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Men of Mark:
Eminent, Progressive and Rising:

Electronic Edition.

Simmons, William J., 1849-1890


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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
2000.

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(title page) Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising
REV. WILLIAM J. SIMMONS, D. D.
1138 p., ill.
CLEVELAND, OHIO:
GEO. M. REWELL & CO.
1887.

Call number 326.92 S592M (Perkins Library, Duke University)


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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

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MEN OF MARK:
Eminent, Progressive and Rising.

BY

REV. WILLIAM J. SIMMONS, D. D.,
President of the State University, Louisville, Kentucky.

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR BY REV. HENRY M.
TURNER, D. D., LL. D., BISHOP A. M. E. CHURCH.
Illustrated.

CLEVELAND, OHIO:
GEO. M. REWELL & CO.
1887.


Page verso

COPYRIGHT
GEO. M. REWELL & CO.
1887.
PRESS OF W. W. WILLIAMS, CLEVELAND, O.
MURRAY & HEISS, ENGRAVERS.
THIS BOOK IS SOLD EXCLUSIVELY BY SUBSCRIPTION, AND IS NOT
FOR SALE IN BOOK STORES.


Page 3

THIS VOLUME IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
TO
THE WOMEN OF OUR RACE,
AND
ESPECIALLY TO THE DEVOTED, SELF-SACRIFICING
MOTHERS
WHO MOULDED THE LIVES OF THE SUBJECTS
OF THESE SKETCHES, LABORING AND PRAYING
FOR THEIR SUCCESS. IT IS SENT FORTH WITH
THE EARNEST HOPE THAT FUTURE MOTHERS
WILL BE INSPIRED TO GIVE SPECIAL ATTENTION
TO THE TRAINING OF THEIR CHILDREN, AND
THEREBY FIT THEM FOR HONORABLE, HAPPY
AND USEFUL LIVES.

THE AUTHOR.


Page 5

PREFACE.

        TO PRESUME to multiply books in this day of excellent writers and learned book-makers is a rash thing perhaps for a novice. It may even be a presumption that shall be met by the production itself being driven from the market by the keen, searching criticism of not only the reviewers, but less noted objectors. And yet there are books that meet a ready sale because they seem like "Ishmaelites"--against everybody and everybody against them. Whether this work shall ever accomplish the design of the author may not at all be determined by its sale. While I hope to secure some pecuniary gain that I may accompany it with a companion illustrating what our women have done, yet by no means do I send it forth with the sordid idea of gain. I would rather it would do some good than make a single dollar, and I echo the wish of "Abou Ben Adhem," in that sweet poem of that name, written by Leigh Hunt. The angel was writing at the table, in his vision.


                         The names of those who love the Lord.
Abou wanted to know if his was there--and the angel said "No." Said Abou,


                         I pray thee, then, write me as one that loves his fellow-men.


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        That is what I ask to be recorded of me.


                         The angel wrote and vanished. The next night
                         It came again, with a great awakening light.
                         And showed the names whom love of God had blessed.
                         And lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest.

        I desire that the book shall be a help to students, male and female, in the way of information concerning our great names.

        I have noticed in my long experience as a teacher, that many of my students were wofully ignorant of the work of our great colored men--even ignorant of their names. If they knew their names, it was some indefinable something they had done--just what, they could not tell. If in a slight degree I shall here furnish the data for that class of rising men and women, I shall feel much pleased. Herein will be found many who had severe trials in making their way through schools of different grades. It is a suitable book, it is hoped, to be put into the hands of intelligent, aspiring young people everywhere, that they might see the means and manners of men's elevation, and by this be led to undertake the task of going through high schools and colleges. If the persons herein mentioned could rise to the exalted stations which they have and do now hold, what is there to prevent any young man or woman from achieving greatness? Many, yea, nearly all these came from the loins of slave fathers, and were the babes of women in bondage, and themselves felt the leaden hand of slavery on their own bodies; but whether slaves or not, they suffered with their brethren because of color. That "sum of human villainies" did not crush out the life and


Page 7

manhood of the race. I wish the book to show to the world--to our oppressors and even our friends--that the Negro race is still alive, and must possess more intellectual vigor than any other section of the human family, or else how could they be crushed as slaves in all these years since 1620, and yet to-day stand side by side with the best blood in America, in white institutions, grappling with abstruse problems in Euclid and difficult classics, and master them? Was ever such a thing seen in another people? Whence these lawyers, doctors, authors, editors, divines, lecturers, linguists, scientists, college presidents and such, in one quarter of a century?

        Another thing I would have them notice, that the spirituality of this race was not diminished in slavery. While in bondage, it may have been somewhat objectionable, as seen in the practices of our race, it must be remembered that they copied much from their owners--they never descended to the level of brutes, and were kind, loving and faithful. They patiently waited till God broke their chains. There was more statesmanship in the Negro slaves than in their masters. Thousands firmly believed they would live to be free, but their masters could not be persuaded to voluntarily accept pay from the government, and thus save the loss they afterwards bore through the "Emancipation." They went to war and fought "the God of battles," but the slaves waited, humbly feeding the wives and children of those who went to battle to rivet their chains. To my mind, one of the most sublime points in our history is right here. We never harmed one of these helpless women and children--they testified of that themselves. And yet


Page 8

they tell stale lies of ravishing now, when the war is over, and freedom gained, and when the men are all home. No, God has permitted us to triumph and through Him. He implanted in us a vigorous spiritual tree, and since freedom, how has this been growing? Untrammelled, we have, out of our ignorance and penury, built thousands of churches, started thousands of schools, educated millions of children, supported thousands of ministers of the Gospel, organized societies for the care of the sick and the burying of the dead. This spirituality and love of offspring are indubitable evidences that slavery, though long and protracted, met in our race a vigorous, vital, God-like spirituality, which like the palm tree flourishes and climbs upward through opposition.

        Again, I admire these men. I have faith in my people. I wish to exalt them; I want their lives snatched from obscurity to become household matter for conversation. I have made copious extracts from their speeches, sermons, addresses, correspondence and other writings, for the purpose of showing their skill in handling the English language, and to show the range of the thoughts of the American Negro. I wish also to furnish specimens of Negro eloquence, that young men might find them handy for declamations and apt quotations. It was hard to draw the line in making many selections, and I do not claim that a better selection might not be made. Indeed I am aware that many are entitled to a place here, and the reader may think I did wrong in selecting some of my subjects; but I ask no pardon for the names I present. They may be the judgment of a faulty brain, and yet there is


Page 9

much to admire in all. The extent of our country makes it impossible to secure all who may be "eminent, progressive and rising." I trust I have presented a representative of many classes of those who labor. The book may therefore be a suggestion for some one to do better.

        The illustrations are many, and have been presented so that the reader may see the characters fact to face. This writing has been a labor of love, a real pleasure. I feel better for the good words I have said of these gentlemen. There is no great literary attempt made. I have not tried to play the part of a scholar, but a narrator of facts with here and there a line of eulogy. The book is full; and has already passed the limit of first intentions. I am in debt to many gentlemen for their kindness--especially to Rev. Alexander Crummell, D. D., for the use of books; Hon. James M. Trotter for the loan of cuts taken from his work 'Music and Some Highly Musical People;' Rev. R. De Baptiste for assistance in securing sketches; Rev. B. W. Arnett, D. D., loan of books; Hon. John H. Smythe for assistance in sketches and pictures of E. W. Blyden and President W. W. Johnson; General T. Morris Chester, for picture of Ira Aldridge and facts on his life; Professor W. S. Scarborough for many kind helps; Rev. J. H. Greene, for cut of Augustus Tolton and facts in his life; William C. Chase, John W. Cromwell, T. McCants Stewart, Hon. D. A. Straker, Marshall W. Taylor, D. D., Hon. P. B. S. Pinchback, Hon. H. O. Wagoner, Rev. Rufus L. Perry and many others, and pre-eminently do I feel grateful to Bishop H. M. Turner, my distinguished friend, who trusts his own good name by associating it with this poor effort. May God


Page 10

bless him for this kind act to a beginner in book-making. This book goes out on the wing of a prayer that it will do great good.

WILLIAM J. SIMMONS.

May, 1887.


Page 11

CONTENTS.


Page 35

ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page 39

INTRODUCTION.

ACCOMPANIED BY A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF REV. W. J.
SIMMONS, A. B., A. M., D. D.

        It is a historic fact that Virginia soil has been rife with Presidents, but truly South Carolina has given to the world more men of note than any other State in the Union. In Charleston, South Carolina, June 29, 1849, Edward and Esther Simmons, two slaves, added to their fortune the subject of this sketch, who though born in poverty, shrouded by obscurity, was destined to make for himself a name honored among men. At an early period in his life, interested parties hurried the mother with three small children northward, without the protection of a husband and father, to begin a long siege with poverty. When the steamer landed at Philadelphia they were met by an uncle, Alexander Tardiff, who left the south some time before. This uncle, a shoemaker by trade, displayed the virtues of a generous nature in caring for the mother, William, Emeline and Anna as well as he could, with prejudice to fight. These were days of hardships and anxieties so keen for the little family that even now the survivors speak of them in hushed tones and with misty eyes. While in Philadelphia


Page 40

they were harassed by slave traders who seemed determined to burrow them out of their hiding place. At this time disease laid his hand upon them.


                         Disasters come not singly;
                         But as if they watched and waited,
                         Scanning one another's motions.
                         When the first descends, the others
                         Follow, follow, gathering flock-wise
                         Round their victim, sick and wounded,
                         First a shadow, then a sorrow,
                         Till the air is dark with anguish.

        Huddled together in the garret of the three-story brick house where they lived, stricken with the small-pox, almost destitute of food, and fearing to call in medical attendance lest by attracting attention they would be carried back into slavery; while death stared them in the face, fugitive slave hunters rapped at the door of the front room which the uncle used as a workshop. These beasts in human flesh, after many inquiries and cross-questionings were so misled by the shrewd uncle that they went away. Shortly after, the uncle finding it impossible to earn a living at his trade, decided to go to sea. The family was left at Roxbury, Pennsylvania. Here for two years the faithful mother toiled morning, noon and night, at washing and other hard work to support the children and keep them together. At the expiration of this time the uncle returned and carried them to Chester, Pennsylvania, where he was able to do a good business; but the same old trouble arose. The slave traders were on their track again! The family was smuggled away to Philadelphia and remained long enough for the uncle to secure employment,


Page 41

by answering an advertisement inserted in the papers by George and Arthur Stowell, Bordentown, New Jersey, for a journeyman shoemaker. At this place it was a daily contest with poverty and a struggle for bread; however, the children were kept together, and none were ever hired out. During the entire boyhood of William, so hard pressed were they because of sickness, dull seasons of work and other difficulties, that never a toy, so dear to childhood, brightened his life; and for days and weeks, milk and mush was his only food. He never attended a public school in his whole school life. The uncle having attended school in Charleston under D. A. Payne, now Bishop Payne of the A. M. E. Church, was a fair scholar and undertook the education of the children, laying a foundation so broad and exact, that in after years college studies for the boy were comparatively easy.

        William was by no means a good "Sabbath-keeping-boy" such as we read of in books. He gave considerable trouble at home and abroad. In 1862 he was apprenticed to Dr. Leo H. DeLange, a dentist in Bordentown, New Jersey. So far as giving him necessary instruction, the doctor was kind to him. William had learned so thoroughly all there was to be learned in the profession, that when the doctor was absent he was able to do a large part of the work. Though often rebuffed by white patients, he operated on some of the best families in the city. He endeavored to enter a dental college in Philadelphia, and was refused largely on account of color. Unwilling to enter the profession without a thorough knowledge, such as could be given only in a training school, he decided to


Page 42

abandon the profession, but remained with the doctor until September 16, 1864, at which time, becoming disgusted at the treatment received at the hands of the doctor, he ran away and enlisted in the Forty-first United States colored troops.

        His army life was not uneventful; he took part in battles around Petersburg, Hatches Run, Appomattox Court House, and was present at the surrender of Lee, the crisis out of which our own happier cycle of years has been evolved. He was discharged September 13, 1865, and in 1866 and 1867 worked as journeyman at his trade for Dr. William H. Longfellow, a colored dentist of Philadelphia, after which he returned to Dr. DeLange.

        He was converted in 1867 and joined the white Baptist church in Bordentown, pastored by Rev. J. W. Custis, a brilliant man, under whose influence about one hundred and fifty had joined the church that spring.

        Although the only colored man in the church, he was treated with much kindness; and when his call to the Gospel ministry was made known, they rallied to his support, defraying his school expenses three years. The New Jersey State Educational Society aided him to attend Madison University of New York, from which he graduated in 1868, taking the academic course. Both students and teachers were his warm friends and are to-day. The dark skinned youth, though alone, never felt the sting of injustice at their hands. September, 1868, found him matriculated at Rochester University, having been led to make the change by an offer of additional aid by laboring in a small Baptist church in Rochester, and because there he found


Page 43

colored people among whom he could associate and do missionary work. At this early date we see cropping out the love for the race which in after years became one of the ruling passions of his life.

        One pleasant year slipped by, and the freshman year completed, when his eyes became seriously affected. The trouble was brought on by continuous night study of Greek during his academic year. This prevented school attendance until the year 1871 when he entered Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, and graduated as an A. B. in 1873. His graduating oration treating of the Darwinian theory, a subject then very popular in literary circles, attracted much attention and newspaper comments. Extracts were printed in a paper in England devoted to science and literature.

        At many periods, his school life was a sequel to the days of deprivation of childhood. Time and again he would be forced to stay indoors while having his only shirt laundried. Poor shoes and patched clothes were the rule, not the exception. During his entire course he did not have a whole suit until reaching the senior year. Once he ate cheese and crackers three weeks. During the senior year, September, 1872, to June, 1873, he walked seven miles a day, and taught school; came home and drilled the cadet company from four to five; recited at night, and graduated with the salutatory of the class. That was a happy day; by frugality he had saved three hundred dollars. Commencement day for him ended many deprivations and sacrifices in one sense. Both have come since, but of a different character and easier to bear. In the world one can


Page 44

find means of replenishing his purse, and many opportunities of changing his circumstances; but with a student it is different. He must in a degree be stationary, and cannot move around for the purpose of getting benefits.

        During these years his mother lavished on him the devotion and pride of a loving heart. She washed, ironed and labored in other ways to help him. In this she was greatly assisted by one Bunting Hankins and his devoted wife of Bordentown, New Jersey, in whose family she labored. General O. O. Howard, president of Howard University, and General E. Whittlesey, dean of the college department, showed him many kindnesses during and after college days. While a student, he showed such aptness to teach in conducting a school at a place called Bunker's Hill, rebuilding it almost from nothing, that the school-board promoted him to the principalship of a much larger building, with several hundred scholars. This was the Hillsdale Public school, District of Columbia. Here he boarded in the house of Hon. Solomon G. Brown, one of the ablest scientists in this country.

        Immediately after graduating, he took Horace Greeley's advice, and went west, to Arkansas, with the idea of making it his home; was examined and secured a State certificate from the Honorable Superintendent of Education, J. C. Corbin, but soon returned to Washington and taught at Hillsdale until June, 1874.

        After marrying Josephine A., the daughter of John and Caroline Silence, in Washington, District of Columbia, August 25, 1874, he went south. By this union they have had the following children: Josephine Lavinia,


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William Johnson, Maud Marie, Amanda Moss, Mary Beatrice, John Thomas and Gussie Lewis. Desiring to better his financial condition he went to Florida, September, 1874, and invested in lands and oranges, but the investment did not prove a paying one. While in Ocala (in 1879) he was ordained a deacon, and was licensed to preach without asking for it. Pastored at a small station a year before ordination, after which time, he was ordained the night before leaving the State.

        He was principal of Howard Academy, deputy county clerk and county commissioner. Here, too, his political tendencies received an impetus. He was chairman of the county campaign committee, and a member of the district congressional committee. Stumped the county for Hayes and Wheeler, and when it is remembered that the State went only 147 majority for Hayes, it is quite a material thing that the county in which he lived raised its quota from 525 Republican majority to 986. After this he returned to Washington and taught public school until 1879, when he left to accept the pastorate of the First Baptist church, Lexington, Kentucky. To do great work, God raises up great men.

        September, 1880, he was called to the presidency of the Normal and Theological institution (as it was then called), a school conducted under the auspices of the General Association of Colored Baptists of Kentucky. At that time the school had but thirteen pupils, two teachers and an empty treasury. Says The Bowling Green Watchmen, a State paper edited by Rev. Eugene Evans:


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        Few men of Professor Simmons ability and standing would have been willing to risk their future in an enterprise like the Normal and Theological Institution; an enterprise without capital and but a few friends. But it can be truly said of Professor Simmons, that he has proven himself master of the situation. The school had been talked of for nearly twenty years but no one ever dreamed of its being a possibility. When he was elected president, every cloud vanished, and the sunshine of success could be seen on every side. Some of his students already rank among the foremost preachers, teachers and orators of the State.


        As an educator, he has likely no superiors. Discarding specialism in education, he claims that ideal manhood and womanhood cannot be narrowed down to any one sphere of action, but that the whole being--every faculty with which we are endowed--must receive proper development. No boy or girl comes under his influence without feeling a desire to become useful and great. He infuses inspiration into the least ambitious. He has a knack of "drawing out" all there is within. No flower within his reach "wastes its sweetness on the desert air." If there are elements of usefulness in those around him, he trains and utilizes them. As a president, his executive ability is excellent. Students admire, respect and stand in awe of him; his teachers are proud of him, trust his judgment and abide by his decisions. For poor students he has the tenderest sympathy, especially for those who most desire an education and struggle hardest for it. He rewards those who are faithful in discharge of duty, and for those who accomplish something he has words of cheer, but for idlers nothing.

        September 29, 1882, he was elected editor of the American Baptist, and at this time is President of the American


Page 47

Baptist Company. As an editor, Dr. Simmons brings before the public every live issue of the day. His editorials are racy, versatile and logical. He contends for rights and cries down wrongs. He is extensively copied, and has the personal respect of every editor and prominent man in the country. A man of forcible character and deep convictions must reveal himself in his writings, and the subject of this article is such a man. His pen pictures are characterized by a rugged strength which takes hold of the reader and fixes the thought in memory more than by elaboration and flourishes which soothe and please, but pass from the mind as water through the seive. In regard to the duty of colored citizens to existing parties he believes "that committed as both parties are to the pernicious doctrine of State Rights, colored people should pay less attention to national politics than to State affairs." He says:

        The days are slipping by and our children are growing into manhood and womanhood--we are fast passing away. Shall we live deluded with the hope that the general government will bring to us a panacea for all our ills? No; we must court the favors of the people of the State. We must be for progress wherever found. We must act wisely. Indeed the Republican party could not, if it would, help us. They are debarred by statutes, and sentiments, stronger than statutes. Let us study State interests, its schools and its development in every direction. Let us cast our votes for liberal men who will help us. We cannot expect those against whom we vote to do so. Take Kentucky; who has secured all the school advantages for the colored race? Why, the colored people themselves. The Republican party did not do it--not a bit of it. The white men of the party and their children were all right. When did they offer to make a special fight for us? Never. When, then, did we secure a change of the forty-eight per capita tax to an equalization of the tax for


Page 48

all children alike? By petition of our own and by favor of Democrats, even when put to a popular vote, and by the act of a Democratic legislature. Is it not queer, too, that we never thought to demand of our party that they made the fight for us? The answer is, the colored man is such a slave to party that his blind obedience has befogged his reason so that he has fought the white man's battles, secured office for him, and fought for his own rights unaided in "Negro Conventions." White men would have made a broad open fight and demanded the Negro votes. After the convention was over the Negroes would petition the very legislature members whom they had fought and voted against in every county. Negroes attempt to do in convention what they ought to do with their votes, and are driven to it by the policy of the Republican party in the South. We should change this thing."


        Dr. Simmons' activities are prominently identified with the most important affairs of the race. Several years he has been chairman of the executive committee of the "State Convention of Colored Men of Kentucky." At the meeting in Lexington, November 26, 1875, he was reelected. The call of the said meeting, a document enumerating in a few words the long catalogue of injustices practiced upon the colored citizens of the State, shows a high degree of statesmanship. It begins thus:

        FELLOW-CITIZENS:--When a free people, living in a body politic, feel that the laws are unjustly administered to them; that discriminations are openly made; that various subterfuges and legal technicalities are constantly used to deprive them of the enjoyment of those rights and immunities belonging to the humblest citizen; when the courts become no refuge for the outraged, and when a sentiment is not found sufficient to do them justice, it becomes their bounden duty to protest against such a state of affairs. To do less than vigorously and earnestly enter our protest is to cringe like hounds before masters, and to show that we are not fit for freedom. We are robbed by some of the railroad companies who take our first-class fares and then we are driven into smoking cars, and, if we demur, are cursed and roughly handled. Our women have


Page 49

been beaten by brutal brakemen, and in many cases left to ride on the platforms at the risk of life and limb.

         We are tried in courts controlled entirely by white men, and no colored man sits on a Kentucky jury. This seems no mere accident, but a determined effort to exclude us from fair trials and put us at the mercy of our enemies, from the judge down to the vilest suborned witness.

         When charged with grave offenses, the jail is mobbed, and the accused taken out and hanged; and out of the hundreds of such cases since the war, not a single high-handed murderer has been ever brought before a court to answer. Colored men have been deliberately murdered, and few if any murderers have been punished by the law. Indecent haste to free the criminal in such cases has made the trial a farce too ridiculous to be called more than a puppet show.

         The penitentiary is full of our race, who are sent there by wicked and malicious persecutors, and unjust sentences dealt out by judges, who deem a colored criminal fit only for the severest and longest sentences for trivial offenses.

         In all departments of the State we are systematically deprived of recognition, except in menial positions. In our metropolitan city, and even cities of lesser note, we are not considered in the appointments in fire companies, police force, notary public, etc. In fact, we are the ruled class and have no share in the government.


        Dr. Simmons was chairman of the committee appointed by the convention to lay before the Legislature the grievances of the 271,481 colored citizens. His speech on this occasion was a masterpiece. Says the Soldiers' Reunion, a paper published at Lexington:

        The speech of Rev. W. J. Simmons, D. D.; before the Kentucky Legislature, was one of the ablest efforts ever made in the interests of the colored people. They (the Legislature) have ordered two thousand copies printed.


        Said he:

        Only the history of the two races in our beautiful country could give birth to such a scene as this. That we, born Americans, finding distinctions


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in law, should be driven to appeal to a portion of the same body politic for rights and equalities; and though American sovereigns ourselves, because too weak, bend the suppliant knee, craving that we might be given that which appears rightly ours without contest. We feel some pride, and are consequently jealous of the good name of the State and of the United States. We also feel humiliated that a foreigner who has never felled a tree, built a cabin, or laid a line of railway, seems more welcome to this shore, and is accorded every facility for himself and children to make the most of themselves, even BEFORE NATURALIZATION; while we, seeing them happy in a new-found asylum, and knowing you from our youth up-our mothers washed your linen and nursed you, our fathers made the soil feed you, and kept the fire burning in your grate--are compelled to beg, in the zenith hour of 1886, your favors. Two generations are before you; the one born in the cradle of slavery, the other born in the cradle of liberty; the one saw the light mid the discussions of your fathers; the other mingled their infant's voice with the retreating sound of the cannon. We belong to the South--the "New South." Your own progress in the questions of human liberty and our own thirst for draughts from higher fountains, and, indeed, in obedience to the demands of our constituents, we venture to lay before you in a manly, honorable way, the complaints of 271,481 as true hearted Kentuckians as ever came from the loin of the bravest, truest and most honored of women, sired by the most distinguished fathers. As Kentuckians we meet you with the feelings and aspirations, common and peculiar to those born and surrounded by the greatness of your history, the fertility of your soil, the nobility of your men and the beauty of your women. We come, plain of speech, in order to prove that we are men of judgment, meeting men who are really desirous of knowing our wants.


        At the meeting of the Colored Press convention in St. Louis, Missouri, July 13, 1883, he was nominated for its president, but was beaten by Hon. W. A. Pledger of Georgia by one vote. When said convention met in Richmond, Virginia, July 8. 1885, he was made chairman of the executive committee and at the next meeting, August 3, 1886, Atlantic City, New Jersey, he was elected president


Page 51

by a majority of four over Mr. T. T. Fortune, editor of The Freeman.

        Dr. Simmons is very much interested in the education of the hand. He has written a pamphlet on "Industrial Education" which has had a wide circulation. A sample of it will be seen below.

        If the industrial craze be not watched, our literary institutions will be turned into workshops and our scholars into servants and journeymen. Keep the literary and industrial apart. Let the former be stamped deeply so it will not be mistaken. We need scholars. All men are not workers in the trades, and never will be. If we cripple the schools established, by diverting them largely from their original plan, we shall have no lawyers, doctors, professors, authors, etc. And again, the money in the schools will be divided and neither end will be reached; we will be like clowns trying to ride two horses, and as they get wider apart, we drop in a ditch, and our horses run away from us and break their own necks. Keep these schools apart, and attempt not the task of grinding scholars out of industrial, nor finished workmen from literary schools. Each has a legitimate sphere and let each stick to it. In the colleges, universities and higher schools of the South, not less than a thousand white men are teaching our youth; it is not intended that they will do so forever. I would, therefore, prepare the professors to take their places in the same manner that they were prepared--in literary institutions. In plainer words, let the student be free from industrial trade work when he has made certain grades in his classes. We want good workmen and good scholars, not deluded smatterers in either department. Gingerbread work, fiddling with tools, frittering away time, is not seriously making a mechanic. Industrial work as a sentiment must be crystallized into a profitable reality.

         Hence, this feeble effort in Southern schools will only be the means of deceiving many into the notion that they are "workmen," when they are only botches, and will furnish another poor class of mechanics to supplement a class of which we now complain. It would be wiser to spend ten thousand dollars on a single school per year, and make a first class industrial department, than two thousand dollars on each of five schools. Many will learn to do things for which they can give no reason.


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         The people, the masses, the boys, the girls, the rank and file, must betaken through a thorough English course and made master of a trade. I said this school was needed as a corrective; that is, to teach the dignity of labor. They must learn the gospel of manual labor; not simply as a means of bread and butter, but an honorable calling and duty. Let the buzz of the saw, the ring of the hammer, the whisle of the engine, the spinning of the wheel, the low of the ox, the bleating of the lamb, the crow of the rooster, all be music and inspiration to the rising race. Labor is honorable, but it is fast becoming unfashionable for the colored boy or girl to seek manual labor, and rather than work, many become loafers, dissipates and wrecks. Let us start a current large enough to meet the mental tide and mingling, find the happy medium. Parents must give their children trades. Teachers and preachers must see to this matter.

         This school should have a large farm attached, where agriculture in every form should be taught, and by means of which living could be made cheap to poor students. To sum up the words of another, here in this school, the farmer should be educated in science, elementary engineering, mechanics and agriculture; the miner, mineralogy, geology, chemistry, and his own work; the merchant in geography, history, foreign language, political economy and laws; the machinist must master all the known powers of material nature--heat and cold, weight and impulse; matter in all conditions--liquid, solid and gaseous, standing or running, condensed or rare, adamantine or plastic--all must be seen through and comprehended by the master of modern mechanics. Architects, engineers, teachers and all classes of workers require a technical education.

         I mean to take the female along too. They must be taught domestic economy, household ethics, home architecture, cookery, telegraphy, photography, printing, editorial work, dressmaking, tailoring, knitting, fancy work, nursing, dairying, horticulture, apiaculture, sericulture, poultry raising, stenography, type-writing, practical designs, painting, repousse work, etc., etc., for if men must make money, the women must know best how to save it, or what is better, help to get it. A saving wife is worth her weight in gold and earns her own board and is entitled to have her washing done from home.

         Before I leave this subject, let me say that it may prove the best thing after all that our youth cannot get into the workshops and factories as


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readily as white youths. The latter class have the blessings of good homes and the amenities of a social life beyond that of a colored child. Every library, lecture hall and art gallery is open, and the finest music, sculpture, books, magazines and journals fall as thick around them as autumn leaves. But our youths need to have the moral training which comes from the school-room as well as the skill that comes from the workshop. They need practical drill in habits of industry, care in business, punctuality in dealing with the world, and, in fact, they need the moral bracing up that makes good citizens and square business men and women. Perhaps Providence has so hedged us that out of trials and darkness may come pleasure and light. So now we are driven to do perhaps the best thing for our race by putting our children where head, hand, eye, ear, and in fact the whole man, must be trained.


        The great National Convention of colored men held at Louisville, September, 1883, enrolled him as a member. His love for the people is shown in the following little incident. While serving as a member of the committee on education and labor, a proposition was made to ask Congress to pass a bill giving the monies which had been left in the treasury from the unclaimed bounties of colored soldiers to the high schools of the South, which would of course have included the denominational, and excluded the public schools. Against this he protested, notwithstanding he was at the head of the denominational school which would have received benefits, on the grounds that the masses should be aided and not the few, and because it was a lack of statesmanship and knowledge of the laws governing the land to ask aid for denominational schools. The committee voted him down solidly, but when the matter was called up in the convention, he took the platform and made a speech so convincing that the chairman, Hon. D. A. Straker, LL. D., of South Carolina, was called upon to


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change the report, which was done with good grace. At the convention of the Knights of Wise Men, held in Atlanta, Georgia, he took an active part in the deliberations. He has delivered several addresses before the American Baptist Home Mission Society. At the fiftieth anniversary held in New York, May 24, 1872, his oration, "What are the Colored People Doing?" was much spoken of and published in the Jubilee Volume. He delivered another before the same body, May 26-27, 1885, at Saratoga, and has been invited to address the next meeting, May 29, 1887, at Minneapolis. In 1884, he was appointed by Hon. B. K. Bruce commissioner for the State of Kentucky in the colored department of the World's Industrial and Cotton Exposition held at New Orleans, Louisiana, and succeeded in giving a splendid representation, thereby reflecting credit on the State. The school over which he presided made a creditable exhibit. The trustee board, in making the annual report to the General Association of Colored Baptists, said:

        At the suggestion of our worthy president, who was also the commissioner for Kentucky for the World's Exposition at New Orleans, an exhibition of our University, of both the literary and industrial work, was sent to the Exposition. To say that the display was complete and satisfactory is but to state it mildly. It has done much to advertise our University, and shows the capacity of our people for both education and industrial pursuits.


        In September, 1883, Dr. Simmons called together and organized the Baptist women into a convention, for the purpose of raising money for the educational work of the denomination in the State. The body known as the "Baptist Women's Educational Convention" has met every


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year since, and has and is doing a noble work in paying off the indebtedness of the State University.

        Were you to ask me Dr. Simmons' motto, I would say, "God, my race and denomination." While holding tenaciously his own religious views, he is willing for other men to hold theirs. Among his strongest friends are eminent preachers, scholars and laymen of every denomination in the United States with which colored people are allied. The fact that the Wilberforce University conferred upon him the degree of D. D. is ample evidence of the friendliness existing between him and the brethren of that faith. The faculty of said school ranks with the most eminent men of America, among whom are Rev. B. W. Arnett, D. D., Professor W. S. Scarborough, LL. D., Bishops D. A. Payne, D. D., LL. D., John M. Brown, D. D., D. C. L., and others of like grace and eminence.

        Being impressed with the idea that colored Baptists were not doing what they should for the support and influence of their peculiar views, he suggested, through the American Baptist, April 5, 1886, that a convention be held. This suggestion was heartily endorsed by Baptists throughout the United States. He issued the call at their suggestion, and the result was the organization of the American National Baptist Convention, which met, August 25, 1886, in St. Louis, Mo., and of which he was unanimously elected president, and chairman of the executive committee. He preached the denominational sermon which was published in the minutes. It was rich in statistics and history, pregnant with the faith as handed down from the Apostles. He concluded by saying:


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        The work of the colored Baptists is marvelous, aye, stupendous. When we remember our elevation to-day, it is not with undue pride; no! no! no! with thanksgiving and humiliation, with self-abasement and lowliness, and with an earnest prayer for more faith, we lift our eyes to the Great Father of souls and pray His righteous benediction, that we bow our heads because we have been unprofitable servants. Yet it is with astonishment that we have reached such lofty heights, and with remarkable pleasure do we look back upon the depths from which we came. Driven out, Hagar-like, we have. Ishmael-like, still become a people and dwell in the presence of our brethren, and to-day, in figures bright and glowing in the ending of the nineteenth century, we count fully 1,071.000--every sign of progress. It might be remarked, if we can rise to this point with few learned men, what shall be the result in the next twenty years? Books, papers, magazines and pamphlets shall be as plentiful as the maple leaves in full blown spring.

         The Baptist host is like a cube: throw them aside and they always land on an equal side, and you need never despair when in your trials and doubts in your several churches: remember the God of battles is on your side and that the ages have only increased His glory.


        His knowledge of the tenets of the denomination with which he is identified is marvelous. In this direction his research has been thorough and extensive as is shown in an article on "Baptism" published in the A. M. E. Review, October, 1886, in reply to Rev. B. W. Williams.

        As an orator Dr. Simmons is pleasing to his audience. A quick thinker, and possessing a rich and ready flow of choice language, a figure that can be seen, and a voice that can be heard at a distance. At times, in the heat of debate, the whole grandeur of his soul is transfused into his countenance; and his hearers are electrified as only true eloquence can electrify.

        He was invited to address the students of three different colleges in one year. At Selma University, May 28, 1885,


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his subject was "True Manliness." The Baptist Pioneer commented as follows:

        For nearly an hour and a half the speaker held the large audience spellbound. He was eloquent and inspiring. Rarely have we listened to a more practical oration. At times the audience was convulsed with laughter at the wit, and then immediately made to reflect under the solid words of wisdom which fell from the speaker's lips.


        His address before the Berea College students, subject "The Great Text-Book of the Ages," received much comment. June 18, 1885, after delivering an oration before the Wilberforce Literary Society, subject "Leaders and Followers," he had conferred on him the degree of D. D., by that venerable institution. In 1881, he had received the degree of A. M., from Howard University. During the educational movement in Kentucky, in 1885, I think, Dr. Simmons delivered a speech before the Inter-State Educational Convention, which was held in the white Baptist church, subject "The Education of the Negro Race." In this convention were found the most eminent educators, State superintendents and the most noted thinkers in America. Favorable criticism was made by the New York Journal of Education, the Courier-Journal of Louisville, and other State papers.

        He delivered an oration at the Lexington Emancipation celebration, January 1, 1887. Urging the hearers to greater efforts, he said:

        The warm blood of the Negro that haunts the channels of his veins with ancient Egyptian and Ethiopian fires has been tempered in the climate of the South and reduced to that proportion which robs it of its sluggishness, subdues it of wild passion and holds it by reason, while the


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trials of the past have been the friction that brightens, the winds that toughen, and the frosts that ripen. No great song, or poem, or book, or invention has yet seen birth south of the "Mason and Dixon Line." It has been reserved for us. The only American music was born on the plantations and wrung from aching hearts as wine from the luscious grape. It has touched the heart of the learned and engaged the attention of the scientific musician. As the Indian faded in the North, before the white man, so the white man of the South must yield to us, without, however, a bloody conflict. We shall gather wealth, learning and manhood, and occupy the land. This is the asylum of the world: and the tramp of hurrying nations warns us that this is the "Valley of Decision." On this soil are settled the great questions of the earth. Already the march of empire has bathed its weary feet in the Pacific, and with the exception of watery waste has arrived at its home, and it is possible that He who made all nations of one blood, will here in our land, marry and intermarry, and reduce this conglomerate mass to one distinct nationality, with all the blood made one, and the highest type of consecrated manhood being realized, reduced back to the Adamic color through us; or He may out of the aggregate develop each to its highest type, and let them live to the end of time, carrying out His divine plans, and unerringly accomplishing His decrees. Here in this new South the Negro shall shine in the constellation of the nations, and by his words and deeds hand down to unborn ages the glittering pages of our history. We shall in some prominent way mount the ladder of difficulties, scale the cliff of prejudices and hide our heads among the stars.


        Dr. Simmons, in his modesty, does not claim for this work any special literary excellence, but his aim is simply to embalm in some place the lives of these men for future historians, who may take isolated cases and do justice to each. He also wishes to inspire the youth of the land, giving the many trials through which these men have had to pass, and have them further influenced by the great degree of promotion which has been granted to them. His talents, developed by cultivation, are also enriched by


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the love of God and man which reaches beyond the boys of to-day who are trying to be somebody, to the boys of the future, who will inquire into the deeds and achievements of their fathers. As a man, Dr. Simmons is loyal to his convictions, sympathetic, independent, far sighted, therefore a wise counselor, methodical and liberal. He regards money as a trust from God, to be invested in every cause relative to bettering the condition of his fellow men and advancing the cause of Christ. His hand is shut when those who do not want, come to him; but when the really needy and friendless come to him, it is like a strainer full of holes, letting all he possesses pass through. To friends he is faithful; to enemies he shows a steady resistance, but no aggressiveness.

        Thus far, I have sketched a few of the prominent phases in the life of the doctor, more in a biographical outline than in analysis of his true worth, reserving for the conclusion a few facts adumbrated in the preceding remarks.

        I regard Dr. Simmons as one of the most replete scholars to his age in the country, for all the invincibility that attached to his boyhood and youthful days, enabling him to triumph over every obstacle that confronted him, still incites him to literary research, so that almost every subject within the circle of learning has been pierced by his intellectual prowess. Yet it could not be expected that a man of his age could be the master of every branch, for such exalted attainments only come by years of laborious application, which a young man has not had time to accomplish. The doctor has a large, symmetrically developed head, elevated in the centre at the organ of veneration,


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with a brain texture of the highest type, attesting marvelous powers, when, even in many instances the head is oblong, but infinitely more so when rightly shaped, thus giving the doctor giant powers to use while employed in ferreting out the deep things of science, philosophy and theology, which will, if the doctor lives fifty years, culminate in making him one of the most mighty men of our race upon the globe.

        As has been said of liberty, vigilant application is the price of profound scholarship; and this being the charm of his life, nothing but premature death can avert it. Too many of our young men after reaching literary distinction forget the rock from whence they were hewn, and waste their lives in endeavoring to become white, or expend it in worshiping white gods. But this charge cannot be made against the doctor. He is as true to his race as a needle is to the pole, and no stronger evidence is required than the work that will contain these sketches of eminent colored men. The future historian will ponder these pages, glean their contents as he traces the great men of this age, and wonder at the achievements made by them, in the face of so many environments that militated against them. Negro giants now sleeping in the womb of the future, will come forth an Armada that will defy the powers of earth, trample colored prejudice in the dust, write glory, honor and immortality itself upon the brow of black: frown thunders at race distinctions, fire the citadels of manhood discriminations and burn them to the ground; hurl defiance in the face of our defamers and contemners, and with pens of lightning write up the history of our ancestry,


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and present them before earth and heaven as no one now ever dream.

        When that time comes, as it will, unless God ceases to reign, this work of Dr. Simmons' will form the foot-base of the mighty superstructure that will be reared with chancel, dome, spire and minaret, to the undying worth, merits and fame of the Negro. The abominable heresies set adrift by pseudo-philosophers, pseudo-scientists, and other figure-heads as ignorant as they were mean and low, that the Negro race were naturally inferior, and nothing great could ever be evolved from them, will be remembered in the grand hereafter as the overflowing slag or dross which precedes the incandescent rocks dashed from the volcano's fiery jaws, while hurtled thunders shook the ground as though the gods were in battle arrayed. The Indian represents the past, the white man the present, but the Negro the future. The Indian is old, decayed and worn out; the whites are in the prime of life and vigor; but the Negro is a boy, a youth at school, a mere apprentice learning his trade. When the white race reaches decrepitude, as races are periodical as well as worlds, the Negro will have reached his prime, and being in possession of all he has and will acquire from the whites, and his own genius and industry to manufacture more and lift him to a higher civilization, he will stand out the wonder of the ages. The earth will tremble beneath his tread, while nature opens her bosom and pours into his lap her richest treasures. With mystic keys he will unlock her coffers, and her very arcana will divulge the secrets which she never whispered before into inquiring ears. Then, if not before, the name of Dr. Simmons will


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be as familiar to the millions as that of Herodotus, Josephus, Pliny, Plutarch and other historians enshrined in the gratitude of the world. For him the world will have to look largely for a true narrative of the merits of the men who came upon the tapis at the death of our enslavement, and directed affairs while we were in a transitional state, rather while we were bursting the chrysalis that bound our intellectual and moral pinions, and barred our development until we had thrown off the slave forms, slave ears, slave doubts, as to our ability to live by merit and to claim rank among the more favored of earth.

        Little as the common observer may regard it, we men who gather up the fragments of our labors, acts, achievements, sayings, songs, oddities, peculiarities, fun, speeches, lectures, poems, war struggles, bravery, degradation and sufferings, and preserve them for the future, now while they are within reach, will stand out as heroes in the day to come. The future orator, statesman, minister, poet, journalist, ethnologist, as well as the historian, will from these gather materials to build towers heaven-reaching that will monument the grandeur of our race, and still grander struggles that lifted them from the barren plains of the contempt of the world, to the majestic heights that we are destined to scale in God's Providence. To this book, when Dr. Simmons will be numbered with the dead for centuries, will come the men above described, and others in countless scores, to light their torches, inspire their young, encourage the doubtful, animate the faltering and forward the tide of elevation till the last Negro boy and girl on the globe shall


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be proud of their color, their hair, their origin and their race.

HENRY M. TURNER.

        


Illustration

FREDERICK DOUGLASS.


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I.

HON. FREDERICK DOUGLASS, LL. D.

        Magnetic Orator--Anti-slavery Editor--Marshal of the District of Columbia--Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia--First Citizen of America--Eminent Patriot and Distinguished Republican.

        WHO can write the life of this great man and do him justice? His life is an epitome ofthe efforts of a noble soul to be what God intended, despite the laws, customs and prejudices. That such a soul as Douglass' could be found with the galling bonds of slavery is the blackest spot in the realm of thought and fact in the whole history of this government. But such a man as he would not remain in slavery, could not do so. Aye! it was impossible to fetter him and keep him there. He was a man. He was not going to remain bound while his legs could carry him off, and, as he facetiously remarked, he prayed for freedom, but when he made his legs pray, then he got free. He shows himself a man of works as well as faith. And these go together. But eulogy is wasted on such a man. His life speaks, and, when he is dead, his orations will keep his memory fresh, and his name will stand side by side with Webster, Summer and Clay.

        Frederick Douglass was born about the year 1817, in Tuckahoe, a barren little district upon the eastern shore of


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Maryland, best known for the wretchedness, poverty, slovenliness and dissipation of its inhabitants. Of his mother he knew very little, having seen her only a few times in his life, as she was employed on a plantation some distance from the place where he was raised. His master was supposed to be his father.

        No man perhaps has had a more varied experience than the subject of this sketch. During his early childhood he was beaten and starved, often fighting with the dogs for the bones that were thrown to them. As he grew older and could work he was given very little to eat, over-worked and much beaten. As the boy grew older still, and realized the misery and horror of his surroundings, his very soul revolted, and a determination was formed to be free or to die attempting it.

        At the age of ten years he was sent to Baltimore to Mrs. Sophia Auld, as a house servant. She became very much interested in him, and immediately began teaching him his letters. He was very apt, and was soon able to read. The husband of his mistress, finding it out, was very angry and put a stop to it.

        This prohibition served only to check the instruction from his mistress, but had no effect on the ambition, the craving for more light, that was within the boy, and the more obstacles he met with the stronger became his determination to overcome them. He carried his spelling book in his bosom and would snatch a minute now and then to pursue his studies. The first money he made he invested in a "Columbian Orator." In this work he read "The Fanaticism of Liberty" and the "Declaration of Independence."


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After reading this book he realized that there was a better life waiting for him, if he would take it, and so he ran away.

        He settled in New Bedford with his wife, who, a free woman in the South, being engaged to Douglass before his escape, followed him to New York, where they were married. She was a worthy, affectionate, industrious and invaluable helpmate to the great Douglass. She ever stood side by side with him in all his struggles to establish a home, helped him and encouraged him while he climbed the ladder of knowledge and fame, together with him offered the hand of welcome and a shelter to all who were fortunate enough to escape from bondage and reach their hospitable shelter; and never, while loving mention is made of Frederick Douglass, may the name of his wife "Anna" be forgotten.

        In New Bedford he sawed wood, dug cellars, shovelled coal, and did any other work by which he could turn an honest penny, having the incentive that he was working for himself and his family, and that there was no master waiting for his wages. Here several of their children were born.

        He began to read the Liberator, for which he subscribed, and other papers, and works of the best authors. He was charmed by Scott's "Lady of the Lake," and reading it he adopted the name of "Frederick Douglass." He began to take an interest in all public matters, often speaking at the gatherings among the colored people. In 1841 he addressed a large convention at Nantucket. After this he was employed as an agent of the American Antislavery Society,


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which really marks the beginning of his grand struggle for the freedom and elevation of his race. He lectured all through the North, not withstanding he was in constant danger of being recaptured and sent to the far South as a slave. After a time it was deemed best that he should for a while go to England. Here he met a cordial welcome. John Bright established him in his house, and thus he was brought in contact with the best minds and made acquainted with some of England's most distinguished men. His relation of the wrongs and sufferings of his enslaved brethren excited their deepest sympathy; and their admiration for his ability was so profound, their wonder so great, that there should be any fear of such a man being returned to slavery, that they immediately subscribed the amount necessary to purchase his freedom, made him a present of his manumission papers, and sent him home to tell his people that


                         Slaves cannot breathe in England:
                         If their lungs receive our air, that moment they are free;
                         They touch our country, and their shackles fall.

        Returning to America he settled in Rochester, New York, and established a paper called the North Star, afterwards changed to Fred Douglass' Paper, also Douglass' Monthly. These were all published in his own office, and two of his sons were the principal assistants in setting up the work, and attending to the business generally.

        There has been a great deal of speculation as to what connection Frederick Douglass had with the John Brown raid. The two great men met, and Brown became acquainted with Douglass' history. They became fast friends.


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They were singularly adapted to each other as co-workers, both being deeply imbued with the belief that it was their duty to devote their lives and means to the cause of emancipation. They lived frugally at home that they might have the more to give. Their families caught their inspiration, and their lives were all influenced by the one motive-power--the cause of freedom. Many men and women who successfully escaped into Canada, and thence to other places, will tell how, after they had been well fed, nourished and made comfortable by the mother, one of Fred Douglass' boys had carried them across the line and seen them to a place of safety. When other boys were enjoying all the comforts and pleasures their parents could provide for them, Douglass' sons were made to feel that there was only one path for them to walk in until the great end for which they were working had been attained.

        Brown's first plan was to run slaves off, and in this Douglass heartily joined him; but when he found Brown had decided to attempt the capture of Harper's Ferry, he went to him at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, a short time before the raid, and used every argument he could to induce him to change his plans. Brown had enlisted a body of men to accompany him who felt as he felt, that their lives were nothing as weighed against the lives and liberties of so many who were suffering in bondage. His arms and ammunition were ready, his plans were all laid, and to Douglass' argument he answered: "If we attack Harper's Ferry, as we have now arranged, the country will be aroused, and the Negroes will see the way clear to liberation. We'll hold the citizens of the town as hostages,


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and so holding them can dictate our terms. You, Douglass, should be one of the first to go with us."

        "No, no," replied the latter, "I can't agree with you and will not go with you--your attempt can only result in utter ruin to you, and to all those who take part in it, without giving any substantial aid to the men in slavery. Let us rather go on with our first plan of the 'Underground Railroad' by which slaves may be run off to the free states. By that means practical results can be obtained. From insurrection nothing can be expected but imprisonment and death."

        "If you think so," replied Brown, "it is, of course, best that we should part." He held out his hand. Douglass grasped it. "Goodbye! God bless you!" they exclaimed, almost in the same breath, and then parting forever, were soon lost to each other in the darkness.

        It was soon discovered that Douglass and Brown were in sympathy, and that Douglass, besides harboring Brown, had furnished him money to defray expenses, and thus making his safety a matter of great doubt. His friends advised him to leave the country for awhile. They were willing to stand by him, even to fight for him, but felt that it would be wiser to avoid the danger if possible. After much hesitation he was induced to abide by their advice, and the result proved the wisdom of his having done so. He went first to Canada and from there to England. Only a short time after his departure a requisition for his arrest was made by Governor Wise of Virginia. The requisition read as follows:


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[Confidential.]

RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, November 13, 1859.

To His Excellency, James Buchanan, President of the United States, and to the Honorable Postmaster-General of the United States--

        GENTLEMEN:--I have information such as has caused me, upon proper affidavits, to make requisition upon the Executive of Michigan for the delivery up of the person of Frederick Douglass, a Negro man, supposed now to be in Michigan, charged with murder, robbery and inciting servile insurrection in the State of Virginia. My agents for the arrest and reclamation of the person so charged are Benjamin M. Morris and William N. Kelly. The latter has the requisition and will wait on you to the end of obtaining nominal authority as postoffice agents. They need to be very secretive in this matter, and some pretext of traveling through the dangerous section for the execution of the laws in this behalf, and some protection against obtrusive, unruly or lawless violence. If it be proper so to do, will the Postmaster-General be pleased to give Mr. Kelly for each of these men a permit and authority to act as detectives for the postoffice department without pay, but to pass and repass without question, delay or hindrance?

Respectfully submitted by your
Obedient Servant,

HENRY A. WISE.


        Mr. Douglass did not feel it necessary to hasten his return on account of this interesting document, and so remained abroad till it was safe for him to come home. This adventure did not in the least dampen his ardor in the great cause. Wherever and whenever he could do or say anything for it, he never failed to do so. When the first gun was fired at Sumter, he was among the foremost to insist upon the enrollment of colored soldiers. In 1863 he, with others, succeeded in raising two regiments of colored troops, which were known as Massachusetts regiments. Two of his sons were among the first to enlist. His next move was to obtain the same pay for them that the white


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soldiers received, and to have them exchanged as prisoners of war; in fact, that there should be no difference made between them and other soldiers. His work did not end with the war. He recognized the fact that a new life had begun for the former slaves; that a great work was to be done for them and with them, and he was ever to be found in the foremost ranks of those who were willing to put their shoulders to the wheel. His means, as well as his time, he largely gave to the cause. He was one of the most indefatigable workers for the passage of the amendments to the Constitution, granting the same rights to all classes of citizens, regardless of race and color. He attended the "Loyalists' Convention," held in Philadelphia, in 1867, being elected a delegate from Rochester. Some feared his presence would do more harm than good, knowing how radical he was; but he felt that it was his duty to go, and nothing could change him. It has been conceded that it was due principally to his persistent work in that convention, that resolutions favoring universal suffrage were passed. A little incident in connection with this convention shows the value of his work in that meeting, by disclosing the feeling of the men he had to deal with. As the members assembled proceeded to fall in line, on their way to the place of meeting, every one seemed to avoid walking beside a colored delegate. As soon as Theodore Tilton noticed it, he stepped to Douglass' side, and arm in arm they entered the chamber. This act has made them lifelong friends, and these two are both brotherly in their devoted friendship. In Mr. Douglass' recent visit to France,


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he met Mr. Tilton, who resides in Paris, and had a glorious time.

        He established the New National Era at Washington, D. C., in 1870. This paper was edited and published principally by him and his sons, and devoted to the cause of the race and the Republican party. In 1872 he took his family to reside in the District of Columbia. In 1871 President Grant appointed him to the Territorial Legislature of the District of Columbia. In 1872 he was chosen one of the Presidential electors-at-large for the State of New York, and was the elector selected to deliver a certified statement of the votes to the president of the Senate.

        He was appointed to accompany the commissioners on their trip to Santo Domingo, pending the consideration of the annexation of that island to the United States. President Grant in January, 1877, appointed him a police commissioner for the District of Columbia. In March of the same year President Hayes commissioned him United States marshal for the District of Columbia. President Garfield, in 1881, appointed him recorder of deeds for the District of Columbia. This last position he held till about May, 1886, nearly a year and a half after the ascendancy to the national administration of the Democratic party.

        No man has begun where Frederick Douglass did and attained to the same giddy heights of fame. Born in a mere hovel, a creature of accident, with no mother to cherish and nurture him, no kindly hand to point out the good worthy of emulation and the evil to be shunned, no teacher to make smooth the rough and thorny paths leading to knowledge. His only compass was an abiding


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faith in God, and an innate consciousness of his own ability and power of perseverance.

        Harriet Beecher Stowe, in her book entitled 'Men of Our Times,' says: "Frederick Douglass had as far to climb to get to the spot where the poorest white boy is born, as that white boy has to climb to be President of the nation, and take rank with kings and judges of the earth." Again, in the Senate of the United States, in a recent important case under consideration, the following statement formed part of a resolution submitted by that body in reply to the President of the United States: "Without doubt Frederick Douglass is the most distinguished representative of the colored race, not only in this country, but in the world." To-day he stands the acknowledged peer in intellect, culture and refinement of the greatest men of our age, or any age; in this country, or any country. His name has never been written on the register of any school or college, yet it will ever be written on the pages of all future history, wherever the names of the ablest men of our times appear, side by side with those of the more favored race. His relations with such men as John G. Whittier, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Wendell Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison; and such women as Lydia Maria Child, Grace Greenwood, and Harriet Beecher Stowe, have ever been cordial and pleasant. Some men who never graduate from a college have more sense in five minutes than many a conceited graduate who has all his knowledge duly accredited by a sheepskin, but is not the real possessor of an education. The trustees of Howard University honored themselves and their institution, more


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than they did Mr. Douglass, when they conferred upon him the title of LL. D., and when also they gave him a seat in their board.

        Mr. Douglass in 'His Life,' written by himself, gives the following account of his visit to his old home:

        The first of these events occurred four years ago, when, after a period of more than forty years, I visited and had an interview with Captain Thomas Auld at St. Michaels, Talbot county, Maryland. It will be remembered by those who have followed the thread of my story that St. Michaels was at one time the place of my home and the scene of some of my saddest experiences of slave life, and that I left there, or rather was compelled to leave there, because it was believed that I had written passes for several slaves to enable them to escape from slavery, and that prominent slaveholders in that neighborhood had, for this alleged offense, threatened to shoot me on sight, and to prevent the execution of this threat my master had sent me to Baltimore.

         My return, therefore, to this place in peace, among the same people, was strange enough in itself; but that I should, when there, be formally invited by Captain Thomas Auld, then over eighty years old, to come to the side of his dying bed, evidently with a view to a friendly talk over our past relations, was a fact still more strange, and one which, until its occurrence, I could never have thought possible. To me Captain Auld had sustained the relation of master--a relation which I had held in extreme abhorrence, and which for forty years I had denounced in all bitterness of spirit and fierceness of speech. He had struck down my personality, had subjected me to his will, made property of my body and soul, reduced me to a chattel, hired me out to a noted slave breaker to be worked like a beast and flogged into submission; he had taken my hard earnings, sent me to prison, offered me for sale, broken up my Sunday-school, forbidden me to teach my fellow-slaves to read on pain of nine and thirty lashes on my bare back; he had sold my body to his brother Hugh and pocketed the price of my flesh and blood without any apparent disturbance of his conscience. I, on my part, had traveled through the length and breadth of this country and of England, holding up this conduct of his, in common with that of other slaveholders, to the reprobation of all men who would listen to my words. I had made his


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name and his deeds familiar to the world by my writings in four different languages; yet here we were, after four decades, once more face to face--he on his bed, aged and tremulous, drawing near the sunset of life, and I, his former slave, United States marshal of the District of Columbia, holding his hand and in friendly conversation with him in his sort of final settlement of past differences preparatory to his stepping into his grave, where all distinctions are at an end, and where the great and the small, the slave and his master, are reduced to the same level. Had I been asked in the days of slavery to visit this man, I should have regarded the invitation as one to put fetters on my ankles and handcuffs on my wrists. It would have been an invitation to the auction block and the slave whip. I had no business with this man under the old regime but to keep out of his way. But now that slavery was destroyed, and the slave and the master stood upon equal ground, I was not only willing to meet him but was very glad to do so. The conditions were favorable for remembrance of all his good deeds and generous extenuation of all his evil ones. He was to me no longer a slaveholder either in fact or in spirit, and I regarded him as I did myself, a victim of the circumstances of birth, education, law and custom.

         Our courses had been determined for us, not by us. We had both been flung, by powers that did not ask our consent, upon a mighty current of life, which we could neither resist nor control. By this current he was a master, and I a slave; but now our lives were verging towards the point where differences disappeared, where even the constancy of hate breaks down, where the clouds of pride, passion and selfishness vanish before the brightness of Infinite light. At such a time and in such a place, when man is about closing his eyes on this world and ready to step into the eternal unknown, no word of reproach or bitterness should reach him or fall from his lips; and on this occasion there was to this rule no transgression on either side.

         As this visit to Captain Auld had been made the subject of mirth by heartless triflers, and regretted as a weakening of my lifelong testimony against slavery by serious minded men, and as the report of it, published in the papers immediately after it occurred, was in some respects defective and colored, it may be proper to state exactly what was said and done at this interview.

         It should in the first place be understood that I did not go to St.


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Michaels upon Captain Auld's invitation, but upon that of my colored friend, Charles Caldwell; but when once there, Captain Auld sent Mr. Green, a man in constant attendance upon him during his sickness, to tell me that he would be very glad to see me, and wished me to accompany Green to his house, with which request I complied. On reaching the house I was met by Mr. William H. Bruff, a son-in-law of Captain Auld's, and Mrs. Louisa Bruff, his daughter, and was conducted by them immediately to the bedroom of Captain Auld. We addressed each other simultaneously, he calling me "Marshal Douglass," and I, as I had always called him, "Captain Auld." Hearing myself called by him "Marshal Douglass," l instantly broke up the formal nature of the meeting by saying, "Not MARSHAL, but Frederick to you as formerly." We shook hands cordially, and in the act of doing so he, having been long stricken with palsy, shed tears as men thus afflicted will do when excited by any deep emotion. The sight of him, the changes which time had wrought in him, his tremulous hands constantly in motion, and all the circumstances of his condition affected me deeply, and for a time choked my voice and made me speechless. We both, however, got the better of our feelings and conversed freely about the past.

         Though broken by age and palsy, the mind of Captain Auld was remarkably clear and strong. After he had become composed I asked him what he thought of my conduct in running away and going to the North. He hesitated a moment as if to properly formulate his reply, and said: "Frederick, I always knew you were too smart to be a slave, and had I been in your place I should have done as you did." I said, "Captain Auld, I am glad to hear you say this. I did not run away from you, but from SLAVERY; it was not that I loved Cæsar less, but Rome more." I told him that I had made a mistake in my narrative, a copy of which I had sent him, in attributing to him ungrateful and cruel treatment of my grandmother; that I had done so on the supposition that in the division of the property of my old master, Mr. Aaron Anthony, my grandmother had fallen to him, and that he had left her in her old age, when she could be no longer of service to him, to pick up her living in solitude with none to help her; or in other words, had turned her out to die like an old horse. "Ah," said he, "that was a mistake; I never owned your grandmother; she, in the division of the slaves, was awarded to my brother-in-law, Andrew Anthony; but, "he added quickly, "I brought her down here and


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took care of her as long as she lived." The fact is, that after writing my narrative, describing the condition of my grandmother, Captain Auld's attention being thus called to it, he rescued her from destitution. I told him that this mistake of mine was corrected as soon as I discovered it, and that I had at no time any wish to do him injustice, and that I regarded both of us as victims of a system. "Oh, I never liked slavery," he said, "and I meant to emancipate all my slaves when they reached the age of twenty-five years." I told him I had always been curious to know how old I was, that it had been a serious trouble to me not to know when was my birthday. He said he could not tell me that, but he thought I was born in February, 1818. This date made me one year younger than I had supposed myself, from what was told me by Mistress Lucretia, Captain Auld's former wife, when I left Lloyd's for Baltimore in the spring of 1825; she having then said that I was eight, going on nine. I know that it was in the year 1825 that I went to Baltimore, because it was in that year that Mr. James Beacham built a large frigate at the foot of Alliceana street, for one of the South American governments. Judging from this, and from certain events which transpired at Colonel Lloyd's, such as a boy without any knowledge of books under eight years old would hardly take cognizance of, I am led to believe that Mrs. Lucretia was nearer right as to my age than her husband.

         Before I left his bedside, Captain Auld spoke with a cheerful confidence of the great change that awaited him, and felt himself about to depart in peace. Seeing his extreme weakness I did not protract my visit. The whole interview did not last more than twenty minutes, and we parted to meet no more. His death was soon after announced in the papers, and the fact that he had once owned me as a slave was cited as rendering that event noteworthy.


        His life has been marked by a purity of purpose from its beginning. He has filled many offices of trust, yet in not one position has he ever betrayed his trust. He has been largely, deeply engaged in politics, yet has been no politician. That is, he understood and practiced none of the tricks of politicians. His work has always been honest and conscientious, because he believed in whatever cause he worked for, and


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did not, as most of our public men, have an eye to a personal reward. All the recompense he sought was a consciousness of having accomplished some good. Whatever has been given him in the way of office has been unsolicited by him. Some of our public men have wavered in their fidelity to the Republican party, when after long waiting they fail to see a substantial reward laid at their feet; but not so with Mr. Douglass. He believed implicitly in the Republican party and realized that being composed of human beings it might sometimes err; but he would say, "The Republican party is the deck and all outside is the sea." Another saying of his is, "I would rather be with the Republican party in defeat, than with the Democratic party in victory." By such expressions may be seen his faithful adherence to what he believed to be right.

        He is generous and forgiving, almost to a fault. On the friendliest terms with Lincoln, Grant, Sumner and many of their compeers, his opinions on public matters were always heard with deference and often adopted. His clear, forcible, yet persuasive way of presenting facts, always carry conviction with it.

        And now, after a long and well fought battle of seventy years, we find him still erect and strong, bearing gracefully and unassumingly the laurels he has so nobly won. No one who visits him in his beautiful home at Cedar Cottage comes away without being richer by some gem of thought, dropped by the genial host.

