known as the South and Southwest, where his pupils filled every possible place of honor, trust or profit. He preferred to tread the noiseless tenor of his way in the quiet paths of science and philanthropy than those of political ambition. The plaudits of statesmanship, the renown of the warrior, had no charms for him. He felt truly--


                         --The warrior's name
                         Tho' pealed and chimed on every tongue of fame,
                         Sounds less harmonious to the grateful mind,
                         Than he who fashions and improves mankind.

        "As an author," continues Governor Vance, "with all his stores of knowledge, and his great capacities, he left but little for posterity to judge and admire. His literary reputation is confined to those who were his cotemporaries, and such traditions as affection and friendship may preserve. Many fragmentary articles from his pen and lectures exist; some of which are preserved in the University Magazine, relating chiefly to North Carolina history. He had collected a considerable amount of historic material, and it was expected that he would have left a work on that subject as a legacy to his countrymen. His age, the troubled times, and an aversion to continued systematic labor, doubtless prevented him."

        A vast number of rich traditions of the early times and the men of Carolina were locked up in the vast sotres of his memory; the key to which is buried with him. Yet he was ever forward and ready to aid other laborers in the historic field. As Caruthers, Wiley, Wheeler, and Hawks could testify. He materially aided me in my poor efforts in this respect, and in gratitude to him I dedicated my "History of North Carolina."

        At his suggestion and request, with a letter from Governor Vance, in 1863 I visited England, and spent all my time in the Rolls Office collecting material from the original records as to the early history of North Carolina.

        But his name could not have received any additional lustre than it already enjoyed.

        His fame will forever rest upon the success with which he conducted the University of the State. When he went to Chapel Hill there were not ninety students. In 1860 there were nearly five hundred. He determined to make its influence powerful, and he succeeded. It was by intuitive perception of character, gentle but firm administration of authority, and high consideration and gentlemanly treatment of his pupils. In the classic halls of the University he never assumed the commanding and repellant attitude of a "Jupiter Tonans," but like the course of the Apollo, leading by graceful manners and gentle words his admiring votaries.

        But the unhappy internecine war came--the call for men and arms to defend the homes and hearths of the South was heard, and the gallant youths of the University obeyed the call. Of the class of 1860,*

        * "Last Ninety Days of the War" by Cornelia Phillips Spencer, New York, 1866, 270.


every one, (with perhaps a single exception,) entered the service, and more than a fourth of the entire number now fill a soldier's grave. Every exertion was used by Governor Swain to preserve the University. It was owing to his exertions that the conscript law, "that robbed alike the cradle and the grave," was not rigidly enforced, and when the Federal army took possession of Chapel Hill in 1865, a few students were still there. In order to avert
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from the institution the fate of all others lying in the route of a conquering army, Gov. Swain was appointed by Gov. Vance one of the commissioners to General Sherman to preserve the Capital and University.

        After the war he visited New York and Washington to interest northern capitalists as to the financial condition of the University, and was greatly instrumental in securing the land scrip donated by Congress for agricultural schools.

        But the election of 1868 adopted the new Constitution, and destroyed what war had spared. The doors of the University was closed by negro troops, and with the venerable president, fell, unwept, without a crime.

        "This was the unkindest cut of all." This unexpected blow completely prostrated Gov. Swain; his energies seemed subdued, and he seemed suddenly to grow old, losing all his vivacity and elasticity.

        The able tribute to the memory of Gov. Swain by his life-long friend Gov. Vance evinces the deep affection of the latter, which has been so liberally drawn on, and this feeling was fully reciprocated by "his gentle, patriotic, and distinguished preceptor."

        In a letter which I received from Gov. Swain when at West Point as one of the board of visitors to the United States Military Academy at that place, dated 16th June, 1865, he writes thus:

        "I have been detained here much longer than I expected; I cannot leave earlier than Monday next, and be in Washington on Wednesday. I will be very anxious to see Gov. Vance. Will it not be in your power to obtain for me permission from the War Department to do so, in anticipation of my arrival? I have been hoping constantly to hear of his receiving permission to return home. Please write to me immediately to New York. I will probably have only a day to spend in Washington, and during that day I must see Gov. Vance

"I remain very truly yours,

"D. L. Swain."


        I procured for him the desired permit, and together we went to the Carroll Prison, where we met in the same place the Governors of three sovereign States "in durance vile," Gov. Vance, Gov. Brown, of Virginia, and Gov. Letcher, of Virginia. The cause of the visit of Gov. Swain to Washington at this time (20th May, 1865,) was an invitation from the President of the United States, Andrew Johnson, extended also to B. F. Moore, and William Eaton, to consult in regard to "Reconstruction of the Union."

        This was no idle compliment. The country had just ended a long, exhausting and desolating war. The President, Lincoln, had been murdered by an assassin; every branch of industry was paralyzed; the commerce of a nation destroyed, and confusion and dismay pervaded every section. That the President should call from their homes men who had never figured in the field or the forum, but only known as pure, honorable and conscientious men, was evidence of his sagacity and of their high character.

        They met the President on 22d May, 1865, at his office in the Treasury. Neither of them personally knew the President, and I introduced them. I then was about to retire when the President requested me to remain and participate in the consultation. No questions of more vital importance to the South since the foundation of the Government were ever discussed. All of those who participated in that conference have gone. No account has ever been published of their deliberations. From my diary of that date I extract the following:

        "Saturday, 20th May, 1865.--Mr. A. G. Allen, editor of the National Intelligencer, met me on the street and informed me that Gov. Vance, of our State, had been brought to the city, a prisoner of war, and that I might do good by going to see him, and that Gov. Swain was at the Ebbitt House and wished to see me. I went to the Ebbitt House and found Gov.


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S. and William Eaton, jr. Gov. S. aceompanied me home. I sent for his baggage, as he wishes to be more quiet than at the hotel. He, with Messrs. Eaton and Moore, are here, invited by the President to advise measures to restore North Carolina to the Union.

        "Sunday, 21st May.--Gov. S. accompanied me to churc. Dr. Pinckney preached.

        "In evening, at request of Gov. S. and Mr. Moore, I called on the President and made arrangements for their meeting at 2. p. m. to-morrow.

        "Monday, 22d May.--Gov. Swain engaged in writing, preparing for the conference with the President.

        "At 2 I went with him and Messrs. Moore and Eaton to the President's office and introduced them. Mr. Thomas and General Mussey, of Lewisburg, were with him.

        "After introducing them I arose to retire, when the President again desired me to remain. A conference deeply interesting in all its details occurred.

        "The President directed his Secretary to read a proclamation which he proposed to issue, and an amnesty to certain classes by which North Carolina was to be restored to the Union. He invited a frank, free, and open discussion.

        "Mr. Moore, with much decision, earnestness, and courage, denounced the plan, especially as to the classes who were to be exempted from pardon. The plan, he alleged, was illegal, and he denied the power of the President to issue it. He demanded of him where in the Constitution or Laws he found such power. The President replied 'that by IV Art., 4 Sec., the United States shall guarantee to every State a Republican form of Government, &c.' 'True,' replied Mr. Moore, 'but the President is not the United States.'

        "As to exempting from all pardon, or requiring all persons owning a certain amount of property to be pardoned, was simply ridiculous. You might as well say that every man who had bread and meat enough to feed his family was a traitor, and must be pardoned.' Mr. Moore continued in that same caustic manner, to examine other points of the proclamation, and specially the appointment of a Governor by the President, averring that the President had no such power. He finally suggested to the President to meddle as little as possible with the State, that she was able to take care of herself by aid of her own citizens; that his plan was to let the Legislature be called, which, as the Governor was a prisoner, the Speakers of the Legislature could do; then the Legislature would authorize the people to call a Convention, who could repeal the Secession Ordinance of the 20th of May, 1861, and thus restore good correspondence with the Union, with the rights of the State unimpaired and her dignity respected. The President listened with much attention, and bore with great dignity the fiery phillipies of Mr. Moore.

        "Governor Swain, in a long and temperate speech, but with much earnestness, advocated the plan of Mr. Moore. He detailed circumstances of much interest before unknown, illustrative of his course, and that of Governors Graham and Vance. He read several letters from Governor Graham.

        "The President stated 'that he appreciated the able views and the frank enunciations of his friends, but still thought that the Provisional Governor should be appointed by the United States; that the President was the Executive Officer of the United States, and therefore, the Governor, he thought, should be appointed by him. He did not seem much inclined to give any ground. As it was then half-past six o'clock he adjourned the Conference to meet again on Thursday next at 2 p. m.'"

        "Thursday, 25th May, 1865.

        "At 2 o'clock I went with Governor Swain to the President's house; we found Messrs. Moore and Eaton, and also W. W. Holden, R. P. Dick, Richard Mason, J. P. H. Russ, Richardson, Rev. Mr. Skinner, Dr. Robt. J. Powell, and Colonel Jones. The President laid before us the Amnesty Proclamation, by which he proposed to restore the State of North Carolina to the Union, a Military Governor to be appointed by the President, who should proceed forthwith to organize the State Government; direct the people to call a Convention, appoint Judges, officers, &c.

        "The President further stated that the name of the person as Governor was purposely left blank in the proclamation, and requested that we should select some name, and that whoever we selected he would appoint. The President then retired.

        "Governor Swain stated that it was a preferable mode to him, and more in accordance with the laws of North Carolina, that the Convention should be called by the Legislature, which could be summoned by the Speaker of the Senate, or they might meet of their own accord. But the President was unwilling to trust that body.

        "Mr. Eaton declared himself opposed to the


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appointment of Governor by the President; that he was only invited for advice and conference, and not for making offices, and that he would not unite in any recommendation of any one for this, or any other office.

        "It was then proposed to organize the meeting, and on motion of Dr. Powell, Mr. Moore was called to the chair.

        "Mr. Moore said he concurred in the sagacious views of Mr. Eaton, and declined to take the chair. He, with Governor Swain and Eaton, retired to another room."

        "Dr. Powell then moved that Colonel J. P. H. Russ be appointed chairman, which was carried, and on motion of Dr. Powell, the name of W. W. Holden was inserted as Governor.

        "The President was then sent for, who came in and seemed gratified at the selection.

        "The party then dispersed.

        "The President gave Governor Swain and myself permits to visit Governor Vance in prison.

        "Friday, 26th May, 1865.

        "Governor Swain and myself rode to Carrol Prison where we saw Governor Vance, Governor Letcher, and Governor Brown confined in the same place. Governor Vance was in good spirits and health.

        "Governor Corwin, of Ohio, also called to see Governor Vance, and denounced the outrage of imprisoning him without process of law and without crime, three Governors of sovereign States confined together, and he promised Vance that he should use every effort to get him out. Which pledge he nobly redeemed.

        "He asked Vance, 'for what crime was he imprisoned?'

        "Vance replied, 'he did not know,' 'unless that Governor Holden, who had voted for the Ordinance of Secession in Convention, and had pledged the last man and the last dollar, and failed to redeem his pledge, and now he, Vance, was his security, and had to suffer.'

        "We remained with Gov. Vance more than an hour, when we returned to my house.

        "As weather was rainy and disagreeable, Gov. Swain remained within doors, and we conversed on historical matters, and the stirring events of the last few days, of which he forebodes much evil.

        "I read, at his request, my diary," (as above recorded.)

        "He asked for a copy, as he thought it concise and correct, to send to Mrs. S."


        The memories of these times cannot but be interesting, as showing the prominent part that Gov. Swain bore in these eventful scenes, and the sad condition of affairs. They have never been published.

        Gov. Swain, after visiting New York, returned home with feelings of depression and distress.

        Hoping to restore tone to his mind and body, before taking a final leave of Chapel Hill, he was preparing for a visit to his native mountains of Buncombe. On the 11th August, 1868, riding in an open buggy, his horse took fright, ran away, and threw him with violence to the ground. He was carried home in a bruised condition. No one thought him seriously injured; but his hour had come. On 27th August he fainted away, and without a struggle or groan passed from time to eternity.

        Gov. S. married, 12th January, 1824, as previously stated, Eleanor, daughter of William White, Secretary of State, (1778 to 1811,) and granddaughter of Gov. Richard Caswell. His widow now resides in Raleigh. A daughter, who married General Aiken (in 1865,) of Illinois, where she now resides. Gov. S.'s remains are interred at Raleigh.

        We have now finished, from authentic sources, an account of the services of David L. Swain, of which his State may well be proud. In his public as well as his private character, there was much to admire and to love.

        As a statesman and politician he was patriotic, yet conservative and cautious. Rather a believer in St. Paul's advice, if it be possible, live in peace with all men--almost verging on the practice of the good saint of--


                         Being all things to all men.

        He certainly never was intolerant or vindictive. In the early days of the Republic he would have been a Federalist; in the log cabin


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age, he was a Whig; and to his last days a Union man.

        As a Christian he was the admirer of piety and virtue in any sect. He would say "my father was a Presbyterian elder and my mother a Methodist; Bishop Asbury blessed me when a child, the Presbyterians taught me, and Humphrey Posey, a Baptist, prayed for me. I was brought up to love all good Christians."

        He was for years a communicant of the Presbyterian church, and gave largely to its support. He was careful of money; economical in his expenses, punctual and precise, and faithful to his promises; simple in his habits and dress. He was little blessed by nature in personal appearance. "Certainly," says Governor Vance, "no man owed less to adventitious aids. His voice was peculiar and harsh; in person he was exceedingly ill formed and uncouth; his knees smote together in a most unmilitary manner."

        But his countenance redeemed his person, and one may say as did Hamlet of his father--


                         --See what grace was seated on this brow!
                         A combination and a form indeed,
                         Where every God did seem to set his seal
                         To give the world assurance of a Man.

        A recent writer (Dalton) on a "Few Hours at Poplar Mount," has recorded of Governor Swain some appropriate remarks from his life long friend, Hon. Weldon N. Edwards, that should be more permanently preserved:

        "With Gov. Swain a vast store of historical and other information was buried, perhaps beyond the possibility of resurrection.

        "There is no one left to us who can fill his place.

        "He was wrapped up in the University, and it was a serious blow to the State when the practised and learned faculty was broken up by political interference and partisan malice. It was a grievous fault and a blunder not to be tolerated in any party.

        "I have heard many of the friends of Gov. Swain state that he became melancholy and began to droop away on the termination of his duties as President of the University, and they believed a broken heart was as much the real cause of his death as the fall from his carriage. He felt 'the last link was broken' that united his heart and hopes to all earthly objects. The whole manner of the man was changed.

        "His step was tottering and slow; his massive frame was bowed down in grief. His countenance, so wonted to be lifted up in smiles and playful wit, had already settled into the stern reality of the impending gloom and of perpetual silence.

        "It was thus I met for the last time this distinguished man. He said: 'My friend, since I last saw you my connection with the University has been brought to a close; it was a trial I dreaded.'

        "What he suffered can only be known to the Great Searcher of all human hearts. There has never been a parallel case of injustice, prejudice and folly. It was a blow aimed at education, science, and civilization, and society; to Governor Swain it was malignant parricide, and its baleful effects were felt throughout the Commonwealth. Col. Venable, the distinguished and learned head of the University of Virginia, when this subject was, soon after its occurrence, discussed, declared that there was no Governor of Virginia, not excepting Pierpoint, who would exhibit a control similar to that of our Governor over the University of North Carolina."


        But another era has dawned on this venerable institution, and we trust that it will soon regain its pristine prosperity.

        Connected with Gov. Swain and Professor Mitchell of the University was Rev. James Phillips, D. D. He was a native of England, born at Nevenden, Essex County, in 1792. His father was a Minister of the Church of England.

        He came to America in 1818 with an elder brother, Samuel A. Phillips, and engaged in the profession of teaching at Harlem, where he had a flourishing school. In 1826 he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the University of North Carolina, then in his 34th year. For forty years he labored to impress broad and deep the elements of science and knowledge; how faithfully that duty was performed many now alive can testify. As his life was useful so


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his death was sudden and unexpected. On the morning of the 14th of March, 1867, he set out to the chapel to officiate at morning prayers. The weather was tempestuous; he ventured forth and took his seat behind the reading desk. The first student who entered the chapel after the bell commenced ringing bowed and spoke to him. The salutation not being returned, as was his wont, the student advanced toward him and saw him falling from his seat, and soon he was extended on the floor in an apoplectic fit. Doctor Mallet was sent for, but in a few moments life was extinct. Such was the end of this excellent and useful man. He left three children: Rev. Charles Phillips, D. D., Professor in University; Hon. Samuel F, Phillips, Solicitor General of the United States; Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer.

        Hon. Samuel Field Phillips, LL. D., son of Professor James Phillips, a sketch of whom we have just presented, was born at Harlem, N. Y., February 18, 1824. He was carefully educated, and graduated at the University in 1841, one of a distinguished class of which he took the first honors, and in which was Governor John W. Ellis, Judge Wm. J. Clarke, Professor Charles Phillips, John F. Hoke, Robert Strange, and others.

        He read law with Governor Swain and entered the profession with most flattering prospects.

        He was elected a member of the House of Commons from Orange in 1852, with John Berry, Senator Josiah Turner, B. A. Durham and J. F. Lyon--and this compliment was more appreciable, as the county had presented a formidable majority against the Whig party, to which he belonged. He was again elected in 1854, 1864, and 1865, at which latter session he was chosen Speaker of the House.*

        * He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1865; and the Reporter of the Reports of the Supreme Court from 1866 to 1871.


        But politics was not his appropriate sphere, and he retired from its exciting arena to the more germane pursuits of his profession. He removed to Raleigh and formed a law partnership with Hon. A. S. Merrimon. This able firm enjoyed a full share of practice. He was unexpectedly to himself and others, in 1870, nominated by the Republican Convention as Attorney General of the State. Hon. Wm. M. Shipp was elected; this was the subject of no regret to Mr. Phillips, for it left him opportunity to pursue uninterruptedly the practice of his profession. When Judge Settle resigned on the Supreme Court Bench, Mr. Phillips was tendered and declined this high position.

        In December, 1871, he was confirmed by the Senate as Solicitor General of the United States, which position he now holds, with credit to himself and confidence to the country.

        He married Fanny, the granddaughter of Governor David Stone, by whom he has an interesting family.

        Connected with the favorite and laborious portions of the life of Governor Swain, as President of the University, it is but proper to notice Elisha Mitchell, D. D., Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology. He was a native of Connecticut, born in 1793. He graduated at Yale college in 1803, in the same class with George E. Badger and Thomas P. Devereux. In 1818, by the influence of Judge Gaston, he was appointed to a Professorship in the University with Professor Olmstead, also a graduate of Yale.

        For more than an ordinary lifetime, he served the institution with fidelity and zeal, and his pupils acknowledge to this day his learning and patience. He was not idle in vacations, but extended his surveys and researches in every direction. No stream or mountain, no coal field, or gold, or other mineral mine, escaped his acumen. He was the first to determine by barometic measurement


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that the Black mountains were higher than the White mountains in New Hampshire, and his name is borne by its loftiest summit. A controversy arose between Dr. Mitchell and Mr. Clingman, in regard to this highest peak, and in 1857, Dr. Mitchell again visited that mountain for the purpose of verifying his former measurement. On the 27th June, he dismissed his son Charles, who was his only assistant, and requested him to return on Monday and renew this survey; he said that he would cross the great range and descend into the valley on the other side. He never was seen again alive. His body was found below a precipice in a pool of water about 14 feet deep, over which he had fallen and in which he had perished.

        Following the imperfect sketch of Governor Swain, we take up that of his pupil and his life long friend, Zebulon Baird Vance.

        The family is of Irish origin. From "An Account of the Family of Vance in Ireland," by Wm. Balburnie, printed at Cork, 1860, we extract the following:

        "The next of the family proceeding from Dougal, is named William, who was located at Aughavid, Ballydug, Tyrone. His will is dated 19th April, 1713. He left four sons. One of these, David, went to America, and fought under Washington. (Page 31.)

        "I now return to the eldest son, John. He married and had four sons and three daughters. One of these daughters married Andrew Jackson, of Mahrafelt, who emigrated to America, and there gave birth to Andrew Jackson, late President of the United States, of whom it is written 'that he was the bravest soldier, the wisest statesman that ancient or modern history has ever recorded.'

        "Another son was in the American war, and was killed in battle. A descendant of his was a member of Congress from North Carolina in 1824."*

        * This was Dr. Robert B. Vance.


(Page 35.)


        Whatever credit may be given to this statement, (and there could be no object in the writer to violate the truth,) our own records show that the grandfather, David Vance, was born near Winchester, Va., and came to North Carolina before the Revolutionary war, and first settled on the French Broad river; that when Lord Cornwallis sent a strong force under Colonel (or Major) Patrick Ferguson, and endeavored to win by force of arms or blandishments of art the people of Western Carolina to the Royal cause, that Vance joined McDowell, who led the Burke and Rutherford boys to battle, and under the gallant lead of Cleaveland, Shelby, and others, who attacked Ferguson on King's Mountain, killed him, and completely routed his army. We shall speak more of this battle when we reach Cleaveland County; of its gallant achievement and important results. It was the turning point of the Revolution, and was the cause of American success.

        At this time the whole South lay prostrate before the arms of the British; Georgia had surrendered, so had South Carolina. Lord Cornwallis, defeating Gates at Camden, had unmolested possession of Charlotte. This battle turned the tide of war, for soon followed the victory of Cowpens, then the drawn battle of Guilford, and the finale at Yorktown.

        After the war was over, Mr. Vance returned to his home on the French Broad river, where he spent the remainder of his days, universally esteemed for his integrity and ability. Colonel Joseph McDowell, of Burke County, David Vancc, of Buncombe, and Musentine Matthews, of Iredell County, (Speaker that year of the House, 1796,) were appointed to run the line between North Carolina and Tennessee. (Moore's History, 136.)

        He married a Miss Brank, and left several children, among them Dr. Robert B. Vance, who defeated for Congress Hon. Felix Walker, in 1823.*

        * For sketch of Felix Walker, see Rutherford County.


This singular canvass resulted in a tie in the popular vote, and was settled
Page 65

by votes of the returning officers (sheriffs.) He ran again for Congress (19th Congress, 1825-'27,) and was defeated by Hon. Samuel P. Carson. This canvass unhappily terminated in a duel between Carson and Vance, in which the latter was killed.

        David Vance married Margaret Myra Baird, and left two sons, Zebulon Baird Vance, and Robert Brank Vance, jr.; Zebulon Baird Vance was born in the county of Buncombe, on the 13th day of May, 1830. Without the restraining hand of a father to guide and correct "the slippery paths of youth," he is reported to have been a wild and wayward boy, so full of fun and frolic, that he tried the very soul of his mother and teachers to restrain him. But in all his pranks there was nothing but humor and no malice. It was the simple outgushing of volatile and irrepressible humor; he was always able to make his peace for all his mischievous capers, in the hearts of his superiors, by the genial kindness of his temper, his fearless and free disposition. As Mr. J. C. Calhoun was spending a summer in the mountains of North Carolina, when Zeb. was about fourteen years old, he stopped for the night where Zeb. resided.

        Attracted by the vivacity and quickness of the boy, and rather amused at the sprightliness of his manners, he invited him to take a walk, and conversed for some time with him. He so impressed young Vance's mind by the picture that he drew of what he might be if he would only cultivate his mind and apply himself to study, that the imaginative boy resolved to study in earnest, and to make his mark "among those names which never die." Acting upon this advice, he entered Washington College, Tennessee, remaining there two years, going thence to Newton Academy; his funds failing, he acted for a time as clerk at the Warm Springs. Here he was thrown in social contact with the first men of Western Carolina, South Carolina and East Tennessee. He improved these opportunities. The spark kindled by the great Calhoun was fanned into an ardent flame; and as soon as he could command the means he entered as a student at the University, where he was noted for the quickness of his mind and his "irrepressible impudence," which, like "the wind, bloweth where it listeth;" all yielded a willing homage to its irresistible and magic influence.

        His humor was involuntary and spontaneous. He could no more repress it than could the skylark withhold its liquid lays from the morning light, or the mountain stream prevent its pelucid current from bubbling up in radiance and beauty.

        After leaving college he studied law and was admitted to practice and was chosen County Solicitor.

        On the resignation of Hon. Thos. L. Clingman, (who was appointed Senator in Congress, vice Asa Biggs, appointed United States Judge, May, 1858, which appointment of Senator Clingman was confirmed by the Legislature, November, 1858,) Mr. Vance was elected to Congress over W. W. Avery, which position he held until the State seceded, (May, 1861.) He then returned home and raised one of the largest companies for the war ever raised in the State, of which he was elected captain, and it was incorporated into the 14th North Carolina Regiment. He was elected colonel of the 26th Regiment and attached to the brigade commanded by General L. O'B. Branch. He was engaged in the disastrous battle of New Berne, and also in the seven days' battles around Richmond.

        The following year he was elected Governor of the State, over Colonel William Johnston, of Charlotte, as the representative of the Union party, and opposed by the original secessionists. By some he was charged with the crime of deserting his party. He never deserted


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the true interests and honor of the State. In a letter written by him to Governor Swain in January, 1864, he said:

        "Almost every argument can be answered but one--that is the cries of our women and children for bread. Of all others that is the hardest for a man to meet.

        "But the historian shall not say it was the weakness of their Governor, or that Saul was consenting to their death. As God liveth there is nothing I would not do or dare for a people who have honored me so far beyond my deserts."


        For this he was willing to make any sacrifice, even to death. He felt as did the brave Horatius of Rome.


                         To every man upon this earth
                         Death cometh soon or late.
                         And how can man die better
                         Than facing fearful odds
                         For the ashes of his fathers,
                         And the temples of his Gods;
                         And for the tender mother
                         Who dandled him to rest,
                         And for the wife who nurses
                         His baby at her breast.

        To him these were no idle words or empty professions. During his whole term as Governor this was fully proved by acts and deeds.

        He, at the suggestion of General Martin, purchased from the Clyde a steamship, and established a system of supplies by carrying cotton to Europe, and receiving in return arms and necessaries for the people, that else must have perished for food and raiment.

        If the troops of North Carolina were the best clothed and best equipped men in the Southern army, it was due to the sagacity and energy of Governor Vance.

        On the approach of Sherman's army the Governor went to Statesville, where he had some time previously sent his wife and children; there he was arrested and brought to Washington City and placed in Carroll prison.

        There were many ridiculous statements made as to the capture of Governor Vance, which were offensive, and drew from him the following correction:

"CHARLOTTE,13th October, 1868.

"TO EDITOR OF THE NEW YORK World:

        "I see by the public prints that General Kilpatrick has decorated me with his disapprobation before the people of Pennsylvania. He informs them, substantially, that he tamed me by capturing me and riding me two hundred miles on a bareback mule. I will do him the justice to say that he knew that was a lie when he uttered it.

        "I surrendered to General Schofield at Greensboro, N. C., on the 2d May, 1865, who told me to go to my home and remain there, saying if he got any orders to arrest me he would send there for me. Accordingly, I went home and there remained until I was arrested on 13th May, by a detachment of 300 cavalry, under Major Porter of Harrisburg, from whom I received nothing but kindness and courtesy. I came in a buggy to Salisbury, where we took the cars.

        "I saw no mule on the trip, yet I thought I saw an ass at the general's headquarters; this impression has since been confirmed.

        "The general remembers, among other incidents of the war, the dressing up of a strumpet, who assisted him in putting down the rebellion in the uniform of an orderly, and introducing her into a respectable family of ladies. This and other feats of arms and strategy so creditable would no doubt have been quite amusing, and far more true than the mule story. I wonder he forgot it.

"Respectfully yours,

"Z. B. VANCE."


        How Governor Vance employed his time while in prison is shown by the following notes received from him. He bore his confinement with all the patience of a patriot, and "submitted with philosophy to the inevitable."

"CARROLL PRISON, 16 June, 1865.

"COL. WHEELER,

        "MY DEAR SIR: I desire to study French while in confinement. I want a dictionary, grammar, and Ollendorf's method. I am quite well, and see no hope of getting out soon.

"Very truly yours,

"Z. B. VANCE."


        I was, of course, pleased to oblige him, and sent the books.


Page 67

"July 2d, 1865.

"COL. J. H. WHEELER,

        "DEAR SIR: Will you please do me the favor to borrow for me the following law books? I am not able to buy them: Blackstone, 2d volume only; Greenleaf on Evidence; Adams on Equity; Chitty's Pleadings, 1st volume.

        "I desire to refresh my law studies. I am getting on bravely in French.

"Tout a vous,

"Z. B. VANCE."


        We have already described the interview of Governor Swain, at which Governors Brown, Corwin and Letcher were present, and how cheerful Gov. V. bore his condition.

        I could but remark how polite and considerate the officers and the employees of the prison were to him. By his genial manners he had won their hearts. If he had been a candidate for any position in their gift, he would have received their unanimous vote.

        He was release by the efforts of Governor Corwin and others, and allowed to return to his family on parole not to go beyond certain limits.

        In November, 1870, the Legislature so sympathized with his sufferings and so appreciated his services, that he was elected Senator; but having been disfranchised he was refused by the Senate, and in January, 1872, he resigned, and General Matt. W. Ransom was elected. From 1865 to 1867 North Carolina had no members in either branch of Congress.

        Gov. V. received a pardon from the President, (Andrew Johnson,) settled at Charlotte, and entered into the practice of the law, in partnership with that excellent gentleman and accomplished jurist, C. Dowd, Esq. In entering this firm, Gov. Vance told his partner that "in every firm there was one working man and one gentleman, and that it must be understood that he had to be the gentleman, as he was too lazy to be the other." Admirably both filled the assigned role. But the law was not the natural element of Gov. V.

        In 1876, after a canvas of unexampled exertion and ability on both sides, he was elected governor by a majority of more than 3,000 votes over Judge Settle, now a judge in Florida.

        He resigned on being elected by the Legislature Senator in Congress from 4th March, 1879, to 3d March, 1885, succeeding Hon. A. S. Merrimon. His recent speech (19th May, 1879,) on restoration of the Union, was a model of eloquence, wit and statesmanship.

        Governor Vance married on 2d August, 1858, at Morganton, Harriet Newell, the orphan daughter of the late Rev. Thomas Espy, of the Presbyterian church. She recently died, (at Raleigh, 3d November, 1878,) leaving several children.*

        * He has again married to Mrs. Marten, of Kentucky, nee Steele.


        We have now finished to this date, some slight memories of the career of our Governor Vance.*

        * Much of this sketch is derived from authentic documents, private letters and personal recollections. An anonymous article from the papers of the day, inserted, about 1868, afforded much aid, and which was freely copied.


They might well have been more elaborate and extended did our space and plan allow. We have tried to do justice to his merits, and--


                         -- Nothing extenuate,
                         Or set down aught in malice.

        Enough has been said to prove the high reputation of Governor Vance as a philanthropist and a statesman. As a popular orator he has no superior, aud but few equals. His "infinite jests and most excellent fancy," to which he adds, at times, the most touching pathos and brilliant eloquence carry the minds and hearts of his audience, and makes him irresistible and triumphant before the people. In his public addresses, as in the social circle, he often illustrates his positions by anecdote so pointed and piquant that the popular mind retains with pleasure the argument, when a graver mode would be forgotten.


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        For the Genealogy of the Vance family, see Appendix.

        His brother, Robert Brank Vance, was born the 24th of April, 1828, and is the oldest son, and second child, of David and Mira M. Vance, of Buncombe County, N. C.

        His education was very limited. His father dying when Robert was in his sixteenth year, a great portion of the burden of sustaining his mother devolved on him. On attaining his majority he was elected Clerk of the Court of Please and Quarter Sessions, which office he held for eight years, and voluntarily retired from in 1856. Mr. Vance's business was merchandising, which he followed until the war broke out in 1861. Being Union in sentiment, he voted against secession, but when the proclamation of Mr. Lincoln was received at Asheville, N. C., he, in common with most of his neighbors, took sides with the South. All of the male members of the family, including his brother Zebulon, and his three brothers-in-law, (one of whom, Rev. R. N. Price, was a traveling Methodist minister,) went into the army at once. Robert was left in charge of the families; but, being dissatisfied, he went to work and raised a company, which was organized as "The Buncombe Life Guards." He was elected captain. The companies came and rendezvoused at Asheville, where the 10th and the 29th North Carolina Regiments were organized at "Camp Patton." Vance was elected colonel of these forces, receiving every vote but one--his own.

        The regiment was first ordered to Raleigh, and from there was sent to East Tennessee, where it formed a part of the garrison at Cumberland Gap, following E. Kirby Smith into Kentucky. The regiment suffered considerably in the battle of Murfreesboro, Colonel Vance having his horse killed in that engagement. He had just gotten off his horse and was holding the bridle, when a shell exploded near by, a piece entering the horse by the stirrup-leather. The act of dismounting no doubt saved Colonel Vance's life.

        After the battle of Murfreesboro, Vance was taken sick with typhoid fever, and sent home by General Bragg. In the mean time he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. On his return to the army General Bragg sent him back to North Carolina and upper East Tennessee to organize the troops, such as could be got up, and take command in that portion. During a raid he made across the Smoky mountains into Tennessee, he was captured at Cosby Creek, where the Federals attacked him, and he riding by mistake into their ranks. He was kept in prison till near the close of the war, when he was paroled until exchanged.

        In 1866, he was elected Grand Master of Masons in North Carolina, which office he held for two years.

        In 1872, he was nominated to a seat in Congress from the Eighth district of North Carolina, and beat his competitor, W. G. Candler, a Republican, 2,555 votes.

        He was re-elected in 1874, beating Plato Durham, Independent Democrat, 4,442 votes. In 1876 he defeated E. R. Hampton, Republican, over 8,000 majority. In 1878, he was reelected without opposition to Congress.

        At the time of this writing General Vance has succeeded in having daily mails to every county town in his district, and had money-order offices established all over the district.

        His principal speeches in the House of Representatives have been on the civil rights' bill, the tariff, the internal revenue laws, the necessity of fraternal relations between the North and South, the remonetization of silver, etc., which were acceptable to his people.

        Many times, through the years since laymen were admitted into the councils of the Southern Methodist Church, General Vance has been elected delegate to the annual conferences and two or three times to the general


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conferences of said church. In 1876 he was appointed by the Bishops of the M. E. Church South as one of the Cape May commission which settled important matters between the Northern and Southern Methodist Churches.

        General Vance has given many years of his life to the work of delivering lectures on temperance, and the education of children in Sunday schools.

        General Vance was married to Miss Harriet V. McElroy, daughter of General John W. McElroy, of North Carolina. Six children--four sons and two daughters--were born to them, four of whom are living.

        Such is a brief but accurate sketch of General Vance.

        There are few public men in or out of Congress who possess that respect and regard of all who know him, more than General Vance. As a man he is true, sincere and frank in all the relations of life. As a Representative he is faithful, honest, attentive and active. His talents and success are duly appreciated in Congress; being placed chairman of the important Committee on Patents in the 45th and 46th Congresses, and second on the Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures; A. H. Stephens, of Georgia, being chairman in the present Congress.

        As a friend he is faithful, obliging and sincere, and above all, as a Christian he is a "burning and shining light," and a prominent and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

        James Love Henry, late one of the judges of the Superior courts of law and equity, was born in Buncombe County, in 1838. He received only such education as the schools of Asheville afforded.

        His father, Robert Henry, was a patriot of the Revolution, and was in the battle of Kings Mountain, and practiced law for more than sixty years, with much success.

        His father died in 1862, aged 97. The maternal grandfather of Judge Henry, Robert Love, was one of the earliest pioneers in the settlement of Western Carolina, and prominent in the early history of this section. He figured in the rise and fall of the State of Frankland, which Governor Sevier attempted to establish, out of a portion of North Carolina, now in Tennessee, (in 1785,) and with General Tipton and others, arrested Sevier, under the charge of high treason,*

        * See Wheeler's History of North Carolina, vol. I. 97.


and conveyed him to jail at Morganton. Robert Love is progenitor of the large and influential family of that name which pervades this and other sections of the west, and who have occupied positions of prominence in every walk of life.

        Judge Henry presided as judge with great acceptability, from 1868 to 1878, having previously acted as solicitor for this (the 8th,) judicial district.

        He was editor, at the early age of 19, of the Asheville Spectutor, and served in the Confederate States army as adjutant of the 1st North Carolina cavalry, (General Robert Ransom,) and on Hampton's and Stuart's staff, and as colonel of cavalry.

        He now resides at Asheville, engaged in the practice of his profession.

        Augustus Summerfield Merrimon, lately one of the Senators in Congress from North Carolina, was born (in that part of Buncombe County since erected into Transylvania,) on the 15th of September, 1380.

        His parents were Rev. Branch Hamline Merrimon and Mary E., nee Paxton, whose father, William Paxton, was the brother of Hon. John Paxton, Judge of the Superior Courts from 1818 to 1826, and whose mother (Sally,) was the daughter of General Charles McDowell.

        The subject of this sketch was the eldest of a family of ten children--seven sons and three daughters.


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        The early education of Mr. Merrimon was as good as the circumstances of his father would allow. At the period when youths of his age were at college, he aided his father in working the farm to support the family, for in those days Methodist ministers were not oppressed with this world's goods. Yet the unconquerable thirst for knowledge so possessed young Merrimon that he embraced every opportunity for acquiring it. Often when at work on the farm, during the hour of rest for dinner, he would be found quietly ensconced in some shady place conning over his books. One of the appendages to his father's place was a saw-mill, which it was his duty to attend, and while the saw was at work in cutting the logs into plank, he would have his grammar or some other book, and improve every moment in study. His father appreciating this thirst for knowledge, sent him to a school in Asheville, then under the charge of Mr. Norwood. Such was his application and progress, that within the first session Mr. Norwood pronounced him "the best English grammarian that he ever knew."

        He was exceedingly anxious to be sent to college to complete his classical studies, but the res angusti domi forbid. He commenced the study of the law in the office of John W. Woodfin, in whose office at the same time was Zebulon B. Vance, both destined to occupy high positions of honor in their county and State, and often rivals in political contests. Such was his proficiency in his legal studies, with such inadequate preparation, that in January, 1852, he was admitted to practice in the Courts, and in 1853 in the Superior and Supreme Courts of the State.

        By his close attention to business, his careful preparation and management of his cases, he soon made his mark. He was appointed Solicitor to several counties in his circuit, and by the Judge, Solicitor for the District in 1861. In 1860 he was elected to the Legislature as a member from Buncombe, by a few votes over Col. David Coleman.

        On the breaking out of the war, he took a decided stand for the Union.

        In the excited state of public feeling at this time of frenzy, such a step demanded not only moral, but physical courage. Mr. Merrimon's position was rudely assailed. Angry cards passed between him and Nicholas W. Woodfin, and a personal collision was imminent. On these occasions, he bore himself with dignity and courage. Though not over fond of arms, he felt--


                         --Rightly to be great
                         Is not to stir without great argument.
                         But greatly to find quarrel in a straw
                         When honor 's at the stake.

        But in the issuing of Mr. Lincoln's proclamation, calling for 75,000 men settled his course, and he entered in Z. B. Vance's company as a private, and marched to Raleigh. He was attached to the Commissary Department as captain for a short time, on duty at Hatteras, Ocrocock, Raleigh and Weldon. On the call of Governor Ellis, the Legislature reassembled, and he had to attend.

        In the fall of 1861, he was appointed by Judge French, Solicitor of the Eighth Circuit, and the next year was elected to that position by the Legislature. Just at the close of the war he was a candidate as delegate to the State Convention called under the reconstruction acts of President Johnson, and was defeated by Rev. L. Z. Stewart, a Presbyterian clergyman, the Republican candidate. This contest was remarkable, as it was conducted in the presence of the United States troops and bayonets.

        By the next Legislature he was elected Solicitor of the Eighth Judicial Circuit. The office of Solicitor was no soft place at this time, but one of imminent peril. The Democrats and "Mossy Backs" were in daily collision; affrays, riots, robberies, and murders were daily occurrences; deserters had to be arrested, and the


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place purified. So satisfactory and firm were his efforts as Solicitor, Mr. Merrimon won the respect of the Judges, the regard of the bar, and the esteem of the people.

        In 1866, he was elected a Judge of the Superior Courts by the Legislature. Here his services were equally acceptable.

        He held the first regular Courts on this Circuit after the war under circumstances of great peril, so that in most of the counties, a police force had to be organized under the sheriff to preserve the place, and protect the Court. While in the faithful discharge of his duty the commanding general of the United States forces, (Canby,) issued military orders to the Courts, with instructions to the Judges to observe and administer them. This gross military usurpation was resisted by Judge Merrimon, who, seeing the Courts could not be held according to law, and his oath of office, resigned his commission as Judge.

        In 1872, the convention at Greensboro nominated him for Governor against Todd R. Caldwell.

        The universal opinion of the Democrats was that Judge Merrimon was fairly elected. The returns were: Caldwell, 98,630; Merrimon, 96,731; reported majority for Caldwell, 1,899.

        He was importuned by the press and hosts of friends to contest this result. In a letter to S. A. Ashe, Esq., of 12th September, 1872, Judge Merrimon says:

        "I am satisfied by a variety of facts that have come to knowledge that enormous frauds were perpetrated at the election, and great number of illegal votes were cast against me and the other candidates on the Democratic ticket. I sincerely believe that we received a majority of the lawful votes.

        "If it so turns out, by the examination now being made through the executive committee, that substantial ground for contesting can be established, I will contest the election, and vindicate the rights of the people.

        "I will not do anything rashly, or to gratify party spirit, or political revenge, but will do all that is just and lawful to establish the right.

"I am yours truly,

"A. S. MERRIMON."


        The executive committee "died and gave no sign;" the conservative character of the people preferred to wait for that success which they believed awaited them, and endure for a season some inconvenience and even injustice.

        In December following, Judge Merrimon was elected Senator in Congress for the term of six years, from 4th March, 1873.

        It is due to the integrity of history to say this election produced much excitement, inasmuch as it was effected by the defeat of Governor Vance, who was the Democratic nominee.

        This, Judge Merrimon contended, was brought about by Governor Vance and his friends tampering with the caucus--pledging and packing it. Several Democrats refused to go into the caucus unless Governor Vance and Judge Merrimon would both withdraw their names. This Judge Merrimon was willing to do, for the sake of harmony, but Governor Vance, insisting that he duly nominated, declined to withdraw. The balloting then commenced, and continued for two weeks without any choice. Both then withdrew. Afterwards, the name of Governor Vance was again brought forward by some members who had voted for Judge Merrimon, and on the first ballot Judge Merrimon was elected. He received the entire Republican vote (72 votes,) and 15 conservative votes, the remaining eighty conservatives voting for Governor Vance. There was a deep feeling of mortification in several sections of the State; not so much because Judge Merrimon was elected, but at the manner in which this result was-brought about.

        We took no side in this question. We have shown the appreciation in which we estimate both of these distinguished men, and we


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believe that either would do honor to the State and defend to "the last gasp of loyalty," her character and her interest. Many politicians will doubtless say, like Pope,


                         How happy would we be with either,
                         Were the other dear charmer away.

        Of Judge Merrimon's career in the Senate it is not necessary to speak. It has given him a national reputation for integrity of purpose, for unsullied patriotism, and extensive acquirements. We may read its "History in a nation's eyes." To the interests of his constituents he has ever manifested vigilance and caution. No one has ever applied to him for his kind offices that failed to receive prompt and efficient attention. Always at his post, vigilant in observation, he has proved himself a faithful sentinel of the rights of the State, of individuals, and the Nation.

        That he deserves high reputation, is not questioned.

        He must have intrinsic merit who, in spite of the disadvantages of a defective education, has become the peer of the proudest of our land, and raised himself from the labors of a saw mill to the honors of a Senate chamber.

        He was succeeded by Governor Vance, March, 1879.

        Judge Merrimon married on 14th September, 1852, Margaret J Baird, by whom he has an interesting family.

        Thomas Lanier Clingman resides at Asheville, in this county.

        He was born in the county of Yadken, then Surry Couny, July 27, 1812, the son of Jacob Clingman and Jane Poindexter,*

        * Alexander Clingman, the grandfather of General Clingman, came to American from Germany before the Revolution. The name signifies, in German, a swordsman and a fighter. He was a soldier in many battles in the Revolutionary war, and was a prisoner taken at Charleston at Lincoln's surrender. He married Elizabeth Kaiser and had several children, among them was Jacob, who left four children, Thomas, John Patillo, Elizabeth, who married Richard Puryear, and Alexander. The father of the mother of Gen'l Clingman was of the Poindexters of Virginia. Her mother was the daughter of Henry Patillo, of Grandville; her first husband was Robert Lanier, whose sister was the mother of Hon. Lewis Williams. Toindexter is a Norman name, signifying spur horse. He, Alexander, was one of the three prominent Whigs or Regulators who were compelled by Tryon to take the oath of allegiance every six months, at Court.

        Jane, Clingman's mother, nee Poindexter, was a daughter of Henry Patillo, who was a prominent Whig in the Revolution.

        Rev. Mr. Patillo was a Presbyterian minister, who did good service and whose sermons have been published in a volume. Two of the sons of Mr. Patillo married the sisters of Robert Goodloe Harper.


and named for Dr. Thomas Lanier, his half uncle.

        His early education was conducted by private instructors. He joined the sophomore class at the University, and graduated in 1832, with a class distinguished in after life for usefulness and talents. Judge Thomas S. Ashe, now of the Supreme Court; James C. Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy, 1853-'57; John H. Haughton, Cad. Jones, and others, were of the same class.

        In a diary kept by Governor Swain at that date, I found the following:

        "June, 1832. The graduating class acquitted themselves with much credit, especially young Clingman, of Surry County, who, if he lives, will be an ornament to the State."


        Mr. Clingman entered upon the study of the law with great energy, and was about to enter upon the practice when he, in 1835, was elected a member of the Legislature from Surry County, which was a field more germane to his tastes, where he took a decided position.

        After this service was accomplished he removed to Buncombe County, where he still resides. He acquired much reputation for boldness and ability as a speaker, especially in a debate with Colonel Memminger, at Columbia, S. C., in which Colonel Memminger found himself overmatched. Mr. Clingman, in 1840, was elected by a large majority to the Senate of the State Legislature from Buncombe County.

        This was an exciting epoch in political history, and parties (Democratic and Whig) waged a fierce and ferocious warfare. In the


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Legislature or on the stump, Mr. Clingman led the cohorts of the Whigs, and like Henry of Navarre, his white plume was seen proudly floating in the van of every contest. Such was his ability and eloquence that he was elected a member of the 28th Congress (1843, 1845,) over that veteran politician Hon. James Graham. He was elected to the 30th Congress, 1847-'49, and successively to 1857-'59, when (in May, 1858,) he succeeded Hon. Asa Biggs, as Senator in Congress, in which elevated position he continued until 1861, when the State seceded from the Union.

        To attempt to detail all the events in the political career of Mr. Clingman, and the prominent parts filled by him, would far exceed the limits of our work. His political history is so interwoven with that of the Nation, that an accurate sketch of the one would be a record of the other. In his long and varied career there were few questions that he did not examine and exhaust. So acceptable were his views that he was, during his last year's service in the House, the chairman of one of its most important committees (Foreign Affairs.)

        His early career was in unison with Mr. Clay, (with whom he was personally a great favorite,) and the Whig party; but he never allowed the shackles of party to bind him to any cause in his opinion inimical to the true interests of the State or the people. When his convictions of right were settled, he followed where they led regardless of consequences, political or personal. He became convinced that the Whig party had become thoroughly denationalized, and that the only national party with which Southern patriots could consistently act, with any hope of good, was the Democratic party. His exertions and influence were used in promoting the election of Governor Reid, and of General Pierce. He has for years been an ab'e, decided and consistent Democrat.

        On retiring from the Senate with his distinguished colleague, Governor Thomas Bragg, he felt his duty called him to the field, and by his efforts to defend his native soil. He joined the Confederate army and attained the rank of brigadier general. He was in many engagement in which he conducted his command with military skill and undaunted bravery.

        He was distinguished for his defence of Goldsboro, (17th December, 1862,) which he saved from a superior force under Foster, whose retreat was so precipitate that he left much of his materials, as blankets, muskets, and even horses.

        General Clingman's brigade consisted of the

        8th Regiment, Colonel Shaw.

        31st Regiment, Colonel Jordan.

        51st Regiment, Colonel McKethan.

        61st Regiment, Colonel Radcliffe.

        In July, 1863, he took command at Sullivan's Island, which exposed position he held until December following, during the most active part of the seige of Charleston. He was then ordered to Virginia, and in the attack on New Berne, February, 1864, led the advance force of General Pickett's army, in which he was wounded by the explosion of a shell. On the 16th May following, in the battle of Drury's Bluff, he was ordered with General Corse to attack General Butler. This was done with such spirit that the lines of Butler were broken, and he retreated rapidly to Bermuda Hundreds, where he was, to use General Grant's expression, "bottled up."

        He was then ordered to Cold Harbor, and on 31st May, met the advance of General Grant's army, and a severe engagement occurred. The next evening (1st June) one of the severest engagements of the war occurred, in which General Clingman's command received heavy loss, in rank and file, from its exposed position. Every staff officer, as well as himself, was wounded. One-third of the


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command fell on the field, including Colonel Murchison and Major Henderson, of the 8th Regiment. They held the position and saved the day.

        On the 10th of June following, General Clingman repulsed an attack on the lines of Petersburg, and on the evening following, held his position against the attack of two army corps (the 9th and 18th) commanded by Generals Burnside and Smith, numbering in the aggregate 43,000 men. Three brigades on his right gave way early in the engagement, but he held his position until 11 o'clock, p. m., when the engagement ceased--and Petersburg was saved.

        On the 19th of August, following, an attack was made on the enemy's lines on the Weldon railroad, near Petersburg, by which 2,100 prisoners were taken, and many killed and wounded. In this affair General Clingman received so severe a wound that he was for several months kept out of the field, and was only able to join his command a few days prior to Johnson's surrender.

        When the war closed (8th April, 1866,*

        * The Supreme Court of the United States in case of U. S. v. Kiem in January, 1872, decided the beginning of the civil war was on April 19, 1861, date of proclamation as to blockade, and the end was April 8, 1866, date of President's proclamation declaring the war at an end.


) General Clingman, like many others, was left desolate and depressed in mind, wounded and exhausted in body, and utterly impoverished; yet he was ever ready to aid in building up the waste places of his country, and to repair as far as possible the desolations of internecine strife. He was elected a member of the Convention of 1875, and was vigilant and active in the cause of the people.

        These are rapid and unsatisfactory sketches of the public services rendered his country by General Clingman.

        In his private life, he is exemplary and consistent. He is a member of the Episcopal Church, an admirer of its tenets, and an observer of its ordinances.

        Though his fame rests on his long and important service as a statesman and his gallantry as a soldier, yet he has not neglected the pursuits of literature and of science. His able defence of religion, and its support by science, gained him "golden opinions from all sorts of men," both North and South; he has in various publications demonstrated to the country and to the world the capabilities and advantages of Western Carolina--its healthful climate and prolific soil. Many have been induced by his descriptions to seek a home with us, bringing wealth, talent, and industry. He has made important contributions to the science of geology and mineralogy. His articles on these subjects have appeared in Silliman's and other journals, and rank with those of Dana, Guyot, Shepard, and other savans of the age. He has presented much and varied information as to mountains of North Carolina, which he has explored in person, and in compliment of such exertions his name has been worthily bestowed on one of its highest peaks.

        General Clingman, as our readers may know, has never married. His busy life and active services in the cause of his country have denied him that pleasure. But he is far from underestimating female society, and is a great admirer of grace, beauty and intelligence.

        No one possessing his warmth of friendship for his own sex can be indifferent to the charms of the other. As a friend, General Clingman is frank, sincere and faithful, and this is reciprocated deeply by those who knew him best. No one that I know ever maintained such a hold on the affections of the people. The citizens of his district possess such unbounded confidence in his judgment and integrity that they followed him in whatever course he has pursued. For more than 15 years (with exception of one Congress,) he was elected by their


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suffrages. No matter how adroitly the district was adversely arranged, or what principles he advocated, the people were his devoted supporters, and never deserted him.

        I recollect when the State was redistricted, in 1852, a few who aspired to his place arranged the district so that he would likely be defeated. But the power and the popularity of General Clingman disappointed their aims and hopes. He was elected by an increased majority. Although kind, social and friendly in his private intercourse, his character is not of that negative kind so concisely described by Dr. Johnson of one "who never had generosity enough to acquire a friend, or spirit enough to provoke an enemy." Whenever the rights of his State and his personal honor were infringed, he was prompt and ready to repel the assailant. He has followed the advice of Polonius to his son--


                         --Beware of entrance
                         Into a quarrel; but being in,
                         So bear thyself that thy opposer
                         Will beware of thee.

        In 1845, Hon. William L. Yancey, of Alabama, well known in his day as "a rabid fire eater," attempted some liberty with General Clingman. A challenge ensued. Huger, of South Carolina, was Yancey's friend; and Charles Lee Jones, of Washington City, was the friend of Clingman. They fought at Bladensburg.

        Mr. Jones, the second of General Clingman, in his graphic description of this duel, published in the Capital, states:

        "After the principles had been posted, Mr. Huger, who had won the giving of the word, asked, 'Are you ready? Fire!'

        "Mr. Clingman, who had remained perfectly cool, fired, missing his adversary, but drawing his fire, in the ground, considerably out of line, the bullet scattering dust and gravel upon the person of Mr. Clingman. After this fire, the difficulty was adjusted."


        Hon. Kenneth Raynor, the colleague of Mr. Clingman in Congress, was on the ground, states that "he had never seen more composure and firmness in danger than was manifested by Mr. Clingman on this occasion." On seeing his friend covered by the dust and gravel, and standing at his post unmoved he thought he was mortally wounded. He rushed to him and asked him if he was hurt. "He has thrown some dust on my new coat," he replied, quietly brushing off the dust and gravel.

        On other occasions, as with Hon. Edward Stanley and others, General Clingman has evinced a proper regard for his own honor by repelling the insults of others; and in all these public opinion has sustained the propriety of his conduct; he has so borne himself that the aggressor has never attempted to repeat his insolence.

        He has been accused of being ambitions. If this be so, in reply, the words of Anthony of Cæsar are appropriate--


                         He is my friend, faithful and just to me.
                         But Brutus says he is ambitious,
                         And Brutus is an honorable man.

        J. C. L. Gudger, now one of the Judges of the Superior Courts, was born in Buncombe County in 1838; learned in the law, which he has successfully practiced for fifteen years.

        He entered the Confederate army as a private in 1861, and rose to the rank of captain.

        After the war was over he removed to Waynesville, in Haywood County, where he was extensively engaged in the practice of his profession when he was elected to the high position he so worthily occupies.

        Robert M. Furman resides in Buncombe County, although a native of Franklin County, where he was born 21st September, 1846, at Louisburg. He early entered the Confederate army, but on his health failing he was, at the end of five months, discharged. He, on recovery, again entered the army (in 1864,) and served until the war closed. His young life has been spent in the editorial line, in which he attained much success. In 1866 he was in


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charge of the Louisburg Eagle. He next established the Henderson Index, and became afterwards connected with the Norfolk Courier,and the Raleigh Sentinel.In 1872 he became editor of the Asheville Citizen.He was reading clerk of the Senate of the State Legislature of 1876. He holds, also, the position of clerk to the United States Senate Committee on Railroads, of which General Ransom is chairman.

        Thomas Dilliard Johnston resides at Asheville; born 1st April, 1843, at Waynesville, educated at Colonel S. D. Lee's Academy and the University, but from ill health did not graduate; entered the army in Z. B. Vance's company, 14th North Carolina, and at the battle of Malvern Hill was severely wounded, which disabled him from active service in the field. After war was over, he read law with that accomplished jurist and noble hearted gentleman, Judge J. L. Baily, and was licensed to practice in 1866. In 1870 he was nominated to the House, and carried the county by 400 votes, a gain of 600 for the party. He was one of the managers in the impeachment trial of Governor Holden. He was re-elected in 1872, and elected to the Senate in 1876.

CHAPTER VIII.
BURKE COUNTY.

        Waightstill Avery, born 1741, died 1821. There is no name in the annals of North Carolina that is more deserving of being perpetuated than the subject of this sketch. His family were the devoted friends of liberty, and many of them martyrs to its cause. In the Revolutionary war there were eight brothers of this name and family, all patriots. Some of them were massacred at Groton, Connecticut, and at Fort Griswold; some perished at Wyoming Valley. Some of this family still reside at Groton, Connecticut, (where the subject of this sketch was born;) some reside at Oswego and Seneca Lake, and some came to Virginia.

        It was early in the year 1631 that the ship Arabella arrived in Massachusetts Bay, from London, and landed passengers at the place where now stand Boston and Charlestown, and where Governor John Winthrop, senior, had commenced an English settlement the year before. Among the passengers were Christopher Avery, of Salisbury, England, and his little son James, then eleven years of age. They proceeded to the point of Cape Ann, where Gloucester now stands, which was at that time one of the most flourishing fishing establishments along the shore, where fish were cured for the European markets by fishermen from England, and in connection with which were agricultural and other profitable industries.

        Christopher settled there as a farmer, and became the possessor of valuable and productive lands, which he cultivated to advantage. He had left his wife in England, like many of the leading men who first came over "to spy out the land," for it was not easy to persuade their wives to leave their comfortable English homes and venture off upon the ocean on a passage of nearly a hundred days in a small


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vessel, crowded with passengers, to share the doubtful fortunes of an unknown wilderness.

        The vessels sent from England by the merchant adventurers had for years rendezvoused at Cape Ann to cure and prepare the large quantities of fish taken by them for the European markets, and it was a remunerative trade for the farmers there. It had been a fishing and curing station for years, and with its variety of vegetables and abundance of fish, added to the game and other animal food obtained in trade with the Indians, the thriving community did not lack the means of good and wholesome living. They also had their little chapel where common prayer was offered on the Sabbath by "one Master Rashley, their chaplain," as we are told by Leckford. When the Puritans afterward settled at Boston they received and fellowshipped Chaplain Rashley for eight or ten years, although he was not of them exactly.

        For ten years Mr. Avery, with his son James, enjoyed that pleasant community, his greatest privation being that of the disinclination of his wife to come over and join them in their new home. As he could not persuade her to cross the ocean, he was compelled to send her so much of his earnings and savings as he could spare for her support there. She never came to America.

        In 1642 the Cape Ann settlement had become so considerable that the General Court of the Colony incorporated it as the Town of Gloucester, and the Rev. Mr. Blinman, a Dissenting minister, who had made an unsuccessful effort to settle with the Pilgrims at Plymouth, was, by the Boston authorities, sent to Gloucester with a small company of Welshmen, who had accompanied him over the sea, to settle. This was not so pleasant for Christopher Avery, who had so long been the leading man of the settlement with Chaplain Rashley, but he was a man of so decided mark that he was nevertheless elected over and over again as selectman of his new town, notwithstanding the persistent and shameful persecution of the newcomers.

        In 1643 his son James Avery, then 23 years old, went to Boston and brought to his home in Gloucester his young bride, Joanna Greenslade, who had with her a certificate of good standing in the Boston church, dated January 17, 1644.

        Notwithstanding Mr. Blinman's ecclesiastical precedence, he was rather overshadowed by Christopher Avery, the civilian and sometimes first selectman. Insomuch that after he had been there six or seven years he became "dissatisfied with his teaching," (as old Governor Winthrop wrote to his son John, then Governor of Connecticut,) and gladly accepted the call to settle at the mouth of the Thames, (Pequot,) where New London now stands.

        He was accompanied by most of the leading members of his church at Gloucester, and among them James Avery with his young wife and three children. James sold all his land at Gloucester to his father Christopher in 1651, for he had settled at New London, October 19, 1650, with what was called the Cape Ann Colony. Mr. Blinman preached at New London about as long as he had at Gloucester, and then left, dissatisfied, for England. Christopher Avery remained in Massachusetts until after Blinman had left for England, and then joined his son James at New London, and in the valley of the Pequonuc.

        James Avery and Joanna Greenslade had ten children, three born at Gloucester, before 1650, and seven at New London, afterwards. Their youngest son, Samuel, was born August 14, 1664, who married Susan Palmer, daughter of Major Edward Palmer and granddaughter of Governor John Winthrop, Jr., on the 27th of October, 1686, and with her had ten children, to wit: Samuel, b. August 11, 1687; Jonathan, b. January 18, 1689; William, b. August 25, 1692; Mary, b. January 10, 1695; Christopher,


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b. February 10, 1697; Humphrey, b. July 4, 1699; Nathan, b. January 30, 1702; Lucy, b. April 17, 1704; Waitstill, b. March 27, 1708, (had two wives;) Grace, b. June 2, 1712. When that portion of New London east of the Thames was set off as the separate town of Groton, in 1705, Samuel Avery, the father, was chosen the first moderator, and became the first selectman, which responsible position he held for twenty years--nearly up to the time of his death.

        On the 5th of February, 1724, Humphrey Avery, (the sixth child of Samuel,) b. July 4, 1699, married Jerusha Morgan, daughter of William and Margaret (Avery) Morgan, and had twelve children, to wit: Humphrey, b. March 10, 1725; William, b. September 13, 1726; Solomon, b. July 17, 1728, who died August, 1728; Solomon, b. June 17, 1729; Samuel, b. October 5, 1731; James, b. August 13, 1733; Jerusha, b. June 7, 1735; Paulina, b. April 3, 1737; Christopher, b. May 3, 1739; Waitstill, b. May 10, 1741; Isaac, b. October 27, 1743; Nathan, b. November 20, 1746.

        It was this Waitstill, the tenth child of Humphrey, who, after graduating at Princeton, (Nassau Hall) N. J., in 1766, studied law in Maryland, and moved to North Carolina in 1769, when he entered college at the age of twenty-one, he matriculated as Waightstill, thus changing the spelling of the old Winthrop name. His eldest brother, Humphrey, moved from Groton, where his family and ancestors had lived so many years, to Hempstead, Long Island, where he raised a large family. His brother, Waitstill, sixteen years younger than himself, as well as his youngest brother, Isaac, lived with him in their youth, and were both prepared for college at the select school of the Rev. Samuel Seabury there.

        Deacon John Seabury, of Groton, who had married Elizabeth Alden, in 1697, granddaughter of John Alden, of the Mayflower, settled in Groton, 1704, and had a son, Samuel, b. July 8, 1706. The deacon was a cotemporary of Samuel Avery, b. 1664, who was the grandfather of Waightstill, of North Carolina. Alike prominent in Church and State affairs, Avery, the town's first selectman, and Seabury, the first deacon of the church, they were neighbors, friends, and their families were intimate.

        Samuel Seabury, b. July 8, 1706, was licensed and preached as a Congregational minister in 1726, at the new church in North Groton. He declared himself a convert to Episcopacy in 1730, and next year went to London and was ordained by the Bishop of London. Returned in 1732, and was rector of the Episcopal church in New London for eleven years. Moved to Hempstead, Long Island, in 1743, where he kept a high school as well as preached until 1764, the year of his death. He it was, undoubtedly, who prepared Waitstill Avery for college, which he entered in1762.

        His son, Samuel, born at Groton 1729, went to England in 1784, where he was consecrated the first Bishop of the Episcopal church in America. On his return he took charge of the church at New London, where he died in 1796. My opinion and belief is that on this trip to England, he was accompanied by his father's pupil, Isaac, youngest brother of Waightstill Avery, who became a rector of that church in Virginia, and who is said to have been ordained in England. He was 21 years old at the time of his old tutor's death, by whom, no doubt, he was educated for the Episcopal ministry, and about 40 when ordained in England.

        There is a family tradition in North Carolina that Waightstill graduated at Yale college before going to Princeton, and that he was a tutor there; but his name nowhere appears in the Yale catalogues, and all the dates and circumstances seem to show its incorrectness. If he had graduated at Yale, the fact would be stated in the Princeton, as well as


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the Yale catalogues; but nowhere does it so appear.

        As the name Waitstill is so historical, it is to be regretted that the master spirit of the Mecklenburg declaration and the patriarch of the North Carolina bar, ever changed the spelling. Still was the name of one of the maternal ancestors of the Winthrops, in England, at Groton manor, and Wait was another. Mrs. Susan (Palmer) Avery had an uncle, Wait Still, who in a matter of record at New London, April 16, 1713, is styled Major General Wait Still Winthrop, the middle name was often omitted in the signature in those early days. Susan named her son, b. March 27, 1708, after her distinguished uncle, and her son Humphrey gave the name to the distinguished North Carolinian. The first James Avery, and Edward Palmer, were distinguished in military and civil life; both were high commanding officers in successful wars with the Indians. They had served many years together in the Legislature and upon the bench, and in the early history of New London, they are constantly named together as taking the lead in all public affairs. The families being so intimate, it is not remarkable that Samuel, the youngest son of James Avery, should have wed Susan, the daughter of Major Palmer, and granddaughter of Governor John Winthrop, Jr., of Connecticut.

        For this full and satisfactory account of the early history of this family, we are indebted to the unpublished manuscript of J. George Harris, of the United States Navy, residing at Groton, who is a lineal descendant of Christopher Avery, the common ancestor of all the Averys named.

        Of this family there were eleven who were massacred at Fort Griswold, at Groton, Connecticut, by the English troops, commanded by that infamous traitor, Benedict Arnold, on the 6th of September, 1781; about 800 troops under his command attacked this fort, defended only by about 160 Americans. After a stout resistance they took it after heavy losses on both sides. Colonel Ledyard, commander of the fort, had ordered his men to cease firing, and stood near the gates prepared to surrender. The British entered; the officer shouted, "who commands this fort?" Colonel Ledyard replied "I did, sir; but you do now," presenting his sword with its point towards himself. His sword was thrust back through his body and he fell prone on the earth. This was a signal of indiscriminate slaughter, and the British crossed the parade ground in plattoons, firing upon the defenseless garrison, who had grounded their arms. With the bayonet they stabbed the dead and dying. Of the command of 160 they left scarce 20 able to stand; there they in heaps fallen one upon another, as brave a band as fought with Leonidas of Thermopylæ. Of these are "immortal names that were not doomed to die," and eleven of the name of Avery perished in that most infamous massacre by this demon of destruction.

        In a letter from his brother Solomon Avery, of July 11, 1783, a copy of the original is to be found in "Uni. Mag.," IV, 245, he states:

        "Eleven Averys were killed in the fort at Groton, and seven wounded; many Averys have been killed in this war. There has been no Tory named Avery in these parts."


        From such a stock was Waightstill Avery descended.

        Waightstill Avery came to North Carolina. He was truly an acquisition to any State. He was a gentleman and a scholar. He graduated at Princeton in 1766, studied law with Littleton Dennis, of the eastern shore of Maryland, and came to North Carolina, entering that province February 4, 1769, obtained a license to practice his profession, through Governor Dobbs, April 5, 1769, and settled in Mecklenburg, at the house of Hezekiah Alexander. His diary is preserved in the "University Magazine,"


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vol. IV, p. 366, giving a narration of his travels through the State, from which it will be seen that he was welcomed and appreciated by the leading men of the country.

        After entering the State, February 4, 1769, having passed the Virginia line he arrived at Edenton, where he became acquainted with Mr. Johnston, then clerk of the court, afterward Governor and judge, and also Joseph Hewes; he passed on to General Allen Jones' plantation, near the present town of Gaston; thence to Halifax, and arrived at Salisbury on March 2, 1769. Here he met Edmund Fanning, who was a native of the same province, a man of fine address, a scholar, and a lawyer of high attainment, who used every art and blandishment to draw Avery into an alliance with Tryon and the adherents of royalty. A personal friendship grew up, but no political alliance. After traversing every section of the province, from the Albemarle and the Cape Fear to the mountains, we finally find him settled at the house Hezekiah Alexander, who agreed to board him "at the rate of £12 for eight months, making allowance if he should not be there so long in the year." Here he associated with the patriots of the incipient Revolution, the Alexanders, the Brevards, the Grahams, Davidsons, Polks and others, with whom he cordially sympathized and united in the spirit of liberty and independence that soon pervaded the lovely valleys of the Yadkin and the Catawba.

        This period was one of stirring interest. The sentiment of revolution was beginning to rouse the gallant men of that day to arms, and the section where he had located was the first and foremost in the fray. He united with the men of Mecklenburg "in the declaration of independence of the 20th May, 1775, and pledged his life, his fortune, and most sacred honor" to the sacred cause of liberty.