        A few years ago Fred Douglass married a white lady, who was a clerk in his office while recorder of deeds. This was much objected to by many of his race, but on mature


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reflection, it has been about decided that he was no slave to take a wife as in slave times on a plantation--according to some master's wish--but that it was his own business, and he was only responsible to God. He has been invited to the President's levees and he and his wife shown every mark of consideration. His travel in foreign countries has in no way been embarrassed by this act. If any one thought he was so foolish as to not know what would be said of his marriage, they have mistaken the man. But Douglass did as he thought was right as he understood it. It showed he had the courage to brave popular opinion as he had done on other occasions.

        Frederick Douglass enjoys a joke as well as any man I know. I was traveling with him recently from Atlantic City, New Jersey, to Washington. District of Columbia. We had been traveling on the territory of Maryland. Near Harve de Grace, a rather officious white gentleman was particularly attentive to Mr. Douglass, and after introducing himself to the eminent orator stood up and called out to the people in the car: "Gentlemen and ladies, this is Frederick Douglass, the greatest colored man in the United States." The people flocked around him for an introduction. One white gentleman who was a Marylander, said "Let me see, Mr. Douglass, you ran away from Maryland, did you not, somewhere in this neighborhood, I believe?" "No," said Mr. Douglass, with that grand air and good humored laugh which is his own property, "Oh, no sir, I did not run away from Maryland, I ran away from slavery."

        There are three great orators in this country, Frederick


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Douglass, John M. Langston and George W. Williams, the first two are a couplet of as magnificent speakers as ever heard on an American platform; the last is a gifted star ascending the zenith. Douglass and Langston are ripe with age and mellow with experience. The young man is now vigorous and full of strength and handles the less exciting subjects of the day. The older men had the subjects of slavery and reconstruction; two greater themes, can and may never engage our minds in this broad land of swift passing events. They showed their zeal and inspiration against wrong; Williams shows his learning, research, and brilliant oratory.

        God grant, when in the course of nature the mantle shall fall from his shoulders, that one may spring up to wear it, to guard it as vigilantly as he has, and as lovingly and carefully protect its folds from pollution.

        If the extracts here given should be long, let it be remembered that Mr. Douglass, by length of service, by preeminence in public office, by his standing not only in America, but in the world, is entitled to large space. I want the young people also to declaim these extracts. I am tired of hearing every man's good works repeated and no Negro's eloquence chain an audience when, too, there are such elegant specimens.

        The following is taken from his great speech in the National Convention of Colored Men held in Louisville, Kentucky, September 25, 1883.

        The speaker addressed the greater part of his remarks to the white citizens of the country in the nature of a rebuke for their shortcomings towards the colored race, and said:


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        Born on American soil, in common with yourselves, deriving our bodies and our minds from its dust; centuries having passed away since our ancestors were torn from the shores of Africa, we, like yourselves, hold ourselves to be in every sense Americans. Having watered your soil with our tears, enriched it with our blood, performed its roughest labor in time of peace, defended it against enemies in time of war, and having at all times been loyal and true to its highest interests, we deem it no arrogance or presumption to manifest now a common concern with you for its welfare, prosperity, honor and glory.


WHAT THE NEGROES WANT.

        Referring to the antagonism experienced in calling the convention, he said:

        From the day the call for this convention went forth, the seeming incongruity and contradiction of holding it has been brought to our attention. From one quarter and another, sometimes with argument and sometimes without argument; sometimes with seeming pity for our ignorance, and at other times with fierce censure for our depravity, these questions have met us. With apparent surprise, astonishment and impatience, we have been asked: "What more do the colored people of this country want than they now have, and what more is possible for them?" It is said they were once slaves, they are now free; they were once subjects, they are now sovereigns; they were once outside of all American institutions, they are now inside of all, and a recognized part of the whole American people. Why, then, do they hold colored national conventions, and thus insist upon keeping up the color line between themselves and their white fellow-countrymen?"


        Mr. Douglass then proceeded to answer these questions categorically, and took occasion to administer a basting to those of his people who were too mean, servile and cowardly to assert the true dignity of their manhood and their race, and referred the existence of such creatures to the lingering remains of slave caste and oppression.


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        To the question "Why are we here in this National Convention?" he answered:

        Because the voice of a whole people, oppressed by a common injustice, is far more likely to command attention and exert an influence on the public mind than the voice of simple individuals and isolated organizations: because we may thus have a more comprehensive knowledge of the general situation and conceive more clearly and express more fully and wisely the policy it may be necessary for them to pursue. If held for good cause, and by wise, sober and earnest men, the result will be salutary. The objection to a "colored" convention lies more in sound than substance. No reasonable man will ever object to white men holding conventions in their own interest when they are once in our condition and we in theirs: when they are the oppressed and we the oppressors.

         In point of fact, however, white men are already in convention against us in various ways, and at many important points; and the practical structure of American life is in convention against us. Human law may know no distinction between men in respect of rights, but human practice may. Examples are painfully abundant. The border men hate the Indians; the Californian, the Chinaman; the Mohametan, the Christian, and vice versa, and in spite of a common nature and the equality framed into law, this hate works injustice, of which each in their own name and under their own color may complain.


        The apology for observing the color line in the composition of our State and National conventions is in its necessity, and because we must do this or nothing.

CIVIL RIGHTS OBSTRUCTIONS.

        In vindication of the convention and its cause, the speaker continued:

        It is our lot to live among a people whose laws, traditions and prejudices have been against us for centuries, and from these they are not yet free. To assume that they are free from these evils, simply because they have changed their laws, is to assume what is utterly unreasonable and


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contrary to facts. Large bodies move slowly; individuals may be converted on the instant and change the whole course of life; nations never.

         Not even the character of a great political organization can be changed by a new platform. It will be the same old snake, though in a new skin. Though we have had war, reconstruction and abolition as a nation, we still linger in the shadow and blight of an extinct institution.

         Though the colored man is no longer subject to barter and sale, he is surrounded by an adverse settlement which fetters all his movements. In his downward course he meets with no resistance, but his course upward is resented and resisted at every step of his progress. If he comes in ignorance, rags and wretchedness, he conforms to the popular belief of his character, and in that character he is welcome; but if he shall come as a gentleman, a scholar and a statesman, he is hailed as a contradiction to the national faith concerning his race, and his coming is resented as impudence. In the one case he may provoke contempt and derision, but in the other he is an affront to pride and provokes malice. Let him do what he will, there is at present no escape for him. The color line meets him everywhere, and in a measure, shuts him out from all respectable and profitable trades and callings. In spite of all your religion and laws, he is a rejected man. Not even our churches, whose members profess to follow the despised Nazarine, whose home when on earth was among the lowly and despised, have yet conquered the feeling of color madness; and what is true of our churches is also true of our courts of law. Neither is free from this all-pervading and atmosphere of color hate. The one describes the Deity as impartial and "no respecter of persons," and the other shows the Goddess of Justice as blindfolded, with a sword by her side and scales in her hand held evenly balanced between high and low, rich and poor, white and black, but both are images of American imagination, rather than of American practice. Taking advantage of the general disposition in this country to impute crime to color, white men color their faces to commit crime, and wash off the hated color to escape punishment.


        Speaking of lynch law for the black man, he says:

        A man accused, surprised, frightened and captured by a motley crowd, dragged with a rope around his neck in midnight darkness to the nearest tree, and told in terms of coarsest profanity to prepare for death, would be more than human if he did not in his terror-stricken appearance more


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confirm the suspicion of his guilt than the contrary. Worse still; in the presence of such hell-black outrages the pulpit is usually dumb, and the press in the neighborhood is silent, or openly takes sides with the mob. There are occasional cases in which white men are lynched, but one swallow does not make a summer. Every one knows that what is called lynch law is peculiarly the law for colored people and for nobody else.


        He next referred to the continuation of Ku-klux outrages, and said generally this condition of things is too flagrant and notorious to require specification or proof. "Thus in all the relations of life and death we are met by the color line. We cannot ignore it if we would, and ought not if we could. It hunts us at midnight, it denies us accommodation in hotels and justice in the courts; excludes our children from schools; refuses our sons the chance to learn trades, and compels us to pursue such labor as will bring us the least reward. While we recognize the color line as a hurtful force--a mountain barrier to our progress, wounding our bleeding feet with its flinty rocks at every step--we do not despair. We are a hopeful people. This convention is a proof of our faith in you, in reason, in truth and justice, and of our belief that prejudice, with all its malign accompaniments, may yet be removed by peaceful means. When this shall come, the color line will only be used as it should be, to distingush one variety of the human family from another."

THE REPUBLICAN PARTY'S ATTITUDE.

        Our meeting here was opposed by some of our number, because it would disturb the peace of the Republican party. The suggestion came from coward lips and misapprehends the character of that party. If the Republican party cannot stand a demand for justice and fair play, it


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ought to go down. We were men before that party was born, and our manhood is more sacred than any party can be. Parties were made for men, not men for parties. This hat (pointing to his big white sombrero lying on the table before him), was made for my head; not my head for the hat. (Applause.) If the six million of colored people in this country, armed with the Constitution of the United States, with a million votes of their own to lean upon, and millions of white men at their backs whose hearts are responsive to the claims of humanity, have not sufficient spirit and wisdom to organize and combine to defend themselves from outrage, discrimination and oppression, it will be idle for them to expect that the Republican party or any other political party will organize and combine for them, or care what becomes of them.


        The following is taken from an anti-slavery speech delivered many years ago:

A PERTINENT QUESTION.

BY FREDERICK DOUGLASS.

        Is it not astonishing that while we are plowing, planting, and reaping, using all kinds of mechanical tools, erecting houses and constructing bridges, building ships, working in metals of brass, iron and copper, silver and gold; that while we are reading, writing and ciphering, acting as clerks, merchants and secretaries, having among us lawyers, doctors, ministers, poets, authors, editors, orators and teachers; that while we are engaged in all manner of enterprises common to other men, digging gold in California, capturing the whale in the Pacific, breeding cattle and sheep on the hillside; living, moving, acting, thinking, planning; living in families as husbands, wives and children; and, above all, confessing and worshiping the Christian's God, and looking hopefully for immortal life beyond the grave; is it not astonishing, I say, that we are called upon to prove that we are men?


        In the Negro, a monthly magazine, published in Boston, Massachusetts, of date August, 1886, under the head of


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"MISNOMER,"

        Mr. Douglass wrote as follows:

        Allow me to say that what is called the Negro problem seems to me a misnomer. The real problem which this nation has to solve, and the solution of which it will have to answer for in history, were better described as the white man's problem. Here, as elsewhere, the greater includes the less. What is called the Negro problem is swallowed up by the Caucasian problem. The question is whether the white man can ever be elevated to that plane of justice, humanity and Christian civilization which will permit Negroes, Indians and Chinamen, and other darker colored races to enjoy an equal chance in the race of life. It is not so much whether these races can be made Christians as whether white people can be made Christians. The Negro is few, the white man is many. The Negro is weak, the white man is strong. In the problem of the Negro's future, the white man is therefore the chief factor. He is the potter; the Negro is the clay. It is for him to say whether the Negro shall become a well rounded, symmetrical man, or be cramped, deformed and dwarfed. A plant deprived of warmth, moisture and sunlight cannot live and grow. And a people deprived of the means of an honest livelihood must wither and die. All I ask for the Negro is fair play. Give him this, and I have no fear for his future. The great mass of the colored people in this country are now, and must continue to be in, the South; and there, if anywhere, they must survive or perish.

         It is idle to suppose these people can make any large degree of progress in morals, religion and material conditions, while their persons are unprotected, their rights unsecured, their labor defrauded, and they are kept only a little beyond the starving point.

         Of course I rejoice that efforts are being made by benevolent and Christian people at the North in the interest of religion and education; but I cannot conceal from myself that much of this must seem a mockery and a delusion to the colored people there, while they are left at the mercy of anarchy and lawless violence. It is something to give the Negro religion (he could have that in time of slavery): it is more to give him justice. It is something to give him the Bible; it is more to give him the ballot. It is something to tell him that there is a place for him in the Christian's heaven; it is more to allow him a peaceful dwelling-place in this Christian country.

FREDERICK DOUGLASS.



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II.

REV. W. B. DERRICK, D. D.

        Minister of the African M. E. Church--Pulpit Orator.

        The subject of this sketch was born on the Island of Antigua, in the British West Indies, July 27, 1843. Nineteen years after the boon of emancipation was conferred on those islands by the British Parliament, in 1834, Antigua, his native land, was the first island in the British West Indies which had the courage to ameliorate her slave laws, by affording the accused the benefit of a trial by jury; and an act of the assembly, February 13, 1834, decreed the emancipation of every slave without requiring a period of apprenticeship prescribed by the British Parliament. She refused to believe in the virtues of apprenticeship to prepare her bondsmen for freedom; if they were to be liberated, why not at once? And she has never had occasion to repent it.

        His father, Thomas J. Derrick, belonged to the highly respectable family of Derricks who were large planters in the islands of Antigua and Anguila. His mother, Eliza, was of medium height, with regular features always lighted up with smiles, of genial disposition, and a mind well stored with witty and original thoughts, which rendered her conversation interesting, animating and devoid


Illustration

W. B. DERRICK.


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of monotony. Both parents are now slumbering, the former in the cemetery of the village church, the latter beneath the pendant branches of the mahogany tree in the public cemetery of the metropolis of the island. Mr. Derrick when very young was sent to a private school, and at the end of two years was admitted in the public school at Gracefield, under the auspices of the Moravians, and regularly attended from 1848 until the spring of 1856, when the head master of said school was removed to another charge. During these eight years, his progress at every stage in his studies was rapid and substantial, as if he had adopted for his motto "I will excel." His natural talent, especially for oratory, elicited general applause at the annual examinations, largely attended by the elite of the neighborhood, who took special interest in the cause of education. In his class, conspicuous for his uncommonly large head, high forehead and penetrating eyes, he stood among the few who could manfully grapple with the difficult questions put by the tutor. In the spring of 1856, he was sent to a select private high school in the metropolis, under the tutorship of J. Wilson, Esquire, a fine classical scholar, but a great disciplinarian. Here he remained three years. He was afterward sent to learn the trade of a blacksmith. His parents finally consented to let him go to sea, under the care of Captain Crane, with the understanding that he was to be taught the science of navigation, and at the end of two or three years to return home and embark in business. On the sixth of May, 1860, he was on his first voyage to the United States. The ship was soon enveloped in a violent storm, and driven ashore


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at Turk's Island, but saved from becoming a total wreck. She took in her cargo, however, and sailed to New York. After a voyage of fourteen days, the merchantman reached the back-waters and continued to glide until she reached Sandy Hook. On coming along the Jersey coast, some altercations, on the term "nigger" being applied to him, took place between an Irishman and himself, which ended in his convincing the young Irishman, pugilistically, that his complexion had nothing to do with his manhood. He did considerable sailing around in ships, visiting the coast of Massachusetts and other places, and finally came to Boston. On this trip he met with a serious accident, namely, the breaking of his leg in two places. The case was aggravated by not having a surgeon on the spot for treatment. After making several trips and being shipwrecked, he volunteered in the service of the United States government for three years, and was assigned to the flagship Minnesota, of the North Atlantic squadron. He was thrown among five hundred other sailors, of all nationalities, who, like himself, were enlisted on the side of right. War absorbed his whole soul, yet with all this he could not repress the old idea, or smother the returning voice of the spirit which seemed to haunt him, urging him to enter the Christian ministry. When he met with the accident previously alluded to, he had had serious thoughts concerning this matter. Like a nail driven in a sure place by "the master of assemblies," there was no getting away from him who was determined to be heard amid the din and roar of artillery and the shrieks of shells. The hand of the Lord was upon him. He was formally enrolled


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in the list of sailors from 1861 to 1864 and contributed his quota to the gallant exploits and glorious achievements, and shared in the trials and triumphs of those brave ones in their struggles and conquests in the civil war.

        Many incidents transpired while he remained on board his floating home, many of which beggar description, as, in the conflict between the Merrimac and Monitor, and in the heartrending scenes of carnage and blood. He was an American citizen now, and having been dismissed from the United States navy, took two steps, one in leading to the altar of matrimony Miss Mary E. White, the only daughter of Edwin White, Esq., of Norfolk, Virginia, and the other to take the initiatory to enter the ministry of the African M. E. Church by joining the church at Washington, District of Columbia, under the pastoral care of Rev., [now] Bishop J. M. Brown, who, after the usual preliminaries, licensed him to preach and at the same time to act as missionary agent, both of which offices he held until 1867. He was then admitted to the regular traveling connection, appointed by the Rt. Rev. D. A. Payne, D. D., LL. D., to Mt. Pisgah chapel, Washington, District of Columbia, where he labored for one year as preacher and teacher. In the year 1868 he was ordained deacon, and transferred to the Virginia conference, which closed before he arrived. His only alternative was to accept one of the most impoverished missions in the district, situated in the Alleghany mountains, almost on the border of the Tennessee line. At the annual conference at Portsmouth, he was elected elder and was ordained by Bishop J. P. Campbell, D. D., LL. D.,


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after which he was appointed pastor and presiding elder of the Staunton church and district. From this time he may be said to be firmly established in the Christian ministry. He was reappointed presiding elder, pastor and conference secretary at the annual conference held in Norfolk in 1870; Staunton, 1871; Richmond, 1872; Portsmouth, 1873; Danville, 1874; Richmond, 1875; Portsmouth. 1876; Wytheville, 1877; Farmville, 1878; and Hampton, 1879; as a delegate to the general conference held in Nashville, 1872, at Atlanta, Georgia, 1876, and at Baltimore, Maryland, 1884, serving on all important committees in the sessions. In politics he has taken an active part. In Virginia, when the question of readjusting the State was agitating the country, and was submitted to the people to be voted upon in the November elections of 1879, he took sides with the party that was in favor of paying the debt as had been contracted. This party was known as the "Funders." His attitude was in perfect harmony with the platform of the National Republican party insomuch that the administration at Washington sanctioned his course again. As the colored people were considered dangerous and willing tools in the hands of ambitious men, who were unscrupulous and always ready to make use of them in furthering their own ends, regardless of consequences, he publicly denounced the faction known as "Readjusters," who repudiated the payment of an honest debt. This controversy was considered the most vindictive political war ever waged in that section, and lasted several months, terminating in the triumph of the "Readjusters." Mr. Derrick was disgusted, and knowing full well that as leader of the


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opposite faction he would have to suffer, he resigned his charge, left the South again, and took a trip to the West Indies in company with his wife. In this tour he traveled in the Bermudas, Jamaica, St. Thomas and Antigua, his native land. After twenty years absence he first visited the home of his oldest sister; then the graves of his departed parents and other members of the family. He preached and lectured to almost all the churches, on popular subjects. Returning to the United States, he resumed his ministerial duties. He has since served churches in Salem, New Jersey; Albany, New York, and Sullivan street church, New York City, where he continues to enjoy the confidence of the members of his church and the community at large.

        The doctor has many personal admirers and they will read with interest a book of over three hundred pages, in press at this writing, which will contain a "Tribute to the Life and Labors of Rev. W. B. Derrick, D. D., Minister of the A. M. E. Church." The contents will be about as follows:


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        His sermons, addresses and speeches are noticed in the New York Tribune, Sun, Herald, Times, the Evening Telegram, the Christian Recorder and the leading colored journals in this country, such as the New York Freeman and the Boston Advocate. He is a staunch Republican in politics, a progressive and evangelical preacher of the gospel, filled with the broad benevolence of Heaven and unwearied in his efforts to save immortal souls. The Wilberforce University conferred upon him the title of D. D., in 1885. He is an honorary member of the I. O. G. Templars, the Masonic Body, Odd-Fellows and Good Samaritans, the Publication Board of the A. M. E. Church and trustee of Wilberforce University. He has succeeded in accumulating about five thousand dollars worth of property, and was also the executor of the late lamented Bishop R. H. Cain, D. D., who died at his residence in New York City. He has pain an elaborate tribute to the virtues of the deceased in that city recently. He has been offered the superintendency of the church work in the West Indies, but respectfully declined. He is a diligent student of the Bible and as a pastor is ever solicitous that his flock should be fed with the "bread of life." His church is justly proud of his works, which show wisdom and care on his part. No man has a higher standing in this country, for his power is felt among all classes. His rich voice and personal magnetism make him powerful in the field of oratory. His qualities of head and heart, his sound patriotism and sturdy manhood mark him a progressive man of the age.

        The Evening Telegram, New York, gave "Sketches of


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Some of the Prominent Divines," had the following, among other good things, to say of Rev. Dr. Derrick:

        After leaving Albany. Dr. Derrick became pastor of the Sullivan Street Church, which is situated in the heart of the largest colored colony in this great metropolis. His church is a low-browed and plain brick structure, but it is roomy inside, and is generally well filled with a class of worshipers much more devout than are to be found in many churches frequented by white persons. Dr. Derrick is a short, stout, full and smooth-faced man of light color, with great command of language and exceeding felicity of illustration to suit the plain understanding and comprehension of the people with whom he labors. Outside of the pulpit, he exercises a shrewd business supervision of the personal affairs of his flock, and serves them as legal adviser and political leader. He is an ardent Republican.

         As presiding elder, his district embraces Fleet Street Church, Brooklyn, and the African Methodist Episcopal churches at Williamsburg, Flushing, Melrose, Albany, Chatham, Kinderhook, Catskill, Coxsackle, White Plains and Harlem Mission. The church which Dr. Derrick has charge of is valued at $80,000, and the adjoining parsonage is worth $10,000 more. He is paid $2,000 per annum, a furnished house included. They also support a paid choir, under Professor Savage, one of the best musicians of the race. The church membership is 1,000, and the seating capacity of the building 1,500, but frequently more than 2,000 worshipers stand within its walls and listen to the eloquent appeals of its pastor in behalf of human progress.

         In June, 1884, he was nominated as a Presidential elector-at-large by the Republican State Committee, at the instance of Fire Commissioner Van Cott. There was considerable opposition among his own race to the nomination. It was headed by John J. Freeman. the then editor of the Progressive American. The opposition alleged that Dr. Derrick was not a citizen, and, therefore, could not serve as an elector. W. H. Johnson, ex-janitor of the State Senate, made affidavit that once after a ward meeting, in Albany, which Dr. Derrick had attended, he asked why Dr. Derrick did not vote, and that Dr. Derrick said he was not a citizen, having been born in the West Indies, and never having taken out naturalization papers. When asked why he had not been naturalized, he replied that he did not wish to give up his allegiance to Her


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Gracious Majesty, the Queen, as he had intended to stay in this country only until he had amassed sufficient means to live like a gentleman at home, where living was cheap.

A CITIZEN.

        On July 1 Dr. Derrick declined the nomination. He took this action, however, before he knew of the Albany affidavits, his reason being that he had been chosen by his church to assist in arranging for the centennial celebration of American Methodism, and, therefore, had not time to be an elector. This was the first time his citizenship was called in question, although he had exercised his rights and privileges as a citizen. He proved at the time that he had come to this country when he was seventeen years old, and that when he enlisted in the navy he had taken the oath of allegiance to the United States.



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III.

PHILIP H. MURRY, ESQ.

        Phrenologist--Editor and Philosopher.

        ONE of the brightest and most gifted men among the editors is P. H. Murry. He was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1842. His parents, Samuel and Sarah Murry, were anxious that their boy should have opportunities to make a man of himself. His father was born on the eastern shores of Maryland, in Kent county, and living in a slave State, found that he would not be able to place such advantages before his son. He never was a slave, but as far back as he could trace the genealogical tree, his ancestors were pure, unadulterated Negroes, who came from Africa to America through the British West Indies. The mother is a mixed Negro, Indian and Irish. On the paternal side of his mother's ancestry, the grandfather half Negro and Indian, bought, during the colonial times, an Irish woman for her passage and made her his wife. It will be remembered in the history of the Virginia colonists that many women were sent over for wives to the fortune seekers, and they were purchased for one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco apiece. She was born in Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, and Jack, her husband, was free born. On account of the inferiority of colored


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schools in Reading, at the time of his youth, his father only permitted him to attend school about a week. Afterwards he was placed under Father Patrick Keevil for Private instruction. Father Keevil was at this time a castaway, but was nevertheless a scholar, having graduated at Minonth College, England. After passing through the rudiments young Philip entered into a series of scientific and philosophical studies, embracing natural science, natural philosophy and the more liberal works on theology, especially physiology, and the brain as a physical instrument of thought and feeling. This was when he was about the age of fifteen, and these studies no doubt laid the basis of his future investigations. He has studied the whole realm of science and philosophy, going deeper than the surface, inquiring into the "whys" and "wherefores" with patient zeal and unremitting toil. One can scarcely converse with him without seeing and feeling that his thoughts are drawn from a deep well and that the fountain is pure. Later on he was absorbed in the abolition movement, and was an attendant and promoter of the movements which were prevalent before the war. He came frequently in contact with Douglass, Garnet, H. Ford, the Shadds and Watkins, Bishop Payne, Rogers, the Negro Historian, Wolf and Hamilton, the Journalists, and other leading Negroes, including Dr. Martin R. Delancy, who then were foremost in that work. He delivered a series of able, comprehensive and learned lectures on "Cerebral Physiology" throughout New England, and made some useful and important investigations, experiments and discoveries on the temperaments, and the cranium


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as a continuation of the spinal development. As a phrenologist he is a perfect success. The writer remembers when quite a boy he met Mr. Murry in the city of Burlington, New Jersey. At that time examining his head, he accurately told the characteristics so plain to him, but at that time so undeveloped and unknown to the writer that he has been astonished in later years to find that the very things he predicted would be developed, were developed unconsciously, and are recognized as a verification of his deductions. In 1864 he was a delegate to the famous Negro convention which met at Syracuse, New York, and was chosen chairman of the Pennsylvania delegation. When Lee first invaded Pennsylvania, Mr. Murry, anxious to serve his country in the capacity which would do the most good, organized a company of soldiers and offered their services to Governor Curtin, but was refused because Negroes were not then needed to suppress the rebellion. But in after days when the Southern armies had shattered the Northern forces, and doubt was over-hanging the country as to which side would win, the government found out that a Negro could stop a bullet as well as a white man. At the age of twenty-one, he bought the homestead of which his father was about being deprived, and deeded it to his mother; said property being worth about three thousand dollars. In conjunction with J. P. Sampson, he published the first colored journal in Kentucky The Colored Kentuckian. He taught school in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Virginia and Missouri, and took conspicuous and active parts in securing colored teachers for the colored schools in St. Louis and throughout


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Missouri. This idea was projected by him in a convention of teachers which met at Jefferson City, Missouri, in 1876, and for which he made speeches in St. Louis, which were published in all the dailies verbatim, and drew editorial comments as well as universal discussion among the citizens of the city and State. He published the Colored Citizen at Washington, District of Columbia, in 1872, and held the inspectorship of public improvements under a board of public improvement at the same time. During the war he traveled in the South and corresponded for several Northern journals. In 1880, Mr. Murry established the St. Louis Advance, and this paper has for its primal mission the industrial education of the Negro. He was for several years clerk in the Money Order Department of the St. Louis Post Office, also held positions of trust and honor in the comptroller's office of St. Louis. He has been a delegate to the various State and National conventions during the nine years he has lived in that city. He is now chairman of the Colored State Committee, Missouri. In 1879, he organized the St. Louis Colored Men's Land Association, which is now a success. As a writer, Mr. Murry is one of the most brilliant in the country. His editorials are always fresh. vigorous, far-seeing and progressive; bristling with argument and backed with facts. His aim in life is to press home the importance of industrial education. His remarks on the subject at the National Press convention. Atlantic City, July, 1886, are worthy to be kept, and as many may read this book we give here a few of the sentences.


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which ought to be read by every colored man, woman and child. Said he:

        "I would rather see a colored man on `change than a colored man in Congress. We have produced a Fred Douglass, now we want a James B. Eads. We are in a large degree a landless, a tradeless and a homeless race. We are too much absorbed by politics; the best talent of the Negro is engaged in political machinations, scheming to elect some white man to office, or praying for the "New Jerusalem" to descend down out of Heaven. Emigrants from the most fecund blood of Europe are marching by our doors in platoons of ten thousand deep, to the possession of the fertile lands of the West. They create a "New Jerusalem" for themselves, but the "New Jerusalem" for the Negro never comes. We loiter about in the big cities, living on the offals of the wealthy that overawes and overshadows us at every turn. But we stay until some great city springs up in the West and the trains are burdened with the commerce of the new lands, then we go West with the broom and white jacket. We should have gone West with the hoe and the plow. This is the age of material progress; the engineer has replaced the scholar; the mathematician instead of puzzling his brain over the problems of Euclid, is wrestling with the "Bulls and Bears on `change." The Greek grammarian has been supplanted by the machinist, and the man who would hunt for a hundred years to find out the meaning of a Hebrew dot only illustrates the intellectual fool of our modern times. Railroads, big farms, manufactories, steam engines, electric lights, cable cars and the telegraph, are the text books of to-day; and if the Negro will not study to understand, control and take possession of these, he cannot keep pace with the progress of the age.


        On the subject of emigration he said:

        Stop this crying of emigration; lay hold where you are; get together, put your dollars together like you put your votes and see if the result will not bring more lands, houses, and offices too, for the enjoyment of the colored people. Financial unity will establish that bond of interest that brings better social, personal and political harmony and power. Our oath-bound organization may be a strong tic, but an organization bound together by "Dollars," welded by business, girded by houses,


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trades, lands and manufactories, forms a bond of general, political and personal, as well as financial union to which the obligations of secret organizations appear but as a rope of sand.


        In a recent editorial upon the same subject he has said:

        Aside from all political considerations, whether the Negro should be Democrat, Republican or Independent or become equally divided among all factions seeking to elevate the national policy or control government, the great need of the race to-day is a thorough knowledge and the skillful training in the various fields of mechanism and labor. If the energies wasted among the Negroes in trying to reach great political prominence, were directed toward acquiring a knowledge of the necessary and useful arts, the next generation of American Negroes would come forth full-fledged and equipped as artisans, and thrifty business men, skilled carvers in wood, iron and stone structures, and whatever enters into the convenience, comfort and facilities of our organization.


        Such doctrines as these are calculated to be of immense value to the people. He has vigorously taught and insisted on industrial institutions, and his paper is sound on all questions touching the progress of the race and upbuilding of waste places.

        He has a wife and four children, one dead, and his possessions are valued at about five thousand dollars.


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IV.

CRISPUS ATTUCKS.

        First Martyr of the Revolutionary War--A Negro Whose Blood was Given for Liberty--"Blood the Price of Liberty."

        THE subject of this sketch was born in slavery in 1723, and died in 1770. He ran away from his master, William Brown of Farmingham, Massachusetts, on the thirtieth of September, 1750, at the age of 27. He was a mulatto, six feet and two inches high. His master advertised for him in the following description: "Short, curly hair, his knees nearer together than common; had on a light colored bearskin coat, plain brown fustian jacket, or a brown wool one, new buckskin breeches, blue yarn stockings and a checked woolen shirt. Whoever shall take up said runaway, convey him to above said master, shall receive ten pounds, old tenor reward, and all necessary charges paid. And all masters of vessels, or others, are hereby cautioned against concealing or carrying off said servant on penalty of the law. October 2, 1750."

        Only after much meditation and thought, he had broken away from the cruel chains that bound him, and was determined to be a free American citizen. He learned to read at odd times, and he used this accomplishment in understanding the fundamental principles that underlie all regulated


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forms of governments. A fiery patriotism burned in his breast. He was anxious to avenge oppression in every form, not by fighting alone, but by the sacrifice of life, if necessary. twenty years later, Crispus' name once more appeared in the journals of Boston. This time he was not advertised as a slave who had run away, nor was there a reward for his apprehension. His soul and body were beyond the cruel touch of master. The press had paused to announce his death and write the name of the Negro patriot, soldier and martyr to the ripening cause of the American Revolution, in fadeless letters of gold.

        On March 5, 1770, the Boston massacre occurred. The people had been oppressed by British tyranny, they had been treated as inferiors; they were taxed without representation and their souls galled until they were maddened. When British troops, to add insult to injury, encamped upon their grounds, they could withhold no longer. They were greatly exasperated; they formed themselves into clubs and resolved to avenge themselves and gain their rights. They ran toward King street crying "Let us drive out the ribalds. They have no business here." The rioters rushed fearlessly towards the custom house. They approached the sentinel crying, "Kill him! Kill him!" It has been said that Crispus Attucks led one of these clubs, which has not been denied, but rather assented to. Botta speaking of it says: "There was a band of the populace led by a mulatto named Attucks, who brandished their clubs and pelted them with snowballs." The scene was horrible. The populace advanced to the points of their bayonets. The soldiers appeared like statues. The howlings


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and violent din of bells still sounding the alarm, increased the confusion and the horrors of these moments. At length the mulatto and twelve of his companions pressing forward environed the soldiers, striking their muskets with their clubs, cried to the multitude, "Be not afraid, they dare not fire. Why do you hesitate? Why do you not kill them? Why not crush them at once?"

        Inspired by his words, his followers rushed madly on, and the soldiers, incensed by this act of insolence, answered the war-like cry by discharging their guns. Attucks had lifted his arm against Captain Preston and fell a victim to the mortal fire. Three were killed and five were severely wounded. The cry of bloodshed spread like wild-fire. People crowded the street, white with rage; the bells rang out with alarm, and the whole country was aroused to battle. Attucks was buried from Fanueil Hall with great honor. He had led the people and made the attack. He was the first to resist and the first slain. His patriotism was the declaration of war. It was liberty to the oppressed; it opened the way to modern civilization and independence. It has blessed and will continue to bless generations yet unborn. He is rightly claimed as the savior of his country. No monument has ever been reared to his name. Repeated efforts have been made before the Massachusetts Legislature, and notwithstanding the various testimonies and the histories going to show that he was entitled to the honor we have here accorded him, upon a flimsy testimony the honor has been given to one Isaac Davis of Concord, a white man. George Williams,


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the historian of the race, in his very excellent work, uses these words in regard to Crispus Attucks:

        Attucks had addressed a letter to one Thomas Hutchinson, who was the Tory governor of the province, in which he had used these words: "Sir, you will hear from us with astonishment. You ought to hear from us with horror. You are chargeable before God and man with our blood. The soldiers are but passive instruments, mere machines, neither moral nor voluntary agents in our destruction, more than the leaden pellets with which we were wounded.

         "You were a free agent; you acted coolly, deliberately, with all that premeditated malice, not against us in particular, but against the people in general, which, in sight of the law, is an ingredient in the composition of murder. You will hear from us further hereafter.

"CRISPUS ATTUCKS."


        This letter is taken from 'Adams' Works,' Volume II, page 322. Said Williams:

        This was the declaration of war and it was fulfilled. The world has heard from him, and more, the English speaking world will never forget the noble daring, the excusable rashness of Attucks in the holy cause of liberty. Eighteen centuries before He was saluted by death and kissed by immortality, another Negro bore the cross of Christ to Calvary for Him. And when the colonists were struggling wearily under their cross of woe, a Negro came to the front and bore that cross to the victory of glorious martyrdom!


        A sketch also will be found of his life in the 'American Encyclopedia' and in William C. Nell's books on the colored patriots of the Revolution.


Illustration

GRANVILLE T. WOODS.


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V.

GRANVILLE T. WOODS, ESQ.

        Electrician--Mechanical--Engineer--Manufacturer of Telephone, Telegraph and Electrical Instruments.

        "SOME men are born great; some have greatness thrust upon them; and some achieve greatness." To the last class belongs G. T. Woods, who was born in Columbus, Ohio, April 23, 1856. He attended school until he was ten years of age, when he was placed in a machine shop where he learned the machinist and blacksmith trades. In the meantime he took private lessons and attended night school, and exhibited great pluck and perseverance in fitting himself for the work he desired to undertake. He pursued with assiduity every study which promoted that end. November, 1872, he left for the West, where he obtained work as a fireman and afterwards as an engineer on one of the Iron Mountain Railroads of Missouri. While in the employ of the railroad company he had a great deal of leisure, and as saloons had no attractions for him, he took up the study of electricity as a pastime. In December, 1874, he went to Springfield, Illinois, where he was employed in a rolling-mill. Early in 1876 he left for the East, where he received two years special training in electrical and mechanical engineering


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at college. While obtaining his special instructions, he worked six half days in each week in a machine shop, the afternoon and evening of each day being spent in school. February 6, 1878, he went to sea in the capacity of engineer on board the Ironsides, a British steamer. While a sailor, he visited nearly every country on the globe. During 1880 he handled a locomotive on the D. & S. Railroad. Since then he has spent the major portion of his time in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he has established a factory for the purpose of carrying on the business, as indicated at the head of this sketch. A company has been formed recently for the purpose of placing Mr. Woods' Electrical Railway Telegraph on the market. Mr. Woods says that he has been frequently refused work because of the previous condition of his race, but he has had great determination and will and never despaired because of disappointments. He always carried his point by persistent efforts. He says the day is past when the colored boys will be refused work only because of race prejudice. There are other causes. First, the boy has not the nerve to apply for work after being refused at two or three places. Second, the boy should have some knowledge of mechanics. The latter could be gained at technical schools, which should be founded for the purpose. In this respect he shows good sense and really prophesies the future of the race, and these schools must sooner or later be established, and thereby we shall be enabled to put into the hands of our boys and girls the actual means for a livelihood. He is the inventor of the "Induction Telegraph," a system for communicating to and from moving trains, and is intended


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to diminish the loss of life and property, and produce a maximum of safety to travelers. In the United States patent office, in the case of Woods vs. Phelps' Railway Telegraph Interference--L. M. Hosea, attorney for Woods, and W. D. Baldwin, attorney for Phelps--it will be shown that the patent office has decided that Mr. Woods was the prior inventor of this system. His rights having been questioned, he secures this verdict which gives him triumphal possession of a great discovery. The following is taken from the Scientific American:

        The public prints give us almost daily accounts of railway collisions in one section of the country or another. Every effort has been made to avert these. The general introduction of the telegraph has unquestionably done much in this direction; but in thick weather the operatives at the railway stations could scarcely be looked to to guard points of the road beyond their ken, and the railway switchman or signalman, as in other walks of life, is fallible. If railway signalmen could be found who require neither sleep nor rest, who are not subject to fits or spasms or spirituous excesses, and, above all, having eyes to pierce the fog, then railroad travel would indeed be divested of its greatest terrors. But, taking human nature as we find it, we learn that so grave a responsibility as the care of human life should never be thrust upon the shoulders of a single man.

         The "Block System" recently introduced would, it was believed, prove a reliable means of preventing accidents on the rail, and it is but fair to say that it has made an excellent record; but that it is not, under all conditions and circumstances, to be relied upon, there is abundant evidence. Only last week it failed to prevent a collision between two freight trains at New Brunswick, New Jersey, on the line of the Pennsylvania railroad, in which two lives were lost and property to the value of half a million dollars destroyed. It was of course only by mere chance that these trains were not carrying passengers. From this it may be inferred how pressing is the demand for some system in which the safety of the traveling public is not made to rely on an unthinking and not


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always reliable automaton, or, still worse, upon the action of an over-worked and irresponsible employee, whose perception of colors may be defective.

         Many able electricians have believed the solution of this problem to lie within the domains of the electrical science; and those who have followed the drift of recent electrical endeavors are aware of the contrivances, all looking towards the same goal, that have made their appearance. The general principle on which all these have been based was electrical communications between all trains, while en route, and the train despatcher; most of these systems have shown a certain degree of efficiency when tested under favorable conditions, but the best of them were subject to interruptions, and this, from the very nature of the work they were called upon to perform, has been rendered more or less uncertain, owing to the fact that they relied upon a direct contact with the conductor, either by a wire, wheel or brush.

         Now comes forward a practical system of train signaling, which does not rely upon contact at all; the electrical induction coil upon the moving train being distant from the conductor, lying between the track at least seven inches.

         The future possibilities of these new inventions appear to be very great; just how far the system can be extended and applied it is impossible to foretell. But this appears to be certain; the risk of disaster on railways will be greatly reduced from this time onward.


        Mr. Woods claims that his invention is for the purpose of averting accidents by keeping each train informed of the whereabouts of the one immediately ahead or following it; in intercepting criminals; in communicating with stations from moving trains; and in promoting general, social and commercial intercourse. The following appeared in the Cincinnati Sun:

        Granville T. Woods, a young colored man of this city, has invented a new system of electrical motor, for street railroads. He has invented also a number of other electrical appliances, and the syndicate controlling his inventions think they have found Edison's successor.



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        The Cincinnati Colored Citizen, in its issue of January 29, 1887, says:

        We take great pleasure in congratulating Mr. G. T. Woods on his success in becoming so prominent that his skill and knowledge of his chosen art compare with that of any one of our best known electricians of the day.


        The Catholic Tribune, January 14, 1886, said of him:

        Granville T. Woods, the greatest colored inventor in the history of the race, and equal, if not superior, to any inventor in the country, is destined to revolutionize the mode of street car transit. The results of his experiments are no longer a question of doubt. He has excelled in every possible way in all his inventions. He is master of the situation, and his name will be handed down to coming generations as one of the greatest inventors of his time. He has not only elevated himself to the highest position among inventors, but he has shown beyond doubt the possibility of a colored man inventing as well as one of any other race.


        The following appeared in the American Catholic Tribune, April 1, 1887 (Cincinnati, Ohio):

        Mr. Woods, who is the greatest electrician in the world, still continues to add to his long list of electrical inventions.

         The latest device he invented is the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph. By means of this system, the railway despatcher can note the position of any train on the route at a glance. The system also provides means for telegraphing to and from the train while in motion. The same lines may also be used for local message without interference with the regular train signals.

         This system may be used for other purposes. In fact, two hundred operators may use a single wire at the same time. Although the messages may be passing in opposite directions, they will not conflict with each other.

         In using the devices there is no possibility of collisions between trains, as each train can always be informed of the position of the other while in motion. Mr. Woods has all the patent office drawings for these devices, as your correspondent witnessed.


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         The patent office has twice declared Mr. Woods prior inventor of the induction railway telegraph as against Mr. Edison, who claims to be the prior inventor. The Edison & Phelps company are now negotiating a consolidation with the Wood's Railway Telegraph company.


        It is recorded that a very distinguished preacher said: "If everything the Negro had invented was sunk at the bottom of the sea, the world would not miss them, and would move on as before." This was not true then, is not true now, and will be less so in the future. Hundreds of slaves invented instruments which have been taken by their masters and patented, and many others for want of means to put their inventions through the patent office and manufacture them, have sold their knowledge for almost a "mess of pottage." The future will bring forth men who will yet astonish the world with inventions of labor-saving character, and add materially to the wealth of the nation, by producing those instruments which will decrease manual labor, multiply articles more rapidly, facilitate communication and benefit mankind.


Illustration

J. A. BROWN.


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CHAPTER VI.

HON. JEREMIAH A. BROWN.

        Legislator--Carpenter and Joiner--Clerk--Deputy Sheriff--Turnkey and Letter-Carrier.

        HON. JEREMIAH A. BROWN, or as he is familiarly called "Jere," was the first child of Thomas A. and Frances J. Brown, Pittsburgh, Allegheny county, Pennsylvania. In that city on the fourteenth of November, 1841, the subject of our sketch first saw the light of day. His younger days were spent in that city where he attended school, having among his classmates such men as the Rev. Benjamin T. Tanner, D. D., Hon. T. Morris Chester, James T. Bradford of Baltimore, Maryland, and many other distinguished men, who are now prominently before the people. He continued in the pursuits of knowledge with these until about his thirteenth year, when he accompanied his father as a steamboatman on our Western rivers. This avocation engaged his attention until his seventeenth year, when he became very much imbued with the importance of the advancement of himself in such a particular as to secure to him the possibilities of a livelihood. To this end he learned a trade, choosing that of a carpenter and joiner. At the close of his seventeenth year he entered the shop of James H. McClelland, Esq., as an apprentice. This gentleman was the foremost builder in that city at the time,


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and a gentleman known far and wide for his interest in the advancement of the colored people. Upon his entrance into this shop, it was the immediate signal for a number of the employees quitting work, such was the prejudice existing against a colored boy entering upon any of the trades; but Mr. McClelland promptly filled their places, with the remark: "that that boy will stay in this shop until he learns the trade, if I have to fill it with black mechanics from the South." Thus was the backbone of prejudice broken by this bold stand, and our young man remained and finished his trade with honor to himself, his race, and his friendly employer. After finishing his apprenticeship, his parents decided to remove to Canada West, believing that it would be beneficial to the children, of whom they had six, to be under a government that did not sanction human slavery. They desired to take their children away from its blighting and withering effects; not as practiced in its enormities, but as sanctioned by the laws of Ohio, which were then known as the "black laws," and against which he has had an opportunity to battle in the Legislature of Ohio. These black laws were very obnoxious to the colored citizens and have constantly provoked unlimited antagonism from them and their ardent white friends. Young Brown accompanied them to Canada and settled near Chatham, Ontario. Upon the inauguration of the Civil War he returned to the United States and located in St. Louis, Missouri, and again returned to steamboating, but from time to time paid visits to his parents.

        January 17, 1864, he was married to Miss Mary A.


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Wheeler, of Chatham, Ontario, a sister of Hon. Lloyd G. Wheeler, of Chicago Illinois, and the Rev. Robert F. Wheeler, of Hartford, Connecticut. Returning to St. Louis, he remained there a short time and then he decided to settle in the State of Ohio. With that end in view he went there in 1869 or 1870, stopping at Wilberforce, Ohio, to which place his parents had removed for the purpose of educating their youngest children. After prospecting in several cities in the southern part of Ohio, he determined upon Cleveland as the place where he would locate and lay the foundation for a useful and happy life; and here he has remained ever since. A few years' residence found him an active participant in the political field. His first political position was a bailiff of the probate court of that county; then he was deputy sheriff and turnkey of the county prison for four years, and clerk of the "City Boards of Equalization and Revision." Then he obtained a position in the postoffice as letter-carrier and remained in the employ of the general government until the fall of 1885, when he secured the nomination on the Republican ticket as representative in the Ohio Legislature from Cuyahoga county, being elected by nearly three thousand majority over the highest competitor on the Democratic ticket--an honor by no means small. His career has been short, and yet long enough to show that he has made due effort to wipe out those prescriptive laws of the State which we have spoken of above. he made a telling speech on the subject March 10, 1886, a bill having been introduced by the Hon. Benjamin W. Arnett. Said he:


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        All the colored man desires, Mr. Speaker, is that he be given the same legislation that is accorded to other men. No man can deny that we have proven ourselves other than true, patriotic and honorable citizens. Going back to the early days of the history of our country, where the picture is presented of the black man, in person of Crispus Attucks shedding his blood, the first spilt in the great American war for freedom, we are forced to stand appalled at that country's ingratitude. When, again, I bring in this galaxy of bright lights, Benjamin Banneker, the great mathematician, and those brave men of my race who fought, bled and died for my country in the War of 1812, I ask you, gentlemen, is such ostracism the reward for that heroism and devotion? But when I contemplate the actions of the American Negro on the battlefield of the South--at the many scenes of carnage in which he was engaged during the late War of the Rebellion--with what heroism he performed deeds of valor, showing and demonstrating his ability even at the cannon's mouth, my very heart bleeds for the foul blot heaped upon the countless thousands of black men, who laid their lives upon their country's altar for the establishment and the perpetuity of this government. In that Southland my race put on the blue, shouldered their muskets, and to-day their bones lie bleaching on dozens of battlefields, where they were massacred by those who sought to destroy this fair land. What, gentlemen, I ask you, is the reward Ohio gives those of her black sons whose bones are scattered there?


        Further on, in reference to these black laws, he says:

        Repeal them, and to your ensign will cluster the friendship of my race--redress our grievances with that power delegated to every American citizen. Defeat this bill, and the wrath of the colored voters will bury you beneath their ballots cast by as loyal citizens as the sun of Heaven looks down upon. Repeal them, and in after years when we show our children these obnoxious and pernicious laws, explaining to them the disadvantages we were subjected to, by and under them, we can teach them to love and venerate the memories of those who were instrumental in giving us equal facilities with our more than favored brethren.


        Mr. Brown is connected with the Masonic fraternity of Ohio, by whom he is highly honored and respected, as is


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readily shown by the numerous positions he has held. For a number of years he has held, and is at this time holding, the grand secretaryship of the Grand Lodge F. A. A. M. of the Grand Chapter R. A. M.; Grand Recorder of the Grand Commandery of Knights Templars and of the order of High Priesthood; he is also a member of the Carpenters' and Joiners' Brotherhood of America; believing that organization, if good for white men, is equally, if not more, beneficial to the black men. His early education was acquired in the common schools of his native State, with a short course in the Avery College of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. At that time the facilities and opportunities for acquiring an education were far below what are now in vogue. There were no opportunities for black men other than situations of a menial and degrading character to be obtained; but he, imbued with the firm determination to enter the race of life, succeeded in arriving at a point where he can be called a successful man, and has indeed risen from the carpenter's bench, and a common laborer on a steamboat, to the distinguished position of a lawmaker of the State of Ohio. His religious training was under the A. M. E. Church while a youth, but he is not connected with any denomination now, but attends the Congregational Church, the Sabbath school of which is and has been under the superintendency of his wife for about eight years. In financial affairs he has succeeded moderately, being worth probably five thousand dollars. May his life and success be some encouragement for those who find life hard and labor become unprofitable.


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VII.

WILLIAM CALVIN CHASE, ESQ.

        Editor of the Washington Bee--Vigorous and Antagonistic Writer--Politician--Agitator.

        WHATEVER may be said for or against Mr. Chase, it can well be remarked that he is a true friend, an untiring enemy, a defender of his race, and a lover of his home. Mistakes he has made, no doubt, and yet they were in behalf of his convictions or when he has been mistaken as to the justice of the cause which promoted him to act. He has led a life of agitation, turmoil and combats, and has taken and given many blows, and, like the "Black Knight" of Scott's matchless 'Ivanhoe,' he has unhorsed many a Front-de-Boeny and Athelstane--using both sword and battle-axe. Relying as I do on his written views, newspaper articles and other material before me, I have attempted to furnish the facts with little comment. But let it now be said that while Mr. Chase may differ from any one, yet he is a pleasant and agreeable companion at any time, and those from whom he has differed are all distinguished friends of his. His paper has a motto which greatly interprets the man, viz: "Honey for friends and stings for enemies." The next birthday of Mr. Chase will occur on February 2, 1888, when he will be thirty-four years of age. He is still a very young man. His father,


Illustration

W. C. CHASE.


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William H. Chase, was a blacksmith, and one of the leading citizens of Washington, District of Columbia, during his day. He was shot by a man named Charles Posey, in 1863, who called at his place of business, pretending that he wanted him to examine a revolver, claiming that it was the one that was used by a man who killed a woman in the southern section of the city. Posey said the revolver was not loaded; but as soon as Mr. Chase was handed, he refused it, and told him to take it away, it might do harm, and before he had finished this remark the deadly weapon went off and he was shot through the heart. His own brother (Chase's) immediately asserted that it was an accident. Very soon after his death, and before any of Mr. Chase's immediate family arrived, he was robbed of every cent he had in his pockets. The death of Mr. Chase left his widow with six small children. Young Chase being the only boy, had many hardships to encounter, as will be seen in the history of his life. His mother was a Lucinda Seaton of Virginia, a daughter of one of the most aristocratic colored families of that State, and who is at this time one of the leading citizens of Washington. She is a woman of determined will, who has succeeded in educating her children. One is married to Rev. E. W. Williams, principal of Ferguson's Academy, which she established, and lives in Abbeville, South Carolina; two are teaching in the public schools of Washington; another is employed in the government printing office at Washington, and has the reputation of having excelled a steam folding machine in folding papers.

        During the struggle of Mrs. Chase to educate her children,


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she met with opposition on all sides, mainly from her husband's relatives, some of whom brought suits, aggregating eight thousand dollars, against her. William H. Chase was also a musician, and it is said that he performed skillfully on the violin and bass violin, the latter of which was the cause of a lawsuit in the Orphan's court. The instrument was left to his son, and at the time of the death of Mr. Chase, his nephew had it in his possession, and declined to give it up until forced to do so by order of the court. Young Chase did not take to music; his ambition was journalism. To be successful in that, he knew that it was necessary to acquire a good education. He was only ten years old at the death of his father, and knowing that his mother had a heavy responsibility on her, he began to sell newspapers. The prejudice against colored newsboys was so great that they were not allowed by the white newsboys to come where they were. Chase managed to receive his papers through a colored gentleman who was employed by the Star Publishing Company, by the name of George Johnson, who did all in his power to aid him. Young Chase always knew how to ingratiate himself in the good graces of those who had charge of newspapers, so much so that he succeeded when others failed. He was well known around every newspaper office of any prominence in Washington, and became one of the most popular newsboys in the city. Before the death of his father, he attended the private school of John F. Cook, present collector of taxes in the District of Columbia. Leaving this school after the death of his father, he began his noted career as a newsboy. He would sell papers before school


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in the morning, and after it in the afternoon. While so doing, he met a white lady who became impressed with his manners, and she asked him if he did not want a place; he said he did. She gave him her card and requested him to call at her boarding place the next day. Calling as requested, he was given a pen and ink to write his name; he could not do so, but in less than three days he accomplished the task. He was but eleven years old then. Still more impressed was the lady; she secured him a place with Holley & Brother, wholesale hat manufacturers in Methuen, Massachusetts. Not caring much for the business, he attended a white school taught by a lady named Mrs. Swan. He remained there some time, and finally wrote to his mother to allow him to come home. So appealing was his letter that his mother consented. It was in this town that Chase conceived the importance of an education; there, too, he got an idea of the printing business, and his ambition continued to force him to get an education to enable him to become a useful man. He declared when a boy, that he would some day become an editor.

        On returning home he took up selling papers again, making himself a kind of utility boy around newspaper offices, and got a good idea of newspaper business. He left the public school and entered the Howard University Model School, "B" class, and remained in that department two years, passed a successful examination, and was recommended by his teacher as qualified to enter the preparatory department. During his stay in Howard University I was his teacher for a short while, and found him one of the brightest in the


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class. His wife was also a pupil of mine. Just as he was about to enter college he received an appointment in the government printing office, at which place he remained two years. He did not get the place promised by the public printer; for this, and injustice to the colored employees in the office, he assigned as good reasons for denouncing the public printer, which he did. This was his first public act, although prior to this he had made himself prominent in politics and was recommended for a consulship, having been endorsed by the most prominent Republican campaign organizations in the city, by members of Congress, and Senator Thomas W. Ferry of Michigan. After leaving the government printing office he filed charges with the President against the public printer, A. M. Clapp, and introduced a resolution in the Hayes and Wheeler campaign club, of which he was secretary. Colored men under Clapp called a meeting for the purpose of denouncing Chase and refuting his charges against Clapp; but Chase arrived at the hall just as the resolution was about to pass, and told them that if such a resolution was adopted he would expose all those who had urged him to denounce Mr. Clapp on account of his injustice to the Negro. The resolution did not pass. He gives the following account of the rupture between himself and Mr. Douglass:

        Mr. Frederick Douglass, who had been appointed United States marshal by President Hayes, heard that I was to be given an appointment, said to me that he would like to have me in his office, "and as the President is to give you an appointment," said Douglass, "tell him if he (President Hayes) will send me a letter, I will appoint you." I called on President Hayes and informed him of what Mr. Douglass had said. The President, after looking over my papers, wrote a personal letter to Mr. Douglass. The letter was


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handed to him by me. The "Old Man Eloquent" said, "Ah! Mr. Chase, you have caught me on the fly. Come in and I will see what I can do for you." After entering Mr. Douglass' office, he said, "Chase, call in, in a few days; I am going to discharge a man and put you on." In the meantime Mr. Clapp, who had been requested to resign his office, wrote to Mr. Douglass and informed him that he had heard that the President had recommended me to him for an appointment; that the charges I made against him were false. In reply Mr. Douglass wrote to Mr[.] Clapp and said: "Although the President has requested me to appoint Mr. Chase, I don't know whether I shall do it or not." I was informed of the letter of Mr. Douglass by a colored man and a friend of his, employed in the press room of the government printing office, to whom Mr. Clapp read the letter. I called on Mr. Douglass and informed him of the letter written to Mr. Clapp, and before Mr. Douglass replied, his son Lewis, then deputy marshal, denied it. I said that such a letter was written, and any one who attempted to deny it was a liar. L. Douglass said: "I won't appoint you now, any way." I said it made no difference to me, and demanded that the letter sent to Mr. Douglass by the President be returned to me, and said that I would inform the President that he refused to appoint me, after having promised. Mr. Douglass said "no, as the President's letter was a personal one to him." I then asked for a copy of the letter, at the request of ex-mayor Bowen. Mr. Douglass declined. I had become somewhat noted as a newspaper correspondent, and in every letter to the Boston Observer I remembered Mr. Douglass, and would paragraph him in the most pointed manner, and they would appear weekly, greatly to the discomfort of Mr. Douglass and much to my gratification. I returned to President Hayes, but before seeing him talked with his private secretary, Mr. W. K. Rodgers. I was given a card to the President and related to him the actions of Mr. Douglass. The President seemed to be somewhat indignant, and said that Mr. Douglass had nothing to do with the action of the Invincible Club against Mr. Clapp. He gave me a letter to the postmaster-general. Six months later Mr. Douglass met me in the presence of Captain O. S. B. Wall, and seemed to be greatly aggrieved at the letters written by me to the Boston Observer, and asked me what I was doing. I told him; whereupon he invited me to call and see him. I called and told Mr. Douglass that the President had given me a letter to Postmaster-General Key, Doug


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lass volunteered to endorse the President's recommendation. While my appointment was pending, some of my enemies heard that the postmaster intended to appoint me to an important position. To defeat this, an anonymous letter, denouncing the President's "Southern Policy," was written and the name of the secretary of the Hayes and Wheeler Invincible Club signed. The letter stated that I denounced the President's policy and was organizing a new African party, which would prove detrimental to the President and the Republican party. This letter was sent to the postmaster, and I failed to get the appointment.


        Although the Boston Observer had suspended, a new paper had been started, known as the Washington Plaindealer, edited by Dr. King, a West Indian. Mr. Chase was made reporter and the "Chit-Chat" editor. He was considered a valuable news and society editor. Not being satisfied with the policy of the paper, he resigned and turned his interest over to A. St. A. Smith and A. W. De Leon. Mr. Douglass became a supporter of the Plaindealer. Mr. Chase turned his attention to the management of the public schools and endeavored to reform them. He claimed to know of immorality existing in the schools and prepared several specifications of charges against certain trustees. Commissioner Dent requested the trustees, against whom these charges were made to answer them. They were all denied, but were proven by Mr. Chase. One of the trustees was removed, but the other was retained, owing to some doubt on the part of the commissioners, as this trustee had offered the Colored Normal School bill which would have benefited the colored people. Chase called a public meeting and charged these men openly with having corrupted the schools. The meeting was packed by the friends of the trustees with society


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friends. These were charged by Mr. Chase with attempting to hide corruption and keeping a set of corrupt men in office. The meeting was taken from Mr. Chase and his friends, and resolutions adopted endorsing the trustees. Notwithstanding this, Mr. Chase filed his charges and proved them. Previous to this Mr. Douglass had made up with Mr. Chase, but Mr. Douglass had been informed by one of the trustees that Mr. Chase was using the letter sent by Mr. Douglass to Postmaster-General Key in connection with the charges against the trustees. Mr. Douglass came out in the following card in the National Republican of Washington:

WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, September 25, 1876.

To whom it may concern:

        Whereas, one William C. Chase, is using a letter of mine in connection with certain charges against the trustees of the public schools, I desire to say that I have lost confidence in said Chase and withdraw my letter of endorsement of him.

Very Respectfully, etc.

FREDERICK DOUGLASS.


        Mr. Chase said in a public speech "that Mr. Douglass knew that he was using no letter of his." The letter referred to was on file in the postoffice department, and was not withdrawn until after the appearance of Mr. Douglass' card, which was certified to by General O. P. Burnside, the disbursing officer of that department. During this fight President Hayes had given Mr. Chase another letter, this time to the district commissioners, for an appointment. Captain Phelps, one of the commissioners, opposed Mr. Chase's appointment on representations made to him by the friends of the trustees, while Commissioner J. Dent


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favored it and would listen to nothing said by his enemies. Mr. Chase, however, did not secure the appointment. Presuming that he would give the President a rest for a while, he accepted the editorship of the Argus, which was offered him, at that time edited by Charles N. Otey, one of brainiest men known to the colored race. The Argus was the controlled by a board of directors. Mr. Otey retired and Mr. Chase appointed to succeed him, with Captain G. W. Graham, business manager. He changed the name of the paper to that of the Free Lance. The change of the name excited great feeling among the people, as they knew of the vindictiveness and determination of Mr. Chase to expose fraud and get even with those whom he considered enemies. Nor did he disappoint them. His first attack was made on Senator John Sherman, then the secretary of the treasury: "the schools," "police force," and the National Republican committee for not appointing colored men in the campaign. So great was the feeling of the Republicans against him, that the board of directors, who were all office-holders, while they dared not remove Mr. Chase, sold out the paper to L. H. Douglass, H. Johnson, M. M. Holland, and others, office-holders, claimed by Mr. Chase to be his enemies. The sell out of the Argus Publishing Company greatly pleased his opposers, for the name of Chase was becoming a household word, and notwithstanding his many defeats, he conceived the idea that he would sink or swim in his next attempt.