        He was elected a member of the Provincial Congress which met at Hillsboro, August 21, 1775, and the next year to the same, which met at Halifax, November 12, 1776. This body formed the State Constitution, in which he rendered important service, and was one of the committee who formed this instrument, so wisely and perfectly formed that under it the State lived for nearly sixty years in prosperity and peace. The next year (1777,) he represented the county of Mecklenburg in the Legislature. William Sharp, Joseph Winston, Robert Lanier, and himself, made a treaty with the Cherokee Indians at the Long Island of the Holstein, "a treaty made without an oath, and one that has never been violated." On January 12, 1778, he was elected Attorney-General of the State.

        July 3, 1779, he was appointed colonel of Jones County, (where he had removed,) in place of Nathan Bryan, resigned, and finding the climate of the low country was impairing his health, he removed, in 1781, to the county of Burke, and settled on a beautiful and fertile estate near Morganton, on the Catawba River.

        The year previous (1778,) he had married, near New Berne, Mrs. Leah Frank, widow of Mr. Frank, who lived and died in New Berne, and daughter of William Probart, of Snow Hill, Maryland, a wealthy merchant there, who died on a visit to London.

        In 1780, whilst the British occupied Charlotte, under Lord Cornwallis, his office was set on fire, and all his books and papers destroyed. In 1781 he removed to Burke County, and there he resided, in the practice of his profession, until the date of his death, 1821. He represented this county in the Legislature in 1782, '83, '84, '85, '93, in the House, and in 1796 in the Senate. At the period of his death he was considered "the patriarch of the bar."

        It is doubtful if any one family in this State suffered more severely than did the distinguished and gallant Averys.


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        Alphonso Calhoun Avery, now one of the Judges of the Superior Court, son of Colonel Isaac T. Avery, resides in Burke County. He is the eldest male survivor of this distinguished family. His three elder brothers, Waightstill, Clark, and Isaac J., (as we have recorded,) were killed in the late civil war.

        He was born about 1837, liberally educated, graduated at the University in a large class of 70 members in 1857, among whom were B. B. Barnes, John W. Graham, L. M. Jeggitts, Thomas S. Kenan and others. In the proceedings of the commencement, Mr. Avery, then in his sophomore year, received at the hands of Governor Swain a copy of Shakespeare, a prize offered by the professor of rhetoric for the best composition in that class. "Uni. Mag.," IV, 278.

        He studied law, and was just commencing the practice when he obeyed the call of his country to do duty for her defence. He was engaged at the battle of Manassas, where his leader, the gallant Colonel C. F. Fisher, fell, and did noble service under Pender. During the last closing years of the war, he was on the staff of General D. H. Hill.

        Since the war he has devoted himself to the practice of his profession, of which he was the pride and ornament, only occasionally interrupted by his election to the Legislature. He was a member of the Senate in 1866 and again 1867, and a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1875.

        He was the Democratic elector in the 8th district; and by his ability and exertions did much to insure its success.

        He was elected Judge of Superior Courts, which elevated position he holds now. He married Susan, youngest daughter of Rev. Robert A. Morrison, and sister of Mrs. Stonewall Jackson.

        William Waightstill Avery was born at Swan Ponds, in Burke County, on the 25th of May, 1816. He was the oldest child of Colonel Isaac T. Avery and Harriet E. Avery. His father was the only son of Waightstill Avery, and his mother was the eldest daughter of William W. Erwin, and a granddaughter of William Sharpe.

        There were, during his boyhood, no classical schools in the Piedmont region equal to Bingham and others in the central counties, and on attempting to enter college, in the year 1832, W. W. Avery found that he was not thoroughly prepared in the ancient languages. He remained at Chapel Hill during the vacation and prosecuted his studies under the instruction of the late Dr. Mitchell and Abram Morehead, Esq., then a tutor, and so faithfully did he apply himself that in one year he stood at the head of his class, and graduated with the first honors in 1837 in same class with Perrin Busbee, Peter W. Hairston, Pride Jones and others.

        He studied law with Judge Gaston and was licensed to practice in the Superior Courts in 1838.

        He was from boyhood an ardent admirer of Mr. Calhoun, and naturally became a Statesrights Democrat. He was unsuccessful as a candidate for the Legislature in 1840; but in 1842 was elected as a Democrat from Burke County, though Governor Morehead, the Whig candidate for Governor, carried the county by a very large majority.

        He had a large and lucrative practice as a lawyer, and did not appear again actively as a politician till the year 1850. In May, 1846, he was married to Corinna M. Morehead, a daughter of the late Governor Morehead. She is still living.

        He served afterwards in the House of Commons, as a member from Burke, in 1850 and 1852.

        In 1856 he was chairman of the North Carolina delegation in the National Democratic Convention that nominated President Buchanan, and during the same year was elected to


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the State Senate, of which body he was chosen Speaker.

        In 1858 he was a candidate for Congress, to fill the vacancy made by the appointment of Hon. T. L. Clingman as United States Senator. Colonel David Coleman, who was also a Democrat, opposed him, and after they had canvassed a large portion of the district, Hon. Z. B. Vance announced himself a candidate, and Colonel Coleman withdrew; but the district had given Mr. Buchanan a very small majority, and the dissension was such that Vance was elected.

        In 1860, W. W. Avery was again chairman of the North Carolina delegation in the National Convention at Charleston, and seceded with the southern wing of the party that afterwards nominated Mr. Breckenridge. During the same year he was again elected to the State Senate, and declined the nomination for Speaker in favor of his friend H. T. Clark, who become Governor after the death of Governor Ellis. After the election of Mr. Lincoln he was an avowed secessionist, and strongly urged the call of a convention during the winter of 1860 and 1861.

        After the State seceded on the 20th of May, 1861, he was elected by the Convention as one of the members from the State at large of the Provisional Congress. He served in that body until the Provisional Government was succeeded by the permanent government, provided for in the Constitution adopted in 1861. He was a member and chairman on the Committee on Military Affairs.

        A majority of the Democrats in the Legislature of 1861 voted for Mr. Avery for Senator in the Congress of the Confederate States; but a large minority supported Hon. T. L. Clingman, while the Whigs voted for a candidate from their own party. After balloting for several weeks the friends of the two candidates compromised by electing Hon. W. T. Dortch.

        After the expiration of his term in Congress in 1862, he returned to his home with authority from the President to raise a regiment; but was prevented from carrying out his purpose by the earnest protests of his aged father and four brothers, who were already in active service. They insisted that he was beyond the age for service, and it was his duty to his family and country to remain at home.

        He was an earnest and active supporter of the Confederate cause, and contributed liberally to the government and for the maintenance of the families of soldiers.

        In 1864 an incursion was made by a party of so-called Unionists from Tennessee, commanded by Colonel Kirk, who afterwards gained a very unenviable notoriety in North Carolina. This party, after surprising and capturing a small body of conscripted boys in Burke County, retreated towards Tennessee. Mr. Avery with a body of North Carolina militia pursued the party, and in attacking the retreating forces at a strong position in the mountains, was mortally wounded. He was removed to his home in Morganton, where he died on the 3d day of July, 1864.

        In all the relations of life he was distinguished for his kindness and affability, and his unselfish love for the comfort and happiness of others. No man has been more missed and lamented by the community in which he lived, and his aged father, (then in his eightieth year,) went down to his grave sorrowing for the loss of this the third son who had fallen in battle within one year.

        For the Genealogy of the Avery family see Appendix.

McDOWELL FAMILY OF BURKE COUNTY.

        There are no families in the State that have rendered more important service to the State than the McDowells.

        Although careful research has been made for years in records of the State, and families,


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and by extensive correspondence, yet, in the earlier periods of our history, the want of the facilities of the press, and a carelessness in preserving family records, some obscurity rests on the history of the early founders of this family.

        In my "History of North Carolina," as to this family, it is stated that Charles and Joseph McDowell were brothers, the sons of Joseph, who, with his wife Margaret O'Neal, had emigrated from Ireland, settled in Winchester, Virginia, where Charles and Joseph were born. For authority of these facts, statements were furnished from members of this family and others which were believed. Recent and more thorough examinations make these statements doubtful. A letter from one of the family*

        * Dr. G. W. Michal, of Newton, N. C., to whom I am indebted for much information as to the McDowell family.


to me, states:

        "It is singular how inaccurate has been any knowledge as to this family. An investigation, instituted some time ago, with a view of establishing a descent which would lead to the securing of a large estate through Margaret O'Neal, developed the fact, beyond all question, that her husband (the father of General Charles McDowell, and General Joseph,) was named John instead of Joseph, that they married in Ireland, and lived at Quaker Meadows, in Burke County."


        Lanman, in his "Biographical Annals of Congress," states:

        "Joseph McDowell was a Representative in Congress from 1793 to 1795; and again from 1797 to 1799."


        The family tradition and record is, he died in 1795. The first error does not destroy the truth of history that the family were of Irish origin; and the second arises from there being two of the same name of the same family. Every effort and pains have been taken to make the present sketch correct. If any error occurs, the corrections will be gratefully received. In compiling genealogical tables, or pedigrees, great attention is necessary in clearly stating the number of generations, in any given period, as they form a guide to the probability of persons having sprung from any particular ancestor or individual. A generation is the interval between the birth of a father and the birth of son. Thirty-three years have been allowed to a generation, or three generations for every hundred years. The birth and death dates, as well as the location, should be stated, since "chronology and locality are the eyes of history." The repetition of the same names, without dates or place, creates confusion in our American genealogy, as it has caused in this instance.

        John McDowell, called "Hunting John," who resided at Pleasant Gardens, was one of the early pioneers of Western Carolina. He was, it is believed, a native of Ireland. He and a man by the name of Henry Widener, (many of whose descendants now live in Catawba County, known by the name of Whitener,) came to this country when it was an unbroken wilderness, for the purpose of hunting and securing homes for their families. John McDowell built his house on the west side of the Catawba River, on land now called the Hany Field, a part of the fine body of land well known as "The Pleasant Gardens," which for fertility of soil, healthfulness of climate and splendor of scenery, cannot be excelled.

        The date of his birth, or the time of his settling, or the date of his death, from the loss of family records, cannot be given; but from tradition, he lived in this lovely spot with his wife (Mrs. Annie Edmundston) to a good old age.

        He was a famous hunter, and delighted in "trapping," and to a late period of his life, he could be seen on his way to the mountains, with four large bear traps tied behind him on his horse, with his trusty rifle on his shoulder. On these excursions he would go alone, and be


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absent for a month or more, hunting the deer, turkies, and bears, and in silent communion with nature and with nature's God. He realized the exquisite lines of Byron--


                         Crime came not near him; she is not the child
                         Of solitude. Health shrank not from him,
                         For her home is in the rarely trodden wild;
                         Tall and swift of foot were they,
                         Beyond the dwafing city's pale abortion,
                         Because their thoughts had never learned to stray
                         On care or gain; the green woods were their portion,
                         No sinking spirits told them they grew gray,
                         No fashion made them apes of her distortion
                         Simple and civil; and their rifles
                         Tho' very true, were not used for trifles.

        He left two daughters and one son: Anna, who married William Whitson; Rachel, who married John Carson; and Colonel Joseph McDowell, who was born on 25th February, 1758, at Pleasant Gardens, in Burke County. He was always called "Colonel Joe of the Pleasant Gardens," to distinguish him from "General Joe of Quaker Meadows."

        He was a soldier and a statesman, and the most distinguished of the name.

        He early entered the profession of arms. At the age of 18 he joined General Rutherford in an expedition, in 1776, against the Cherokee Indians, in which he displayed much gallantry and desperate courage. It is known that in a hand-to-hand fight he killed an Indian chief with his sword.

        He was active in repressing the Tories, and took part in the battle at Ramsour's Mills, on 20th June, 1780, near Lincolnton, as mentioned by General Graham in eulogistic terms, for his conduct on that occasion, and materially aided in achieving a complete victory over a superior force.

        At Cane Creek, in Rutherford County, with General Charles McDowell, he led the militia, chiefly of Burke County, and had a severe skirmish with a strong detachment of Ferguson's army, then stationed at Gilbert Town, and drove them back.

        Immediately afterward he aided in measures which culminated in the glorious victory of King's Mountain.

        This was the darkest period of the dubious conflict. Gates was defeated at Camden; Savannah and Charleston surrendered to the British; Sumter, at Fishing Creek, (18th August, 1780;) Cornwallis, in "all the pride and circumstance" of a conqueror, held the undisputed possession of Charlotte and its vicinity.

        Ferguson, with strong force, was winning the attachment of the people from liberty to loyalty; while the Tories ravaged the whole country with vindictive fury.

        There was not a regular soldier south of Virginia, and every organized force was scattered or disbanded. The time had come, and these brave men felt that they must "do or die."

        Amid all these disastrous circumstances, the patriotic spirits of Cleaveland, Campbell, Sevier, and McDowell did not despair. They determined to attack the forces of Ferguson. They were all of equal rank, and as the troops were in the district of Charles McDowell, he was entitled to the command.

        From a manuscript letter of Shelby, in my possession, he says:

        "Colonel McDowell was the commanding officer of the district we were in, and had commanded the armies of the militia all the summer before, against the same enemy. He was brave and patriotic, but we considered him too far advanced in life and too inactive to command the enterprise.

        "It was decided to send to headquarters for some general officer to command the expedition.

        "Colonel McDowell, who had the good of his country more at heart than any title of command, submitted, and stated that he would be the messenger to go to headquarters. He accordingly started immediately, leaving his men under his brother, Major Joseph McDowell."


        The next day Shelby urged that time was precious and delays dangerous. The advance was made. Colonel Joseph McDowell, the subject of our present sketch, led the boys of


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Burke and Rutherford Counties to battle and to victory, (7th October, 1780,) and his command was on the right wing of the attacking forces, and aided greatly in insuring victory. Ferguson fell bravely fighting and his army completely routed.

        The next important battle in which Colonel Joseph McDowell was engaged was the Cowpens, fought by Morgan and Tarleton on 17th January, 1781, in which he led the North Carolina militia, which terminated in a glorious victory of Morgan, whose name is preserved in gratitude for his services by the county town of Burke.

        This ended the military career of our patriotic soldier.

        His civil services were equally brilliant; from his elevated character, his acknowledged abilities, and popular address, he was always a favorite with the people. His name is preserved by calling a county for him erected in 1842. He was a member of the House of Commons in 1787 and 1788; also a member of the Convention that met at Hillsboro, 1788, to consider the Constitution of the United States, of which he was the decided opponent, and which was rejected by a majority of 100 votes. He was again elected to the Legislature in 1791 and 1792; in 1793 he was elected to represent this district in the Congress of of the United States.

        Of the influence and the popularity of the McDowells there can be no more ample proof than that in 1787, 1788 and 1792 the Senator and both of the members of the House were of this family.

        His presence was tall and commanding, of great dignity of demeanor, and of impressive eloquence. Scrupulous in his statements and faithful in all business transactions.

        He married Mary, the daughter of George Moffett of Augusta County, Virginia. He died in April, 1795, leaving two sons, John and James, and one daughter, Annie, who married Captain Charles McDowell, of "Quaker Meadows."

        His widow became the second wife of Colonel John Carson, whose first wife was Rachel, daughter of "Hunting John," of Pleasant Gardens, a sketch of whom we shall present when the McDowells are finished.

        John McDowell, son of Colonel Joseph and of Mary Moffett, above, was esteemed a man of superior intellect, and of a retiring and modest disposition, of exemplary purity of life and character. He was averse to public life; yet without any effort on his part, and indeed against his wishes, he was elected a member of the Legislature from Rutherford County in 1820 and 1821.

        He married Mary Mansfield Lewis, of Augusta County, Virginia, and lived on Broad River, 14 miles above Rutherfordton, until they moved to the village for the purpose of educating their children.

        Their children were Dr. Joseph McDowell; Mary, who married the Rev. W. A. Gamewell; Dr. James McDowell, (Texas;) Nancy; Martha, who married Dr. G. W. Michael, (Newton;) Mira, who married Col. J. M. C. Davis, who fell in the civil war; Sally; John, who was colonel of a regiment in the civil war. His sister Annie, only daughter of Colnel Joseph and Mary Moffett McDowell, married Captain Charles McDowell, son of General Charles, of Quaker Meadows, from which union there were five daughters and one son, namely: Eliza, married Nicholas W. Woodfin; Mary, married, first, General John G. Bynum, and second, Judge R. M. Pearson; Mira, married, first, John Woodfin, second, John Burnett; Margaret, married William McKesson; James, married Julia Manly, killed in battle at Fredericksburg, Virginia, on Marye's Heights; colonel of 53d Regiment in civil war.


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        James McDowell, the second son of Colonel Joseph McDowell that lived to manhood, possessed the esteem of all who knew him.

        He was a member of the Senate in the Legislature, from Burke County, in 1832, and filled other offices of trust. Like each one of Colonel Joseph McDowell's children, he was remarkable for his modesty, for his integrity, and his open-handed charity.

        He owned the Pleasant Gardens, where he lived until advanced in life. He then moved to Yancey County, where he died. He married Margaret Erwin, and left five children, namely: Dr. Joseph McDowell, Dr. John McDowell, of Burke County; William McDowell, of Asheville; Kate, who married Montraville Patton; Margaret, who married Marcus Erwin.

        These are the descendants of the branch of which "Hunting John" was the ancestor.

        John McDowell, of Quaker Meadows, was the cousin of "Hunting John," (Dr. W. A. Michal.) He was one of the pioneers of this region of country, and settled "at Quaker Meadows," on the Catawba River, about a mile from Morganton. He was a native of Ireland, and married Margaret O'Neal, (the widow of Mr. Greenlee,) by whom he had three sons: Hugh McDowell, General Charles McDowell, Major John McDowell.

        Hugh McDowell, son of John and Margaret O'Neal, of Quaker Meadows, left three daughters: Mrs. McGintry, Mrs. McKinsey; Margaret, who married James Murphy, who left one son, John Murphy, who married Margaret Avery, and left three daughters and one son: Margaret, who married Thomas G. Walton; Sarah, who married Alexander F. Gaston, son of Judge Gaston; Harriet, who married William M. Walton; John H. McDowell, who married Clara Patton.

        General Charles McDowell, (son of John and Margaret O'Neal, of Quaker Meadows,) born in 1743; died 1815, was probably a native of Ireland. On the commencement of our Revolutionary troubles, he was the commander of an extensive district in his section of country, and was a brave and daring officer.

        It was not until the year 1780 that western North Carolina became the field of military operations in the Revolutionary war. After subduing the States of Georgia and South Carolina, the British forces advanced to this State and commenced making demonstrations. McDowell was active in counteracting their movements.

        In June, 1780, having been joined by Shelby, Sevier, and Clarke, of Georgia, near Cherokee Ford on Broad River, McDowell determined to attack the British at a strongly fortified post on the Pacolet River, under command of Patrick Moore, which he gallantly performed and compelled him to surrender.

        He also attacked the Tories at Musgrove Mill on the Enoree River and routed them.

        Many other brilliant affairs in this section marked his energy and efficiency as a soldier. We have recorded the facts of his missing a participation in the battle of King's Mountain.

        As the several officers held equal rank, by a council of officers McDowell was dispatched to headquarters, then near Salisbury, to have General Sumner or General Davidson, who had been appointed brigadier general in place of General Rutherford, taken prisoner at Gates' defeat.

        This closed his military career. The people of his county were not ungrateful to him for his long and successful military service. He was the Senator from Burke from 1782 to 1788, and he had been also in 1778, and member of the House 1809-'10-'11. He died 31st March, 1815. He married Grace Greenlee, who was distinguished among "the women of the Revolution." She was a woman of remarkable energy and firmness. Mrs. Ellet has recorded her extraordinary character, and relates that on one occasion some bummers, in the


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absence of her husband, plundered her house. With some few friends she pursued the marauders and compelled them, at the muzzle of a musket, to give up her property. While her husband was secretly making powder in a cave, she aided him, and burnt the charcoal herself. This very powder did good service in the battle of King's Mountain. Previous to her marriage with General Charles McDowell, she was the wife of Captain Bowman, who fell in the battle of Ramsour's mill. She was the daughter of Margaret O'Neal, by Mr. Greenlee, anterior to the union with the father of General Charles McDowell. She had a daughter by this marriage with Captain Bowman, named Mary, who married Colonel William Tate, and who was the mother of Junius Tate, and Louisa, who was the mother of the first Mrs. Z. B. Vance.

        She had by General Charles McDowell, three sons and four daughters: Captain Charles McDowell; Athan A.; James R.; Sarah; Eliza Grace; Margaret; Sallic; in whom and in whose descendants, the blood of Grace Greenlee courses. It is curious as well as interesting, to observe the effect of blood. Dr. Rush declared that "the blood of one intelligent woman would redeem three generations of fools."

        This, like the golden thread of Ariadne, is clearly traceable in the genealogy of this family, marking with intellect, beauty, and in enterprise, in clear and definite lines. As Dr. Johnson, in his epitaph of Goldsmith, expresses the beautiful idea--

        Nil tetiget, quod non ornavit.


        Of these Captain Charles McDowell, who was always called "Captain Charles," owned the homestead of "The Quaker Meadows." He was a member of the Legislature from Burke County in 1809-'10-'11. He was much respected; an ardent politician. (For his descendants see sketch of Annie McDowell, whom he married.)

        Athan A. McDowell served in the Creck war. He was sheriff of Burke County. Senator in the Legislature, 1815. He removed to Henderson County. He married Ann Goodson, the stepdaughter of Colonel William Davenport, of Caldwell County, and left one son, Charles, and one daughter, Louisa, who married Hon. James C. Harper, whose daughter married Hon. Judge Cilly.

        James R. McDowell lived a bachelor, and died at the old homestead. He was a very great favorite with all who knew him. He often contended with Hon. Samuel P. Carson in the political field, with alternate success. He was a member of the House in 1817-'18 and '19, and of the Senate, in 1823-'25.

        Sarah married Colonel William Paxton, brother of Judge Paxton; had several children; one of whom married Rev. Brank Merrimon, father of Hon. A. S. Merrimon, United States Senator; Eliza Grace married Stanhope Erwin; Margaret married Colonel William Dickson, whose son was in the Legislature 1842-'44; Sallie; Mrs. Christian.

        Major John McDowell, third son of John and Margaret O'Neal, of Quaker Meadows, and brother of General Charles McDowell, lived on Silver Creek, in Burke County, about nine miles from Morganton.

        He was a member of the Legislature in 1792-'94.

        He had the sad mishap to lose his sons (three,) and a nephew, at the same time, by the burning of his house.

        He left two daughters: Margaret, who married Robert McElrath; and Hannah, married John McElrath.

        General Joseph McDowell was the son of John and Margaret (of Quaker Meadows,) had the reputation of a brave officer of the Revolution, a soldier and a statesman. We regret that so little is known of his character and services. The aged men of Burke that knew him describe him as being genial in his temper


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and benevolent. In appearance he was tall and commanding.

        He was a great favorite with the people. He was for eight years successively elected to the House of Commons, 1750 to 1758, and Senator in 1791 to 1795. He was elected a member of Congress in 1797-'99. He married Margaret Moffett, sister of the wife of Colonel Joseph McDowell. He lived on the east side of John's River, about seven miles from Morganton.

        One of his sons, Hugh Harvey, resides in Missouri and is the father of Mrs. Governor Parsons.

        Another son (Joseph J.,) is a citizen of Ohio, and was elected a member of Congress from Ohio in 1843-'47.

        One of his daughters married--Christman, and after his death married Judge Wake, of Kentucky.

THE CARSONS OF BURKE COUNTY.

        John Carson was the progenitor of this family, so distinguished in the annals of our State.

        He was a native of Ireland, born on 24th day of March, 1752; came to America and settled in Burke County about 1773.

        He possessed naturally a powerful intellect, great decision of character, much capacity for business, quick, resolute, impulsive. He was consequently a man of prominent character and of much influence in his county, and for many years its leading magistrate.

        In 1805 and 1806 he was a member of the Legislature from Burke County.

        He lived on Buck Creek, accumulated a large estate, and raised a large family. He was twice married. His first wife, as before stated, was the daughter of "Hunting" John McDowell, and their children were James, Jason, Joseph McDowell, Rebecca, John, Charles and Sally.

        His second wife was the widow of Colonel Joseph McDowell, who was the daughter of George Moffett, of Augusta County, Va., and the sister of Margaret, wife of General Joseph McDowell.

        Their children were Samuel Price; William M.; Matilda; George and Jonathan L.

        Colonel John Carson died on the 5th of March, 1841.

        Joseph McDowell Carson, son of John Carson and Rachel McDowell, his first wife, was distinguished for his integrity and brilliant intellect. He practiced law for many years with eminent success. He much preferred the steady and uniform life of a jurist to the uncertain and fitful career of a politician. Yet he represented his county in the Legislature; in the Commons in 1812, 1813, 1814 and 1835; and in the Senate in 1832, 1836, and 1838, and was a member of the State Convention of 1835, to amend the Constitution. He lived on Green River, in Rutherford County. He married his cousin Rebecca, daughter of James Wilson, and had many descendants; Tench, who married a daughter of Vardy McBee; Rachel, who married Otis; Jason, who married Moore; Margaret; Charles; Joseph McDowell; John; Catherine; James; Milton.

        One of his granddaughters, Rebecca, was the wife of the late Washington M. Hardy, librarian of the present House of Representatives, (1879.)

        William M. Carson, son of Colonel John Carson, by his second wife, was born December 6, 1801.

        He represented Burke County in 1838 and 1840. He had no fondness for political life, but was deservedly very popular, and received nearly a unanimous vote for the Legislature. But having no political aspirations declined public service.

        He was twice married, first to Almyra, daughter of Samuel Wilson, of Tennessee; and his second wife was Catherine, the widow of Samuel P. Carson, daughter of James Wilson, of Tennessee. He lived on Buck Creek, in


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McDowell County, where he died in the fall of 1862.

        But the most distinguished of this family was Samuel P. Carson.

        Samuel Price Carson was the eldest son of Colonel John Carson by his last wife, who was the widow of Colonel Joseph McDowell, of the Pleasant Gardens.

        He was born in the county of Burke, on the 22d day of January, 1798.

        His life, although short, was an eventful one. He entered political life early, and was elected to the State Senate in 1822, and again in 1824. But this was a field much too small for his aspirations. In 1825, he became a candidate for a seat in the United States Congress. His competitors were the Hon. Felix Walker, Hon. Robert B. Vance, and Hon. James Graham.

        Mr. Walker was an old man, and had been the member from 1817 to 1823. He seemed highly amused at the idea of Carson's aspiring to such a position. In his final speech he announced Vance and Graham as his competitors, and added, "and I'm told there's a boy from Burke, who wants to be a candidate."

        In their speeches, Vance, who was then Congressman, and Graham made the usual excuses for being candidates. Each had had so many, and such strong solicitations, that he was unable to resist the pressure upon him, and had at last, as a matter of duty, consented to present himself. Carson was not looked upon as being in the way by either, and all their batteries were turned upon Walker. They told the people that at Washington City he boarded out of town, and walked in; and ridiculed the old man without stint or mercy.

        Carson, when he took the stand, told the people that all his friends had solicited him not to run, and he was a candidate because he wanted to go to Congress. He treated Mr. Walker with the greatest respect; spoke of him as a Revolutionary soldier, and delivered a handsome eulogy upon him.

        As the canvass progressed, it became evident to Vance and Graham, that Carson, although so young, was not only a candidate, but that he possessed talents of a high order, and was winning hosts of friends. The contest became warm, and before the time for the election, Walker, who had been completely won by Carson's kind and considerate treatment, withdrew from the contest and gave him the whole weight of his influence.

        This decided the contest, and Carson was elected.

        The contest in 1827, between Carson and Vance, terminated in an unhappy manner.

        Samuel P. Carson's temperament was such that he could not bear confinement; therefore, slow, plodding study, was out of the question, and regular systematic learning he did not possess. Yet his inquiring mind caused him to read with avidity whatever came to hand, and with powerful perceptive faculties, and a remarkably tenacious memory, he understood his subject at a glance, and whatever he read he retained, consequently he was a well-informed man.

        Fond of merriment, with a genial, social disposition, and possessing great wit, he was a delightful companion, and "the soul" of every social circle which he entered.

        A great judge of human nature, he could adapt himself to every one; and with the most captivating manners he won all whom he met. Generous to a fault, a man so endowed could not be otherwise than immensely popular with the people. And, with a superior intellect, fine conversational powers, a chivalrous sense of honor, and devoted attachment to his friends, he was as much sought by the great as by the more humble.

        Perhaps no man ever possessed warmer or more devoted friends.

        As a speaker he was argumentative, and his


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powers of analysis were very great, enabling him to make his subject plain to the most simple. At times, not often, he would illustrate a point with anecdote, and always with effect. He had great command of language, possessed a powerful imagination, and a charming voice. Perfectly free from affectation, self-possessed, with a manner dignified, easy, and graceful, he had the power of swaying the feelings of the crowd at will, and often held his hearers, as if spell-bound, by his eloquence. He was indeed an orator.

        He was said to be the best impromptu speaker in Congress.

        The next event to be noticed in this sketch, is one which could not but have saddened the whole after life of a man possessing the kind, warm heart, and benevolent feelings of Samuel P. Carson.

        In that day, duelling was sustained by public sentiment, and it being ruinous to character to decline a challenge, or to neglect to send one, under proper provocation, it was a common thing, particularly among gentlemen in political life.

        Dr. Robert B. Vance, Carson's rival before the people, and his competitor in the last two elections for Congress, was a man of brilliant talents, and possessed many noble traits of character. He was very popular with the people; and Carson's own personal friends esteemed him highly.

        Unfortunately, passions aroused in political contests became morbid with him, and he was led by them to provoke a challenge in such a way that Carson could not decline to send it; this was by an insult to his father. The challenge was promptly accepted. they met at Saluda Gap, on the South Carolina State line.

        Carson was accompanied to the field by the Hon. David Crockett, and other friends. He shrank from the idea of taking Vance's life; and, perfectly cool and self-possessed, before taking his position he told his second, the Hon. Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, that he did not intend to kill him; that he could hit him anywhere he pleased, (Carson was a remarkably good shot with a pistol,) and that he intended only to wound him. Davis replied to him that -- Vance had come there to kill him; that if he only wounded him, another meeting would be the result, and if he did not promise to try to kill him, that he (Davis) could not be a party in the affair, and that he must seek another second. This had its influence on the mind of his principal, and a tragic effect.

        Their positions were taken; the word was given, and Vance fell to die in a few hours.

        Carson, like Hamilton, was very much averse to duelling, and although on two occasions afterwards, he agreed to act as second in affairs of honor, he only accepted the position in each instance with the hope and for the purpose of effecting an amicable adjustment of the difficulty, and in both instances he succeeded.

        In one of these, a strong and decided political opponent of Samuel P. Carson, evinced his appreciation of the man by calling on him to act as his second in a difficulty with one who was both a political and personal friend of Carson. The parties alluded to were the Hon. David F. Caldwell and the Hon. Charles Fisher, of Salisbury. In the other, he acted as second to Governor Branch, of North Carolina, in a difficulty with Governor Forsyth, of Georgia; Archer, of Virginia, being the friend of the latter.

        General Jackson was elected President of the United States in the fall of 1828, and on the 4th of March, 1829, commenced an administration which will ever be memorable in the annals of the country.

        In that year Carson was re-elected to Congress. He and General Jackson belonged to the same political party, and a warm and intimate personal friendship grew up between


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them, which was destined to be tried by political dissensions that divided parties, alienated friends, and came very near dissolving the bonds of the Union itself.

        Leading statesmen of the South considered high rates of tariff upon foreign importations as destructive to the interests of the nonmanufacturing States. They regarded it as exceedingly unjust on the part of the General Government to institute such a policy. They conceived that no such imposition is authorized by the Constitution of the United States, and that any act of Congress, providing for the collection of excessive duties, is in violation of the true intent and meaning of that instrument, and is therefore "null and void, and no law."

        Those who entertained these views regarded the cause in the fundamental law which acknowledges that all powers not delegated to the General Government are reserved to the States as one of the greatest importance; and that on its faithful observance depends the growth, development and welfare of the individual States, and the perpetuity of the Union.

        In 1824, a vehement but ineffectual opposition was made in Congress to a protective tariff bill; and when that body passed a law increasing the rates of duty, as was done in 1828, the whole country became profoundly agitated. The delegation in Congress from South Carolina held a meeting, and discussed the question of resigning their seats; and also the question of declaring the law to be void, and of no effect within the State.

        Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, and other Southern States passed resolutions in their respective Legislatures, exhibiting their extreme opposition to the measure; and every where throughout the South there were indications of imminent danger of a disruption of the Union.

        In neither of the States, however, was there such unanimity among the friends of nullification as to make it prudent in their judgment, to attempt to put it into practical effect.

        The change, too, in the administration led them to expect a satisfactory modification of the obnoxious law; and during the summer of 1829 their efforts were directed towards influencing the public mind in opposition to it.

        The opponents of the administration had a decided majority in Congress, and the President vetoed several bills that had been passed by that body, which were antagonistic to the views of the States Rights party; and for some time there was no open breach between General Jackson and his party friends, and to all appearances they were in harmony. But various disturbing elements were in existence and influences were at work which, by the end of the second session of the 21st Congress, the beginning of 1831, indicated plainly that there was a division among the friends of the administration.

        In the election for members of Congress in 1831, Mr. Carson was again elected.

        In the Presidential election which took place in 1832, the ultra States Rights men having lost confidence in General Jackson, refused to support him, and there were different parties, some of which possessed great strength, in opposition to him; but the elements of opposition were too incongruous to admit of any union between them, and General Jackson was re-elected.

        Never had there been questions presented to the country which involved such interests.

        On the 27th of November, of the same year, the Convention of South Carolina met, and soon after the Act of Nullification was passed.

        Everywhere the feelings of the people were wrought up to the highest pitch of excitement. Passions were aroused in many places, almost to a state of frenzy, and to all appearances civil war was inevitable.


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        Congress met, and by a modification of the tariff, oil was poured upon the troubled waters. Soon all warlike demoustrations ceased, but still bitterness rankled in the bosoms of many.

        Samuel P. Carson believed that the doctrine of States Rights contained a vital principle in our Government, and was, therefore, one of its warmest advocates. A large majority of the people of his district regarded the preservation of the Union paramount to every other blessing, and at the Congressional election which took place in 1833, he was defeated by the Hon. James Graham.

        But Mr. Carson had lost his health, and was not able to canvass his district.

        He never appeared before the people of his district again.

        Mr. Carson knew the strength of General Jackson's prejudices, and the vigor of his temper, and being a very warm personal friend, felt anxious to know what his feelings towards him were after the change in their political relations.

        Therefore, upon meeting General Jackson's brother-in-law, immediately after returning to Washington, he inquired what the General's feelings toward him were. He replied: "They always were to be of the kindest sort, he is fond of your company; that he does not dislike you or Sam Houston."

        There never seemed the slightest abatement in the warmth of his feelings for Carson. His invitations to him were just as frequent as ever; their friendly and social relations were never disturbed in the slightest degree. When in Washington City Mr. Carson was a general favorite among the members of Congress, their relations were very kind, and his intercourse with them was very pleasant.

        A coolness occurred between him and the great Daniel Webster, which prevented them from speaking to each other for three or four years. It was terminated however, and in a manner which shows the kindly impulsive nature of Mr. Carson. At a large public ball, Mr. Carson in turning saw Mr. Webster, who was standing with his arms folded in rather an abstracted manner. Giving way to the impulse of the moment, he immediately advanced to him with his hand extended, and said, in his usual hearty manner, "How do you do, sir?" Mr. Webster grasped his hand most cordially and exclaimed: "Carson, I always liked you, I knew you to be an honest man." And they were friends ever after.

        Mr. Carson continued feeble; and indeed, he never regained his health. He passed his time in the quiet enjoyment of the society of his friends, until the year 1835, when he resolved to remove to Texas--then struggling under the oppressions of Mexico. In that year he visited that country for the purpose of selecting a home; and when he returned, he could not but have been gratified at the striking evidence which the people of his native county had given of their confidence in him, and their high esteem. They had elected him, during his absence, as their member of the State Convention, which was held that year, 1835. He accepted the position, and discharged the duties with fidelity and acceptability. In the fall of 1836, he removed with his family to the county which he had selected; and the same year was elected member of the Convention of Texas, of which General David G. Burnett was President, and which created the Republic.

        This was a dark and gloomy hour. Gladly did Texas welcome such a man as Samuel P. Carson. In the organization he was made Secretary of State; and it was owing to his intimate acquaintance and personal popularity with the public men of the United States he was sent to Washington City to intercede for the recognition of the Republic among the nations of the earth.

        At this time the whole civilized world was


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shocked at the horrible massacre of Alamo, and sympathized with Texas, struggling against the immense armies which Mexico had hurled upon her. Her destruction seemed inevitable. Under these circumstances, recognition was out of the question. But when Texas, on the field of San Jacinto, had scattered the hosts of Mexico, and made manifest her ability to maintain herself against that power, recognition by the United States came, and Mr. Carson, without doubt, did much towards preparing this country for it.

        He was not able much longer to discharge the active duties of life.

        His wife was Catherine, a daughter of James Wilson, of Tennessee to whom he was married on the 10th day of May, 1831. With her and his little daughter, to whom he was devoted, he spent the most of the remainder of his life.

        He died at Little Rock, Arkansas, in November, 1840, leaving one daughter, who is the wife of Dr. J. McD. Whitson, of Talladega, Alabama, a great grandson of "Hunting" John McDowell.

        But Carson was never the same man after the affair which terminated in the death of the fearless and talented Vance, the uncle of the Governor and General Vance, as he was before the tragic event. From a ruddy and robust complexion, his countenance so expressive of genius and good humor, a frame active and buoyant, in his pallid cheek, his sunken eye, and tottering step, he showed the deep pangs and ravages of remorse. As expressed by Home, in Douglas:


                         Happy in my mind was he that died,
                         For many deaths has the survivor suffered;
                         In the wild desert on a rock he sits,
                         Or on some nameless stream's untrodden banks,
                         And ruminates all day on his unhappy fate.
                         At times alas! not in his perfect mind,
                         Holds secret converse with his departed friend,
                         And oft at night forsakes his restless couch,
                         To make sad orizons for him he slew.

        For the above sketch, and for most of the material as to the McDowell family, I must again express my thanks to Dr. Michal.

        Israel Pickens represented Burke County in the Senate in 1808 and 1809, with Isaac T. Avery and Charles McDowell as colleagues the latter year.

        He was a native of Mecklenburg County, of that part now Cabarrus; born 30th January, 1780.

        He was the son of Samuel Pickens, who done good service in the Revolutionary war against the British and Tories.

        He was educated in Iredell County, and finished his education at Washington College, Pennsylvania, where he also completed his law studies. He was licensed to plead, and settled in Morganton.

        He was the Representative in Congress from this district in 1811 to 1817, and was succeeded by Hon. Felix Walker.

        He voted for the war of 1812, and was a firm supporter of Madison.

        In 1817 he removed to Alabama, and settled at St. Stevens, and was appointed by the President, Register of the Land Office. On the death of Governor Bibb, he was elected, in 1821, Governor of that State, and again in 1823; and in 1826, on the death of Dr. Chalmers, he was appointed Senator in Congress from Alabama.

        He was appointed United States Judge for Alabama, which he declined to accept. In the fall of 1826, in consequence of a serious affection of the lungs, he resigned his seat in the Senate; he repaired to Cuba, hoping that his health would be restored by the mild climate, where he died 24th April, 1827.*

        * Pickett's Alabama, II, 432.


        David Newland was a native of Burke County, and represented the county in 1825-'27 and '28 in the Commons, and in 1830 in the Senate. In 1832 he was a candidate for Congress against Hon. James Graham, and


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believed that he was fairly elected. It was nearly a tie in the popular vote, and Graham's seat was contested by him. The House, unable or unwilling to decide, referred the election back to the people, and Graham was elected.

        He immigrated to Wisconsin, and was so successful in politics that he was elected to the Legislature, and on several occasions was chosen Speaker. But broken down in fortune and health and hopes, he went to Washington City, where he engaged in "the wild hunt for office." After fruitless attempts, failing to obtain any position, however menial, he sunk in despair, and on 20th December, 1857, his body was found in the Tiber. He had committed suicide.


                         --Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio.
                         A fellow of infinite jest, and most excellent humor.

        Todd R. Caldwell was born in Morganton, February 19, 1818. His father, John Caldwell, was a native of Ireland; settled in Morgauton in 1800, and became a leading merchant in that place.

        He was well educated, and graduated at the University, 1840, in a large class, with such men as Judge Barnes, Judge Shipp, John W. Cuuningham, William Johnston, and others, with honor. He read law with Governor Swain, and was admitted to the bar in 1840, and soon attained an extensive practice.

        He entered the arena of politics in 1842, and continued in its exciting pursuit as long as he lived. He was an old Line Whig of the strictest sense.

        In 1848 he was one of the electors, and cast the vote of the State for Taylor and Filmore. On the breaking out of the civil war, he was the friend of the Union and the foe of secession.

        In 1865, he was elected a delegate to the first State Convention that met after the war. In 1868 he was nominated as Lieutenant-Governor on same ticket with Governor Holden, and was elected. On deposition of Governor Holden, in 1871, he succeeded him as Governor.

        As a criminal lawyer he had much reputation; and as a politician, much success, rarely failing in an election before the people. In 1872 he was nominated as Governor, and opposed by Judge Merrimon. After a heated canvass he was elected.

        He married the eldest daughter of William Cain, and niece of late Judge Ruffin. He died, after a short illness, at Hillsboro, on the 11th February, 1874, and was succeeded as Governor by Hon. C. A. Brogden, of Wayne County.

        R. C. Pearson was one of the most useful and patriotic citizens of Burke County, where he was born, lived and died.

        He was an honest and intelligent merchant, a skillful financier (president of the branch bank of the State,) and one of the most earnest friends of internal improvements in the State. From the day he organized the first stockholders' meeting in 1855, at Salisbury, of the Western, N. C., Railroad, and through the weary years that followed, he was the stay and backbone of the belt of counties between Rowan and Buncombe. What Morehead was to the Central, so was Pearson to the Western Railroad.

        But it was in private life, as a friend and a neighbor, that the traits of his real character were most conspicuous. During the long and bloody civil war, although firm in his devotion to his native land and people, his house and his heart was open to all Confederate wounded soldiers, and an asylum for their widows and orphans. His death caused a deeper sorrow than was ever evinced in our community, and his memory--


                         --Sleeps in blessings,
                         And has a tomb of orphan tears,
                         Wept over him.

        He left several children to imitate his example and emulate his virtues.


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CHAPTER IX.

CABARRUS COUNTY.

        Cabarrus County, during the Revolution and before a part of Mecklenburg, showed early resistance to the powers and oppressions of its rulers. The people lost no opportunity of opposing the Royal Government.

        I found, in the London Rolls Office, the list of persons who were concerned in destroying the ammunition intended for Governor Tryon's army, en route from Charleston to Salisbury, in 1771, inclosed in a dispatch from Governor Martin; and they are preserved, as many of the descendants of these bold and patriotic men still reside in this section, as follows:

        James Ashmore; Benjamin Cochran; Robert Caruthers; Robert Davis; Joshua Hadley; John White; James White; William White, Jr.


        We present a name worthy of respect and remembrance. Our pages have been hitherto devoted to the soldier and statesman, but we now dwell upon one who stamped upon his day and generation, as a divine, a character worthy of all Grecian or Roman fame.

        Rev. John Robinson, D. D.,*

        * Historical sketch of Poplar Tent Church, by Wm. S. Harris.


was in all respects one of the highest type of men in mind and manners; resplendent in purity and usefulness of his life; peerless in consecrated genius; like Masselon, he was truly the Legate of the Skies. He was born in this county, near Sugar Creek Church, and received his academic education from Mr. Archibald, and completed it at Winnsboro, South Carolina. He was licensed to preach in 1793, and became one of the most popular and acceptable ministers of the Presbyterian faith; he taught school for many years, and some of the first minds of the country were developed by his learning and assiduity.*

        * As Governors Owen, Pickens, Murphy, and Hon. Charles Fisher, D. M. Barringer, Col. Daniel Coleman and others.


These have adorned every station of life; in testimony of their grateful appreciation of his services, his pupils built a handsome monument, on which is a beautiful inscription appropriate to his character. And although an ordinary life has elapsed since his decease, his memory is still cherished by many with affection.

        He married Mary Baldwin, whose lovely character did much to temper the ardent enthusiasm of her husband. Only four children reached maturity, two sons and two daughters. His eldest, Samuel, was adventurous and daring in temper. He participated in the South American and Turkish-Grecian struggles, and attained command of a splendid ship, which was lost at sea in February, 1843, with all on board.

        Connected with Cabarrus County and the church is the name of Rev. Hezekiah James Balch, who was born at Deer Creek, Harford County, Maryland, in 1748. He was a gifted divine and a finished scholar. He graduated at Princeton in 1766, in the same class with Waighstill Avery, Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut, Luther Martin, of Maryland, and others. He came to North Carolina in 1769. He was the first pastor of Poplar Tent Church, and remained so until his death. He combined in his character unspotted piety, enthusiasm, and firmness. He was earnest and patriotic in the cause of liberty; and took an active part with the men of Mecklenburg, to which Cabarrus then belonged, in the convention that declared Independence on the 20th of May, 1775. He did not, however, live to see the warmest wish of his heart gratified, the independence of his country, for which he was ready to give up his life. He died in 1776.

        In the ancient graveyard of the venerable Poplar Tent Church, stands a mosscovered


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monument which bears this inscription--


                         Beneath this marble
                         are the mortal remains of
                         Hezekiah James Balch,

         first pastor of Poplar Tent Congregation, and one of the original members of the Orange Presbytery. He was licensed a preacher of the Everlasting Gospel of the Presbytery of Donegal in 1766, and rested from his labours in A. D. 1776; having been Pastor of the United Congregations of Poplar Tent and Rocky River about seven years.

        He was distinguished as one of a Committee of three who prepared the Declaration of Independence; and his eloquence, the more effectual from his acknowledged wisdom, purity of motive, and dignity of character, contributed much to the unanimous adoption of that instrument on 20th May, 1775.


        Yet there are some few of modern times who alleged that no such convention ever occurred.

THE PHIFER FAMILY.

        The ancestor of this large family, Martin Phifer, (or Pfifer,) was a native of Switzerland, and emigrated to America; went first to Pennsylvania, and afterwards came to North Carolina, with the current of German, Irish and Scotch, and settled in the then Mecklenburg County. He was much respected for his industry, frugality, and sound sense. He was elected in 1777 a member of the Legislature from Mecklenburg, with Waightstill Avery as a colleague in the Commons, and John McKnitt Alexander in the Senate. He married Margaret Blackwelder. He died in 1789, leaving three sons.

        For the Genealogy of the Phifer Family, see Appendix.

        The genealogical table has been carefully compiled, and it is believed to be accurate. It embraces three generations and can be extended. It presents the members of a large family, many of whom are distinguished for their services and talents, and all for their sterling virtues and exemplary characters. The services of John Phifer, son of Martin and Margaret Blackwelder, in the war of the Revolution, and in the Councils of the State, deserve a perpetual remembrance; as also those of General John Phifer, (son of Martin and Betsy Locke.) He was a useful man, of decision of character, patriotic and enterprising. He often represented Cabarrus in the Legislature from 1803 to 1815, and wielded great influence in public affairs. He was an educated man; graduated at the University in 1799, and died on the 18th October, 1845, near Concord.*

        * Much of the material of the sketch Phifers has been gathered from correspondence, and from an excellent article in North Carolina University Magazine (Vol. V., p. 418, November, 1856,) entitled A. memoir of Colonel John Phifer.


THE FAMILY OF BARRINGERS OF CABARRUS.

        John Paul Barringer, (or as he wrote his name, Paul Barringer,) the founder of the family in North Carolina, was born in Wurtemburg, in Germany, on 4th of June, 1721. He settled first in Pennsylvania, and afterwards in Cabarrus, then Mecklenburg, about 1750.

        When the Revolution broke out, he took a decided stand with the oppressed people of his State, and from his devotion to their cause, he suffered severely, for he was taken prisoner by the Tories, and carried to South Carolina.

        He was elected a member of the Legislature, the first from Cabarrus after its division from Mecklenburg in 1793, and was a prominent and influential citizen to the day of his death, which occurred on 1st January, 1807. He married, first, Ann Elizabeth Iseman; and second, Catherine Blackwelder, by whom he had several children, viz:

        Daniel L. Barringer, born in Mecklenburg County, October 1st, 1788, studied law, and settled at Raleigh. He was elected a member of the House of Commons from Wake County, 1813-'19-'21; and a member of Congress from 1826 to 1835.

        He removed to Tennessee, and was one of the Presidential electors in 1844, voting for Mr. Clay. He was the Speaker of the House of Representatives of that State. He married


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Miss White, sister of Mrs. D. L. Swain. He died October 16th, 1852.

        General Paul Barringer, the eldest son by a second marriage, was born 1778. He received a good English education, and was distinguished for his business habits and his strong practical sense. He was a member of the House of Commons from 1806 to 1815, and in 1822 in the Senate of the Legislature.

        He married a second time, Elizabeth, daughter of Matthew Brandon, of Rowan, whose family are distinguished for their abilities, patriotism and love of independence.

        Matthew Brandon was a soldier of the Revolution, and was with General Joseph Graham and Colonel Locke in opposing the advance of the British near Charlotte, when Graham was severely wounded and Locke killed. His relative, William Brandon, was a lieutenant in the Continental army, and was the first child born south of the Yadkin. He died in Tennessee in 1836, aged ninety-nine years.

        General Barringer died at Lincolnton on June 20th, 1844, and his wife followed him soon after, (in November of the same year.)

        For Genealogy of the Barringer family, see Appendix.

        Nathaniel Alexander was a native of this county when yet a portion of Mecklenburg. His early education was commenced in a humble log cabin at Poplar Tent, near his paternal mansion, the Morehead Place, thence he went to Princeton, where he graduated in 1776. He studied medicine, and was a successful physician.

        He represented Mecklenburg in the House of Commons in 1797, and in the Senate in 1802. In 1803 he was elected a member of the 8th Congress, 1803-'05. In 1805 he was elected Governor of the State, and served till his death, 8th March, 1808. He married a daughter of Colonel Thos. Polk. His remains lie in the Presbyterian church yard at Charlotte.

        Colonel George Alexander and Major Thos. Harris were natives of Cabarrus and officers of the Continental line. They both were brave and true--fought under the eye of Washington at Monmouth and Trenton and in the battle of Camden, where both were taken prisoners and Harris severely wounded.*

        * MSS. letters of Wm. S. Harris.


        Dr. Charles Harris was born in 1763; while but a youth pursuing his studies in Charlotte, he joined the corps of cavalry under General W. R. Davie, and rendered good service under that brave and daring officer. After the war was over he resumed his studies, and he finished his classical as well as his medical study in Philadelphia, under the charge of that eminent professor, Benjamin Rush. On his return he settled first in Salisbury, and practised with great success. He then moved to Cabarrus, where he lived a long and useful life, and died in 1825.

        He established a medical school, and was eminent as a physician and surgeon.

        His school was well patronized for more than forty years; perhaps the only one ever established in the State. Among his pupils were Dr. Charles Caldwell, formerly a Professor in Transylvania University, Louisville, Kentucky, Dr. Robert McKensie, and Dr. Robert B. Vance, member of Congress from Asheville.

        His son, William Shakespeare Harris, was much esteemed for his talents and worth. He represented Cabarrus in 1840.

        Robert Simonton Young was a distinguished, useful and exemplary citizen of this county. Active and patriotic, he was much esteemed. He was an officer in the Confederate Army, and fell in battle near Petersburg, in 1864.

        He married first a daughter of John Phifer; second, a daughter of A. M. Burton. No nobler offering was ever laid on the altar of public service.


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        Daniel Coleman, (born 28th March, 1799,) was born in Rowan County; moved to Cabarrus in 1823.

        Educated at Rocky River Academy, conducted by Dr. J. M. Wilson, father of J. Harvey Wilson, of Charlotte, and finished under Dr. John Robinson, at Poplar Tent, 1823, and the latter part of this year settled at Concord.

        In the Spring following he was elected Clerk of the County Court, and served till 1828. Read law with Judge David F. Caldwell, and was licensed to practice. In 1830 to '33 he was engrossing clerk, and 1834-'35, reading clerk of the State Senate.

        In 1836 he was appointed Third Assistant Postmaster-General under Amos Kendall, and served till May, 1841.

        He returned home and resumed his practice at the bar, and in 1848, was elected by the Legislature, Solicitor of the Sixth Judicial District. After serving for four years he retired from the practice, and engaged in construction, with Dr. E. R. Gibson, of the North Carolina Railroad. Appointed to office in the Treasury, in 1871, which position he held until the time of his demise.

        He married Maria, daughter of John E. Mahan, of Concord, and had two sons, William M., late Attorney General of North Carolina, and Daniel Raymond, who is now a teacher in the Deaf and Dumb Institution, at city of Belville, Province of Ontario, Canada.

        J. McCalib Wiley was born in Cabarrus County, in 1806; removed to Bibb County, Alabama, 1836; served in the army in the war with Mexico; member of Board of Visitors to West Point; elected Judge of the Eighth Circuit of Alabama 1865; elected member of 39th Congress, and in 1871, again elected judge.

CALDWELL COUNTY.

        Caldwell County has no Revolutionary worthies to present, having been formed in 1841, from the counties of Burke and Wilkes. But she presents a number of names worthy of regard.

        Samuel F. Patterson lived and died in this county. He was highly esteemed, and filled many positions of much responsibility with integrity and honor. As a financier he had few superiors. He was, in 1836, Treasurer of the State, and President of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad. He was averse to popular promotions, but was elected to the Senate of the State Legislature in 1864.

        He married a daughter of General Edmund Jones, long a member of the Legislature from Wilkes, and universally respected for his probity and intelligence. His son, Rufus L. Patterson, worthily enjoyed the regard and respect of his country. He died recently, much regretted.

        James C. Harper, who represented the district in 42d Congress (1871-'73;) resides in this county. He is a native of Pennsylvania, born in Cumberland County, 6th December, 1819; raised in Ohio on a farm, and settled in this county in 1840, which he represented in the Legislature in 1866 and 1868. He in Congress, as in the Legislature, was distinguished for his close and faithful attention to his duties, never in the way in obstructing useful legislation, and never out of the way in opposing wild and extravagant measures.

        He married Louisa, daughter of Athan McDowell, and the granddaughter of General Charles and Grace Greenlee McDowell. The


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patriotic character of Grace Greenlee has already been alluded to.

        One of Mr. Harper's daughters, Emma, married Clinton A. Cilly, who was, in 1868, one of the Judges of the Superior Courts of North Carolina. Judge Cilly is a native of New Hampshire, and was an officer in the army of the United States during the whole war. He is a nephew of the Hon. Jonathan Cilly, a distinguished member of Congress, who fell February 24, 1838, at Bladensburg, Maryland, in a duel with William J. Graves, of Kentucky.

        Judge Cilly, having settled since the war in North Carolina, is a standing reproof to the idea that meritorious men of northern birth are not welcome to the State, and an evidence that North Carolina appreciates and elevates integrity and talent wherever found.

        George Nathaniel Folk resides at Lenoir, Caldwell County. He is a native of Isle of Wight County, Virginia; born in February, 1831. He removed to Watauga County in 1852, and represented that county in 1856 and 1861. He entered the Confederate army and served two years in the 1st Regiment North Carolina Cavalry, and was promoted to a colonelcy of the 6th North Carolina Cavalry. Wounded at the battles of Chickamauga, Vine Vine, and in East Tennessee. He removed to Lenoir in 1866, and represented that district in the Legislature in 1876. He is esteemed as an able lawyer, and was Chairman of the Judiciary Committee.

CAMDEN COUNTY.

        General Isaac Gregory was born, lived and died in this county. He was a brave and patriotic officer in the Revolutionary army, and did some service in the cause of Independence. He was one of the Committee of Safety in 1776 for the Edenton district, and by the Provincial Congress that met at Halifax, April 4, 1776, he was appointed one of the field officers of one of the regiments of Pasquotank, of which Camden was then a part.*

        * Autobiography of Lemuel Sawyer, page 7.


He commanded a brigade of State troops at the ill-fated battle of Camden, and was wounded severely. But he was more of a politician than a soldier. He was the first Senator from Camden County in the Legislature, 1778, in which he was continued, with some intermission, until 1796.

        We regret our material is so scant of the services and the character of General Gregory. He left a son, General William Gregory, that that many recollect, who was remarkable for style of dress and fine equipage, which won for him the sobriquet of "Beau Gregory." His resemblance to General LaFayette was a subject of remark by all who knew them both.

        He was fond of gay life and pleasure, but not of labor, either mental or physical. He was a member of the Legislature from Pasquotank in 1828. Sheriff for some years, and postmaster at Elizabeth City.

        Dempsey Burgess, who resided and died in this county, was also one of the field officers appointed lieutenant-colonel with General Gregory. He succeeded William Johnson Dawson as a member of Congress 1795 and 1797, and re-elected in 1797 and 1799.

        His brother-in-law, Lemuel Sawyer, born 1777, died 1852, was one of the most eccentric men and successful politicians who entered public life about this time. He was elected a member of the Legislature in 1800.


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        He belonged to a large and distinguished family. His brother Enoch was the first collector of the customs, appointed in 1791 by Washington, and filled this responsible office till his death, in 1827.

        He was born in Camden County in 1777. He was educated at Flatbrush Academy, on Long Island, under charge of Dr. Peter Wilson, with such distinguished associates as William and John Duer, Troop and Telfair, of Georgia. He studied law, but never made the profession his object in life. He preferred the giddy pursuits of politics and of pleasure. After serving a session in the Legislature, he was elected one of the electors in 1804 for President, and voted for Jefferson, to whose principles and politics he was a constant follower.

        On the retiring of General Thomas Wynns, of Hertford County, from Congress in 1807, Mr. Sawyer was elected to the 13th Congress over William H. Murfree, and from that date to 1829 (with but few intermissions,) he was re-elected by the people over the most prominent and powerful opponents; among them were Mr. Murfree, Governor Iredell and others.

        What was the secret of this extraordinary success of twenty years' service it is difficult to conjecture, for he was not gifted as a speaker; he was negligent of his duties, often a whole session passing without his appearing a single day in his seat; eccentric in his conduct and private life, if not disreputable in some instances, as he himself confesses in his autobiography. Doubtless his principles, as his votes and his speeches in Congress show, were of the straightest sect of Democracy, and stern advocate of the rights of States. He commenced his political career by voting for Jefferson, and ended it by advocating Jackson, Van Buren and Polk.

        He had a great fondness for literature, and wrote "The Life of John Randolph," his own biography, "Black Beard," and other productions. His easy disposition, his liberality, and his social eccentricities, while they made him many friends, brought him, at the close of life, to suffering, if not to want. His life was prolonged beyond its usefulness, if he ever was useful in any capacity.

        His latter days were spent in Washington City. He was another of the many instances of persons who, charmed in more prosperous days by the glamor of this gay metropolis, feel, as did Madame Maintenou, that "there were a hundred gates by which one may enter Paris, but only one by which you should leave it." This he realized, for he died 1852, aged 75, in Washington, where he had eked out a precarious existence from the salary of a small office in one of the departments.*

        * From National Intelligencer, of 10th January, 1852:

        DIED.--Suddenly, on Friday, 9th January, 1852, at the residence of G. R. Adams, 11th street, near F, (in Washington City,) of a disease of the heart, Hon. Lemuel Sawyer, for many years a member of Congress from North Carolina.


        His autobiography draws the last melancholy scene of his life, which, in his own language--

        "I have drained the bitter cup of existence to the dregs. I have no earthly object to live for; nor have I the means to do so with that comfort and ease which alone can reconcile superannuated infirmity."


        His nephew, Samuel T. Sawyer, lived in Edenton, son of Dr. Matthias E. Sawyer. He was a lawyer by profession; often in the Legislature (1829 to '32, and in Senate, 1834,) and elected to Congress 1837-'39.

        He was appointed by Mr. Pierce collector of Norfolk; he became the editor of the Argus, and served as commissary in the late civil war. He died in New Jersey, 29th November, 1865, aged 65 years.*

        * Lauman's Biographical Annals.



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CHAPTER X.
CARTERET COUNTY.

        THIS county has the honor of being the first land sighted by the expedition sent out under the auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh to this continent. Two ships, one called "the Tiger," and the other "the Admiral," commanded by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, after entering the Ocracocke Inlet, sailed up the sound, and landed on Roanoke Island, now in Dare County, in July, 1584.

        The patent from Queen Elizabeth to Sir Walter Raleigh, as well as the report of the officers, is recorded in Hakluyt's Voyages, III., 301.

        No people have a clearer, and more perfect record of history than the people of our state. From this time to the present, it is preserved in veritable and intelligible language.

        No fabled fugitives from justice, no Norman tyrant with force of arms, no Pizarro bent on spoil and plunder, formed the first civilized settlement of our country; but "men, high-minded men," under the peaceful commission of lawful authority, and with the cordial consent of the native inhabitants of the country,


                         "-- were the first that ever burst
                         Into that silent sea."

        What a proud record for our contemplation and pride!

        Connected with the name of Carteret, is a tradition that this was the refuge of the colony of White, who was the Governor of Roanoke Island In the year 1590, he returned to Carolina, after a visit in England of over a year's duration, but his colony had disappeared.

        White only discovered the word "Croaton" carved on the bark of a tree. Doubtless they had become amalgamated with the native Indians, for some of these had blue eyes, and said "their parents could read from a book;" and there are names extant in Carteret corresponding with the names of White's colony.*

        * See Hawk's History of North Carolina, I., 100, 202.


        Subsequently (1712,) the Indians, especially the Cores and Tuscaroras, waged a bloody and destructive war upon the whites in this region. Much property and many lives were destroyed, among them, John Lawson, the earliest historian of the state. His work was published in London in 1709, and is considered as good authority, giving the best description of North Carolina, its products and natural history.

        Lawson's book has been so highly appreciated, that the legislature ordered it be reprinted. The original copies are very rare.

        He gives a particular account of the manners and customs of the different tribes of Indians of Carolina. The account he gives of their cruelty to prisoners is graphic and terrible, and was most fearfully realized by Lawson in his own person. He says:

        "Their cruelties to their prisoners are such as none but Devils out of Hell could invent. They never miss skulping of them, which is to cut the skin from the temples, and taking the whole head of hair along with it. Sometimes they take the top of the skull with it, which they preserve and carefully keep by them for a trophy of their conquest over their enemies. Others keep their enemy's teeth which are taken in war, whilst others split pine into splinters and stick them into the prisoner's body, yet alive, then they light them which burn like so many torches, and in this manner they make him dance around a


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great fire, everyone buffeting and deriding him till he expires."


        This cruel fate was fearfully realized by Lawson and his negro servant, and would have been by his associate, the Baron De Graaffenreidt, whose life was only saved by his fine appearance, and because he wore a gold medal which the Indians thought was an indication of high rank.

        Colonel Moore, of whom we have already written, closed this war by marching into Carteret, and completely subduing the savages in a decisive battle near the present town of Beaufort. Here, within "the sound of the church-going bells," occured the last desperate struggle of the red man in this section for dominion over his native soil, which he could not, and ought not hold.

        In 1712, a fort was built on Core Sound, named in honor of Governor Hyde, to protect the inhabitants.

        There are many names connected with Carteret worthy of record, as the Bells, Fullers, Bordens, Hellens, Marshalls, Sheppard, Piggots, Wards, and others.

        Otway Burns, who represented this county often, (1822 to 1834,) is worthy of our memory. His name is more securely preserved in the capital of the County of Yancey. He represented Carteret County in the state senate, when (1834) Yancey County was erected. Doubtless the compliment secured his ready advocacy for its formation.

        He came to Beaufort from Onslow County, where he was born, when quite young, and engaged in a seafaring life. He became a captain on a coasting vessel plying between Beaufort and New York.

        When the war of 1812 commenced, he obtained from the Government of the United States, letters of marque and reprisal, and built, through the aid of several wealthy persons, as a stock company, a fast sailing ship; on her he bestowed the name of "Snap Dragon," and she was fully armed and equipped with cannon, guns, and men.

        The swiftness of the vessel, the skill with which she was managed by Burns, his intimate knowledge of the dreaded and dangerous coast of Carolina, and the daring of a chosen crew of men, soon made the name of Otway Burns a terror to all the British in American waters.

        He captured and destroyed a large number of English prizes, and amassed fortunes for himself and his compatriots.

        He brought into Beaufort heavy cargoes of valuables, and established quite a market for the merchants of all eastern Carolina. His house was but a short distance from the present Atlantic Hotel, on the top of which he established an observatory, from which he, by aid of a spy-glass, commanded an extensive view of the ocean. Here would the daring sailor watch and wait, while his ship was kept with a ready crew and anchor tripped. When ever he espied a vessel sailing under English colors, he would hurry up the "Snap Dragon" and pursue the prize. From the sailing qualities of his ship, Burns would soon overhaul and capture the pursued vessel.

        Such was the damage done by Captain Burns to the commerce of England, that the British Council held consultations to devise some means for his capture. Finally, they ordered the construction of a fast sailing vessel, fully armed, with a large crew, but built as a merchant ship. This ship met our gallant "tar heel" on the coast, and by a ruse, captured him and his crew without firing a gun. The Englishman, rigged as a merchantman, with his guns concealed as well as his crew, suffered the "Snap Dragon" to run alongside, and hauled down his colors in token of surrender. As Burns and his men commenced to board the prize, her guns were run out and manned by the crew, who suddenly appeared on deck, and the harmless merchantman was presto converted into a terrible man-of-war, with shotted


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cannon ready to fire. Burns, with heartfelt chagrin, was compelled to surrender. Thus he and his crew were taken prisoners.

        After the close of the war he was released, and he returned home. With the characteristic extravagance of a sailor, he squandered his property and was very poor in the declining years of his life. His generous qualities and social temperament, with the fame of his daring exploits at sea, (about which he was very fond of talking,) made him a great favorite of the people. He was "sudden and quick in quarrel," full of frolic, fun and fight, and towards the close of his life became very dissipated. He died in 1849, while in command of a light boat. His eventful life was so interesting that it once formed the subject of a lecture by Governor Swain.

CHAPTER XI.
CASWELL COUNTY.

        THIS county having been formed since our Declaration of Independence, her revolutionary history is connected with that of Orange County, from which it was taken. It preserves the name of Richard Caswell, who was one of the most active and efficient patriots of that eventful epoch. He was the first governor after the Royal governor had left, and did great service, not only as governor, but as a soldier and statesman.

        He was a native of Maryland; born in Cecil County on August 3, 1729. The year in which the Lord Proprietors of North Carolina surrendered their charter to the Crown, George II. then being King.

        Mr. Caswell came to North Carolina when quite a youth to seek fame and fortune. He was duly appreciated, and appointed clerk of Orange County, and deputy surveyor of the colony.

        He read law, and practiced it with great success. He settled in Lenoir County, then Dobbs, where he married Mary McIlweane, and afterwards he removed to Johnston County. The people were not slow to discern his abilities, and he was elected to represent them in the assembly in 1754. So acceptable were his services that he was continued until 1771, being chosen speaker during the last two sessions. He was the colonel of the county, and as such commanded the rightwing of Tryon's army at Alamance, May 16, 1771. This was his first appearance in the profession of arms, which was congenial to his nature, and in which he was destined to be so conspicuous.

        Like many other patriots of that day, they forbore, as long as patience would allow them, the cruelties of the mother country towards the colonies, but when the attempts of England to subjugate the liberties of the people became too oppressive he did not hesitate to advocate the rights of the many thus threatened by power and oppression.

        By the first Provincial Congress that organized in opposition to the Royal Government, (August 25th, 1774, at New Berne,) he was, with William Hooper and Joseph Hewes, appointed delegate to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, and attended for three years.

        He was looked upon with great respect by the Royal Governor, Martin, and his course


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gave Martin much chagrin, as will appear from a copy of his dispatch, dated--

'August 28th, 1775.

"ON BOARD CRUISER SLOOP-OF-WAR.

        "Every device has been practiced by the seditious committees to inflame the minds of the people; and most of all by the return of Richard Caswell to this province, and no doubt will inflame it with the extravagant spirit of that daring assembly at Philadelphia. At New Berne I am credibly informed he had the insolence to reprehend the committee of that little town for suffering me to remove from thence.