        He went to the President and asked for another appointment; this time the President put him off; he left, got additional endorsements from prominent Republicans in


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Virginia, among whom was one of Colonel Sampson P. Bailey, in whose interest he canvassed the Eighth Congressional District, Colonel John F. Lewis and many others. He returned to him and presented a letter which was referred to his private secretary, who was very favorably disposed towards Mr. Chase. When asked where he wanted to go, Mr. Chase replied, "Back to the government printing office; foreman of the lower paper warehouse," a position then held by a white man. Mr. Chase called on Mr. John D. Defrees whose nomination was pending. He promised to appoint Mr. Chase, but as soon as it became known that Mr. Chase was to return to that office, the friends of Mr. Clapp commenced to work on Mr. Defrees' prejudice. After his confirmation by the United States Senate, a minor place was offered him, which he declined. At this time an investigation against Defrees, and Clapp was instigated by Hon. Ebenezer B. Finley of Ohio, chairman of the sub-committee on expenditures. Mr. Chase was subpoenaed by that committee, which became known at the government printing office; he was sent for by H. Robert, foreman of the bindery. After this subpoena he was appointed in the government printing office, but remained only one week, as the place was not what he desired. Before Douglass was transferred from the marshalship to recorder of deeds, a public meeting was called by the friends of John T. Johnson to endorse him for the place of Douglass. Mr. Chase opposed the resolution, and asked that Douglass be retained and Johnson be endorsed for recorder of deeds, to which Mr. Douglass was subsequently appointed.


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        Although Mr. Douglass had been requested not to appoint Mr. Chase in his office, he did so eventually. This was considered a victory for Mr. Chase after the publication of Mr. Douglass' card. While in this office Mr. Chase wrote a severe criticism on the 'History of the Negro Race' by Colonel G. W. Williams, of which Mr. Douglass was accused; it was in this office that Mr. Chase was accused of being inspired to criticise and condemn the political course of Hon. R. Purvis. He was editing the Bee at the time. He denied all accusations against Mr. Douglass. A heated correspondence passed between Messrs. Douglass and Purvis. Mr. Purvis requested the discharge of Mr. Chase, but Mr. Douglass refused to comply, and suggested that Mr. Purvis meet him on equal grounds and not ask him to do that which would not be honorable. Mr. Purvis became very indignant at this, and instigated a criminal libel suit against Mr. Chase, which was subsequently withdrawn.

        Mr. Chase was not satisfied with the position in Mr. Douglass' office, and Hon. B. K. Bruce, who was a staunch friend of his, was accompanied by Mr. Douglass to see the secretary of war, Hon. R. T. Lincoln, to obtain a better place. It is said that instead of Mr. Douglass recommending Mr. Chase, he recommended some one else, which greatly embarrassed Mr. Bruce, who requested Mr. Chase to go with him to see Mr. Lincoln. Two weeks later Mr. Chase was notified to appear in examination, after which he received a probationary appointment for four months, at the end of which, his appointment was made permanent. Then his thoughts were turned to the law department of Howard


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University, where he remained one year, when he was asked to enter the Virginia Republican canvass, which he did, and which necessarily compelled him to give up the study of law. He took an active part in the campaign of '84, both in person and with his paper, the Bee. In 1885, he went as one of the delegates from the convention of colored citizens to President Cleveland, to request him to review the Emancipation Day parade. At the conclusion of remarks by Mr. Chase, the President produced a copy of the Bee containing the following article:

MURDER AND ASSASSINATION.

        We are constrained to say that the time has come when murder and the assassination of black Republicans in the South must cease. The time has come for the Negroes and loyal white people of this country to show to the world that there is purity in American politics. In the State of Louisiana, a few days ago, the most cowardly and bloody murders were committed. Innocent colored Republicans were shot down by Democrats like dogs. The same was a repetition of the past brutalities, when helpless colored female virgins and babes were snatched from their beds and murdered. The scene in the South on last Tuesday has raised the indignation of over five millions of true black American citizens. It is time for every American Negro in the South to make an appeal to arms and fire every Democratic home where Negro-killers live, from a palace to a hut, in retaliation for the foul and dastardly murders that were committed in the South. We speak without fear and in defense of the helpless Negro. It is far more noble to die the death of a freeman than an ignominious slave. The hundred and fifty-three electoral votes from the South were obtained through theft and assassination; schemes of the most outrageous character were resorted to; Negroes murdered; ballot boxes stuffed; peaceable citizens were imprisoned to prevent them from exercising the rights of elective franchise. Under these circumstances it will cost the lives of millions to inaugurate Grover Cleveland.


        Mr. Chase informed the President that he was the author


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of the article; that it was written in the heat of the Presidential campaign; that the Copiah, Danville, and Louisiana massacres were the causes of the publication of the article; but since it was decided that he was the legally elected President, no paper had been as conservative as the Bee. Mr. Cleveland said that his life was in danger when the article appeared; he condemned it and called upon all other citizens to do likewise. Nearly every paper in the country had something to say. The Democratic papers were loud in their condemnation of Mr. Chase, and in all directions of the city, groups of persons could be seen discussing "Chase and the President."

        Many Republicans who knew that what Chase said was true, were among those who condemned him. At the request of the President, Mr. Chase sent him different copies of his paper, and it was thought that this would tend to appease him, as Mr. Chase had supported him after his inaugural address, which contained some kind words in behalf of the Negro. On the twenty-fifth of April, about ten days after Mr. Chase had called on the President, he received his discharge from the War Department, by order of the President and W. C. Endicott, secretary of war. Long before the ascendency of the Democratic party, attempts had been made to have Mr. Chase discharged. These charges had no effect with Secretary Lincoln as Senator Bruce frustrated them. Mr. Chase was elected one of the vice-presidents of the Louisville convention, and was first to nominate Rev. W. J. Simmons, president of the National Press convention, to which he was elected, and was himself elected historian of said association,


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August 4, 1886. General Logan said that "Mr. Chase was one of the brightest young men he knew, and one who will succeed." Mr. Chase has been indicted for libel five times and convicted once, the fine being fifty dollars. He was married January 28, 1886, to Miss Arabella V. McCabe, a very accomplished lady in music and literature. His wedding was one of the grandest that ever took place in Washington. Presents were received from all parts of the country. He is now editor of the Washington Bee, which is flourishing. His office is fitted up in style, all the material of which is his own. Although the fights between Messrs. Chase and Douglass were bitter, they subsequently became friends, and for three successive years Mr. Douglass was elected Emancipation orator through the influence of Mr. Chase. He had become so popular that a young lady, Miss Susie Brown, named her school for him. On account of his great height and massive form, he is often called a "long, narrow, slender slice of night." This name was given him by the Sunday Capital. In the press convention of 1880, held in Washington, he was the only editor North who read a paper favoring separate schools; when he had finished, his address was endorsed by the entire Southern press; without one exception.

        His report at the Press convention, on Southern outrages, was highly commended by the Philadelphia Press. Mr. Chase is a determined man and has an undaunted disposition, and will never give up as long as there is a fighting chance. He delights to have a broil on hand, and seems never happier than when he hears the shouts of battle


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and the clash of arms. The Bee was foremost in the fight concerning the Matthews-Recorder-of-Deeds-muddle. Mr. Chase made a gallant fight, which, while it did not secure the nomination of Mr. Matthews, whipped the Senatorial children soundly and compelled them to confirm Mr. Trotter. They did not dare furnish the occasion for another battle. They dared not go home with the Bee behind them. They had felt its sting already and did not care to continue to need it further. A full statement of the case will be found under the name of Mr. J. C. Matthews. Truly did he furnish "stings for the enemies" of the race.


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VIII.

REV. JAMES W. HOOD.

        Bishop of the A. M. E. Zion Church--Church Organizer and Builder--Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction--His Many Contests For Civil Rights on Steamboats and Cars.

        ONE of the most influential men in this country is Bishop Hood. His labors have been crowned with abundant success, and his acknowledged ability marks him as a special favorite. He has a large amount of what is called character. He is the son of a preacher, and his life shows that all "preachers' sons" are not bad. The names of his parents deserve to be mentioned. The family constituted one of the thirteen families who founded the separate Methodist church in Wilmington, Delaware. He was born in Kennett township, Chester county, Pennsylvania, May 30, 1831. At the age of twenty-five, being converted, he felt a call to preach the gospel. In 1859 he was received on trial in the New England conference of the A. M. E. Zion church. In 1860 he was ordained deacon and sent to Nova Scotia missions. They year 1863 found him stationed at Bridgeport, Connecticut. This same year he was sent to North Carolina, where he now lives "as the first of his race appointed as a regular missionary to the Freedmen in the South."

        He has founded in North Carolina, South Carolina and


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Virginia over six hundred churches, and erected under his supervision about five hundred church buildings. He was elected bishop of the General Conference which held its session in North Carolina, in 1872. He was elected a member of the Ecumenical Conference, in London, in 1881. He has published a volume of sermons, to which Rev. Atticus G. Haygood, agent of the Slater fund, has written a complimentary introduction in which he says:

        These sermons speak for themselves; their naturalness, their clearness, their force and their general soundness of doctrine and wholesomeness of sentiment, commend them to sensible and pious people. I have found them as useful as interesting. Those who still question whether the Negro in this country is capable of education and refinement, will modify their opinion when they read these sermons, or else they will conclude that their author is a very striking exception to what they assume is a general rule. Bishop Hood entertains many broad and important views as to the wants, duties and future of his people. He believes that their best interests are to be conserved in preserving the race from admixture with other bloods. They should, he thinks, hang together, and he is persuaded that if his people are to succeed permanently and broadly in this country, they must largely work out their own salvation.


        He has twenty-one very able and comprehensive sermons in the book, well worth the reading. Besides peculiarly striking sermons by Bishops S. J. Jones, J. J. Moore, J. P. Thompson, Thomas H. Lomax, some of the themes treated in Bishop Hood's book, are "The Claims of the Gospel Message," "Personal Consecration;" "Divine Sonship;" "The Sequence of Wondrous Love;" "Why was the Rich Man in Torment?" "The Streams which Gladden God's City;" "The Glory Revealed in the Christian Character;" "David's Root and Offspring, or Venus in the Apocalypse."


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        Bishop Hood went to North Carolina in January, 1864. At Newbern, during that year, in the absence of the chaplain, he preached to the colored troops and was often called "chaplain," but he never held the commission as such. He went there as missionary, under General Butler's invitation to the churches to send missionaries into his department. Newbern was twice attacked after he went there, so that he understands what it is to be under Confederate fire. Among the "first" conventions, if not the first of them all, of colored men in the South, was the one in October, 1865, in Raleigh. In this meeting he was elected president as the "dark horse." Three other candidates had packed delegations as it appears, and thus defeated each other. The opening speech in that convention was the subject of much comment from the press, some not very complimentary to the speaker. He was reminded "that hemp grew in that part of the State." It was the first time that a black man had so publicly stated that the Negro was among those who came from one blood, and among those whom the Declaration of Independence included as endowed with inalienable rights, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; a right to the jury-box, cartridge box, and ballot box, were among the demands which he said the colored people would contend for, and that with the help of God. He was reminded in some of the bitter papers at the time that he would get all these in one box. In 1868 he demanded and obtained cabin passage on the Cape Fear steamers. The agents told him that nothing but the fact that the city was under military authority caused the company to yield to his demand. He advised


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the bishop not to attempt to take advantage of this, as it would be the worse for him when the military was withdrawn. The answer was characteristic of the man. He said he would enjoy it while he could, and trust the Lord for the balance. His right, however, has never been questioned on that river since. This proves what we have often said, that, if colored men would demand what belongs to them they could very many times get it, but because of their indifference and littleness of soul, they are often shoved into places where it is a disgrace to go. He also broke the ice on the railroads in that early day, and in this respect stood foremost in the Southern States. To go a little back, he says:

        I have been contending for my rights in public conveyances from boyhood. Time and again, between '48 and '63 did conductors try to put me out of the first class cars on the Pennsylvania railroad, but they never did it. Once I think they would have done it, but a Quaker lady called on the passengers to interfere in my behalf. I was carried out of the street cars five times in one night in 1857, and, after, all, rode from the corner of Church and Leonard streets up to 28th street in time to preach, but of course I was a little late. I could give many instances in which I had to contend, but generally made my trip in the car. A thirty-eight years' fight with railroad conductors seems like a long contest, from which I have come forth without a scar.


        Bishop Hood has always been a traveler, more or less, and has traveled 15,000 miles a year. It is doubtful whether any man living has had so many railroad contests. He is getting tired and worn out, and avoids the far South as much as possible on this account, but nevertheless he has opened the way and smoothed the path in these years for others, and has opened up to the traveling


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public better accommodations. In 1867 he was elected as a delegate to the constitutional Convention of the State of North Carolina, and took such a prominent part that the Democrats called the constitution adopted "Hood's Constitution" until they amended it slightly about 1875.

        In this convention he made a speech which was full of sarcasm and ridicule of his opponent, a gentleman who had opposed some measure in which he was interested. He says:

        After all I am compelled to acknowledge that I feel myself to be under some obligation to the secessionists. I am compelled to acknowledge that to their folly, in a great measure, we owe our present enfranchisement. The gentleman from Orange remarked last night that his race has always occupied a position more elevated than the rest of mankind. I am astonished at that young man that he has no more regard for his reputation as a historian than to assert such a ridiculous fallacy in the hearing of intelligent gentlemen in the noonday splendor of the nineteenth century. Does he not know that his ancestors, the ancient Britons, were in bondage in ancient Rome, in the days of Julius Cæsar, and ever since that day? Mr. Chairman, the worst that has ever been said of my people was that they were too ignorant to be anything but slaves; but of the Britons it was said that they were too ignorant even to be slaves. A friend of Julius Cæsar, writing to him, urged him not to bring slaves from Britain, for they were so ignorant that they could not be taught music. Now I have never heard it said of colored people that they were too ignorant to sing. I admit that this is not very flattering to the ancestors of the gentleman from Cleveland and Orange. Ancestry is something that they should not go back into, except with their mouths in the dust; but I don't blame them for this. It is something they cannot help. I am sorry for them, but I don't blame them for springing from such a low origin. I only think hard of them for making mouths at me.


        This speech was considered so valuable that it was used as a campaign document. It is full of such passages, and


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the comment of the press was very favorable, though the information was easily gained by any one who would take the pains to read yet it was considered wonderful because a colored man showed such an acquaintance with the history of his race and turned with such grace and dignity and delivered such a clever shot into the ranks of his opponents.

        The homestead and public schools in this convention claimed his especial attention, and he was allowed to have his own way pretty much in regard to these measures. He believed that a good homestead law would secure the ratification of the constitution, and he was not mistaken. It proved to be a very popular measure, and he used it for all it was worth in canvassing. The school law was free from any hint of condition on account of color. He canvassed at the time fourteen counties and carried them all for this constitution, although all but two were regarded as doubtful. He was associated with others, of course, in this canvass, but he enjoyed the lion's share of attention. Returning home from a meeting during the Presidential campaign in 1868, he received a commission as agent of the State Board of Education and assistant superintendent of public instruction. This appointment was made without solicitation from himself and friends and without his knowledge. The State Board of Education was composed of the governor and other State officers, and created the office and made the appointment, and the first information he had of it was the receipt of the commission, and an accompanying letter asking him to indicate at what time he could enter upon the duties of the office. His salary was


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fixed at $1,500 a year. He filled this position for three years, having his headquarters at Raleigh, and at the same time, with the assistance of a subordinate preacher, built up a strong church at Charlotte, North Carolina, out of which four others have been formed. He would leave Raleigh Saturday afternoon and go to Charlotte, one hundred and seventy-five miles a way, preach three times a day and be back to Raleigh Monday morning. Sometimes he would not have his boots off from Saturday morning until Monday night. He generally filled the pulpit three Sabbaths in the month. One Sabbath in the month he would remain at Raleigh and divide the time among Methodist and Baptist congregations. There was no church of his branch of Methodists in Raleigh at that time, and he thought it was not fair to use the power of his office to establish one. During the time he was in office, he visited the greater portion of the State, lecturing and organizing schools. He received, unsolicited, a commission from General O. O. Howard, as assistant superintendent under the Freedmen's Bureau, without pay, except that he was allowed three dollars a day, when traveling in the interest of the Bureau, to cover expenses. In 1870 he had forty-nine thousand colored children in the schools, and had a colored department established for the deaf, dumb and blind, and about sixty of those unfortunates, under care and instruction, gathered from all parts of the State. Sometimes he had hard work to get parents to send their children. One blind boy, that he had to go for several times and who would hide when he heard that the bishop was in town, is now making his living traveling as


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Professor Simmons, the blind organist. The department formed at that early day has now a brick building worth $20,000, heated by steam and has every necessary convenience. It is the best institution for deaf mutes and blind of the colored people in this country, and yet there is only about the same number in the institution that he left when he gave up the office, while the statistics show about eight hundred in the State. He was about to establish a State University when the Democrats got control of the Legislature and legislated him out of office.

        The only office he held under the State and National government was magistrate under a provisional government, and deputy collector for a few months. The latter position he resigned. He was the choice of the colored delegates for Secretary of State at the Republican State convention in 1872, as unanimously declared by the caucus, and declining it he was allowed to name a man who was nominated and elected. This gentleman promised to appoint a colored man as chief clerk and he did so. He never desired a purely secular office and did not regard his educational position in that light. He was made temporary chairman of the Republican State convention in 1876, and gave such satisfaction that the gentleman who was selected for permanent chairman wanted to decline in his favor. He was a delegate for the State-at-large to the National convention in 1872, which nominated Grant for his second term. He was Grand Master of the Masons in his State for fourteen years, and has twice declined unanimous election since. He was elected and re-elected Most Eminent Grand Patron of the Order of the Eastern


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Star, until he quit attending the annual meetings. Besides he held very many minor offices. He has been High Priest, D. S. H. P. and D., inspector of the Thirty-third degree. At the great Centennial gathering of all branches of the Methodist church, black and white, held in Baltimore, 1885, he was elected to preside the first day. This body was presided over by one State governor, and one lieutenant-governor and a number of bishops in turn. He was elected to preside, but as he was not present, they sent a telegram for him, but he could not reach there in time. He was informed that an effort was made to get another colored man appointed, but a white bishop was finally selected. Notwithstanding his absence, when called for, another appointment was made for him, which he filled. Early in the day a couple of smart black men gave him an opportunity to show what he knew about parliamentary usage. His rulings were cheered and for the balance of the session both white and black tried to keep within the rules, and only made points of order when somebody was out of order.

        He has been married three times. First, in his twenty-second year, he married Miss Hannah L. Ralph of Lancaster City, Pennsylvania, who died of consumption in 1855. In his twenty-seventh year he married Miss Sophia J. Nugent of Washington City. By that marriage he had seven children, four of whom are living, aged respectively fourteen, sixteen, eighteen and twenty. Three younger ones are at Zion Wesley College. His last marriage was celebrated in June, 1877, to Mrs. K. P. McKoy of Wilmington, North Carolina. By this marriage he had three


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children, two living, one five and one seven, and the youngest one dead. The bishop is a very liberal man, and in the building of the many churches over which he has had the oversight in the last twenty years, he has given over one hundred dollars to a single church and says he has no idea of the number of churches to which he has given the sum of twenty-five dollars and upwards. The bishop is a strict temperance man. From boyhood he has been an opponent of the liquor traffic, and has ever been ready to oppose intemperance and slavery. He says: "I have been called crazy on the subject of tobacco and whiskey. I have been able in some of the conferences over which I have presided to influence men who were not teetotalers to become such, and large numbers have discontinued the use of tobacco. Rev. Jacob Adams, leading minister of the New York conference, visited the Central North conference at its last session and said: "That for intelligence and sobriety, as well as in many other respects this conference was the banner conference of the church, as he knew that this was regarded especially as 'Bishop Hood's Conference.' It having been said that if he winked, the men in it would nod, it can be readily seen that he was paying a high compliment to said conference; and that being a leading member of the oldest conference, he knew some of its history, and it was indeed a compliment that he should declare in open conference the superiority of this recently built up Southern work." The Bishop has been connected with many temperance societies, the most noted of these is the Good Templars, in a lodge of which he accepted a position of outside guard to encourage others to accept


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minor places. He was at the same time holding the position of Grand Worthy Chief Templar of the State, and Right Worthy Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of the world. While in England he delivered many temperance speeches and received many notices of value from the temperance press. He has taken part in every temperance contest in the State of North Carolina.

        Bishop Hood is a big man, and has nerves of iron and back-bone of steel; and, it may be well added, a face of flint which he constantly sets against error and wrong. May he live many years to continue his arduous labors for the bettering of his race.


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IX.

HON. SAMUEL R. LOWERY.

        Silk Culturist--Lawyer and Editor.

        NO man in our broad country has exhibited more perseverance and pluck than this patient toiler. On December 9, 1886, he was fifty-six years old. A hard worker and earnest investigator and a courteous gentleman, he excites my admiration and challenges my good judgment, even when I think he has suffered enough privation and sacrifice to make him abandon his project. Nashville, Tennessee, has no other man exhibiting such a large amount of that self-sacrificing spirit as shown by Mr. Lowery. His mother was a free woman, a Cherokee Indian, and his father a slave, living twelve miles from the said city, and was purchased by his wife; God bless the woman. The old gentleman still lives in Nashville, aged seventy-six. Mr. Lowery lost his mother when only eight years old. The young man tried to get learning by working at Franklin College and studying privately under the Rev. Talbot Fanning, a famous Christian preacher, and who is of blessed memory now to Mr. Lowery. At the age of sixteen, our subject taught a school for the first time and had wonderful success for four years. In 1849 he united with the church of the Disciples and began preaching and continued till 1857. One year after this he pastored


Illustration

S. R. LOWERY.


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the Harrison Street church of that faith in Cincinnati, Ohio. He married in 1858, and becoming displeased with the country, went to Canada where he remained for three years, when he returned to this country, settling on a farm which was given him by his father in Fayette county, Ohio, near West Lancaster. In 1863, when Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation was issued, he went to Nashville, preaching to the freedmen and colored soldiers, commanded by Colonel R. K. Crawford, of the Fortieth United States Colored troops. Not getting his commission as chaplain, he was transferred to the Ninth United States heavy artillery as chaplain, appointed by the officers, where he remained until the close of the war. Then he moved his family from Ohio to Tennessee, where he began preaching and teaching school. He commenced about this time the study of law in Rutherford county, Tennessee. Political excitement was running very high at that time, and his school was broken up by the Ku Klux, and his affairs much disturbed. Being admitted to the bar he began the practice of law in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1875 he moved to Huntsville, Alabama, and continued practicing law and preaching. He also practices before the United States Supreme Court, having been admitted on the motion of Belva V. Lockwood. His daughter Ruth, then a girl fifteen years of age, living in Nashville, visited with her father and sister, Annie L. Lowery, ten years of age, an exhibition, of silkworms, given by one Mr. Theobald, and she persuaded her father to purchase her some silk-worm eggs, which he did. She hatched them in Huntsville, Alabama, and by the aid of the leaves of the


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white mulberry tree, succeeded in starting the enterprise in which Mr. Lowery is now engaged. After her death, which occurred in 1877, her father took up the enterprise. He now became disgusted with politics and began to devote his whole time to the silk-worm culture. He visited Paterson, New Jersey, and there met John Kyle, the pioneer silk manufacturer in the United States, who encouraged him to plant trees and raise the silk cocoons. He also visited South Manchester, Connecticut, and met Mr. Frank Cheney, the largest silk manufacturer in the United States, who also encouraged him, giving him ten years to succeed in the enterprise. Returning home, he imported some white mulberry seed from France, from which he has a fine nursery of mulberry trees in Huntsville, Alabama. The seedlings grown from this seed have produced the largest leaves of the kind in the world, and received the highest prize at the World's Exposition at New Orleans. Mr. Lowery has received but little encouragement from the people of Huntsville, Alabama, but there are a few noble exceptions to this rule. Our government paid a Frenchman a thousand dollars for making his exhibition, while Mr. Lowery, poor and unaided, made his display, and triumphed without aid from any source whatever. We give below an extract from the Birmingham (Alabama) Manufacturer and Tradesman. As the facts are known by me to be true, they only add additional weight to my own statements:

        Mr. Lowery has visited, the last two seasons, at the Southern Exposition in Louisville, and received the first medal over several competitors from other nations. At New Orleans he took a premium over eighteen


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competitors from China, France, Japan, Italy, Mexico and other exhibitors in the United States, and was the only successful propagator, raising over 100,000 worms and cocoons on the grounds, while his competitors were unable to raise one. He has had forty acres of land given him near the city of Birmingham to go into the silk culture on a large scale, and has formed a company composed of the following leading citizens:

         William Burney, Dr. H. M. Caldwell, W. A. Handley, C. C. Brenemen and himself, directors; with W. A. Handley, as president; C. C. Brenemen, secretary; William Burney, treasurer, and himself superintendent. He is an intelligent, conservative man, steadily refusing to mix up in any way with the disturbing element of his race. He is a lawyer by profession, and also publishes the Southern Freeman, and he constantly devotes his time to the advancement of the colored people of the South, and is very well respected by the people of that city and at his own home in Huntsville. His past experiments in the silk worm culture, with the strong backing he now has, assures success in the present enterprise. He owns shares of stock in the undertaking. Birmingham will be known well as a silk manufacturing center.


        Mr. Lowery has an idea that the culture of the silk worm will take the place of cotton, and give to the women and children a refining and remunerative employment, which only takes six weeks in a year, and at the same time gives two-and three-fold more pay than they could earn all the year in their present employment.

        I have never failed to have him address the students of the institution over which I have the honor to preside, and his enthusiasm has made a profound impression on his hearers; his genial manners, fund of information, knowledge of men and places, make him a welcome visitor and agreeable talker. He is yet destined to rank as a great benefactor to his race. He has had the faith of Columbus and the perseverance of Barnard Pallissey. Although famous, yet


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he has nothing. In conversation with me he said: "My dear sir, I am very poor. I have not yet struck a bonanza, but I still hope for a competency yet ahead. Hope is a large faculty in my organization. I have tried to abandon it and become indifferent to its inviting fields. When I do, I am really not myself; yet I know I do not hope vainly or recklessly." Let us pray that he will yet realize his hopes, and that his cherished plans may be the means of furnishing to the race the sure road to wealth and refinement. When success shall fully crown his labors, may the trademark of the firm be his daughter Ruth's picture, as an honor to the humble girl, who died and did not live to see the success of her plans. She is worthy of this distinction.


Illustration

WILLIAM STILL.


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X.

WILLIAM STILL.

        Philanthropist--Goal Dealer, and Twenty Years Owner of the Largest Public Hall Owned by a Colored Man.

        THIS distinguished gentleman, who made himself prominent during the dark days of slavery, by helping escaped fugitives at the peril of his own life, was born October 7, 1821, in Shamong; County of Burlington, New Jersey. He was the youngest of eighteen children of Levin and Charity Still. Mr. Still worked at farming and wood chopping until he was twenty-three years old, at which time he left New Jersey, the home of his birth, to stem the current of life alone. He had no education except what he had acquired when the weather prevented his working out of doors, and what he could pick up here and there from observation, conversation and other odd means.

        Being a stranger, he was thrown wholly on his own resources, as he entered the city of Philadelphia with less than five dollars in his pocket. This was in 1844. While quite a boy he had pledged with himself never to touch intoxicating liquors, which pledge he ever kept; and it was, no doubt, the corner stone of his prosperity, and the means by which he has made a man of himself, thereby set


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an example for many of those fast young men who hope to succeed in life, and yet indulge in intoxicating drinks and riotous living.

        He professed Christ many years after. In 1847 he obtained a clerkship in the office of the Pennsylvania Antislavery society, and occupied this position for fourteen years. He had seen so much of the cruelties of slavery that his heart was full of sympathy for the oppressed, and he determined to spend his time and his life in securing liberty for all over whom his influence might be exerted. His house was known as a safe and convenient refuge for all who were making their way to a land of liberty. Two of his brothers were left in bondage by the flight of their mother, and were lost to their parents for forty years. This seemed to have deepened his interest in the slaves, and yearly hundreds of escaped bondsmen found in him a friend. He was chairman and corresponding secretary of the Philadelphia branch of the "Underground Railroad" for the last decade of slavery. He wrote out hundreds of narratives from the lips of fleeing fugitives and kept them secreted in the loft of the Lebanon Seminary till emancipation, when privacy was no longer a necessity. These same narrations make up his famous book, which bears the name of the corporation for which he labored. He, alone, of all the thousands who aided the fugitives, succeeded in preserving anything like a full account of the workings of the "Underground Railroad," as it was called, before emancipation.

        His book, "The Underground Railroad," which is well known by all readers, was published in 1873. This volume


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of eight hundred and fifty pages, was highly commended by the leading men of the nation and reviewers of the country. It had a large sale and will continue to sell for many years to come. It is a valuable book, and every colored man ought to have it in his library. We cannot do better than frequently recur to its pages for the purpose of measuring our present greatness by looking back on the path through which we have come, filled with thorns and precipices. It might not be out of place here to give one of the narratives which he has recorded in his book. It will show the character of the work, and revive in some measure the memories of those days of bitter persecutions and trials. The narration which is here selected is that of prominent personages whose history is largely familiar to the older people, and cannot fail to be interesting to the younger ones.

        A quarter of a century ago, William and Ellen Craft were slaves in the State of Georgia. With them, as with thousands of others, the desire to be free was very strong. For this jewel they were willing to make any sacrifice, or to endure any amount of suffering. In this state of mind they commenced planning. After thinking of various ways that might be tried, it occurred to William and Ellen that one might act the part of master and the other the part of servant.

         Ellen being fair enough to pass for white, of necessity would have to be transformed into a young planter for the time being. All that was needed, however, to make this important change was that she should be dressed elegantly in a fashionable suit of male attire, and have her hair cut in the style usually worn by young planters. Her profusion of dark hair offered a fine opportunity for the change. So far this plan looked very tempting. But it occurred to them that Ellen was beardless. After some mature reflection, they came to the conclusion that this difficulty could be very readily obviated by having the face muffled up as though the young planter was suffering badly with the toothache;


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thus they got rid of this trouble. Straightway, upon further reflection, several other very serious difficulties stared them in the face. For instance, in traveling, they knew they would be under the necessity of stopping repeatedly at hotels, and that the custom of registering would have to be conformed to, unless some very good excuse could be given for not doing so.

         Here they again thought much over the matter, and wisely concluded that the young man had better assume the attitude of a gentleman very much indisposed. He must have his right arm placed very carefully in a sling; that would be a sufficient excuse for not registering, etc. Then he must be a little lame, with a nice cane in his left hand; he must have large green spectacles over his eyes, and withal he must be very hard of hearing and dependent on his faithful servant (as was no uncommon thing with slaveholders) to look after all his wants.

         William was just the man to act this part. To begin with, he was very "likely looking," smart, active and exceedingly attentive to his young master--indeed, he was almost eyes, ears, hands and feet for him. William knew that this would please the slaveholders. The young planter would have nothing to do but hold himself subject to his ailments and put on a bold air of superiority. He was not to deign to notice anybody. If, while traveling, gentlemen, either politely or rudely, should venture to scrape acquaintance with the young planter, in his deafness he was to remain mute; his servant was to explain. In every instance when this occurred, as it actually did, the servant was fully equal to the emergency--none dreaming of the disguises in which the underground railroad passengers were traveling.

         They stopped at a first-class hotel in Charleston, where the young planter and his body-servant were treated as the house was wont to treat chivalry. They stopped also at a similar hotel in Richmond, and with like results.

         They knew that they must pass through Baltimore, but they did not know the obstacles that they would have to surmount in the "Monumental City." They proceeded to the depot in the usual manner, and the servant asked for tickets for his master and self. Of course the master could have a ticket, but "bonds will have to be entered before you can get a ticket," said the ticket master. "It is the rule of this office to require bonds for all negroes applying for tickets to go North, and none


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but gentlemen of well known responsibility will be taken," further explained the ticket master.

         The servant replied that he knew "nothing about that"--that he was "simply traveling with his young master to take care of him, he being in a very delicate state of health, so much so that fears were entertained that he might not be able to hold out to reach Philadelphia, where he was hastening for medical treatment;" and ended his reply by saying, "My master can't be detained." Without further parley the ticket master very obligingly waived the old "rule" and furnished the requisite tickets. The mountain being thus removed, the young planter and his faithful servant were safely in the cars for the city of Brotherly Love.

         Scarcely had they arrived on free soil when the rheumatism departed, the right hand was unslung, the toothache was gone, the beardless face was unmuffled, the deaf heard and spoke, the blind and the lame leaped as a hart, and in the presence of the few astonished friends of the slaves, the facts of this unparalleled underground railroad feat were fully established by the most unquestionable evidence.

         The constant strain and pressure on Ellen's nerves, however, had tried her severely, so much so, that for days afterwards she was principally very much prostrated, although joy and gladness beamed from her eyes, which bespoke inexpressible delight within.

         Never can the writer forget the impression made by their arrival. Even now after a lapse of nearly a quarter of a century, it is easy to picture them in a private room, surrounded by a few friends--Ellen in her fine suit of black, with her cloak and high heeled boots, looking, in every respect, like a young gentleman; in an hour after having dropped her male attire and assumed the habiliments of her sex, the feminine was only visible in every line and feature of her structure.

         Her husband, William, was thoroughly colored, but was a man of marked natural abilities, of good manners, and full of pluck, and possessed of perceptive faculties very large.

         It was necessary, however, in those days, that they should seek a permanent residence, where their freedom would be more secure than in Philadelphia; therefore they were advised to go to headquarters, directly to Boston. There they would be safe, it was supposed, as it had then been about a generation since a fugitive had been taken back from the old Bay State, and through the incessant labors of William Lloyd


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Garrison, the great pioneer, and his faithful coadjutors, it was conceded that another fugitive slave case would never be tolerated on the free soil of Massachusetts. So they went to Boston.

         On arriving, the warm hearts of Abolitionists welcomed them heartily, and greeted and cheered them without let or hinderance. They did not pretend to keep their coming a secret or hide it under a bushel; the story of their escape was heralded broadcast over the country--North and South, and indeed over the civilized world. For two years or more not the slightest fear was entertained that they were not just as safe in Boston as if they had gone to Canada. But the day the Fugitive Bill passed, even the bravest Abolitionist began to fear that a fugitive slave was no longer safe any where under the stars and stripes, North or South, and that William and Ellen Craft were liable to be captured at any moment by Georgia slave hunters. Many Abolitionists counseled resistance to the death at all hazards. Instead of running to Canada, fugitives generally armed themselves and thus said: "Give me liberty or give me death."

         William and Ellen Craft believed that it was their duty as citizens of Massachusetts to observe a more legal and civilized mode of conforming to the marriage rite than had been permitted them in slavery, and as Theodore Parker had shown himself a very warm friend of theirs, they agreed to have their wedding over again according to the laws of a free State. After performing the ceremony, the renowned and fearless advocate of equal rights (Theodore Parker), presented William with a revolver and dirk knife, counseling him to use them manfully in the defense of his wife and himself, if ever an attempt should be made by his owners, or anybody else, to re-enslave them.

         But, notwithstanding all the published declarations made by the Abolitionists and fugitives, to the effect that slaveholders and slave catchers in visiting Massachusetts in pursuit of their runaway property would be met by just such weapons as Theodore Parker presented William with, to the surprise of all Boston, the owners of William and Ellen actually had the effrontery to attempt their recapture under the Fugitive Slave laws.


        His reasons for writing this book are given in the preface of the edition of 1886, and I cannot but give his own


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words as his apology for placing such a book before the reading people. There are many of our people who are so foolish as to desire to rub out all the traces of our past history, and would do away with all emancipation celebrations and everything that reminds us of a past, which though painful and full of bitterness, cannot yet but be remembered with praise to God that he has permitted us to pass through these trials and come out more than conqueror. He very happily refers to the fact in this preface that the bondage and deliverance of the children of Israel will never be allowed to sink into oblivion. The world stands, and the Jews do not hang their heads in shame because of their bondage, but tell it with some pride, that God, though they were in bondage, did not forget them, but finally brought them forth and made a people of them. Quotations are here given because it is in the line of instruction that is badly needed and which should be heeded by our people, and he does well to send these thoughts through the country in each of his books, that they might influence at least the readers of that section in which he says:

        Well conducted shops, stores, lands acquired, good farms managed in a manner to compete with any other, valuable books produced and published on interesting subjects--these are some of the fruits which the race are expected to exhibit from their newly gained privileges.


        This gains our highest approval. It is the very thing for our people to consider. But let me without further elaboration give a passage in this preface, which one, in the reading, will find full of truth and instruction.


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        And in looking back now over these strange and eventful providences, in the light of the wonderful changes wrought by emancipation, I am more and more constrained to believe that the reasons which years ago led me to aid the bondmen and preserve the record of his sufferings, are to-day quite as potent in convincing me that the necessity of the times requires this testimony.

         And since the first advent of my book, wherever reviewed or read by leading friends of freedom, the press, or the race more deeply represented by it, the expressions of approval and encouragement have been hearty and unanimous, and the thousands of volumes which have been sold by me on the subscription plan, with hardly any facilities for the work, makes it obvious that it would, in the hands of a competent publisher, have a wide circulation.

         And here I may frankly state that but for the hope I have always cherished, that this work would encourage the race in efforts for self-elevation, its publication would never have been undertaken by me.

         The race must not forget the rock from whence they were hewn, nor the pit from whence they were digged.

         Like other races, this newly emancipated people will need all the knowledge of their past condition which they can get.

         Those scenes of suffering and martyrdom, millions of Christians were called upon to pass through in the days of the Inquisition, are still subjects of study and have unabated interest for all enlightened minds.

         The same is true of the history of this country. The struggles of the pioneer fathers are preserved, produced and reproduced, and cherished with undying interest by all Americans, and the day will not arrive while the Republic exists when these histories will not be found in every library.

         While the grand little army of Abolitionists was waging its untiring warfare for freedom prior to the rebellion, no agency encouraged them like the heroism of the fugitives. The pulse of the four million of slaves and their desire for freedom was better felt through "The Underground Railroad" than through any other channel.

         Frederick Douglass, Henry Bibb, William Wells Brown, Rev. J. W. Logan and others, gave unmistakable evidence that the race had no more eloquent advocates than its own self-emancipated champions.

         Every step they took to rid themselves of their fetters, or to gain education,


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or in pleading the cause of their fellow-bondsmen in the lecture room, or with their pens, met with applause on every hand, and the very argument needed was thus furnished in a large measure. In those dark days previous to emancipation, such testimony was indispensable.

         The free colored men are as imperatively required now to furnish the same manly testimony in the support of the ability of the race to surmount the remaining obstacles growing out of oppression, ignorance and poverty.


        The angels have recorded the deeds of this noble-hearted man, and God will reward him. It is impossible to do justice to those men and women who held their lives as nothing when the cries of the slaves reached their ears. There was never greater heroism than that shown by William Still. Think, reader, of the pain his heart has undergone. Think of the moments of intense agony he bore. Think of a life of care, suffering and prayer; then tell me we are destitute of the finest feelings held by any other race.

        They said we were not men, but if not men then we have been angels. For indeed the history of our sufferings and the manner in which we have borne them without revolution and bloodshed, without falling to the depths of infidelity, but still holding to a trust in God, mark our career as more than marvelous.

        Is it not a wonder that in all these dark shadows we did not lose our faith in God and cry out, "There is no God"? Is it not a wonder that in all these years there was not stamped out of us every feeling of mercy, generosity and manhood?

        What could have been expected of a race that was deep in the well of ignorance, hidden from the light of day? What could have been expected of us and our children, except


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that we would be brutalized and destitute of all the finer feelings of our nature.

        It does seem as if we were made of finer material than others, that even so many good men, philanthropists, strong Christian men, preachers and faithful workers in every missionary department of life, could have been gotten out of this race so cruelly treated, so badly despised. Here is an example in the life of Mr. Still worthy of record. In the 'Book of Ages' how many look back and thank him for succor, for comfort, for food, for clothing, for money, and for liberty? This is a wonderful record. The deeds which were done in his office, the acts of charity, would almost form, as it would seem, a special volume among the records of Heaven.

        O God! We thank Thee for such a man as William Still. Men who, like their Master, went about doing good. Men who fulfilled the teachings of the Scriptures and who shall be on the right hand and hear these words: "Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger and ye took me in: naked and ye clothed me: I was sick and ye visited me: I was in prison and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer him saying, Lord when saw we Thee an hungred and fed Thee? or thirsty and gave Thee drink? when saw we Thee a stranger and took Thee in? or naked and clothed Thee? or when saw we Thee sick or in prison and came unto Thee? And the King shall answer and say unto them: Verily I say unto you, inasmuch as ye have done it unto


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one of the least of these, my brethren, ye have done it unto me."

        Mr. Still's name should be in the mouths of all lovers of philanthropic deeds, and his name is fittingly placed here that he might be known by the rising generation. His work is no less eminent than those who were partners in the labor of love, and yet extreme danger, namely, Abagail Goodwin, Thomas Garrett, Daniel Gibbons, Lucretia Mott, J. Miller McKim, H. Furness, William Lloyd Garrison, Lewis Tappan, William Wright, Elijah F. Pennypacker, Dr. Bartholomew Fussell; Robert Purvis, John Hunn, Samuel Rhoades, William Whipper, Samuel D. Burris, Charles D. Cleveland, Grace Anne Lewis, Frances Ellen W. Harper and John Needles.

        In 1859, when old John Brown with one bold dash opened fire for freedom at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, several of his officers who were with him in the hottest battle at the Ferry, escaped with heavy rewards hanging over their heads, and sought shelter under the roof of William Still, who kindly received them. He also comforted and ministered unto the wife, daughter and sons of Brown who had come, utter strangers, to Philadelphia while the old hero was in prison waiting his execution. All this was cheerfully done while conscious of the fact that his deeds of charity were imperiling his own life. In 1850 he recognized one of his brothers who had been separated by slavery from his mother, when a child of only six years. In 1860 he left the antislavery office with the most hearty sympathy and confidence of his antislavery friends and at once turned his attention to


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business of his own. Having some knowledge of the stove business, he opened a new and second hand stove store. In less than three years he was well established and quite successful. In the meantime, the civil war broke out and the curse of slavery ended unexpectedly. The secretary of war furnished him with a post sutler's commission at Camp William Penn, at which point colored soldiers were stationed for Pennsylvania. In 1865 he purchased a large lot, built an office and entered the coal business, and for over twenty years he has successfully conducted this branch of business, amassing quite a fortune. He is the owner of Liberty Hall, the largest public hall in the country owned by a colored man; and to the credit of the race, be it said, that it is well patronized.

        He still keeps up his philanthropic work; always ready to help the needy and to contribute of the world's goods which God has given him in order that others might have their suffering lessened. He was a member of the Freedmen's Aid Union and Commission, organized at the close of the war by the leading philanthropists of the country to prosecute educational work and aid the newly emancipated generally.

        For many years he has been vice-president and chairman of the board of managers of the "Home for the Aged and Infirm Colored Persons" in Philadelphia; also for many years he has served as a member on the board of trustees for the "Soldiers and Sailors Orphan Home" and "Home for the Destitute Colored Children." His interest in the educational work has been so manifest that he has been


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selected, and has served for many years, as member of the board of trustees of Storer College. He has served as an elder of the Presbyterian church, which position he has held for quite a while, and was sent by the Presbytery of Philadelphia as commissioner to the General Assembly at Cincinnati, Ohio, which convened in 1885. He was one of the original stockholders to the amount of one thousand dollars in the stock company of the Nation, a member of the board of trade of the city of Philadelphia, and the corresponding secretary to the "Social and Civil Statistical Association" of Philadelphia. His literary labors have not been confined to the underground railroad. He has also published a pamphlet entitled "Voting and Laboring," and another "The Struggles for the Rights of the Colored People" of Philadelphia. In 1884 the centennial and general conference of the M. E. church which convened in his city, honored him with a vote of thanks for entertaining the colored delegates from the South.

        He still lives in Philadelphia, a quiet and honored citizen, an upright business man and a devoted friend of his race. May his last years be crowned with honor, and may he go down to his grave with the best wishes of the nation on account of the manner in which he has lived and served his God and his people.


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XI.

PROFESSOR J. W. MORRIS, A. B., A. M., LL. B.

        President of Allen University, Columbia, South Carolina--Professor of Languages.

        THE subject of this sketch was born in Charleston, South Carolina, August 26, 1850. His parents were John B. Morris and Grace Morris. He was born of free parents and enjoyed early advantages for education. In early childhood he was sent to a private school taught by Simeon Beard, then a distinguished teacher in the city of Charleston. After the close of the late war he entered the public schools of his native city, passing through the various grades of the same, until he left the high school, to take a collegiate course at Howard University. While attending the public schools he was sent in the afternoons to learn the printing trade, which he completed under that celebrated scholar and printer, the late Hon. R. B. Elliott, who was at that time editor of the Charleston Leader. Afterwards this paper was merged into the Missionary Record, edited by the late Bishop R. H. Cain. He was elected principal of a parochial school, and while in this capacity he worked as a compositor on the Missionary Record, which was a weekly paper.


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        While a pupil of the Normal school of Charleston he was twice awarded a prize for proficiency in Latin by that eminent scholar and instructor, Professor F. L. Cardoza, now of Washington, District of Columbia. Young Morris evincing, in early life, so great a tact and aptitude for learning, was sent to Howard University, which institution he entered in the fall of 1868. After spending six years at the university, he graduated in June, 1875. While at the famous seat of learning he was regarded as an excellent student. At the Junior exhibition of 1874, he took the first prize awarded his class for oratory.

        After graduation he returned to his home in Charleston, South Carolina. In the fall of 1875 he entered the law department of the South Carolina University, Columbia, South Carolina, under the tuition of that celebrated judge and jurist, Chief-Justice F. J. Moses. He graduated with distinction from this department, December, 1876. He applied for admission to the Supreme Court of his native State, and, after passing a most critical and searching examination, was admitted to practice in all the courts of the State. His first case was an interesting and prominent one; he won it. He was elected in 1876 one of the commissioners of public schools for the city of Charleston, but as this office would interfere with his law studies, he refused to accept the position. He also received in the county convention of Charleston, the nomination for the legislature, but, again for the same reasons, refused to accept.

        After much persuasion and the earnest solicitation of personal friends, he was induced to abandon what promised


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to be to him a very lucrative practice, to accept the principalship of Payne Institute, the educational work of the A. M. E. church in the State. He served for four years as principal of this institution, until it was merged into Allen University, a demand being made for a more central location for the work. While principal of Payne Institute, he was a lay delegate to the Ecumenical Council, which met in London, England. While in Europe he visited Paris and Geneva, Switzerland.

        He was now elected professor of mathematics and ancient languages, principal of Normal and Preparatory departments, also secretary and instructor of the law department of the Allen University, which positions he held until elected president--the position he now holds. The writer was impressed with the quiet unassuming manners of President Morris while in college at Howard University. His position is only the reward of faithful toil and well directed effort. He was always in earnest; he enjoys fun as well as any man, but his "Life is real; life is earnest." He is a fine student, a gifted writer and a man of high standing.


Illustration

ROBERT SMALLS.


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XII.

HON. ROBERT SMALLS.

        Congressman-Pilot and Captain of the Steamer Planter.

        This daring and cool headed man was born in Beaufort, South Carolina, April 5, 1839; and being a slave was of course limited in the opportunities for gaining book knowledge; but some men can no more be bound than the waves of the ocean, and despite all opposition he learned to read and write. "Where there's a will there's a way." In 1851 he moved to Charleston, where he worked as a "rigger" and thus became familiar with ships and the life of a sailor by actual experience. He first became connected with the Planter, a steamer plying in the harbor of Charleston as a transport in 1861. His further connection with the steamer is given in the following, taken from the record of the House of Representatives, Forty-seventh Congress, second session, Report No. 1887. The document was a "Bill authorizing the President to place Robert Smalls on the Retired List of the Navy:"


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JANUARY 23, 1883.--RECOMMITTED TO THE COMMITTEE ON NAVAL AFFAIRS
AND ORDERED TO BE PRINTED.

MR. DEZENDORF, FROM THE COMMITTEE ON NAVAL AFFAIRS, SUBMITTED
THE FOLLOWING
REPORT:


        [To accompany bill, H. R. 7059.]


        The Committee on Naval Affairs, to whom was referred the bill to retire Robert Smalls as captain of the Navy, beg leave to report as follows:

        This claim is rested upon the very valuable services rendered by Robert Smalls to the country during the late war. The record of these has been very carefully investigated, and portions of it are appended, as exhibits, to this report. They show a degree of courage, well directed by intelligence and patriotism, of which the nation may well be proud, but which for twenty years has been wholly unrecognized by it. The following is a succinct statement and outline of them:

        On May 13, 1862, the Confederate steamboat Planter, the special dispatch boat of General Ripley, the Confederate post commander at Charleston, South Carolina, was taken by Robert Smalls under the following circumstances from the wharf at which she was lying, carried safely out of Charleston Harbor, and delivered to one of the vessels of the Federal fleet then blockading that port:

        On the day previous, May 12, the Planter, which had for two weeks been engaged in removing guns from Cole's Island to James Island, returned to Charleston. That night all the officers went ashore and slept in the city, leaving on board a crew of eight men, all colored. Among them was Robert Smalls, who was virtually the pilot of the boat, although he was only called a wheelman, because at that time no colored man could have, in fact, been made a pilot. For some time previous he had been watching for an opportunity to carry into execution a plan he had conceived to take the Planter to the Federal fleet. This, he saw, was about as good a chance as he would ever have to do so, and therefore he determined not to lose it. Consulting with the balance of the crew, Smalls found that they were willing to co-operate with him, although two of them afterwards concluded to remain behind. The design was hazardous in the extreme. The boat would have to pass beneath the guns of the forts in the harbor. Failure and detection would have been


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certain death. Fearful was the venture, but it was made. The daring resolution had been formed, and under command of Robert Smalls, wood was taken aboard, steam was put on, and with her valuable cargo of guns and ammunition, intended for Fort Ripley, a new fortification just constructed in the harbor, about two o'clock in the morning the Planter silently moved off from her dock, steamed up to North Atlantic wharf, where Smalls' wife and two children, together with four other women and one other child, and also three men, were waiting to embark. All these were taken on board, and then, at 3:25 A. M., May 13, the Planter started on her perilous adventure, carrying nine men, five women and three children. Passing Fort Johnson the Planter's steam-whistle blew the usual salute and she proceeded down the bay. Approaching Fort Sumter, Smalls stood in the pilot-house leaning out of the window with his arms folded across his breast, after the manner of Captain Relay, the commander of the boat, and his head covered with the huge straw hat which Captain Relay commonly wore on such occasions.

        The signal required to be given by all steamers passing out, was blown as coolly as if General Ripley was on board, going out on a tour of inspection. Sumter answered by signal, "all right," and the Planter headed toward Morris Island, then occupied by Hatch's light artillery, and passed beyond the range of Sumter's guns before anybody suspected anything was wrong. When at last the Planter was obviously going toward the Federal fleet off the bar, Sumter signaled toward Morris Island to stop her. But it was too late. As the Planter approached the Federal fleet, a white flag was displayed, but this was not at first discovered, and the Federal steamers, supposing the Confederate rams were coming to attack them, stood out to deep water. But the ship Onward, Captain Nichols, which was not a steamer, remained, opened her ports, and was about to fire into the Planter, when she noticed the flag of truce. As soon as the vessels came within hailing distance of each other, the Planter's errand was explained. Captain Nichols then boarded her, and Smalls delivered the Planter to him. From the Planter, Smalls was transferred to the Augusta, the flagship off the bar, under the command of Captain Parrott, by whom the Planter with Smalls and her crew were sent to Port Royal to Rear Admiral DuPont, then in command of the Southern squadron.


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        Captain Parrott's official letter to Flag Officer DuPont, and Admiral DuPont's letter to the secretary of the navy are appended hereto.

        Captain Smalls was soon afterwards ordered to Edisto to join the gunboat Crusader, Captain Rhind. He then proceeded in the Crusader, piloting her and followed by the Planter to Simmons' Bluff, on Wadmalaw Sound, where a sharp battle was fought between these boats and a Confederate light battery and some infantry. The Confederates were driven out of their works, and the troops on the Planter landed and captured all the tents and provisions of the enemy. This occurred some time in June, 1862.

        Captain Smalls continued to act as pilot on board the Planter and the Crusades, and as blockading pilot between Charleston and Beaufort. He made repeated trips up and along the rivers near the coast, pointing out and removing the torpedoes which he himself had assisted in sinking and putting in position. During these trips he was present in several fights at Adams' Rum on the Dawho river, where the Planter was hotly and severely fired upon; also at Rockville, John's Island, and other places. Afterwards he was ordered back to Port Royal, whence he piloted the fleet up Broad river to Pocotaligo, where a very severe battle ensued. Captain Smalls was the pilot of the monitor Keokuk, Captain Ryan, in the memorable attack on Fort Sumter, on the afternoon of the seventh of April, 1863. In this attack the Keokuk was struck ninety-six times, nineteen shots passing through her. She retired from the engagement only to sink on the next morning, near Light House Inlet. Captain Smalls left her just before she went down, and was taken with the remainder of the crew on board of the Ironside. The next day the fleet returned to Hilton Head.

        When General Gillmore took command, Smalls became pilot in the quartermaster's department in the expedition on Morris Island. He was then stationed as pilot of the Stono, where he remained until the United States troops took possession of the south end of Morris Island, when he was put in charge of Light House Inlet as pilot.

        Upon one occasion, in December, 1863, while the Planter, then under command of Captain Nickerson, was sailing through Folly Island Creek, the Confederate batteries at Secessionville opened a very hot fire upon her. Captain Nickerson became demoralized, and left the pilot-house and secured himself in the coal-bunker. Smalls was on the deck, and finding


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out that the captain had deserted his post, entered the pilot-house, took command of the boat, and carried her safely out of the reach of the guns. For this conduct he was promoted by order of General Gillmore, commanding the Department of the South, to the rank of captain, and was ordered to act as captain of the Planter, which was used as a supply-boat along the coast until the end of the war. In September, 1866, he carried his boat to Baltimore, where she was put out of commission and sold.

        Besides the daring enterprise of Captain Smalls, in bringing out the Planter, his gallant conduct in rescuing her a second time, for which he was made captain of her, and his invaluable services to the army and navy as a pilot in waters where he perfectly knew not only every bank and bar but also where every torpedo was situated, there are still other elements to be considered in estimating the value of Captain Smalls' services to the country. The Planter, on the thirteenth of May, 1862, was a most useful and important vessel to the enemy. The loss of her was a severe blow to the enemy's service in carrying supplies and troops to different points of the harbor and river fortifications. At the very time of the seizure she had on board the armament for Fort Ripley. The Planter was taken by the government at a valuation of $9,000, one-half of which was paid to the captain and crew, the captain receiving one-third of one-half, or $1,500. Upon what principle the government claimed one-half of this capture cannot be divined, nor yet how this disposition could have been made of her without any judicial proceeding. That $9,000 was an absurdly low valuation for the Planter is abundantly shown by facts stated in the affidavits of Charles H. Campbell and E. M. Baldwin, which are appended. In addition thereto their sworn average valuation of the Planter was $67,500. The report of Montgomery Sicard, commander and inspector of ordinance, to Commodore Patterson, navy-yard commandant, shows that the cargo of the Planter, as raw material, was worth $3,043.05; that at anti-bellum prices it was worth $7,163.35, and at war prices $10,290.60. For this cargo the government has never paid one dollar. It is a severe comment on the justice as well as the boasted generosity of the government, that, whilst it had received $60,000 to $70,000 worth of property at the hands of Captain Smalls, it has paid him the trifling amount of $1,500, and for twenty years his gallant daring and distinguished and valuable services which he has rendered to the country have been wholly unrecognized.



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        The following is the testimony in proof of the facts alleged in the bill:

REPORT OF FLAG OFFICER DUPONT.

FLAG-SHIP Wabash,
PORT ROYAL HARBOR, SOUTH CAROLINA, May 14, 1862.

        SIR: I inclose a copy of a report from Commander E. G. Parrott, brought here last night by the late rebel steam-tug Planter, in charge of an officer and crew from the Augusta. She was the armed dispatch and transportation steamer attached to the engineer department at Charleston, under Brigadier-General Ripley, whose barge, a short time since, was brought out to the blockading fleet by several contrabands.

        The bringing out of this steamer, under all the circumstances, would have done credit to any one. At four o'clock in the morning, in the absence of the captain, who was on shore, she left her wharf close to the government office and headquarters, with Palmetto and Confederate flags flying, passed the successive forts, saluting as usual by blowing her steam-whistle. After getting beyond the range of the last gun, she quickly hauled down the rebel flags and hoisted a white one.

        The Onward was the inside ship of the blockading fleet in the main channel, and was preparing to fire when her commander made out the white flag. The armament of the steamer is a 32-pounder, or pivot, and a fine 24-pounder howitzer. She has, besides, on her deck, four other guns, one 7-inch rifled, which were to have been taken the morning of the escape to the new fort on the middle ground. One of the four belonged to Fort Sumter, and had been struck in the rebel attack on the fort on the muzzle. Robert, the intelligent slave and pilot of the boat, who performed this bold feat so skillfully, informed me of this fact, presuming it would be a matter of interest to us to have possession of this gun. This man, Robert Smalls, is superior to any who have come into our lines--intelligent as many of them have been. His information has been most interesting, and portions of it of the utmost importance.

        The steamer is quite an acquisition to the squadron by her good machinery and very light draught. The officer in charge brought her through Saint Helena Sound, and by the inland passage down Beaufort river, arriving here at ten o'clock last night.


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        On board the steamer when she left Charleston were eight men, five women and three children.

        I shall continue to employ Robert as a pilot on board the Planter for the inland waters, with which he appears to be very familiar. I do not know whether, in the views of the government, the vessel will be considered a prize; but, if so, I respectfully submit to the department the claims of this man Robert and his associates.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant.

S. F. DUPONT,
Flag Officer, Commanding, &c.

HON. GIDEON WELLES,
Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

UNITED STATES STEAMSHIP Augusta,
OFF CHARLESTON, May 13, 1862.

        SIR: I have the honor to inform you that the rebel armed steamer Planter was brought out to us this morning from Charleston, by eight contrabands, and delivered up to the squadron. Five colored women and three children are also on board. She carried one 32-pounder, and one 24-pounder howitzer, and has also on board four large guns, which she was engaged in transporting.

        I send her to Port Royal at once, in order to take advantage of the present good weather. I send Charleston papers of the 12th, and the very intelligent contraband who was in charge will give you the information which he has brought off.

        I have the honor to request that you will send back, as soon as convenient, the officer and crew sent on board.

I am respectfully, &c., your obedient servant,

E. G. PARROTT,
Commander, and Senior Officer present.

Flag Officer S. F. DUPONT,
Commanding South Atlantic Blockading Squadron.

WAR DEPARTMENT,


QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D. C., January 3, 1883.

        SIR: Your communication of the twenty-sixth ultimo, in relation to your


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services on the steamer Planter during the rebellion, and requesting copies of any letters from General Gillmore and other officers on the subject, has been received.

        The records of this office show that the name of Robert Smalls is reported by Lieutenant-Colonel J. J. Elwell, Hilton Head, South Carolina, as a pilot, at $50 per month, from March 1, 1863, to September 30, 1863; and from October 1, 1863, to November 20, 1863, at $75 per month.

        He was then transferred to Captain J. L. Kelly, assistant quartermaster, November 20, 1863, by whom he was reported as pilot from November 21 to November 30, 1863. He is reported by that officer in same capacity from December 1, 1863, until February 29, 1864, at $150 per month.

        The name of Robert Smalls is then reported by Captain Kelly as captain of the steamer Planter, at $150 per month, from March 1, 1864, until May 15, 1864, when transferred to the quartermaster in Philadelphia.

        He is reported by Captains C. D. Schmidt, G. R. Orme, W. W. VanNess, and John R. Jennings, assistant quartermasters at Philadelphia, as captain of the Planter, at $150 per month, from June 20, 1864, to December 16, 1864, when transferred to Captain J. L. Kelly, assistant quartermaster, Hilton Head, South Carolina, by whom he is reported to January 31, 1865.

        From February 1, 1865, he is reported as a "contractor, victualing and manning the steamer Planter."

        I respectfully inclose here with a copy of a letter, dated September 10, 1862, from Captain J. J. Elwell, chief quartermaster, Department of the South, in relation to the capture of the steamer Planter, which is the only one found on file in this office on the subject.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ALEX. J. PERRY.
Deputy Quartermaster-General, U. S. A.,
Acting Quartermaster-General.

HON. ROBERT SMALLS,
Member of Congress, Washington, D. C.

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF QUARTERMASTER,
HILTON HEAD, SOUTH CAROLINA, September 10, 1862.

        GENERAL: I have this day taken a transfer of the small steamer


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Planter, of the navy. This is the Confederate steamer which Robert Smalls, a contraband, brought out of Charleston on the thirteenth of May last. The Navy Department, through Rear-Admiral DuPont, transfers her, and I receipt for her just as she was received from Charleston. Her machinery is not in very good order, and will require some repairs, etc.; but this I can have done here. She will be of much service to us, as we have comparatively no vessels of light draft. I shall have her employed at Fort Pulaski, where I am obliged to keep a steamer.

        Please find enclosed a copy of the letter of Rear-Admiral DuPont to General Brannan in regard to the matter.

I am, general, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

J. J. ELWELL.
Captain and Assistant Quartermaster.

J. G. CHANDLER,
Deputy Quartermaster-General, U. S. A.

        Personally appeared before me Charles H. Campbell, of the city, county, and State of New York, who, being by me duly sworn according to law, deposes and says as follows:

        That during the year 1862, and from that time up to and including the year 1866, he was doing service in the department of the South, headquarters at Hilton Head, South Carolina; that he knows Hon. Robert Smalls, of Beaufort, South Carolina; that he was present when the steamer Planter, of the city of Charleston, came into Hilton Head on or about the thirteenth of May, 1862; that he went on board the Planter and made a personal examination of her condition, and found she was built of live oak and red cedar, and a first-class coastwise steamer, well furnished and complete in every respect; that he was, and is, well acquainted with the value of steamers, and has been engaged in the business of steamboating, both as captain and owner, for the last fifteen years; that the steamer Planter was fully worth, at the time she came into Hilton Head, the sum of $60,000 in cash for the boat alone; that the United States government was paying at that time for steamers of her class $400 per day under a charter-party agreement with the chief quartermaster at that place, the government finding both wood and coal; that he chartered to the United States government at or about


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that time the steamer George Washington for $350 per day, which was only about half the size of the Planter, and not more than half her value; that he executed seven charters for steamers with the government, and also had a valuation set on them in case of loss, and the above statement is made in accordance with the prices paid by the government at Hilton Head and elsewhere during the time the Planter was in the service; that, at the close of the war, and while the Planter was laying up in Charleston and in a very bad condition from the nature of her past services, I was commissioned by her former owner, Captain Ferguson, to purchase the Planter from the government for the sum of $25,000, which sum I did offer, and the same was refused on the part of the government of the United States; that the steamer Planter was an extra strong built boat, her frame was live oak and red cedar, and built as strong as possible; she was built expressly for the coastwise trade, and she is running out of the city of Charleston to-day, and is considered by steamboat men one of the strongest and best built steamboats in the South.