         * * * * *

        "This man, at his going to the first congress, appeared to me to have embarked with reluctance in the cause, that much extenuated his guilt. Now he shows himself a most active tool of sedition."


        On his return from congress in the spring of 1776, his military ardor was roused at the alarming state of affairs at home. The great fleets of England hovered around the coast, while the whole region of the Cape Fear swarmed with disaffected and dangerous tories, who had gathered in strong force to unite with Clinton in subjugating the state. In conjunction with Colonel Lillington, he summoned the minute men of Dobbs County, and met the tories under General McDonald at Moore's Creck Bridge, on February 27th, 1776, and completely routed them with great slaughter.

        He received the thanks of the Provincial Congress (at Halifax. April 4th, 1776,) for this brilliant victory, and for it he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General.

        This battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was of infinite importance, as it prevented the junction of the Scotch loyalists with the British forces, and the cause of great discomfort to Governor Martin.

        In a dispatch of Governor Martin to Lord Germaine, dated March 2, 1776, (from the Rolls Office in London, never before published,) Governor Martin says:

        "An agent had been dispatched to the interior counties of North Carolina to raise troops in the country to meet the troops expected from England. Three thousand men were expected to be raised.

        "They had been checked, about seventeen miles above Wilmington, in an attempt to pass a bridge on February 27th. After sustaining the loss of Captain Donald McLeod, a gallant officer, and near twenty men killed and wounded, our forces were dispersed.

        "This unfortunate truth was too soon confirmed by the arrival of Mr. MacLeane, Mr. Campbell, Mr. Stuart, and Mr. Nichol, who, with great difficulty, found their way to the Scorpion, sloop-of-war, lying at Brunswick. The force was about 1,400 men raised; but for want of encouragement at the time was reduced to about 700, of them 600 were Highlanders.

        "The governor expresses the opinion that this little check which the loyalists received would not have any extensive ill consequences, yet he suffers every anguish, mortification and disappointment from the defeat of his endeavors."*

        * Colonial Docs., page 224.



        Some controversy has in late years arisen as to whom the honor of the victory of Moore's Creek Bridge belonged, or, at least, whether the honors should not be divided. Honorable George Davis and Professor Hubbard were opposed on this question. This should not affect the reputation of either Lillington or Caswell; both were brave patriots, and both did their duty. The facts are that congress thanked Caswell, and in a masonic address by Francois X. Martin, delivered soon after this battle, at New Berne, he calls Caswell "the gallant commander of Moore's Creek."

        Caswell was president of the Provincial Congress (which met at Halifax November 12, 1776,) and was one of the committee that formed a state constitution. He was elected the first governor of the state under the constitution. He conducted the ship of state in its untried and perilous voyage with singular fidelity and matchless sagacity during his term of office. After this expired, his active


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and patriotic spirit brooked no repose. He saw his country in danger, and with the North Carolina troops was engaged in the battle of Camden, August 16, 1780.

        The disordered state of the finances of the state demanded attention, and Governor Caswell was elected comptroller general, which duties he discharged with great ability until 1785, when he was again elected governor of the state, an unusual circumstance which proves the great acceptability of his services, and the grateful appreciation of them by the state.

        The following address on this occasion may be interesting, as showing how such ceremonials were conducted in the good old times of yore.

        From the journals of the assembly of the State of North Carolina:

"The address of the Speaker of the House
of Commons, William Blount, on the qualification
of Governor Caswell, May 13, 1785.

"MR. RICHARD CASWELL,

        SIR: The general assembly of the State of North Carolina, at their last session, proceeded to the choice of a chief magistrate to preside over the executive department of the government of this state, when you were elected by a large majority of both houses; and it gives me great pleasure that it falls to me as Speaker of the House of Commons, in the name of the representatives of the freemen of the state, and in the presence of these honorable gentlemen, to call upon you to qualify, in pursuance of this, their highest mark of public regard, which can by them, be shown to the most worthy citizen.

        (The governor now qualifies.)

        "To you, sir, as the first chief magistrate of this state, we commit and deliver the Bill of Rights and the Constitution; the one asserting the civil and political rights of the freemen of this country, the other giving existence to your office and the present happy form of government. That the same under your guardianship may be sustained, supported, maintained and preserved inviolate, and as an emblem of that power and authority with which you are invested, we present you this sword, and do announce and proclaim you, Richard Caswell, Esq., Governor, Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief in and over the State of North Carolina, in which all good and liege people are to take notice, and govern themselves accordingly.

"WILLIAM BLOUNT,
"Speaker of the House of Commons.

"KINSTON, May 13, 1785."

        With the exception of Caswell, Benjamin Williams, (Governor in 1799 and in 1807,) and Governors Reid and Vance, no instance occurs in our history of the same person being twice elected to this elevated position.

        Governor Caswell was elected a member of the Convention to meet in Philadelphia in May, 1787, to form the Constitution of the United States. This he declined.

        His last public service was as Senator from Dobbs County (since divided into Greene and Lenoir,) in the legislature, which met at Fayetteville, 1789, of which he was elected speaker.

        While presiding in the senate he was struck, November 5th, with paralysis, and he died on the 10th, of that year.

        Mr. Gaston informs us that once whilst on a visit to Boston, he called on the illustrious and venerable John Adams. In an interesting conversation with him as to the revolutionary worthies of North Carolina, Mr. Adams asked: "Where is the family of Richard Caswell? for he was, sir, a model man and true patriot. We always looked to Caswell for North Carolina." His character is one of which his country may well be proud. Not brilliant, but solid; useful rather than showy; deliberate in counsel and decided in action. Mr. Macon declared him one of "the most powerful men that ever lived in this or any other country." In his career he closely resembled the father of his country; if Virginia be proud of her Washington, North Carolina may be of her Caswell.

        Governor Caswell's will is on record in Lenoir county, and is dated July 2, 1787. He left one son and one daughter. Of his son


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(Winston) but little is known to us. His daughter, Anna, married twice. First Fonville, and second to William White, who was Secretary of State from 1778 to 1811. Mrs. White left three daughters:*

        * One of Governor Caswell's daughters married a Gatlin. Dr. John Gatlin, who was a surgeon in the United States army, and was massacred at Dade's Defeat by the Seminoles, in Florida, was a grandson of Caswell. General Gatlin was a brother of Dr. Gatlin.


        I. Anna, who married Governor David L. Swam.

        II. Another married General Daniel L. Barringer.

        III. Another married General Boone Felton, of Hertford County. (University Magazine IV., 1772.)

        General Felton was a native of Hertford County, and a man of some wealth and culture. He represented this county in 1809, and frequently afterwards. Ten years afterwards he had a difficulty with his relative and colleague, which was the cause of much excitement in the county.

        The capital town of the county preserves a name equally as illustrious as the name of Caswell, it is that of Bartlett Yancey, who was born, lived and died in Caswell County. He was educated at the university, although his name does not appear among the list of graduates, and for a time was a tutor in that institution. He studied law, and attained great eminence in the profession. But political life was his proper element, and there he shone conspicuous. His first appearance in public life was as a member of the Thirteenth Congress, 1813,-'15, and again in the Fourteenth, (1815,-17.) Here, by the solidity of his judgement, the suavity of his manners, and the extent of his acquirements, he attained a high position among such statesmen as William Gaston, William R. King, William H. Murfree, Israel Pickens, Nathaniel Macon, all of whom were his colleagues. He was the firm and fearless supporter of the administration of Mr. Madison and the republican party. On his retiring from congress he resolved to devote himself to his profession, but the people would not permit him to retire. The next year they elected him to represent the county in the senate, in which position he was continued until his death. The senate each year elected him unanimously its speaker. No one possessed more popularity. On some occasions he received nearly every vote in Caswell County.

        As presiding officer of a deliberate body he was pre-eminent, and scarcely ever rivaled. Blessed with a manly person, of most engaging and bland manners, a quick and well balanced mind, an accurate memory and clear and harmonious voice, he was peculiarly qualified for the duties of a speaker. As the journals will show, in Congress, the speaker (Mr. Clay) often supplied his own place by the substitution of Mr. Yancey. His efforts for the benefit of the state are monuments of his greatness as a statesman. The organization of the judiciary; the system of finance in the treasury and comptroller's offices as also of the common schools, and other public measures attest his sagacity and usefulness.

        He died in the meridian of his life and usefulness in 1828. This sudden and unexpected event caused a deep sensation of sorrow throughout the state. All eyes were turned to him as the successor of Governor Branch, in the United States Senate. He left five daughters: Mrs. McAdden, Mrs. Giles Mebane, Mrs. Lemuel Mebane, Mrs. Thomas J. Wommack and Mrs. George W. Swepson; and two sons: Rufus A., who graduated at the university, with great credit, in 1829, in the same class with Burton Craige, William Eaton, Dr. Sidney X. Johnston and others, he died in Richmond, Va., about 1835; and Algernon Sidney, who was a lawyer, died in 1840.

        Probably there are few men, in either public or private life, who occupied during their


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term of life more of public notice than Romulus M. Saunders.

        From the time he entered the legislature, in his 24th year, until his death, at which time he held the office of judge, he was either in office, or an applicant for office, or an aspirant for position. He was the son of William Saunders, born in Caswell County, 1791. His early education was defective.*

        * From Raleigh Star, of March 29, 1819. The trustees of the university of North Carolina, have been obliged to perform the painful duty of expelling from the in situation John Allen of Pitt, Horace Burton, of Granville, Romulus Saunders, of Caswell County.

        DAVID STONE, President.


He studied law, and practiced that profession with success. He early entered political life, which was more germane to his tastes than law. From 1815 to 1820, he was a member of the House of Commons, and twice its speaker. In 1821 to 1827, he was in Congress. In 1828, he was elected attorney general, which position he filled till 1833, when he was appointed a commissioner under the French Treaty, in which he served till 1835, when he was elected judge, which he resigned on being, in 1840, nominated candidate for governor, but was defeated by John M. Morehead. In 1841, elected to Congress, in which he served until 1846, when he was appointed Envoy to Spain, where he served till 1849; and in 1850, he was again elected a member of the House of Commons. In 1852, elected to House of Commons, and again he became Judge of Superior Courts, in which office he died, April 21, 1867.

        A good story (says Moore I., 463) is told by Judge Badger, of this extraordinary propensity for office. Mr. Badger was asked who would be the new Bishop, in place of Ives, on that prelate's defection to Rome: "I can't tell you who it will be, but I am certain Judge -- will be a candidate, as he wants everything else," replied the great lawyer.

        From History of North Carolina, by J. W. Moore, II., page 98:

        "In 1852-'53, the democrats had a majority in the legislature, but failed to elect a senator to succeed Judge Mangum. R. M. Saunders, as usual, was a candidate. He was one of our leading men but insatiable in his thirst for office. He was equally profound and adroit as a lawyer, greatly respected as a judge, and unsurpassed as a stump orator. His four years of acquaintance with the formal etiquette of the Spanish Court had failed to remove his native and inherent roughness of manners."


        He was twice married; by his last marriage with a daughter of Judge William Johnson, of the Supreme Court of the United States, he left a son and two daughters.

        That Judge Saunders possessed force of character and talents, the high positions he held are proof. But that he was selfish and uncertain in his friendships is admitted. The opinion expressed of Goldsmith by Dr. Johnson was realized by him: "his friendships were so easily acquired, and so lightly lost, as rendered them of but little consequence to any person." As a politician he was able and active, but even this character was obscured by the fact that he always hoped to be advanced personally. In a memorable contest in 1852 for Senator in Congress, when his party, with a majority of only one or two, and he himself a member of the body, nominated James C. Dobbin, than whom a purer man did not exist, Saunders refused to co-operate, bolted the caucus and with his friends, defeated the election of Dobbin.*

        * This has been disputed by some friends of Judge Saunders. We quote from History of North Carolina, by John W. Moore, (page 227.)

        "Mr. Dobbin succeeded Governor Graham as Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Dobbin was defeated for the United States Senate by the friends of Judge Saunders, and Judge Mangum's term having expired, the state for the next two years had but one senator."


        In a subsequent contest for the same post he again played the same role, and thus defeated the election of Bedford Brown, who was the choice of the democratic party in 1842-'43, and so caused the election of William H. Haywood, whose career as a senator not being successful, he resigned. Had Saunders followed the advice


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of the great Cardinal of Henry VIII. he would have been a happier, if not a wiser and better man.


                         "--, I charge thee fling away ambition.
                         By that sin fell the angels; and how can man then--
                         The image of his maker--hope to win by it."

        We would fain have made this sketch more favorable, but in pen pictures as in portrait painting the truth demands a faithful, not a flattering, likeness.

        Robert Williams was a native of Caswell County, distinguished for his attainments. He was adjutant-general of North Carolina, and a representative in Congress, (Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Congress) 1797 to 1803, and was appointed commissioner of land titles in Mississippi Territory. He was also the governor of the Territory of Mississippi from 1805 to 1809. He died in Louisiana.

        Marmaduke Williams who succeeded his brother in Congress, was a native of Caswell County, born in 1772; married Mrs. Agnes Harris, nee Payne. He was by profession a lawyer. He represented Caswell County in the state senate in 1802, and the district in (the Eighth, Ninth and Tenth Congress) 1803-1809. In 1810 he removed with his family to Alabama. He was repeatedly elected to the legislature of that state, and was a delegate from Tuscaloosa County to the convention which formed the state constitution. He was a candidate for governor and defeated by William W. Bibb. In 1826 he was a commissioner to adjust the unsettled accounts between Alabama and Mississippi. In 1832 he was elected judge of the county court, which he resigned, having attained the age of seventy, which the constitution declared a disqualification in a judge. He died October 29, 1850.

        Calvin Graves was born in Caswell County, in January, 1804. He was the son of Azariah Graves. His mother was the daughter of Colonel John Williams, who took a decided part in the revolution, and was Lieutenant-Colonel of a battalion raised in the Hillsboro district. He was educated at the Bingham academy in Orange, and spent one year at the university, when he commenced reading law with Judge Settle, his brother-in-law, and finished under Judge Henderson. He was admitted to the Bar in 1827. His success in the practice was flattering, but his fame rests more on his efforts in the legislature than his career as a jurist.

        His first appearance as a statesman was as a member of the convention of 1835 to reform the constitution. This was an able body of practiced statesmen, and afforded an admirable school for the young politician. This opportunity was not neglected by Mr. Graves. In 1840 he was elected a member of the House, and in 1842 when he was made speaker. In 1844 he was again a member, but the whig party having a majority, elected Mr. Stanley speaker. In 1846 he was returned as a member of the senate.

        During this session a party move of much significance was made to re-district the state, and opposed by Mr. Graves. In 1848 he was again elected to the senate, when the parties were evenly balanced, he was elected speaker notwithstanding.

        This was an important session. The lunatic asylum was constructed, and the proposition to make internal improvements by a railroad connecting the mountains with the seaboard, involving an appropriation of $2,000,000. The latter bill passed the lower House by a close vote, and after a warm and able discussion, which was maintained by both sides with eloquence and ability, and listened to with breathless anxiety by a crowded gallery, the vote was taken, and stood yeas 24, nays 24. The vote was handed by the clerk to the speaker, upon whom all eyes were now turned; Mr. Graves arose from his chair, and in a clear and audible voice announced the vote: "The clerk reports twenty-four


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four in the affirmitive and twenty-four in the negative. The speaker votes in the affirmative; the bill has passed the senate."

        The plaudits were deafening, and the session of the senate broken up, without adjourning; tumultuous joy came from one side, and sullen murmurs from the other. Whatever views may now be entertained of the policy of this law, it was at the time an act of political suicide by Mr. Graves; he never again appeared in the legislature. Like Coriolanus, when yielding to the entreaties of his mother, he might say:


                         "Mother, you may have saved your country, but you have lost your son."

        Mr. Graves married Elizabeth, daughter of John C. Lea, by whom he had an interesting family. He died some few years ago.

        Bedford Brown was a native of Caswell, where he lived and died; he was born in 1795, a farmer by profession, a patriotic statesman, and an unflinching advocate of the rights of the state.

        He early embarked on the sea of politics, in which he had a long and successful voyage. He entered the House of Commons in 1815. At one time (1817,) this county sent Bartlett Yancey to the senate, and Romulus M. Saunders and Bedford Brown to the commons. This was a triumvirate of ability not excelled in the legislators of any other county in the state. Mr. Brown entered public life at an important epoch in our history. The democratic principles he adopted then and there, he maintained through life. He was elected frequently to the legislature, and in 1828 and 1829 was chosen speaker of the senate. In the latter year he was elected United States Senator to succeed Governor Branch, who was appointed Secretary of the Navy. Here he served till 1840, when he resigned under instructions from the legislature.

        He again entered the legislature in 1842, and was again a candidate for the senate, but not elected. He then withdrew for a time from public life, and moved to Missouri; but after a short time he returned to North Carolina, and was again elected a member of the state senate from 1858 to 1862, and in 1868. He died at home December 6th, 1870, lamented by the state and nation.

        His character as a statesman was like Bayard's, "without fear or reproach." He was distinguished for his firmness and unquestioned integrity. His friends did not claim for him an equal rank in the intellectual power which marked the career of many with whom he was associated, but he was the peer of any in integrity, patriotism and purity of life.

        Jacob Thompson is a native of Caswell County; born May 15, 1810. His father, Nicholas Thompson, was a respectable and worthy man, who bestowed on his son every advantage of education. His early studies were conducted by Mr. Bingham at Hillsboro, and finished at the university, where he graduated in 1831, in a class with Thomas L. Clingman, James C. Dobbin, and others; and he was for a time a tutor in the college. He studied law with Honorable John M. Dick, and was licensed in 1834.

        The next year he moved to Pontotoc, Mississippi, and entered at once upon the practice of the law.

        He was elected a member of congress from Mississippi in 1839, and continued by successive elections in that position until 1851, when he declined a re-nomination. During this period he passed though many scenes of extraordinary interest and excitement. Questions of importance were agitated, in which Mr. Thompson bore a distinguished part in defending the honor of the country and the interests of his constituents. The sub-treasury, the New Jersey case, the Mexican war, Mississippi repudiations, and other questions agitated the nation.

        He bore himself as a statesman and a patriot.


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        On the resignation of Robert J. Walker as senator, in 1845, to assume the duties of Secretary of the Treasury under Mr. Polk, he was appointed Senator of the United States; but for some reason, he did not accept the commission.

        In 1857, he was appointed Secretary of the Interior by Mr. Buchanan, over which department he presided with unexampled integrity and ability, until the great civil war between the states began, when he resigned, preserving the respect and regard of his associates When Mississippi seceded, Mr. Thompson deemed it his duty to share her fortunes and her fate. He was employed by the Confederate government as a financial agent, and suffered deeply in the wreck of his once princely estate. He now resides near Memphis, pursuing the vocation of planter.

        He married in 1838, Miss Jones, whose kind disposition and genial manners shed a charm over every circle. Their only son was in the Confederate army, and fell in battle.

        John Kerr, late one of the judges of the superior courts, resided in this county. He was the son of the Reverend John Kerr, who was an eminent Baptist preacher of great eloquence; he represented the Lynchburg district, Virginia, in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congress. His son, the subject of our present sketch, was born on February 10th, 1811, in Pittsylvania County, Virginia. Educated at home and at Richmond, he read law with Judge Pearson. He was elected a member of the Thirty-third Congress from this district; and was the whig candidate for governor in 1854, but was defeated by Governor Reid. He represented Caswell County in the legislature in 1858 and 1860.

        During the civil war, he was employed in his professional and agricultural pursuits. When the war closed he suffered much tribulation and indignity at the hands of those who were attempting to reconstruct the state government. He and others were arrested by George W. Kirk.

        Upon his application for a writ of habeas corpus, I copy from the records the following:

        "Before Chief Justice Pearson, ex-parte John Kerr, at chambers in the rooms of the supreme court, August 2nd, 1870.

        "The counsel for the petitioner, upon the return of the marshal of the supreme court, and the communication from George W. Kirk being read, contended that Kirk's response to the service of the writ of habeas corpus upon him (that he held the prisoner under order of Governor Holden,) was insufficient upon several grounds, and that he ought to be attached for making it. The counsel, therefore, moved for a precept to have the body of the petitioner brought before the chief justice, &c."


        On this the chief justice delivered the following decision:

        "The motion is not allowed. I can say no more than I have already said. The power of the judiciary is exhausted. I have no posse commitatus. In this particular, my situation differs from that of Chief Justice Taney, in 'Merriman's case.' He had a posse commitatus at his command, but considered 'the power of judiciary exhausted.' He did not deem it his duty to command the marshal with a posse 'to storm a fort.' "


        The time has not yet come to comment upon all these circumstances, yet some of the recorded facts may be detailed for future reference. It was, indeed, a fearful epoch in our history when the lives and liberties of innocent and worthy citizens were exposed to the tender mercies of lawless power.

        That "the great writ of right" was powerless and exhausted in the state struck the whole country with dismay.

        It forcibly brought to mind the prophetic remarks of Lord Shelburne to Mr. Laurens, of South Carolina, once our envoy to Holland and President of Congress, who had been a prisoner in the Tower (1779) for some time; after his release, in an interview with England's Secretary of State, the following conversation occurred:


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        "I am sorry for your people," said Lord Shelburne, "that they have gained their independence." "Why so?" asked Mr. Laurens. "We English people gained it, by centuries of wrangling, years of battle and blood, and confirmed it by at least fifty acts of parliament," answered his lordship. "All this taught the nation its inestimable value, and it is so ingrained in their creed as to become the foundation of our liberty and no judge or party will ever dare to trample upon it. Your people will pick it up, and attempt to use it; but having cost them nothing, they will not know how to appreciate it. At the first internal feud you will have it trampled under foot by the lawless power of the majority; the people will permit it to be done, and away goes your boasted liberty."


        An application was then made to Judge Brooks, of the United States District Court, on August 25th, 1870, for a writ. This he caused to be issued against Kirk, "requiring him to bring before the court the prisoners detained in military custody."

        Governor Graham, Judge Merrimon, and R. H. Battle, jr., appeared for the petitioners, whilst the Attorney-General Olds, and Messrs. J. M. McCorkle and William H. Bailey, appeared for the defendant. On the return made to the writ, by Kirk, and after argument, the prisoners were released. No case had ever occurred that more excited the county. The course of Judge Brooks was commended, not only by public meetings in the state, but in Baltimore and elsewhere.

        On his return to his home in Elizabeth city, a perfect ovation by men of all parties awaited him. They expressed their "appreciation of his fidelity in enforcing the law." No conquering hero, returning from the field of victory, could have received such applause. It was the triumph of the law and of justice over misrule and oppression. (See sketch of Judge Brooks in Pasquotank County.) The sufferings and contumely thus endured by Judge Kerr excited the sincere sympathy of the country, and he was elected by the legislature, in 1874, to the bench of the superior courts, which distinguished post he held till his death.

        Judge Kerr had, in 1862, been appointed to a seat on the bench by the governor, (Clark,) but Judge Gilliam was elected by the legislature.

        Judge Kerr, in the palmy day of politics, gained much reputation as a skilful and eloquent debater; of a kind and social temperament, he was one who in the tilt and tournament of the political arena, so bore himself that "the opposer would beware of him." But the mellowing effect of age lessened this trait, and as a member of the Baptist church, he earned "gentle peace" and good will of all. He was an earnest advocate of education, one of the trustees of the university, and the president of the North Carolina Historical Society.

        He died on September 5th, 1879, at his home in Reidsville, after a lingering illness of several months.

        Connected with the memories of the past, it may not be improper to record the mysterious murder of John W. Stephens, of this county, which occurred May 21, 1870. Stephens was a native of Guilford County, born October, 1834; one of the disreputable waifs of circumstance whom the troubled waves of civil war brought to the surface. He was of low origin, of dissolute habits and disreputable character. He had been arraigned for petit larceny and other offenses. His mother was found murdered in his house in broad daylight, with her throat cut from ear to ear, and no one ever knew, nor did the coroner's jury decide, by whom or how the murder was done. Yet, this man was, in 1868, elected senator over the Honorable Bedford Brown; and appointed by the governor, he served as a justice of the peace, and was granted a license to practice law by Judge A. W. Tourgee.

        On Saturday, May 21st, 1870, a meeting of the conservative party of Caswell County was held in the court house at Yanceyville to


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nominate candidates for the legislature. Speeches were made by Samuel P. Hill, Bedford Brown, and others. A large number attended, among them was Stephens. At night he was missing, and search was made. The next morning, in one of the rooms in the basement of the court house, the dead body of Stephens was found. The jury of inquest reported "the death of John W. Stephens was caused by a small rope drawn around his neck in a noose, and by three stabs with a pocket knife, two in the throat, the other stab on the left of the breast bone, penetrating the cavity of the chest, inflicted by the hands of some persons unknown; of which wound the said John W. Stephens died, on May 21st, 1870, between the hours of four and seven o'clock, p. m." Various surmises have been made as to the persons and motives of this mysterious murder. But no positive evidence was elicited, and perhaps it is only when the secrets of all hearts are known, will the facts be ascertained.

CHAPTER XII.
CHATHAM COUNTY.

        THERE lived in this county during the revolutionary war, one of the most daring and desperate tories that those dangerous times produced, by the name of David Fanning. He was born about 1754, in Wake County, and in 1778 moved to Chatham. The occupation of Wilmington by the British troops afforded an opportunity for his nefarious depredations. One of the earliest sufferers was Charles Shearing, of Deep River, to whose house he went at night, and shot him dead as he fled. His energy and desperation were appreciated by the British authorities, and he was made colonel of the loyal militia, and Major Craig, at Wilmington, presented him with a uniform and pistols.

        One of his earliest successes was the capture of Colonel Philip Alston, at his house. In July, 1784, he entered Campbellton, now Fayetteville, and carried off Colonel Ennett, Captain Winslow, and others. On September 12th, following, he, with a troop, entered Hillsboro' and seized the Governor (Burke,) and other prominent whigs, and carried them to Wilmington as prison ers of war.

        I attempted, in the history of North Carolina, to give a brief sketch of this noted marauder under the head of Chatham County. Since writing this, I have been so fortunate as to find in manuscript, an auto-biography written by Fanning himself, which is very lengthy and minute; this has already been published. He was a refugee after the war closed, and died in St. Johns, Province of New Brunswick, in 1825.

        Charles Manly, born 1795, died 1871, late Governor of North Carolina, was a native of this county.

        His father, Basil Manly, was born and raised in St. Mary's County, Maryland. He removed to North Carolina before the revolution, and settled in Bladen County. He was a bold and active partizan officer, holding the commission of captain during that war.


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        He married Elizabeth Maultsby. On account of ill health, he removed to Chatham County, where he died in 1824, much respected for his high moral courage, and his inflexible integrity. Having had but a limited education himself, he felt its importance and advantages, and he devoted all the energies of an industrious and frugal life to the bestowal of its benefits on his sons. He lived to accomplish this cherished object of his life, and with his pious and exemplary wife, a woman of great mental endowments, to rejoice in the happy result of their joint efforts and prayers, the eminent success in life of their three distinguished sons, Charles Manly, Basil Manly, (who graduated at the South Carolina university, with the first honors of the institution, born 1798 died at Greenville, South Carolina, 1868,) and Matthias Evans Manly, of New Berne, late judge of the superior and of the supreme courts in this state, also elected senator in congress, but denied his seat.

        Charles Manly, the eldest son, was born in the County of Chatham, on May 13th, 1795. He was prepared for college by that excellent classical scholar, the late William Bingham, at the Pittsboro academy, and graduated at the university in 1814, with the first distinction in all his classes. In this class was Aaron V. Brown, of Tennessee, (member of congress, 1839 to 1843; Governor of Tennessee, 1844, and Postmaster-General of the United States, 1857;) Hons. James Graham, and John Hill, both in after life members of congress, and others.*

        * For much of this material, I am indebted to a biographical sketch by James M. Cleaveland.


        The treasurer of the state, the late John Haywood, attended this commencement, and was so attracted by the talents and proficiency of this young man, that he engaged him as a private tutor for his sons. This position was highly advantageous. For besides the advantages of enjoying the regard and society of Mr. Haywood, one of the most popular men at that time in the state, and an association with prominent and leading men, he was enabled to prosecute the study of the law without entrenching upon the narrow income of his father. He was admitted to the bar in 1816, and commenced the practice of law with great success.

        On the death of General Robert Williams, in whose office he read law, he was appointed his successor as treasurer of the board of trustees of the university, and in that capacity, for a series of years, rendered faithful and signal service to that venerable institution.

        In 1823, he was appointed, on the motion of John Stanley, the reading clerk of the House of Commons. The same year, (1823,) he was appointed clerk to the commission under the treaty of Ghent, to examine the claims of American citizens for slaves and other property taken by the British, during the war of 1812. Langdon Cheves, of South Carolina, and Henry Seawell, of North Carolina, were the American commissioners; George Jackson and John McTavish were the British commissioners. The board sat at Washington. This was a position most desirable and improving to a young man, affording a pass-port to the best society at the capital. But its duties interfered so much with his professional pursuits at home, that he soon resigned.

        The Alumni association of the university resolved to have an annual address at each commencement, and Mr. Manly delivered the first in 1838, which was most acceptable, and was considered a model of chaste and popular elocution.

        In 1830, he succeeded that fine specimen of "the old school gentlemen," Pleasant Henderson, as principal clerk of the House of Commons, and remained, by continuous elections in the same office, with one intermission, until 1848, when he was elected governor of the state. He had never been ambitious in political


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preferment. In 1840, he was elected an elector, and in the electoral college of that year, cast the vote of North Carolina for William H. Harrison and John Tyler. In 1844, he was defeated as senator for Wake, but he filled various other offices of confidence and trust with great credit to himself, and satisfaction to the state. Among these positions were director of the state bank, a commissioner to sell and collect the proceeds of the sale of Cherokee lands in the western part of the state, and treasurer of the university.

        In the campaign for governor in 1848, the election being by popular suffrage, he canvassed the whole state with great satisfaction to his friends, and with the respect of his opponents. He was elected by a handsome majority; inaugurated governor on January 1st, 1849, and served the constitutional term of two years. In 1850, he was again nominated by the whig convention was again opposed by that able and astute statesman, David S. Reid, and was defeated. Afterwards he retired to private life. With him, "the sceptre departed" from the whig party for a long time, for after Governor Reid, came Governors Bragg, Ellis, Clark and Vance.

        Governor Manly married in 1817, Charity, daughter of William H. Haywood, senior. By this marriage he became the brother-in-law of the late William H. Haywood, junior; senator in congress, (1843,) as also of E. B. Dudley, the first governor of the state under the amended constitution of 1835.

        As might naturally be supposed, the prominent positions he had held, especially his long connection with the young and rising generation at the university, and with those in active life in the legislature, as its principal clerk, and as governor, that he was extensively known to every man of prominence and distinction, especially those in the South. He was universally respected wherever known, and became a great favorite with his genial manners, and magnetic humor. No one was a better conversationalist, or more abounded in anecdote and reminiscences of men and times. His keen sense of the ridiculous, and his inimitable manner of narration, made him a welcome guest, and "his flashes of merriment were wont to set the table on a roar;" his wit was never used to wound, and left no sting behind. Fond of society, his house was the resort of friends who partook of his unstinted hospitality. To the call of misfortune his hand was ever open. As a counsellor he was an honest and safe one. Zealous in the interest of his client, and fair in argument, respectful to the bench, and kind and considerate to the members of the bar, especially to his younger brethren. But with all his other admirable traits of character, and above all, he was a christian gentleman. He was for years in full communion and membership of the Episcopal church; an admirer of its tenets, and a follower of its precepts.

        Such was Charles Manly. His latter days were darkened by the cloud of civil war, and the hand of disease. His substance was dispoiled, his farms ravaged by hostile hands, and his health prostrated. He died at Raleigh on May 1st, 1871. Like Wolsey


                         "-- Full of repentance,
                         Continued meditations, tears, and sorrows.
                         He gave his honors to the world again
                         His blessed part to Heaven, and slept in peace."

        Christopher Gale resided in Edenton and did such service in the defense of the colony that his name should be preserved.

        We regret that neither tradition or record affords much information as to his acts and services, and that the dust of time is fast obscuring the little information we possess, yet this should encourage others to rescue from oblivion his life and character.

        He was a native of England, born in Yorkshire, son of Miles Gale, rector of a church in Yorkshire. He came to America, and in 1709 was appointed receiver general, and in 1723 was appointed one of the council of Governor


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George Burrington, with Thomas Pollock, Francis Forster, John Lovick and others; when he was at the same time chief justice of the colony. In 1729, with Colonel John Lovick, Edward Mosely, and William Little, he was appointed one of the commissioners to run the line between North Carolina and Virginia; Colonel William Byrd, Richard Fitzwilliam and William Dandridge, being the commissioners for Virginia. The journal of these commissioners has been preserved and printed.*

        * See Westover Mss.


        William Little, chief justice, married a daughter of Judge Gale. He was active in resisting the attacks of the Tuscaroras, and went to South Carolina for aid, which was promptly furnished, and Colonel Moore was despatched with a sufficient force to subdue them.

        Christopher Gale died in Edenton, where he lies buried, and left a name that was never mentioned but with respect.*

        * Records from Board of Trade; University Magazine, volume V., 221.)


        Abram Rencher resides in Chatham County, but was born in Wake about 1804. He finished his education at the university where he graduated in 1822. In the same class was Bishop Davis, Washington Morrison, and others. He studied law with Judge Nash, at Hillsboro.

        He early engaged in political life. In 1829, he was a candidate for the state senate, and was defeated; but in the same year, a vacancy occuring in congress from this district, he became a candidate, with Judge Pearson and Burton Craige as opponents. This was a strife involving much intellectual power, and the great question as to the power of the government, and the rights of the state, and other topics, were argued by Pearson on the one side and Craige on the other, while Rencher circulated quietly among the people, and gained the votes. He was elected a member of the Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Congress, (1829 to 1839.) He was again elected to the Twenty-seventh Congress, (1841 to 1843.) This was a stormy period of our political history. Harrison died after being in the presidential chair one month, and Tyler succeeded. The friends of the party calculated on Tyler pursuing a course different from the line he had marked out. Mr. Clay and other leaders often assailed him with great bitterness. This was a fierce and violent contest. A very few of the old whigs stood firm, and so they were called "the corporal's guard." One of these was Mr. Rencher. After his term in congress had expired he was appointed, in 1843, charge de affaires to Portugal, where he remained four years.