CHARLES H. CAMPBELL.

Subscribed and sworn to before me the twenty-third day of March, 1876.
[OFFICIAL SEAL.]

JAMES A. TAIT,
Notary Public.

        Personally appeared before me, a notary public, E. M. Baldwin, of the city of Washington, District of Columbia, who was by me duly sworn according to law, deposes and says:

        That during the year A. D., 1862, and afterwards was doing service for the Navy Department at Hilton Head, South Carolina, in the South Atlantic blockading squadron; that he was captain of the steam-tug Mercury, and was one of the first persons that boarded the Planter at Hilton Head on the thirteenth day of May, A. D., 1862.

        That he has been for years, and is now, engaged in the steamboat business as an officer and owner, and is familiar with the prices paid for charters by the quartermaster at Hilton Head, and the value of steam boats generally at that time and since; that he examined the Planter when she came into said harbor at Hilton Head, and found her a first-class steamboat, built of live oak and red cedar, and her outfit and


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findings complete in every particular; that she could have been readily sold at the time she arrived at Hilton Head for $75,000 in cash for the steamboat alone, or could have been chartered to the government for $400 per day, which at that rate would have paid the purchase money at the price aforesaid in less than one year, and would have left a large surplus to the purchaser; that she was considered by both the officers of the Army and Navy, on account of her light draft and great strength, by far the best steamer for that coast service in the Department of the South.

E. M. BALDWIN.

Sworn to before me and subscribed by him in my presence this twenty-fifth day of March, A. D., 1876.
[OFFICIAL SEAL.]

JAMES A. TAIT,
Notary Public.



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Illustration

Exhibit of the estimated values of certain ordnance and ordnance stores on board the Rebel steamer Planter, which came out of Charleston, South Carolina, to the United States blockading fleet on the fifteenth day of May, 1862. [Tabular Data]


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        For the services Mr. Smalls ought to have been rewarded. The bill did not pass on the ground that there was no precedent for placing a civilian on the retired list of the navy, but some other reward should be granted. This record is preserved in full for the benefit of history.

        After the Planter was put out of commission in 1866, Captain Smalls was elected a member of the State Constitutional convention. He was of course the hero of an important act in the drama of the late war, and his people always delighted to hear him tell, in his own style, the story of the capture. His zeal, good sense and pure disinterestedness, easily made him the idol of his people, whose faith in him was unbounded. Indeed, even to this day he is very popular. It was recently reported in the papers that two colored men, partisans of his, were talking on the corners. Said one to the other "I tell you, Smalls is the greatest man in the world." The other said, "Y-e-s, he's great, but not the greatest man." "Pshaw, man," replied the first speaker, "Who is greater than Smalls?" Said No. 2, "Why, Jesus Christ." "O," said No. 1, "Smalls is young yet."

        This, though it may be only a joke on the general, illustrates his popularity with the masses. At the general election in 1868, he was elected to a seat in the House of Representatives of the State and signalized his efforts by the introduction of the Homestead Act, and introduced and secured the passage of the Civil Rights bill. He continued in this capacity until Judge Wright was elected as associate judge of the Supreme Court of the State, when he was elected to fill his unexpired time in the Senate in 1870, and,


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at the election in 1872 he was elected Senator, defeating General W. J. Whipper. His record here was brilliant, consistent, and indeed he led in all the most prominent measures. His debating qualities were tested, and he was acknowledged a superior and powerful talker. He was on the "Committee on Finance," chairman of the "Committee on Public Printing," and a member of many other leading committees. An old sketch says of him:

His character is made up of some of the best traits of human nature. He is generous, daring and true. His mental faculties are acute, sensitive and progressive. He is, in fine, one of the most distinguished of his race, and may justly be deemed one of its representative men.

        Taking much interest in the military affairs of his State, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Third regiment, South Carolina State militia, in 1873. Afterwards he was promoted to brigadier-general of the Second brigade, South Carolina militia, and later major-general of the Second division, South Carolina State militia, which position he held until the Democrats came into power, in 1877.

        He was a delegate to the National Republican convention at Philadelphia, in 1872, which nominated Grant and Wilson, and also to the National Republican convention, which met at Cincinnati, in 1876, and nominated Hayes and Wheeler; also delegate to the National Republican convention which met at Chicago and nominated Blaine and Logan; was elected to the Forty-seventh and Forty-eighth Congresses, and was re-elected to the Forty-ninth Congress as a Republican, receiving 8,419 votes against 4,584 votes for Elliott, Democrat, and 235 votes scattering.


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He was also a candidate at the last election but was counted out, not beaten, by the Democracy. He will contest the seat of the man holding the certificate. The general affiliates with the Baptist church, and is of a high spiritual tendency, and can be seen attending the Berean Baptist church, Washington, D. C., every Sabbath morning. His mother, wife and daughters are all members of the same faith.


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XIII.

HENRY OSSAWA TANNER, ESQ.

        A Rising Artist--Exhibitor of Paintings in the Art Galleries-Illustrator of Magazines.

        The story goes that many artists die in garrets, poor, desolate and friendless; that unborn generations do justice to their works and pay high prices for their master-pieces; the merest daubs become highest specimens of art, and people go into rhapsodies over those pictures which are no better in after days than they were in the days they were made. The poor artist, perhaps, died for want of a meal, and was unable to get the necessary comforts for the sustenance of life. But in these days of activity, enterprise and speculation, meritorious work of every character secures good prices, and the man who has lived to make a good thing need not go far to find a market.

        Says a distinguished writer:

        The true artist does not begin his picture or statue as one does the brick wall of a house, laying it out by metes and bounds and erecting it with line and plummet, according to fixed mathematical rules; but, in the dream of the artist or artisan, a beautiful dome with all its elegant finish, is instantly brought into being and spanned above his head. A statue or picture comes to him like a dream, and the secret of art power


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is to hold those models in the memory until the faculties of constructiveness, form, size and order have wrought out and fixed the image in material form.


        This is very largely true of this young man. His whole nature and temperament bespeak the artist. While by no means he is affected in his manner, yet his thoughts are of the finest character, and are delicately expressed on the canvas before him. His taste is somewhat on the order of that of Landseer and Bonheur, who love animals. These artists did not look upon them simply as so many bones, with hide, horns and other necessary parts thrown in, but they delighted to portray their nature, habits, affections, symmetry and beauty. This is indeed an exaltation of their Maker and the dignifying of God on canvas, by employing their genius in portraying the characteristics mentioned.

        These and other thoughts engage the mind of the true artist. Pictures are to them the solidifying of the imagination, an embellishment of an idea, a thought made tangible. Indeed a picture is the impression of one's thoughts upon canvas in such a way that it leaves the thought fixed thereon and becomes a means of communication to others. Often so delicately expressed, and so very carefully presented, that pictures are sometimes said to almost speak, so faithfully do they convey the idea of the painter. It can be readily seen how, in ancient times, hieroglyphics were used for writing, and surely they were nothing more than pictures. Pictures are to the eyes, then, what the type is in the book to the same organ-a vehicle of thought, though of a much higher grade than writing.


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        "Boss Tweed" used to say, "Print what you please about me but spare me from the pictures of Tom Nast." So powerfully did his pictures portray the stealings and villanies of that New York alderman.

        Abraham Lincoln told Nast, "transfer your talents to me and you can take my place." It can readily be seen what power is in the hands of the man who controls the pen, pencil or brush.

        This young man, then, will gain a widespread influence if he continues to supply illustrations to Harper Brothers, for the Harper's Young People and for Judge Tourgee's paper Our Continent as he has done. The firm of Harper & Brother does much to encourage colored men, and in employing Mr. Tanner, deserves here to be mentioned.

        His services rendered in this capacity for so old and well established a firm, show that he is a talented young man and that brains will win every time. Young men need not mope around, smoking cigars, carousing, and whining about prejudice and proscription. Let them go to work; let them do something.

        Mr. Tanner is the son of the well known Rev. B. T. Tanner, D. D., and has his father's talent and progressiveness. He was born June 21, 1859, at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. His school advantages have been good, and he is fairly fitted for life's work. He studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he has lived for many years. His pictures take high rank. No favoritism is shown in the selection to enter the academies and galleries of this country. Each


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specimen must pass the committee of eminent men, who are art critics of long standing. This is stated lest many might think he is patronized by rich men or through the influence of his father, or because some one takes pity on him, trying to help a colored man to rise. No! It is merit; let that be understood at once. Perseverance, pluck and brains is any young man's capital. Let him use them.

        He has exhibited pictures, as has been said, at several galleries. He exhibited "The Lions at Home" in 1885, and "Back from the Beach" in 1886, at the National Academy of Design and at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. This first named picture was sold at the National Academy of Design, New York City. He also exhibited "Dusty Road" at the Lydia Art gallery, at Chicago, where it was sold. Exhibited picture "The Elk Attacked by Wolves" at the International Exposition at New Orleans, in the department for the colored people. Being commissioner from Kentucky, I remember this picture very well. It attracted my attention at the time on account of its size and naturalness. He has also exhibited pictures at Washington and Louisville. At the last named place he exhibited "Point Judith." This picture I also remember and was very much pleased with it, though I did not know at the time that it was the work of a colored artist.

        He is constantly engaged in furnishing work upon special orders. I visited his gallery and was shown quite a number of his pictures; especially was I pleased with one of a lion in his den, where it was shown that he was eating


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bloody meat. It was truly life-like and the lion's head with all its fierceness, seemed so natural that one would almost feel like looking toward the door for egress. The bloody meat, as it lay before him, seemed as if it lay upon the floor. Let me explain here that the picture was out of its frame and was standing upon its edge upon the floor, leaning against the easel. The lion's massive paw, seemed as if he were about to lift it and reach out for the meat, just before him.

        Indeed, it was true and life-like as I have said. This artist has been encouraged by many of the leading men of his profession in the city, and his future seems brilliant.

        I earnestly hope that those of our race who deal in pictures will not forget to encourage such men as Mr. Tanner. Mention is made of him not simply that the book might be filled and space employed, but that knowledge of him may extend throughout the country and he be encouraged by those who read of his ability. Be satisfied that the statements here made are true and his work as described.


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XIV.

REV. ANDREW HEATH.

        A Minister of the Gospel, Eminent for his Piety.

        REV. ANDREW HEATH, after a long illness, has gone where there is neither sorrow, pain nor death. He was born in Henderson county, Kentucky, February 20, 1832, and died February 19, 1887, at the age of fifty-five years. At an early period in life he became a Christian, and spent forty of the best years of his life in working for the Master. In 1851 he was married to Miss Lucy Hamilton, who has worked bravely by his side. In 1867 a council, composed of Revs. Henry Adams, William Troy, R. DeBaptiste, R. T. W. James and Professor Green, ordained him to the Gospel ministry. In 1868 he became assistant pastor of Fifth Street Baptist church, Louisville, Kentucky, and in 1872, on the death of Rev. Henry Adams, became its pastor. The first Baptist convention ever held in the State, in 1863, enrolled him as a member, and in all the years since he has never withheld his hand from any work that would advance the interest of the race and the denomination. He has served the General Association in being a member of the Executive board and chairman of the same about sixteen years. During his pastorate


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about fifteen hundred persons have been baptized by him. We may safely say that no minister in the State held a higher place in the estimation of the people who knew him. Every charitable cause found a ready helper in him, the orphans a father and the Christian church a true leader. His character was pure; his reputation never received a blur in all the years of his ministry.

        His death, though he had been ill a long time, was unexpected and created general and profound regret. The church appointed the assistant pastor, Rev. J. H. Frank, Deacons Thomas Parker, Shelton Guest, Q. B. Jones, Moses Lawson, Horace Crutcher, R. M. Hightower, R. Hamilton, and Messrs. William H. Steward, W. L. Gibson and George W. Talbott a committee to arrange for the funeral, and Mt. Moriah Lodge, F. and A. Masons, appointed Messrs. E. W. Marshall, Felix Sweeney, Edward Caldwell, Matthew Goodall and Enoch Maney. During Saturday, Sunday and Monday, thousands of people who had admired this noble man in life called at his late residence to view his remains and tender sympathy to the bereaved family. Sunday at the church was a sad day. The heavily draped building was a silent reminder of the mournful event. Monday morning the several meetings of the city pastors and the students of the State University passed suitable resolutions and agreed to attend the funeral services in a body.

        Tuesday morning, long before the hour for the opening of the church, the street was literally packed with a mass of humanity, and when the doors were opened the church was instantly filled. So eager were the people to witness


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the ceremony that hundreds stood patiently for hours. While this interest was being shown at the church, sad and heartrending scenes were occurring in the home of sorrow, from which his body was soon to be borne. A few minutes before eleven o'clock the funeral cortege started for the church. So dense was the crowd that it was almost impossible to force an entrance. The funeral requiem on the great organ, in deep and solemn tones, announced the procession. No evidence more convincing of the love and esteem of this people for their lamented pastor could have been given than the spontaneous and unfeigned expressions of grief when the body entered the church in charge of the following pall-bearers: Revs. E. P. Marrs, A. Stratton and W. P. Churchill, Messrs. Q. B. Jones, Wm. Morton, Shelton Guest, Isaac Morton and Willis Adams. About two hundred ministers, representing the several ministers' meetings and associations, were present. The white Baptist clergy being represented by Rev. J. A. Broadus, J. P. Boyce and W. H. Whitsitt of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, and Revs. T. T. Eaton, H. Allen Tupper, C. M. Thompson and A. C. Caperton; also the presence of a large number of ministers from abroad, including Revs. G. W. Bowling of Elizabethtown; E. J. Anderson of Georgtown; S. P. Young of Lexington; E. Evans of Bowling Green; M. Allen of Shelbyville; R. Reynolds of Pee Wee Valley; M. Bassett of New Albany, Indiana; Willis Johnson of Bloomfield; J. Jacobs of Harrodscreek; J. W. Carr of San Antonio, Texas; Wm. Miller of Jacksonville, Indiana; J. M. Washington of Indianapolis, Indiana; and B. T. Thomas of Clarksville, Tennessee. The large audience,


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despite the uncomfortable surroundings, listened attentively and eagerly. Rev. J. H. Frank opened the services with a short introductory address, paying a deserved tribute to the deceased. Rev. H. Allen Tupper, pastor of Broadway Baptist church, read the favored hymn: "Is my name written there?" which was sung with much feeling by the choir of the church; Professor J. M. Maxwell read an appropriate scripture lesson and Rev. Lee Y. Evans, pastor of Quinn chapel, offered a fervent prayer.

        The old familiar hymn--"Why Should We Start and Fear to Die?"--was lined by Rev. G. E. Scott, pastor of Zion Baptist church.

        Resolutions of different organizations and telegrams of regret from friends and fellow ministers were read by Revs. C. H. Parrish, S. P. Young, R. Harper and Mr. William H. Nelson.

        Mr. M. Lawson made a statement expressing the views of the deceased as related to him a few weeks prior to his death, bearing expressly upon the relative importance of masonry and the church.

        Rev. William J. Simmons, D. D., then preached the funeral sermon from Acts, 20: 24-27. "But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God. And now behold, I know that ye all, among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom of God, shall see my face no more. Wherefore I take you to record this day, that I am pure from


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the blood of all men. For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God."

        The sermon was a warm tribute to the memory of a good minister of Jesus Christ and found a response in the heart of every person present.

        At the close of the sermon, remarks were made by Revs. G. W. Ward and A. Barry by request of the family, and by Revs. A. C. Caperton repesenting the Baptist Ministers' meeting (white), by Rev. C. C. Bates, representing the Executive Board, and Rev. D. A. Gaddie representing the General Association.

        Rev. T. T. Eaton, pastor of the Walnut Street Baptist church, gave out the hymn "Asleep in Jesus."

        When the hymn was concluded the benediction was announced by Rev. Spencer Snell, pastor of the Plymouth Congregational church.

        The floral offerings, which were profuse and beautiful, were removed from the casket and the march for the cemetery begun.

        The streets were lined with people who, being unable to get into the church, waited patiently to pay the last tribute of respect to a faithful minister.

        The procession, which was as large as ever followed a man to his last resting place in this city, reached the cemetery about four o'clock. The funeral service of the Masonic fraternity was rendered by William H. Steward, the Grand Master of the State, in the presence of an immense number of people, when the body was placed in the vault.

        The following resolutions were passed by the church of


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which he had been pastor and by the Ministers' and Deacons' conference of this city.

CHURCH RESOLUTIONS.

        WHEREAS, It has pleased the Ruler of the universe, the great Head of the church, the Disposer of all things, to call, February 19, in the year of our Lord, 1887, at 7:53 A. M., our dearly beloved and worthy pastor, the most faithful and wonderfully wrought workman of the gospel ministry of our community, and

        WHEREAS, But a few have, with such exemplary fidelity, exerted an influence for good in the Master's vineyard. A man of fair literary attainments, acquired under many disadvantages, strong, spiritual inclinations, sound and conservative doctrine, ardent and unostentatious in piety, spotless in character, unblemished in reputation, dignified in appearance and "faithful in his house;" therefore be it

        Resolved, That we, the members of the Fifth Street Baptist church, believe he was truly a bishop of the description of 1st Timothy 3, "blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach; not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre, but patient, not a brawler, not covetous; one that ruled well his own house, not lifted up with pride and having a good report of them which are without." The church has indeed lost a good pastor, the Sunday school a strong support, his wife a kind husband, the children a devoted father, the widows and orphans a friend, the poor and needy a comforter, and missions an advocate. We mourn his death yet it is a consolation to know that our great loss is his eternal gain. We extend our sympathy to the bereaved family and a helping hand in time of need.

        Resolved, That in token of our respect and esteem, the church be draped in mourning for thirty days, and a copy of these resolutions be presented to the stricken family, spread upon the records of the church and published in the city papers.

JOHN H. FRANK,

GEORGE W. TALBOTT,

Q. B. JONES,

MOSES LAWSON,

WILLIAM H. STEWARD.
Committee.



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MINISTERS' AND DEACONS' CONFERENCE.

        The Fifth Street church and the Baptist denomination of this vicinity and State have met with a great loss in the death of Rev. Andrew Heath, which occurred in this city the nineteenth inst. We feel desirous of expressing ourselves as follows:

        He was a devout Christian for nearly forty years, connected with the General Association since its origin, for fourteen years pastor of the Fifth Street Baptist church of this city and also a former member and ex-chairman of the Executive Board of the General Association. He has long resided in our midst, and here in this city achieved his honorable and noble success as a Christian pastor. With comparatively limited means and opportunity, he has woven his name into the inmost soul of this community. With a liberal heart he has promoted all the true interest of society and religion. A noble, honest and true man, an humble and consistent Christian has fallen. His counsel, kind and fair; integrity, clear; and fidelity, beyond reproach. In his home he was the model Christian, husband and father. Therefore be it

        Resolved, That we sincerely deplore his death, for in it we have lost a true minister and exemplary Christian.

        That in honor of his great worth, a memorial meeting be held at Fifth Street church next Sunday afternoon at three o'clock; that said meeting include all the ministers of the city, and such visiting ministers as may be present, of all denominations.

        That our fullest and tenderest sympathies are hereby extended to his afflicted family and church.

        That we attend his funeral in a body.

        That we wear a memorial badge for thirty days.

        That these resolutions be sent to the family, spread upon our minutes and published in the city papers.

D. A. GADDIE,

T. M. FALKNER,

W. JOHNSON,

G. W. WARD,

G. E. SCOTT,

J. W. LEWIS,

C. H. PARRISH, Secretary.
Committee.



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        Resolutions were also passed by the choir of the Fifth Street Baptist church, and by the State University, of which he was a former pupil, by the Lexington ministers and deacons in assembled meeting, by the Junior class of the State University, of which a daughter is a member, and by the Louisville Ministerial Association, composed of brethren of other denominations.

        Telegrams were received from the following persons expressing grief and sympathy: E. W. Green, Maysville, Kentucky; G. W. Dupee, Paducah, Kentucky; R. Bassett, Indianapolis, Indiana; J. K. Polk, Versailles, Kentucky; O. Durrett, Clinton, Kentucky; Mrs. A. V. Nelson, Lexington, Kentucky; R. H. L. Mitchem, Springfield, Kentucky; James Allensworth, Hopkinsville, Kentucky; Peter Lewis, Louisville, Kentucky; M. Harding, Owensboro, Kentucky. All of these testified to his high standing as a Christian gentleman, a man of many virtues, of varied graces, and who seemed to have no enemies. Sunday, February 27, the memorial services, in honor of Rev. A. Heath, at Fifth street, were held and largely attended.

        Rev. D. A. Gaddie presided and made the introductory address. The choir sang several appropriate anthems and hymns. Rev. W. J. Simmons, D. D., read the Scripture lessons. Revs. B. Taylor and J. Mitchell offered prayer; Rev. G. W. Ward portrayed him "as a preacher," and Rev. E. P. Marrs, "as a pastor."

        Remarks were made by Revs. B. Taylor, M. F. Robinson, R. Hatchett, J. W. Lewis, and Messrs. Thomas Parker, Q. B. Jones, Albert Mack and Albert White. At the conclusion of the addresses, a committee, which had been previously


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appointed, submitted a tribute of respect which was approved as the sentiment of the meeting.

        A touching tribute to this truly good man is given by J. C. Corbin, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, who was an associate with Elder Heath in his early life. He writes: "Elder Heath was modest, teachable and unassuming; that he succeeded was not due to extraordinary gifts of eloquence, scholarship or other talents. It must have been the result of his earnest piety, pure character and entire consecration to the work of his ministry. These secured for him the favor of Almighty God."

        He was the "architect of his own fortune," and now he rests from his labors and his works do follow him.

        "Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord."

        I might have said more in way of eulogy from my own standpoint, but I felt that his death brought forth the testimony sufficient to show how he lived, and this chorus of praise is far more telling than my own feeble utterances.


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XV.

H. C. SMITH, ESQ.

        Prominent Editor--First-class Musician--Deputy Oil Inspector of Ohio--Song Writer--Leader of Bands--Cornetist.

        MR. SMITH is what we might call a self-made man, as it is largely through his own energies that he has reached his present station in life; but he says he owes his education and training to the devotion of a faithful mother, assisted by his sister. He was born in Clarksburg, West Virginia, January 20, 1863. His parents were named John and Sarah Smith. It was twenty-eight days after the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation by "Old Abe." He went to Cleveland with his widowed mother in 1865 or 1866, and there his mother and sister toiled very hard to educate him. After leaving the grammar schools of Cleveland, with the aid of his cornet, which he had learned to play without a teacher, having secured the rudiments of his musical education in the schools of Cleveland, he made much of the money so earned, by which he secured advantages. He was constantly employed in playing in orchestras and brass bands; by this means also he was able to assist in the support of his mother and sister. He attended the Cleveland Central


Illustration

H. C. SMITH.


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High School, entering in 1878, and finished a four years course of what was known as the Latin and English course. In 1882, while at the high school, he corresponded for papers in Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Springfield; and at different times during the last year and a half he wrote for a weekly paper called the Cleveland Sun--a white journal. After leaving school he followed music as a profession for about a year and a half, directing a colored band and orchestral and vocal organization, at different times. The summers of 1881 and 1882, he spent at Lakewood, Chautauqua Lake, New York, playing the cornet in the orchestra. He was director of the Amphion male quartet; director of Freeman and Boston's orchestra, a well known organization in the northern part of Ohio, for two or three years; was president and director of the First M. E. and Central High School orchestras--white organizations, and leader of the famous Excelsior reed band of the city of Cleveland, and captain of several athletic organizations, the members of which were white persons, with the exception of himself. While at High School, in August, 1883, he was one of a company of four that started the Cleveland Gazette. He was general manager and editor, having a one-fourth interest in the venture. He soon bought out each of his partners and is now sole proprietor. His views, as expressed in the Gazette, are clear, concise and easily comprehended. He never fails to speak most earnestly for the race and its representatives.

        Having been brought up in the mixed schools of the city, he has always antagonized the color line in the most fearless manner. Says Professor W. S. Scarborough:


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Mr. Smith has always wielded a fearless and able pen for right and truth. He has fought squarely in behalf of his race, demanding recognition wherever denied. No other proof of this is needed than the Gazette itself; though at times he has been severely criticised, he has never wavered from what he considered his duty. He believes that the Republican party can serve best the interests of the Negro, and thereupon he becomes its able and active defender. He also believes that mixed schools are best for all concerned, and especially for the Negro, as separate schools simply imply race prejudice and race inferiority, and, therefore, he becomes a relentless antagonist to the color line in the schools.

        Read what that eminent colored divine, Rev. J. W. Gazaway of Ohio and Indiana, has to say of

THE CLEVELAND GAZETTE.

        The most healthful signs of life and a highly useful career are indicated in the existence of the above named paper. That it is a paper of brain and culture cannot be doubted when the fact is remembered that in its columns are found communications from the wisest and best minds of our race. It is a paper for the people it represents, and it can be relied on as a friend of every colored man, though his face may be of ebony hue. The Gazette is a practical demonstration of what can be done by the young men of our race. The editor is a young man, who, by dint of industry and economy and fair dealing, has succeeded in giving to the colored people of Ohio and the country a paper worthy the patronage of all. Having been a reader of the Gazette since its first appearance, and having watched its course, I feel that, in justice to the paper, the editor and the race, I should urge upon the people generally to support the paper that is practically identified with the colored people, and is in harmony with the interests and success of all without regard to complexion.


        His paper is now in its fourth year, and is one of the newsiest and most successful in the United States. He claims that it is not only paying its way but is actually making money; this can be said of but few colored journals


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in the United States, and marks his paper as popular and in demand. He has given constant attention to the questions which have arisen in Ohio. Besides being editor of this prominent journal, which has steadily assumed a powerful interest and influence, he is one of the two colored clerks who secured appointments in the city, having been appointed by a non-partisan board of electors; his appointment in the Thirteenth ward was a compliment to his journal, to himself and a recognition of his worth. Through the agency of Governor Foraker he was also appointed Deputy State Oil Inspector at a handsome salary. He not only is fitted to fill this position but he is thereby recognized as one of the factors in holding the party together, and he is especially deserving of it because of the noble manner in which he championed Governor Foraker's cause in the canvass. No other colored man holds a similar position in the State, and never has held such.

        It should be mentioned here that as a musician he has taken very high rank, as has been shown by what has been written above. He has written several songs which are deservedly popular and can be found upon the pianos of thousands of homes. Among the most popular is the song, "Be true, bright eyes."

        He is one of whom the race is justly proud and from whom we shall hear much in the future. Already he has been mentioned as a possible candidate for legislative honors, and he will be deserving of all the honors that might be thrust upon him. He is by no means one of those who seek to reap that which he has not sown, but is modest and retiring. His intellectual qualities, his goodness


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of heart and generous nature always bring him to the front among his friends, who are loyal and true to him. He is manly and in every way shows his superiority over the common man. May he continue to prosper in worldly goods and honors as he is now prospering. He has attained some wealth and delights to use it as a slight contribution to the loved ones at home, his mother and sister, who labored so hard to give him the opportunities to make the most of himself.


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XVI.

REV. JOHN BUNYAN REEVE, A. B., D. D.

        Distinguished Presbyterian Divine--Professor of Howard University, Theological Department.

        IN Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, lives one of the oldest and most respected Presbyterian preachers in America. One whose virtues and long life of devotion to the precious Gospel are known far and wide. A worthy nobleman of feeling so tender and sympathetic, that while he ever listens to you with deep and lasting interest, it pains you to see how keenly a tale of sorrow affects him. He is a man of large physique, commanding stature, and impresses one as a gentleman of strong convictions and earnest purpose.

        He was born October 29, 1831, at Mattatuck, Suffolk county, New York. His parents and grandparents had long lived in that neighborhood, and in this place he had his home until he was seventeen years of age. He attended district schools while young, and worked on a farm. From 1848 till 1852 or 1853, he lived and worked in the State of New York, during which time he became a member of the Shiloh Presbyterian church, during the pastorate of the Rev. J. W. C. Pennington, D. D. His parents were


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Presbyterians, and his mother had early dedicated him to the ministry. A mother's prayers, personal conviction, and the pastor's counsel prevailed over him, and in 1853, after having taught school for a few months at New Tower, Long Island, and having been received under the care of the Third Presbytery of New York city, as a candidate for the Gospel ministry, he entered the preparatory department of the New York Central College, then at McGawsville, New York, where he spent one year in the preparatory and graduated from the college department in June, 1858. He then entered in September, 1858, the Union Theological Seminary of New York city, from which he was graduated in April, 1861, and the same month was licensed to preach the Gospel by the Third Presbytery of New York city, and was then dismissed to the Fourth Presbytery of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. June 14, 1861, he was ordained by the latter body and installed pastor of the Lombard Street Central Presbyterian church, Philadelphia, where he remained until September, 1871. Then he resigned his pastorate to accept the invitation of General O. O. Howard, and the appointment of the American Missionary Association, to organize a theological department in Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia and teach therein.

        He remained in this work, faithfully serving the institution until June, 1875, when he resigned to accept a recall to the pastorate in Philadelphia. He was reinstalled pastor of this church in September, 1875, where a kind Providence still permits him to serve.

        He has never sought any high honors, and with extreme


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modesty and dignified deportment, he has gone through life thinking that his "highest honor was that of having had Godly parents; the Rev. Dr. Pennington, when in his prime, as the pastor and guide of his youth, and the late Hon. William E. Dodge and the Rev. Asa D. Smith, D. D., then his pastor, and later president of Dartmouth College, for his patrons when a poor student." He was made moderator of the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1865, and a commissioner to several assemblies the same year.

        His talents being of such a high order, his personal popularity so well known, and the purity of his life so marked, that Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania, in 1870, honored herself in conferring upon him the degree of D. D. He is beloved by his congregation, which he has served for many years, and with whom it is presumed he will end his labors and go to the haven of rest prepared for the people of God; and his lasting influeuce over the lives of those to whom he has ministered will be as a grateful incense ascending to God.


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XVII.

THOMAS J. BOWERS.

        The American "Mario," Tenor Vocalist.

        THE American "Mario" was born in Philadelphia in 1836. In childhood he was very fond of music, and exhibited rare talent in that direction. His father, a man of considerable intelligence, and filled with anxiety to have his children learn this fine accomplishment procured a piano and a competent instructor for his oldest son, John C. Bowers, thinking if he became proficient he should teach the others. This purpose was accomplished, and our subject was instructed by his brother to perform upon the piano forte and on the organ. In a short time he became a master of the art and succeeded his brother as organist of St. Thomas church, in Philadelphia. He was restricted from becoming a public performer for a long time because of his parents. As a tenor vocalist he attracted the attention and excited the admiration of many persons. His voice was extraordinary in its power, mellowness and sweetness. At Samson Street Hall, in Philadelphia, in 1854, he was induced to appear with the Black Swan as her pupil. It was not on this occasion that he made his fame, yet the Press of Philadelphia spoke of his


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performance in flattering terms and called for a repetition of the concert. After this repetition, a critic, commenting upon the voice of Mr. Bowers, styled him the "Colored Mario." Colonel Woods, once manager of the Cincinnati museum, hearing of the remarkable singing qualities of Mr. Bowers, came to Philadelphia to hear him. He was delighted and entered into an engagement with him to make a concert tour of New York and the Canadas. Mr. Bowers was accompanied by Miss Sarah Taylor Greenfield, the famous songstress. They were highly applauded, and met with great success wherever they appeared. During this tour, Colonel Wood urged that he should appear under the name of "Indian Mario," and again under that of "African Mario." He hesitated for quite a while before he would accept either, but at last he consented to that of "Mario." As a lover of his race, Mr. Bowers engaged in public performances more for the purpose of encouraging colored persons to take rank in music with the more highly cultured of the fairer race, than for that of making a display of his rare abilities, also for the enjoyment which he derived from it. Writing to a friend, he says:

        What induced me more than anything else to appear in public was to give the lie to Negro serenaders (minstrels), and to show to the world that colored men and women could sing classical music as well as members of the other race, by whom they had been so terribly villified.


        A love of filthy lucre nor his care for fame ever caused him to yield to that vulgar prejudice that compelled the colored persons to take back seats or go to the galleries.


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If they did not receive the same treatment as the whites he refused so sing, which was manly to say the least. He had an occasion to take this step and stood firm, and thereby broke down the prejudice that many encourage.

        Mr. Bowers sang in many of the States, and even invaded the slavery cursed regions of Maryland. Many very favorable comments had he from different papers. He was ranked among the most cultured of his day, and as a tenor vocalist surpassed all of his contemporaries. As Mr. Bowers is dead, and we were unable to secure material for this sketch, we are largely indebted to 'Music and Some Highly Musical People' for much of the above, and also for permission from the author to use the same.


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XVIII.

REV. NICHOLAS FRANKLIN ROBERTS, A. B., A. M.

        Professor of Mathematics--President of the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina--Moderator of 100,000 Colored Baptists.

        AMONG the rising young men of the old "Tar Heel State" is the one whose name is at the head of this article. He has reflected honor upon the State that gave him birth; he is a young man who has risen from the drudgery of farm life to the prominence of a professor in a university, and is therefore a representative of his people. There are many older persons, of course, who might be selected, and some may bring the charge of "young men" against some of the characters in this book, but if in early life they have placed themselves at the head of great enterprises, it seems fitting that they should be noticed for the encouragement of others who come behind them. Then the depths from which some people rise, and the heights to which they climb, is worthy of notice. Now is there reason for the farmer boy who reads this sketch to be discouraged because he has hard work, plowing, cutting and hauling wood, caring for the pigs, feeding the cows, and other laborious work? It seems not to me. The advantages of a farm life are many, though there may be rough spots and


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difficult passages. Indeed, the days of a farmer are well spent in being influenced by nature and thus being led up to nature's God. Boys in the country have their minds measurably kept pure and untainted by the things that destroy the purity of the mind, and many of these "young men" referred to are mentioned as a means of encouragement to those who still are behind in the race of life.

        He was born near Seaboard, North Hampton county, North Carolina, October 13, 1849. At the age of twelve years he relates that he had a thirst for learning, which made him apply himself to his books very diligently. He would study very late at night, often all night. The young man was especially apt with figures, easily leading the other boys, with whom he was associated, in all efforts at mathematical calculation. With ease every problem was solved by him in common school mathematics before he ever attended school. His mathematical mind was the subject of much comment, and he has only accomplished in that sphere what was prophesied for him. October 10, 1871, he entered Shaw University, then known as the Shaw Collegiate Institute. Here he pursued an eminently satisfactory life, entering the lowest grade and passing up the line through a college course, eliciting the praise and commendation of the president and faculty. May, 1878, he graduated with much honor and received the applause of his fellow-students and the congratulations of his friends.

        Having been converted March, 1872, and feeling a call to the ministry, he was ordained to the work of a gospel minister May 20, 1877. Rev. Roberts' ability as a mathematician


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has steadily promoted him in this department of educational work, and the professorship of mathematics has been held by him in his alma mater ever since graduation, except one year when he labored as general missionary for North Carolina, under the auspices of the American Baptist Home Mission Society of New York, and the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina. God has thus given him an extended field of usefulness where he might develop into a powerful man. Blount Street Baptist church, Raleigh, North Carolina, called for him to serve them as their pastor on July 2, 1882. This pastoral work has been done in connection with his work as professor, and they have been of mutual help to each other. There is great love existing between the pastor and the people, and the church has prospered, adding year by year to their numbers "such as shall be saved." As a Sabboth-school worker, earnestness and love to God has characterized his life. From 1873 to 1883, a period of ten consecutive years, he has held the position of president of the State Sunday School convention, and in October, 1885, he was unanimously elected president of the State Baptist convention, which position he now holds, esteemed by all the brethren of the State. His position makes him the representative of 100,000 colored Baptists, and as such he is recognized and respected. His position in the university gives him prestige among the educated, and his indorsement by the convention shows the people are in favor of education.


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XIX.

HON. THEOPHILE T. ALLAIN.

        State Senator of Louisiana--Agitator of Educational Measures and Internal Improvements--Contractor for Repairing Levees.

        AFTER the battle at Salamis, the generals of the different Greek states met in council to vote to each other prizes for distinguished individual merit. Were the task mine to pick from the ranks of Louisiana's sons those who have in the face of opposition towered head and shoulders above their fellow men, shedding lustre on the name of the sons of Ham, the subject of my sketch would take front rank. Having passed through forty-one years of the most eventful period of the Nation's history, it is but natural that he should have from boyhood thought on and traced the struggles to which the race has been subject, and that his heart would be stirred with that patriotic devotion which sacrifices luxurious idleness on the shrine of duty. Opposition calls forth resistance, and it may be well that the Africo-American has prejudice to fight, otherwise Mr. Allain, with scores of other noble men, would be quietly performing personal duties, letting the world surge in at their windows, but never going out to meet it. October 1, 1846, on the Australian Plantation


Illustration

T. T. ALLAIN


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Parish of West Baton Rouge, was born Theophile, a boy who evinced at an early age those signs which point to future usefulness. His mother, "a pretty brown woman," possessing all the taste and attractions found among those of more fortunate circumstances than falls to the lot of a slave, attracted the attention and affection of her master, a millionaire of culture, who was the father of this son. Mr. Sosthene Allain, in the prime of life, was surrounded by all the comforts which taste and a princely income can give. Setting at naught the sentiments of the land, he shared these comforts with the mother and his dear "Soulouque," often refusing to take his meals unless the boy ate with him. Mr. Allain always spent his summers North or in Europe, but not without taking Theophile, who received the same accommodations. When he was ten years old his father, who was in Paris, sent for him, and he was sent in charge of Madam Boudousquie, an accomplished actress, who treated him with love and kindness. When the ship landed at Havre, ten thousand people were there to welcome the Emperor Soulouque of Hayti, but instead it was the "Soulouque" of our sketch. These yearly visits, the contact with other customs, was a more liberal education to the observing boy than could have been acquired by years of application to books. He was present at the christening of the Prince Imperial at the church of Notre Dame de Paris, attended bathing school and accompanied his father everywhere he went. Returning to America he entered school in 1859 under Professor Abadie, New Orleans, Louisiana, and in 1868 entered a private school in New Brunswick, New Jersey. In 1869


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he returned home and went into the grocery business in West Baton Rouge and Iberville and remained until 1873, when he invested largely in sugar and rice cultivation. Genius in one man may run in the line of literature, in another, art, but in this man business seems to be the ruling passion. For twenty years he has been a successful shipper of sugar, syrup, molasses and rice, and every day brings him in business contact with the leading commercial men of the South. Every Exchange in the city of New Orleans is open to him. In 1883 the total crop on his plantation was estimated at four hundred barrels of syrup. Although living in competency, his sympathies are all with the laboring class. At the Sugar Planters' convention which met in New Orleans, August 20, 1884, a resolution was offered for the appointment of a committee to collect "data as to the cost of land, labor, food, stock, fuel, etc., with the idea of producing cheaper sugar. Hon. Allain opposed it on the ground that it meant simply the cutting down of wages for the laborer." At another time in the Legislature, he said: "I tell you, gentlemen, that when you cultivate any spirit of animosity between the tillers of the soil on one hand and the proprietors on the other, you cut your own throats. Nature and nature's God have so arranged it, that labor and capital are mutually dependent upon each other." Besides this business he is giving work to more laborers than any colored man in the "public works of the country," being under bond and contract with the State of Louisiana to put up within three years one hundred and fifty thousand yards of levee. When the levees of the Mississippi were in a deplorable


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condition, the Republican Executive and Financial committee of the Third Congressional District of Louisiana, of which Hon. L. A. Martinet was secretary, met April 8, 1882, and adopted the following resolutions. We give the full statement and all the immediate outgrowth thereof. Mr. Allain counts the following as the champion record of his life. He desires this record handed down to his children.

RECORD.

        The credentials below were furnished him in Louisiana, and he went to Washington, District of Columbia, and appeared before the committee on commerce:

        Mr. Allain, upon being introduced by the Hon. R. L. Gibson of Louisiana, presented to the committee the following credentials:

        Resolved, That Hons. T. T. Allain and George Drury be appointed a committee to proceed to Washington to lay before the President and those in authority, the deplorable condition of the Mississippi levees, and urge the necessity on the part of the National Government of taking early action toward building and maintaining the same, and also to ask a continuance of government aid to the sufferers from the present overflow.

        Resolved further, That the said committee is hereby authorized to present to the President the condition of political affairs in this State, so far as the Third Congressional district is concerned.


NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, April 8, 1882.

To all whom it may concern:

        I hereby certify that the foregoing is a true copy of resolutions adopted at a meeting of the executive and finance committee of the Third Congressional district of this State, held in this city March 27, 1882.

L. A. MARTINET,
Secretary Republican Executive and Finance Committee,
Third Congressional District, Louisiana.



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NEW ORLEANS, April 5, 1882.

To the honorable Senators and Representatives in Congress from the State of Louisiana:

        The undersigned Republicans and Federal officials here regard with great pleasure the selection and appointment of Hon. T. T. Allain, a sugar planter, and representative Republican of the parish of Iberville, by the Republican committee of the Third Congressional district of Louisiana, to proceed to Washington, District of Columbia, and endeavor to enlist the services of our Representatives and Senators and the National administration for the purpose of rebuilding and maintaining of the levees of the Mississippi river by the National Government, and we commend him to the attention of the authorities, and trust his mission may be eminently successful.

Very respectfully,

DON. A. PARDEE.

EDWARD C. BILLINGS.

A. J. DUMONT.

T. B. STAMP.

M. V. DAVIS.

A. S. BADGER.

JACK WHARTON.

P. B. S. PINCHBACK.

SAM'L WAKEFIELD.

JAMES LEWIS.

L. A. MARTINET.

ROBT. F. GUICHARD.


NEW ORLEANS, April 8, 1882.

To the Senate and House Committees on the Improvement of the Mississippi River:

        Mr. T. T. Allain having informed me of his intention to visit Washington, and as a sugar-planter interested in the reparation and maintenance of the levees in this State, and as a Representative of the colored people of this State, it gives me pleasure to indorse and recommend his mission as one of much importance.

        I regard the colored laborer as well adapted to the cultivation of sugar and to the diseases of this climate, and should consider it as a misfortune


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if it should be discouraged and driven away by the inability of the planter to restore the levees.

        Congress, in protecting the great American interest of sugar, may incidentally provide employment for a great number of her colored race, estimated at more than one hundred thousand.

        Mr. Allain deserves approval for his public spirit in urging upon Congress the importance of promptly assuming charge of the levees of Louisiana, and will be entitled to the gratitude of the planters and laborers for any influence he may exercise in securing the adoption of a system which will prevent Louisiana from the calamity of an overflow, and the public from the abandonment, and possibly the destruction of the sugar crop, which now retains at home more than $25,000,000, otherwise exported for the purchase of foreign sugar.

Your obedient servant,

R. S. HOWARD,
President Chamber of Commerce.


NEW ORLEANS COTTON EXCHANGE,
NEW ORLEANS, April 6, 1882.

        Hon. T. T. Allain, Louisiana State representative, is entitled to full encouragement and assistance from our Senators and Representatives in Congress, as a delegate from the suffering people of the overflowed section of Louisiana.

        We therefore recommend him to their good offices, and earnestly request that he be granted such hearing as the importance of his mission warrants, which mission is to show fully the dire necessities of our people and their claims upon the general government for assistance in protecting themselves from a recurrence of the terrible disasters through which they are now suffering,

Very respectfully,

THOMAS L. AIREY,
President New Orleans Cotton Exchange.


NEW ORLEANS STOCK EXCHANGE,
NEW ORLEANS, April 8, 1882.

        The New Orleans Stock Exchange cordially indorses the mission as represented by Hon. T. T. Allain to succor the distressed sufferers from


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the overflow, and trusts that his efforts to bring influence to rebuild our levees will be successful.

T. S. BARTON,
President.

A. A. BRINSMADE, Secretary.


NEW ORLEANS, April 6, 1882.

To Hon. W. P. Kellogg, U. S. Senator from Louisiana, and Hon. C. B. Darrall, Representative Third Congressional District of Louisiana, Washington. D. C.

        GENTLEMEN: The undersigned, members of the Americus Club of this city, beg to commend to your favorable attention Hon. T. T. Allain, representative from Iberville Parish in our present State Legislature, who has been appointed to visit Washington, District of Columbia, by the Third Congressional District Committee of the State of Louisiana, with the view of obtaining National aid in rebuilding and maintaining the levees of the Mississippi river.

        We ask that your aid and influence be given him in accomplishing this desirable object, and thanking you for your joint and individual effort in behalf of these interests, subscribe ourselves,

Yours respectfully.

WM. A. HALSTON,
Secretary Executive Committee.

P. LANDRY, Corresponding Secretary.

JAS. E. PORTER,
First Vice, Acting President.

GEO. H. WALKER,
Secretary Americus Club.

FRED. SIMMS,
Treasurer Americus Club.

F. Moss, Vice-President.

F. M. WARD,
Chairman Executive Committee,
Americus Club.

THOMAS J. BOSWELL.

A. P. WILLIAMS.

GEO. G. JOHNSON.

W. SILVERTHORN.

J. E. MARTINEZ.

W. S. WILSON.

JAMES D. MACARY.



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C. A. PHILIPPI & Co.,
COTTON FACTORS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
No. 48 UNION STREET, NEW ORLEANS, April 6, 1882.

To our Senators and Representatives in Congress:

        GENTLEMEN: Hon. T. T. Allain, a prominent representative of the parish of Iberville, is delegated by a large number of planters and business men of Iberville and this city to proceed to Washington, to intercede with our Senators and Representatives in Congress, in asking the National government to build and maintain the levees of the Mississippi river. We desire to state that we furnished him on and for making his sugar crop about $4,000 within the last two years, all of which he has paid.

        We therefore take pleasure in recommending Mr. Allain to our delegation in Congress, and ask a favorable consideration for the cause he advocates, and commend his statements.

Very respectfully,

C. A. PHILIPPI & Co.


OFFICE OF RENSHAW, CAMMACK & Co.,
COTTON AND SUGAR FACTORS, No. 32 PERDIDO STREET,
NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, March 28, 1882.

To whom it may concern:

        We have had business relations with the Hon. T. T. Allain, of Iberville parish during several years, and feel satisfied that any statement he might make concerning the condition of the levees and the consequent needs of the river parishes may be confidently relied on.

Very respectfully,

RENSHAW. CAMMACK & Co.

AR. MITTENBERGER & POLLOCK.

E. B. WHEELOCK.

STAUFFER MACREADY & Co.

HANSELL & WEBSTER

J. W. BURBRIDGE.

        I fully and cheerfully indorse all that is said above, and commend Mr. Allain to the Louisiana delegation in Congress, and respectfully request their thorough co-operation in his patriotic purpose.

I. N. MARKS



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CITIZENS' BANK OF LOUISIANA,
BANKING DEPARTMENT,
NEW ORLEANS, April 8, 1882.

To the Hon. Senators and Representatives of the State of Louisiana in Congress, Washington, D. C.:

        GENTLEMEN: The bearer, the Hon. T. T. Allain, a sugar planter of excellent repute, from parish Iberville, in our State, and no doubt known to most of you, comes to Washington accredited as a delegate from his parish and district, to intercede with members of Congress for an early and ample appropriation toward rebuilding the Mississippi river levees for the future protection of agricultural interests against a repetition of the disastrous and ruinous flood which has this year desolated so large a portion of our State.

        We earnestly solicit from yourselves and associates in both houses a favorable consideration and prompt action toward the desired end, never so indispensable as now.

Very respectfully, your obedient servants,

E. L. CARRIERE,
President,

JAS. J. TARLETON,
Cashier.


OFFICE OF TERTROU & PUGH,
COTTON AND SUGAR FACTORS,
NEW ORLEANS, March 28, 1882.

HON. R. L. GIBSON, Washington:

        DEAR SIR: We take pleasure in introducing to your acquaintance Hon. T. T. Allain, a prominent planter of the parish of Iberville, in this State, being a neighbor to a plantation whose owners are in Paris, and of whom we are the agents. Mr. Allain is from a parish in which are many large plantations and wealthy planters, and is personally known to us. He intends visiting Washington for and on account of levee purposes.

        We therefore recommend him to your consideration and any aid or information which he may need, and extend to him, will be appreciated by,

Yours respectfully,

TERTROU & PUGH,

        I cordially indorse Hon. T. T. Allain as worthy and intelligent. Any courtesy extended him will be appreciated.

Respectfully,

CYRUS BUSSEY.



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OFFICE OF THE MANHATTAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY,
156 AND 158 BROADWAY, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, March 28, 1882.

HON. B. F. JONAS, Washington, D. C.:

        DEAR SIR: Hon. T. T. Allain, of Iberville parish, visits Washington in the interest of levee protection for the State at large, and has the influence of our best citizens to aid his mission. As Mr. Allain represents the combined political elements of his parish, doubtless his visit will result in great benefit, just at this condition of distress arising from present high water.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, etc.,

H. M. ISAACSON.


THE SPEECH

        Mr. Allain said:

        MR. CHAIRMAN: The papers and documents which I have had the honor to present to you from the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce, the Cotton Exchange, and a number of prominent, wealthy, and deeply interested merchants and other business men of that city, together with the indorsement and recommendations of the Republican committee of the Third Congressional district of Louisiana, are the sanctions of authority and the credentials on which I venture to appear before you; not, however, without a profound sense of my inability to do full justice to a subject of such vast importance as the preservation of the levees of the Mississippi river by the National government, the advocacy of which I am charged with.

        And, cheerfully as I respond to the obligations thus imposed, my diffidence is not at all diminished, and especially, when I remember how frequently, fully, forcibly--and, we had hoped, conclusively--it has been shown by facts, figures, arguments, and demonstrations that it was--and as it now is--the interest and the duty of the National government to build and keep in repair the levees of its mighty river, the Mississippi.

        It is mine to-day, sir, to once more tread this beaten path, and if it be true that there is no evil without its corresponding good, it is mine to seize the lamentable opportunity, the moment when millions of acres of cultivable and cultivated cotton, sugar, and rice lands are many feet under water; when thousands of families are flooded out of their homes, are taking refuge everywhere, anywhere from the angry flood; when a


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hundred thousand laborers, driven by the waters, have fled in every direction, to the utter demoralization of labor; when horses, mules, oxen, and innumerable, but valuable lesser animals are destroyed or sacrificed in one way or the other; I say that at this moment of our deepest affliction I am commissioned to come here and appeal to you and to the government to use every exertion, to relax no effort to save our section (as far as human agency and human effort can rescue us) from the periodic recurrence of these calamitous overflows.

        I may state, as an absolute fact, that the States whose lands are periodically overflowed by the Mississippi river are utterly unable to build and maintain the levees to meet these occasional emergencies.

        This argument in itself would not, I know, constitute any valid basis for our claim that the National government should therefore assume the task of efficiently providing against the disasters.

        I have, therefore, been at some pains to prepare my statements to fortify the position I now assume, and that is, that it is the interest and the duty of the United States Government to construct and maintain an efficient system of levees along the banks of the Mississippi river, and that upon it must rest the enormous moral responsibility, at least, of the incalculable suffering and losses which are entailed by the overflows.

        It is not necessary for me to labor to show you that the United States possessing and exercising the powers and prerogatives of absolute ownership of this mighty inland sea, is placed thereby under obligation to adopt every necessary precaution to keep it within bounds.

        I take it that this branch of the subject having been so well and so frequently set before the government I need not dwell on it here.

        I cannot resist the temptation, however, to quote the following forcible language from the speech of Hon. James B. Eustis, late United States Senator from my State:

        "We know, Mr. President, that the jurisdictional authority of the United States Government is exclusive over that river throughout its length, and we know how that jurisdictional authority was acquired. It was acquired by the statutes of the United States and by the decisions of the Supreme Court. In the early period of our history there was a conflict going on between the Federal authority and the State governments, with reference to the jurisdiction over navigable streams, a controversy which was as acrimonious upon the bench of the Supreme Court


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as was the slavery question. It was finally determined, after twenty-five years of contest, that the maritime and admiralty jurisdiction over those streams was exclusively vested in the Federal government; and only a short time ago, as high up as Shreveport, on Red river, it was decided that the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction over that stream was exclusively vested in the United States Government. That jurisdiction is an exhaustive jurisdiction. It denies to the States any authority, or any power, or any responsibility, or any obligation whatsoever touching the Mississippi river. The United States Government can bridge it; the United States Government can determine what commerce shall be carried on that river, what shall be the means of transportation on that river, who shall have the privilege of navigating that river; and it is even said in one of the decisions of the Supreme Court that it has the authority to change the channel of that river.

        "Now, I ask, Mr. President, why is it, if every individual in this land, every corporation, is obliged to discharge the obligations and the responsibilities and the duties arising from the mere tutorship or control of property--I ask upon what ground can the United States absolve itself from that obligation and from that responsibility, particularly when we consider the immense loss and devastation and ruin which result from omitting to discharge that obligation? And I do not understand that there is any such thing as degree in national duties and national obligations. If I can convince the Senate that it is the duty of the United States Government, that it is an obligation of the United States Government, it then follows that it is as much a question of national faith to discharge that duty, to discharge that obligation, as for the Government of the United States to pay the interest on its public debt."

        Passing from this branch of the subject to the ability of the government, I presume that there is not one well-informed citizen of this great Republic that raises this question.

        Then, if all these things be true, the only essential lacking is the willingness of the government to recognize the propriety, the justice, and the obligation to undertake this work.

        And I hold that it is as much to the interest as it is the duty of government to undertake the task of protecting the lands on both sides of its river from incursions by its occasionally turbulent stream.


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        It is the interest of the National Government because of the enormous revenue--the support--which it derives from the section of country which suffers from overflows.

        I am aware that this is an appeal to the Nation on the lowest plane--the sordid motive of self-interest, but the argument I hold is sound and the conclusions I shall draw most just.

        Taking Louisiana as the illustration, look at our production and the revenue which the National Government derives as the necessary direct result of our agricultural products.

        Not to be tedious, Mr. Chairman, I will offer the tabulated statement of Hon. R. L. Gibson, one of our congressmen, in his recent specch on the Hawaian treaty and sugar.

        I give you our production of sugar from 1870 to 1880, and rice from 1877 to 1880:

        
Year. Sugar.   Molasses. Rice.
  Hogsheads. Pounds. Gallons. Pounds.
1869-'70 87,090 99,452,946 5,724,256  
1870-'71 144,881 168,878,592 10,281,419  
1871-'72 128,461 146,906,125 10,019,958  
1872-'73 108,520 125,346,493 8,898,640  
1873-'74 89,498 103,241,119 8,203,944  
1874-'75 116,867 134,504,691 11,516,828  
1875-'76 144,146 163,418,070 10,870,546  
1876-'77 169,331 190,672,570 12,024,108  
1877-'78 127,753 147,101,941 14,237,280 35,080,520
1878-'79 213,221 239,478,753 13,218,404 36,592,310
1879-'80 169,972 198,962,278 12,189,190 20,728,520

        In the matter of cotton it is as important as it is interesting to note a few particulars.

        The Southern country produced in 1880 the enormous amount of 2,770,000,000 (two billions seven hundred and seventy millions) of pounds of raw cotton, which is nearly four-fifths of the entire cotton crop of the world.

        During the war we had no production to speak of; but after that dreary period, and when we had resumed cultivation under the new and improved order of things, the increase in the production of this staple became marked.


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        Every year since 1866-'67, except in overflow years, we have increased our cotton production until 1880, when we reached the magnificent figures of 6,611,000 bales, as will be more fully seen by the following extract from the report of "Louisiana Products," by Commissioner W. H. Harris, to the Legislature of 1881:

        The value, sir, of these staple productions of our lands, which are largely subject to overflow, make an aggregate value that to me, at least, is perfectly bewildering.

        I have heard it declared the conception of a million was an overtax on an ordinary mind. But, sir, when we figure up the annual value of our sugar, cotton, and rice crops, we cannot but be astounded to find that we run up into hundreds of millions of dollars.

        This year, sir, unfortunately we shall find no difficulty in computing and comprehending the value of our production.

        But when it is taken into account that we pay cheerfully into the National treasury our proportion of the taxes for the support of government, and that from such an exhibit, brief and incomplete as it is, it can be readily seen that in this matter we are not paupers, and that we need feel no hesitancy in coming up here urging and demanding that the National Government, which so generously, but not always wisely, donates millions upon millions to railroads, should return to us a modicum of our contributions in the shape of the preservation of the levees of the great Father of Waters.

        The loss in revenue to the United States Government this year will be greater than the few millions we are asking and which we deserve to have.


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        Again, the expenditure of over a million of dollars in rations, which have been hurried to our rescue so promptly and so cheerfully, is an expenditure that might have been better utilized.

        Build the levees and keep them in order, and then we shall not need to appeal for bread and meat, and tents and medicines.

        Demoralizing as we know these things to be, we earnestly desire to dispense forever with the reliance on charity for food and shelter. But driven by our extremities, we have been compelled to once more tolerate the call for and dependence on "rations."

        It seems to me, Mr. Chairman, that where so many important channels of profit are neglected that there must be some duty in the matter, and hence I say that it is the duty of the National Government to undertake without further delay the construction and keeping in order an efficient system of levees along the Mississippi banks.

        For years we have had river committees, and river conventions, and Mississippi Valley conventions, and public meetings, and public speeches, and monster petitions, all in the direction of urging on Congress the duty of undertaking this work, but up to this date all of our appeals have been unavailing.

        I say, sir, that we hold it to be the constitutional prerogative and duty of Congress to provide "for the welfare of the United States."

        We form, in the relations we have alluded to, no inconsiderable portion of the United States, and our welfare is materially injured by the trespass of the river, and when we observe Congress recognizing the loud and just clamor raised against the imprisonment abroad of American citizens, and dealing with the the question as suits a free republic; when we see the interest taken in projects to check the influx of Chinese, even to the practical abrogation of a solemn treaty with China, without the consent of "the other party;" when we see Congress undertaking the laudable, if gigantic, task of even regulating the polygamists of Utah; when we see, last, but not least, the beneficent propositions seriously made by a revered Senator to provide for the education of the aboriginal Indians of our country, and I reflect that the warrant and the authority for the accomplishment of these diversified objects, and that these all are regarded as duties of the United States Government, I wonder whether the interests of a million of people in Lousiana, a people who feel that by


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every just and patriotic consideration should--are entitled to have their "welfare" considered by the government to the extent we are seeking.

        A continued neglect of the performance of the duty cannot but result in permanent disaster to the sections periodically overflowed, and the responsibility for the decay, the ruin, the bankruptcies, and the neglected fields will rest on the shoulders, on the only proper, the only competent, and the only efficient power to avert them--the Government of the United States.

        I present you the following statement, made by one of the best informed men in the State, on the overflow, Major E. A. Burke, who has personally visited and inspected the crevasses, the condition of the levees, river, and the cost that the State would incur in rebuilding the levees. He says:

        "Eighty-one crevasses in State, from 300 to 1,500 feet each. Say an an averge of 900 feet in length of each levee washed away, making a running length of 72,900 feet, or say 1,043,000 yards of levee swept away--costing $260,750. To reconstruct the same levees, owing to the effect of the crevasses on the land requiring extra wings to gulches, etc., would require earthwork of at least double that quantity, or say an expenditure in Louisiana of $521,500, as a result of the flood of 1882, and without estimating the crevasses previously in existence. Those crevasses were the Bonnet Carrê, in Saint John Parish, Morganza, in Pointe Coupee, Diamond Island, in Tensas, and Ashton, in East Carroll, all large crevasses broken a length of about nine miles of extra large levees, seventeen and eighteen feet in height, or 1,800,000 cubic yards. Owing to the great height of levees, the cost of rebuilding would be fully fifty cents per cubic yard, or $900,000 to reconstruct old levees. Thus we find that it would cost over $1,400,000 to reconstruct the levees broken by crevasses in Louisiana, a sum utterly beyond our ability."

        Add loss cotton, sugar, miscellaneous, fences, stock.

        I speak of demoralization, scattering of people, rising of water, under the head of crevasses.

        But, sir, my vocabulary is too limited to express to you what "crevasses" in the banks of the Mississippi mean. I will therefore again borrow from the speech of Mr. Eustis. He says:

        "Now, sir, a crevasse in the levees of the Mississippi river is something of which the imagination, unaided by observation, can scarcely form any


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accurate conception. At first it may be but a slender thread of water percolating through a crawfish hole, or a slight abrasion in the upper surface caused by the waves set in motion by a passing steamer or by a sudden storm, but in a few hours the seemingly innocent rill is swollen to a resistless torrent, the great wall of earth has given way before the tremendous pressure of the mighty river, and the waters rush through the opening with a force which soon excavates it to a depth of thirty or forty feet, with a roar which rivals the voice of Niagara and with a velocity which is great enough to draw an incautious steamer into the boiling vortex.

        "The effect is not simply that of an overflow, which may subside in a day or two. The level of the river, at its flood, is above that of the surrounding country; and, consequently, when the embankments break, it is as if an ocean were turned upon the land. In a short time the neighboring country is converted into a sea. Cattle and horses are swept away and drowned, or forced to seek refuge on the few dry spots which remain among the seething waters; the crops are destroyed, and the people in many cases are forced to abandon their homes. Sometimes, indeed, the land itself is greatly injured by these inundations; for, while the floods which come from the Red river, or the Ohio, or even the Arkansas, bring some compensation in the fertilizing character of the deposits which they leave behind, those of the Missouri, being charged with sand and alkaline earths swept down from the great deserts of the west, have a pernicious and sometimes even a ruinous effect on the lands which they invade.

        "In the year 1874, the phenomena which I have feebly described occurred on so extensive a scale that the catastrophe may well be regarded as a national calamity. Through the thirty Louisiana crevasses and the permanent openings in Arkansas, and through the breaks on the left bank a vast body of water overspread a district of country more than three hundred miles in extent from the north to the south, and averaging fifty miles from east to west. I take no account, sir, in this statement, of the vast tracts inundated by the overflows of tributary rivers. I limit myself to the direct influence of the Mississippi waters from the Arkansas southward, and within this region, more than three hundred miles in length by fifty miles in width, as I have said, about 22,000 square miles, much of it arable and cultivated land, much of it the most productive portion of the southwest, was laid under water for many weeks."


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        And strong and pointed and forcible as is this description, it is but a faint representation of the present condition of affairs in Louisiana. I have here, sir, a map of the State showing the overflowed districts of 1882.

        There are a million of acres of the richest and most productive sugar, cotton and rice lands under water.

        There are a hundred and twenty thousand human beings driven from their homes to seek shelter anywhere from the ravages of the flood.

        Conjure up the picture, sir, if you can; look down the river as far as the eye can reach, every curve, every bend straightened; look on the right hand and then on the left as far as the eye can reach, and see the vast and apparently illimitable ocean of water.

        Water, water everywhere.

        Remember, now that underneath this vast body, this "crevasse," lay buried the seed cane, the cotton-seed, the rice, the cereals, the homes, the all of over one hundred thousand people.

        The picture of calamity can not be depicted by human pen or tongue. And remembering that these dire afflictions are of periodical recurrence, I am the more impressed with the necessity of using every legitimate appeal to the justice, and philanthropy, if you please, of this great Nation to come to our rescue.

        And I cannot let this opportune moment escape me, as the representative of a class who, born and held in bondage until the utterance of the ever-living, ever-abiding decree of the immortal Lincoln gave them unconditional liberty, to specially invite consideration to an important feature of this question.

        By this overflow, for the third time since freedom, our country has been flooded and desolated.

        For the third time a hundred thousand stalwarts, yeomen, to the manor born, inured to toil, and living and laboring equally safe in the burning suns of August, the epidemic period of September, or the genial season of March and April.

        For the third time, sir, this large, this necessary, this indispensable class, starting with nothing of this world's goods, but with "heart within and God o'erhead," assumed their new relations, determined to justify the act of their enfranchisement, determined to vindicate their title to the exalted position of equal citizenship in our great country, determined to


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erect homes, acquire property, build up their families, establish churches, support schools, cultivate the arts of peace, and so rise in the scale of humanity, and all the while contributing to the material prosperity of the section in which they reside.

        But they cannot continue living and laboring under the apprehension of having their all remorselessly swallowed up every four or five years.

        It requires no gift of prophecy to foretell that if this government persists in its refusal to keep its river confined to its regular channel (and we don't care how you do it) and thus prevent these overflows, there will be an exodus, a serious and permanent change of abode by a vast number of our laboring population, who cannot continue to endure the losses entailed by the disastrous overflows.

        And in these days of railroads and enterprise, of openings up of sections of our common country not subject to overflow, and with climates as genial for us as our own, the danger of the loss of this element is considerably increased.

        So speaking for this element, I say to the representatives of that glorious party which enacted the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the Constitution of the United States, come once more to our rescue and save us from the necessity of abandoning our homes, the land of our birth, the clime and the products to which we are suited and which are suited to us, and the sympathy and increased loyalty of every black man, woman and child in Louisiana, yes, and in the United States, will be cordially given to you for this act of justice and humanity.

        We are all, in Lousiana, "without regard to race, color, or previous condition," solicitous to avert the damages from overflow, and hence the unanimity among the representatives of the business and the wealth of our State, and of the two great parties, with which I have been authenticated to you, to all of whom I extend my humble and heartfelt thanks.

        Finally, sincerely thanking you for the patience and attention with which you have honored me, I have but to say that if you keep the Mississippi our of our lands and homes we will in the near future turn 7,000,000 bales of cotton; we will send to market 250,000 hogsheads of sugar, 20,000,000 gallons of molasses, 25,000,000 pounds of rice, and develop a new industry dawning upon us; we will send to the North in March our early cereals, our spring poultry, and Southern home products, while the snow and the ice of winter remain on your lands and fields.


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        Sir, we make three appeals for protection.

        We appeal against the ravages of the mighty waters of the Mississippi; we appeal against the admission of foreign sugars to our markets free of duty; and, thirdly, we, the Negroes of the South appeal to you to protect us, our properties, and our lives against the annual overflows of the great river, in order that we may enjoy the benefits of liberty, husband the fruits of our industry, educate our children, and continue to increase our productions, and protect the fruits of our labor, which now is two-thirds of the cotton crops, four-fifths of the sugar crops, and very near all the rice crops.

        We appeal to the National Government, which, in the name of Almighty God, we thank for all that we have, to take charge of the levees of the Mississippi river, and under the direction and supervision of officers of the government to maintain them.

        Finally, again thanking those who commissioned, and you who so patiently listened to me, I rejoice above them in the proud reflection that, in the sublime language of Frederick Douglass, I appear here "in the more elevated character of an American citizen."


        This speech was made Tuesday, April 18, 1882, at eleven A. M., before the following committee on commerce: Hon. Horace F. Page, of California, Chairman; David P. Richardson, of New York; Amos Townsend, of Ohio; Roswell G. Horr, of Michigan; William D. Washburn, of Minnesota; John W. Candler, of Massachusetts; William Ward, of Pennsylvania; John D. White, of Kentucky Melvin C. George, of Oregon; Richard Guenther, of Wisconsin; John H. Reagan, of Texas; Robert M. McLane, of Maryland; Randall L. Gibson, of Louisiana; Miles Ross, of New Jersey; Thomas H. Herndon, of Alabama.

        It will be remembered that the question of levees affected more directly the prosperity of the State than all the others combined. It is not a small matter that this colored man should be selected by the most prominent business


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men of the section. President Arthur said: "No man can present papers from any part of the country that could say more." He pleaded well for his constituents, telling the true state of affairs and giving a reason for every demand made. Hon. Allain possesses a large amount of perseverance. Ten years before this, 1872-74, while serving his first term in the Legislature he agitated this question. In 1875 he was elected to the State Senate and remained until 1878. 1879 finds him a member of the Constitutional convention, and from '79 to '86 in the House of Representatives again. Sixteen years of public life is no short time for one who is still young. Hon. Allain is a strong advocate of popular education, and is second to no man in the State when it comes to educational matters for the colored people. He was the first man after the war to organize public schools in West Baton Rouge for both the white and colored children. In 1886, Mr. Allain introduced a bill in the Legislature asking for an appropriation of twenty thousand dollars and secured fourteen thousand dollars for the purpose of erecting the College buildings of the "Southern University." In a speech at the laying of the "corner stone" he said: "I look forward to a period not far distant, when Louisiana will be able to have a white and colored school-house dotting every nook and corner in the State of our birth, the home of our choice, with a public sentiment advocating for high and low, for white and colored popular education." January 27, 1877, he offered at the "Farmers' State Association," a resolution requesting the association to recommend the passage of an act by the


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Legislature to establish an Industrial school for the education of colored people. Under the caption "A Good Move," January 15, 1887, the Weekly Iberville South quotes from the Louisiana Standard:

        Hon. T. T. Allain has succeeded in having designated as Depositories for Public Records the four institutions in our city which are attended almost exclusively by colored children, viz: Straight, Southern, Leland, and New Orleans universities. Mr. Allain deserves credit for the interest he takes in educational affairs, and as a business man is a success. While a member of the Republican party, he has always advocated unification between the two races.


        The Terrebonne Times in the September 18, 1886, issue, accused him of drawing the color line, to which he replied:

        I propose to issue a plan for "Unification" in 1888, and will ask the colored people in each of the fifty-eight parishes of Louisiana--including the city of New Orleans--to stand solid and support the nominees of the National Republican party for President, Vice-President, and for the members of Congress, but when it comes to State and local offices the colored man in Louisiana must not allow himself to be bulldozed by newspaper "Scare-crows." We know, much better than you can tell us, Mr. Editor, as to who among the "white Republicans" in "Louisiana" that have been "pure" and "true" to us--and God knows that the graves of thousands of our "best" men in the South, because of our support to "white Republican" candidates, should settle and put at rest forever the question of "gratitude." We must look to the peace, quiet and wellbeing of our people. We must have Normal and Industrial schools for our children, and more public schools in the parishes of the State, and we will go in and vote for the white men of Louisiana in 1888, who have the moral courage to give to their colored fellow-citizens a fair living chance, and the "enjoyment" of "full American citizenship."


        Hon. Allain is an acute thinker, a man of sympathetic and benevolent nature and large culture. He is known as


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one of the "Colored Creoles" of Louisiana, and speaks French fluently, better than English. He has six children; the family affiliates with the Catholic church; the children are being educated for future usefulness at Straight University.


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XX.

DENMARK VEAZIE.

        "Black John Brown"--Martyr.

        NINETEEN years before the opening of this century, on the island of St. Thomas, was born a child who was destined to become a martyr for his race. Men may differ as to what makes a martyr, and believe it comes through the flesh or the wicked one; but martyrs are made of such material as fit men to attempt great things for what they believe to be right. Denmark was purchased by a man named Veazie, after whom he takes his name. He was fourteen years old when he was purchased. In 1800 he drew a prize of fifteen hundred dollars in a lottery. Of course we do not approve of his playing lottery by any means, but he made good use of six hundred dollars of the money, securing his freedom thereby. He was a carpenter by trade, and was the admired of all his companions, because of his strength and activity. Twenty-two years later he formed a plan to liberate the slaves of Charleston, South Carolina. His plan was to put the whole city to fire and the sword on June 16. He had particularly objected to any slave joining the conspiracy who


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was of that class of waiting men who received presents of old coats, etc., from their masters, as such slaves would be likely to betray them. At 10 o'clock at night, the governor having been informed of the conspiracy by the treachery of some of the Negroes, had military companies thrown around the city, and no one was allowed to pass in or out.

        The slaves who were to come from Thomas Island, and land on the South bay, and seize the arsenal and guardhouse, failed to do so. Another body that was to seize the arsenal on the Neck, was also thwarted in its plans. All the conspirators, finding the town so well protected, did not attempt that which they intended. On Sunday afternoon, Denmark Veazie, for the purpose of making preliminary arrangements, had a meeting and dispatched a courier to inform the country Negroes what to do, but the courier could not get out of the city, and thus the project was a failure, but the leader died a martyr upon the gallows, and the slave who had betrayed him was purchased by the Legislature, thus putting a premium upon the betrayal of any one who should attempt an insurrection of this kind. From William C. Nell's 'History of the Colored Patriots of the American Revolution,' we take the following:

        The number of blacks arrested was 131: of these 35 were executed, 41 acquitted, and the rest sentenced to be transported. Many a brave hero fell, but history, faithful to her high trust, will engrave the name of Denmark on the same monument with Moses, Hampden, Tell, Bruce, Wallace, Toussaint L'Ouverture, La Fayette and Washington.



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        I have stood in the arsenal yard and seen the place where these men were executed, and the memory of their attempt will never fade from the history of the Negroes of South Carolina.


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XXI.

PROFESSOR J. E. JONES, A. B., A. M.

        Professor of Homeletics and Greek in the Theological Seminary, Richmond, Virginia--Corresponding Secretary of the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention.

        PROFESSOR J. E. JONES was born of slave parents in the city of Lynchburg, Virginia, October 15, 1850. He remained a slave until the surrender. Against the earnest protestations of his mother he was put to work in a tobacco factory when not more than six years of age. This was in that period of the country's history when the question of human slavery was agitating the minds of the people from Maine to the Gulf. Then, when the feelings of the people of both sections of the country had almost reached their limits, the Southern States deemed it expedient to enact some very stringent laws with respect to the Negro. Therefore, the State of Virginia passed laws that prohibited anyone from teaching Negroes how to read and write, and if anyone was caught violating this law he would be imprisoned. Young Jones' mother believed, with all her heart, that the time would come when the colored people would be liberated. She did not hesitate to express that belief; she not only expressed it to her colored friends, but, on one occasion, went so far as


Illustration

J. E. JONES.


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to tell her owners the same thing. They regarded this as simply madness; but the idea took such hold on her that she, though ignorant herself, determined that she would have her son taught to read and write. At once she secured the services of a man who was owned by the same family as herself. This man agreed to come several nights each week to give this boy lessons. At this time--during the year 1864--things were getting to a desperate state in the South. Soon, Joseph's teacher began to think that he was running too much risk in giving these lessons at the boy's home. He decided that he could not continue. However, after some reflection another plan was tried. It was arranged that the pupil should go once a week to the room of his teacher. The time chosen was Sunday morning between the hours of ten and twelve o'clock. It was selected because the white people usually spent this time at church, praying(?) for the success of the Confederacy and the continuance of human slavery. Toward the close of the war, the master of the teacher discovered that he could read and write, and sold him. But this did not discourage the mother, she was determined, more than ever, to have her boy taught. After some time she succeeded in getting a sick Confederate soldier to teach him. She paid this man by giving him something to eat. The instruction by this man was cut short after several months by the surrender of General Lee. Immediately after the surrender, young Jones' mother placed him in a private school that had been opened by his first teacher, the late Robert A. Perkins. Up to this time, while the boy had made some progress, it could not be said to have


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been satisfactory. His was of a fun-loving, mischievous disposition. On account of this fact, combined with the irregularity of his lessons and other circumstances, he had not been impressed very seriously of the importance of an education. But when he commenced going to school after the surrender, his progress was more marked. He continued in this school for two years. The most of this period he stood head in his classes. The winter following he spent as a pupil in a private school taught by James M. Gregory, now a professor in Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia. He was one of the best scholars in this school. In the spring of 1868, Joseph was baptized and connected himself with the Court Street Baptist church of the city of Lynchburg, Virginia.

        In October of the same year, he entered the Richmond Institute now Richmond Theological Seminary, with a view of preparing himself for the gospel ministry. He spent three years there, taking the academic and theological studies then taught. In April, 1871, he left Virginia for Hamilton, New York, and entered the preparatory department of Madison University, from which he graduated in 1872. The following fall he entered the university and after a successful course of study, graduated June, 1876. The same year the American Baptist Home Mission Society of New York appointed him instructor in the Richmond institute, and entrusted him with the branches of language and philosophy. In 1877 he was ordained to the ministry. In 1879, his alma mater conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts "in course." For two years Professor Jones has occupied the chair of Homeletics


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and Greek in the Richmond Theological Seminary. He has not only performed well his work in the class room, but has taken an active part in all the denominational movements as well as other questions relating to the welfare of his people. He is a member of the Educational Board of the Virginia Baptist State convention. November, 1883, Professor Jones was elected corresponding secretary of the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention of the United States of America. This convention has grown considerably since he has occupied this position. The Religious Herald of Richmond, Virginia, in speaking of the subject of this sketch says:

        Professor Jones is one of the most gifted colored men in America. Besides being professor in Richmond Theological seminary, he is corresponding secretary of the Baptist Foreign Mission convention. He has the ear and heart of his people, and fills with distinction the high position to which his brethren North and South have called him.


        Professor Jones has constant demands made upon him both to speak and to preach. He took an active part in getting colored teachers into schools, both in his native city and the city of his adoption. He has corresponded considerably for newspapers, and at one time was one of the editors of the Baptist Companion of Virginia. He was six years president of the Virginia Baptist Sunday School convention. In June, 1880, he was requested by the corresponding secretary of the American Baptist Home Mission Society of New York, to deliver an address at the society's anniversary at Saratoga, New York. His subject was, "The Need and Desire of the Colored People for these Schools." He spoke in the public hall to a vast


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audience which seemed to be perfectly spellbound as he told the tale of the Negro's condition and surroundings. The Examiner of New York, in commenting on the address said:

        Mr. Jones is a young colored man, prepossessing in appearance and manners, and his address would have been creditable to any white graduate of any Northern college. It was sensible, witty and eloquent.


        The Watchman of Boston, in speaking of the same address, said:

        The speech of the evening was that of Professor Jones, a colored man. His manly, strong, and sensible address made a stronger appeal for the education of his race than the words of the most eloquent advocate.


        Two years later, on the twenty-first of June, Professor Jones was married to Miss Rosa D. Kinckle of Lynchburg, Virginia, a graduate from the Normal department of Howard University, and was then a teacher in the public schools of her city. This young man is doing a most excellent work for the general advancement of his race. He is very hopeful as to the future of the race. He holds, however, no utopian ideas respecting them. He believes, he says, "If the race would rise in the scale of being, they must comply with the same laws that conditionate the rise and development of other people." He points with pride to not a few of the young men who have gone out from the Institute since he has been connected with it. Some of them are succeeding admirably well as doctors, lawyers, teachers, and ministers of the gospel. Dr. Cathcart, in the 'Baptist Encyclopædia,' says:


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        Professor Jones is an efficient teacher, a popular and instructive preacher, and a forcible writer. In 1878 he held a newspaper controversy with the Roman Catholic Bishop Keane of Richmond, in which the bishop, in the estimation of many most competent to judge, was worsted. Professor Jones is regarded as one of the most promising of the young colored men of the South.


        In following the career of Professor Joseph Endom Jones, and observing and marking the changes in it, we can but say that it was simply marvelous--it must have been divinely ordered and superintended. In his manners he is princely and attractive. He is never excited, and, while an enthusiast in his work, is never more careful than when discussing or planning the preparatory part thereof. Nothing overthrows him. With great consideration, careful and accurate information, he seldom makes a mistake. It might seem to one that his interest might be lacking in any given affair--for he can sit all day and show no desire to speak, and when all are through he will pointedly show that no thought was wasted on him, but that he had given strict attention to the whole matter. Such is the man.


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XXII.

JOHN WESLEY TERRY, ESQ.

        Foreman of the Ironing and Fitting Department of the Chicago West Division Street Car Company--Director and Treasurer of the Chicago Co-operative Packing and Provision Company--Director of the Central Park Building and Loan Association.

        JOHN WESLEY TERRY is only about forty-one years of age, having, as near as can be ascertained, seen the light of day in Murry county, Tennessee, in 1846, and began life a poor, miserable slave, owned by William Pickard till emancipated by the war of the Rebellion. His mother's name was Mary, and his father's name was Hayward Terry. When he was but a crawling babe, and needed a mother's tender care, he with his dear brother, but little older than himself, were put into a pen that had been fenced off in one corner of the lot, and there, on the bare ground with no covering or shelter, had to crawl around on the ground, unattended from early morning, when his mother had to go out into the field to work, till it was too late to continue, when she had to come to the house and spin "ten cuts" of yarn or cotton before she was permitted to go to her children and take them from the pen. The only attention they received through the


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day was a pan of food placed in the pen by their mother to which they could go and eat.

        In 1863, while the Federal army was in possession of Columbia, Tennessee, his mother took him and his brother and started for the Union lines. She succeeded and found protection for herself and her two boys. Henry, the older, being of sufficient age, enlisted in the army, leaving his mother and brother at Columbia. John remained with his mother till a Colonel Myers was placed in command at that point, and who delivered all slaves in his lines to their masters when they came for them. John and his mother were unfortunate in being carried back to Murry county by their old master, who came in search of them. Colonel Myers had been superseded in command at Columbia, and the Union forces had advanced and taken possession in Murry county, at which time John says: "I proclaimed to the old master, Pickard, my freedom, and at the same time threatened him with the Union army for harboring and feeding 'Rebel soldiers' as he had threatened me with the Secession army for attempting to gain my freedom." The old man begged him not to inform them against him and proposed to hire him for wages if he would not leave him. He worked two years for the old man for wages, who said he thought it was "hard to have to pay wages to a 'nigger' he had owned." After this he worked one year with his father on the "Terry farm," on Tennessee pike, near Sandy Hook. The latter part of 1866 he went to Nashville, Tennessee, to look for his mother, who had made her second attempt of escape before the Union army took possession


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of the country around the old farm in Murry county. Finding her, he worked on the steamboat in 1867, during which time his mother kept house for him.

        In 1868 he took charge of the farm department known as the "Younglove Fruit Farm," on "Paradise Hill," and remained till 1869. Returning to Nashville, he and his brother Henry opened a "Tailor, Dye and Repair shop," and worked at it for about one year; then he entered the employ of P. J. Sexton, contractor and builder. Remained at the trade with him in Nashville till he went with him to Chicago, in 1872--the year after "the great fire." In 1873 he professed a hope in Christ, united with the Olivet Baptist church, in Chicago, and was baptized into its fellowship by the pastor, Rev. R. DeBaptiste. March 11, 1873, he was united in marriage to Miss Catharine Brown of Nashville, Tennessee, in Olivet Baptist church, Rev. DeBaptiste officiating. In 1875 he entered the employment of the Chicago West Division Street Car company, in their "car shops," and worked with them for two years, purchased a house, but leased the ground. Having a neatly, though not a costly, furnished little cottage home, he began to reflect upon his duty to the Saviour and perishing souls. He soon decided to enter some institution of learning and take a higher and more extended course of studies than had before been his privilege. His faithful wife consented to go with him and aid him in the accomplishment of his noble aspirations so far as she was able. They "stored" their furniture, broke up housekeeping, rented their house, and, in 1877, entered Wayland Seminary, Washington, D. C. He remained there four years,


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finished the normal course and received his diploma He took the theological course of studies there, and returned to his home, in Chicago, 1881, and was ordained to the work of the gospel ministry by a council composed of pastors and delegates from the churches of the city and vicinity, called by the Olivet Baptist church. Having contracted some debts in the prosecution of his studies, and his house having been sold to meet a part of this indebtedness, and not obtaining a support from his ministerial work, he sought and very readily obtained employment again in the shops of the West Division Street Car company.

        After one year he was promoted to be foreman of the ironing and fitting department. He was the only colored man in this department, or indeed in the shops, and he had from seven to twelve mechanics under him and subject to his orders--all of them whites, of various nationalities.

        The superintendent and master mechanic of the shops said to him: "You have attained your position in these shops by your merit, and not from having any individual influence or backing, or from any consideration of sympathy. Your color is not considered here, but your skill and ability, and if any of the men of your department refuse to respect and obey your orders, send them to the office." He had no occasion to do this, for the men of the shop respected him and stood ready to resent any indignity that might be offered him on account of his color. Some one was heard once to say something about him and used the word "nigger" in the shops, and there was raised in all the shops such a feeling of indignation, and the inquiry from


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one to another, "Who said it?" that whoever it was that used it was considerate enough not to let himself be known.

        He united with the Knights of Labor in 1866, and was chosen by the men of the shops to represent them on the committee to settle the great Chicago strike of that year at the "stock yards," and was elected judge-advocate of the Charter Oak Assembly of Knights of Labor, March 29, 1886. Being the only colored man in the organization, he was elected only because of his ability, and was reelected at the end of the year. During the stock yard strike he was one of those who suggested the formation of the "Chicago Co-operative Packing and Provision Company," which held its first successful meeting January 2, 1887, and he was elected a director of the same. In February he was elected treasurer of the organization and gave up his position in the car shop. This organization has in running now a main office and a wholesale department, and several flourishing markets in different parts of the city. In 1886 he was elected a director of the Central Park Building and Loan association. December, 1886, he was sent as a delegate to the Cook County Political Assembly of the United Labor party; at the first assembly of the same, was chosen one of the executive committee. Was a delegate to the city convention of the United Labor party which met February 26, 1887, and was then put in nomination for alderman for the Thirteenth ward, to be voted for in the spring election.

        I am proud of such men. What a hellish curse was slavery that a mind so strong, so ingenious as his should be


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stunted and crippled by such treatment as was dealt out to the infant Terry, penned like a hog, neglected all day by a mother who labored in the field with an aching heart. Let the boys and girls of to-day thank God that slavery has been wiped from the face of our country and condemned by our statutes.


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XXIII.

WILLIAM E. MATTHEWS, LL. B.

        Broker--Real Estate Agent--Financier and Lawyer.

        MR. WILLIAM E. MATTHEWS, the subject of this sketch, was born in the city of Baltimore, July, 1845. His father died when he was a boy at the age of twelve, and he at once assumed the responsibilities which devolved upon him as filling the place of a father. While in the city of Baltimore he was a prominent member of the literary institutions, especially the Gailbraith Lyceum, which wielded a wonderful influence at times. He was the agent of this society which had been organized by the loyalists of Maryland, for the purpose of assisting in the education and training of the colored people of the South, and especially of that State. As such, he traveled through the State, organizing schools and addressing the people on all questions which were intended to improve their morals, and encourage them to establish homes and enlighten them upon the duties of the new citizenship, which they had just received. In 1867 he became the agent of another body which was organized by Bishop D. A. Payne and others for the purpose of founding schools and building churches in the South among the freedmen. This work he


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continued for three years, being engaged most diligently, speaking in many of the wealthiest and most refined churches in the East, such as Dr. Bellows', Dr. Chapin's, Rev. Dr. Adams', Mr. Frothingham's and Dr. Vincent's and others of New York, and Drs. Cuyler, Storrs and the Plymouth church in Brooklyn. At Mr. Beecher's church on one occasion, after speaking a few minutes he secured fourteen hundred dollars. His subscription book contained the names of such men as Henry W. Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, William Cullen Bryant, James G. Whittier, which show to a great extent the appreciation of his efforts. In 1870 he severed his connection with the society and was appointed to a clerkship in the post office department by Hon. J. A. Cresswell. He is the first colored gentleman ever appointed in that department. In 1873 he graduated from the Law Department of Howard University. Previous to this he had devoted much of his spare time after office hours to business in real estate, mortgages, loans, bonds, etc., amassing considerable wealth, and gaining a great experience which befitted him for larger operations which he undertook in after years. He is a prominent man in the community, being one of the most liberal supporters of the 15th Street Presbyterian church, and has been a long time chairman of its board of trustees. Mr. Matthews is a gentleman of pleasing address and entertaining manners--a leading man, whose opinions weigh, and are always sincerely sought for in the interest of right. His devotion to the race is shown in his liberality and earnest efforts to improve their condition, and benefit the poor in any and


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every way. Few things are discussed or attempted for good that they do not receive his cognizance. It is said that his first effort as a speaker was made when he was quite a boy, at a great meeting of the State loyalists held at the Front Street theatre, Baltimore, 1863, to discuss the question of abolition in the border States, Hon. John Minor Botts of Maryland, presiding. On the stage were a large number of leading Republicans of the South, including Hon. Horace Maynard of Tennessee; Thomas H. Settle of North Carolina; J. A. Cresswell, Judge Bond and others of Maryland. The theatre is said to have been packed by an audience of three thousand. When Mr. Matthews was called on to speak, he carried the house with a brief but enthusiastic speech, which was noted for the boisterous and enthusiastic manner in which it was received. He has some distinction as an orator, though of later years he has done very little speaking. In 1880 he was invited by a prominent gentleman of Boston to deliver a eulogy on the life and character of the Rev. John F. W. Ware, an eminent Unitarian preacher (white). He was pastor of the church in Baltimore during the war, and did much by his sterling work and great ability to strengthen the new cause and aid the colored people in emancipation and education. On this occasion the meeting was presided over by the Hon. John D. Long, Governor of the State. The audience was a notable one, including Edward Everett Hale, James Freeman Clark and Dr. Rufus Ellis, Dr. Foote of King's Chapel, and the late Judge George L. Ruffin. An excerpt from that speech will show his estimate of this gentleman and also his style as a writer and speaker. Said he:


Illustration

W. E. MATHEWS.


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        You know of his patriotic work for the soldiers in tent, field and hospital; of his sermons at our beautiful Druid Hill Park, where thousands of all climes, tongues, colors and conditions would hang on his words as he out lined some grand thought in a way which was charming and captivating to the simple as to the educated, on noble living, high thinking, or passionate devotion to one's country; of his theatre preaching on winter nights, when he would, week after week, hold his audiences of two thousand spellbound, from the newsboys and shoeblacks who sat in the gallery of the gods, to the solid merchant or eminent judge who sat in orchestra chairs. All this you know, but I am not so certain that you know that to the colored people of the city and State he was our William Lloyd Garrison, because he was our emancipator; our Horace Mann, because he was our educator; our Dr. Howe, because a philanthropist; our Father Taylor, because a simple preacher of righteousnes; and our John A. Andrew, because of his inflexible patriotism. All this he was, and, I might also add the Charles Sumner, for statesman he was also, braver and greater than many who held seats in the great hall at Washington.


        This speech was put in pamphlet form by a vote of that meeting. In 1881 the private business of Mr. Matthews grew to such proportions that he severed his connections with the post office department, in which service he had been for eleven years, and opened a real estate and broker's office in Le Droit Building, Washington, District of Columbia, in which business he has met with great success. Few men among us understand so well as Mr. Matthews the true handling of money and the way to make it pay, as was shown in his able article in the A. M. E. Church Review for April, 1885, which the editor, Dr. B. T. Tanner, declares the most finished and exhaustive article on economic subjects that has ever yet appeared. The subject treated was, "Money as a Factor in the Human Progress." The business integrity of Mr. Matthews is


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one of which any man might be proud. His best indorsement is, that his check is good for ten thousand dollars at any banking house in the city of Washington. Since he has been in business he has handled one hundred thousand dollars belonging to colored gentlemen, among whom might be named Hon. Frederick Douglass, Bishop D. A. Payne, D. D., LL. D., James T. Bradford, Dr. C. B. Purvis, Dr. Samuel L. Cook, Dr. William R. Francis, T. J. Minton and Bishop Brown. Mr. Douglass on his recent departure for Europe closed his account with Mr. Matthews. It was then shown that he had handled over forty-nine thousand dollars of Mr. Douglass' money. As an evidence of his appreciation of his business talent and strict honesty, he writes in these words:

William E. Matthews, Esq.

        My Dear Sir: It gives me pleasure to inform you and all others, that in all the pecuniary transactions in which you have handled my money, you have given entire satisfaction, and I take pleasure in commending you to all my friends who may have occasion to loan money through your agency.

Very truly yours,

Frederick Douglass.

Washington, District of Columbia, September 3, 1886.

        The office of this gentleman is visited by all persons of national celebrity who sojourn in Washington, and as he himself is widely known, we do not hesitate to say that the future has much in store for the man who began without a penny and to-day can be considered one of our wealthiest men, and besides this he has never been known to enter into a questionable business transaction of any


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kind, maintaining his integrity, though many men have fallen far short of the expectations of their friends.

        He is a natural financier, easily understanding all financial combinations; and were he a white man he would readily be classed with Sherman of America and Rothschilds of England. It is indeed gratifying to have the name of so distinguished a financier and broker, with such eminent abilities as a business man, to present to our readers. Success in business has not marked the pathway of many colored men, for lack of training while young. Had he depended on this, he too would have fallen by the wayside. In this respect we claim that his ability is natural more than acquired. It is refreshing to notice the high grade of intellect he possesses in this department of life.


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XXIV.

REV. JAMES ALFRED DUNN PODD.

        Superintendent of Schools--Editor--Brilliant Pastor.

        REV. JAMES ALFRED DUNN PODD was a native of Nevis, a West India island belonging to Great Britain, leaward group, latitude 17 degrees, 10 minutes North, longitude 62 degrees, 40 minutes West. It is a little one, area 20,000 square miles, separated from the south end of St. Christopher's by a channel two miles across. Its population about the time of his birth was 10,200 souls. He was born March 16, 1855. His parents moved to the island of St. Christopher when he was yet quite young. His father, a leading minister of the gospel in the Wesleyan Methodist church, in addition to a careful home training, endeavored to give him a liberal education. He was given the advantage of the best schools in the island where he was born and raised. In St. Kitts he pursued a preparatory course, graduating from his academic course quite young, and gave promise at a very early period of becoming a brilliant scholar.

        With the view of preparing himself for the ministry in the Episcopal church, he went to England to take a more


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extended course of studies in the venerable and highly cultured educational centers of the mother country. Being admitted into a collegiate school under the patronage and management of the Church of England, he received a literary and classical education that shone brilliantly in his life as a scholar, and adorned so beautifully the work he did in the pulpit and on the platform. He was strongly attached to the institutions and forms of service in the Episcopal church (from cultivation, no doubt, while pursuing his studies in the institutions of learning under the Church of England, and from being in constant attendance upon its services), and this would assert itself often in his manner of conducting his pulpit services, even after he had connected himself with a church whose simpler rites and plainer forms of service showed such a marked contrast.

        Leaving England he returned to his home in the West Indies, seeking a field for his future labors. He was tendered and accepted of appointments under the civil government of his island home, in connection with the department of education, being at one time superintendent of schools for the island. His inclination and taste for literary work induced him to accept of the editorship of a journal that was published on the island in the interest of education, literature and religion. In these various capacities he showed aptitude and ability, and gave to the interests of his people, the islanders, the vigilance and care his talents and education so well fitted him to do.

        However useful he may have been in these spheres of service, God had a higher calling for him, and so ordered


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his providence toward him that he should find that to "go preach the gospel" was for him the life work.

        The death of his mother, and other unfortunate occurrences in his home life, so completely upset all his cherished plans that he could no longer content himself to remain at home in the West Indies. Thus unsettled, he turned his eyes toward the continent of North America, and leaving his island home and the scenes and associations so familiar and dear to him, he came to Canada. There he connected himself with the British Methodist Episcopal church, and entered its ministry, served in the pastorates of several of its congregations.

        Having undergone a change of view upon the ordinance of baptism, he united with the Baptist church at St. Catherines, Ontario, and received from the church a call to its pastorate. Having served that church for a short time, his talents soon attracted the attention of other churches, and the Baptist church of London, Ontario, was the next to extend him a call. Having been previously recognized as a minister of the Baptist denomination by a regularly constituted council called for the purpose, he accepted the call to the pastorate of the London church, and served it two years. December, 1881, he received a call from the Olivet Baptist church, Chicago, Illinois, which he accepted on February 1, 1882. The Bethesda Baptist church having been organized in the south part of the city, a new field and a new congregation was opened for him, and in February, 1883, he took charge of the congregation that had been organized for him. Under his leadership its membership commenced immediately to increase, and his preaching


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attracted large congregations to its services. His pulpit ministrations were of marked ability. The increased interest in his ministry, and the growth of his congregations occasioned several changes of location and removal to more spacious quarters for accommodations to meet their demands, for his preaching, polished in literary finish as it was, was yet clear and forcible in its presentations of the truths of the Bible, and continued to increase in popular favor.

        The financial strain occasioned by the expensiveness of the temporary occupancies, determined the pastor and his little flock to begin the purchase of property and the erection or purchase of a house for a permanent church home. This enterprise drew out and put into exercise his fine pastoral qualities as an organizer, and resulted, after an heroic struggle, in the settlement of the church in its neat and well furnished quarters, in the pretty little chapel at the corner of 34th and Butterfield streets.

        The strain on both pastor and flock was very severe, and hastened his death. The last time I saw him was at the Baptist National convention, where he read a paper on the subject of African mission. It was evident that his heart was filled full of the work, and indeed his remarks impressed the convention, because of his earnestness and zeal in this department of Christian labor. At the close of his remarks he made a very strong appeal to the convention to contribute to the cause through Rev. T. L. Johnson, the missionary. Mr. Podd would impress one as intellectual from his personal appearance. His classic countenance was interesting, and his health being at the


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time very feeble, he gave one the impression of a man able to meet the demands of any occasion when in full health. It could be seen then that he was near the end of life, and his words for this reason had the more weight and secured careful attention.

        He was not narrow in the exercise of his gifts and talents, but with a large heart and generous nature, he laid his hand to every good work for the uplifting of his race and the cause of humanity.

        Death cut short his earthly labors at Jacksonville, Florida, on Thursday, December 23, 1886, in the thirty-second year of his life.


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XXV.

HON. HENRY WILKINS CHANDLER, A. B., A. M.

        Member of the State Senate of Florida--Capitalist--Lawyer--City Clerk and Alderman.

        OCALA, Florida, is proud of the Hon. H. W. Chandler, whom she honors so often in sending him to the State Senate.

        Reared in a State in which there was little or no discrimination, he enjoyed excellent school advantages. His father has been for many years a deacon in a white Baptist church and superintendent of the Sunday school; it can be seen, therefore, that he has had little of the embarrassments of life which go to make difficulties for young colored men.

        He was born in Bath, Sagadahock county, Maine, September 22, 1852. He pursued the usual course of studies in the common schools of his native city, graduating from the College Preparatory Department of the High school in June, 1870, and the following September entered Bates' College, Lewiston, Maine, where he graduated, in 1874, with the title of A. B. September, 1874, he entered the Law Department of Howard University, Washington. D. C., and at the same time became instructor in the


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Normal Department of the same institution. He pursued his law studies at the university and privately till June, 1876. He went to Ocala, Marion county, Florida, in October of the same year and engaged in teaching. In 1878 he was on, examination, admitted to the practice of law. In 1880, was nominated and elected State Senator for the Nineteenth Senatorial district, comprising the county of Marion. At the expiration of his term, in 1884, he was renominated and elected for a term of four years.

        Mr. Chandler was a delegate to the Republican National convention in 1884, and has been prominently connected with the Republican State and Congressional committees. Since he entered politics, in 1878, he has held various positions of honor and trust--clerk and alderman of his adopted city, Ocala; delegate to the recent State Constitutional convention, in 1885.

        October 2, 1884, he was married to Miss Annie M. Onley, a teacher in the Staunton Grammar school, Jacksonville, Florida, and the daughter of Mr. John Onley, a prominent contractor and builder in that city.

        Mr. Chandler still resides in Ocala, Florida, where he wields a very large and powerful influence, politically and socially. He is deacon of the Mount Moriah Baptist church of that city, and was baptized by Rev. Samuel Smalls, now deceased.

        He had the good fortune of meeting true and staunch friends in the persons of Watson Murphy, F. C. W. Williams, Reuben S. Mitchell and others, who have always been devoted to his interests. The writer was a resident of Florida, and was largely instrumental in Mr. Chandler's


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settlement in that State. Having gone there first, he invited Mr. Chandler, with another friend, to make their homes in that State, and here, in this volume, I wish to testify to the generosity, the whole-souled respect, which these gentlemen have shown, not only to Mr. Chandler but to himself, as they are men made in uncommon moulds. No better men live; they are as true to a friend as the needle to the pole, and can only be spoken of with tenderness and love.

        Mr. Chandler had only two dollars and one-half in his pocket when he settled in Florida, but by hard work, honest methods and kind treatment to all with whom he came in contact, he has been enabled to secure a vast amount of property, and to-day his real estate is worth probably twenty thousand dollars.

        Senator Chandler is a man of fine scholastic taste, discriminating in his choice of books and of the subjects which he treats. He is already a successful lawyer. As a politician he is shrewd, calculating and far-seeing. His speeches are specimens of eloquence, rhetoric and polish; in every case a subject is exhausted by him before dropped. He generally anticipates his opponent's argument, and so presents them that he would be ashamed to use them afterwards. His style is both analytical and synthetical. His life is an inspiration for those who come after him.


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XXVI.

REV. THEODORE DOUGHTY MILLER, D. D.

        The Eloquent Pastor of Cherry Street Baptist Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania--A Veteran Divine, Distinguished for Long Service.

        THE subject of this sketch was born of Henry and Sarah Miller, in the city of New York, September 19, 1835. He was a very bright and active boy, whose winning ways won him many friends, who have maintained their pleasant relations for many long years. When he began studying he was a pupil of the well known teacher, John Patterson, of colored school No. 1, where he remained for ten years and secured an excellent common school education. In July, 1849, he was examined, passed and received a certificate as a teacher, and at once entered upon his profession, becoming first assistant in the Public High school. He was brought up in the Episcopal church (St. Phillips), was confirmed and became a member of the choir for many years. Though privileged, he was conscientiously opposed to accepting communion, and left that organization to form a part of the newly organized church of the Messiah, also Episcopal, under the rectorship of Alexander Crummel, D. D., who is now rector in the City of Washington, District of Columbia. His father died when he was


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an infant, and his mother was very suddenly called away when he was about sixteen years of age, leaving him alone in the world to fight the battle of life. He had an older brother, but he had gone many years before to California when the popular rage for gold was at its height, and never returned, being lost in the wreck of the steamer Golden Gate.

        From 1849 to 1851 he spent his evenings and Saturdays as a pupil of the St. Augustine Institute in the study of the classics, determined to thoroughly equip himself to make a mark in life. During a revival of religion at the Baptist church he was converted and brought to the knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ. Though uniting with no church, not being able then to reconcile the Baptist views of baptism and church fellowship with his own, he determined to study all the creeds and compare them with the Bible so as to stand on a Bible platform and defend himself in his religious views against all encroachments and entreaties from the many who were seeking his services, both in the church and Sunday-school. In the year 1851 he left New York City to assume charge of the public school in Trenton, New Jersey, which he held for years, during which time he united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth P. Wood of that city. He made himself useful in the formation of a young men's association, and in the choir and Sunday-school of the Mt. Zion A. M. E. church, his religion being of that liberal nature which constrained him, regardless of their names, to aid in any way the onward march to Christ. In the year 1856 he left Trenton, New Jersey, and took charge of the public school at Newburgh,


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New York, during which time, as a result of much study and prayer, he decided to accept the views of the Baptists, believing them to be in accordance with the Bible; and his wife, also having just been brought to a saving knowledge of Christ, accepted the same views, and they were both baptized February 22, 1857, in the Hudson river. He at once felt impressed to do something to advance the interests of his Master's kingdom. Having felt keenly the loss of several years service in a decision as to Bible views, he joined the Shiloh Baptist church, but they having a white pastor, and he being naturally jealous of his abilities, which were noticed and which led to frequent invitations to participate publicly in their services, every obstacle to advancement was put in his way. But despite the pastor's opposition he was chosen as a teacher, then superintendent of the Sabbath-school, then a trustee of the church, then a deacon of the church. But here the pastor determined must be the limit; he was rising too fast. But Mr. Miller was determined not to be outdone. He opened his own house Sabbath afternoons and preached each Sunday night, or rather exhorted, for they had refused to license him. He was sent by the church as its messenger to the American Baptist Missionary convention, held at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with the request that they hear him preach, and if they approved, license him. They gave him a hearing, which was highly satisfactory. It being out of their province to license him, they sent back a unanimous recommendation to that church to at once grant him the license, and stated to the candidate that if they refused to so do, that he should sever his connection and unite with the


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First Baptist church (white), who, knowing his abilities and prospects of usefulness, had promised to give him a license. Fearing to rebel, they granted the license. He continued speaking and teaching in all the churches until 1858, when he received a call from the Zion Baptist church of New Haven, Connecticut, which he accepted. He was ordained to the gospel ministry January 19, 1859, at the Concord Street church, Brooklyn, New York, by the unanimous decision of a large council, composed of many white men, who sought, though vainly, to retard the progress of the rising young colored man. His fame spreading, reached Albany, where the field being barren and long a desert, they desired an active young man; so they extended him a call, which after deliberation and prayer he accepted. Bringing the church up by gracious revivals, he remained over five years, a longer period than any preceding pastor for twenty years, and leaving only against a strong and united protest and tears. During this time he fortified himself with a full course of theological studies, under the tutelage of that noted scholar and preacher, Dr. E. L. Magoon, whose pulpit, with those of several others (all white), he often occupied, often exchanging pulpits.

        In 1864 he was invited to visit Oak Street Baptist church, West Philadelphia, with a view to their pastorate. While there the Pearl Street church, the old mother church organized in 1809, which has had but four regular pastors, situated on Cherry street, also invited him to spend a Sabbath with them with the same view, after which calls were extended to him from both churches, and he accepted that of the latter, beginning services with


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them August 1, 1864, in whose service he still remains, the oldest pastor in continued service in the city, but one. During his pastorate, the membership has been quadrupled, he having baptized over six hundred in the successive revivals, the largest of which, in the history of the church, occurred in the spring of 1886, in his twenty-second year of service, among whom were two of his own children, a son and daughter having previously been baptized, making four of his children in the church, a blessing accorded to but few pastors. His oldest son is a very eminent musician and is the organist of the church, and also clerk in Wanamaker's great clothing establishment, his oldest daughter being accomplished in the manufacture of fancy hair work and a dressmaker, while the other two are fitting themselves for positions of usefulness. During his long pastorate many calls have been extended to him, some with larger salaries, among them the Nineteenth Street Baptist church and a position in the Howard Theological Seminary, all of which he declined. His progress has been really wonderful and crowned with success. Crowded audiences greet him every Sabbath morning to catch inspiration from his thoroughly prepared discourses. The other many offices he has filled prove the just appreciation of his gifts. He was for many years corresponding secretary of the American Baptist Missionary convention and is now recording secretary of the New England Baptist Missionary convention. On every occasion of note his services and voice have always been demanded. He has occupied more white pulpits than any other colored pastor in the city, and the first and only


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colored man that by their own appointment was privileged to occupy the high position of preaching the introductory sermon for the Philadelphia Baptist Association--the oldest in the country, three years ago. By the united request of the Sunday school and church, he assumed, though reluctantly, owing to his own pastoral duties, the charge of the Sunday school. The wisdom of the choice was manifested in the large revival breaking out in the school, from which over ninety were baptized and united with the church. He has also organized a church at Princeton, New Jersey, and has a branch of his own church at Germantown, and rendered them valuable assistance.

        During his pastoral duties he has licensed and sent forth to the work of Christian ministry, Milford D. Herndon, missionary to Africa, Benjamin T. Moore, Ananias Brown, James Banks, Henry H. Mitchell, Benjamin Jackson and others. Our subject is admired by his flock, and faithfully upholds the doctrine of the Lord Jesus Christ. Who can count the good of this man's life; twenty-two years of true teachings has not failed to bless both teacher and pupils. The writer remembers a sermon which he heard him preach in 1870. The text was "God is Faithful," and to this day it is just as distinct in his mind as it was the day he heard it. He is a man of oratorical powers, a clear reasoner, forcible writer and elegant talker; a man highly respected for scholarly attainments, strictest integrity, honor and common sense.

        Recognizing the good qualities in him, a university conferred on him the title of D. D. A sketch of his life appears


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in the 'Baptist Encyclopedia' by Cathcart, which pays him the following compliment:

        Mr. Miller was appointed to preach the introductory sermon before the Philadelphia Baptist Association in 1879, the first colored man that ever occupied that position, and he was not placed in it by political power, but as a simple recognition of his Christian work. His sermon showed the propriety of the choice.


        Mr. Miller is a man of scholarly taste. He is one of the best colored preachers located in Philadelphia, and his piety is of a high order. May he ever live to proclaim the riches of "His mercy" and the truth of that Saviour of souls and bring to his kingdom those who have wandered away.


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XXVII.

J. D. BALTIMORE, ESQ.

        Chief Engineer and Mechanician at the Freedmen's Hospital--Engineer--Machinist--Inventor.

        JEREMIAH DANIEL BALTIMORE first saw light in Washington, District of Columbia, April 15, 1852 His parents, Thomas and Hannah Baltimore, were free, the former a Catholic and the latter a Methodist. The boy, following the goodly walks of his mother, adopted the same faith, joining the Wesley Zion church and filling every position in the Sabbath school, from pupil to superintendent; also secretary of the board of trustees of the church, having united with it in 1866. He was a scholar in Enoch Ambush's school for quite a while, but when he left could neither spell nor write his own name. He then attended the district public school. Prior to this he spent most of his time planting old tin cans and coffee pots in the ground for steam boilers. He would make so much steam and smoke that his mother would often be compelled to shut herself up in the house. After he had worked with the tins for a year or longer, he weighted the tea-kettle lid down with a flatiron, and succeeded in generating sufficient steam to raise the lid and produce a noise by its escape


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that caused everybody in the house to predict that he would soon blow his head off, if he didn't stop such dangerous pranks.

        One day he told his mother that he would get to be an engineer, but she said, "No, my son, it takes a smart man to fill that position. I am sure there is no way for us to get you through school." He said he could go through, though his skin was dark.

        His further experiments consisted of a piece of stove pipe and old brass bucket hoops, etc. With these he made a steam boiler, to which he attached an engine that he had constructed, but it would not work. It was highly spoken of by all who saw it. The Rev. William P. Ryder placed it upon exhibition in the Wesley Zion Sabbath school. It was then placed on exhibition in the United States Treasury department, and was examined by the officers and employees, who pronounced it the work of a genius. This so encouraged him, he tried to make a better one; he took a piece of soft brick, cut the shape of the wheel and of other details deep enough to hold the molten metal. Then taking an old flower pot and lining it thickly with clay, he thus succeeded in melting his brass with an ordinary fire in the kitchen stove. With the aid of a file, a pair of old shears and an old knife used for a saw, he finished his engine, which was a horizontal high pressure one with a tubular boiler. The engine was first placed on exhibition in the public school, in the room of which he was then a pupil. It was carried to the patent office, and by the aid of Anthony Bowen, a very distinguished colored member of the City Council of Washington, the attention


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of the public and the press was called to it. One morning soon after, an article appeared in the Sunday Chronicle, headed like this: "Extraordinary Mechanical Genius of a Colored Boy." This boy desired to do something to further his own cause, and one day seeing the people going into the President's house, he was bold enough to send the paper with the sketch in it to the President. When the usher returned he announced that, as it was "Cabinet day," the President could not be seen. Not having any idea that the President would become interested in the matter, the boy had started out with the crowd. Soon, however, the usher called him and said: "The President wants to see you, young man." He went in and found General Grant with his feet on the desk and a cigar in his mouth. He turned to him and inquired if he was the young man of whom he had just been reading. To this the boy, being put at his ease by the kindly manner of the general, replied, "I am, sir." The general said: "You must have a trade," and handed him a card with these words on it:

        Will the Secretary of the Navy please see the bearer, J. D. Baltimore. I think it would be well to give him employment in one of the United States Navy yards, where he can be employed on machinery. Please see statements of what he has done without instruction.

U. S. GRANT.


        This card he presented to the Secretary of the Navy and was immediately appointed as an apprentice in the department of steam engineering at the Washington Navy yard, where the prejudice was very strong, and after standing it a few months, he complained of his treatment, and Professor


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John M. Langston interviewed the Secretary of the Navy who said to him: "Young Baltimore shall go to another navy yard if you desire it." He was transferred to the Navy yard at Philadelphia, where he studied very hard. He was ostracized by the men, who told him that the President might send him there, but couldn't make them show him anything; and there were very few of the men who would have any friendly dealings with him. But he would arise at 4 o'clock in the morning and study until it was time to go to work. He would study all the dinner hour and late at night. He was admitted to the Franklin Institute at Philadelphia, being the second colored man enjoying that privilege. The chief assistant engineer noticed his close application to the duties of the shop and scientific studies, and on one occasion, when lecturing to the apprentice boys, Chief Engineer Thompson of the department of steam engineering, asked this question. "How many of you can tell the strength of a steam boiler by mathematical computation? Can you, Baltimore?" He answered "Yes, sir," and from that moment the hatred of the men and boys increased. They would nail his coat to the wall, steal his tools and destroy his books, and do everything that would make it unpleasant for him, but he still held out. He graduated from this department obtaining his certificate, which contained these words:

UNITED STATES NAVY YARD.

To all whom it may concern:

        This certifies that Jeremiah D. Baltimore of Washington, District of Columbia, has served as an apprentice to the United States in the Machinists' Department at the Navy yard at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for the term of three years and six months, and until he had arrived at


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the age of twenty-one years. During that time his general character has been very good. His proficiency in both trades very good. His term of apprenticeship is hereby honorably closed.

JAMES W. THOMPSON, JR.
Chief Engineer.

Given at the Navy yard at Philapelphia, this fourth day of December, 1873.

G. F. E. EMMONS, Commandant.

J. W. KING, Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering.

September 6, 1873.

        He was then detailed to go to the Naval station at League Island on the Delaware river, to assist in repairing four of the United States monitors. When it became necessary to reduce the force, he was placed in the front ranks. He then took a position in charge of a large mill, receiving twenty-seven dollars per week, but after awhile the work was stopped, and the firm paid him ten dollars per week, which he accepted for a few weeks and then concluded to seek employment in one of the machine tool manufacturing establishments in Philadelphia. He tried Cramp & Sons, who did a great deal of work for the government. They said, "Mr. Baltimore, we have heard of you and would like to employ you, but if we do, all of our men will leave us, as they refuse to work with colored mechanics." It can be seen that prejudice existed in the North as well as in the South, for a colored man can find work in the South. He then went to Sellers & Brother six times, and five times he was put off with all sorts of excuses. The sixth time he was refused at first, but insisted that he wanted work, not because he was a colored man, but because he could do the work. After some deliberation they concluded to give him employment. He held


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this position until he resigned on account of ill health. Returning to Washington, May 29, 1872, he was married to Miss Ella V. Waters, to whom he owes much of his success. In a private letter to a friend he said once: "She is to me what the governor is to a steam engine, or the helm to the ship." After he was married he opened a general repair shop, which he carried on for twelve years. He has been employed as engineer of the United States Coast Survey at Washington, District of Columbia, and at this writing holds the position of chief engineer and mechanician at the Freedmen's Hospital, Department of the Interior, Washington, having been appointed August 2, 1880.

        Mr. Baltimore has realized from his labors about five thousand dollars. He is the inventor of a pyrometer, which was on exhibition in the colored department of the New Orleans Exposition. He is a member of the Mechanics' Union in Washington, and at a recent meeting, the two bodies came together, one which has only white members, and the other which has both. Mr. Baltimore at this meeting made a speech and criticised very severely the white class, which forced the president to say that one year from now the constitution of his Union would not have that clause in it. Mr. Baltimore is interested in every subject that touches his race, and has lectured very frequently for the benefit of churches, upon the subject of heat, steam, and other scientific subjects. His triumphal success over many severe difficulties marks him as a man of genius, firmness and talent.


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XXVIII.

J. R. CLIFFORD, ESQ.

        Editor--Lawyer--Teacher--Orator.

        THERE are but few names in West Virginia well known to the public; but among these stand prominent Editor Clifford. He is progressive, independent and ambitious. He is a native of the State, having been born at Williamsport, Grant county, West Virginia, September 13, 1849. When quite a lad he was taken to Chicago, by the Hon. J. J. Healy, and given a rudimentary education. In early life he followed the barber's trade, and not being satisfied with a little learning he received in Chicago, he went to Zeno, Muskingum county, where his uncle dwelt, who sent him to a school taught by one Miss Effie McKnight. In this place he attended a writing school taught by Professor D. A. White, from which he took a diploma in that art. In 1870 he went to Wheeling, West Virginia, and conducted a large writing school with nearly one hundred attendants; in the years 1871, '72 and '73 he taught a similar school at Martin's Ferry, Ohio. Not yet satisfied with his attainments, he attended Storer College, at


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Harper's Ferry, graduating in 1878. He was called to the principalship of the public school at Martinsburg, West Virginia, which he held for ten consecutive years, and only resigned to give attention to the Pioneer Press, a vigorous, influential journal which he so ably, fearlessly and consistently edits. The Republican party has had a strong friend in him. Being delegate to the State convention in 1884, he was elected a delegate to Chicago by a majority of fifteen, and the white delegates went around to the several delegations and persuaded them to withdraw their votes from him after the vote had been cast and counted, thus defeating him. This outrage was not forgotten, and the metal of the man is shown, who, when he had an opportunity, paid these men back in their own coin. Mr. N. H. W. Flick, a white Republican, was leader in the defeat of Mr. Clifford, and in the last congressional election he was nominated by the Republican party, but was bitterly opposed by the Pioneer Press, which defeated him. They have indeed cause to fear such a man, who not only has power and influence to back him, but who will stand up for his rights and accept nothing which reflects upon his race. As a delegate to all the conventions of the State, he has many opportunities to give as well as to take defeats. I first made the acquaintance of this gentleman in the Knights of Wise Men Convention, held at Atlanta, Georgia, where he delivered the oration of the day. In that body were Hon. F. L. Cardoza, Bishop H. M. Turner, D. D., LL. D., Hon. Richard Gleaves, J. W. Cromwell, the eloquent R. P. Brooks, now dead, and some of the most gifted men of the country. Mr. Clifford was but little


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known to many of us. On the cars going from Nashville, Mr. Brooks said to Mr. Cromwell, "Who is that over there?" pointing to Mr. Clifford. Mr. Cromwell answered it was the orator. Brooks laughed in his hearty way and replied it would be a hard oration, and he wanted to be absent when it took place. Brooks himself was totally unassuming, however, and was also one of the most polished orators of the Old Dominion, yet when the speech was heard, the house was electrified, and Brooks led the movement in securing a contribution to present Mr. Clifford with a gold-headed cane, which was presented in the State house by Lawyer William H. Young of Nashville, Tennessee, in a very elaborate and complimentary speech. Mr. Clifford has delivered many orations since. As honorary commissioner of the colored department of the New Orleans Exposition he served his State faithfully and did all in his power to aid the general work. When only sixteen years of age he enlisted in the United States heavy artillery (Kentucky), Company F, and served as a corporal, but finally appointed nurse in a hospital, serving there until the war ended, when he was mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky. He studied law under J. Nelson Wirner, in the city of Martinsburg, and has had some success as a lawyer. Fortunate in his marriage, he is now on the road to success, and has accumulated a little capital as a basis for competency. One John T. Riley of Martinsburg, West Virginia, editor of the Herald, and who is described by the Independent as "a young man with a downcast look and a pusillanimous nature," and having "a mean, uneasy countenance," saw fit to make an


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attack on Mr. Clifford. Some comic writer has said: "It pays to have a few redhot enemies, as it always develops a few redhot friends." It proved true in this case, as the following, taken from the columns of the Independent, July, 25, 1885, conclusively proves:

        Riley is envious of the good reputation and high standing of Professor J. R. Clifford, the brainy and intelligent principal of the colored schools; and for several years, through running a Republican organ, has endeavored to asperse his character and discharge him from his position. In every effort he has been defeated, although we are reliably informed, in the last proceeding his associate, Tolliver Evans, threatened never to vote again for the members of the Board of Education, which is amusing. The truth is, Clifford's standing in the community is in advance of either Riley or Evans. Intellectually, and in the point of education, they will never reach his standard. Therefore, they envy this colored man and try to down him. It cannot be accomplished. His moral standing and his friendship with the leading men, best thinkers and most respected citizens cannot be assailed. We doubt if any man living in our midst can present a better certificate of character than the following, which, when handed the Board of Education, put to flight his accusers, viz.:

TO THE BOARD OF EDUCATION OF MARTINSBURG:

        Gentlemen:--The undersigned bear willing and cheerful testimony to the good character, correct habits and unquestioned moral standing and quiet, law-abiding qualities of Mr. J. R. Clifford, as a man and citizen. On none of these essentials can he be successfully impeached.


        The above list has the names of the ministers of the Protestant churches, the magistrates of the town, the mayor, sergeant, constable, president of the county court, president and cashier of the National bank, physicians, lawyers, superintendent of the town schools, ex-county superintendent, of the town school, ex-county superintendent, teachers, teller of People's National bank, ex-sheriff, clerks of the county courts, and leading merchants. Such a certificate cannot be beaten in this town. The man who merits the esteem of such citizens is beyond the reach of the venomous pen of John T. Riley or his abettors.


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XXIX.

WILEY JONES, ESQ.

        The Owner of a Street-car Railroad, a Race Track and a Park--A Capitalist Worth About $125,000.

        THE amount of enterprise shown in the life of the gentleman of whom I now write, is worthy of commendation. That an uneducated slave-boy should amass such wealth, is a surprise to many. His business tact and steady perseverance is marvelous. There are those who believe in luck, but sometimes no such thing can be seen in our lives; strive we ever so hard, live we ever so honest, labor we ever so faithfully, we do not seem to have that good fortune which many term "good luck." Of course there is no such thing as luck; all success is the result of qualities within, labor expended or fortuitous circumstances, brought about, perhaps, by what might seem to be an accident, or because of circumstances over which we have little or no control. Mr. Jones can content himself with the thought that an over-ruling power has thrown this money into his hands that he may do some great and lasting good with it. Surely his name could live long after he is dead if he would contribute to the special aid of his race in some direct manner.


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        His young life began in that State which had such severe regulations for Negroes in slavery days, that it was considered the place where they should be sent when they were refractory. He was born in Madison county, Georgia, July 14, 1848. His parents, George and Ann Jones, are both dead. At five years of age he was taken to Arkansas. and waited on his master, Fitz Yell, and performed the duties of a houseboy, and drove the family carriage. This he did for two years or more. Then he followed his master into the Federal army during the war. After that he went to Waco, Texas, and drove a wagon from the Brazos river to San Antonio, hauling cotton to the frontiers. After a while he returned to Arkansas and worked on a farm at twenty dollars a month. By this time it was 1868, when he began working at the barber's chair, and continued thereat until 1881, when he went into the tobacco, cigar and other businesses, which realized him this very large fortune of which he is now possessed. His brother, who is faithful to his interests, managed the business for the first two years, while he was working at his trade. Mr. Jones had no school training, and consequently his education was very limited. He had to rely entirely on what he could pick up through life, as he came in contact with men and things.

        This school of adversity is often the best teacher for some men, for really good men are often spoiled by trying to give them what is vulgarly called education, and the truth of the matter is they would be much better and more properly educated if they felt the conflicts which come to those who battle with the world against the


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many adversities common to life. He extended his operations by securing the charter for the street car line in the city of Pine Bluff, where he now lives. This was secured August, 1886, and he had one and one-quarter miles completed and ran the first car on October 19, 1886, the first day of the annual fair of the Colored Industrial and Fair Association, of which he is also treasurer. He is also the sole owner of the grounds the fair was held on, and of the race track and park which covers fifty-five acres, located one mile from Main street. The street car stables, which cover forty by one hundred feet, are also located on the grounds.