        On his return home he took an active part in the election of Franklin Pierce, and was one of the electors of the state.

        He was made governor of the territory of New Mexico, by President Buchanan.

        John M. Mooring, speaker of the present house of representatives of the North Carolina legislature, (1879,) is a native of Chatham County, born March 11th, 1841. He was educated at Graham, and at the university, and would have graduated in the class of 1863 had not the civil war prevented. He joined the army as a private in company G, seventh regiment, and was sergeant-major at the surrender of Johnson at Greensboro, 1865. He studied law, and in 1872 elected member of the legislature, and re-elected in 1874, 1876 and 1878, when he was chosen speaker. He is a good speaker, and a laborious member. His even temper, genial disposition, and quick perception of points of order, render him an admirable presiding officer.


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CHAPTER XIII.
CHOWAN COUNTY.

        THIS county, in the earlier days of the state, was the residence of the Royal governors, and its capital town preserves the name of Charles Eden, who was governor under the Lord Proprietors, from 1713 to 1722. The administration of Eden was eminently prosperous. His grave is still to be seen on Salmon Creek, in Bertie County, and the marble bears the inscription that he governed the province for eight years; that he died March 26th, 1722, aged forty-nine years. During his administration a notorious pirate lived in North Carolina, and whose name is preserved by "Teach's Hole," near Ocracoke Inlet. Inasmuch as at this point he was in the habit of careening his vessel, the "Adventure," and it was here, at the head of only seventeen men, he met the Virginia naval expedition sent out for his capture, of whom he killed and wounded thirty before he fell--gallantry and conduct worthy of a better cause! The reputation of Governor Eden suffered by a supposed intimacy with Teach, and he was compelled to lay before the council an account of his conduct.

        I copy from a very scarce work, "A General History of the Pirates from their first rise and settlement to the present time," by Charles Johnson, fourth edition: London 1726, referred to in Waldic's select circulating library, Philadelphia, 1883, I., 123:

        "Edward Teach, better known as 'Blackbeard,' was born in Bristol, England. He was engaged as a private sailor till 1716, when a Captain Hornsgold, a noted pirate, placed him in command of a sloop which he had made prize of. They sailed together for the American coast, capturing many ships and plundering them. After various cruises they were shipwrecked on the coast of North Carolina. Teach hearing of a proclamation by which pirates who surrendered were to be pardoned, went with twenty of his men to the governor of the state, and received certificates of pardon from him. But it does not appear that their submission was from any reformation, but rather to gain time and opportunity for a renewal of their nefarious deeds. Teach had succeeded in cultivating the kind offices of the governor, and soon after brought in, as a prize, a merchant ship, which the vice-admiralty court of the province awarded as a lawful prize to Teach. In June, 1718, he sailed for the Bermudas, and took many ships on his voyage, among them two French ships, one was loaded with sugar and cocoa, and the other in ballast; the latter with both crews he released, and the other he brought to North Carolina. Teach and his officers claimed them as lawful prizes, and made affidavits that they found the prize at sea without a soul on board, and the court condemned her. The governor (Eden,) received sixty hogsheads of sugar for his part, Mr. Knight, his secretary, one, and the collector of the province twenty.

        "Thus countenanced and protected, Teach became most daring, desperate and dangerous. He infested the whole coast, particularly the waters of Delaware, Virginia, and the Carolinas. In November, 1718, Governor Spottswood, of Virginia, offered a reward of £100 for Teach, dead or alive.

        "On the 17th of the same month, Lieutenant Maynard sailed from Kicquetan, on the James river, in search of Blackbeard. On the 31st, at the mouth of Ocracoke Inlet, he came in sight of the pirate. Blackbeard had been advised of this movement by a letter from Mr. Knight, Governor Eden's secretary. He immediately prepared for a desperate resistance. A terrible conflict ensued in which Blackbeard was slain, fighting with great fury and desperation. Maynard sailed up to Bath with the head of the pirate nailed to the bowsprit of his vessel. A letter was found in the pocket of the dead pirate from Knight, dated November 17th, 1717, a copy of which is preserved in Williamson's History of North Carolina. When the lieutenant came to Bath town he seized the sugar that the governor and his secretary had received from Teach.


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The statement goes on to say 'that the governor, apprehensive that he might be called to account, became ill of a fright and died in a few days.' "


        In an autobiographical sketch of Benjamin Franklin, he says that at a very early age (about fourteen,) he took a strange fancy for poetry, and composed several pieces, among them were two ballads, one called the "Lighthouse Tragedy," which contained an account of the shipwreck of Captain Worthilake and his two daughters, the other was a sailor's song on the capture of the noted pirate called Teach or Blackbeard. When they had been printed, Franklin's brother sent him around the town to sell them. They had a prodigious success, as the first event was then recent, and created much excitement.

        Following the sound advice of his father this great philosopher escaped the misfortune of being a poor poet, for the success of these two ballads had greatly elated his young mind, and but little encouragement was needed to set him permanently to verse making.

        It is due to the truth of history to say that there was no evidence to implicate Governor Eden in the nefarious transactions of Teach. As to the statement "that he was so apprehensive, an was so frightened, that he died in a few days," is grossly in error, for this was in 1717, and Governor Eden, as appears by the date on his tombstone, died five years afterwards.

        Tradition points to Holliday's Island, in the Chowan river, as one of Blackbeard's haunts, and the mouth of Potecasi Creek, where it enters the mouth of the Meherrin river, as the point where he buried his spoils.

        The people of this section were, in the revolution, the firm friends of independence, and the determined foes to oppression. The North Carolina Gazette, of February 24th, 1775, contains the proceedings of the Committee of Safety for the town of Edenton, on February 4th, 1775, showing this spirit. The committee were Robert Hardy, (chairman,) Joseph Hewes, Robert Smith, Jasper Charlton, John Rembough, William Bennet, Charles Bonfield, Thomas Jones, and John Green.*

        * Colonial Records in Rolls Office, copied by me.


        Even the members of the Episcopal church, who have been charged by some as being opposed to independence, were firm and open against the oppressions of the British Government, and resolved to stand by the Continental Congress.

        We present a record from the proceedings of the vestry of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, at Edenton, copied by the kindness of Major Henry A. Gilliam, now of Raleigh:

        "We, the undersigned, professing our allegiance to the King, and acknowledging the constitutional executive power of the government, do solemnly profess and declare, that we do absolutely believe that neither the Parliament of Great Britain, nor any member, or constituent branch thereof, have a right to impose taxes upon these colonies to regulate the internal policy thereof; and that all attempts by fraud or force to establish and exercise such claims and powers are violations of the peace and the security of the people, and ought to be resisted to the utmost; and that the people of this province, singly and collectively, are bound by the acts and resolutions of the Continental and Provincial Congress, because in both they are fully represented by persons chosen by themselves. And we do solemnly and sincerely promise and engage, under the sanctions of virtue, honor, and the sacred love of liberty and our country, to maintain and support all the acts and resolutions of the said Continental and Provincial Congress to the utmost of our power and ability.

        "In testimony whereof, we have hereunto set our hands, this 19th day of June, 1775.

        "Richard Hoskens, Wm. Boyd, David Rice, Thomas Benbury,*

        * Thomas Benbury was speaker in 1778 to 1784.


Aaron Hill, Jacob Hunter, Pelatiah Walton, John Beasely, William Hinton, William Bennet, Thomas Bonner, William Roberts."


        These names are doubtless familiar with


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many yet residing in Edenton. How proud may they be of so glowing a record!

        The patriotism of the men was equalled by the self denial of the women.

        There was brought from Gibraltar, many years ago, a lovely painting of "a meeting of the ladies of Edenton destroying the tea, their favorite beverage, when taxed by the English Parliament." I saw this picture in the hands of Mr. Manning in 1830.

        The following record is from Force's American Archives:

        "As we cannot be indifferent on any occasion that affects the peace and happiness of our county, and as it has been thought necessary for the public good to enter into several particular resolves by a meeting of the deputies of the whole province, it is a duty we owe, not only to ourselves, but to our near and dear relations, to do everything as far as lies in our power to testify to our sincere adherence to the same; we, therefore, do subscribe this paper as a witness to our fixed intention and solemn determination."


        Signed by fifty-six ladies of Edenton, North Carolina, October 25th, 1774.

        There are but few sections of the states in in which have resided men more illustrious for ability, or who have written their names more indelibly in the history of their country.

        Among the first of these is Samuel Johnston; born 1733, died 1816. He was a native of Dundee, Scotland, the son of John Johnston and Helen Serymsour. His father in 1736, followed Gabriel Johnston, who was his brother, and who was in 1834 the governor of the province of North Carolina, and after whom Johnstone County is called. He died July 17th, 1752.

        He was a Scotchman by birth, a man of liberal views, and a physician by profession. He married Penelope, the only child of Governor Eden, and his grandson, William Johnstone Dawson, distinguished for his acquirements and talents, in 1793 represented the Edenton district in congress, and with Willie Jones, Joseph McDowell, Thomas Blount and James Martin, was on the committee in 1791 to fix a permanent place for the seat of government. He died in 1798; an event universally regretted.

        John, his brother, was appointed surveyor-general of the province, and settled in Onslow County, whilst the subject of this sketch was yet an infant. His advantages of education were the best the country afforded. He studied law in Edenton, under Thomas Barker, and resided at Hays, near Edenton. When only nineteen he was appointed one of the clerks of the superior court for the district, and afterwards deputy naval officer for the port.

        Although holding this position, he was the ardent and unflinching advocate of the rights of the people.

        In 1773, he was appointed with Caswell, Harnett and Hooper a committee of correspondence with the other colonies on the subject of the conduct of England towards the colonies.

        In a dispatch from Governor Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth, of September 1st, 1774, he thus speaks of the influence and the character of Mr. Johnston:

        "I have known the general assembly to sacrifice everything to a faction.

        "Four of them, namely Currituck, Perquimons, Pasquotank and Chowan, send each five members; Tyrell, Bertie and Martin send eight, besides one for Edenton. These are always led by a man or two. They are now absolutely under the guidance of a Mr. Johnstone, who is deputy naval officer, and was one of the clerks of the superior courts while they existed in the province, who, under the prejudices of a New England education, is by no means a friend of the government, having taken a foremost part in all the late opposition, joined with the Southern interest, which at present supports a Mr. Ashe.

        "Your lordship will not be surprised to hear that the people of this province have followed the example of the rest of the continent in


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caballing and forming resolutions against the measures of the Government."*

        * Colonial Documents, Rolls Office, p. 184.



        As was to be expected, Governor Martin suspended Mr. Johnston from office, which drew from him the following dignified letter, now on file in the Rolls Office in London:

"EDENTON, November 16th, 1775.

        "SIR: I have this day had the honor of receiving your excellency's letter, signifying that you had been pleased to suspend me from acting as deputy to Mr. Turner, in the Naval office, with the reasons for such removal, and it gives me pleasure that I do not find neglect of the duties of my office in the catalogue of my crimes; at the same time I hold myself obliged to you for the polite manner in which you are pleased to express yourself of my private character. You will pardon me for saying that I had reason to complain of the invidious point of view in which you place my public transactions, when you state that 'the late meeting of the inhabitants of this province at Hillsboro, was a body of my own creation.'

        "Your excellency cannot be ignorant that I was a mere instrument on this occasion, under the direction of the people; a people among whom I have long resided, who have on all occasions placed the greatest confidence in me, and to whom I am bound by gratitude (that powerful and inviolate tie in every honest mind,) to render any service they can demand of me, in defense of what they esteem their rights, at the risk of my life and property.

        "You will further, sir, be pleased to understand, that I never considered myself in that honorable light in which you place me--'one of the King's servants,' being entirely unknown to those who have the disposal of the King's favors. I never enjoyed, nor had I right to expect, any office under His Majesty. The office I held, and for some years exercised under the deputation of Mr. Turner, was an honest purchase for which I paid punctually an annual sum, and which I shall continue to pay until the expiration of the term for which I would have held it, agreeably to our contract.

        "Permit me, sir, to add that had all the King's servants in this province been as well informed as to the disposition of the inhabitants, as they might have been, or taken the same pains to promote peace, good order, and obedience to the laws, that I flatter myself I have done, the source of your excellency's unceasing lamentations had never existed; or had it existed, it would have been in so small a degree that e'er this it would have been nearly exhausted.

        "But, sir, a recapitulation of past errors, which it is now too late to correct, would be painful to me, and might appear impertinent to you; I shall therefore decline the ungracious task, and by and with all due respect, subscribe myself,

"Your excellency's most
"obedient, humble servant,

"SAMUEL JOHNSTONE."


        He was a member from Chowan in 1775, to the provincial congress of the state, and succeeded, on the death of John Harvey, as moderator or president.

        He was present at Halifax at the formation of the constitution in November, 1776, and although not a member, afforded all the aid of his experience and ability to develope the conservative features of that instrument. To many of the principles adopted, he was opposed, fearing the departure from the forms long established and practiced was too great to be useful.

        In 1780 to 1782, he was a member of the Continental Congress.*

        * While a member of the Continental Congress he was elected to the high honor of president of that body; but he was compelled to forego this distinction because of the condition of his finances. This compelled his return to North Carolina, and he had thus to forego what was then the highest civil function in America--Journal of Continental Congress.


In 1787, he was elected governor of the state. He was an ardent and enthusiastic admirer of the constitution of the United States, and presided at the convention. held July 21st, 1788, to consider that instrument, but it was rejected by that body. In 1779, he and Benjamin Hawkins were elected the first senators from North Carolina in the Congress of the United States: here they served till 1793.

        In February, 1800, he was appointed one of the judges of the superior courts of law and equity, which he resigned in November, 1803 He died in 1816.


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        Governor Johnston was mentally and physically "every inch a man." His intellect was of the highest order, cultivated by learning and experience. His person was imposing, of a large and powerful frame, erect and stately in his carriage, and of iron will. He joined the graces of the scholar with the wisdom of the statesman.*

        * University Magazine, VIII., 1.


        He was a devoted advocate of masonry, and was in 1788, grand master of the order in the state.*

        * "In the lodge room at Edenton," says Mr. Banks in the Observer, there is a remarkable chair of heavy mahogany, carved with all the emblems of masonry, with the words, "virtute et silento." This chair is the one which General Washington occupied at Williamsburg. Va., and was deposited here during the revolutionary war for safety. It is a venerable relic, and possesses the reverence and regard of all masons."


        He married Frances Cathcart, and had issue, among them James C. Johnston, who lived near Edenton, and died during the war between the states, about 1864, one of the wealthiest men of the state. He was so decidedly opposed to secession that he disinherited all his relatives, because they identified themselves with this war, and left his property, amounting to many millions, to his personal friends. At the outbreak of the war he freed his slaves. He was a great admirer of Henry Clay, whose debts, to a large amount, Mr. Johnston discharged without Mr. Clay's knowledge; nor was Mr. Clay ever able to ascertain who was his benefactor. His will was contested by his legal heirs, on the ground of his being non compos mentis.

        About this time John Johnston, who had, in 1787, 1788, 1789, represented Bertie County in the senate, became a citizen of Hertford County. He had married Betsey Cotten, daughter of Godwin Cotten, of Mulberry Grove, and resided near there. He was of the same name and nephew of Governor Johnston, of Chowan.

        He was a man of high culture, but died too young to attain the traditional prominence and usefulness of his family.

        He left two children, Reverend Samuel J. Johnston, D.D., for years rector of St. Paul's, Edenton, and Sallie Anne, who married James D. Wynns. Esther Cotten, the only other child of Godwin Cotten, married in 1804 James Wright Moore, of Virginia. He was the son of Captain William Edward Moore, and was noted for his manly and noble presence, and his devotion to field sports. He, too, died early, leaving one son, Dr. Godwin C. Moore, and two daughters, Emeline, who married first, Dr. N. W. Fletcher, of Virginia; her second husband was Mr. LeVert, of Alabama, and Sarah Matilda, married to Turner P. Westray, of Nash, since dead.

        The genealogy of the Johnston family:

        John Johnston, brother to Gabriel Johnston, Governor North Carolina 1734, married Helen Scrymsour, and had seven children. I. Samuel. II. John, married Miss Williams and had the following children: (a) John, married Cotton, of Hertford County; (b) Samuel Iredell, university class 1826, rector of St. Paul's, Edenton; (c) Sally Ann, married to J. D. Wynns; (d) Elizabeth, married to Philip Alston had six children, and (e) Anne, married to Hunter, no issue.

        III. Penelope, married to Parson Stuart, no issue. IV. Jane, married to George Blair, and had (a) Helen, married to Tredwell, had four children; (b) William; (c) Margaret, married first to Dr. Hormer, and second to Mr. Sawyer, and had seven children; (d) Samuel, and (e) George, married Miss King, member of legislature in 1829.

        V. Anne died unmarried. VI. Isabella died unmarried. VII. Hannah, married to James Iredell, (Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, born 1750, died 1799,) and had four children: (a) Thomas; (b) Annie; (c) Helen, and (d) James, born 1788, Governor of North Carolina 1827, United States Senator 1828, died 1853, leaving issue.

        It is stated that this family is a branch of


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the house of Annandale of Scotland. An illusion is made in McRee's "Life and Correspondence of James Iredell," to the dormant claim to the Marquisite of Annandale, as existing in the Johnston family of North Carolina--nor is this claim a myth.

        From a work on genealogy, reliable and valuable, (the Peerage of Scotland, containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom from their origin to the present generation, by Sir Robert Douglas, in quarto, 1813,) I extract the following:

        "George, third Marquis of Annandale, died April 29th, 1792. He left an estate of £415,000. It is understood that the title devolved on James, (third Earl of Hopetown,) who, however, did not assume the title but took the name of Johnstone in addition to that of Hope. It has not been determined whether the title of the Marquis of Annandale has become extinct, or devolves on the heir male general of the family, or who is such heir male general.

        "The motto of the family is 'Nunquam non paratus.'--Vol. I., 77.

        "The Johnstones were a race of brave and warlike men, of great power and authority on the borders."--Vol. I., 70.


        From Family Romance; or, Episodes in the Domestic Annals of the Aristocracy of Great Britain. A work by Sir Bernard Burke, author of the Peerage, &c., fourth edition: London, 1876:

        "Margaret, Lady Ogilvy, (wife of David, Lord Ogilvy and daughter of Sir James Johnstone,) Third Baronet of Westerhall and Dame Barbara Murray, was one of the keenest supporters of the unfortunate Prince Charles Edward, when he raised his standard in Scotland in 1744.

        "When the fortunes of Charles approached its close, Lord Ogilvy was unwilling to continue his support, and as the only way of securing her husband's attendance at the battle of Culloden, Lady Ogilvy rode herself with him at the head of the clan to the battle field, she was beautiful and graceful, and an admirable rider. At the close of the day, her husband rode breathless up to her, and told her 'the battle was lost.' He escaped to France, where he entered the army, and attained the high rank of Lieutenant-General under Napoleon. Lady Ogilvy was taken prisoner, tried, convicted, and sentenced to be executed in Edinburgh. She made her escape, by a fearless stratagem, to France, where she joined her husband; there she died at the early age of thirty-three. She left one son, David, who died without issue, and one daughter who married Sir John Wedderburn, heir of the House of Airlie.

        "She had several talented, distinguished and fortunate brothers. Her second brother, William, married Miss Pulteney, daughter of Daniel Pulteney, sole heiress of the Earl of Bath. In consequence of succeeding to her immense fortune Mr. Johnstone assumed the name of Pulteney. He became Fifth Baronet and claimant of the Marquisate of Annandale on the death of his eldest brother. Her only daughter was created Countess of Bath, died without issue. Her vast estates were inherited by her maternal relatives; the Duke of Cleveland, and Sir Richard Sutton; Sir William Johnstone Pulteney, heir in the Westerhall estate, the American possessions, and the claimant to the Marquisate of Annandale is Sir Frederick, the Eighth Baronet, great grand son of the third son of Sir James and Dame Barbara.

        "Sir James's fourth son, John, went to India, made a fortune, and returned home, where he purchased large estates in his native country. Alva, in the County of Clackmannan, and the Hanging Show, in the County of Selkirk. The family of Mr. Johnstone's only son are numerous and prosperous." Many of them emigrated to America; pp. 168 to 173.


        Some members of this family were engaged in our late internicine war, and fell in battle.

        Although it is unquestionable as stated by Whitman in his work on "American Genealogy," that any given family in our country, claiming to be descended from any distinguished English family of the same name is doubtful, and such claims should be severely scrutinized; yet enough has been shown from the English authorities of unquestioned reliability, that the claim of the Johnston family in North Carolina to the title of the Marquisate of Annandale of Scotland has some


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foundation, and might reward the descendants in prosecuting the claim.

        Joseph Hewes, born 1735, died 1779, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence of July 4th, 1776, from North Carolina, was long a resident of Edenton. He was a native of New Jersey, and a merchant.

        He was a member of the Colonial Congress at New Berne in 1774, and in Hillsboro in 1775; often a member of the House of Commons, and a member of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, 1774 to 1777, and 1779 to 1780.

        He died while in Congress at Philadelphia, on November 10th, 1779. He left a large fortune but no children to inherit it. He was possessing in person, and of great amenity of manners. His original miniature, beautifully executed, now in the possession of Miss Iredell, at Charlotte, shows that he was very handsome and of amiable countenance.

        Mr. Hewes was a man of exquisite delicacy and refinement; he had been the accepted suitor of Isabella, the sister of Samuel Johnston. She died just previous to her nuptials, and he soon followed her to the grave.*

        * Moore's Historical Sketches of Hertford County, XI., 556.


        It is not very complimentary to our state pride that neither one of the signers of the Declaration, as delegates from the state, were native sons of North Carolina. William Hooper was a Boston man, Hewes, a New Jersey man, and John Penn, a Virginian.

        Hugh Williamson, born 1735, died 1819, one of the signers of the Constitution of the United States, from North Carolina, resided for a long time in Edenton.

        He was a native of Pennsylvania, born December 5th, 1735, at Nottingham, a physician by profession.

        He represented the town in 1782, and the County of Chowan in 1785, in the legislature. In 1782, he was elected by the Provincial Congress of North Carolina, a member of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, and served till 1785, and again in 1787-'88. In 1787 he, with William Blount and Richard Dobbs Spaight, was delegate to the convention which formed the Constitution of the United States, and their names are appended to that immortal instrument.

        From his advocacy of the constitution, which was not accepted by North Carolina, he lost much popularity. But this was but momentary, for he represented the Edenton district in the First and Second Congress in the House of Representatives, (1789 to 1793.)

        He served his country faithfully at home and abroad; was appointed at the head of the medical staff, by Governor Caswell and was with him at the battle of Camden, 1780. He was literary in his tastes, and wrote (1812) a History of North Carolina. He died suddenly in New York, (where he had removed and where he had married,) on May 22d, 1819.

        Stephen Cabarrus, born 1754, died 1808, represented Edenton in the legislature from 1784 to 1787, and the county from 1788 to 1805, with some intermission, and was an acceptable speaker of the House of Commons from 1800 to 1805; from him Cabarrus County derives its name. He resided and died at Pembroke, near Edenton.

        He was a native of France, and possessed the usual great wit and vivacity of his countrymen. That he was popular is shown from the repeated elections of the people, and that he was a useful member is evident by his long service as speaker. He lies buried at Pembroke, a large marble slat marks the spot of his last resting place. It is thus inscribed:


                         "In memory of Stephen Cabarrus, who departed this life on the 4th of August, 1808, aged fifty-four years."

        Honorable Charles Johnson was a useful and distinguished citizen of Chowan County. He often represented the county in the senate, (1781 to '92,) and in 1782, 1789, was speaker of the senate. He represented the district in


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the Seventh Congress of the United States in 1801; he died in congress in 1802. His son, Charles E. Johnson, represented this county frequently in the senate, 1817,-'19,-20, whose son, Dr. Charles Johnson, was surgeon-general of the state in the civil war, and who lived and died in Raleigh.

        Thomas Benbury an early and active friend to the cause of the people--one of the Committee of Safety in 1775, was also a citizen of Chowan. He often represented the county in the legislature as early as 1774, and continued till 1781. He was speaker of the house in 1778,-'79,-'80,-'82. At one time Chowan County had her sons speakers of both houses of the assembly. One of his descendants represented Chowan County in the legislature in 1862,-'64, with George M. L. Eure as colleague in the senate.

        James Iredell, born 1750, died 1799, one of the associate justices of the supreme court of the United States, resided in Edenton. He was a native of England.

        His father was a prosperous merchant at Bristol, eldest son of Francis Iredell, born at Lewes, in Sussex County, on October 5th, 1751.

        He came to North Carolina in the fall of 1768, when only seventeen years old, and held the office of deputy of the port of Edenton under his relative Henry Eustace McCullock. He was afterwards appointed collector, February 17th, 1774, by the Crown. He studied law, under Governor Samuel Johnston, whose sister, Hannah, he married July 10th, 1773.

        He was licensed December 14th, 1770, and soon rose to eminence in his profession. In 1777, he was elected one of the judges of the superior courts, which he resigned in 1777. In July following he was made attorney general by Governor Caswell. In 1788, he was a member of the convention that met at Hillsboro to deliberate on the Constitution of the United States, and was the able, but unsuccessful, advocate of its adoption.

        In February, 1790, he was appointed by General Washington, one of the justices of the supreme court of the United States.

        Full of years and honors he died at Edenton, October 20th, 1799.

        His name has been indelibly written on the history of the state, by calling after his name one of the most lovely counties of the state.

        Judge Iredell was, as expressed by Chief Justice Marshall in a letter to Judge Murphy, (October, 1827,) a man of talents, and of great professional worth.

        He left two daughters and one son: his death was hastened by his severe labors in riding the southern circuit.

        "Repeatedly," says McCree in his biography, "did this devoted public servant, in his stick gig, traverse the wide and weary distances between Philadelphia and Savannah." "The life and correspondence of Judge Iredell, by Griffith J. McCree," gives a full and accurate account of his character and services. This is the best work extract on North Carolina biography.

        James Iredell, junior, born 1788 died 1853, son of Judge Iredell, was born, lived and died in Edenton. He was liberally educated, a graduate of Princeton in 1806, and studied law. Both in his legal pursuits and in political life he attained great eminence.

        In the war of 1812, he raised a company of volunteers and became its captain. His associate and life long friend, Gavin Hogg, was one of the lieutenants. He marched with his company to Craney Island, near Norfolk, and aided in its defense against the British. After the war he returned to his profession, of which he was a distinguished member. He entered public life in 1816 as a member from the town of Edenton; (in 1817 and 1818 he was speaker.) He was returned to the legislature for many years. In March, 1819, he was appointed a judge of the superior courts of law and equity, which, in the May following, he resigned. In


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1827, he was elected Governor of the State of North Carolina, and the next year was elected a Senator in Congress, succeeding Nathaniel Macon. He was succeeded by Judge Mangum as senator in congress.

        After leaving the senate, where he was loved by his associates, and esteemed by the nation, he retired to the practice of his profession, which the support of a young and increasing family demanded. He was for a time the able and accurate reporter of the decisions of the supreme court, which are regarded by the profession as models of their kind, and authority in all the courts of the country.

        Few men who knew Governor Iredell that did not esteem him; and to his intimate friends he was an especial favorite. Even in the heat of political contests, he never forgot the courtesy of life, or the dignity of a gentleman. His social habits affected much of his usefulness.

        He married a daughter of Samuel Treadwell, collector of Edenton, by whom he had an interesting and numerous family. One of his daughters married Cadwallader Jones, now of South Carolina; another Griffith McRee, of Wilmington; another Dr. Charles E. Johnson, and another Honorable W. M. Shipp of Charlotte.

        Governor Iredell died in Edenton on April 13th, 1853.

        Dr. James Norcum, one of the most skillful and successful physicians of the county, was born and lived and died in Chowan County.

        He was born in 1778, educated at the academy in Edenton, and studied his profession under Dr. Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia, where he graduated in his twentieth year, under such medical celebrities as Rush, Wistar, Shippen and others. He returned home, and by his skill and learning soon obtained an extensive practice. So extensive that he was often sent for in consultation from a distance of more than one hundred miles. His field of practice embraced the counties of Chowan, Perquimons, Parquotank, Camden, Bertie, Hertford and Martin. But this large and lucrative practice he was compelled to abandon on account of his health. Apprehensive of the consumption, he repaired to Philadelphia, and consulted Dr. Rush, who prescribed a long sea voyage. This advice was followed and for three years he was absent, visiting Calcutta and other regions. He returned in restored health, and resumed his practice at Edenton. Here he continued until his death. He was appointed surgeon in the army, which he soon declined. He was one of the first men of his profession. He wrote much on medical subjects, but only a few of his works have been published. Among them were articles on Tetanus, epidemic of 1816, on cholera, on scarlatina and on endemic fall and summer fever. He was a public spirited citizen and christian patriot.*

        * From a memoir of Dr. Norcum by Dr. S. S. Satchell, 1852,


        Gavin Hogg was born in Orange County and was distinguished as an advocate. He commenced the practice of the law in Bertie County, and removed to Raleigh, where he lived for a long time, and where he died. He had few equals and no superiors as a lawyer. His family was distinguished in the revolution. Governor Martin, the last of the Royal Governors, in a dispatch states: "The council have maintained their loyalty, especially Andrew Miller, John Hogg, and John Curden."*

        * Colonial Documents, 225.


        Writing of Gavin Hogg, the Economist (December 31st, 1878,) says "that Windsor was the starting place of his professional career, where he entered the legal arena, where he attained fame and fortune; he was a great lawyer but had no social affinities. He was stern and austere. The people respected him for his talents but never loved him as a friend. His learning and acumen gave him great power and influence His argument in the


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case of Gregory against Hooker's administrator, is said to be one of the ablest among the reports of the supreme court, and when he retired from the bar he left no superior.

        Joseph Blount Skinner, born 1780, died 1851, distinguished as a lawyer and statesman, lived and died in Edenton. He was the eldest child of Joshua and Martha Skinner, of Harvey's Neck. After spending some time at Princeton college, he read law under Governor Samuel Johnston, and attained distinction at the bar; so lucrative was his practice that in a few years he was the leading counsel in every case of importance in his circuit, and found himself possessed of ample competency. After the labors of more than twenty years, he retired from the bar to the more congenial pursuits of agriculture; he purchased a farm near Edenton where he lived and died. In this, as in his profession, he was eminently successful. He was a model farmer, and caused the waste places in that section to rejoice and blossom as the rose. His large farm became the admiration of all in that section--beautiful beyond any other in our state. In other pursuits he was equally successful and enterprising. He gave the first impulse in this section to that valuable industry, the herring and shad fisheries. Hitherto the fisheries had been confined to the Roanoke and Chowan rivers, and their tributaries. They were few in number and small in extent. Mr. Skinner, with his characteristic energy, ventured on the experiment, then deemed visionary and impracticable, and boldly launched his seines on the broad and oft vexed Albemarle itself, and succeeded beyond his own expectations. His example has been followed; previously the spring catch was confined to float nets and weirs, now the northern shore of the sound is literally studded with fisheries, and there are numerous seines 2,000 yards long, worked by windlass and horse power, creating a large industry, and adding annually hundreds of thousands of dollars to the wealth of this section.

        Such a man may emphatically be styled a public benefactor; the people of Chowan recognized his merits. In 1805 and 1807, he was elected a member of the legislature, and again in 1814 and 1815. He was a member of the convention in 1835 -- the most distinguished body of men ever assembled in the state.

        His course and position in the public councils have thus been described by his friend, Judge Nash: "His mind and character placed him among the ablest men of the legislature--and there were many of the highest range of intellect. Eminently practical, he brought to the discussions in that body a fund of knowledge and facts, and was always listened to with profound attention."

        He died on December 23d, 1851. He married in early life Miss Lowther, the great grand daugher of Governor Gabriel Johnston, who died several years before him, leaving an only son and a grandaughter. This son, Major Tristam Lowther Skinner, fell in the battle of Ellison's Mill. He had several brothers, Reverend Dr. Thomas H. Skinner distinguished as a Presbyterian divine, and Charles W. Skinner.

        Thomas J. Jarvis was born in this county, July 18th, 1836, and graduated at Randolph, Macon; he studied law and obtained his license to practice. During the war between the states he served as Captain in the Eighth Regiment of North Carolina troops. In the constitutional convention of 1865, he served as a member, as also in the lower branch of the legislature in 1868, in 1870 he was elected speaker of that body. Removing to Pitt, he was chosen a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1875. In 1876 he was elected lieutenant governor of the state for four years, 1877 to 1881, but on the election of Governor Z. B. Vance to the United States


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Senate in 1879, he became the occupant of the Executive Chair, and in 1880, by the suffrages of his people, became their chief magistrate for four years.

        Augustus Moore, born 1803, died 1851, lived and died in Edenton. He graduated at the university in 1824, in a class distinguished for ability, composed of B. B. Blume, John Bragg, (member of congress from Alabama 1851, and a judge in that state,) James W. Bryan, Matthias E. Manly, (judge of the supreme court of North Carolina,) David Outlaw, (member of congress 1747 to 1853,) and others; studied law with Charles R. Kinny, of Elizabeth City, and practiced with great success.

        As an advocate, he had no superior for learning, diligence, accumen, or address. He was appointed judge of the superior court in 1848, and presided with great acceptability, learning, and integrity, but resigned the same year. He died very suddenly at Edenton, in 1851.

        He married Miss Armistead and left several children. One of them, William Armistead Moore, late one of the judges of the state, and who wore with equal dignity and ability the ermine of his illustrious father.

        William Allen, a representative in congress from Ohio, 1832, senator from 1837 to 1849, and Governor of Ohio in 1874, was born in Edenton, in 1806.

        He was the son of Nathaniel Allen, who represented the borough in the House of Commons, in 1802, and was much esteemed for his genial qualities and generous disposition. He married a Miss Granbury, and their daughter married Mr. Thurman, a Methodist minister, and was the mother of Allen Granbury Thurman, late a distinguished senator from Ohio, and president of the senate.

        As a statesman and politician, Governor Allen enjoyed a world wide reputation, and North Carolina is proud of her son. He died July, 1879, universally loved and respected.