        He carries a stock of goods in his business of fifteen thousand dollars, and estimates his wealth at a figure not below one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, which consists of his business, real estate and cash. He is also a great fancier of fine blooded stock, and owns a herd of Durham and Holstein cattle, and is also breeding trotting stock, the best of which is the noted stallion "Executor," that has made a record of 2.24¼. On his farm he has about twelve choicely bred mares, and hires a professional driver to handle them, which insures him first-class handling and develops their speed to perfection.

        Mr. Jones can be accounted as one of our most successful business men, and the only hope is that he will use his wealth wisely, and to the honor and glory of God. He has not yet seen fit to marry, and therefore has no one to whom he may look as the heir of the large property which he has accumulated.


Illustration

J. H. BURRUS.

        J. D. BALTIMORE.

        WILEY JONES.

        J. R. CLIFFORD.


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XXX.

PROFESSOR JOHN H. BURRUS, A. B., A. M.

        President of the Alcorn University--Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Constitutional Law--Teacher of Political Economy, Literature and Chemistry--Attorney at Law.

        AFTER many struggles as a waiter in hotels and at other hard work, Professor Burrus has attained prominence among men, and has been called to the head of a very flourishing institution. This gives him the endorsement of the State officers of Mississippi. Regardless of political bias, he has maintained his position from year to year under the scrutinizing eye of a Democratic Legislature. These things show that worth is being recognized wherever found. The surrender of 1865 found James B., John H., and Preston R. Burrus with their mother in Marshall, Texas, with the remnant of Bragg's Mississippi Confederate army. They were brought to Shreveport, Louisiana, thence to New Orleans, and afterwards to Memphis, Tennessee. Here John H., then a boy, found work as a cook on a stern-wheel boat. When opportunity presented itself for better things, he took advantage of it. About 1866 he removed to Nashville, where he worked hard as a hotel waiter, studying much of the time at night


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with the Misses Shadwell and Jameson, boarders at the hotel where he worked. Very zealous was he for an education, and every energy was devoted to this one purpose. The frugality and care of the mother was manifest in the son, for never did he indulge in the many extravagances of youth in dress or pleasure seeking, but every cent was carefully laid aside until the summer of 1867, when three hundred dollars had been saved, which was spent for school advantages at Fisk University. While in school no time was wasted; extra hours were spent in work and study, while the vacations were used for school teaching, until his eyes failed him from overwork, then he could study only by hearing others read his lessons to him. Thus he continued in school until 1873, when, being unable to teach, he bought a religious panorama, with which he traveled through parts of 1873 and 1874.

        During the first year in Fisk University he was converted and united with the Congregational church of the university, of which church he is still a member. The president often related how he economized and struggled to keep in school. He is an illustration of "where there's a will there's a way." J. H. Burrus was engaged as teacher in a graded school in the suburbs of Nashville for the school year following his graduation, but was made principal before his year was out.

        Before his school closed in 1876, he was selected by the Republican State committee as one of the delegates from the Sixth Tennessee Congressional district to the National convention. There he voted five consecutive times for Senator O. P. Morton for President, but when that distinguished


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son of Indiana was withdrawn, he voted for Rutherford B. Hayes, who was nominated on the seventh ballot.

        After the convention he visited Harper's Ferry, Washington, District of Columbia; Niagara, Philadelphia, New York, Oberlin, and many other places. Not long after, returning to Nashville, he accepted the principalship of the Yazoo city school, of Yazoo, Mississippi. He was reelected to the principalship of this school soon after closing in June, 1877, and he was also offered the position of instructor of mathematics in his alma mater in place of his brother, who had resigned. After due consideration he finally accepted this position and taught two years in Fisk University, till 1879, when he received the degree of A. M. During this year he resigned this position in favor of his younger brother, who had just graduated from this place.

        Professor Burrus, who had been reading law to some extent, now gave himself to that study under legal advisers, and was admitted to the bar early in 1881. For the first year he did not make bread out of his law practice, but besides making use of his leisure to get more legal knowledge, he corresponded for several newspapers, getting some work looking up titles to property, and being enabled on several occasions to point out serious involvements of property where even the owner thought none existed. He made some reputation for that kind of work which promised to bring him handsome returns. At this time he was offered the presidency of Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College, in Rodney, Mississippi, in August, 1883. This


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will be remembered as the college where Hon. Hiram R. Revels presided for several years.

        He was elected permanent secretary of the Tennessee Republican State convention in 1878; was secretary and treasurer of the State executive committee, for two years; he was also chosen alternate from the State-at-large to the National Republican convention which met in January, 1880, and was independent candidate for register in Davidson county, Tennessee, August, 1882, and a candidate on the Republican ticket for the Lower House of the Legislature in the following November. The people in his district in the edge of Nashville, Tennessee, elected him one of their school directors in 1878. When his term of three years expired in 1881, he was re-elected, beating both of his competitors, a colored and a white man, although a majority of the citizens were white. Brains and character will win, no matter what the color of his face may be There are many sitting down complaining about their color keeping them down in life and preventing them from succeeding. Ninety-nine times out of a hundred it is the man's lack of brains and character. There were then seventeen teachers in the district, of whom nine were white and eight were colored. The other two directors were white, still Mr. Burrus served as chairman of the board, in which capacity it was his especial duty to look after all the schools and see that the teaching was properly and faithfully done. Yet when he resigned the chairmanship of the board, upon his acceptance of his present position, he was on the pleasantest terms with both colleagues and teachers. While a member of the board he


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had succeeded in equalizing salaries of white and colored teachers, and effected some other measures of a progressive nature. He took part in the municipal elections of Nashville, and discussed the injustice of not employing competent colored teachers in the public schools, and for not furnishing enough school facilities for the colored children. This election was followed not many months after by an additional colored school, and for the first time a corps of colored teachers. He read a paper before the State Teachers' Institute, held in Nashville in 1880, in which he spoke of all the Congressional script from the act of 1862, belonging to Tennessee, having then been given to the East Tennessee University, and of the colored people of the State getting no benefit therefrom, although their numbers entitled them to more than six thousand dollars of the nearly twenty-four thousand dollars yearly interest. At the close of the paper he moved that the institute appoint a committee to meet the Legislature to convene January, 1881, and call the attention of that body to the wrong and ask that the injustice be remedied. A committee was appointed consisting of Mr. J. H. Burrus, Dr. John Braden, Central Tennessee College, and Professor L. B. Teft, of what is now Roger Williams University, Professor H. S. Bennett of Fisk University and several others. Mr. Burrus was made chairman, and the committee had several interviews with the Legislature educational committee. The result was the Legislature passed an act appropriating twenty-five hundred dollars annually for the next two years to be used as follows: Each of the State's twenty-five senators was authorized to


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select two colored persons, male or female, of suitable age and scholarship, who might be sent to any one of the five institutions specified and receive from the State fifty dollars a year, the board to pay his or her expenses. A number of the Republicans of the same Legislature were induced to appoint a number of young colored men as cadets to the University of Tennessee, who thereby for several years got their tuition in Fisk University paid by the aforesaid University of Tennessee.

        Mr. Burrus quietly but firmly holds that the people ought to take as much pride in their respective States as do other citizens, that they may condemn the policy of the ruling party as do other citizens. He also holds that they ought to keep wide awake as to their rights, and demand their fair and just portion as American citizens of all public monies spent for educational purposes, and that wherever they are denied or defrauded out of the same, they shall unceasingly protest against the un-American, unpatriotic and unjust discrimination until the wrong is righted. Upon his urgent recommendation, the first Legislature of his adopted State that was elected after his acceptance of the Alcorn A. M. College, Rodney, Mississippi, appropriated in addition to the usual amount for running expenses eleven thousand dollars for additions to the library and apparatus, and for greatly needed repairs.

        With the aid of his co-workers the attendance at the college has steadily increased until it is now shown by the catalogue to be two hundred and sixteen, about double what it was before his connection with the institution.


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President Burrus has a large heart and is ever full of plans for the benefit of his students. His duties are discharged with singular ability and extreme conscientiousness. His rough road in early life is having a fruitful end as well as a peaceful one. He knows how to extend sympathy to those who are climbing the educational ladder; he has been over the whole road and knows every foot of the way. His attachment for his brothers is really pleasant to behold. He is loving and affectionate, and he has very tenderly cared for his mother.


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XXXI.

HENRY F. WILLIAMS, ESQ.

        Composer--Violinist and Cornetist--Band Instructor.

        MR. WILLIAMS forced his way upward in the face of all those difficulties, against which the Negro has to contend. The singular excellence which he reached in this art was mainly the result of careful study. He had the gift, which he faithfully cultivated. His aim was to become master of the situation, and he did this. At the Colliseum of Boston he figured conspicuously among voices. accompanied by an orchestra of two thousand musicians; with the exception of Mr. F. E. Lewis, he was the only colored performer. He was dignified and graceful, and his manly appearance caused much comment. His talent was put to a severe test, by his being required to execute on the double bass a very difficult piece--Wagner's Tannhauser. This was done, not because his ability was doubted, but for a protection to his color should objections to him arise. The gentleman who gave the test said he wanted to be able to point to his excellent results.

        So proficient was Mr. Williams that men forgot his color and thought only of his excellent music. No man took offense because the orchestra contained a sable son


Illustration

HENRY F. WILLIAMS.


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of Ham, but all was union and harmony. He was far superior to many of the fairer performers. He could look back with pride on thirty years of very persevering energy, which was ripe with experience. He felt as did Beethoven, the barriers are not erected, which can say to aspiring talent and industry, "thus far and no farther." The way he did not find he made.

        There are many who persevere in life, but continue only for a season, and then sit down discouraged and disgusted, because they have not reached the giddy heights of fame. Men must remember there is no royal road to learning; that fame must be attained by severe self-denials of many pleasures, and in this way only can man hope to achieve those exalted positions and undying fame which are so much cherished by noble souls.

        Mr. Williams was born in Boston, August 13, 1813. He began his studies when he was seven years old, mainly by his own efforts. He pulled himself up to the pinnacle of fame from obscurity and a very humble position. What he has done, others can do. His soul was filled with melody, and his hand was skilled with such an infinite touch that he made his instrument a part of himself; it only caught the harmony within and gave utterance of love and vocalization with the insensible matter of which his instrument was made. I said insensible; but truly, nothing can be insensible to so delicate a touch and sympathetic nature. All things were friends to him that had music in them.

        He is a skillful performer on the violin, double bass and cornet; and is also able to play the violincello, baritone


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trombone and piano-forte. He is also a skillful arranger of music for these instruments. As a composer, his music is attractive, soothing and captivating, and he has thereby secured the recognition of eminent publishers. Persons who so bitterly opposed him among the white, from the selfish prejudice of their natures, became his warm admirers.

        His favorite instruments seem to be the violin and cornet. Upon these he produces charming music, which is quite varied, from the fantastic to the gravest. He gave much time to the formation and instruction of bands, and was often employed by the celebrated P. S. Gilmore. He is the author of many pieces, such as "Come Love and List Awhile;" "It was by Chance we Met;" "I Would I had Never met Thee," etc. His productions have had good sales, from which he has realized a handsome profit. Many doubted his authorship, but were soon made to acknowledge his rare ability by the unmistakable powers of his genius.

        Such a brief outline of the career of a master, an almost self-taught musician, whose life affords but another illustration of the power and force of courage and industry in enabling a man to surmount and overcome difficulties and obstacles of no ordinary character, is given here as a light to guide aspiring young musicians. A fuller sketch of him will be found in 'Music and Some Highly Musical People,' by James M. Trotter, through whose kindness we have been permitted to use the cut which accompanies this sketch.


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XXXII.

REV. EDMUND KELLY.

        Christian Letter-Writer--Lecturer and Author.

        THIS good man was born May 23, 1818. He is the son of a slave woman and Edmund Kelly, an emigrant from Ireland, who in early manhood settled in Tennessee. As the father was unable to purchase his family, the children all followed the condition of the mother and remained slaves. When young Edmund Kelly was but six years old, his mother was sold from her little ones and he with his sister were left to the mercies of the slaveholders. In 1833 Mr. Kelly was hired to a very well to do primary school-master, where he served as a table waiter, errand boy, and in whatever work he could be useful. He was always desirous of an education, and the opportunities offered the slave for mental improvement were scanty, generally none. In this family, however, young Kelly thought he could take advantage of little children who came to the house to attend school, and for a speller and a few lessons he gave the scholars bon bons from his master's table.

        All this was a secret, as no one was allowed to teach the slave under penalty of the law. Mr. Kelly managed in


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this way. During the day he kept steadily at work and all his books were carefully hidden. Early each night he retired with a prayer that God would guide and direct him and wake him at eleven P. M.; thus he first learned how to pray.

        At the appointed hour he awoke and studied and wrote until one A. M. For some time this was done entirely unknown to every one save the teacher and the taught, but at last the watchful eye of his mistress discovered some books in which was legibly written "Edmund Kelly." After some questioning and finding out that all concerned were minors, she gave up the investigation and did nothing against it. In the above way Mr. Kelly laid the foundation for after study, for he never had the privilege of attending school in his life.

        In April, 1837, Edmund Kelly gave his heart to Him who had blessed him above many of his fellow slaves, and the first of May that same year, at Columbus, Tennessee, he was baptized and joined a Baptist missionary church in that place, composed of both white and colored members. This brother was a convert from the Catholic faith of his father to the Baptist principles, by private study of the New Testament, consequently his open declaration of a new faith created not a little stir and many persons witnessed his immersion.

        On the nineteenth of May, 1842, he was licensed by the church of which he was a member to preach the gospel without an application for this privilege, and October 1, the same year, after a unanimous vote had shown the approval of the church and congregation, Rev. R. B. C. Harvell, D. D., pastor of the First Baptist church (white), of


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Nashville, Tennessee, ordained this brother to the Christian ministry as an evangelist. His first subsequent labor was the organization of the Mt. Lebanon Baptist church, in 1843, with only six members.

        As Rev. Kelly always felt it his duty to lead men in the straight and narrow path, he never accepted any civil positions nor titles, though many have been offered him. With ardent soul has he worked for the furtherance of the blessed influence of gospel knowledge--

        First. By introducing missions into the Southern plantations by the aid of zealous, humble Christian men and women.

        Second. By writing letters on simple gospel themes to be read to the unconverted for their salvation, and for encouragement to the converted.

        We were furnished by this brother with a little book written by himself showing the course he pursued in Bible study. This contains many questions and answers quoted from the divine word, which are to be committed by the persons taught. In this way he conducted Sunday school and Bible readings.

        Said Rev. Daniel A. Payne, Washington, D. C., once, in speaking of this brother's method:

        I have had the happiness of being present at one of his exhibitions, and am, therefore, prepared to recommend it to you as one of the best I ever witnessed. The cause of our common Christianity and our common humanity will be greatly promoted by furnishing him with opportunities of demonstrating the utility and beauty of his method before your congregations.


        He had the interests of the Negro at heart, and for forty


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years he steadily plead for and defended the cause of this deeply wronged race, and as an outgrowth of experience in mission work the following subjects were written on and sent to any one desiring them: 1. "Edmund Kelly's Key to the Work Among the Colored People of the South." 2. "The Colored People from the Flood, from a Bible Standpoint, Including Africa's quota to the American Nation." 3. "The Three Amendments to the National Constitution, with their Historic Sketches." 4. "The Colored Race as Slaves in this Country from 1620, Commencing with Twenty Slaves and Ending with Six Millions, all Free now." 5. "A Light that is not Clear nor Dark." 6. "Indispensableness of Colored Organizations in this Country, in Order to their Full Development as a Part of One Great Whole."

        As a temperance worker, too, for over thirty years throughout the North and South has this consecrated soldier upheld the banner of the Lord, and anywhere he may be called to do any labor for his Master he gladly goes.

        During his life he has always been a successful minister, pastor and evangelist, and has accumulated much, though it has generously been expended in mission work and for the education of his family, which he bought from slavery, paying for a wife and four children twenty-eight hundred dollars. With these he went North, where his children were educated, among whom are Professor J. H. Kelly of Columbia and W. D. Kelly, who was a member of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts regiment.

        This aged soldier for Christ, though worn with many


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years of service, is still active and vigorous, writing for the benefit of mankind the results of his careful lifelong Bible study.

        Many of his children have died and his companion is a constant sufferer, besides being deprived of her eyesight; but in all these afflictions he leans upon God and praises him for his goodness and love. He is an honored and faithful minister of the gospel in the city of New Bedford, Massachusetts.


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XXXIII.

REV. PRESTON TAYLOR.

        Pastor of the Church of the Disciples, Nashville, Tennessee--General Financial Agent of a College--Big Contractor.

        OUR subject is the leading minister of the Church of the Disciples. He was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, November 7, 1849. He was born in slavery; his parents were Zed and Betty Taylor. He was carried to Kentucky when a year old; he was a promising boy and shed sunshine wherever he was. At the age of four years he heard his first sermon on the spot where the First Baptist church now stands, in the city of Lexington, Kentucky, and afterwards told his mother that he would be a preacher some day; so deep was the impression made on his young mind that years have not been able to eradicate it. He was affectionately cared for, and he grew up as Samuel of old--ripe for the duties of his life. When the war broke out he saw the soldiers marching, and determined to join them at the first opportunity, and so he enlisted in Company G, One Hundred and Sixteenth United States infantry, in 1864, as a drummer, and was at the siege of Richmond, Petersburg, and the surrender of Lee. His regiment also did garrison duty in Texas, then returned to New Orleans,


Illustration

PRESTON TAYLOR.


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where they did garrison duty until mustered out of the service. He then learned the stonecutter's trade and became skilful in monument work and also in engraving on marble. He went to Louisville, Kentucky, and in the leading marble yards found plenty of work, but the white men refused to work with him because of his color. He was offered a situation as a train porter on the L. & C. rail-road, and for four years he was known as one of the best railroad men in the service, and when he resigned he was requested to remain with a promotion to assistant baggage-master; but as he could be no longer retained, the officers gave him a strong recommendation and a pass over all the roads for an extensive trip, which he took through the North. He accepted, on his return, a call to the pastorate of the Christian church at Mt. Sterling, Kentucky. He remained there fifteen years, and the Lord prospered him in building up the largest congregation in the State among those of his faith, besides building them the finest brick edifice, as a place for the worship of God, in that section of the State. During these fifteen years he became known as the leading minister of his church in the United States. Not only in Kentucky has he been instrumental in organizing and building both congregations and meeting-houses, but he was unanimously chosen the general evangelist of the United States, which position he now holds, besides assisting in the educational work of his race. He very recently purchased the large, spacious college property at New Castle, Kentucky, which originally cost eighteen thousand dollars, exclusive of the grounds, and at once began the task of paying for it. The school is in


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operation with a corps of teachers, and has a bright future before it. He is still one of the trustees, and the financial agent of what is now known as the "Christian Bible College," at New Castle. Some idea can be given of this man of push and iron nerve and bold undertakings by giving a passage in his life. When the Big Sandy railroad was under contract to be completed from Mt. Sterling to Richmond, Virginia, the contractors refused to hire colored men to work on it, preferring Irish labor. He at once made a bid for Sections 3 and 4, and was successful in his bid; he then erected a large commissary and quarters for his men, bought seventy-five head of mules and horses, carts, wagons, cans and all the necessary implements and tools, and, with one hundred and fifty colored men, he led the way. In fourteen months he completed the two miles of the most difficult part of this great trunk line at a cost of about twenty-five thousand dollars.

        The president of the road, Mr. C. B. Huntington, said he had built thousands of miles of road, but he never saw a contractor who finished his contract in advance; and so he then was requested by the chief engineer of the works to move his force to another county and help out some of the white contractors; this he did not do. Afterwards he was offered other important contracts, but declined. A syndicate in Nebraska offered him the position of superintendent of their coal mines, but knowing it would take him away from his chosen calling, he declined the offer. For a number of years he was editor of "Our Colored Brethren," a department in the Christian Standard, a newspaper published as the organ of his denomination at


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Cincinnati, Ohio, with a circulation of 50,000 copies a week. He has written for many books and periodicals. He is a member of both Masonic and Oddfellow lodges and was State Grand Chaplain of the former and State Grand Master of the latter, and held that position for three years and traveled all over the State, speaking and lecturing. Especially do the Oddfellows owe much to him for their rise and progress in the State of Kentucky, and the order conferred upon him as a mark of honor, all the degrees of the ancient institution. He has represented his lodge in many of the National conventions of the B. M. C., preaching the annual sermons for a number of years. His headquarters are at Nashville, Tennessee, and he lives in considerable style, with a handsome office and library worth one thousand dollars. The pastoral oversight of the Gay Street church at Nashville, Tennessee, increases his labors. This is one of the largest, wealthiest and most influential congregations in the city. I will give another incident that will show the character of the man, how he loves his race, and with what respect he treats them. While serving the church in Nashville, in 1886, the choir of the church gained great reputation by taking a prize over every other church choir in the city, in a musical contest. The Nashville American gave a very flattering account of the results which caused forty-two leading citizens of the white race to petition through the pastor of the church, for a concert to be given in the opera house for the special benefit of their friends. When Mr. Taylor met this committee, they informed him that on the night of the concert the colored people would be expected to take


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the gallery as usual. Mr. Taylor refused deliberately to have anything further to do with the matter and publicly denounced the whole crowd in his church, which was very satisfactory to the colored citizens who urged him to give a concert nevertheless, and he consented. On the night of the concert there was scarcely standing room for the people, who said they desired to show their appreciation of this manly stand in resenting such overtures, and the result was an increase to the treasury of over two hundred dollars. He is one of the leading men in the community where he lives, commanding the respect of all who know him. A slight idea may be given of his popularity by stating that once when a gold cane was voted for in some entertainment in the city of Nashville, his name was submitted by his friends to be voted for. He opposed the suggestion, but, nevertheless, when the votes were counted, out of the three thousand votes in that large city, he got over two-thirds of the number. A quotation from the Christian Standard, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 3, 1886, will give some estimate of how he is held by the editor of that paper. A grand party was given for his benefit, and the editor used these words in reference to his absence.

        We have just received an invitation to a tea party at Nashville, Tennessee, to be given in honor of Ed. Preston Taylor. We would go all that distance, were it possible, to show our respect for the zeal, ability and untiring energy of Preston Taylor. As we cannot go, we take this method of atoning for our absence.


        Mr. Taylor is a man who will impress you when you meet him as thoroughly in earnest. He is never idle,


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always with new plans, warm hearted, generous, sympathetic and a true brother to all men who deserve the cognizance of earnest, faithful workers for Christ.


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XXXIV.

HON. SOLOMON G. BROWN.

        Distinguished Scientist--Lecturer--Chief Clerk of the Transportation Department of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, District of Columbia--Entomologist--Taxidermist--Lecturer on "Insects" and "Geology."

        SOLOMON G. BROWN was the fourth son of Isaac and Rachel Brown. He was born of free parents in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, February 14, 1829. He was deprived of the common school education by the loss of his father in 1833, when his mother was left a widow, and had at that time six children. They were very poor. His father's property was seized for pretended debts in 1834, leaving the family penniless and homeless. Solomon was early placed under the care of a Mr. Lambert Tree, assistant postmaster in the city post-office. He received an appointment under Mr. Tree in one of the departments in the post-office in 1844, from which he was detailed to assist Professor Joseph Henry, Professor Samuel F. Morse and Mr. Alfred Vail in putting the new magnetic telegraph system in operation in 1845, and he remained with them until the enterprise was purchased by the Morse Telegraph company, when he accepted a situation


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as battery tender from the new company, and served until appointed assistant packer to Gillman & Bros. manufactory, in their chemical laboratory.

        This is quite an incident in Mr. Brown's history, for he was present when the first wire was laid from Baltimore to Washington. It will be remembered that Mr. Morse had conceived the idea of a magnetic telegraph system in 1832, and had exhibited it to the Congress in 1837, and had vainly attempted to get a patent in England, as Professor Wheatstone in England had claimed a prior invention over the American. He struggled on with scanty means until 1843, and just as he was about to give up the whole matter Congress, at midnight in the last moment of the session, appropriated thirty thousand dollars for the purpose of making an experiment with the line between Baltimore and Washington. After the success of this line Mr. Morse was voted testimonials, orders of nobility, honors and wealth, but the Negro who assisted materially has been almost forgotten. Mr. Brown was a natural scientist, and coming in contact with these learned men only increased his thirst for knowledge. He is a man of rare scientific acquirements, very unassuming in his appearance, and yet his intelligence would astonish one on making his acquaintance. Mr. Brown is very handy with the brush, for while he was in this chemical laboratory he mounted and colored maps for the general land office as well as prepared colors in the Gideon company's bookbinding establishment, where he remained until 1852, when he was appointed to the foreign exchange division of the then new Smithsonian Institute where he has remained until


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this time, filling acceptably all positions that he has been honored with. Few men in the city of Washington are better known, and certainly none stand higher in the estimation of the people. He has filled very many honorary positions and has done great good for his race. He has been a trustee of Wilberforce University, and trustee of the 15th Street Presbyterian church, superintendent of the North Washington Mission Sunday school, and active member of the Freedmen's Relief association. He was elected to the legislature for the District of Columbia in 1871, and re-elected twice, overcoming at one time four candidates. He was trustee of the public schools, grand secretary of the District Grand Lodge of Masons, commissioner for the poor in the County of Washington, and one of the assistant honorary commissioners of the colored department of the New Orleans Exposition for the District of Columbia. In 1866 he was elected to the office of President of the National Union League; was a member of the executive committee of the Emancipation Monument erectors, and honorary membe rof the Galbraith Lyceum; corresponding member of the St. Paul Lyceum, Baltimore; director of the Industrial Saving and Building Association of Washington, District of Columbia; Washington correspondent of the Anglo-African Christian Recorder when it was under the management of Bishop H. M. Turner; also assistant in the organization of the Pioneer Sunday school association, Hillsdale, District of Columbia, presiding as superintendent from 1868 to 1887, and is again reelected to serve another year. He is also editor of the "Sunday school Circle" of the Christian Index, at Jackson,


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Tennessee, and a frequent lecturer on scientific questions before scientific societies in Baltimore, Alexandria and Washington. Mr. Brown's connection with the Pioneer association deserves to be especially mentioned.

        In early days, directly after the war, when General O. O. Howard had charge of the Freedmen's Bureau, through it, in some way, a little town now known as Hillsdale was purchased and many families secured homes for themselves in that neighborhood. Mr. Brown was one of these, and through his direction, encouragement and advice many happy homes have been established, to which the Pioneer association with its very large Sunday school work, its brilliant concerts, its Bible readings, lectures and other entertainments, has added materially to the moral, spiritual and intellectual and financial condition of the people. Only judgment day will be able to tell the good that Solomon G. Brown has accomplished in that neighborhood. Personally acquainted with him, living in his house for several years, I can speak from knowledge. His whole life seems devoted to the people. He spends his money freely in providing those things for the intellectual culture and the moral training of the Sunday school attendants, male and female, young and old, and he was never weary in well-doing. No period of my life was more pleasantly spent than in his house. Surrounded as he is with musical people, with the choicest library, pictures and other evidences of culture, one could not but enjoy life. His home is indeed a pleasant one, because his amiable wife, whom he married June 16, 1864, has been to him truly a helpmeet and has contributed largely


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to the carrying out of his plans. Mr. Brown is a poet, and has in press a book of poems which will show to some extent his genius and literary taste. Never having been blessed with children of his own, he has adopted several and trained them to useful womanhood.

        Solomon G. Brown began his public lecturing on the sciences about the year 1855. His first lecture was delivered January 10, 1855, before the Young Peoples' Literary society and lyceum, at Israel church, Washington, District of Columbia, south of the Capitol building, to a large, fashionable audience; this lecture was called out by the request of several prominent citizens of Washington, as will be shown from the following letter:

MR. SOLOMON G. BROWN.

        Dear Sir: A number of your personal friends who were present at the last meeting of the Young Peoples' Club, at Israel (presided over by Dr. Enoch Ambush), were somewhat surprised at certain pleasing and instructive remarks, made by you in explanation of society, especially when you so graphically described the social habits of insects, etc., and in order that we may hear you more fully, we beg to request that you will at some early date consent to give us a lecture on insects, at such place as you may select.

We are yours very truly,

SAMPSON NUTTER.

ANTHONY BOWEN.

ANDREW FOOTE.

WILLIAM SLADE.

ALFRED KIGER.

JAMES WRIGHT.

ANDREW B. TINNEY.

JAMES WORMLEY.

ALFRED BARBOUR.

Washington, District of Columbia, November 24, 1854.

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        A reply was made and forwarded, and January 10, was named as the time. Mr. Brown was introduced by Mr. Enoch Ambush. He was greeted by a large, intelligent audience, among whom were several white citizens.

        The lecturer, after thanking the audience for their flattering ovation and Dr. Ambush for his fine introduction, said that we are now introduced as a race to a new and rich field of thought, quite different from that in which we have been accustomed to engage, for from all the facts that he could gather, he, S. G. Brown, was the first to enter the field as a lecturer and student of natural science, and more especially zoology, and for that reason he begged of the hearers a patient sympathy in his feeble efforts. He then began thus:

        But before I proceed, and I cannot consent to do so without first paying a living compliment to those profound, eminent thinkers who have, after years of labor, study, investigation and research, added so much to our stock of knowledge, in that department of zoology called insects. The scientists I will name in the order that they have fixed themselves in my mind as follows: Say, Melsheimer, Harris, Fitch, LeConte (father and son), Randall, Haldman, Ziegler and others, who have for years pursued industriously the study of entomology, and have many of them, departed and left their labors on record in so many scientific memoirs as a record. And I am here to-night to say, that to them the world owes much for our present stock of knowledge of these little animated creatures, both as a benefit and rare benefit to human economy.

         The word "Insect" is derived from the Greek and means cut into. A living creature whose form is articulated, having a sensitive body composed of three distinct parts; the head, the thorax and the abdomen-Legs, six in number; the first two act as maxillary; the second two as super-maxillary; the third two as lifters or props to an overhanging oblongated abdomen. Two, and sometimes four wings, attached to the thorax and abdomen. Along the sides are openings or spiracules


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lined with ferruginous hairs, through which they breathe or carry on respiration.

         The word "Insect" is sometimes used in a sense of derision, as something small, insignificant, mean, low and contemptible. This we think is a grave error, for in nothing created (except man) has God in His infinite wisdom and goodness, displayed so much grandeur and wonder as is found in these minute, delicate and wonderful creatures. And we do this evening come to the defense of the insect and claim for it a high place in the great kingdom of zoology, and class it as the head of the articulates, forming a distinct branch, yet a zoological unit, and a thing worthy of the best and most costly investigation and thought, for no man can boast of a complete knowledge of zoology without at least some acquaintance with entomology.

         I am truly proud to say that among the branches studied to inclose a liberal education now encouraged, that natural history is incorporated, and some attention and even respect is being paid to the study of entomology; and the most flattering demonstration of that fact is this gathering to-night.

         The earlier students have carefully collected and arranged all known families of insects into groups, families, varieties, genus and species, naming each class according to some well-defined characteristic. Then again subdividing them into two grand roots: First, insects which are beneficial; second, insects which are injurious to man.

         A further investigation was found necessary when it was discovered that the identical species were not found all over the globe. Then a geographical distribution was fixed; this and many other difficulties were met with, among the earliest naturalists, and after a systematic study of food, habitation, habits, arrival, departure and climatic situations considered, they finally arrived at a proper philosophical data.


        The lecturer dwelt for some time, and spoke of many amusing incidents of superstition and of association, industries, union, affections, offenses and defenses, deceptions and profanations, their mode of communications, their song and language, their destructiveness, friendship and enmity to man, their presence and absence at various seasons


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of the year, their Providence, unity, obedience to authority and communism. He then named those which benefited man, such as bees, silk-worms, house-fly and numerous others; and among those which injured man, he named fleas, chigoes, ticks, bed-bugs, horse-flies, wasps, hornets, mosquitoes, lice, ants, scorpions, etc.

        In the concluding portion of the lecture, the social order of insects was again referred to at some length, and it was proven very clearly and logically, as well as wittily, that insects in very many cases had been men's closest and nearest companions, more so than any other known animal, following him through all departments of life, at times even his bed-fellow and constant bosom friends.

        The lecturer was applauded very heartily at the conclusion, and, indeed it was a decided success, as may be judged from the many times this lecture has been repeated--each time by request.

        This lecture was fully illustrated by forty-nine large drawings or diagrams, and was repeated in Georgetown, District of Columbia, for Rev. W. H. Hunter, Alexandria, Virginia; Rev. Clement Robertson, Baltimore, Maryland. Three times at different places: at Zion, Wesley, South Washington. The following lectures followed this; "Geology," "Water," "Air," "Food," "Coal," "Mineralogy," "Telegraph," "Fungus," "Embryo Plants," "Man's Relations to the Earth," "Straight Lines, its Product, Circles and its Waste," "God's Providence to Man," "Early Educators of D. C.," and six others.

        In connection with his own diagram, Mr. Brown has prepared or assisted in preparing nearly all the important


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diagrams for the grand scientific lectures which have been delivered in the famous Smithsonian course for the past thirty-five years.

        The following is an outline of a lecture by the Hon. Solomon G. Brown, and shows in a great measure his interest in these matters.

        The first lecture on geology before the annual conference of the A. M. E. church, Bethel church, Baltimore, April, 1863, by special invitation of a committee. The immense building was filled when Rev. Henry M. Turner [now Bishop] introduced the lecturer. After being introduced to the vast audience, the lecturer began by saying that the selection of the subject to be discussed was not left to him, but had been called out by an invitation from a special committee appointed by the conference. Then he proceeded by saying that geology is the science which treats of the constitutional crust of the earth; its object is to describe the mineral matter and its organic remains, both animal and vegetable, that have lived and held a place upon the globe, many of which are now extinct. It also marks the successive changes that have passed over with time, also the laws that have governed these changes.

        Geology is divided into three distinct departments, as follows:

         The descriptive exhibits the facts of science,

         The theoretical attempts to account for them; and the Pratical shows their practical application to practical purposes.

         Subservient to geology is chemistry, which treats of the ultimate parts of matter and their modes of combination; mineralogy, which characterizes


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and classifies the various rocks and minerals of which the earth is composed; botany and zoology, which describes plants and animals, and physical geography, which relates the facts concerning the general distribution of matter at the surface of the earth, the form and extent of continents and islands, rivers and mountain systems, together with the changes now occurring in them. And in order to get a more complete knowledge of geology we will necessarily have to consider the chemistry of the earth. In doing this we recognize sixty elements or simple bodies which combine to produce all the varieties of matter with which we are acquainted. Many of them occur in small quantities and are rarely seen. Fifteen or sixteen of these elements enter largely into the compositions of rocks.

         These substances, however, very rarely present themselves in their elementary state: but combined with each other they make the greater portion of the earth's crust.

         The most prevalent of these is oxygen, which forms eight-ninths of water, one-fifth of the atmosphere, and constitutes one-half of all the matter known to us.

         With silicon it forms silica; with potassium it forms potassia; with iron, the oxide of iron, etc. There are but few minerals or fossils that do not contain oxygen.

         Hydrogen forms a portion of minerals, especially bituminous coal, and enters into the composition of water.

         Nitrogen is not so abundant, but is found in the bones of animals, living and fossils, in vegetables and in the atmosphere.

         Carbon is the most abundant ingredient in coal, and enters into the composition of limestone, which is carbonate of lime.

         Sulphur exists in the sulphurets of the metals: sulphuret of iron, iron pyrites, sulphuret of lead, galena or lead ore; also in sulphates, as sulphate of lime, gypsum or plaster of paris.

         It is thrown-out extensively by volcanoes. Chlorine is one of the constituents of rock salt (chloride of sodium) and is widely diffused in the ocean.

         Fluorine occurs in fluoride of calcium (fluor spar) and other minerals.

         Phosphorus enters into the composition of many minerals and of animal bones, as the phosphate of lime.

         Silicon exists in most of the rocks, combined with oxygen, as silica


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quartz, which constitutes about forty-five per cent. of the crust of the earth, and form the walls of nearly all vegetable matter.

         Oxide of Aluminum.--Aluminia forms one-fifth of the mineral feldspar, and abounds in clay and slate rocks; it is estimated at ten per cent. of all the rocks.

         The oxide of potassium also enters largely into feldspar and clay.

         Sodium forms a part of rock salt and other minerals.

         The oxide calcium (lime) occurs chiefly in carbonates (limestone, marble), which is estimated to form one-fourteenth part of the globe's crust.

         Magnesia.--The oxide of magnesia enters into the composition of many rocks, and abounds in magnesium limestone.

         Iron is very widely diffused in the various forms of its ores, oxide, carburet, sulphuret, etc., and by these the geologist is enabled to discover the various changes that have taken place by the agency of chemical affinity for many thousands of ages.


        The lecturer then took up at length the following agencies which had modified, reduced and changed the surface of the earth from away back into millions of years, as follows:

        Atmospheric, aqueous, igneous and organic. The lecturer then concluded with practical geology.

        The lecture was illustrated by twenty-nine large, well executed diagrams. No. 1 of the set showed the geological formations of stratas in their geological order. All the other twenty-eight were fully explained.

"WORTHY THE LAMB THAT WAS SLAIN."

BY HON. SOLOMON G. BROWN.


                         On the mountain tops the beacon lights are kindled
                         By the rosy flush that tells the day is born;
                         Height to height replies as up the waiting heavens
                         Comes the rising sun that heralds Easter morn;


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                         Smiles the earth arrayed in robes of living verdure,
                         Sing the birds on leafy bough a joyous strain,
                         Nature joins with man in praise and adoration,
                         Saying: Worthy is the lamb that was slain!


                         In their channels leap the streams with throbbing pulses,
                         Life renewed is in each whisper of the breeze,
                         All the little twigs and shoots are stirring softly
                         With the life that animates the waving trees;
                         Overhead the cloudless sky is brightly bending,
                         Sunbeams rest alike on grassy hill and plain,
                         Earth and heaven are lighting up their glad thanksgiving,
                         Saying: Worthy is the lamb that once was slain!


                         Bring no spices to anoint the dead, ye mourners,
                         From the grave the stone of grief is rolled away;
                         Over death and hell the Saviour rose triumphant
                         On the morning of the Resurrection day;
                         Seek him not within the tomb for he is risen;
                         Jesus is not here, behold where he has lain!
                         Look above while angels swell the joyous anthem,
                         Saying: Worthy is the lamb that once was slain!


                         Hallelujah! for the crucified is risen,
                         Let the earth rejoice, the mountains clap their hands,
                         Let the floods be glad and offer up thanksgiving,
                         Hallelujah! oh, be joyful all ye lands,
                         Sing aloud for joy all nations and all people,
                         Angels and archangels swell the loud refrain,
                         With the blood-bought millions cast your crown before him,
                         Saying: Worthy is the lamb that once was slain!


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XXXV.

JOHN MITCHELL, JR.

        The Gamest Negro Editor on the Continent--A Man of Grit and Iron Nerve--A Natural Born Artist.

        MEN are brave often from experience with arms and the scenes of war, others because of a recklessness of life and a dare-devil spirit, and still others are born for deeds of bravery and glide as easily to places of danger as if led by unerring instinct; they are bold, aggressive, determined and venturesome. Such a man as the last is John Mitchell, Jr., and it remains yet for history to say for certainty what good July 11, 1863, had in store for the Nation, for on this day he first raised his infant voice. It was when his parents lived in Henrico county; they were slaves. His mother was a seamstress and his father was a coachman. From the day of his birth it will be observed that he, too, was a slave. But little does he know of those dark and "cruel slavery days." The sound of cannon, the roar of musketry, the hissing of grape and canister did not go unheeded by his infant ears. At this time the "Fall of Richmond," the Union sentinels passing back and forward on the streets of the city did not slightly attract his attention. Little fellow that he was, their


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presence had as much terror for him as they had for the rebels. The "blue coats' " mission, however, he could not then understand. His mother taught him his a, b, c's, a-b ab's and e-b eb's and the other monosyllabic beginnings, in that old antiquated method, now a long time out of date. Many times has he felt the full force of her hand on his young face to enable him to have a better appreciation of his lessons. As he grew older, he coupled with his school duties that of the duties of a newsboy, peddling the evening daily papers on the streets of the city, with all the strength of his young life crying out "State Journal, here's your State Journal." He soon became carriage boy for James Lyons, a rich, aristocrat lawyer; he was a typical Southerner who had owned young Mitchell's parents before the war, and consequently had been his "marster." The boy often accompanied him to his farm in Henrico county.

        It was this Southerner who tried to instil in him the idea that there were no colored gentlemen, the same having been told him when, upon answering the door bell, he would inform Mr. Lyons that a colored gentleman wished to see him. His mother had so taught him, and it could be readily seen that she had different ideas from that of the "blue blood" on that score. It was here he had the recollection of seeing Jefferson Davis, the ex-President of the Confederate States, and he was reminded that he had a glass eye, a thing that remains fresh in his mind to the present day. He also waited on the table at Mr. Lyons' residence on the corner of Sixth and Gray streets, the


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place now being the palatial quarters of the Westmoreland Club.

        He bitterly opposed young Mitchell's being educated, but despite all this his mother kept him at school, taught by Rev. A. Binga, jr., now of Manchester, Virginia. What ability he had, if any existed at that time, seemed latent within him. In 1876 he entered the Richmond Normal High School. In 1877 he received the silver medal for having stood the highest in a class of thirty pupils. This so encouraged him that he was successful ever after in this direction for years. A competition in map drawing at the Fair Grounds of the State Agricultural Society, at Richmond, took place, and a gold medal was offered for the best map of Virginia, and he lost, though he tried very hard. He thought that he lost unjustly. He was careful as to details and was sure if accuracy was called in question he would win.

        This defeat but spurred him on to greater efforts; he felt convinced that he could win, and he was determined to make others have the same opinion. January 1, 1881, he brought into the school-room a map of Virginia, on which he had spent his Christmas holidays to make it ornamental as well as accurate. His surprise was great when teachers and pupils gathered round and gazed in wonderment upon the production. This he donated to the school upon the suggestion of the principal, and then proceeded to draw another which would render insignificant the work they had taken the pains to praise.

        In May, 1871, this production was exhibited. Crowds of pupils gazed thereon; it was taken from him and he


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heard nothing more of it until at the graduation exercises, Hon. A. M. Riley, who was minister to Austria, and now one of the judges of the Court of the Khedive of Egypt, saw it and said it was worthy of a special gold medal, and he would be the one to present it. This he did June 5, 1881, stating that it was the best production ever executed by any pupil, white or black, in the State.

        Young Mitchell stood at the head of his class and won a gold medal offered for that accomplishment. In 1881 he won another gold medal in an oratorical contest in which there were five competitors. He has since drawn a map of Yorktown, surrounded by dignitaries of the Revolutionary War. All this was done with lead pencils which usually cost two cents each. The work resembles the finest steel engraving, and would be readily taken for such. Mr. Mitchell has never received any lessons in the work and this makes it the more surprising. So imbued were his friends with the fine character of the work that they endeavored to secure for him an apprenticeship in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing at Washington, District of Columbia.

        Addressing Mr. M. E. Bell, supervising architect at Washington, Senator William Mahone, of Virginia, said: "I wish you would give a moment to this young colored man. See his drawings, they will interest you. There is talent here which ought to be encouraged."

        Hon. B. K. Bruce, then register of the treasury department, wrote: "I cordially concur with the sentiments expressed by Senator Mahone, and hope Mr. Mitchell may receive the encouragement he so richly deserves."


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        Senator John A. Logan wrote, after seeing the drawings: "I most cordially concur in what has been said of Mr. Mitchell. He is a wonderful young man in his line."

        August 15, 1881, when Hon. Fred Douglass wrote to Mr. J. W. Cromwell, by whom Mitchell had been sent: "I am much obliged to you; I am glad to have the evidence of the talent and skill afforded in the map of Viginia by your young friend, John Mitchell, jr., with the industry, patience and perseverance which he has shown in this work, I have no fear but that young Mitchell will make his way in the world and be a credit to our race."

        In May, 1878, young Mitchell professed religion and joined the First Baptist church, Richmond. He became an active member of the Sunday school, and was made chairman of the executive board of the Virginia Baptist State Sunday school convention. In 1883 and 1884 he was the Richmond correspondent of the New York Freeman. December 5, 1884, he assumed the editorial charge of the Richmond Planet, since which time the journal has become the most influential in the State.

        Mr. Mitchell is a bold and fearless writer, carrying out to the letter all he says he will. He has given his attention particularly to Southern outrages of the colored people. His exposure of the murder of Banks, a colored man, by Officer Priddy (white) attracted wide-spread attention. The jury brought in a verdict that the deceased came to his death by some unknown disease and no one was to blame. Mr. Mitchell condemned the crime and declared the officer guilty of murder. He was summoned before the grand jury, an attempt being made to indict him for making


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such a charge. The case was dropped. He discovered that the man had been unmercifully clubbed by the officer; so he consulted four colored physicians in order to have the body exhumed and the head examined. After much inquiry, he discovered that the body had been sent to the dead-house of the University of Virginia, Charlottesville. He boarded a train for that place and went into the dead-house; he saw portions of a body which were covered over as he entered. He did not know the victim. He was locked in the dead-house himself, by parties present, but got out, and after hunting for the physician in charge without success, hurried back to Richmond to appear at court the next morning. The officer was never punished; this was a specimen of Southern justice.

        The lynching of Richard Walker, in Charlotte county, demonstrated Mr. Mitchell's courage again. This colored man was lynched by a mob of white men at Smithville, about eighty-six miles from Richmond, Virginia. Mr. Mitchell condemned the affair and declared that his murderers should be dangled from a rope's end. This occurred in May, 1886. The editorial appeared on a Saturday, and on the following Monday he received a letter containing a piece of hemp, abusing him and declaring they would hang him, should he put his foot in the county. Mr. Mitchell replied that he would visit the county, adding: "There are no terrors, Cassius, in your threats, for I am armed so strong in honesty that they pass me by like the idle winds, which I respect not."

        Later on he armed himself with a brace of Smith & Wesson revolvers, went to the scene of the murder, which


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was five miles from any railroad station, and was locked in the jail for the purpose of inspecting the place where Walker had been found, and then returned to Richmond and published an account of his trip.

        A short account of him appeared lately in the New York World February 22, 1887, where these words depict clearly his character. Said this journal:

        One of the most daring and vigorous Negro editors, is John Mitchell, jr., editor of the Richmond Planet. The fact that he is a Negro and lives in Richmond, does not prevent him from being courageous almost to a fault.


        He is a man who would walk into the jaws of death to serve his race; and his courage is a thing to be admired. Mr. Mitchell is one of the intensest lovers of his race. His pen seems dipped in vitriol and his words are hurled with the force of Milton's Satan, whom we find described as having such strength "that his spear, to equal which, the tallest pine hewn on Norwegian hills to be the mast of some great admiral, were but a wand."


Illustration

JOHN MITCHELL, JR.


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XXXVI.

REV. LOUDON FERRILL.

        Pastor of a Church Incorporated by a State Legislature--An Old-Time Preacher--Hired by Town Trustees to Preach to the Colored People.

        ONE of the most wonderful men who ever lived on the soil of Kentucky was the second pastor of what is now known as the First Baptist church in Lexington. He was the slave of Mrs. Anna Winston, in Hanover county, Virginia. His youth was spent about as boys usually spent their time; but at eleven years of age a singular thing happened to him, which made him think of a future life. He was bathing with a companion and they were saved from drowning only by the help of a woman, who caught them by the hair of the head and drew them ashore. After recovering, he received severe punishment and strict orders were given him to keep away from the river. In a sketch written at the time of his death, it is said that both of the boys were of the opinion that had they died they would have gone to the lake of fire and brimstone; they covenanted together that henceforth they would serve God only.

        He served an apprenticeship as a house-joiner. Ferrill


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was faithful to his promise, while his partner was recreant throughout. After baptism he felt that he was called to preach the gospel, but he was disobedient to the promptings of his heart. At that time no slave was permitted to be ordained. Ferrill was permitted, however, by his brethren, to preach, so far as their power extended, in these words: "To go forth and preach the gospel wherever the Lord might cast his lot, and the door should be open to him." Fifty persons were soon converts under his ministry. When his old master died he became free, and he and his wife (for at this time he was married) came to Kentucky in search of a new field of labor.

        When he arrived at Lexington he found a preacher known as "Old Captain" laboring among the people; however, his days were numbered and the people desired Ferrill to preach to them, which he refused to do because of the organization not being in fellowship with the Baptist denomination, although they held the faith and general practice of Baptists; but he entered into the constitution of the First Baptist church (white) in 1817. The colored people then applied to the white church for his services. The church being in doubt as to what to do, proposed to the Elkhorn association, in 1821, the following queries: First. "Can persons baptized on a confession of faith by an administrator not ordained be received into our churches under any circumstances whatever without being again baptized?" Second. "Is it admissible for the association to ordain free men of color ministers of the gospel?" The queries were taken up by a committee, consisting of Jeremiah Vardeman, James Fishback, John Edwards,


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Edmund Waller and Jacob Creath, who were appointed to consider the matter. They reported, first, that it is not regular to receive such members; second, that they knew no reason why free men of color could not be ordained ministers of the gospel, the gospel qualification being possessed by them. This first resolution referred to those colored people who had been baptized by "Old Captain," and the second to Ferrill's ordination. However, they were all received without re-baptism, and Ferrill was ordained. Ferrill took regular charge of the church and served it thirty-two years, during which time it increased from 280 to 1820 members, and became the largest church in Kentucky. Ferrill was a remarkable man; he was descended from a royal line of Africans. Dr. William Bright, a white pastor in the State, said of him: "He had the manner of authority and command, and was respected by the whole population of Lexington, and his influence was more potent to keep order among the blacks than the police force of the city."

        In 1833, when the cholera was raging in Lexington, he was the only minister that remained faithful; nursing his wife, who died at this time, and at whose funeral the largest number attended, which was thirteen, of any of the funerals of that dreadful day.

        There has been many a dispute as to the length of time it takes to baptize any number of candidates. It is recorded in 'Spencer's History of the Baptists,' from whence we get many valuable facts, that he baptized at one time 220 persons in 85 minutes, and at another time 60 in 45 minutes.


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        So popular was Loudon Ferrill that the trustees of the town of Lexington employed him to preach to the colored people. It is a singular fact that all good men have enemies, and his endeavored to destroy his church. Solomon Walker, his oldest deacon, advised him to discontinue his meetings, but Ferrill said: No, by the help of the Lord he was going on and believed that he would see so many people there that the house would not hold them. And this vision was fully realized, for under his preaching the attendance at his church was always a very large one, frequently his church was filled to overflowing.

        Harry Quills, "whose heart was said to have been as black as his face," spread a report that Ferrill's character was not good in Virginia, but upon some of the white elders writing to persons living in the neighborhood in which he was born and raised, they were informed that his character was unspotted. He made another attempt to injure Ferrill; knowing that the law was such that no free colored person could remain in this State over thirty days, unless a native of the State, thought he would drive Ferrill away in this manner. He had warrants gotten out; a number of free people were sold and a number went away. The white people got Dr. Fishback to draw up a petition to the Legislature to give Ferrill permission to stay in the State, which was granted, and his church at length was incorporated by the Legislature under the name of the "Old Apostolic Church."

        In his will he left his property to his two adopted children, and left the following prayer, also, as a legacy for Kentucky:


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        O! Great Father of Heaven and earth, bless the citizens of Richmond, Virginia, for their kindness toward me in my youthful days; but more particularly, O Lord, be merciful to the citizens of Lexington, Kentucky, and may it please Thee to bless, preserve and keep them from sin. Guide them in all their walks, make them peaceable, happy and truly righteous; and when they come to lie down on the bed of death, may thy good spirit hover around ready to waft their ransomed souls to Thy good presence. Lord, grant this for Christ's sake; and, O! God, bless the church of which I am pastor, and govern it with Thy unerring wisdom, and keep it the church as long as time shall last; and O, my Maker, choose, when I am gone, some pastor for them, who may be enabled to labor with more zeal than your humble petitioner has ever done, and grant that it may continue to prosper and do good among the colored race. O, merciful Father, bless the white people, who have always treated me as though I was a white man. And bless, I pray Thee, all those who through envy or malice have mistreated me, and save them, is my prayer. Bless the Church of Christ, everywhere; bless the Christians in every land. Bless, O Lord, my two adopted children and keep them in Thy way. Bring all sinners in all countries to feel their need of a Saviour, and pardon all their sins, and when they come to die, take them unto Thyself, and the glory shall be to the Father and Son and the Holy Ghost forever and ever. Amen.


        The author of this book feels grateful that he shares especially in this prayer, as he pastored this same church so nobly established by this servant of the Most High. At the death of Mr. Ferrill, October 12, 1854, the Lexington Observer said "that he rests from his labors and his works do follow him." He had justly acquired an immense influence among the colored people of this city and surrounding country, and he always exercised this influence with prudence and for the furtherance of good morals and religion.

        The Kentucky Gazette, March 6, 1878, speaking of his death, said:


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        The colored people of Lexington are under a lasting debt and obligation to Brother Ferrill; for he did more for their elevation and instruction than all other agencies combined, and we know that the masters of his people regarded him as a most useful and valuable assistant in governing and controlling them, and often averted harsher means. It is well to familiarize the generation that has sprung up since his death with the history of his blameless and useful life, for the lessons that it teaches can hardly be lost upon them. This good man is remembered by persons now living in Lexington, who worshiped him almost as a saint, and are never weary of telling of his good deeds. It is said, that in marrying slaves he used a very sensible ceremony. He pronounced them "united until death or distance do them part." Long may he be remembered, and his example of holiness and faithfulness be an inspiration to the rising generation.



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XXXVII.

PROFESSOR RICHARD THEODORE GREENER,
A. B., LL. B., LL. D.

        Chief Civil Service Examiner--Lawyer--Metaphysician, Logician and Orator--Prize Essayist--Dean of the Law Department of Howard University.

        WITHOUT doubt the gentleman whose name stands at the head of this page is one of the most accomplished scholars in polite literature among us. In this statement not an adjective is wasted, nor is it misused. His studies range over a vast field of learning. His taste is æsthetical, and can be compared to the eagle in its flights. He was never known to produce a poor article from his pen. He is an orator of the finest kind, differing from Douglass and Langston only in the degree in which they differ from each other. As we shall show his career, it can easily be seen that he has spent his life among books and has had the good judgment to use Bacon's advice when writing of studies: "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be read and digested; that is some books are to be read only in parts, others to be read but not curiously, and some few to be read wholly and with diligence and attention. Reading maketh a full


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man, conference a ready man, writing an exact man." All three of these characteristics belong to Mr. Greener, who has risen to his present status from a poor boy, for he supported a widowed mother by working as a porter while quite a lad. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and lived in Boston from the time he was five years of age. He was educated at the grammar school of Cambridge, and then spent two years preparing for college at Oberlin, Ohio, and finished his preparations at Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, the oldest in this country. He graduated from Harvard University as a Bachelor of Arts in 1870, when he was about twenty-six years old, and was immediately made principal in the male department of the institute for the colored youth in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from September, 1870, to December, 1872. He followed in this position the highly cultured and distinguished Octavius V. Catto, who was shot in a riot in 1871. Mr. Greener was the first one to be with him after his assassination. From January 1 to July 1, 1873, he was principal of the Sumner High School, Washington, District of Columbia, and was also associate editor of the New National Era, from April to October of that same year. September, 1873, found him at work in the office of the United States attorney for the District of Columbia. Two months later, in the same year, he was elected professor of metaphysics and logic in the University of South Carolina at Columbia, which chair he accepted and filled with great credit until March, 1877, when the university was closed by the Hampton Legislature. While he was a professor in this university he


Illustration

R. T. GREENER.


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assisted in the departments of Latin and Greek, and also taught classes in International law and the Constitution of the United States. He was active in politics, though he never held a political office. At the same time he was librarian of the university from May 14 to October 31, 1875, when he rearranged the thirty thousand volumes and prepared a catalogue. He also wrote an interesting monograph on the rare books of the library, which he read before the American Philological Association, in June, 1877, at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. For his labors at the library even the Charleston News and Courier found words of praise. In 1875 also he was chosen by a concurrent resolution of the General Assembly of South Carolina a member of a commission whose duty it was to revise the school system of the State. In this commission he was the only one who had not been the president of the college. He also found time to complete his law studies, which he had begun in Philadelphia and had continued in the office of the attorney for the District of Columbia, by graduating from the law school of the South Carolina University, under Judge Moses, at the head of his class, and was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of South Carolina, December 20, 1876, and the Bar of the District of Columbia, April 14, 1877. In 1877 he became instructor in the Law Department in Howard University, and on the death of John H. Cooke, esq., in 1879, he was elected dean. September, 1880, he resigned the deanship and became a law clerk of the first comptroller of the United States treasury, Hon. William Lawrence of Ohio, which position he held until


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February 28. 1882, and then begun the active practice of law. He was an associate counsel with A. K. Brown, esq., in the defense of J. M. W. Stone, indicted for wife murder, and made the opening speech for the defense in the argument for a new trial, and assisted in the general conduct of the case. It will be remembered that Stone's head was cut off by the rope, clean from his neck, when he was hung, one of the few instances of the kind on record. In the preparation of his law cases, Mr. Greener is as careful as he would be in the preparation of an oration on any literary subject. His researches are indicative of his breadth of learning and acquaintance with text books in the matter at hand.

        He was associate counsel with Hon. Jeremiah Wilson in the famous extradition case of Samuel L. Perry, one of those who had been originally exodized from North Carolina, and whose extradition was demanded by Governor Jarvis on the trumped up charge of forgery. Mr. Greener made the argument before Justice Wiley, of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, on the habeas corpus hearing, going over all the cases of extradition from 1791 down to the present time. In this argument he was opposed to Hon. R. T. Merrick, Tilden's counsel in the electorial commission, and counsel for the Government in the Star Route cases. Mr. Greener won the case and Perry was released from custody. He was also associated with Hon. Martin I. Townsend, United States district attorney, in the Whittaker court of inquiry, in April and May, 1880, and made the legal argument before the secretary of war, Hon. Alex. Ramsey, for the release of Whittaker and the


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granting of a court-martial. Whittaker was the colored student noted at West Point as the one whose ears were mutilated, and it was charged that he had tied himself and then mutilated his own ears, which seems to have been impossible. The result of his argument was that indefinite leave was immediately granted and a court-martial was ordered by President Hayes, December 28, 1880. He was also associated as counsel with ex-Governor Daniel H. Chamberlin, from January 20 to June 15, 1881, in defense of Cadet Whittaker during the court-martial. Mr. Greener was also secretary of the original exodus committee, with Senator Windom president, and was chairman of the first delegation that waited on Senator Windom after his speech, and stated the grievances of the colored people. He debated the exodus question with Hon. Fred Douglass Washington, District of Columbia, and at the Social Science congress, at Saratoga, New York, September 13, 1879. In that year, also, he lectured all through the Western States and wrote many articles to the newspapers on the different phases of the movement. Professor Greener has had a large experience in political speaking, and has done a great deal of political work. In 1876 he also canvassed the Third Congressional district of South Carolina for Hayes and Wheeler and Chamberlin. His experience is enrolled on the Senate miscellaneous documents, Number 48, Senator Cameron's (Wisconsin) report, pages 223 to 228, volume 1, and he was the only man who made the entire circuit of the district and spoke at every advertised place. After the overthrow of the Republican government in that State, he returned to Washington and has


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attended to his profession ever since. In every campaign his services have been in active demand, and he has spoken since 1877 in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio and New York.

        He was a member of the Republican conference of one hundred, held in New York City, August 4, 1880, and represented South Carolina. He has represented that State in the Union League of America from 1876 to 1879, and is at present president of the South Carolina Republican association, Washington, District of Columbia.

        This charming talker took an active part in the Republican campaign of 1884, speaking in seven States for Blaine and Logan. July, 1885, he was appointed secretary of the Grant Memorial association, in the State of New York, and October 9, 1885, he was appointed chief examiner of the municipal civil service of New York City by Mayor Grace. He now holds both positions, having been re-appointed to the latter by Mayor Hewitt. Mr. Greener has filled a very large place in the affairs of this country, and has risen so fast in the minds of the people that his name is linked with the names of Douglass and Langston, though a much younger man than either of them. In Masonic circles he has been active for the union of the colored Masonic bodies. He was initiated, passed, and raised, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1872.

        He has served as E. C., Gethsemene Commandery of Knights Templars, District of Columbia, 1873, and Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Ancient Accepted Scottish Right, 33d degree, South and Western jurisdiction. He was one of the committee of thirty on the inaugural


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ceremonies of Garfield and Arthur. The title of LL. D was conferred upon him by the College of Liberia, Monrovia, West Africa, January 13, 1873. We furnish here a list of the subjects of the many addresses which Dr. Greener has delivered, and which will in some measure show the range of his mind as well as the variety of subjects over which he roamed with such ease. The elegance and charm of their diction, together with the profound reasoning and extensive research have made them ever pleasing to those who have had the good fortune to hear them.

        We have briefly portrayed in some feeble way the rise and progress of Professor Greener, but we cannot do justice to the brilliant career he has so far had, nor can we predict how large a place he will yet fill in the affairs of his race. Though born free, he has met the same difficulties which others have met who were born slaves, because he was identified with that downcast and humble race which suffered because of their color and their condition.

        Mr. Greener is a gentleman of much literary taste, and has the knack of getting hold of many relics--some of great value. Among them may be mentioned 'Banneker's Almanac,' 1792; fac simile copy of his letter to Thomas Jefferson, which sold at a recent sale in New York for $18. 'Walker's Appeal,' (Garnet edition); an original bill of the sale of a slave; 'Gregorie's Histo de la litt des Negres,' presented to Angelina Grimke by John Rankin; a copy of the Freedom's Journal, published in New York City, 1827-8, the first colored paper in the United States; very many rare papers on colonization; 'Negromania,' by Campbell,


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of Philadelphia; the list of the original documents for the abolition of slave-trade, etc.

        I append here a list of the subjects of his best orations. They can be judged from their titles, and show that his reading has been over a very wide range, and that he has the taste of an exceedingly high and cultivated mind:


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XXXVIII.

CAPTAIN PAUL CUFFEE.

        Sea Captain--Wealthy Ship Owner--Petitions to the Massachusetts Legislature against "Taxation Without Representation"--Petition Granted.

        IT takes recognized skill for a man to be commander of a vessel. Ship owners seldom run the risk of ignorant management, for they cannot well afford the losses which would probably follow such a line of conduct, but in this case the son of a slave became the captain and owner of his own vessel. His boldness is, therefore, remarkable, and yet not so when we remember that he is the son of a native African on his father's side and of Indian blood on his mother's side. He inherited, from his father, some land and other property which was not profitable, but he determined to make a man of himself, and to that end was diligent and industrious. He became efficient in mathematics and navigation. His intellect was very vigorous and the power of concentration was so great that his knowledge of the latter subject was gained in two weeks, and with it he commanded Negro crews for many years, in his voyages to England, Russia, West Indies, Africa and the whole coast of North America, especially its eastern


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coast. He was only fourteen when his father died. He was born in 1759, in Cutterhunker, one of the Elizabeth islands, near New Bedford, Massachusetts. At the age of sixteen he was a deck-hand on a vessel destined to the Gulf of Mexico; his second voyage was to the West Indies. On his third voyage he was captured by the British, and detained in prison in New York three months. At this time the Revolutionary War was in progress. Paul and his brother John having been called on to pay personal taxes by the collector, they both refused to do so. They were given so much trouble about it, that finally they agreed, in the language of Oliver Goldsmith, "to stoop to conquer." They paid the taxes, as it was a trifling sum, and determined to make an appeal to the Massachusetts Legislature, believing in the doctrine that they had heard all of their lives, that there should be "no taxation without representation."

        In defiance of the prejudice of the times, their appeal was heard and a law was enacted by the Legislature rendering all free persons of color liable to taxation according to the ratio established for the white men, and, at the same time, granting to them full privileges that belonged to any other citizen of Massachusetts.

        What a glorious result! See what a strong man can do by using that power which he has. Let us emulate his example. The right of petition is still ours. There are still many rights denied us which we could get by simply reaching out our hands to take them. Let the colored people of that State honor this grand man; and we trust that yet some testimonial to his memory shall be reared.


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It is with this hope that we have given him a place in this book. Let no one despise youth. We are so apt to think that young men are extravagant and indiscreet when they are bold enough to oppose what might seem, or what is, "popular opinion." Do right if you stand alone, remembering there are blows to take as well as to give. There were many colored people at that time who thought these colored men were fools, and said they were violating the law because they didn't obey what was an unjust law. Be discreet and attempt much, if but little be gained. There is honor even in a righteous effort.

        Paul was only about twenty-one years old when he accomplished this result, scarcely able to vote when the privilege was granted. He made many trips with his vessel to Connecticut and traded all along her coast; sailed as far as the Banks of St. George, and secured large cargoes of codfish, opening up an extensive fish trade, which gave employment to great numbers. In 1797 Paul tried to establish a school, but the people quarreled over the location and many other things, and he finally built a school-house at his own expense on his own grounds, and allowed everybody to attend that desired, thus establishing a "public school" in Massachusetts. He owned several vessels, of 12, 18, 25, 42 and 60 tons burden, respectively. The last one was called the Ranger. He had a half interest in one of 162 tons burden, and three-fourths interest in one of 268; this was called the Alpha, which was built in 1806. He had a half interest in one called the Traveler, of 109 tons burden.


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        A book written by William C. Nell, a colored man, in 1855, gives the following description of Cuffee:

        He was tall, well-formed and athletic; his deportment conciliating yet dignified and prepossessing; his countenance blending gravity with modesty and sweetness, and firmness with gentleness and humanity. In speech and habit, plain and unostentatious. His whole exterior indicated a man of respectability and piety, and such would a stranger have supposed him to be, at first sight. He was a Quaker in his religious views. He carefully maintained a strict integrity and uprightness in all his transactions in trade, believing himself to be accountable to God for the mode of using and acquiring his possessions. On these grounds he would not deal in intoxicating liquors or slaves, though he might have done either without violating the laws of his country, and with great prospects of pecuniary gain.


        The 'American Encyclopedia' has this to say of him:

        In the latter part of his life, Cuffee encouraged the emigration of free people to Sierra Leone. He corresponded with prominent friends of this enterprise in Great Britain and Africa, and in 1811 visited the colony in his own vessel to determine for himself its advantages. In 1815 he carried out to Sierra Leone thirty-eight colored persons as emigrants, thirty of them at his own expense, and on his arrival furnishing them with the means of subsistence, spending in this enterprise nearly four thousand dollars.


        This good man terminated his labors and his life ended in the seventh day of the ninth month, 1817.


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XXXIX.

REV. ALEXANDER WALTERS.

        Financier and Pulpit Orator.

        HE is the oldest son of Henry and Harriet Walters. His birthplace was Bardstown, Nelson county, Kentucky, August 1, 1858. Early in life he showed signs of piety, and was afterwards heard to say, "I was born to preach the gospel:" This was the constant theme of his youthful days, and is the business of his present life. He entered a private school taught by Mrs. Amanda Hines, at Bardstown, Kentucky, in 1866, where he remained about eighteen months. The following year Mr. William Lawrence, a more efficient teacher, opened a pay school, which Alexander entered at once and continued in it until 1869. This teacher was succeeded by Miss Addie Miller of Louisville, Kentucky, who, teaching for a short time was succeeded by Mr. Rowan Wickliffe of Lexington, Kentucky. Soon after he took charge of the school he made a proposition to the Methodist and Baptist churches (they being the only two colored churches in the town) to teach a young man of each congregation free of charge. This proposition was accepted by the officers of


Illustration

ALEXANDER WALTERS.


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each congregation, and the officials of the A. M. E. church chose Alexander Walters, the subject of this sketch. He remained in this school for two years, and, in the fall of 1870, having professed a hope in Christ, he united with the A. M. E. Zion church, Bardstown, Kentucky.

        In 1871 he left his home for Louisville, Kentucky, and for two or three years was employed as a waiter in private families, hotels and on steamboats. In 1876 he went to Indianapolis, Indiana, and here he began the study of theology under the Rev. D. P. Seaton of the A. M. E. church, and was licensed to preach by Rev. Anthony Bunch of the A. M. E. Zion church, May, 1877.

        He married Miss Katie Knox of Louisville, Kentucky, August 28, 1877. Joined the Kentucky annual conference of the A. M. E. Zion church, at Indianapolis, Indiana, September 8, 1878, and was sent to the Corydon circuit, Corydon, Kentucky, by the same conference, and remained there two years. He taught the public school the last year of his pastorate, and was ordained deacon at St. Louis, July 10, 1879. He was then sent to Cloverport circuit, Cloverport, Kentucky, April 10, 1880, and remained there sixteen months; he also taught school at this point during his stay. He was stationed at the 5th Street church, Louisville, Kentucky, in 1881, and was ordained elder at Louisville, Kentucky, September 8, 1882. Then he was transferred to the California conference, and was stationed at San Francisco, California, in 1883.

        The church here was built at a cost of eighty thousand dollars, and is considered the finest and largest church in the Zion connection.


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        Rev. Walters has a fine open face, and by his pen and upright moral life made his mark--for he has ever been considered one of the brightest stars of the Zion connection. He was sent by this church as a delegate to the general conference of the Zion connection, which met in New York City, May 3, 1884. He was elected first assistant secretary of the general conference. While east he visited Washington, D. C., and had an interview with President Arthur, also Governor Patterson of Pennsylvania. It was by his aid and influence that Professor J. C. Price, President of Zion Wesley College was enabled to raise, while on the Pacific slope, in 1885, eighty-six hundred dollars.

        While West he was made a member of several white associations (notable among them were a Biblical class, taught by Professor J. P. Ferguson of the Presbyterian church, which was taught daily at the Adelphia theatre, on California street, near Kearney), the Young Men's Christian Association, and a class which met every Saturday for the study of Sabbath school lessons; this class was taught by Rev. M. M. Gibson, D. D. He was also elected a member of the Executive Board of the Ministerial Union, San Francisco, California, being the only colored member of the board.

        He was transferred to the Tennessee conference in 1886, and is now stationed in Knoxville, Tennessee, in charge of one of the finest churches in the South. Elder Walters bears a spotless reputation, and is honored and loved by all who know him. He is a close student, an indefatigable worker for the upbuilding of his race. As an orator,


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he is superior to most of the young men, and even the old ones in his church. He is affable, kind and gentlemanly, winning by his elegant manner all those who come in contact with him. His habits of life are plain, his methods of work practical, and his success is always of the highest order. His plan has always been in entering a new work, to secure at once a first-class instructor to help him in his studies, and thereby he has become familiar with the classics and the realm of ancient literature. As a historian, he deals largely in those phrases which lead toward the cultivation of race-pride, and the demonstration of those facts and principles which go to encourage enterprise and self-pride among his own people. He has wonderful faith in the future of the race, being by no means discouraged on account of present difficulties, and promotes with most earnest zeal every effort made in his church and community that looks toward the amelioration of the condition of colored people. As a pastor, revivalist and a church financier, he has had great success.

        To such young men the future looks for great things.


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XL.

BENJAMIN BANNEKER.

        Astronomer--Philosopher--Inventor--Philanthropist.

        IN the darkness there was light, and the fire of his intellect attracted universal attention to himself and made for him undying and imperishable fame. This remarkable genius and devoted son was born in Baltimore county, Maryland, November 9, 1731, near the village of Ellicott's Mills. It is thought that his parents were full blooded Africans, but George W. Williams, the historian, says his grandmother was a white emigrant who married a Negro whose freedom she purchased; and of the four children born to them, one was a girl who married Robert Banneker, of whom Benjamin was the only child.

        His parents accumulated sufficient means to buy a few acres and build a small cabin. The son was sent to school in the neighborhood, where he learned reading, writing and arithmetic. When Benjamin reached a suitable age he was compelled to assist his aged parents in their labors, but every spare moment found him "ciphering" and storing his mind with useful knowledge. His mother was active enough to do the work of the house, and when seventy years old caught her chickens by running them down without


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apparent fatigue. The place of his location was thickly settled; though he was known as a boy of intelligence, yet his neighbors took but little notice of him. He was determined to acquire knowledge, and while his hands worked hard, his brain was planning and solving problems in arithmetic. His observation extended to all around him, and his memory was retentive and he lost nothing. But the little education he had acquired was all his parents, who were poor, could give him. Yet little by little he stored it all up, and in the course of time became superior to most of his white neighbors, who had more favorable opportunities and were in better circumstances than he was. His fame had spread so rapidly that they beganto say to one another: "That black Ben is a smart fellow. He can make anything he sets out to; and how much he knows! I wonder where he picked it all up?"

        In 1770 he made a clock which was an excellent timepiece. He had never seen a clock, as such a thing was unknown in the region in which he lived, but he had seen a watch which so attracted his attention that he aspired to make something like it. His greatest difficulty was in making the hour and minute hands correspond in their motion, but by perseverance he succeeded, though he had never read the Latin motto, "Perseverentia omnia vincet," yet he did persevere and succeeded. This was the first clock ever made in this country, and it excited much attention, especially because it was made by a Negro. Mr. Ellicott, the owner of the mills, became very much interested in the self-taught machinist, and let him have many books, among which was one on astronomy. This new


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supply of knowledge so interested Banneker that he thought of nothing else. This kind gentleman, who had allowed him to use his books, for some reason failed to explain the subject of the books when he gave them to him, but when he met him again he was surprised to find Banneker independent of all instruction. He had mastered all the difficult problems contained in them.

        From this time the study of astronomy became the great object of his life. Soon he could calculate when the sun or moon should be eclipsed, and at what time every star would rise. In this he was so accurate that mistakes were never found. In order to pursue his studies he sold his land his parents had left him and bought an annuity on which he lived, in the little cabin of his birth. As he was never seen tilling the soil, his ignorant neighbors began to abuse him. They called him lazy when they peeped into his cabin and saw him asleep in the day-time. They were ignorant of the fact of his watching the stars all night and ciphering out his calculation. Banneker, instead of resenting all this bad feeling, endeavored to live in such a way as to demand their respect. His generous heart made him always kind and ready to oblige everybody.

        A sketch of his life is found in the 'History of the Negro Race in America,' by the Hon. George W. Williams, from which the following extract is taken:

        The following question was propounded by Banneker to Mr. George Ellicott, and was solved by Benjamin Hollowell of Alexandria:


                         A cooper and vintner sat down for a talk,
                         Both being so groggy that neither could walk.
                         Says cooper to vintner, "I am the first of my trade,


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                         There is no kind of vessel but what I have made
                         And of any shape, sir--just what you will--
                         And of any size, sir, from a ton to a gill!"
                         "Then," says the vintner, "you are the man for me;
                         Make me a vessel, if we can agree.
                         The top and the bottom diameter define,
                         To bear that proportion as fifteen to nine;
                         Thirty-five inches are just what I crave,
                         No more and no less, in the depth will I have;
                         Just thirty-nine gallons this vessel must hold--
                         Then I will reward you with silver and gold--
                         Give me your promise, my honest old friend?"
                         "I'll make it tomorrow, that you may depend!"
                         So the next day the cooper, his work to discharge,
                         Soon made a new vessel, but made it too large;
                         He took out some staves, which made it too small,
                         And then cursed the vessel, the vintner and all.
                         He beat on his breast; "By the powers," he swore,
                         He never would work at his trade any more!
                         Now my worthy friend, find out if you can,
                         The vessel's dimensions and comfort the man.

(Signed) BENJAMIN BANNEKER.


        The answer to this question is as follows: The greater diameter of Banneker's tub must be 24.746 inches, and the lesser diameter 14.8476 inches.

        In 1792, though limited in means and scanty education, he prepared an excellent almanac, which was published by Goddard & Angell of Baltimore. In the preface they expressed themselves as highly gratified with the opportunity of presenting to the public such an extraordinary effort of genius calculated by a sable son of Africa. This was the first almanac ever published in this country. Besides astronomical calculations, it contained much useful knowledge of a general nature and interesting selections of


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prose and verse. Professor R. T. Greener owns a copy of this almanac. Banneker sent a manuscript copy in his own handwriting to Thomas Jefferson, then secretary of state and afterwards President of the United States. In addressing him he said:

        Those of my complexion have long been considered rather brutish than human--scarcely capable of mental endowments. But, in consequence of the reports that have reached me, I hope I may safely admit that you are measurably friendly and well disposed toward us. I trust that you will agree with me in thinking that one universal Father hath given being to us all; that he has not only made us all of one flesh, but has also, without partiality, afforded us all the same sensations and endowed us all with the same faculties; and that, however various we may be in society or religion, however diversified in situation or color, we are all of the same family and all stand in the same relation to Him. Now, sir, if this is founded in truth, I apprehend you will readily embrace every opportunity to eradicate the absurd and false ideas and opinions which so generally prevail with respect to us.

         Suffer me, sir, to recall to your mind that when the tyranny of the British crown was exerted to reduce you to servitude, your abhorrence thereof was so excited that you publicly held forth this true and invaluable doctrine, worthy to be recorded and remembered in all succeeding ages: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, and that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

         Your tender feelings for yourselves engaged you thus to declare. You were then impressed with proper ideas of the great value of liberty, and the free possession of those blessings to which you are entitled by nature. But, sir, how pitiable it is to reflect that, although you are so fully convinced of the benevolence of the Father of mankind, and of his equal and impartial distribution of those rights and privileges which He had conferred upon them, that you should at the same time counteract His mercies in detaining, by fraud and violence, so numerous a part of my brethren under groaning captivity and cruel oppression; that you should


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at the same time be found guilty of that most criminal act which you detested in others with respect to yourselves.

         Sir, I freely and most cheerfully acknowledge that I am of the African race; and in that color which is natural to them I am of the deepest dye. But, with a sense of the most profound gratitude to the Supreme Ruler of the universe, I confess that I am not under that state of tyrannical thraldom and inhuman captivity to which so many of my brethren are doomed. I have abundantly tasted of those blessings which proceed from that free and unequaled liberty with which you are favored.

         Sir, I suppose your knowledge of the situation of my brethren is too extensive for it to need a recital here. Neither shall I presume to prescribe methods by which they may be relieved, otherwise than by recommending to you and others to wean yourselves from those narrow prejudices you have imbibed with respect to them, and to do as Job proposed to his friends--"put your souls in their souls' stead." Thus shall your hearts be enlarged with kindness and benevolence toward them, and you will need neither the direction of myself or others in what manner to proceed.

         I took up my pen to direct to you, as a present, a copy of an Almanac I have calculated for the succeeding year. I ardently hope that your candor and generosity will plead with you in my behalf. Sympathy and affection for my brethren has caused my enlargement thus far; it was not originally my design.

         The Almanac is a production of my arduous study. I have long had unbounded desires to become acquainted with the secrets of nature, and I have had to gratify my curiousity herein through my own assiduous application to astronomical study, in which I need not recount to you the many difficulties and disadvantages I have had to encounter. I conclude by subscribing myself, with the most profound respect, your most humble servant,

B. BANNEKER.


         To this letter Jefferson made the following reply:

        Sir, I thank you sincerely for your letter, and for the Almanac it contained. Nobody wishes more than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit that nature has given to our black brethren talents equal to those of the other colors of men, and that the appearance of a want of them is


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owing only to the degraded condition of their existence both in Africa and America. I can add, with truth, that no one wishes more ardently to see a good system commenced for raising the condition, both of their body and mind, to what it ought be, as fast as the imbecility of their present existence, and other circumstances which cannot be neglected, will admit. I have taken the liberty of sending your Almanac to Monsieur Condorcet, Secretary of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and to members of the Philanthropic Society, because I considered it a document to which your whole color had a right, for their justification against the doubts which have been entertained of them. I am, with great esteem, sir, your most obedient servant,

THOMAS JEFFERSON.


        In 1803 Mr. Jefferson invited the astronomer to visit him at Monticello, but the increasing infirmities of age made it imprudent to undertake the journey. His almanacs sold well for ten years, and the income, added to his annuity, gave him a very comfortable support; and, what was a still greater satisfaction to him, was the consciousness of doing something to help the cause of his oppressed people by proving to the world that nature had endowed them with good capacities.

        After 1802 he found himself too old to calculate any more almanacs, but as long as he lived he continued to be deeply interested in his various studies.

        He died in 1804, in his seventy-second year; his remains were buried near the dwelling that he had occupied during his life. His mode of life was regular and retired. He was kind and generous to all around him; his head was covered with thick white hair, which gave him a venerable appearance; his dress was uniformly superfine drab broadcloth, made in the old, plain style, coat with straight collar, a long waist and a broad-brimmed hat. His color


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was not quite black, but decidedly Negro. In his personal appearance he is said to have borne a striking resemblance to the statue of Benjamin Franklin, at the library at Philadelphia.

        Banneker's abilities have often been brought forward as an argument against the enslavement of his race, and ever since he has been quoted as a proof of the mental capacity of Africans. Surely the smoldering embers of the latent fires of their ancient greatness was awakened in him, and the thousands of camp-fires of an intellectual revival can be seen now on the highest hilltop, climbing the mountains, at its base, down the valley and in its darkest shade.


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XLI.

REV. RICHARD DEBAPTISTE, D. D.

        Corresponding Secretary and Beloved Disciple.

        ONE of the humblest and most devoted Christians I ever knew is Rev. R. DeBaptiste. A very unostentatious servant of God is the man of whom I now write. Many have enjoyed the sunshine of his life and yet failed to recognize the cause of their growth and prosperity. Personally, I can bear testimony to his interest in young men, and his fatherly, tender advice to even the "stranger within his gate." Of Old Virginia's sons, none have given to the West a better life of honest toil for the people than he. Fredericksburg may well be proud of him. He was born November 11, 1831. William and Eliza DeBaptiste sought to educate their children, and though they had many difficulties to encounter, they nevertheless succeeded in giving them a fair education, in the State of Virginia, under the regime of slavery. The father made his own residence a school-house, his own children and a few of those of his relatives were pupils, first taught by a colored man and then by an educated Scotch-Irishman, who had been a teacher in Scotland, the police officers often


Illustration

R. DEBAPTISTE.


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watching the premises to detect some incidents leading to evidence that a Negro school was being conducted there. Fines and imprisonment would have followed the discovery. Mr. DeBaptiste was ordained to the ministry in the Baptist denomination at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, by a council called by the Union Baptist church, Cincinnati, Ohio, of the First and Ninth streets white churches, and the Union and Zion colored churches of Cincinnati, and the church at Lockland were represented in the council. He taught the public schools for colored youth and children of Springfield township, at Mount Pleasant, three years. He organized and pastored the colored Baptist church at this place from 1860 to 1863; baptized twelve converts as constituent members, took pastoral charge of Olivet Baptist church, Chicago, August, 1863; held it continuously till February, 1882. In the meanwhile, purchasing two building sites at a cost of $16,000, built two church edifices, both brick, with a seating capacity, the one of 800 and the other of 1200, costing respectively, $15000 and $18,000. Received over seventeen hundred persons to membership--about forty-eight per cent. by baptism. The net increase for the first five years averaged one hundred per year, and over fifty per cent. of that number by baptism. He was elected corresponding secretary of the Wood River association in 1864; has held it ever since, being re-elected every year, though absent at three or four sessions. He was also elected recording secretary of the Northwestern and Southern Baptist convention at its organization in St. Louis in 1865; was elected corresponding secretary at the annual meeting, 1866. He was elected


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president of the consolidated American Baptist Missionary convention at its first meeting, held in Nashville, Tennessee; was re-elected every year successively for four years. At Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1870, he was not present, but was, nevertheless, re-elected. In 1871, being absent from the meeting at Brooklyn, New York, he was not re-elected. In 1872 was again elected president and held the office by re-election at every meeting till 1877 at Richmond, Virginia, and was then elected corresponding secretary of the Foreign Mission department of this work, continued in that office until the meeting in Cincinnati, 1879, but it was no longer a consolidation.

        In 1870 he was elected president of the Baptist Free Mission society (white) at its anniversary meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio, and corresponding secretary of the American Baptist National convention, which met August 25 to 29, in St. Louis, Missouri, at which time he read a paper of the greatest importance to the denomination. The American Baptist Publication Society of Philadelphia, in its annual year book, has hitherto enumerated only eight hundred thousand colored Baptists for the United States, but it was left for Richard DeBaptiste to give the larger final results. It will not be out of place to give here the remarkable statistics which he furnished, though, of course, much condensed: "Three hundred and eleven associations, 9,097 churches in 255 associations, ordained ministers 4,590 in 218 associations, with a total membership of 1,071,902 colored Baptists," without any baptisms having been gathered for that year from the States of West Virginia, New York, California, Colorado, Delaware,


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Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.

        During his lifetime he has been a frequent contributor both to religious and secular journals, white and colored, and held the position of editor of one secular and one religious journal, and corresponding editor of two others. He held the first position conjointly with Rev. G. C. Booth, on the Conservator of Chicago, for a year or nearly that time, the second or third year after it started, and on the Western Herald from September, 1884, to December, 1885. He was corresponding editor of the Monitor, a short-lived paper started by the Rev. H. H. White of St. Louis, Missouri, and for several years on the National Monitor of Brooklyn, New York, Rev. R. L. Perry, editor.

        Having had only an English education in his youth, he has not failed to take advantage of the opportunities presented him for a thorough knowledge in the many branches of learning. He attended school about three years after removing from Virginia to Michigan, receiving in this school only instruction in English branches. The first teacher he had was Richard Dillingham, a Quaker, who was afterwards apprehended for helping several families to escape from slavery. He received such rough and cruel treatment that he died from the effects of it in prison, at Nashville, Tennessee. His second teacher was Rev. Samuel H. Davis, the pastor of the Second Baptist church of Detroit. In this city he also studied German, French, Latin, Greek and theology. He attended the lectures at


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the University of Chicago during the first two years, at what is now known as the Morgan Park Theological Seminary. He was married in the fall of 1855 to Miss Georgiana Brische of Cincinnati, Ohio, who died November 2, 1872. He was married again August, 1885, and this wife died April, 1886. He has three children, two of them members of the church and very proficient in music. None of them are very healthy, which has caused him much grief and sorrow; "truly he is a man afflicted with sorrows and acquainted with grief."

        This man has devoted his life to the ministry. In a private letter to the author he once said:

        Beginning my manhood in a mercantile business, I had a fair prospect of success, carrrying on the business of bricklayer and plasterer's trade. This mode of living I inherited from my father and uncles, William and Edward DeBaptiste, they being in their days the largest contractors and builders of the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia, and the surrounding country; but I unreservedly gave up all my worldly prospects and projects in obedience to the call of my Master to enter his vineyard, to "occupy till he comes." He has said: "He that forsaketh homes, lands, brothers and sisters for my sake and the gospel's, shall have homes, lands, brothers and sisters."


        With very little worldly goods he is still cheerful and willing to spend and be spent for the Master's cause. At this writing he is pastor of a small church, declining many larger fields that he might secure a home and better prospects for the future of his children. It might be well to say that Mr. DeBaptiste comes of a historic family. There has been a representative of his family in each of the great wars of this country. His grandfather, John DeBaptiste, was in the Revolutionary war; his uncle George


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in the War of 1812; and two brothers, George and Benjamin, in the War of the Rebellion.

        The Rev. R. DeBaptiste is a man of whom the denomination is proud, and the State University, Louisville, Kentucky, recognizing his great services to the cause of Christ, as well as his many gifts and attainments, conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, May 17, 1887, an honor he will wear with dignity.

        The name of Richard DeBaptiste will always linger in the memory of those who know him as a man of Chesterfieldian manners and rare attainments in literary affairs, and a man "full of the Holy Ghost."


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XLII.

HON. GEORGE FRENCH ECTON.

        Representative from the Third Senatorial District, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois--From the Plowhandles to the Legislature--From the Capacity of a Waiter to that of a Legislator.

        IN presenting this sketch we have given some of the events which have taken place in the life of the Illinois colored Legislator. His position, from that of slave to public office holder, was not attained by a single jump, but by a series of repeated struggles and endeavors to remove hindering causes to become a respected man and public-spirited citizen. He first saw the rays of light at Winchester, Clark county, Kentucky, in 1846, and is the eldest of three living children. His father's name was Antonio Ecton, and his mother's, Martha George. His childhood and youth were spent in slavery. When yet a mere babe he was sent with other boys of his age, and older, to weed the crops. As he grew older he became a full hand at the plow and any other laborious tasks he was called upon to do. No matter what his occupation, he prided himself on doing whatever he did well, and herein lies his success. At the age of fifteen or sixteen the war came and his native State was soon made a thoroughfare


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for the contending armies. At the close of the war, about June, 1865, George and a friend determined to "make way for liberty," having received a set of "free papers," written for them by a white Abolitionist, which even at that late date were necessary to every traveling Negro to insure recognition of freedom, as slaves in Kentucky were not liberated until some months after the Emancipation Proclamation. With the amount of thirty or forty dollars which they had saved up, they started. The nearest railroad station being Paris, Kentucky, they reached it after walking nearly the entire distance of eighteen miles. The sight of a steam car was novel to them, and their astonishment can well be imagined. They boarded a train bound for Cincinnati Ohio, and here found their "free papers" necessary, as on entering a car the white passengers demanded a sight of their passes. Arriving at their destination they were taken as deck hands on the steam packet Sherman, plying in the pig-iron and salt trade between that port and Wheeling, West Virginia. George left this work after one trip, and on the return of the packet to Cincinnati he found employment at the old Broadway House, where he worked and saved one hundred dollars. He afterwards worked at the "Walnut Street House," the "Burnett House," and the "Spencer House." While at the "Walnut Street House" he became a victim to small-pox. He speedily recovered, however, owing to kindness from one of his nurses. On returning to work he began to attend night school, taught by Miss Luella Brown, who teaches at present on the suburbs of Cincinnati. He made rapid progress, and what learning


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he acquired he has been adding to ever since. On leaving Cincinnati, October 28, 1873, he went to Chicago and took charge of a dining room at the "Hotel Woodruff," where he remained up to his nomination and election to a seat in the Thirty-fifth General Assembly. As a legislator he will reflect credit upon his constituency. Mr. Ecton is no orator, but as a good listener, intelligent voter and close student he has few to surpass him. By strict application to business and economy that marked his earlier days, he has saved sufficient to purchase property worth ten thousand dollars. He wedded Miss Patti R. Allen of Winchester, Kentucky. Their union is childless, but their home is thronged by a brilliant set of intelligent people, and both he and his wife take a great interest in passing events. He is a member of Bethesda Baptist church, and is identified with the Prudence Crandall Club, and has taken "master" degree in masonry. If his word be given, he can be relied upon to do as he says. He will win for himself the credit in the Legislature that he has hitherto won.


Illustration

N. H. ENSLEY.


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XLIII.

PROFESSOR NEWELL HOUSTON ENSLEY, A. M.

        Professor of Rhetoric and Sciences--Hebraist--Musician.

        ONE of the bright lights that beamed forth from the State of Tennessee and first shed its rays into a little Negro cabin in Nashville, August 23, 1852, was when a son was born to George and Clara Ensley.

        The chains of slavery held this child, and although its grasp was not so painful as in many cases, yet he was a victim to its cruelty. His maternal grandsire was his master, and he desired his slaves to read and write, and at one time he purchased books and employed a man to teach the slave children to read.

        Mr. Ensley does not remember when he could not read the Bible, and both his parents were good readers. When he was old enough he became body servant and buggy boy for the reserved, dignified old man, with snow white locks, who owned him. To Mr. Ensley it was always a a problem how he could be a grandchild with his white playmates, who too were grandchildren of the same old man, and be treated so differently, and why he must say "Old Mass" while his mates said lovingly "grandpa." Notwithstanding all this, Mr. Ensley was treated remarkably


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well for a slave lad, and often was he commended for his capabilities. On one occasion he was ordered to water his master's cows in the pasture till noon. This command he disobeyed and for his disobedience his master attempted to whip him, but he ran away to the Yankee camps hard by, and remained hidden under empty cracker boxes for some time until the old man had abandoned the search. He remained in camp until the division moved away to Murfreesboro and advised him to return home to his mother.

        He went home secretly and hid in his mother's room under the bed, where his master found him and gave him the whipping he had escaped so long, and exacted from him the promise never to run away again. His master owned large estates, and to this lad was given the responsibility of collecting rents and depositing the same in the bank. Thus Mr. Ensley worked on as a slave until the Southern cause was lost. Then he continued in the employ of the same old gentleman, who paid the young man and all his slaves for the service rendered him; besides, he gave to each of his men employees two fine young mules and a cow and a calf. The cow and calf were taken home, and the mules left on the plantation. Soon the old man died and his estate went to his son, and the Negroes who had been in his employ were left poor. Mr. Ensley attributes his fame now and all he is to his devoted Christian mother, whom his grandsire had settled on an excellent estate of thirty acres and left comfortably fixed. This was in 1866. At this time the free schools opened about four miles from Mr. Ensley's home, and a happy day it was for this lad,


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who now had a slight opportunity to slake his insatiable thirst for learning; but this was for a short time only. His mother married and his step-father would not let him attend school and live at home. Because young Ensley went to school one day against his step-father's will, he was sent from home, not withstanding the tears and pleadings of a loving mother. After he left, his mother sought and brought him home, where he was obliged to work for this new master and go to school with his permit when he had nothing else to do.

        "Notwithstanding all this," said Mr. Ensley, "I worked and studied, and not only kept up with my classes but ahead of them." Benjamin Holmes, one of the original famous jubilee singers, was his teacher, and, when he resigned to go on his mission of song, Mr. Ensley was installed as his successor. But the labors as teacher, where only yesterday he was a pupil, were hard. The children left school, and only by indefatigable labor in the Sunday school and day school did he succeed, but the success was indeed a victory wonderful and worthy of note. The day school grew to its former size, and the Sunday school never was so large before. Soon Mr. Ensley professed a hope in Jesus, and was baptized and joined the church, where he was made deacon, which position he held for several years. Although in earlier years he had felt called to the ministry, he feared he might be mistaken, but his doubts were not confirmed by the words of a good brother who now dwells above. This brother laid the matter before the brethren, and the church sent a committee to tell him that he ought to preach. Mr.


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Ensley felt the need of preparation, and in February, 1871, entered Roger Williams University, under the guardian ship of that venerable man, Dr. Phillips, where, with his usual application, he toiled and toiled until he was almost a physical wreck and his future was less bright. Quite to his surprise he learned that his church had licensed him to preach. Mr. Ensley was filled with ambition and a burning desire to be a man worthy of the love of God and the respect of his fellowmen.

        Music had a charm for him and he had devoted much time to this art. He always had a love for oratory, and, though he has never given himself to this, yet he has been very successful in his many lectures throughout the country, where the music of his voice and his graphic style have held audiences spell-bound. Many letters of appreciation are in his possession from friends and hearers who have listened to his instructive words. With Dr. Phillips he made his first tour to the North, where he, with this good man, represented the work in the Home Mission schools, and in that visit the centennial at Philadelphia attracted his attention. It June, 1878, he graduated from Roger Williams University, third in his class, and immediately went North, where he entered Newton Theological Seminary, Newton Centre, Massachusetts. After three years, toil he graduated, one of the favored seven from a large class to give an oration graduation day, and he was the only colored one. After graduating, Mr. Ensley was offered many situations and the chosen one was Raleigh, North Carolina, where he was professor of theology and Latin.


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After a year he went to Howard University, at a salary of one thousand dollars, where he enjoyed his work very much. At this time he was married to an estimable and most accomplished young woman, who has supported him in every work to which he has devoted his time. Alcorn University now called him, and there he and his family removed, and to him was assigned the honorable position of professor of rhetoric, natural sciences and vocal music. This young man is a scholarly Hebrew student, and has a brilliant future before him, and well may the race be proud of Newell Houston Ensley.

        The professor is a man of many fine traits of character. His manners are polished, his whole demeanor dignified and courtly, and his conversation witty, even brilliant. In his lectures he does not follow old stereotyped phrases nor hackneyed expressions, but his humor bubbles up like a pure rill at the foot of a mountain. His voice is musical, his gestures graceful and his whole appearance captivating. An audience is at once taken with his earnestness, breadth and depth of thought, the extended reach after truth, and the skilful presentation of his facts and arguments. Among the themes he delights to dwell upon are "Toussaint L'Ouverture," "Pluck versus Luck," "The Rights of Women," "Temperance" and "The Rights of the Negro." In his advocacy of women, he insists that they are entitled to "Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness," and he would brush away every custom and barrier that prevents the gaining of these objects. In this I certainly agree with him. Yet he is very cautious that he does not appear ridiculous, but advances solid argument for all he claims


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for them. In this respect he is at once progressive and aggressive, for this is a subject that is gaining more and more attention--while it has its antagonists even among women.

        The professor has a funny way of putting some things, and so I end this sketch with an extract from a speech made in St. Albans, Vermont, in 1880. It has an amusing turn which for quaintness and point rather causes a smile when read.

"THE BENEFIT OF THE NEGRO'S COLOR."

        He denied the statement that the Negroes were not an original race; they were largely imitative, he admitted, but there were three of the white men's vices which his people did not imitate--they were not skeptics, they were not infidels, and they did not commit suicide. Then he quoted a certain bit of philosophy, illustrating the advantages the race had on this question of suicide, namely: White reflects light, and therefore the face of the white man reflects the light, and he goes through life a melancholy creature; while the face of the black man absorbs light, which penetrates to his soul and makes him a glad, careless, jolly creature. Just here Mr. Ensley applied this same bit of philosophy to Whittaker, the West Point cadet. Now Whittaker, says the speaker, is three parts white and two parts black; if he had been a black man, he would never have injured himself--as the court, you remember, decided that he did mutilate himself; if he had been a white man, he would have hung himself; but as he was neither white nor black, why he hurt himself just a little.


        The professor aspires to the poet's chair, and communes occasionally with the muses. I give here a short poem, simply to show the trend of his mind. It was written for the Roger Williams' Record, April, 1886.


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WRITE THY NAME.


                         Write your name upon the sand,
                         The waves will wash it out again.
                         Trace it on the crystal foam,
                         No sooner is it writ than gone.
                         Carve it in the solid oak,
                         'Tis shattered by the lightning's stroke.
                         Chisel it in marble deep,
                         'Twill crumble down--it cannot keep.


                         Seeker for the sweets of fame,
                         On things so frail, write not thy name.
                         With thee 'twill wither, die, rot;
                         On things so frail, then, write it not.
                         Would'st thou have thy name endure?
                         Go, write it in the Book of Life,
                         Engrave it on the hearts of men,
                         By humble deeds performed in love.


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XLIV.

REV. CHRISTOPHER H. PAYNE.

        Preacher--Editor and Soliciting Agent.

        REV. CHRISTOPHER H. PAYNE was born near the Red Sulphur Springs, Monroe county, Virginia, now West Virginia, September 7, 1848. His parents were free. His father was free-born, and his mother, who had been brought up a slave, was set free by her old master, James Ellison. After her freedom she was married to Thomas Payne. These two persons were among the first colored people who were lawfully married in the county of Monroe.

        The subject of this sketch was the only child born to their union. When he was very young his father went to Baltimore, Maryland, with a drove of cattle, caught the smallpox and died, leaving his wife a widow, and his little son fatherless. Mrs. Payne finding herself alone in the world, with none to comfort her but her aged mother and her infant son, decided to devote her entire time to the rearing and training of the boy who was the idol of her life. Having received the rudiments of an English education at the hands of her old master, who is supposed to have been her father, she set about teaching the little boy, and so zealous


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was she in her work that he does not remember when he could first read. When he was quite young the war began, and because he was a free Negro, and his mother having no protection, she had to see the little child go into the army as a servant. Here he remained, except when at home on a pass, until 1864, when he left the service and went down on New river, in the southern part of Monroe county (now Summers county), and obtained employment from a Mr. Vincent Swinney, where he remained until the Confederacy was broken up by the victorious armies of the United States.

        It was at this place he made the acquaintance of Miss Ann Hargro, whom he married while yet a mere boy. This union has been a very peaceful one. In 1866 he left home and walked through the mountains to Charleston, on the Kanawha river, where he took a steamboat and went to Ohio and spent some time traveling in that State and in the State of Kentucky. Finally he returned to Charleston and he remained for more than a year, working in the day and attending school at night. After an absence of about fifteen months he returned to his home and began teaching in Monroe, Mercer and Summer counties in the winter, and farming in the summer. In 1875 he was converted and baptized in Indian creek, near where he was born, on the fourteenth of October, by Rev. G. W. Deskins. On the twenty-second of February, 1876, he was licensed to preach the gospel, and on the twenty-ninth of May, 1877, after a very rigid examination, he was ordained to the full work of the gospel ministry by a council composed


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of five of the most intelligent and influential brethren who belonged to the Greenbrier association.

        In September, 1877, he entered the Richmond Institute in Richmond, Virginia, and began a course of study. Passing the examinations in many of the primary studies, he entered the senior class in the Preparatory Department, and pursued his studies with such energy and success that he soon gained the confidence and respect of all his teachers and fellow students. At the close of the session, in the spring of 1878, he went back to his field of labor in West Virginia, and found the Baptist cause in such a bad condition that he remained out of school, working, preaching, and organizing churches and Sunday schools until the fall of 1880, when he returned to school at Richmond, Virginia, and remained three years. Soon after entering school he accepted a call to the Moore Street Baptist church, and preached Sunday, after doing his class work all the week. Notwithstanding this double work, he maintained a very respectable standing in all his classes, and succeeded in giving satisfaction to his congregation, which steadily increased during the entire time of his pastorate.

        He is regarded as possibly the best preacher the school ever turned out. He is a fine speaker, pointed and logical; possessing a fine flow of language, he never fails to impress his hearers favorably. He was appointed by the American Baptist Publication Society of Philadelphia as Sunday school missionary for the Eastern district of Virginia, and after his graduation he attended the anniversaries of the denomination, which were held in May, 1883, at Saratoga Springs, New York, and there delivered


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and address before the Publication Society which was highly praised by many of the leading journals of the land, both religious and secular. As soon as the meeting closed, he returned to Virginia and entered upon his work. His district embraced all the largest cities in the State, and the most densely populated counties, and for nine months he labored most earnestly among the people, preaching, lecturing and delivering Sunday school addresses, organizing Sunday schools and Sunday school unions, until from Staunton to Norfolk, and from Alexandria to Danville, Sunday schools, churches, associations and individuals became familiar with his labor and success. Many persons were led to Christ by his efforts, but in January, 1884, on account of failing health, caused by overwork, he tendered his resignation to the society which was accepted to take effect the first of March. After winding up his affairs with the society he returned to his native State, West Virginia, and in April, 1884, took charge of the First Baptist church of Coal Valley. Since he has become pastor, the church has added about one hundred to its membership, and is now one of the most prosperous in the State. It was chiefly through his efforts that the West Virginia Baptist State convention was organized, and he was made its first president. For many years he was moderator of the only association of the State. He has been among the principal leaders of all the work of the denominaton in the State. He was one of the founders of the West Virginia Enterprise, the only weekly newspaper published by colored men in the State. He conceived a plan last year for putting on foot a school of


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higher grade in the State with an industrial department attached; and now his energy is being bent in that direction, having been appointed by the Executive Board of the West Virginia Baptist State convention, corresponding secretary and agent. The work of raising means, securing the property and starting the school rests largely upon him, so that he is now preacher, editor and soliciting agent.

        About five hundred persons have been converted through his efforts, about three hundred of whom he has baptized. Nine churches and two Sunday schools have been organized by him, and in his eleven years of ministerial labors he has preached more than fifteen hundred sermons, delivered more than five hundred lectures and addresses, and during all his struggles and labors he has come out more than conqueror. His noble wife has stood by him in every effort, and by her energy, pluck and discretion, rendered him such aid as only a true wife can.

        He feels a deep sense of gratitude towards Rev. C. H. Corey, D. D., president of the Richmond Institute, and Charles J. Pickford of Lynn, Massachusetts, and many others for aid and encouragement given him in times of his great need and severe struggles. For it was indeed a struggle for a man to spend four years in school, with a wife and five children, an aged mother and grandmother dependent upon him, and as he now expresses it, God alone led and raised him up to do the great work and has at the same time raised up the means whereby he could accomplish it. Difficulties only brightened him, and with


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a strong hold on the affections of the people much more may be expected of him.

        His virtues are many and can never be forgotten, and his word is his bond. He is a vigorous and pointed writer, as is evidenced by his efforts through the paper. His aggressiveness is in the right direction and in behalf of his race and denomination.


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XLV.

PROFESSOR PETER HUMPHRIES CLARK, A. M.

        Educator--Editor and Agitator.

        FEW men are better known than Professor Peter H. Clark, who began life March, 1829. He has accomplished very much in his career, and is a real student, with vigorous intellect and constitutionally well prepared for a great amount of mental labor. Until 1844 Cincinnati furnished him a very poor chance for education, but Rev. Hiram S. Gilmore opened a high school this year and he entered as one of the pupils. By the correctness of his habits, industry in his lessons and faithfulness in all things, he was given an assistant's place in the school, and at the same time he continued his own studies in the highest branches. Leaving school in 1848, he refused to take employment with his father, who was a barber, because it would make him move around at the dictates of every class of white men. He apprenticed himself to a liberal artisan, Thomas Varney, to learn stereotyping. It was strange at this day that a white man should take a colored boy, but Mr. Clark gives some prominent reasons for this line of conduct: First, he advanced two hundred


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dollars to Mr. Varney to assist him in his business; second, Mr. Varney's wife was a correspondent of the New York Tribune, and they were both naturally affected with the spirit of that paper, which Horace Greeley edited with so much ability; and in the same building was Stanley Matthews, who was editor of the Herald, a Freesoil paper. Just about the time Mr. Clark was able to do the work of a stereotyper, his employer sold out and went to California, and his successor in the business had no use for a colored man. In 1849 the Ohio Legislature passed a law allowing the colored people to organize schools and control them, which they did. Mr. Clark was employed as teacher. After three months the Council refused to pay him on the ground that the colored people, not being citizens and voters, could not be trustees, and their employing teachers was not legal. After a contest in the lower courts, the Supreme Court declared the law sound and the colored trustees were sustained. He was working in the barber shop when he was examined and appointed as a teacher. After his father died he had charge of the shop. He quarrelled one day with a white customer who wanted him to introduce him (the white man) to colored ladies at a fair. The white man being refused, declared he would not shave with him any more as he shaved "niggers." This shows that he was then running a civil rights barber shop. Mr. Clark threw the cup on the floor in rage and disgust, and declared he would never shave another white man, and, if he did, he would cut his throat.

        In 1850 he started for Africa, disgusted as he was by the


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bitter prejudice of the times. But he never went any further than New Orleans. He returned to Cincinnati in a short time and in 1852 took an active part in the State convention in which the "emigration movement" was discussed. He advocated that America was the home of those who were born here. In 1853 we find him secretary of the National convention of colored men, held in Rochester, New York. The same year he had trouble with the school board, which now had no colored men on it. They charged that he commented on the scriptures contrary to law, because he selected different passages in reading the morning lessons. Mr. Clark is Unitarian in his religious convictions, and has been for many years. He has often been misunderstood as to his religious views, and it may be because many do not understand the Unitarian religion. The advocates of Unitarianism hold that each individual is responsible to God for the opinions which he entertains, and that where there is responsibility there must of necessity be perfect freedom of thinking and acting. Neither primitive fathers nor ecclesiastic councils, nor synods, nor established creeds possess any absolute authority for them. They hold to the absolute unity of the Supreme Being, thus necessarily denying the doctrine of the trinity or three persons in one God. They teach that Christ was the first and greatest of all created beings; that he was the wisest and best personage who ever existed on the earth; that His mission was divine, being what He Himself declared it to be, sent by God "to bear witness to the truth;" that the Holy Spirit is not a separate personal entity, but an influence which the Creator exercises upon the minds of


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men under such circumstances as may comport with His will and purposes. See statement of doctrines of this church in 'History of all Religions,' by Schmucker, page 167.

        He lost his place, however, and went clerking. He finally opened a grocery store for himself. In 1855 he tried the tempestuous life of an editor, by publishing the Herald of Freedom. It died early, but was, when alive, a very efficient organ, filled with vigorous matter. He was next called to fill the editorial chair on a Free-soil paper, printed at Newport, Kentucky. At this time it was unlawful for a freed colored person to enter the "dark and bloody ground," but no one disturbed him though he worked at his desk for several months; but William S. Bailey, who was the owner of the paper, was often mobbed for its sentiments. In 1856 he was on the staff of Fred Douglass' paper. In 1857 he was recalled to the public schools, to which was added later a high school known as "Gaines' High School," of which he was principal for thirty years, being relieved last year by the Republican board as payment, perhaps, for his independence in voting for the Democratic party and sustaining its principles. To his humanity and tender heart are due the laws which provided for the care of the colored paupers and insane of the State. He drew up the petition and personally visited the law-makers at Columbus, urging its passage. In 1853 the National convention of colored men met in Syracuse. He drafted a constitution of the "National Equal Rights League," which did so much to instruct and control our people.


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        As a politician he has had the varying fortunes incident to such a life. At Syracuse, New York, the Liberal party held their convention, and he then declared his faith in the Republican party, and from that date, sometime in 1856, to 1872 he was a devoted member of the party. No man could be more sincere and consecrated to his principles than he; and his brilliant talents as an orator and an organizer were felt in the movements in several campaigns. He was an important factor in the city, county, State and National affairs. Two years later he joined what was known as the "new departure," in company with such men as Hon. George Hoadly, Stanley Matthews, and others. Their principles were "universal suffrage and universal amnesty."

        Mr. Clark is a man of great and liberal ideas. He believes that the colored man has not had his dues from the Republican party. Sure it is he has never received from any party, neither Republican nor Democrat, what his services merit. In 1878 he was a candidate for State school commissioner on the Workingman's ticket, receiving fifteen thousand votes. He is also trustee in the State University, appointed by Governor Hoadly, a Democrat, In 1882 he aided the Democrats in the county and State elections, and as soon as the Legislature was organized, being Democratic by his aid, they drew up and submitted to him the civil rights bill, which he approved. It was passed and signed by the governor. Many have judged him severely for the stand he has taken at times, but as he is so honest and manly, and labored for his race, why should free men find fault in a free country with a free man? No one ever


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charged him with corruption; no one ever appealed to him for aid that did not get it. Mr. Clark deserves credit for following his convictions. He is no trickster nor sneaking slave. If more colored men would refuse and resent the slights put upon them, and the kicks also, the race would be recognized more in party councils. Mr. Clark suffered more for his politics from his colored brethren than from the whites. He certainly made it possible for colored men now in position to get the honors they have. Had Mr. Clark been silent, Republicans would not have been so ready to accord honor to colored men, at least not in distinguished positions; had he submitted, the others would still be slaves with their noses on the grindstone, or holding little petty positions as "ward bummers." And many that bask in the sunshine that he prepared have spit upon him. He has frequently had small offices offered him, which he has declined. He will be no man's servant, to run at his beck and call. Without patronage to bestow, he would have to suffer many indignities which he would not take, hence his refusal. A white man of his ability and learning would be president of a State college or governor of the State.

        We had already written this sketch when the following letter appeared in the New York Freeman, of March 29, 1887. It can only be fair to produce it here as his opinion touching the subject, especially since it rather harmonizes with my own. Of course there were others contending for recognition, but they made their fights in the ranks, and when denied stayed there. It took nerve for such men as Clark, Matthews, Trotter and Downing, to break away


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from the lash of white men and the aha! aha! aha! of black men. Men admire pluck even in bad men. They always applaud a deed that marks one as especially valorous--who does not admire Napoleon though his crimes were many? It is alleged that Milton so dignified Satan that, instead of hating him for his wicked rebellion, we sympathize with him and bemoan his fall. I confess to some of the spirit that delights in boldness, daring, pluck, and though not exactly in harmony with Mr. Clark's line of procedure, he has my respect for the manly stand he took in these matters. It is now becoming very fashionable, aye, popular, and he will cease to be lonesome. But here is the letter. His advice is good, and the Ohio prescription might serve as a remedy for National affairs.

WHO INSPIRED THE REPEAL OF THE BLACK LAWS.

        HAVING FORCED THE REPUBLICANS TO DO THEIR DUTY, BY SUPPORTING A DEMOCRAT FOR GOVERNOR, MR. CLARK THINKS THE TACTICS SHOULD BE TRIED ON THE FIELD OF NATIONAL POLITICS--THE NEGROWUMP AS A POWER.

To the Editor of The New York Freeman:

        Frequently after a successful hunt the question is asked, "Who killed the bear?" In like spirit the question is being asked, "Who destroyed the Black Laws of Ohio, the 'knuckle close' colored Republicans or the 'kickers'?" A brief look at history will help us answer that question. For more than twenty years of Republican rule, beginning with John Brough and ending with Charles Foster, no governor of that party ever suggested the propriety of repealing those laws. And the colored people, by a strange neglect, scarcely seemed to be conscious of their existence and seldom asked for their repeal. There was a sort of notion prevalent that to ask the Republicans of Ohio to do justice to her colored citizens would embarrass the party in its alleged fight against wrong in the South. It is true that the resolutions of the Chillicothe


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convention, held in 1873, demanded the abrogation of all such laws, but most of the participants in that convention were soon whipped back into the ranks of the Republican party. Others, more stern in spirit, were so hounded by partisans, white and black, that they took refuge in the opposing party. In the course of that twenty years, colored voters of Ohio were rallied time and again to the support of the Republican party in the name of "Political and Civil Equality" for the colored people of the South; but oddly enough, the "Political and Civil" inequality of her own people was unnoticed.

        But in 1883 there came into the governor's office, aided thereto by the otes of sundry thousands of colored "kickers," a man who, remembering the Scriptural injunction, "first cast out the beam out of thine own eye, and then thou shalt see clearly to cast out the mote of thy brother's eye," wasted no space in bewailing the condition of our brethren in the South, a condition beyond the control of the Ohio Legislature, but said concerning the laws which oppressed the colored people of his own State, "The existing legal discriminations on account of color are not based on character or conduct and have no relation to mental or moral fitness for civil usefulness, but are rather relics of prejudice which had its origin in slavery. I recommend their total repeal." That governor was George Hoadly and the thousands of colored men who, throwing off party shackles, had voted for him, found their reward in these noble words, so earnestly and honestly spoken in their behalf. Prompted by these words, there came a shower of petitions from colored men asking for civil equality in Ohio. The majority of these were honest petitions, but many were sent for the purpose of emphasizing what the senders supposed was difference of opinion between the governor and the Democrat Legislature that was elected with him. But the Legislature listened to the governor and enacted a law to guard the civil rights of all.

        Thus challenged, the Republican managers did not dare to go into another election without bringing back those colored voters whose defection had given the State to the Democracy. They gave out political patronage with a free hand, they nominated three colored men to seats in the Legislature and were profuse in their promises that all laws making distinctions on account of color should be abolished, if colored men would again come unitedly to the aid of the party. The result was the election of Foraker. Hoadly in going out, and Foraker in coming


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in, advised that the remnant of the Black Laws should be abolished. And they were. If you ask the question of any "kicker," "who abolished the Black Laws?" he will slap himself upon the breast and say "I did it, with my free ballot." The "kickers" of Ohio are satisfied with the results of their plan and are prepared to recommend it to their brethren in other States. Indeed, some of them are asking if there is not a chance for the use of their tactics on the broad field of National politics.

PETER H. CLARK.

Cincinnati, March, 16, 1887.

        The Wilberforce University has conferred on him the title of A. M., and well does he deserve it. He is the leading Negro educator in America.

        Mr. Clark has reared several children. His oldest daughter, Ernestine, is the wife of J. Street Nesbit, a letter-carrier; she graduated from the "Gaines' High School" and afterwards from the Cincinnati Normal school, being the first colored girl who, without denying her race, was admitted to that institution. Afterward obtaining the highest grade certificate granted to women, she taught for three years in the "Gaines' High School;" she is proficient in vocal and instrumental music and drawing. His second daughter, Consuelo Clark, graduated from the McMicken School of Art; she took a high school certificate, and also a certificate in drawing, and then studied medicine for four years, graduating at last from the "School of Medicine of the Boston University." She is now practicing her profession in the city of Cincinnati. His son Herbert is a graduate from the "Gaines' High School," and taught for three years at Alcorn, Mississippi. Was also deputy sheriff for two years, and gauger in the first Ohio collection district. It can be very well seen that


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there is talent of a high order in the family, and in his old age may he have the blessing and comfort of his children. He has saved but little, and can well reflect that he has spent his money judiciously in the education of his family and fitting them to take their places in the world.


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XLVI.

JUSTIN HOLLAND, ESQ.

        Musical Author and Arranger--Performer on the Guitar, Flute and Piano Forte.

Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast, To soften rocks or bend the knotted oak. --Congreve.
His very foot hath music in it. --Mickle.

        IT so happens that the history of music furnishes some of the most remarkable talents found in the biography of art. Some of its greatest results are usually attained by simple means, and the exercise of ordinary qualities. Excellence in the art, as in everything else, can only be achieved by dint of painstaking labor. The subject of this sketch is a good example of what can be done by steady application.

        Mr. Holland was born in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1819. His father was a farmer. In childhood his talent bespoke so much of a bright future, that he was determined to cultivate it. In a dense forest shut out from the noise and bustle of a busy town, he was afforded but few opportunities for either hearing or learning music. Yet nature


Illustration

JUSTIN HOLLAND.


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taught him the purity of her tones, by the songs of the birds, and no doubt better fitted him for the greatness he achieved. He grasped every opportunity that came in his way, and used it to an advantage. When less than fourteen, he walked on Sunday to a log meeting-house, five miles away, to listen to, and also mingle his voice in such music as the place and people were able to produce. He often delighted himself with an old song book that came into his possession, and the tunes he gave them, while formed by himself, far surpassed those which really belonged to them. When fourteen he left the home of his birth and went to Boston from which he made his way to Chelsea, Massachusetts. At this place he earnestly began the study of music. He became acquainted with a distinguished musician, Signor Mariam Perez, whose performance upon the guitar he enjoyed very much. So charmed was he by the sweetness, tone and fine expressions which were brought from this instrument, by its skilled performer, that he determined to give his whole attention to the study, not that he thought of being looked upon as a master performer, as was Perez, but chiefly for his own amusement.

        Mr. Simon Knaebel, an arranger of music, was his first teacher; he also took lessons from Mr. William Shubert, who was known as an expert in music on the guitar. Mr. Holland, in his eagerness to learn, made rapid progress and became a favorite pupil, on account of his ability to play duets with his instructor. He also evinced much skill with the eight keyed flute, taking lessons on this instrument from Mr. Pollock, a Scotch gentleman. Mr.


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Holland was poor, but poverty was no hindrance to his talents. He worked hard to defray his expenses, which were quite heavy, and the only time he had to practice, was part of his hours for sleep.

        In 1841, he entered Oberlin College, for the purpose of obtaining a better education, where he diligently pursued his studies, and made rapid advancement. In the same year he was the author of a book of three hundred and twenty-four pages, on the subject of "Choral Reform." In 1845, he went to Cleveland, Ohio, and while looking for something to do, his fame as a musician brought him applications, requesting him to teach music to the best people of the place.

        James M. Trotter, in 'Music and Some Highly Musical People,' a work of considerable merit and worthy to be in the hands of all intelligent people, says:

        His character had now become finely formed, he being quite noticeable for his gentlemanly, scholarly qualities, and for the close attention he gave to the subject of music and with all that concerned the true advancement in the profession, in which he now resolved to remain for life.


        As illustrating the principles by which he was guided, the following extract from a letter written to a friend will help to define some of his inner motives:

        I adopted as a rule of guidance for myself that I would do justice to the learner in my efforts to impart to him a good knowledge of the elementary principles of music and a correct system of fingering (on the guitar), as practiced by and taught in the works by the best masters of Europe. I also decided that in my intercourse as a teacher I would preserve a most cautious, circumspect demeanor, considering the relation a mere business one, which gave me no claims upon my pupils' attention or hospitality


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beyond what any ordinary business matter would give. I am not aware, therefore, that anyone has ever had cause to complain of my demeanor or that I have been in any case presumptuous.


        He headed the profession in the city, in which he was a proficient instructor; and, to make himself more perfect, he applied himself to the study of French, Spanish and Italian, in order to be able to read the systems of foreign musicians in their native tongue. By his persistent energy he found himself able to use the above mentioned languages with much self-complacency, and which were also of great benefit to him in his profession. His success was due to common sense application and unremitting perseverance. His gift came by nature, but he perfected it by self-culture. He took up a subject and pursued it with unflagging energy; he could not rest until he had reached the goal of his ambition. He did much in making the musical compositions of others for other instruments suitable for guitar practice by his skilful arrangement. In this country he was without equal, and stood on a level with the best foreign performers.

        In 1848 he published many arrangements for the guitar, which were eagerly purchased by guitar students. It is said that most all of the music for that instrument has under it the name of Holland. He also wrote instruction books for the guitar, which were highly valued because of the simple methods and clearness of explanations, and are considered the best ever published. In 1876 Mr. Brainard, publisher, issued a volume known as 'Holland's Method for the Guitar.'

        All these years his pecuniary circumstances were embarrassing.


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Often he had not the means to buy food to sustain his body. At one time when this was the case he had some work to do for which he was to receive a good little sum. It was Sunday, and he began work at 7 P. M. and continued till 8 A. M. the next morning. He took the work and delivered it to his customer and returned with a light heart, for he had been well paid for his services.

        His gentlemanly demeanor and true politeness towards his pupils caused them to entertain for him the deepest feelings of respect and the highest admiration.

        Besides being a skillful guitarist, Mr. Holland was also regarded as a fine pianist and flutist. As a man of modest pretensions, he never sought public applause. He has very seldom appeared in public, and seemed to prefer a quieter and more sequestered life. His chief work is 'Holland's Comprehensive Method for the Guitar,' written for and published by J. L. Peters & Company of New York, in 1874. It is noticeable that of all the musical firms for whom he has written, only one knew him personally, though he has written for J. L. Peters & Company, G. W. Brainard, D. P. Faulds of Louisville, Kentucky, and John Church of Cincinnati.

        He was a distinguished Mason, and held many important offices in this order. He was the representative in this country of the Grand Lodges of France and Peru, each appointment being considered a very rare distinction. The Ohio Lodge presented him with a gold watch, as a token of their appreciation. Many such a noble life, full of good and earnest labor, inspires others of the race to strive for higher things, and to overcome difficulties to attain such.


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He died in the city of New Orleans very recently and the Cleveland Plain Dealer said of him:

        The many friends and pupils of Professor Justin Holland will learn with great sorrow of his death in New Orleans, Louisiana, on Thursday, March 24. For several years he had been in delicate health, and late last fall went South in the hope of finding a cure by change of climate. But congestion of the brain, the result of a slight cold, set in, and in his exhausted physical condition, soon ended his life. He was sixty-seven years and eight months of age. Professor Holland has made Cleveland his home for years, and sought in this city to create and maintain a love for the guitar and guitar music such as had never been here before. Time can tell how great was his success, but he stood foremost among the members of his profession, as his name is more widely known than any other American guitarist. As a man, when one came to know him, the old professor possessed a heart flowing over with love for his pupils, and no favor was too great to be asked. He will be sadly missed in musical circles here, and it will be many years before Cleveland possesses another guitarist so gifted, so educated and so able to arouse a love for one of the noblest musical instruments.



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XLVII.

PROFESSOR WILLIAM HOOPER COUNCIL.

        President State Normal and Industrial School, Huntsville, Alabama-Editor and Lawyer.