        We might extend our sketches by recording the character, and services of other distinguished men of Chowan County, "who have done the state some service," as the Johnsons, Benburys, Coffields, Brownriggs, Haskens, Warrens, Heaths, and others, did the limits of our work allow. But before we close our sketch we cannot refrain from presenting an amusing incident, which, by its humor, may relieve the dry detail imposed on our kind readers. The account is from the gifted pen of "Traveller." "I will close my letter by relating a true story of one of Edenton's gifted sons, Dr. Edward Warren, surgeon-general of the state during the war, and who has been serving a foreign power, and now resides in Paris. General Winfield Scott accepted an invitation to visit Nag's Head, on one occasion, Dr. Warren (than whom there are few better speakers,) was elected to make the reception address. As General Scott's coming was doubtful, it was understood that if General Scott was on board, it was to be made known by raising a flag on the boat when a short distance from the wharf at Nag's Head, when the salute would commence. The immense crowd on the boat at Blackwater, and business caused General Scott to return to Norfolk, and the steamer went on without him. Before reaching Nag's Head, it was suggested, and determined "to play a trick on the boys." Colonel John B. Odem, late of Northampton County, now of Baltimore, the only living man in America who not only equalled, but surpassed General Scott in person, air, and figure was selected to personate ad interim the hero of Lundy's Lane. General Lawrence S. Baker, who was also along, kindly furnished a new uniform, epaulettes, chapeau, sword, sash, &c., to which chapeau was appended a flaming plume of red feathers. He "looked every inch a King." Colonel Odem was squeezed in the uniform, for he was "a world too large" for the war clothes of General Baker. He played his


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part to perfection, with folded arms he was stationed near the pilot house and received "the upturned sea of faces" with the dignity of a hero. As the boat neared the wharf the flag was raised, loud cheers followed, and cannon after cannon rung out a cordial welcome. When the boat gained the wharf, Colonel Odem took off his chapeau and made a graceful and dignified bow. Then Dr. Warren mounted a barrel on the wharf, and with a loud voice commenced; "General Scott, we welcome you to North Carolina! We hail you with delight and glory, as the hero of Chippewa, Cerro Gordo, Lundy's Lane, and Mexico, the greatest living representative of the warrior, and the hero of two glorious wars. Like our Washington, without a model and without an equal, 'none but thyself can be thy parallel.' " He thus continued for ten minutes, making one of the most beautiful reception speeches, which captivated his audience. They expressed their admiration by loud and continued cheers. Now for General Scott. Colonel Odem, who stammers a little at times, and was evidently overcome, replied as follows:

        "Gent-gentle-men; if, if, I, I, were Gen-General Scott; (which he pronounced Scart, with a slight hiss,) I would make you a speech-a speech. But I am not General Scart, Scart, I am only John B. Odem,-John B. Odem; and I shan't do it."

        "The crowd were furious, and madness ruled the hour; some were for throwing him overboard, uniform, feathers and all; some cried 'kill him, kill him, for he has fooled us all.' But Major Henry H. Gilliam, who was the marplot of the whole matter, and who knows very well how to get a fellow out of a bad scrape either in court, or out of court, interposed. He said, 'boys, hold on, what are you mad about? Warren has given us as a good speech as you ever heard. I propose to wash it down in champagne: come up to the hotel, it is my treat.' This was unanimously agreed to, and the crowd went to the hotel; the first order was for six baskets, and how many more has not been ascertained. At any rate there was not a bottle to be found, until the next boat from Norfolk brought a fresh supply."*

        * Raleigh Observer.



        This section of the state suffered sadly from the ravages of warfare, for after the fall of Roanoke Island the sounds and navigable rivers were open to the enemy's gunboats. These coasted up and down, and bore off the means and necessaries of life, living freights of fugitive negroes, and the low and skulking buffaloes. These were shameless and mean whites, who turned traitors to their friends, and betrayed them to their unrelenting foes. These were held in abhorence and contempt. They established a stronghold at Wingfield--the lovely homestead for years of the Browrigg family, previously occupied by Dr. Dillard, but the Buffaloes took possession, and the spacious halls, once the scene of elegance and beauty, were occupied by a foul and cowardly crew, who became such an intolerable nuisance that the building was fired.

        These miscreants plundered all alike, the plate and pianos of the rich, as also the poultry and bread stuff of the poor.

        The conduct of the colored population contrasted most honorably with the conduct of their professed friends, and is recorded to their undying credit. While every white man capable of bearing arms was in the field, the colored men remained at home cultivating the crops for the support of the helpless white women and their children. Although freedom, plunder, and every allurement was held out to them to leave their old homes and their old masters, many of them utterly refused, and many of them became warmly attached to the cause of their struggling masters. Moore, from whom I quote, states that in December, 1862, at Fort Warren, the humane federal commander, Colonel Dimmick, offered to release two colored men from captivity, William, the servant of Captain


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Clements, and Brooks, the servant of Captain Sparrow, upon their taking the oath of allegiance.

        They spurned the offer, and remained to share the fallen fortunes of their old friends and the playmates of their youth. Major Moore relates the fact that, when in command of the Third North Carolina Battalion, he sent his man, Harvey, through the country, then swarming with federal troops, to his wife with two valuable horses and a considerable amount of money. Harvey had every inducement and opportunity offered to desert his service, but he proved faithful to his trust, and returned to his master before his furlough had expired.

CHAPTER XIV.
CRAVEN COUNTY.

        CRAVEN County, like Chowan, contained many patriotic spirits of the early age of the state, and presents a glowing record of history. Around its venerable metropolis, New Berne, are clustered many memories of rare interest. Here landed the Palatines, led by the Baron DeGraaffenreidt, from Switzerland. The name of New Berne was bestowed by them in remembrance of the vine clad hills of their native land.

        Here, for a long time, was the seat of the Royal government, and from here were the affairs of the colony directed by the long and gentle rule of Governor Dobbs, and here his successor, Governor Tryon, held his vice-regal court, and erected a mansion more palatial than any ever before seen on this continent.

        A drawing of Tryon's palace and its ground has been preserved by Lossing, and it must have been a most magnificent structure. Time and the accident of fire have effaced its beauties, but the stables are still in a good state of preservation, and are now used as school rooms.

        John Hawks, the grand-father of Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks, was the architect of the Tryon palace. Martin, in his history of North Carolina, states this building had at the time no superior in America, and that he in 1783, in company with Miranda visited it, and he stated that it had no superior in South America. In December, 1770, Governor Tryon, for the first time, received the legislature in its princely halls.

        After the revolutionary war, the property was confiscated and sold. It was purchased by the Daves family. J. P. Daves donated the stable buildings to the Episcopal church. One of Mr. Daves's daughters married Governor John W. Ellis, and after his death J. E. Nash, of Petersburg. Governor Tryon's clock is in the possession of Charles C. Clark, and is still a good time keeper. His writing desk is the property of Z. Slade. It is of solid mahogany, and in perfect state of preservation.*

        * Recollections of New Berne, fifty years ago. By Stephen F. Miller; Living and the Dead, January, 1875.


        About the year 1709, Baron Christopher de Graaffenriedt led a large colony from the Palatinate of the Rhine, and in September, 1710, founded the town of New Berne. He was born in 1641, and was made a land-grave of


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Carolina by the lords proprietors. The Baron, after many trials and sufferings, nearly losing his life, became involved in pecuniary difficulties with Judge Gale, Governor Pollock and others. I found a letter from the Palatines, among the records of the roll office, London, which is as follows:

        "July 23d, 1747, letter received from the Palatines in North Carolina, to his majesty the King, that six hundred of them had been sent out under care of Christopher de Graaffenriedt; that in 1711, an Indian war broke out; Graaffenriedt was taken a prisoner by them; that Thomas Pollock, acting as governor, sent Captain Brice, and took everything they had, and in 1747, the heir of said Pollock came and turned them off their lands, in order to settle the rebel Scots."


        May 17th, 1748, letter from Governor Johnston that the statement of the Palatines is true, that many of their relations were murdered by the Indians, and they had been dispossessed as stated.

        "They are very sober and industrious.

        "Governor Johnston suggests that other lands be given them. Baron DeGraaffenriedt had returned home."

"March 16th, 1748.

        "ORDER OF KING IN COUNCIL:

        "Governor Johnston shall make a grant of land to the Palatines as shall be equivalent to that that they have been dispossessed of by one, Colonel Pollock, and his heirs."*

        * N. C., No. 11, B. 88.



        DeGraaffenriedt's son, and Lewis Michel, of Berne, came with him to America. Some of the family are still in this country.

        Inquiry has produced a letter to Mrs. Mary Bayard Clark, dated Columbus, Georgia, January 18th, 1871, which shows the whereabouts of the American branch of the family:

        "Christopher de Graaffenriedt (son of Baron Christopher de Graaffenriedt and Regina Tscharner, his wife,) married at Charleston, South Carolina, on February 22d, 1714. They removed to Philadelphia, afterwards to Maryland, and finally to Williamsburg, Virginia, where, on November 28th, 1722, Tscharner, their son, was born, being the first of the name born in America, and from whom all the family in this country are descended.

        "This Tscharner was twice married, and had seven sons and four daughters. His oldest, Francis, the father of Dr. Edwin L. de Graaffenriedt, is now the sole survivor. He had several uncles who served in the revolutionary war; two of them killed in battle. His father was a captain in the revolution on the American side. His brother, William, of Lunenburg, Virginia, was in the war of 1812. Matthew Fountaine, son of another uncle, was aid to General Jackson in the battle of New Orleans.

        "In the late civil war there were many of the name in the southern army.

        "Two of the daughters of Tscharner married brothers of John C. Calhoun, who were wealthy planters, and lived on Broad river, South Carolina.

        'Christopher died in 1742, in Lunenburg, Virginia."


        These people were keenly alive to their rights, and opposed to every form of oppression. It was in New Berne that the first provincial congress was held, in open opposition to the authority of England, (August 25, 1774,) which appointed deputies to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, (Caswell, Hewes and Hooper,) and sympathising with their oppressed and plundered countrymen at Boston, sent relief in the way of provisions and necessaries, declaring "the cause of Boston is the cause of all." What an illustrious example to many who would still further distract and divide the people of our county! The committee of safety for New Berne, were Dr. Alexander Gaston, Richard Cogdell, John Easton, Major Croom, Roger Ormond, Edward Salter, George Burrow, James Glasgow, and others. The town of New Berne was incorporated in 1723, by the legislature then sitting at Edenton.

        Francois Xavier Martin, born 1762, died 1846, author of a history of North Carolina, and some legal works, was long a resident of New Berne.


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        He was a native of France, born at Marseilles, 1762. He was a printer and editor, and studied law, in which he became learned and distinguished.

        In 1806 and 1807, he was a member of the House of Commons from the borough of New Berne.

        He was appointed by Mr. Jefferson, a judge in the Mississippi Territory, and resided at Natchez. So acceptable were his services that on February 1st, 1815, he was appointed one of the supreme court judges of Louisiana, which elevated position he occupied till his death, December 10th, 1846.

        He became entirely blind in his later years, but continued to preside with great acceptability, and acknowledged ability. He wrote a history of the State of Louisiana, as also of North Carolina.

        The Blount family in North Carolina have been distinguished for more than a century for integrity, enterprise, intelligence and patriotism.

        According to a genealogical table, prepared by the late Governor Clark, this family was of English origin, and figured in the reigns of Charles I. (1625,) and Charles II. (1660.) The head of the family was created a Baronet in 1642, as Sir Walter Blount.

        He left four sons and four daughters. The younger sons sought their fortunes in America. From them, this family can be clearly traced in distinct lines to the present.

        From Sir Walter Blount descended:

        I. James; came to North Carolina about 1664, and settled in Craven.

        He was a member of the House of Burgesses, and was active in the Culpepper rebellion, which, for a time, held and controlled the province.

        From the Rolls Office, in London, I copy a paper directed to the Lords Proprietor, "concerning the rebellion in Carolina, from 1663 to 1687:"

        "The rebellion was a deliberate contrivance, subverting the government, dissolving the parliaments, imprisoning the lordship's deputies, putting the president of the country in jail, seizing and carrying away the records, assuming supreme power, convening assemblies, and last of all, a most horrid and treassonable action, erecting courts to try cases of life and death without authority.

        "Captain Valentine Bird, collector, exported 150,000 pounds of tobacco without paying any dues. On hearing that Eastchurst was coming as governor, and Miller as collector, he took up arms with the rest of the subscribers and opposed Miller on his first landing, and drew his sword.

        "George Durant contemned and opposed the governor with a rebel rout.

        "Captain James Blount, one of the deputy's assistants, is one of the chief among the insurrectors. I wrote to him and the other burgesses of Chowan precinct. When the sheriff came, he, with one Captain John Vernham, took the sheriff prisoner, and raised forces to oppose the governor."*

        * Colonial Documents, London, 15.



        Sir Walter Blount's next son was:

        II. Thomas; he had five sons. 1st, Thomas, who had five sons: (a) Thomas, who married Elizabeth Reading, distinguished in the Indian wars 1708; (b) James; (c) John; (d) Jacob and (e) Esau, twins.*

        * See Williamson's, North Carolina, I, 202.


        III. Thomas (son of Thomas who married Elizabeth Reading,) had four sons: (a) Reading; (b) James, Captain in Second Continental regiment; (c) John; (d) Jacob.

        IV. Jacob, son of Thomas, was at battle of Alamance, 1771; a member of the provincial congress, and an officer in the revolutionary war. He married first Barbara Gray, second Mrs. Salter, was the progenitor of the family, had ten children, viz:

        I. William, who was born in Craven County, in 1749, married Miss Granger, of Wilmington. Elected member of legislature 1783,-'84; of the continental congress, 1782-'83-'86-'87; in the convention which formed Constitution of the United States, in 1787; appointed governor of


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territories of United States west of Ohio, 1790; senator in congress from Tennessee, 1796; expelled from senate in 1797; member of the convention that formed state constitution of Tennessee. Died in Knoxville, 1810. He left one son, William Granger, who was in congress from Tennessee, 1815 to 1819, and who died in 1827, unmarried; and one daughter who was the first wife of General E. P. Gaines.*

        * MSS. letter of Honorable Case Johnson.


        II. Ann, daughter of Jacob, married Henry.

        III. John Gray Blount, son of Jacob, was born 1752. Married Mary Harvey; he was often member of the legislature, from 1782 to 1796, from Beaufort County. He was an extensive land owner and explorer. Often the companion of Daniel Boone. He died in January 1833, leaving six children, viz: (a) Thomas Harvey, son of John Gray; (b) John Gray, in war of 1812; (c) William Augustus, (for sketch of whom see Beanfort County,) who died in 1867, leaving a son William, and a daughter who is the widow of General L. O'B. Branch, resides in Raleigh; (d) Polly, who married Rodman; (e) Lucy, who married General Grimes; (f) Patsy Baker, (unmarried.)

        IV. Louisa, who married to Richard Blackledge.

        V. Reading, who married Lucy Harvey.

        VI. Thomas, born 1759, died 1807, was in the revolutionary war, sent to England a prisoner. He was a member of the legislature from Edgecombe, 1798-'99, and a member of congress in 1793 to 1799, 1805 to 1809, and 1811, and 1812. He died at Washington, (without issue) leaving a widow, the daughter of General Jethro Sumner, named Mary Sumner Blount, who died near Tarboro in 1822, made liberal bequests to Christ church in Raleigh, from which chiefly funds were realized to build the beautiful stone edifice in that city. When the will was drawn, fearing that religious bodies could not hold real estate against the claims of heirs at law, a provision was inserted that in case of a contest over the devises intended for Christ church, of Raleigh, those devises should vest in Judge Cameron and Dr. Hooper in fee, to be disposed of as their consciences might dictate. The marble slab marking her grave had been broken by the fall of a tree, or as some say, by a stroke of lightning, and the vestry of Christ's church, of Raleigh, determined to replace it, but these praise worthy intentions were frustrated by the inexcusable carelessness in the preparation of the original epitaph. It is verbatim, as follows:


                         "Sacred to the memory of
                         MARY SUMMER BLOUNT
                         relict of genl thomas blount
                         long a representative in Congress
                         from this district
                         and daughter of genl. jethro blount.
                         Died the 18th Dec 1822 in her 45th year."

        Mrs. Blount's father was General Jethro Sumner, not "blount." It must have been a difficult task to compress so many errors in so small a space.

        VII. Jacob; born 1760; married Collins.

        VIII. Barbara, born 1763.

        IX. Willie, son of Jacob, born 1768, secretary to his brother William, while governor of territory west of the Ohio. Judge of the supreme court of Tennessee when only twenty-two years old, and the Governor of Tennesse from 1809 to 1815, (see Bertie County.) As governor he tendered to the United States 2,500 volunteers in the war of 1812. He died near Nashville, 1835, leaving two daughters; one married Dr. J. T. Dabney, and another to Dortch.

        X. Sharp, who married Penelope Little, of Pitt County, who left two sons. William Little and George Little.

        I have thus endeavored to present a genealogical diagram of a family whose members have been distinguished in the field, on the forum, and in legislative halls, as well as in social life.


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        The table may be relied upon, as it has been the subject of much labor and research. Their lives and offices have been briefly alluded to, figures and dates given, leaving to other hands the pious duty of commenting in detail on their character and services.

        Abner Nash was born in Prince Edward County, Virginia. At an early age he went to New Berne, where he studied and practiced law with great success.

        He was an able and active friend to the rights of the people, and a member of provincial congress in 1774.

        In the dispatch of Governor Martin, dated March 10th, 1775, he informs his government that the seditious leaders of the people have too effectually prevented the King's speech from operating to the extent he wished. Instead of yielding they talk of resorting to violence.

        Enclosed is an advertisement of the committee at New Berne, which he calls "atrocious falsehoods," and the composition of a Mr. Nash, one of the subscribers, who is an eminent lawyer, but the most unprincipled character of the county.

        In another dispatch dated at Fort Johnston, June 30th, 1775, he writes:

        "Since I had the honor of representing to your lordship the state of this country, various circumstances have occurred of which I think it my duty to give the best account my information enables me to lay before you.

        "On Tuesday, May 23d, 1775, a set of people calling themselves a committee, met at New Berne. A motly crew, without any previous notice of their purpose, appeared, coming towards my house; I supposed they were the committee of whose meeting I had heard. I directed my secretary to signify my resolution not to see them. He soon came back, however, with a message that they were the inhabitants of the town of New Berne, who had come to wait upon me, and requested to speak to me.

        "I directed them to be shown in, and I immediately went down to them.

        "Mr. Abner Nash, an attorney and oracle of the committee, (of whom I have had occasion to mention to your lordship before as principal promoter of sedition,) came forward out of the crowd and said he had been chosen by the people of New Berne, then present, to represent that their purpose in waiting on me was in consequence of a general alarm of the people of that place at my dismounting some pieces of cannon which occasionally had been made use of on rejoicing days; that the Governor of Virginia had lately deprived the people of that colony of arms and ammunition. The inhabitants therefore requested and hoped that I would order the cannon to be remounted and restored to their former condition.

        "Unprepared, my lord, for such a visit, and filled with indignation at the absurdity and impertinence of the cause assigned by Mr. Nash, I am satisfied that it was a mere pretense to insult me. I replied that the guns I had dismounted belonged to the king, and I was only responsible to His Majesty for any disposition I made of them, &c."


        But the next day, so precarious had his position became, that Governor Martin sent his family to New York, and he himself went in much haste on board of His Majesty's sloop of war, the Cruiser, Captain Parry, commander, never to exercise again the functions of Governor of North Carolina.

        In the same dispatch, Governor Martin says "he had received an account on April 20th, between the king's troops and the people near Boston, which reached him a little more than two months after the event."

        In this dispatch, Governor Martin enclosed the resolves of the committee of Mecklenburg in the Cape Fear Mercury, a copy of which he says was sent by express to the congress at Philadelphia. This official dispatch would settle a question, about which there never should have been any cavil, question, or doubt.

        These extracts from official sources prove the course which Mr. Nash pursued in perilous times. He was more of a statesman, however, than a soldier, yet he did the cause of his country as much service as if he were in the field. He played a leading part in that great


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drama in which men and guns are subordinate appendages. He was a member of the Provincial Congress in November 1776, which met at Halifax, and formed the constitution of the state; and was the first speaker of the first House of Commons that ever sat in the state. He was speaker in the senate in 1779, and was elected governor at that session and served till 1781. In 1782 and '83, he represented Jones County. He was elected a member of the Continental Congress in 1781, in which he served till 1786. He died at New York while attending congress, December 2d, 1786.

        He married the widow of Governor Dobbs. He was the brother of General Francis Nash, and the father of Frederick Nash, late Judge of supreme court of North Carolina, sketches of whom may be found in the record of Orange County.

        Richard Dobbs Spaight, of North Carolina, born March 25th, 1758, died September 6th, 1802.

        He was born, lived and died in the town of New Berne. His family was distinguished in the early history of the country. His father was the secretary and clerk of the crown;*

        * Extract from Colonial Records in Rolls office, London; "Richard Spaight appointed secretary and clerk of the Crown."--"The general assembly prefer charges against Governor Dobbs, among them, that he had appointed his nephew, Richard Spaight, a paymaster in the army."


an office in dignity next to that of the governor. His mother was the sister of Arthur Dobbs, governor of the province from 1754 to 1766. He lost his parents at an early age. Blest with a sound mind in a sound body, his education was of the highest order. He was sent to Ireland, when only nine years of age, where he pursued his academic studies, his education being completed at the university of Glasgow. He returned to his native country in 1778, and found it involved in the fearful struggles of the revolutionary war, his immediate section was the scene of fierce and bloody conflict. His chivalrous temper caused him to volunteer his services to his country, and he was engaged in the disastrous battle of Camden, South Carolina, August 16th, 1780, as aid-de-camp to Governor Caswell. Although brave and enthusiastic, there were fields other than those of war, more suited to his genius, where his services and talents could be as beneficial to country's welfare and liberty, and in which men and arms are demanded, but not the most important elements of success. His countrymen appreciated this fact, and the next year, he was elected a member of the general assembly from the borough of New Berne, and re-elected in 1782 and 1783. By the latter body, he was elected a member of the Continental Congress, (which met at Annapolis on the 13th December, 1783,) with Benjamin Hawkins and Hugh Williamson as colleagues. The war had ended, and he witnessed the resignation by General Washington to that congress of his commission as commander - in - chief. The appreciation of the character and patriotism of Mr. Spaight, was evinced by being selected as one of "the committee of states;" in whom all the powers of the new government, (executive, legislative and judicial) were vested. When the convention was called to form the Constitution of the United States, which met at Philadelphia, (on May 14th, 1787,) he was elected a member. His name, with that of William Blount and Hugh Williamson, is appended to the constitution. He was a member of the state convention which met at Hillsboro, on July 21st, 1788, to consider the Federal Constitution, and advocated with all his energies its adoption. In this he was aided by such distinguished names as Samuel Johnston, James Iredell, William R. Davie, John Steele, Stephen Cabarrus and others.

        But the active opposition of Willie Jones, David Caldwell, Elisha Battle, C. Dowd, Griffith Rutherford, and others, caused its rejection,


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and the State of North Carolina, from July, 1788, to November, 1789, (when the Constitution of the United States was ratified,) presented the extraordinary attitude of a sovereign state, independent and self-governing, with no confusion within or coercion from without. This instructive page of history expresses the truth, that political reunion, like social union, can best be secured by concession, affection, and justice.

        In 1792, Mr. Spaight was again returned to the general assembly, and by that body was chosen the governor of the state, which he held for three years, when he was succeeded by Samuel Ashe.

        He was the first native born son of North Carolina elected as governor. He served while governor as presidential elector.

        In 1797, he took his seat in the House of Representatives, elected from North Carolina, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Honorable Nathan Bryan, (second session of the Fifth Congress,) and re-elected a member of the Sixth Congress, 1797 to 1799. This was an important epoch in our government. The two great parties (then called Federal and Republican,) fought fierce and furious for power. Governor Spaight voted with his republican colleagues, Willis Alston, Nathaniel Macon, David Stone, and others. It was during this congress that Governor William Blount, Senator from Tennessee, was impeached, (or threatened with impeachment,) and for the first time the election of a president was made by the house. After these exciting scenes, Governor Spaight sought retirement and repose. His health was seriously impaired, and he sought relief in the milder climate of the West Indies. But the people called him again to duty, and he was, in 1801, elected a senator in the general assembly. This was destined to be his last public service. Party politics were never more active and bitter. These animosities pervaded not only public life, but private circles. Governor Spaight was the acknowledged leader of the party which supported Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Stanly, its active adversary. Led on by the maddening and malignant influence of party spirit, on September 5th, 1802, Mr. Stanly challenged Governor Spaight to fight a duel, in a note taunting in its terms, and very opprobrious. They fought on the same day. Governor Spaight was mortally wounded, and died on the following day. This tragic event, from his long, varied, and illustrious service, caused a deep sensation throughout the state, and even at this day is felt with sad regret.

        Such were the public services of Richard Dobbs Spaight. These are inscribed in the records of our nation. Of his private character we are not left to conjecture. One who knew him long and well has informed us that "as a private citizen he was upright in his intentions, and sincere in his declarations. Methodical and even mercantile in his business; no errors of negligence or ignorance involved him in litigation with his neighbors. Uniform in his conduct, respectful to authority, and influential in his example. Hospitality was a conspicuous trait of his character. The stranger was welcome, treated with cordiality, and entertained with kindness. His charity was universal For the tale of sorrow he ever had a tear and relief. He was an affectionate husband, an indulgent father, and a compassionate master; consistent in his hours of study and recreation, no irregularities disturbed his course, or improper indulgence his repose."*

        * Reverend T. P. Irving's funeral discourse on the death of Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight, delivered at New Berne, 1802.


        No one, as a public man, could have held for a long and uninterrupted series of years, the affections, countenance, and support of his countrymen, without any effort on his part, unless he possessed substantial merit and unspotted integrity.


Page 135

        Like him of Scotland it may be truly said:


                         "--This Duncan
                         Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been
                         So clear in his great office, that his virtues
                         Will plead like angels, trumpet tongued, against
                         The deep damnation of his taking off."

        By his marriage with Miss Polly Leach he had four children.

        I. William, who died young.

        II. Richard Dobbs, a leading statesman in the state; for years in the legislature; in congress from 1823 to 1825; governor in 1835; died unmarried.

        III. Charles, who died unmarried.

        IV. Margaret, who married Honorable John R. Donnel, one of the judges of the state from 1819 to 1836, who left four children.*

        * See sketch of Judge Donnel.


        An accurate portrait of Governor Spaight hangs in one of the rooms of Independence Hall, Philadelphia.

DUELS IN NORTH CAROLINA.

        The kind dispositions of the people of the state, their unambitious tempers, together with aversion to acts of violence and blood, have done much to discourage the practice of duelling. Of late years there have been but few "affairs of honor," so called. In our readings, however, we have met some cases of a custom "more honored in the breach than in the observance." Doubtless other cases have occurred that we have never heard of.

        Honorable John Baxter, (United States judge in Tennessee,) about 1850, met Colonel Marcus Erwin; exchanged fire, and Baxter slightly wounded; cause, political.

        Bynum Jesse and Jennifer of Maryland, (same cause,) neither hurt.

        Honorable Duncan Cameron, and William Duffy, met near Hillsboro; Judge Cameron wounded. Duffy represented Fayetteville in the legislature of 1806.

        Honorable Samuel P. Carson and Dr. R. B. Vance, (see sketch of Carson.)

        Honorable Thomas L. Clingman and Wm L. Yancy, (see sketch of Clingman.)

        Joseph Flanner and Walker, near Wilmington; latter killed.

        Louis D. Henry and Thomas J. Stanly, 1812, latter killed.

        General Robert Howe and Gadsden, of South Carolina, fought May 13th, 1778, in South Carolina, neither hurt.

        Honorable J. J. Jackson and Joseph Pearson; political, 1812, at Washington.

        Thomas F. Jones and Dr. Daniel Johnson at Bladensburg, 1846, latter killed.

        Law and Blanchard, (Bertie County.)

        Scatterwaite and Kennedy.

        Strong and Holmes, (Sampson County.)

        John Stanly and Governor Spaight, (see sketch of Spaight.)

        Edward Stanly and Samuel W. Inge, of Alamance; political; neither hurt.

        Montford Stokes and Jesse A. Pearson, (Roward County,) Governor Stokes wounded.

        Alexander Simpson and Thomas White-hurst, in 1766; latter killed.

        Yellowby and Harris.

        John Stanly, born 1774, died 1834, was a native of New Berne. The son of John Wright Stanly. He was educated for the law; strong in mental as well as personal gifts, he attained high distinction in his profession. Blessed with a clear and musical voice, with manners at once graceful and dignified; bold and fearless in his elocution, sarcastic and severe in expression, he was in his day an advocate of great power and success.

        He early entered the stormy arena of politics, and took satisfaction in mingling in its fierce and furious strife. At an early age, (in 1798,) he was elected a member of the House of Commons, of which he was elected speaker, and in which he continued, with intermissions, until 1826, when he, whilst debating, was struck with paralysis and never recovered. He was a member of the Seventh Congress, 1801-3,


Page 136

and again of the Eleventh Congress, 1809-'11. His application to Governor Williams for pardon, has been published; and is admired as being eloquent and dignified.

        I have in my possession, the original petition of the members of the legislature to the governor, asking this pardon, signed by Duncan Cameron, Calvin Jones, John Allison, Peter Hoyle, David Tate, Daniel Glisson, Durant Hatch, John G. Scull, W. Lord, Peter Forney, Ephm. Davidson, George Outlaw, Robert Williams, and others.

        In his political campaigns, in discussions in the legislature, and in debate at the bar, and even in private life, Mr. Stanly's course towards his opponents was marked with violence. Speaking of the unamiable trait in his character, Mr. Miller states: "Judge Donnell was an able, quiet, obstrusive, upright gentleman. He bore with great equinamity the biting sarcasm which Mr. Stanly was in the habit of thrusting at the court, where Judge Donnell presided, whenever it suited his policy." Judge Donnell was the son-in-law of the first Governor Spaight. The same writer, speaking of Mr. Spaight, the second, says:

        "Richard D. Spaight held a license to practice law, but was wealthy and diffident, he was not destitute of talents and learning."

        "I always suspected that Mr. Stanly was an obstacle to the professional success of Mr. Spaight, as Stanly was a man of imperious temper, and not satisfied with killing the father of Mr. Spaight, he seemed to delight in torturing the son, by looks and gestures, and intonations of his voice, when other methods were not used."*

        * See our Living and our Dead, November, 1874.



        Mr. Stanly married a daughter of Martin Frank, of Jones County, whose handsome estate laid the foundation of his fortune. But it was not permanent. In the Recollections of New Berne fifty years ago, the writer says:*

        * Stephen F. Miller, in our Living and Dead, November, 1874


        "Mrs. Stanly was a country heiress, without cultivation or opportunity. Their nanatures and habits were incompatible; she was a shouting Methodist, he a staid vestryman of the orthodox Episcopal church." His affairs became so embarrassed, that debts and judgments pressed him. To the kindness of a personal and political friend, he owned the house in which he lived and died. Here harrassed by creditors, with a body helpless from disease, a mere wreck of his former self; he died August 3rd, 1835. We may well recall at such a scene, the words of Ophelia:


                         "O, what a noble mind is here o'er thrown,
                         The courtier's, soldier's, scholar's, eye, tongue sword.
                         Now see that noble and most sovereign reason,
                         Like sweet bells jangled, out of tune and harsh."

        Mr. Stanly left one daughter, who married Walker K. Armstead, then an officer in the United States army, against Mr. Stanly's wishes. Mr. Miller says he never forgave her. When this worthy officer attained rank and distinction, in her old age Mrs. Stanly found a home under his hospitable roof, where she died. Mr. Stanly also died under General Armstead's roof.

        His descendants, a number of sons, were:

        I. John, idiotic from birth.

        II. Alfred, resided in Fairfax County, Virginia.

        III. Frank, became a Methodist preacher.

        IV. Edward, was a member of the house from Beaufort, 1844 to 1847.*

        * For his sketch see Beaufort County.


        V. Alexander.*--

        * See our Living and our Dead, November, 1874.


        VI. Fabius, United States navy (retired admiral,) resided in Washington.

        VII. Cicero.

        VIII. James.

        Dr. Isaac Guion, of New Berne, was surgeon to the First Regiment North Carolina Continentals, commanded by Colonel James Moore. From neglect of duty he was suspended.

        On July 6th, 1776, he was appointed commissary


Page 137

to an independent company under Captain Selby Harvey, stationed on the sea coast.*

        * Force's American Archives.


        William Gaston, born September 19th, 1778, died January 23d, 1844, was the son of Dr. Alexander Gaston, who was one of the most earnest and steadfast friends of the people, and one of the committee of safety for Craven County. He gave up his life to the cause of liberty; for, as the town of New Berne was attacked by the tories on August 20th, 1781, he escaped with his wife and children. He had only time to push off in a boat, leaving his wife and children on the wharf. One of these miscreants levelled his gun over the shoulder of Mrs. Gaston and fired. Her patriotic husband was shot.

        This tragic event has been graphically descried by a resident of this section of our state, who states that Dr. Gaston and Colonel John Green were dining at Dr. Gaston's house, when an alarm was given that the tories were coming. Gaston and Green arose from the table, hastened to the wharf only a few steps off, and jumped into a canoe; when off Cornel's wharf a platoon of the tories fired upon them, and both fell. The tories then retraced their steps. The canoe was the property of an old negro, John, who, after some delay, procured aid and started in search of his canoe, which was drifting about at the mercy of the winds and waves. On reaching it, he found lying at the bottom of his boat Green, as he supposed dead, and Gaston dying. He carried them back to the wharf, and then to Dr. Hazlin's house. The doctor pronounced Green mortally wounded, and Gaston seriously. Just the converse of this opinion turned out true, for the latter soon died, and the former lived thirty years afterwards. Dr. Gaston was buried in "Cedar Grove," the city cemetery.

        He left a disconsolate widow and two little children, a son, then only three years old, the subject of this sketch, and a daughter, who, in after years, became the wife of Chief Justice Taylor.

        His early education was conducted under the guidance of a pious and patient mother. In the fall of 1791 he was sent to the Catholic college at Georgetown, where he remained for two years, but under the severe discipline and rigors of a variable climate, his health gave away, and by advice of his physician, he returned to the mild climate of his native land and the comforts of home. Under the care of Reverend Thomas P. Irving, he was prepared for Princeton, and where he entered the junior class. At the early age of eighteen, he graduated with the first honors of that renowned institution. He returned home and entered the law office of Judge Francois Xavier Martin. He was admitted to the bar before reaching the age of twenty-one, and soon attained greet eminence in his profession.

        In 1799, he was elected to the state senate, and 1808 to the House of Commons, by which body he was chosen speaker.

        In 1810, he was a candidate for congress, and was defeated by William Blackledge, but was elected to the Thirteenth Congress, from 1815 to 1817, and the Fourteenth Congress, from 1817 to 1819.

        Here he occupied a position as the peer of Calhoun, Clay, Lowndes, Randolph and Webster. His speeches on the loan bill and the previous question present some of the finest specimens of reasoning and eloquence which the country has ever furnished. He retired from congress to pursue his law practice.

        In 1824, he was elected to the House of Commons, and in 1827-'28 and 1831.

        Here he rendered efficient and invaluable services to the state. The perfect organization of our then judicial system, and some of the best statutes of North Carolina, are the result of his sagacity and labor.


Page 138

        In 1834, on the death of Judge Henderson, he was elected one of the judges of the supreme court, which elevated position was so germane to his talents and his tastes that he declined a seat in the Senate of the United States, which was tendered to him. Only once more did he appear as a statesman. He was a member of the convention of 1835, which body was, without doubt, the ablest that ever sat in the state. The first men from every section in the state, of the highest positions, and of the largest knowledge, were selected.

        He aided the convention in making healthful reforms, modified the thirty-second article disfranchising Catholics, and opposed the proposition to deprive free colored people of the right to vote. Until this time they had possessed the right in North Carolina. The character of Judge Gaston as a statesman, pure and patriotic, is inscribed in the annals of the nation, and the state. His ability and learning as an advocate, none can question; and his patience with witnesses and suitors, his urbanity to his associates, and his respect to authority rendered him universally popular.

        His manner of address in a court or the legislature was peculiar.

        It was my fortune to sit two sessions of the legislature in the next seat to Judge Gaston, as also on the committee on the judiciary with him, and I had good opportunities of observing him. He had, or seemed to have, when he first arose to speak, a modesty that was as embarrassing to himself as it was to his audience. He trembled perceptibly at first, but after a few moments his emphatic and deliberate manner and subdued tones commanded profound silence and attention. He became perfectly possessed, and he commenced his argument with matchless and thrilling eloquence. As he progressed, the grandeur of his expression seemed to increase, whilst his illustrations were as luminous as a sunbeam, and his arguments carried conviction to the minds of his entranced auditors. There was no sophistry to mislead, no meretricious ornament to beguile; his person seemed almost inspired, and his countenance expressed a benignty of soul which marked his whole life and character.

        The writer (Dalton,) already quoted, says of Judge Gaston: "He was a great man in every sense of the word. One was never tired of his company. His conversation was always interesting and instructive. He did not possess the excursive genius of Mr. Badger, nor the wit of Mr. Stanly. But his store of learning and well balanced mind, added to his unsullied character, made him greatly their superior. He had more matter of fact than romance in his character. He would have made a better historian than a novelist, and perhaps, too, a great actor."

        His last days were bright and glorious, and his end triumphant and happy.

        On January 23d, 1844, while sitting on the bench of the supreme court at Raleigh, he complained of a chilly sensation, attended with fainting feelings, and was carried from the court room to his chamber. On that evening he was better, many friends called who were charmed with his conversation; and when relating an account of a convivial party at Washington, he spoke of one who avowed himself a free thinker in religion.

        "From that time," he said, "I regarded that man with distrust. I do not say that such a man may not be an honorable man, but I dare not trust him. A belief in an all ruling providence who shapes our deeds is necessary. We must believe and feel that there is a God, all wise and almighty--"

        As he pronounced these words, he raised himself up from his couch to give emphasis to his expression, in a moment there seemed to be a rush of blood to the brain, and he fell back a corpse. The spirit fled from the scenes of earth, to meet that God in whom he trusted, and whose name last vibrated on his tongue.


Page 139

        Truly did his able associate, Judge Ruffin, say on the occasion of his death that he was "a good man and a great judge." His remains were deposited in the cemetery at New Berne. A heavy block of marble, resting on the granite, surmounted by a cross, bears simply the name of William Gaston and the date of birth and death.

        "I saw," says the writer already quoted, "one morning, before the sun has risen Edward Everett and John R. Donnel standing together at the tomb of Gaston. Mr. Everett removed his hat, saying: 'This eminent man had few equals and no superior.' "

        Of such a man's memory the state may be justly proud. She has written his name on her towns and counties, and as long as talent is admired, or virtue appreciated, so long will the name of Gaston be cherished.

        Judge Gaston was thrice married:

        I. Miss Hay, of Fayetteville; no issue.

        II. Hannah McClure, who died suddenly, in 1814, from alarm at the incoming of the British fleet. She left (a) Alexander F. Gaston, who was in the legislature in 1830, and who married (first) Miss Jones, and (second) Miss Murphy of Burke, where he died; (b) and two daughters, one of whom was the first wife of Judge Manly; she left one child, Hannah, who married a son of the Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks; she has since died leaving several children. The second daughter of Judge Gaston by this marriage was the wife of Robert Donaldson, of New York.

        III. Miss Worthington, of Georgetown; issue (a) Mrs. Graham, who died recently near Marlboro, Maryland; (b) Kate, single.

        John R. Donnel, born 1791, died 1864, a native of Ireland, and a man of letters, was educated at the university of North Carolina, and graduated in 1807, in the same class with Gavin Hogg, and others. He studied law and practiced that profession with great success.

        In 1815, he was elected solicitor of the district, and in 1819 he was elected judge of the superior courts of law, the duties of which he discharged with dignity and ability for seventeen years.

        His extensive property suffered severely from the tumults and depredations of civil war.

        He died at Raleigh, October 15th, 1864, a refugee from his large estates and princely home.

        Judge Donnel married Margaret, daughter of Governor Spaight, who left five children:

        I. Richard Spaight Donnel, distinguished as a lawyer.*

        * For sketch of whom see Beaufort County.


        II. Mary, who married Charles B. Sheppard. Mr. Sheppard was in congress 1839 to 1841, and who died 1843, leaving two children; (a) Margaret, who married Samuel S. Nelson; (b) Mary, who married James A. Bryan.

        III. Anne, single.

        IV. Fannie, who married James B. Sheppard; Mr. Sheppard died in 1870, leaving one son, John R. D. Sheppard, now in Paris.

        V. C. Spaight Donnel, married Thomas M. Keerl, of Baltimore, where they reside.

        John Sitgreaves, late United States judge, was a resident of New Berne. The first United States district judge for the District of North Carolina, was John Stokes,*

        * For sketch, see Stokes County.


appointed by General Washington.

        He was succeeded by John Sitgreaves in 1790, appointed by Jefferson. He was succeeded by Henry Potter in 1803, who held the position until his death, December 20th, 1859. He was succeeded by Asa Biggs, appointed by Buchanan; the war suspended his functions. George W. Brooks was appointed August 9th, 1865.

        The state has been divided recently into two districts, and Robert P. Dick*

        * See sketch of Judge Dick, Guilford County.


was appointed for the Western district by General Grant.


Page 140

        Judge Sitgreaves, was like his predecessor, a soldier of the revolution.

        It is a remarkable historical fact that after a war, whether foreign or domestic, that the popular feeling centers on those "who have done the state some service" in the field. The remark of Lord Bacon is verified by facts. "In the youth of a nation, the profession of arms flourish; in its middle age, the useful arts; and in its old age, the fine arts." See America, England, and Italy to prove the truth of this dictum.

        Judge Sitgreaves was appointed by the Provincial Congress in 1776, an officer in Captain Cassell's company, and was in the battle of Camden, August, 1780.

        He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1784, and a member of the House of commons (1786 to 1789) from the borough of New Berne.

        Mr. Jefferson's diary contains the following:

        "1789, Hawkins recommended John Sitgreaves, as a very clever gentlemen, of good deportment, well skilled in the law for a man of his age, and if he lives long enough, will be an ornament to his profession. Spaight and Blount concurring, he was nominated."


        He died at Halifax, March 4th, 1802, where he lies buried.

        John Herritage Bryan, born 1798, died May 19th, 1870, was a native of New Berne.

        In the Provincial Congress of November, 1776, at Halifax, three of this name were members. His early education was conducted by the Reverend T. P. Irving, and he graduated at the university in 1815, in the same class with Isaac Croom, Edward Hall, Francis L. Hawks, Willie P. Mangum, Richard Dobbs Spaight, and others. He read law and attained high rank in his profession.

        He was elected to the state senate in 1823 and '24, and in the next year also, and at the same time he was elected a member of the Nineteenth Congress, from 1825 to 1827; an unprecedented event, and the more so as he was away from home when elected to both of these popular positions. He accepted the seat in congress, and he was elected to the Twentieth Congress. He declined a re-election, the care of a young and increasing family demanding his services. He removed to Raleigh, where he lived many years, loved and respected by all who knew him, and where he died, universally regretted, in 1870.

        He married the daughter of William Shepard, of New Berne, and leaves a large and interesting family. One of his sons, Francis, graduated at West Point, and was distinguished in battles in Mexico.

        Edward Graham, born 1765, died 1833, son of Edward Graham, (who came from Argyleshire, Scotland,) was born in New York city, graduated at Princeton 1785, read law with Chief Justice Jay, and settled in New Berne.

        He was a member in the legislature from New Berne, in 1797--his only public service. He was the second of Mr. Stanly in his fatal duel with Governor Spaight. He died in New Berne, March 22d, 1838.

        He married Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward Batchelor, and had two children:

        I. Elizabeth, born 1804, who married John P. Daves.

        II. Jane Frances, married to William H. Haywood, late United States senator.

        Francis Lister Hawks, born 1705, died 1866, the son of John Hawks, was a native of New Berne, and distinguished as a writer and pulpit orator.

        One of his ancestors was the architect and superintended the building of the governor's residence at New Berne in 1771. Among the Colonial Records in London, I find that in June 29th, 1771, at a meeting of the council, he submitted his accounts of expenses for building the palace.

        He graduated at the university in 1815, in the same class with Mr. Bryan, and others, as


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alluded to in the sketch of Mr. Bryan; studied law and was the reporter of the decisions of the supreme court for five years, (1820 to '26.)

        In 1821, he was elected a member of the House of Commons from New Berne, but he resolved to devote himself to the ministry, and was ordained by Bishop Ravenscroft He, in 1827, was assistant minister of Dr. Harry Croswell, of New Haven, Connecticut. In 1829, he was the assistant of Bishop White, at St. James, Philadelphia, and from 1832 to 1834, was the rector of St. Stephen's church, New York; during which period he visited Europe, with an introduction to the Archbishop of Canterbury, to collect material for a history of the Episcopal church in the United States, a fragment of which may be seen in his biography of Bishop White.

        From St. Stephen's he passed to St. Thomas in 1832, and continued his connection with this parish until he removed to Mississippi in 1844. He was elected bishop of the diocese; which he declined, as also his election to be bishop of Rhode Island. At the close of 1844, he took charge of Christ church in New Orleans, where he continued for five years, during which time he gave his aid to the establishment of a state university, of which he was made the president. But he was called to fill the pulpit of Cavalry church, and he returned to New York and continued in this charge until 1861; he then resigned because he sympathized with the south, and took charge of a Baltimore church. One of his sons was major in the Confederate army. After the war was over he returned to and preached in the Church of the Annunciation, New York, where he died September 27, 1866.

        He married a lady in Connecticut, by whom he had several children.

        Dr. Hawks was true to North Carolina and proud of her glorious history.*

        * This sketch is compiled from original documents and from a memorial of F. L. Hawks, DD. LLD., by Everitt A. Duyckinck. read before New York Historical Society. May, 1867.

        "Cyclopedia of American Literature."

        "Dictionary of American Biography by Francis S. Drake, 1876."


        As a divine, his merits were brilliant and unsurpassed. An agreeable address, an amiable and placid countenance, a deep toned voice, expressive of pathos and feeling, modulated and eloquent in all its utterances, a warm southern sensibility and all marked with manly frankness, distinguished Dr. Hawks as one of the first pulpit orators of his age.

        As an author he exhibited great learning and laborious research; the most voluminous our state has ever produced. Among his most important works are:

        I. Reports of Supreme Court of North Carolina, (1820-'26,) in four volumes.

        II. Digest of all the cases decided and reported in North Carolina.

        III. Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of the United States, two volumes, embracing New York, Maryland, and Virginia.

        IV. Egypt and her Monuments, (1849.)

        V. Auricular Confession in the Protestant Episcopal Church, (1850.)

        VI. History of North Carolina, two volumes, (1857.)

        VII. Antiquities of Peru, (1854.)

        VIII. Official and Other Papers of Alexander Hamilton, (1842.)

        IX. Romance of Biography.

        X. Appleton's Cyclopedia of Biography.

        XI. Journal of General Conventions (1856) of the Protestant Episcopal church of the United States, from 1785.

        XII. Under the pseudonym of Uncle Philip, several juvenile works for Harper's "Boys' and Girls' Library."

        XIII. He compiled from Perry's original notes "the Narrative of Commodore Perry's Expedition to the China Seas and Japan," (1852.)

        XIV. Lecture on Sir Walter Raleigh.


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        XV. Lecture establishing the authenticity of the Mecklenburg, North Carolina, Declaration of Independence of May 20th, 1775.

        At the time of his death he was preparing a work "on the Ancient Monuments of Central and Western America," and a Physical Geography.

        George Edmund Badger, born 1795, died 1866, was a native of New Berne. His father, a devoted patriot, was a native of Connecticut. His mother was a daughter of Richard Cogdell; who was one of the council of safety in 1775. He was educated at Yale College, graduated in 1815, and studied law with John Stanly, who was his relative.

        He was elected a member of the legislature 1816; and in 1820, at the early age of 25, elected one of the judges of the superior courts, which he resigned in 1825. He then settled in Raleigh and pursued with great success his profession. He was appointed Secretary of the Navy in 1841, but resigned on Tyler's vetoing the re-charter of the United States Bank.*

        * It is singular that North Carolina has rarely been honored by having one of her citizens made a cabinet officer; but when so honored this portfolio seems to be assigned her.

        I. John Branch, 1829; II. George E Badger, 1841; III. William A. Graham, 1850; IV. James C. Dobbin, 1853.


        From 1846 to 1855 he was United States Senator.

        In 1851, he was nominated one of the judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, but was not confirmed by the senate.

        In 1861, he was a member of the convention and signed the ordinance of secession. His admirable letter to Mr. Ely, already presented, (see Beaurfort) gives the "form and pressure" of those unhappy times. The attendant calamities doubtless shortened his days.

        As an advocate he had few equals, and no superior in the highest tribunals of the country. As an orator he was eloquent, learned and able; abounding in wit and humor, which sometimes appearance, of great geniality of temper he was a favorite with all his associates.

        But his transcendent powers as an advocate did not detract from his usefulness; not unlike Erskine, the giant lawyer, they did not dwarf the able statesman. It was his custom when entering the senate, to linger in the morning and have a pleasant word with nearly every member, before he took his seat. This he would not retain long, for he was less frequent in his own seat than in that of other members. Yet, with this apparent carelessness, he would catch and remember every word, whether trivial or important, uttered in debate, and ready to answer any question. He had a certain kind of humor to ridicule, in a pleasant way, even the most dignified of that distinguished body about any little mistake or blunder, either in their speeches or conversation.

        On one occasion, when a senator was concluding a long and labored speech, (J. P. Hale) he remarked: "I guess I have said enough;" Mr. Badger who was just behind him said "I know you have." This descent from the sublime to the ridiculous created a pleasant smile.

        On another occasion, when he had moved that the senate adjourn over next day, being Good Friday, the motion was lost. "Well," he said, "I submit, but this is the only judicial body that has ever sat on Good Friday, since the days of Pontius Pilate, who tried and condemned our Saviour." Mr. Webster was present and remarked: "That Badger is the greatest trifler I ever knew; we are all afraid of him; he can make more out of a trifling occurrence than any man I ever knew."

        But there was pith and point in all he said and did. He had no superior or equal in his matchless ability for winnowing chaff from wheat, or the most brilliant flowers of eloquence from the dry detail of sophistry; and while he indulged in the humorous or ludicrous, he wielded his arguments with the force of


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a Titan. His mind seemed so constructed, that like the proboscis of the elephant, it could pick up with equal facility the minutest object or the most weighty subject in its course. He would often treat the light and feeble argument with great seriousness, while he struck with ponderous blows the more weighty. His great power as a lawyer was acknowledged by both bench and bar and the whole community. He had no taste for mathematics, as he used to say himself he was never "skilled in arithmetic;" his strong forte was his power of analysis, burning eloquence, his deep and varied knowledge of his profession. Whatever argument was made adversely to his cause, with a wizard wand, he would transform the object to his tastes and wishes, and impress the mind of the court, jury, and audience with the soundness of his position.

        Is not this genius, and was not Badger pre-eminently a genius in North Carolina?

        He was a consistent member of the Episcopal church, and strictly conformed to its usages. This church, in 1853, had much trouble; its bishop (Ives) had shocked the diocese by an apostasy to the church of Rome. Judge Badger had for some time previous resisted the stealthy steps of the recreant prelate, and by his efforts counteracted his sinister influence.

        Judge Badger was married three times; first, a daughter of Governor Turner; second, a daughter of Colonel William Polk; third, a daughter of Mrs. Williams, nee Haywood.

        He died of paralysis, at Raleigh, on May 11th, 1866.

        Matthias Evans Manly, whose distinguished brother, Governor Charles Manly, we have already sketched, (see Chatham) lived and died in New Berne, July 2, 1881. He was a native of Chatham county; graduated at the university in 1824, in a class of great merit; William A. Graham, Augustus Moore, David Outlaw, and Thomas Dews, were among its members.

        He studied law with Governor Manly and settled in New Berne. He entered the House of Commons in 1834, as the member from New Berne and re-elected in 1835, was last representative from New Berne, for in that year the convention abolished the borough members.

        He was elected in 1840 one of the judges of the superior courts, which he held until 1860, when he was elected one of the justices of the supreme court; this he resigned when war and violence "exhausted the judiciary."

        After the war was over, and the state reconstructed, Judge Manly was elected senator in congress, but was not allowed to take his seat.

        He then, with commendable patriotism, presided as one of the county judges of Craven, devoting his learning and abilities to the good of his country.

        There are few men of our state who possessed to a greater extent the sincere regard of their countrymen than Judge Manly.

        Charles Randolph Thomas, who resides in New Berne, is a native of Carteret County; born in 1827, he graduated at the university 1849, in same class with Kemp P. Battle, William B. Dortch, Forney George, Charles E. Lowther, William G. Pool, James P. Scales and others. He studied law and settled in New Berne. In 1864, he was elected secretary of state, and in 1868 elected one of the judges of the superior courts, which he resigned on being elected a member of the Forty-second Congress, 1871-'73, and re-elected to the Forty-third Congress, 1873 and 1875, he served most acceptably and faithfully as a member of the committee on elections. He was not renominated to the Forty-fourth Congress, but in his stead a gentleman of African descent was elected

        William J. Clarke resides in New Berne; he is a native of Wake County; he was liberally educated, and graduated at the university in 1841, in the same class with R. R. Bridgers, John F.


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Hoke, Montford McGehee, Charles and Samuel F. Phillips, Horatio M. Polk, Jesse G. Shepherd, and others.

        He studied law, and was very laborious and useful.

        In 1846, he volunteered for the Mexican war, and was appointed captain of company I., 12th regiment of United States Infantry, with John F. Hoke as first lieutenant and Junius B. Wheeler and others as privates. At the action at the National Bridge he was severely wounded. He was also in the battles of Pasa Ovejas and Cerro Gordo. For his gallantry he was promoted. This war being ended, and his command disbanded, he returned home to his professional practice.

        In 1850, he was elected by the legislature of North Carolina as comptroller of the state, which, after four years service, he resigned, and was succeeded by George W. Brooks.

        When the civil war began he was appointed colonel of the 24th North Carolina regiment, and did much and varied service; endured much suffering and encountered


                         "--Most disastrous chances,
                         Of moving accidents by flood and field;
                         Of hair breadth escapes in the imminent deadly breach,
                         Of being taken by the insolent foe, and placed into captivity--"

        for at one time, like Governor Vance, he was an inmate of the prison at Washington.

        After the war was over, he returned to his profession, and was made one of the judges of superior courts of law and equity, in which posibe was succeeded by Judge A. S. Seymour.

        Judge Clarke married Mary Bayard, daughter of the late Thomas Pollock Devereux, who was distinguished as a lawyer, and a successful and extensive planter on the Roanoke river; his mother was the grand-daughter of the celebrated Jonathan Edwards, distinguished as a metaphysician, the president of the Princeton College. The early education of Mrs. Clarke was liberal, for blest with ample means, every advantage that wealth could bestow was lavished upon her. Her genius early displayed itself in prose and poetry; but her productions were then mere pastime. The civil war brought adversities to all, and unusual disaster added to this, her health began to fail and she sought the mild climate of Cuba for its restoration. With renewed health she commenced her career as an authoress. Some of her poems were collected and published in a volume, "Mosses from a Rolfing Stone," "The Idle Moments of a Busy Woman," and many other gems. Her many war pieces as "The Battle of Manassas;" "Battle of the Hampton Roads," and her "Rebel Sick,", are calculated to rouse the feelings, while the simple touches of nature in her "Mothers' Dream," "My Children," and "Smiles and Roses," awaken the tender sensibilities of the heart. The "Reminiscences of Cuba," and "Of noted North Carolinians," show her skill and power as a pen painter of genius. In 1854, Mrs. Clarke published "Wood Notes;" in 1871, "Clytie and Zenobia; or, the Lily and the Palm."

        William Edwards Clarke is the son of the above. He was born in Raleigh on March 7, 1850.

        He was educated at Davidson College, and read law at Columbia College, New York.

        He was elected in 1876 a member of the legislature by 1,500 majority. He was a tutor in the Deaf and Dumb Institution.


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CHAPTER XV.
CUMBERLAND COUNTY.

        WITH this county is associated the name of Flora MacDonald, born at South Uist, Scotland in 1720, and died March 4th, 1790.

        She is celebrated for having aided and accomplished the escape of Charles Edward, the young pretender, after the battle of Culloden, April 16, 1746.

        In 1750, she married Alexander MacDonald, with whom she came to North Carolina in 1773, and settled near Fayetteville in this county. He was a captain of the Royal Highlanders, and was engaged in the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, where he was taken prisoner, and confined in Halifax jail. Flora returned to Skye, Scotland. She was of much personal beauty, and of great energy and determination of character. On the voyage home an attack on the ship was made by a French ship of war, and when the English ship was about to be taken, she rushed on the deck, and by her example and courage drove the enemy off. In the contest her arm was broken.

        Several of her sons were officers in the army. One of them was a colonel, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.

        The character and life of Flora MacDonald have excited the imagination of Sir Walter Scott, Mrs. Ellett and others. A more full and detailed sketch of her life and character may be found in "the History of the Jacobites," and in the History of North Carolina, II., 126.

        She died in 1790, and her name is still remembered by the old folks about Fayetteville with reverence and regard.

        Foote has said of this amiable and illustrious character, "England has her Elizabeth, Virginia her Pocahoritas, and North Carolina her Flora MacDonald."

        Another character appears in the early history of this county, and as he was somewhat notorious, his name is presented--Farquard Campbell.

        He was a shrewd and active politician, and tried to make favor with both sides, but as in all similar efforts, the favor of both sides was lost.

        I find from a dispatch of Governor Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated on board of the Cruiser, October 16th, 1775, the following:

        "I am surprised to hear that the Scotch Highlanders have declared themselves neutral. This I attribute to the influence of a certain Farquard Campbell, an ignorant man who has settled from his childhood in this county, an old member of the assembly, and has imbibed all the American prejudices. By advice of some of my countrymen, I was induced to communicate with him, and sound him, in case mattus came to extremities, and was assured of his loyalty. He expressed to me his abhorence of the violence done at Fort Johnstone, and in other instances and discovered so much jealousy and apprehension of the ill designs of the leaders in sedition, giving me at the same time so strong assurances of his loyalty, and of the good dispositions of his countrymen, that I, never suspecting his dissimulation and treachery, was led to impart to him the encouragements I was authorized to hold out to His Majesty's loyal subjects, which he received with much approbation. From the time of this conversation, in July last, I heard nothing from Mr. Campbell, until the late convention at Hillsboro, when he appeared as a delegate from the County of Cumberland, and there, according to my information, unasked and unsolicited, and without provocation of any sort, he was guilty of the base treachery of promulgating all I had said to him in confidential secrecy, which he had promised sacredly to observe, and aggravating the crime of falsehood by adding his own invention, in declaring he had rejected all my propositions."



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        This shows the opinion of Governor Martin. Campbell received as little favor from the other side, for the next fall he was seized by Colonel Folsome in his own house, while entertaining a party of Highland loyalists, and taken to Halifax jail.

        The following letter from Colonel Moore will show the status of Mr. Campbell with the whig side.

"CAMP AT MOORE'S CREEK,
"February 27th, 1776.

        "SIR: I have thought proper to send down Mr. Farquard Campbell to be examined by your committee.

        "He has been accused of aiding and abetting the tories in their late schemes, and was carried a prisoner to Colonel Caswell's camp. He has now fallen into my hands, and I send him to you to deal with him as you think proper.

        "A Daniel Williams, of Duplin, who was a prisoner among the tories, says that he heard Captain McCloud say that they intended to go to the governor by the way of Rockfish; but that Mr. F. Campbell advised them to take the route they have done, and that in a few hours, by his means they might have notice of anything that was transacted in our camp. I am, sir,

"Your very humble servant,

"JAMES MOORE."


        "To the chairman of the committee of Wilmington, N. C."

        "Ever strong upon the stronger side," when the revolution ended in our independence, Campbell was claimed to be a whig, and was senator in 1791-'92-'93, from Cumberland.

        Wm. Barry Grove, resided in Cumberland County, and represented it in the legislature in 1788-'89, and this district in congress 1791 to 1803. He was in congress during the struggle between Jefferson and Burr, and supported the latter for presidency.

        We have been able to gather but little from the annuals of congress or from private sources, of the life and character of Mr. Grove, and leave this duty to some son of the Cape Fear district.

        He was the only member of the North Carolina delegation in the house who supported the sedition law, which passed the house May 21, 1798. He supported Jay's British Treaty, so universally repudiated by the south. He was joined by Governor Martin in support of these Federal measures, which was the death warrant of both in their political lives. Governor Martin in 1801, was succeeded by Governor Franklin and Grove by Samuel D. Purviance of Fayetteville.

        He married Sarah, daughter of Egbert Haywood and Sally Ware, the aunt of Honorable William S. Ashe.

        Mr. Moore says that he was prompt, vivacious and a devoted advocate for the adoption of the new constitution; that he and John Hay had married the daughters of Colonel Rowan, both residents of Fayetteville.

        John Louis Taylor born March 1, 1769, died January, 1829, resided for many years in Fayetteville. He was born in London, of Irish parents; he was deprived, at an early age, of his father, and was brought to this country by an elder brother, when he was only twelve years old. By the aid of this brother, he enjoyed the advantages of education, and spent two years at William and Mary college in Virginia. He then came to this state, studied law, and settled at Fayetteville. His success at the bar was complete. His gentle and unobstrusive bearing, his deep learning, and kind temper soon gained him practice and "troops of friends." He was elected in 1792,-'93,-'94 to represent the town of Fayetteville in the House of Commons. During this last year, the office of attorney-general became vacant; he with Messrs. Blake Baker and Robert Williams were nominated for the office, and Mr. Baker was elected.

        He now devoted all his talents and time to his profession, and even with such competitors as Hay, Duffy, Williams, and others, he had a large and lucrative practice. He removed to New Berne in 1796.


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        In 1798, he was elected a judge of the superior courts of law and equity. At this time the state was divided into eight judicial districts, Edenton, Halifax, New Berne, Wilmington, Fayetteville, Hillsboro, Salisbury, and Morganton. Court was held twice a year, at which two of the four judges had to preside. These courts had supreme jurisdiction, for there was no court of appeals, and their decisions were final. This obvious defect was endeavored to be remedied by the act of 1799, directing the judges to meet together at Raleigh twice a year to settle questions of law and equity arising on the circuits. In 1801, the act of 1799 was continued for three years, and the meeting of the judges was called "the court of conference."

        In 1804, this was made a permanent tribunal, and its name changed in the following year to that of "the Supreme Court." In 1808 the judges were authorized to appoint one of their number chief justice, and Judge Taylor was selected. In 1818, the supreme court was established, and John Lewis Taylor, John Hall and Leonard Henderson were appointed to hold it. Judge Taylor continued as chief justice until his death, which occurred at Raleigh, January 29, 1829.

        Soon after his appointment, Judge Taylor began to take notes of the cases decided by him and his associates; and in 1802 he published "Cases Determined in the Superior Courts of Law and Equity of the State of North Carolina."

        In 1814, he published anonymously the first, and in 1816 the second volume of "the Carolina Repository;" also another volume of reports from 1816 to 1818, known as "Taylor's Term Reports." His charge to the grand jury of Edgecombe, in 1817, was published at the request of the grand jury, and is a model of its kind, showing the various offences that grand juries are bound to notice, and a general summary of their duties.

        By the act of 1817, he was appointed with Henry Porter and Bartlett Yancey to revise the statute law of the state, and the statutes of England in force in the state. This work was completed and published in 1821. In 1825, Judge Taylor continued this work. He, about the same time, published a treatise "on the Duties of Executors and Administrators."

        This devoted loyalty to his profession did not prevent Judge Taylor from worshipping at the shrine of the muses. There was not, perhaps, a better belles lettres scholar in his day. While at the bar he possessed a singular felicity of expression, which always seized the most appropriate word suited to the thought. His efforts were distinguished by a playful, benevolent humor, great ingenuity and skill in argument, and a most retentive memory. Always polite to his associates, and respectful to the court, with high and generous feelings, he was loved and respected. Of the mode in which he exercised the functions of a judge of this highest tribunal in our land, his recorded opinions will demonstrate, and these are models of eloquence and logic, whilst they are admired for their research and classic beauty.

        As a neighbor, no one had a more benevolent disposition, more sincere in his friendships or more affectionate in all the relations of life. His tribute to the memory of the late James F. Taylor, who died in 1828, is creditable alike to his head and heart.*

        * This may be found in 1 Devereux Reports, 527.


This gentleman, though bearing the same name, was no blood relation, and was only connected by having married his adopted daughter, Eliza L. Manning. Judge Taylor was twice married. His first wife was Julia Rowan, by whom he had one daughter, who married Major Sneed, a son of whom was attorney-general of Tennessee. The second wife was Jane Gaston, a sister of Judge Gaston, by whom he had one daughter, who married David E. Sumner, of
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Hertfort County, and a son, John Louis, who died years ago, unmarried.

        Henry Potter, born 1765, died 1857, was for more than half a century judge of the United States District Court for the state of North Carolina, appointed in 1801 by Mr. Jefferson. He resided in Fayetteville; he was a native of Granville County.

        Of his early education we have no information. But he was for years a trustee and an active friend of the university. Kind and courteous in his manners, upright and patient as a judge, he possessed abilities of a reputable order; but to preside as the associate of Marshal, Daniel, and Wayne, demanded no ordinary powers. In the latter days of his life he was fond of narrating the events of his youth. He had known Washington, and heard him deliver his first address to congress at Philadelphia. He knew Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Hamilton, Charles Carroll. Rufus King and other celebrities of the revolution, as well Richard Caswell, Judge Iredell, Governor Johnstone, Nash, Burke, Spaight, Ashe, Davie, and others of our own state, and such giants as Cameron, Gaston Toomer, Means, Duffy and Strange had practiced before him; all of whom preceded him to the grave. Had he written the reminiscences of his times. How agreeable would such a work have been to our age!

        He wrote a work "on the Duties of a Justice of the Peace," and with Yancey and Taylor revised our statute laws. He died December 20, 1857.

        John D. Toomer was a native of Wilmington; educated at the university but did not graduate.

        He represented this county in the senate of the state legislature in 1831 and 1832, and succeeded Judge Strange, in the house in 1836. He had been a judge of the superior courts in 1818, and was on the supreme court bench in 1829, by appointment of the governor, but was not elected by the legislature. In 1836, he was again on the superior court bench which he resigned from ill health in 1840. He was an eloquent advocate, a learned judge, a writer of great literary attainments, and an accomplished and urbane gentleman. He died in Pittsboro in 1856.

        Louis D. Henry, born 1788, died 1846, resided for years in this county. He was a native of New Jersey, educated at Princeton, where he graduated in 1809. He read law with his uncle, Edward Graham, in New Berne, and practiced with great success. He was distinguished for his courteous manners, his finished elocution, and his accurate and extensive memory. His genial temper and popular manners were duly appreciated by his fellow citizens. He represented the county 1821 and 1822, and the town in 1830-'31 and '32, and in the latter year was chosen speaker.

        In early life, when quite young, he became involved in a duel with Thomas J. Stanly, (about 1812) which terminated in the death of the latter.

        He was appointed Minister to Belguim by the President (VanBuren,) which mission he declined, but he accepted the appointment of commissioner to settle claims against Spain.

        In 1842, he made an unsuccessful campaign as candidate for governor of the state. This was his last appearance in political life, for four years after he died suddenly at his residence in Raleigh.

        Mr. Henry was no ordinary man. Gifted by nature with high mental endowments, cultivated by education, of a most agreeable presence, an exquisite taste for poetry and music, with most melodious voice, he was a welcome and favoured guest wherever he moved.

        Mr. Henry was twice married. By his last wife, who survived him, he had several children. One of whom married Duncan K. McRae, another John H. Manly, and another was the first wife of R. P. Waring, of Charlotte.


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        Robert Strange, born 1796, died February 19th, 1854, who lived and died in Fayetteville, was a native of Virginia. He was educated at Hampden Sydney, studied law and settled at Fayetteville, from which town he was elected a representative to the legislature 1821; re-elected, with two intermissions, until 1836, when he was elected one of the judges of the superior courts, in which position he was so acceptable that in 1836, he was elected United States senator. Here he shone conspicuous for the suavity of his manners, his affable demeanor, and his brilliant abilities. Under instructions from the legislature, elected in the phrensy of the &q