        WILLIAM HOOPER COUNCIL was born in Fayetteville, Cumberland county, North Carolina, July 12, 1849, of slave parents. His father escaped to Canada in 1854, and made several unsuccessful attempts to procure the freedom of his family. The subject of this sketch, with all the other children, took the maiden name of their mother, who belonged to one of the largest and most influential families of the town. The family had never been separated, and, in 1857, when the two brothers were sent to distant parts of the South to be heard of no more, and the mother, with William and the younger brother, sold in the Richmond market, almost unbearable grief fell upon all hearts. This undermined the health of the mother and no other trader wanted her. It seemed that the two boys must be separated from her; but by some understanding no separation could take place without the consent of the two, and it was thought this could be easily obtained. So the boys were summoned to the office of the trader in Richmond, who offered them handfuls of gold and made


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many fair promises of a charming "life out west" if they would consent to leave their mother, who, it was promised, should join them later. Without any knowledge or warning of what was going on except such as only a mother's heart could know, at this juncture she mysteriously appeared upon the scene, and, seen only by the boys, was enabled to warn them by the expression on her face (for not a word was spoken) that told that the promises were of no account, and that the gold would be taken from them after they consented; consequently, all were sold and carried into Alabama together, where they remained until the close of the war, when the death of the younger brother was soon followed by that of the mother, and William was left alone. In 1863, when the Federal armies invaded north Alabama, the boys were carried into the back hills to keep them from the "Yankees." The mother was left in the city of Huntsville, thinking that her children would hold her, but she escaped with the army and sent back for the children, who, by the perfect system of grape-vine telegraphy well known to the colored people, and so long carried on while they were in slavery, learned of all these things, and were ever seeking an opportunity to be united with her. Finally the hour came, and, leaving home one Sunday afternoon, met each other in the forests, and, through swamps, over mountains, and wading two rivers, that Sunday night they reached the Federal lines, twenty-five miles away, and were united with their mother, to whom they were fondly attached. They entered the Freedmen's school at Stevenson, Alabama. Cicero soon died. When the war closed William waited on


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an officer for a year's food, clothing and schooling. However incredible it may appear, in 1866, at the age of seventeen years, he took charge of a county school, being the first to teach a colored school outside of a city in North Alabama.

        His trials with the Ku Klux would require too much space for the relation, but he had many and severe difficulties. Closing his first session, he spent the following summer at service in a hotel on top of Lookout mountain, where he earned enough to defray his expenses in school the next session. He next worked in a restaurant in Nashville by day and attended night school. Afterwards he did night service at a restaurant and attended day school. He then undertook the task of teaching regularly, in which he has given abundant satisfaction, made much progress and developed into a professor. Desiring to advance, he procured chemical and philosophical instruments and walked eight miles once a week, paying one dollar, to hear a lecture on these branches. He also paid six dollars per month for private instruction in Latin and the higher mathematics. Unfortunately he took part in politics; he was enrolling clerk in the Alabama Legislature in 1872 and '74, and was associate editor of the Negro Watchman in the year 1874; also he was a nominee of the Republican party for the Legislature. In 1875 he was appointed by President Grant receiver of public monies for the northern district of Alabama, which position he declined, to accept a position as principal of the city school of Huntsville, to which he had been elected without solicitation. He was one of the secretaries of the Colored National Civil


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Rights convention, which met in Washington in 1873. He was elected president of the State Normal and Industrial school, and professor of sciences and pedagogics in 1876, which position he now holds. He has made of this school all that it is.

        He has been highly honored by various societies of which he is a member; was appointed a notary public by Governor Cobb in 1882; he was editor and proprietor of the Huntsville Herald from 1878 until 1883, and was admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of Alabama in 1883. He is a minister in the A. M. E. church and a great Sunday school worker; for push and energy he has but few equals, and will surely accomplish more in his life.

        In 1884 he was united in marriage with Maria H. Wheeden of Huntsville, since which time he has lived a pleasant and profitable life. He is highly respected by all who know him. His school has been a great success and receives the yearly commendation from the commissioners, Hon. A. S. Fletcher, Hon. J. R. Mayhew and J. D. Brandon. As a disciplinarian, he easily ranks among the most successful; for the students catch the spirit of the teacher and go forth into life filled with the high notions which ought to occupy the attention of the youth of this day. From the foregoing it will be seen that he is a self-made man, who wrung success from doubtful circumstances and brought himself into prominence. And he feels proud of his graduation from what he facetiously calls the "Pine Knot College." What men have done, others can do. Reader, take courage, go forward; you can and will win.


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XLVIII.

REV. JAMES POINDEXTER, D. D.

        Advocate of Human Rights--Minister of the Gospel and Agitator--Director of the Bureau of Forestry--Member of the Board of Education of the City of Columbus, Ohio.

        THE State of Ohio has had within its borders one of the strongest men in the United States, a man whose soul has been on fire on account of the outrages perpetrated against colored people, and who never lost an opportunity to speak and write with vigor against all species of outrages and to ally himself persistently with those elements that look toward the bettering of the condition of those for whom he advocated. His philanthrophy has not, however, confined itself to his own race; but those who know him have always done him the justice to say that his interest extended to all classes who are oppressed and downtrodden.

        He was born in Richmond, Virginia, A. D., 1817. He attended school from the time he learned to talk and was instructed in common branches until he reached his tenth year, when he was apprenticed to the barber's business. His boss was barber for the most aristocratic class of citizens of Richmond, and he improved every opportunity


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afforded him for cultivating his mind by conversation and association with the customers. He was always ready to accept instruction from any who would take the pains to impart it to him.

        After settling in Ohio he received private instruction from an Englishman, one of the ablest educators and ripest scholars in the city where he lived. As long as he continued the barber's business he had the good fortune to have as customers the cream of the intelligent people in the city of Columbus. His patrons comprised statesmen, scientists, men of all professions, professors of colleges, physicians, lawyers, merchants and capitalists. This sort of education is often more valuable than college training; it gives one the practical experience of life. Theory from books may assist in many enterprises in life, but to pursue life itself unto a successful end takes practical every-day experience--not only that which we ourselves gain, but through observation and contact with others. At the age of twelve he settled in the city of Columbus, where he now resides. He embraced religion and was baptized into the communion of the Second Baptist church of Columbus, Ohio, by Elder Wallace Shelton, in the spring of 1840. He was ordained an elder in 1849 and was chosen pastor of said church in 1862, and here he has labored continuously until the present time. He has served as trustee of the "Institute for the Blind" of Ohio by appointment of Governor Charles Foster for four years. He was appointed trustee of the Athens University of Ohio by ex-Governor George Hoadly, but was rejected by a Democratic Senate because they regarded him as an ultra-Republican. He


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has served four years as member of the City Council of Columbus, and was chosen vice-president of that body. He was unanimously appointed a member of the Board of Education to fill the vacancy on the board. And at the next election thereof was elected a member, which position he now holds.

        He has just been re-elected to the position on the School Board by a majority of 512 votes over a Democratic opponent. This is very indicative of his standing in that city, for the issue of the daily Ohio State Journal, Columbus, Ohio, April 5, 1887, says:

        The result of yesterday's election shows the success of the entire Democratic city ticket by majorities ranging from 400 to 800. When it is remembered that he is a stalwart Republican, his election is a subject of congratulation.


        The following letter also shows a new appointment made by the governor of that State:

STATE OF OHIO, EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR, COLUMBUS, March 3, 1887.

HON. JAMES POINDEXTER, COLUMBUS, OHIO.

        Dear Sir: I am directed by the governor to notify you that he has appointed you to be a member of the Board of Directors of the State Forestry Bureau for the term of six years, commencing April 28, 1887, and to say that a commission has been forwarded to you accordingly by this day's mail. I enclose herewith an official oath-which you will please execute and return to this office.

Very respectfully,

C. E. PRIOR, Ex-Clerk.


        In the early days of colored men's freedom he was the first colored man in Ohio nominated by the Republican party to a seat in the House of Representatives, but was


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defeated at the polls. He is a member of the Pastors' Union, where the ministers are all white except himself; nevertheless, he was president of said union. He was empanelled as a juror on the petit jury of the United States court at its last session and was unanimously chosen foreman of said jury, though, with the exception of himself, it was composed of white men taken from the best citizens of the State. He has the honor of being the only colored man in the State of Ohio who has been a foreman of a jury in a United States court. This may seem a small matter to mention in a man's life, and yet, because of existing prejudices, even such small honors have been withheld from colored men, and it is here related in order that those who read may see that character, honor and veracity will gain credence among all classes of people and a man be respected for what he is worth, that the color of the skin will not prevent men from rising mid the direst circumstances if they will be true to themselves. Rev. James Poindexter has been president of the society known as the "Sons of Protection" for thirty years of its forty three years existence. The term of office when organized was only six months, but for the last twenty-five years the term has been twelve months. Thus he has been in many ways made the recipient of much confidence and esteem by his fellow-citizens of all colors, nationalities and conditions. As regards his aggressiveness, he might be called aggressiveness itself, but facts speak louder than words. No man in Ohio, even a regular employee of a daily paper, has contributed to the press or made more speeches on all matters relating to the rights, freedom,


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enfranchisement and elevation of our race, or on matters relating to the public welfare, than Mr. Poindexter. If he should be asked why he has not been further recognized by appointments to office, the answer could be readily given that he has esteemed his position as a minister of the gospel and the pastor of a kind-hearted, faithful membership of much more importance than official positions. Then, too, in his defense of an oppressed people, and in the utterances of such opinions as are even ahead of the times, I have no doubt he has played the part of a patriot, of a race defender, rather than a suppliant for small favors at the hands of petty politicians, who know not how to honor a man who is true to himself and the people. He never took his opinions from any man. His inspiration has been drawn from the word of God and his life has comported with his teachings, and thereby made him a power among men and one of the most vehement writers upon the subjects heretofore referred to. Specimens of his manner and style of speaking can be given and will verify the statement we have made. The Columbus Capital and Dispatch very frequently reports his addresses and sermons in full. On the subject of "Pulpit and Politics," delivered before the Pastors' Union, he spoke as follows:

        Nor can the preacher more than any other citizen plead his religious work or the sacredness of that work as an exemption from duty. Going to the Bible to learn the relation of the pulpit to politics, and accepting the prophets, Christ, and the apostles and the pulpit of their times, and their precepts and examples as the guide of the pulpit to-day, I think that the conclusion will be that wherever that is a sin to be rebuked, no matter by whom committed, and ill to be averted or good to be achieved


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by our country or mankind, there is a place for the pulpit to make itself felt and heard. The truth is, all the help the preachers and all other good and worthy citizens can give by taking hold of politics is needed in order to keep the government out of bad hands and secure the ends for which governments are formed.


        Speaking about the pulpit in connection with slavery he said some very keen things. It will be remembered that the Northern pulpit was often silent on the question of slavery; holding off with hypocrisy rather than respect for the proprieties of the pulpit; keeping their mouths closed for fear of losing their positions, rather than declaring the word of God. While on the other hand the South was preaching "Servants obey your masters" and holding the colored people in slavery and taking their earnings for themselves. It left the Negro at the mercy of those who bound them in slavery. Even the best, or what was supposed to be the best, element in the world, was either silent or against him. Said he:

        Now it is a fact worthy of note in this connection that objections to preachers holding with politics generally comes from the thing assailed. Advocates of slavery never objected to the preachers who, in or out of the pulpit, maintained that the Bible sanctions slavery, or preached often from the text "Servants be obedient to your masters." Men who gave their sympathy to the rebellion never scolded the preacher who argued that the Constitution conferred no authority on the government to coerce a State or one who justified the legislator who said, "not a dollar and not a man to whip the South," nor would man pecuniarily interested in the whiskey and beer traffic utter a note of dissent if all preachers would unite in denouncing legislative intervention to control that traffic as a sumptuary legislation. It will not be denied that some good persons deprecate the presence of the pulpit in politics; that it is so unclean a thing that it cannot be touched without taint, unfitting one for spiritual usefulness. Such persons are deceived, as a careful perusal


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of the Bible with careful inspection of the lives, private and public, of the preachers referred to, will show.


        As a preacher of the gospel, every subject within the range of human interest has received his attention. In a letter to the editor of the Ohio State Journal he shows how he has trained his people. This is a lesson to young ministers who have congregations and who desire their people to be profited and made strong in earthly things as well as heavenly. He says:

        The colored people are a reading people; my charge comprises families of all grades of financial standing, and I visit the whole of them, every family, and where I find little else I find a newspaper; many of my people take from three to four dailies, Ohio State Journal, Evening Dispatch, Commercial Gazette and not unfrequently Cincinnati Inquirer or the Columbus Times; and nearly every family one or more Sunday morning papers, and appear, as they are, a reading people; and as pastor of a church it is part of my religion to inculcate in all the rising generation the duty of making themselves as familiar with the Constitution of the United States and laws of their country as these relate to the rights and duties of the citizens, as with the Bible.


        October 5, 1885, the Ohio State Journal gives a sermon in full which he preached to his congregation on "The Crime of Buying and Selling Votes." He thundered from his pulpit in most vehement and powerful language against the crime of selling votes, and held up to scorn and ridicule those who bought them as well as those who sold; and declared among other things, "that our votes are not ours in any such sense that we may dispose of them as we choose for our own pleasure or profit, as we may any other kind of property. They belong to the whole people; they are ours in trust to be conscientiously


Illustration

JAMES POINDEXTER.


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used by us to promote the safety, peace and prosperity of the whole. The trust itself is the highest, most important, most sacred ever vouchsafed by the Almighty God to a free self-governing people; in the exercise of it, it is the primary duty of the voter to see to it that the individual for whom he votes is an honest, capable man, one who knows how to discharge the duties of the office and has the integrity to discharge those duties in the light of an all-wise God." How much better our people would vote and what better rulers would be selected all over the country if the preachers would take the opportunity of telling them how to live as well as talking about the "Gold-paved streets of the New Jerusalem" so much. Some are content in preaching if they can get up a shout of hallelujah, and constantly keep men's minds off the transitory things of life, as they choose to call it, and turn their attention entirely above. Thousands on top of thousands are made to think of heaven and are never directed how to live within the four walls of their own rooms; and they delight to deal in the rhapsodies and joys of the eternal world and are eminently careless about showing them how to get there.

        Mr. Poindexter further referred to the fact that there are colored men mean enough to sell their votes, but not many of them; and that there are white men mean enough to sell their votes as well as black ones; and worse than all, that there are white men recreant enough to buy the votes of both white and black. He says:

        When the bad men of the South wanted to defeat all the results of the war, they brought to bear on the colored people the persuasiveness of the revolver, bowie knife, shotgun and halter, and when the world stood


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aghast and cried shame, shame, the South responded, "No, no, not at all, not at all; if the North was in our place it would do as we do; it would be compelled to do as we do. The Negro is ignorant and as a consequence he is vicious, cannot tell the truth, steals everything he puts his hands upon, and must be scourged to his work, is insulting to white people; our women shudder when they meet him on the highway and have a right to; and above all and worse than all, he won't vote with his old masters."


        And then with all the vigor of his soul, with all his wrath aroused, he continued his sermon with this vigorous question:

        This self-evident damning lie was exhibited as a true bill against the Southern people by too many good people of the North, and as a consequence they were left to the tender mercies of the men whom they had helped to defeat in their cherished object, and that to destroy the only free government on the earth. I denounce this charge against the colored people of the South. A self-evident lie, because the men most entitled to be believed--men, who, when the fight was over, accepted the situation and went to work to rebuild their prostrate States--say it is a lie: say the Negro is a good citizen: say that when the strong men of the Confederacy were in the army, their women and children were undisturbed and safe in the hands of the Negro, and no single case of the outrages now so lavishly attributed to them, and so readily believed in the North, was known to occur. I denounce the charge as a damning lie on the colored man, because it does not present him as he is, but does present him as the monster two and a half centuries of barbarous oppression would seem calculated to make him, and thus obtained that credence in the North, which, to its shame, leaves the poor creature in a condition worse than when he was a slave.


        These extracts can better epitomize the life and character of Mr. Poindexter than any words of comment which might here be given. To show the estimation in which he is held by the citizens of Columbus, the following letter is given. The writer was solicited by Mr. Poindexter to


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accept the position on the bench of the Supreme Court of the State, which had been tendered by Governor Foraker, and to this solicitation he replied in the following words:

REV. JAMES POINDEXTER,

        My Dear Sir:--Your favor of yesterday came to my hand in the evening.

        I received many letters and telegrams urging me to accept the appointment tendered by the governor, but I assure you in all sincerity that none of them had the persuasive influence on my judgment which your favor would have had if it had been received before I determined, and had communicated my determination to the governor. The considerations you urge upon my attention are very cogent, and the sentiment and tone of your entire letter show that you have a just appreciation of the judicial office. When I may happen to meet you I will communicate to you the reason which influenced my mind in declining to accept, as they relate to my personal affairs.

With great respect,

RICHARD A. HARRISON.


        Mr. Poindexter has succeeded in surrounding himself with many comforts: he has a good home and a fine library, and many other comforts which go to make a home happy, and he dwells, as we have said, with a people who know how to appreciate his years of hard service for Christ and the race. No man is better known and honored. In the United States he has been a wall of fire against wrong, a generous supporter to every cause that needs assistance.

        Faithful to every trust, careful, painstaking, and noble-hearted, though obliged to disagree with many, he has yet maintained friendly relations with all classes who respect manhood wherever it is possessed. If this sketch preserves a little of the history of his life, we trust that it will inspire


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some other to give a more extended history of this man whose deeds have entered into the affairs of the last half century.

        Much has been said about the black laws of the States Mr. Poindexter has been fighting that mountain of iniquity all his life, and younger men have arisen, and the opportunity having been presented, brought about largely by just such men as Mr. Poindexter, who were pioneers in these matters, they have had the opportunity by position and learning to do much which he could not accomplish. Had Mr. Poindexter lived in a Republican county, things which have existed could not have possibly remained to this day, for he would have been in the Legislature warring against these things years ago. No man has done more in the State to arouse the feeling and popular sentiment against the outrages of these laws than Mr. Poindexter, and that finally through the Ely-Arnett bill his past labors will be a fitting reward. No matter who may have a place against men, he must not be forgotten.

        This eminent agitator, Rev. James Poindexter, delivered the baccalaureate sermon before the graduating class of the State University, Louisville, Kentucky, May 15, 1887. The old veteran of sixty years' service thrilled every heart, and the vast congregation in the Calvary Baptist church--Rev. C. H. Parrish, pastor--felt the powerful effects of his arguments, and were stirred to do greater works for Christ. On Tuesday night, May 17, 1887, the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on him.


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XLIX.

RICHARD MASON HANCOCK, ESQ.

        Foreman of the Pattern Shops of the Eagle Works Manufacturing Company, Chicago, Illinois. Mathematician--Carpenter--Draughtsman--Foreman of the Liberty Iron Works Pattern Shop.

        TO speak of one who has made a success in this department is indeed a pleasure, for in this work he has had the honor of showing Negro talent and also overcoming those obstacles that defeat success in many men. It used to be that only white men could do the "bossing," but the bottom rail is on the top, and Mr. Hancock is now doing such work as guides over seven hundred white employees and gives satisfaction to his generous employers. We have said elsewhere that brains will tell, and here is an indisputable evidence. Do you think he would be employed if he could not do the work? No, indeed, not a bit of it. He is competent, and that indeed is the reason. Why should the firm trust him with the disposition of their thousands unless he could make them thousands? The truth is they do not know his superior, and hence employ him. It is a praiseworthy thing that his employers could see the man, the artist, the draughtsman, and be influenced neither by the color of his skin nor the drops of blood that may be


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in his veins attributable to black parents. I am indebted to a sketch, which appeared in the columns of the Detroit Plaindealer, May 14, 1886, for many of the facts which appear here.

        Mr. Hancock was born of free parents at Newberne, North Carolina, November 22, 1832. His father, William H. Hancock, is a hale old gentleman, still alive, residing at Chicago, Illinois. At an early age Richard was sent to a private school in his native town, the public schools of which, and indeed the laws of the "Old North State," being then opposed to the education of Negro children. Here he mastered the rudiments of a common school course, and when thirteen years old began as a carpenter's apprentice under his father. He worked nine years at the bench; by that time having gained a thorough knowledge of the trade, and attained his majority, he left North Carolina and went to New Haven, Connecticut. He soon found employment at his trade with Messrs[.] Atwater & Treat and Doolittle & Company, two white firms that were not slow in recognizing him as an efficient workman. "Joinering" was the particular branch of the trade at which he had been engaged up to this time.

        He finally drifted to Lockport, New York, where he followed ship carpentry two years, building canal boats, after which he was taken into the employ of the Holly Manufacturing Company, with whom he remained four years. While with them he learned pattern-making, a branch of the trade that requires first of all a complete mastery of carpentry, besides an acquaintance with higher mathematics, a knowledge of draughting and the constant


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exercise of the very best judgment. For four years he worked and studied to make himself proficient, and at the end of that period had mastered all the theory and much of the practical details of that branch of the trade.

        In 1862 he came to Chicago, and shortly after was given employment as a pattern-maker in the shops of the Eagle Works Manufacturing Company, whose president, Mr. P. W. Gates, was a true and tried friend of the Negro, when all the law and nearly all the public sentiment of the land was in favor of keeping him in slavery. At that time this company had the largest machine and boiler shops and foundry that was in operation in the West.

        After working as a journeyman two years, he was promoted to the foremanship of the pattern department, and had in his charge fourteen men, all of whom were white. To serve under a Negro foreman, no matter if he did know more about the business than they did, was too much for their Northern blood, so they "struck." For three days Mr. Hancock was "monarch of all he surveyed." But the prospect was not a pleasing one, for the shop was crowded with orders and there was more work to get out than he could perform unaided. So fearing that its delayed execution might injure him with his employers, he went before the president and tendered his resignation. After hearing him through, Mr. Gates quietly said: "Oh! go back to work. It will all come right in an hundred years." He obeyed. Other pattern-makers to fill the places of the strikers were soon engaged, and ten years subsequent service with the same firm showed that less than a century could make all things right.


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        While with the Eagle Works Company, he was instrumental in teaching two colored young men trades--Mr. Beverly Meeks as a machinist, and Mr. John Johnson as a pattern-maker. The former is now in the employ of the C. & N. W. Railroad Company at their shops in Detroit, while the latter is plying his trade at Denver, Colorado. He also used his influence with good effect to secure work at their trades for other colored men in the foundry and blacksmith shops of the works.

        In 1873 the firm for which he worked went out of business, and a new firm, composed of two of his former superintendents, Messrs. Fraser and Chalmers, started the Liberty Iron Works in this city. They showed their confidence in his ability by immediately placing him at the head of their pattern shops. Their business soon reached large proportions, requiring now the constant services of over seven hundred skilled employees, fifteen of whom are kept busy making patterns. The firm makes a specialty of manufacturing intricate mining machinery, and in the course of a year gets out an almost infinite variety of indescribable work, for most of which new patterns have to be made. All of the work must conform strictly to the drawings in every particular. This will show the importance of the position held by Mr. Hancock in the second largest establishment of the kind in this country. He has been with his present employers fifteen years, commands a good salary, and is held in high esteem by them and his fellow-workmen. In the same shop with him is his son George, who is also regarded as an efficient pattern-maker.

        In private life Mr. Hancock is a public-spirited and progressive


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citizen; a member of several societies, in some of which he holds a high rank, notably the Masonic fraternity; a vestryman of St. Thomas' Episcopal church, and an interesting talker at the literary sessions of the Prudence Crandall circle. He has a cosy home on Fulton street, where, assisted by his wife, an amiable and intelligent lady, his many friends are made welcome.


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L.

PROFESSOR W. S. SCARBOROUGH, A. B., A. M., LL. D.

        Author of a Greek Text Book--Scientist--Lecturer--Scholar--Student of Sanscrit, Zend, Gothic and Luthanian Languages.

        THE names of the parents of the subject of this sketch were Jesse and Frances Scarborough. His father was set free by his old master about fifteen years before the war began, and three thousand dollars were left in the hands of his guardian, so that if he should desire to leave the South, he might do so. Further, it was stipulated with the railroad authorities, in whose employ he was for forty years, that half of the money he received as wages should be given him and the other retained by them to meet his doctor's bills and other demands, should he get sick. If he left the South, the half retained by them or as much of it as was not spent should be given to him. He remained in Georgia, as his wife was nominally a slave and could not accompany him if he went North. The conditions above stated were never fulfilled and he received none of the money.

        Young Scarborough was born, February 16, 1852, in Macon, Bibb county, Georgia. Of course, under the circumstances stated, he was nominally a slave, and his early


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days were spent in Macon, where he began to go to school as early as six years of age. He would go out day after day, ostensibly to play, but with his books concealed under his arm. He spent six or eight hours each day in school till he could read well, and had gathered a good knowledge of geography, grammar and arithmetic. At the age of ten he took regular lessons in writing under an old South Carolinian and rebel of the bitterest type; despite the strict laws then existing against Negro education, it was miraculous that a man hating the Negroes as this white man did, would take such an interest in a colored youth, and would even go to the extent of teaching him the art of penmanship. But "God works in a mysterious way his wonders to perform." This man's name was J. C. Thomas, and he is now dead; it would be a pleasure indeed if he were living to see his young pupil so distinguished for his learning, and so prominent in the educational councils of the Nation.

        Young Scarborough was also taught by his playmates, who were white boys, receiving much instruction directly and indirectly. His parents having had a common school education were able to assist him very much by way of direction in his studies, in secret, until the war closed. He was put to the study of books by his parents as soon as they were able to do so.

        He remembers one or two narrow escapes he had during his early life, which, when seen in the light of his present career, shows that God preserves those for whom he has special work. He was eight years old, on a fourth of July day. When he was returning from seeing a military parade,


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he had to pass through a long bridge; here he met two men very drunk, who seized him and held him through the window over the rushing waters below, from which terrible fate he was rescued by passers-by. During the war, friends would come to see the family without passes. Though a boy, he used to give them a safe permit home, signing their master's name. Many colored people would run the gauntlet with no other passport than that given by him. He began the study of music when he was twelve years old, and as there was no law against this, he used to practice twice a week openly. At the age of ten he had been elected secretary of one of the most prominent organizations among the colored people in Macon, Georgia. Such meetings were allowed during the war by the whites, provided the members got a permit. He received a slight fee for such services. During this period when not engaged in study, he worked at the shoemaker's trade, and just before the war closed he spent one year at the trade as a regular apprentice. Even in those days his intellect gave him advantages over many, and his services were always in demand, for he was called on to read the papers every morning by the men at work, and talk about and explain the movements of the two contending armies. When the war closed he passed from grade to grade in the schools, until 1867, when he entered the Lewis High School and finished in 1869. With this preparation, and with studious habits, a lad of seventeen he entered the Atlanta University, to prepare for Yale College. He remained at this institution two years and then entered Oberlin College, in Ohio, and graduated in 1875. Immediately


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after graduation he returned to Macon and accepted a position offered by the American Missionary Society to teach Latin, Greek and mathematics in the Lewis High School; but in September he returned to Oberlin, and gave several months study to theology in the seminary, devoting himself especially to Hellenistic, Greek and Hebrew. During the winter he was called to the principalship of Payne Institute, located at Cokesburg, South Carolina, now merged into the Allen University of Columbia, South Carolina.

        While he was studying, he always taught during the summers to aid in his support, having positions at Albany Enterprise Academy, Albany, Ohio, and district school at Bloomingburg, Ohio, Howard Normal school at Cuthbert, Georgia, and two selected schools at Macon, Georgia.

        He was called to his present position in the fall of 1877, and established the post-office at Wilberforce, Ohio, and was commissioned its first postmaster in 1879. Here he organized the first reading-room for young men, and was its president until he resigned in 1881. He assisted J. W. Fitch in editing the Authors' Review and Scrap-book, printed in Pittsburgh. His duties were such that he could not do justice to his work, so he sold out his share in the firm. This periodical succeeded well in its intent--to fill a need in the school-room.

        Professor Scarborough is one of the brightest lights in the colored race. He has a masterly mind and a comprehensive grasp of all subjects which he investigates. His fort is the classics, more particularly Greek. He has been acknowledged as a scholar, more by his authorship of a


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Greek text-book and on account of his associations in eminent scientific societies and his association with learned men, than perhaps any other thing. He has read several papers before the Philological Association on the themotic vowel in the Greek verb, in Homer and Virgil, etc. He is a member of the American Philological association, elected at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, July, 1882, and also a member of the American Spelling Reform Association, elected at Dartmouth College, July, 1883, Hanover, New Hampshire. He is a member of the Modern Language Association of America, elected at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, December, 1884; a member of the American Social Science Association, elected at Saratoga, New York, September 1, 1885; member of the American Foreign Antislavery Society, elected in 1883, in New York; a member of the I. O. Good Templars. He is also connected with the A. M. E. church. Was brought up in part a Presbyterian, and his mother is still a Presbyterian, while his father when living was an African Methodist.

        This church is justly proud of this eminent and progressive scholar, and there seems to be no jealousy among the older members that this young man should take such a prominent stand in the literary affairs of the times. He was a delegate to the Centennial of Methodism at Baltimore, December, 1884, and was very useful in said meeting. He has held various positions in his church, that always delights to honor him. He has been trustee and Sunday school superintendent several times, and at this writing fills both positions. He is in constant demand to deliver orations and lectures upon various subjects. He


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was invited to read a paper upon "Industrial Schools," before the colored teachers convention in Missouri; had a similar invitation to read a paper on the "Sphere of the Colored Teacher," before the colored teachers of Springfield, Ohio; read a paper before the Georgia Colored Teachers' Association on "The Importance of Union in Works of the Colored People of the Country." He has lectured on various topics at various places. Many of these lectures have been published. He has written much for the press, and his articles are always acceptable.

        After the death of Professor Wiley Lane of Howard University, he was prominently spoken of as his successor in the chair of Greek at said university. In the trustee board he was beaten by the votes of the white men who voted for a white man, while the colored men voted for him. He was the choice of Frederick Douglass, Francis J. Grimke, William Waring, Bishop John M. Brown, and Mr. Cook, who were trustees at the time. This was in April, 1885. Letters of indorsement were sent him from New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Washington and Baltimore, in fact from all parts of the country. This proved that he was recognized as a specialist in the department of Greek by the leading colored people of the United States, especially the scholars of them. He has been invited to take a position in the Brooklyn school, but did not accept. After graduation he was solicited to go to Africa and engage in literary pursuits, that of learning and translating the languages, with a salary of $1,800. This he refused, preferring to make his mark in this country. He was invited to give, in the form of a paper, his views on the study of


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the classic languages in a course of liberal education be fore the convention of teachers in the State of New York, in 1884.

        His career has been unusually brilliant, and should he live long will leave behind him a course of life worthy of emulation. He received the degree of A. B. from the Department of Philosophy and the Arts at Oberlin College in 1875; his degree of A. M., in course in 1878, and the degree of LL. D. from Liberia College, West Africa, 1882.

        In 1881, A. S. Barnes & Company of New York, placed upon the market his 'First Lessons in Greek,' of which Professor Greener said: "It is no small degree of praise to say that he has done just what he undertook. Amid the number of books of this class there is none more accurate or complete." Professor Gregory of Howard University said: "He has succeeded in avoiding the mistake made by so many authors of presenting many unnecessary complications in a first book, which serve to mislead and confuse the beginner." Professor Alexander Kerr of the University of Wisconsin, said: Professor Scarborough has shown good taste and good judgment in avoiding long and complex sentences for translation, and in holding himself to a clear and concise statement of the rudimentary forms of the language." He sent a copy of his book to John F. Slater, who gave a million dollars to educated the colored race, and received the following reply:

NORWICH, CONNECTICUT, June 28, 1882.

PROFESSOR WILLIAM S. SCARBOROUGH.

        Dear Sir:--Your book entitled 'First Lessons in Greek,' has been duly received by me. If I may hope that what I have tried to do for the


Illustration

W. S. SCARBOROUGH.


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promulgation of education among your race should result in any more such publications I shall feel that my efforts have been amply rewarded.

Very truly yours,

JOHN F. SLATER.


        He has also published several pamphlets, one called "Our Civil Status," forty pages, in 1884. This was read at the Inter-State convention of colored men held at Pittsburgh, in April of that year. Another thirty-six page pamphlet on the "Birds of Aristophanes: A Theory of Interpretation," published by D. C. Heath & Company of Boston. This was a paper read before the American Philological Association at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, July, 1886. He also has in manuscript, "Question on the Latin Language with Appendix;" also the twenty-first and twenty-second books of Livy, based on the German editions of 'Weissenborn' and 'Oölfflin.' It will probably be published in 1887 by the University Publication Company of New York. He is also preparing other Latin and Greek works which will be revised and annotated by Professor W. B. Frost of Oberlin college, as soon as ready.

        Professor Scarborough's range of studies is very wide, including a knowledge of the modern languages, also Sanscrit, Zend, Gothic, Luthanian, Old Slavonic, which he uses as aids in his special labors. He is at home in all kindred studies. While giving much attention to these matters, he has several times been elected to various positions in his county and State. Was one of the signers of a call for a convention which met in Columbus, Ohio, December, 1883, to consider the civil status of the colored men in


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Ohio. He was appointed by the State Central committee to organize "Equal Rights Leagues," in the Seventh district of Ohio.

        In 1883 he was married to Miss Sarah C. Bierce. She is a very intelligent woman and cultivated writer, who secures opportunities for exercising her gifts at good pay. She is a graduate of the Oswego Normal school of New York, and filled a principalship of the Normal department of Wilberforce for three years. The ceremony was performed by the lamented Bishop W. F. Dickerson.

        In worldly goods Professor Scarborough is worth anywhere from seven to ten thousand dollars, and his fame and fortune are both on the increase.


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LI.

REV. SOLOMON T. CLANTON, JR., A. B., B. D.

        Instructor of Mathematics--Secretary of the American National Baptist Convention--Agent of the American Baptist Publication Society.

        THE secretary is a native of the "Pelican" State; his parents lived at Cypremore, St. Mary's Parish, Louisiana. Their names were S. T. and Mary Clanton. They rejoiced at the birth of S. T. Clanton, jr., March 27, 1857. The parents were anxious for the boy to be educated, and he labored faithfully to assist them by obedience and closely following their advice. In order to further accomplish their desires, the boy was sent to New Orleans, where he attended the Government school in 1862, when he was only about five years old.

        When he passed the examination for the High school, he could not go to the white school, and there were none for the colored, so he entered the New Orleans University and graduated in 1878 with the usual title of A. B. In December of the same year he was appointed instructor of mathematics in Leland University of New Orleans. He resigned this position in May, 1880, that he might enter in the next September upon a course of theology in the Baptist Union Theological Seminary at Morgan Park,


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Illinois, from which in May, 1883, he graduated with the degree of B. D.

        In June, 1883, he was elected Sunday-school missionary of the American Baptist Publication Society, and has been in that position ever since. He had, however, labored on several occasions for this same society and this permanent appointment was only the result of great confidence in him when he labored for them on previous occasions, in the summers of 1877, 1879 and 1880, in Louisiana and Illinois. In the summers of 1881 and 1882 he also labored faithfully in their employ.

        He married one of the most discreet, amiable and accomplished women in the country, June 6, 1883, at the residence of her parents, John and Rebecca Bird, in Decatur, Illinois. She was then Miss Olive Bird, and educated in the Public and High school of her native city. Mr. Clanton began life as a bricklayer, and has made remarkable progress in this short time; he bids fair to accomplish much, being a man of perseverance and tact. In the councils of his brethren, his opinion has great weight. His father dying when he was about nine years old, left him and his sisters to the care of a hardworking, loving mother, who with her own hands, unaided, was enabled to educate three children--Solomon, of whom we write especially; Elvina A. Clanton, graduated from the Leland University, from the scientific course with the title of B. S., and P. A. Clanton, who graduated from the same school in classified course with the title of A. B. What a monument to one pair of hands! What a blessing is a good mother!


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        Secretary Clanton has filled one term as secretary of the American Baptist Foreign Mission convention, which is doing work in Africa, sustaining missionaries there; and was elected August 25, 1886, as secretary of the American Baptist National convention. As a writer he is fluent and yet cogent, smooth yet forcible, graceful and yet vigorous. He has accumulated some property and lives comfortably.


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LII.

PROFESSOR JOHN O. CROSBY, A. M., B. E.

        Principal State Normal School, North Carolina.

        IN the little village of Crosbyville, Fairfield county, South Carolina, on the twenty-second of December, 1850, the subject of this sketch, Rev. John Oliver Crosby, was born in slavery. His mother's name was Sylvia. She came from Richmond, Virginia, when she was only twelve years old, having been sold to a speculator at the sale of John Tinsley to satisfy his creditors. His father was Thomas Crosby. At a very early age John Oliver was apprenticed to the carpenter's trade, which he learned so rapidly that at the age of twelve he was made foreman and superintended the building of numerous small houses of from two to ten rooms each. In 1860 Thomas Crosby died, and the same year the Crosby estate was sold. Mary Q. Crosby bought the young carpenter for $1260. His apprenticeship ending, he moved to Shelton's Depot and became the slave of William Stanton, who had married his young mistress, Miss Crosby. In 1864 Mr. Stanton was drafted into the Confederate service and sent to Florence, South Carolina, to guard Federal prisoners. In the summer


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Mr. Stanton came home on a furlough, and on his return took the boy John along as a servant. At Columbia, Stanton and all other reserved soldiers returning to their commands were stopped by order of the government and put on duty as a guard at a prison containing about fourteen hundred Federal prisoners. This prison was about three miles west of Columbia, across the Congaree river, and about half a mile from the Saluda river. General Means was in command, and being an intimate friend of Stanton's, Stanton was appointed by him sutler to the prisoners. From this time he made his headquarters in Columbia. John Oliver spent the greater part of his time at the headquarters of General Means, where he made himself useful as a servant, and occasionally acting as drummer, beating the reveille and other signals.

        The boy despised slavery, and had always studiously and artfully avoided addressing his owners as "master." He therefore resolved to assist the prisoners in every way possible. There were three ways in which this could be done. First, some of the prisoners were allowed to go out on parol to get wood, and as John was well known at the camp and allowed to go everywhere he pleased, he would occasionally furnish a prisoner with sufficient provisions to last two or three days. In this way the prisoner could spend several days in accomplishing his escape from the neighborhood. Secondly, he could furnish some of the prisoners with an occasional newspaper, giving the Confederate movements. But the greatest services were rendered in a very different way. At the headquarters, in a tent next to the one occupied by General Means himself,


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and to which John Oliver had free access at all times, were two large baskets. These baskets were the recipients of all the mail brought from the "prison post-office" to be forwarded to wives and friends in the North. Three young men were daily occupied reading these letters; those deemed fit to be sent on were put into one basket, and those containing any objectionable matter were thrown into the other basket. More than two-thirds of the letters were thus rejected and went to the flames. John Oliver conceived a plan by which some of the "refused letters" could be forwarded to their destination. The mail would leave the camp at eleven o'clock daily, and as all the letters examined between this time and the next day were allowed to remain in the basket, he would transfer from twenty to thirty letters daily from the rejected basket to the one containing the "approved letters."

        After the war he went to live with his mother on a farm in Chester county. He remained there about one year; but he and his stepfather could never agree, as the "old man" despised "larning" and said it was "spilin" all the boys on the place. John was also pretty expert at figures up to division, and could read well in the second reader. He was to the boys on the plantation what 'Webster's Dictionary' is to the learned, and, notwithstanding his ragged condition, was a favorite with all the old people. His mother was a woman of fine sense, her greatest blunder being the selection of a husband. This is a common blunder with women who have children. How many young men would become useful but for this very thing; they are hedged in on all sides by men of blunt


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feelings, of rough natures and of a lack of appreciation that ought to be given to the aspiring hopes of children. With his mother's advice, he resolved to make his escape from this paternal slavery far worse than the other. Promising to return to his mother in due time, he started from home late one afternoon, carrying with him a smaller brother. They had no money and only a pound of bacon and a corn ash cake. Their mother was not a Christian, but they felt while on their journey that their mother was praying for them. After some hardships the boys reached Winnsboro, a town of fifteen hundred inhabitants, thirty-five miles distant. Being poorly clad, they found some difficulty in getting employment. On the second day, however, he got a place for himself and his brother. He was at this time in good circumstances, and completing a course in music at one of our leading colleges, Mr. Crosby entered school, working at odd times for support and paying for tuition by ringing a school bell. He soon got to be president of a debating club and teacher of the only colored Sunday school in town. Having joined the Union league, and becoming prominent in the county politics, he was appointed in the spring of 1869, by Governor R. H. Scott, the census taker for Fairfield county. He entered Biddle University in the fall of 1869 and by the Shaw University in 1870, graduating from the latter in 1874. He has since graduated from the National School of Elocution and Oratory, being the first colored man who ever graduated from this famous institution. Mr. Crosby resolved to enter the ministry; his first work in this line was done in the summer of 1872 as a student missionary under the auspices of the American


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Baptist Home Mission Society of New York. He was assigned Mecklenburg county as a field of labor. During the four months after the commission was given him he raised two hundred dollars for the First Baptist church of Charlotte and eighty dollars for Shaw University, besides organizing a church at West Holly, North Carolina, which has now a large and flourishing congregation. In 1874 he was ordained and took charge of the first Colored Baptist church of Warrington, North Carolina. In 1875 Mr. Crosby was elected delegate from Warren county to the State Constitutional convention, which framed the present constitution of the State. He took an active part in the deliberations and vigorously opposed by speeches and vote every ordinance aimed directly or indirectly at his race. In 1880 he was called to the Dixonville Baptist church of Salisbury, and during the same year became principal of the State Colored Normal school, located at the same place. These two important positions he still holds. He has also been moderator of one of the largest Baptist associations in North Carolina since 1881. He is chairman of the Home Mission board of the North Carolina State convention and editor of the Golddust, the organ of the colored Baptists of the State. He is connected with numerous other positions, boards and business enterprises.

        To name and give an account of all the honors conferred and positions bestowed upon this worthy son of the old North State would occupy more space than can be allowed in a book of this size. He has baptized more than twelve hundred persons. Mr. Crosby occupies a place in the front


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rank as a preacher. He is one of the most popular and successful men in his denomination, which numbers more than one hundred and ten thousand in this State. Notwithstanding his charitable habits, he is worth more than four thousand dollars--the fruits of his own toil. He has risen by degrees from poverty and obscurity to one of the most honorable stations in the State.


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LIII.

HON. FRANCIS L. CARDOZA.

        Secretary of State--State Treasurer--Professor of Languages--Principal of the High School, Washington, District of Columbia.

        HE was born at Charleston, South Carolina, January 1, 1837, and was sent to school at five years of age, where he remained until he was twelve. He was then apprenticed to the carpenter's trade for five years, after which he worked as journeyman for four years. When he was twenty-one years old he left the bench and with one thousand dollars, which he had saved as a journeyman, started for Glasgow, Scotland, to obtain a collegiate education, to which he aspired. His ultimate aim was to prepare for the ministry. He studied four years at the University at Glasgow, and three years at the Presbyterian seminaries at Edinburgh and London. The cost of his education was about three thousand dollars, in addition to one thousand dollars, which he had saved before starting. Notwithstanding he was pursuing these courses, he worked during vacations at his trade and other employments, making about one thousand dollars. In a competitive examination among the graduates of four colleges, he won a scholarship of one thousand dollars,


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and then removed to London, England, and finished the remaining two years of his course. This was a very remarkable feat, and in this respect I think he stands almost alone. But this was not all. While at the university at Glasgow, he won the fifth prize in Latin, among two hundred students in his class, and the seventh in Greek among one hundred and fifty students. He returned to the United States in the summer of 1864, and was settled as pastor of the Temple Street Congregational church in New Haven, Connecticut, August 1, 1864. The American Missionary Association of New York requested him to establish and take charge of a Normal school of colored pupils in Charleston, South Carolina, August 1, 1865, which he accepted and presided over for three years. In this time he was noted as a scholar of rare attainments, and though a very quiet, unassuming man, he was not neglected or overlooked by his friends, who elected him a member of the Constitutional convention of South Carolina in January, 1868, established under the reconstruction acts. August the first, of the same year, he was elected secretary of State and served four years. Now while he was serving his first term as secretary of State, he was elected professor of Latin at Howard University. He resigned the position of secretary and accepted the professorship. The governor of South Carolina protested against his resignation, and suggested that he retain the office and appoint a deputy secretary of State. As Mr. Cardoza had only fourteen months to serve, this was finally agreed upon. He then taught at Howard until March, 1872, and returned to South Carolina at the earnest solicitation


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of his friends, to accept the position of State treasurer, to which he was elected August 1, 1872.

        After he had served out the first term of the treasurership, he was re-elected in 1876, but the downfall of Republicanism at that time prevented the exercises of the duties of the office. The transfer of the Republican State government of South Carolina and Louisiana to the Democrats by a coup d' etat is perfectly familiar to all. During his treasurership he handled between six and seven million dollars and eight million in bonds and stocks. His books were carefully and thoroughly examined by a committee of the Democratic Legislature after his term of office expired, with an expert accountant, and they reported his books correct. He was appointed to a clerkship in the Treasury Department at Washington, District of Columbia, by Secretary John Sherman, in 1878, and remained for six years, when he was appointed principal of the Colored High School of Washington, District of Columbia, which position he now holds. The school has an enrollment of about two hundred and fifty pupils--two hundred females and fifty males, nearly all of whom are preparing for teachers. The work is of very great importance; is far-reaching in its influence, as these shall go out from his care to manage schools in the several sections of this country. Mr. Cardoza was married to Miss Catherine Romena Howell of New Haven, Connecticut, December, 1864. They have been blessed with six children--four boys and two girls, both of whom died in infancy. Mr. Cardoza is an educator of very fine talent; is very dignified in bearing, and polished in his manner. He was my


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professor in Latin while a junior in college, and I remember him as a courtly gentleman who treated his classes with the greatest of kindness. It never occurred to me that I might publicly thank him for his kindness and patience with two fun-loving students, especially one.


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LIV.

HON. JOHN S. LEARY, LL. B.

        Attorney at Law--Legislator--United States Deputy Collector.

        NORTH CAROLINA is well represented by the intelligent, progressive and popular John S. Leary, who was born at Fayetteville in that State, August 17, 1845. His parents were named Matthew and Julia Leary. His father was born in North Carolina in 1797; his grandfather was Aaron Revels, who was a free colored man and a Revolutionary soldier in the American army. His mother was born in France, and was six years old when her parents came to this country in 1810. Mr. Leary had a brother by the name of Louis Sheridan Leary, who was with John Brown at Harper's Ferry and was killed there October 17, 1859.

        The subject of this sketch attended school in his native town for a period of eight years prior to the civil war. During the time he was under the care and instruction of six different teachers, five of whom were white persons, and one a colored woman. After quitting school he learned the trade of a saddler and harness-maker in his father's shop, who was a manufacturer, and carried on that business


Illustration

F. L. CARDOZA.

        JOHN S. LEARY.

        JOHN O. CROSBY.

        E. S. PORTER.


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for fifty years in Fayetteville. The steady habits and business qualities of Mr. Leary, combined with strict honesty, purity of life and fidelity to trusts, made him a very popular man among all classes of citizens; and in the year 1868 he was elected, from Cumberland county, a member of the Legislature of the State of North Carolina. Having served with satisfaction to all his friends for two years, and having the good will of the opposing party, showing great intelligence and deep foresight into the laws, and promptly attending to every duty connected with the office, made him a very strong candidate for the second term, to which he was elected and served with singular ability until the close of the session. In 1871 he went to Washington, District of Columbia, and entered the Law Department of Howard University, from which he graduated with the title of LL. B. Here he was a favorite with the members of every department of the institution; his gentlemanly manners, his politeness and high intellectual attainments gave him the confidence and good will of all. The writer remembers him at this period, being at that time a member of the university. After graduation, he returned home and was examined by the State Supreme Court, and admitted to practice in all the courts of the State, since which time he has continued in his profession. He was alderman in the town of Fayetteville for two years, namely, 1876-7. He was school committeeman for a period of four years, both for white and colored schools of the town, namely, 1878-79-80-81. He has attended as a delegate from Cumberland county every Republican State convention since the year 1867; was alternate delegate


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to the National Republican convention held at Chicago in 1880, and delegate to the National Republican convention held at the same place in 1884.

        Mr. Leary was appointed United States deputy collector for the fourth district of North Carolina, Internal Revenue Department, May 1, 1881, which position he held for four years, going out of office when Mr. Cleveland became President of the United States. In the book published for the benefit of the State in the way of bringing emigrants thereto, Mr. Leary is given mention as one of the leading men of the State. It says of him that he is a man of influence among a large circle of people in the city of Fayetteville and the State, and is well suited to hold positions of trust; and in the Legislature of 1868 to '70, he voted with the minority against the fraudulent bonds. He is president of the North Carolina Industrial Association; he is an Odd Fellow, having joined the order in 1875, and was a delegate to the A. M. C., which assembled in Richmond, Virginia, in 1880. As honorary commissioner for the State of North Carolina, for the colored department in the World's Cotton Exposition, held in New Orleans in 1884, he did much to show forth the industrial condition of the colored people. He is a member of the Protestant Episcopal church, having been confirmed in 1867. He has been married twice; his first wife was Miss Alice B. Thomas of Raleigh, North Carolina, who died October 13, 1880; the fruits of this union were two children, both dead. His present wife was Miss Nannie E. Latham of Charlotte, North Carolina, to whom he was married July 14, 1886.


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He has a comfortable home in the city, a splendid law library, and a small farm about two and a half miles from the city. With these surroundings he dwells in the midst of people who delight to honor him.


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LV.

E. S. PORTER, A. B., M. D.

        Physician on the Sanitary Force of Louisville, Kentucky--Medical Attendant at the Orphans' Home and State University--Lecturer.

        THIS quiet, unassuming gentleman has made his mark as a dispenser of wisdom in the line of the healing art. It was said of Æsculapius "that he was of a quick and lively genius, and made such progress that he soon became not only a great physician but was reckoned a god and inventor of medicine, and is said to have restored many to life. And Jupiter is said to have feared that men, being put in possession of the means of triumphing over death, might refuse honor to the gods; so he struck Æsculapius dead with a thunderbolt, for which Apollo, the father of Æsculapius, destroyed the Cyclops that forged the thunderbolt for Jove." It used to be the colored people who, taking the place of Jupiter, slew all colored physicians, so to speak. Though these men had enlisted themselves in doing good for man kind, their traducers would declare that there were none good; no, not one. There seems to be among the same class of our people a very foolish notion that nobody but a white man can be a competent doctor, lawyer or professional man of any kind. This may be owing to their


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training, but it is time that they had gotten out of such thoughts, for by holding such opinion they unwittingly confess judgment and attribute the lack of skill in these matters to the inferiority of the race and color rather than brains. And not withstanding the difficulties which colored physicians meet in attempting to practice, or rather, I might say, had met (for many of these foolish prejudices are passing away), many have risen to eminence.

        Dr. Porter has succeeded in building up an extensive practice, and still lives. The life of a doctor is full of instances worthy of record, and while their professional deeds of mercy are many, they go "unhonored and unsung." Their losses also are heavy, and they can never refuse to answer a call, for the ethics of the profession lead them to relieve suffering at all times, pay or no pay.

        He is the son of Jesse and Priscilla Porter, and was born in the State of Delaware, October 19, 1848. This was the place of his youthful days, for not until he was fourteen years of age did he leave that "little monarchy" to make his way in the world. Thence he went to New York. Through the influence of a lady who took much interest in him, he was led to undertake a classical course at Lincoln University, Oxford, Pennsylvania. He began at the bottom rounds and through seven years he made his way to the graduating platform, where he was awarded his degree of Bachelor of Arts. This was in 1873. Going back to New York, he entered the Brooklyn Medical College, completing the full course of medicine, anatomy, surgery and hospital practice, and graduated with some distinction in his class in 1876. While looking for some place to practice, he


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wandered to the west and settled in Tennessee for one year. Not finding it to his liking, he moved to Louisville in 1878, and has there made a splendid reputation and settled the question of lack of prosperity in the practice of medicine. Contrary to the usual way, we have yet to find a colored person who has no confidence in him as a physician. His practice is extensive and constantly increasing.

        He was elected on the sanitary force of Louisville in the years 1882, '83 and '84. He was chosen physician to the Orphans' Home by the proper authorities in 1882, which position he still holds. He is also physician to the State University, and also lecturer on physiology and hygiene in the same university. This position he has held since 1881, and to the satisfaction of all concerned.

        He was married to Miss Lucy Bohannon, March 20, 1884. She is one of the prominent members of the celebrated Fifth Street Baptist church choir, and contributes very much to his success by her amiable manners, and she presides over his home with dignity and grace.

        The doctor himself is a genteel, refined man, and all who know him love him. He is a special favorite with the children, a thing to be commended--for no child ought to be afraid of a doctor or a minister. His ability has never been questioned by the practitioners in the city. He has sat in counsel with Drs. E. D. Foree, William M. Griffith, Thomas J. Griffith and P. G. Trunnell. It would not be an exaggeration to state that his future is very brilliant and his chances for wealth very favorable.


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LVI.

REV. AUGUSTUS TOLTON.

        The First and Only Native American Catholic Priest of African Descent, through both Parents, on the Continent.

        A FEW months ago it was flashed over the wires that Augustus Tolton had been ordained to the office of priest in Rome. The papers took up the news and sang the praise of the man who had by perseverance climbed to a strange, new position for one of his nationality. Many men of note have simply drifted with the current into positions held by a father, but this man attracts us because the circumstances under which he achieved eminence were far from the beaten paths made by the steady tramp of hundreds who had gone before. The career of Rev. Augustus Tolton is one of difficulties surmounted.

        The subject of our sketch was born in Ralls county, Missouri, April 1, 1854, of slave parentage. His father, Peter Tolton, enlisted in the Union Army when the civil war broke out, and died in the hospital in St. Louis. His mother, Martha Jane Tolton, a Kentuckian by birth, made a bold stroke for life and freedom shortly after. After much planning, the day of decision came. Taking the babe of twenty months in her arms, a daughter of


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nine years, and little "Gussie" of seven to trudge by her side, she journeyed night and day through almost desolate regions and over almost impassable roads, with the swift feet of a hunted deer. Having crossed two counties her feet almost touched free soil, when new danger arose. On the banks of the Mississippi at Hannibal, they were challenged as runaway slaves, but some Federal soldiers interposed and smuggled her across the river that night. Pausing long enough to draw one breath of free air, the pilgrims dragged their weary limbs twenty-one miles farther to Quincy, Illinois, the town in which he was reared and from which he was called to Rome. Cradled amid such events, schooled during such a period, drinking aspirations from such a mother, mighty energies and impulses were sown for future reaping. Mrs. Tolton found no hand to help feed the hungry mouths. She was surrounded by poverty so grinding that at the age of seven her boy was put in a tobacco factory and for twelve years filled his father's place in providing for the younger children.

        During this period at odd times, when the factory would close, in winter, and nights when others were sleeping, he would be pouring over books, mastering this and that study. In 1872 his health failed, and acting on the advice of friends he gave up the factory work, and devoted his time exclusively to study. The children were sent to St. Boniface's and St. Peter's schools (white), but some race trouble arising, they withdrew and entered Lincoln, a non-Catholic school. The pastor of the church of which Mrs. Tolton was a member, Father McGirr, hearing of


Illustration

AUGUSTUS TOLTON.


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the difficulty, ordered their withdrawal and opened his own school to colored children. This was about 1863. As time passed, a wild hope took possession of Augustus. His soul longed for the holy office of a priest, and on the day of his first communion, when Father McGirr, who had watched year after year the exceptional purity, talent and goodness of the poor boy up to that time, suggested the priesthood, his cup of joy was full--his mind made up. Rev. Father Astrop and Rev. Theodore Wegmann believing firmly that his vocation should be that of a priest, urged his Latin studies, and instructed him, together with two German students, in Latin, Greek, German, English, etc. He was considered the best in the catechism class when he first communed, and now reads and speaks German as fluently as English. All seemed smooth sailing when suddenly his instructors are called to new fields of labor. Are his hopes to be dashed to the ground? No; in the dispensations of Providence we get what is needed at the right time. A priest in Northern Missouri hearing that Mrs. Tolton would make him a suitable housekeeper secured her services, promising to keep the son in his studies. The bargain proved a bad one, and mother and son were soon back in Quincy, the latter hard at work with the soda firm of J. J. Flynn & Company, and studying before and after hours only as an ambitious youth can, assisted by Father Reinhardt, in charge of St. Mary's church and hospital, and two Franciscans, Fathers Francis and Engelbert. Although the Franciscan College threw open its doors to him, poverty prevented him attending except early and late, after


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school hours, and then it was always a race with time, first to the college, then to the hospital, and then to the rectory chasing knowledge. The heavens for him were again overcast. Rev. Reinhardt departed for another field; Father Engelbert could not keep the appointments any longer. With his feet in the path to Propaganda College, Rome, he could not turn back. An opening was soon made. Says the St. Joseph's Advocate:

        All credited the Rt. Rev. Peter Joseph Baltes, late bishop of Alton, to which diocese Quincy belongs, as having sent Augustus Tolton to the Propaganda College; but Father Tolton himself speaks of a prior credit as due to the Franciscans, and as having the higher claim to his gratitude. He names first of all in this connection the Rev. Father Michael Richardt, O. S. F., formerly of Quincy, but now of Teutopolis, Illinois, who sends this valuable letter in answer to our inquiries:


ST. JOSEPH'S DIOCESAN COLLEGE,
TEUTOPOLIS, EFFINGHAM COUNTY, ILLINOIS, March 12, 1887.

Rev. and Dear Sir:-

        I am in receipt of your esteemed favor of the eighth inst., by which you solicit information about Rev. August Tolton, the first colored priest of this country. I made the acquaintance of Mr. August Tolton, at Quincy, Illinois, about the year 1877. I then had formed the intention to do something for the spiritual welfare of the colored people at Quincy. I found Mr. August Tolton to be a pious, modest and studious young man, and requested him to aid me in my undertaking, as I was not acquainted with any body of the colored population. Soon he had a number of children together, both of Catholic and Protestant parents, whom I commenced to instruct in the Catholic religion every Sunday. The first lessons I gave them in the parochial school-house of St. Francis' congregation; but, in a short time, for convenience sake, we located our Sunday school in the centre of the city. The colored children liked it so well that a proposition I made to them to open a free day school was hailed with joy. Always assisted by Mr. August Tolton and his worthy mother, an accomplished lady and devoted Catholic, I soon


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had a schoolroom in an abandoned schoolhouse of St. Boniface's congregation, both Rev. J. Janssen, the rector of St. Boniface's congregation, and good Catholics assisting me to furnish the same. At my request, the Rev. Mother Caroline, superioress of the Sisters of Notre Dame at Milwaukee, appointed, gratuitously, Sister M. Herlinde to teach the school, which we opened with twenty-one children. Notwithstanding the opposition and indignation meetings of the Methodist and Baptist colored congregations, we soon had forty children, and within the next year had, with the help of God, the happiness of solemnizing several times baptisms, first communions, confirmations and marriages. When I, compelled by overwork and nervous prostration, had to leave Quincy, the school was closed for some time, but was re-opened by Rev. Theodore Bruener, then rector of St. Boniface's church, and is ever since in existence, and yet conducted by the same faithful and zealous Sister M. Herlinde, assisted by a candidate. Rev. Bruener secured also, not without the help of the Franciscan Monastery of Quincy, Catholic worship for the little colored congregation in the same schoolhouse, which had been a Protestant church. Rev. August Tolton has at present charge of the whole little and difficult mission.

        Here you wish to know how it happened to pass that Mr. August Tolton became a priest and who directed him to Rome. As far as I know, I conceived that idea first and communicated it to the (late) Right Rev. Bishop P. I. Baltes. When, soon thereafter, that prelate made his visit "ad limina Apostolorum," he tried to get the young student, Mr. A. Tolton, into the Propaganda, but in vain. I then wrote to our Most Rev. Father General, Most Rev. P. Bernardino, a Partu Rometino, who resides at Rome, and he succeeded in securing Mr. A. Tolton's reception into the College "De Propaganda Fide" where he soon thereafter began and finally ended his studies. I had last summer the happiness to see him a priest in New York City, just on his arrival from Rome. May it please Divine Providence to achieve much good through Rev. A. Tolton for the salvation of the colored race in this country.

With the greatest respect I am, Dear Sir, yours in Christ,

P. MICHAEL RICHARDT, O. S. F.
Rector of St. Joseph's Diocesan College, Teutopolis, Illinois.


        Spending several years there, he returned to the United


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States, after having finished the course of study, bearing the honors of priesthood and receiving a warm welcome from the inhabitants of Quincy, where he is laboring. Says the Washington People's Advocate:

        The arrival in this country of an American-born black priest of the Roman Catholic church, marks an era in the work of this church for the evangelization of the Negro. To-day an ex-slave returns from Rome to perform the priestly office in his native land, an evidence that the Eternal church, whatever the popular belief as to its variable policy "all things to all men" has planted its foot firmly against caste in the priesthood. Father Tolton is but the advance guard. We look forward to see the day when the colored priests of the Catholic church will be as numerous, proportionally, as those of any other denomination, and when one in whose veins flows the blood of the land of St. Augustine, will chant the pater noster before the altar of his memorial, the St. Augustine church of this city.


        When the ordination of Father Tolton was proclaimed, a few secular journals discredited the statement that he was the first native Africo-American set aside to the priesthood. They claimed that years previous Bishop England proclaimed the first colored priest at Charleston, South Carolina. The St. Joseph Advocate, a quarterly, of January, 1887, published by Father J. H. Green, Baltimore, Maryland, in the interest of the colored people of the United States, after much research says:

        How easy to slip on historic ice! Not a shred of probability that a Charleston bishop with only one or two small churches at his See, would or could afford the expense and risk of educating one for the priesthood, who, by the constitution and laws of South Carolina, would not be allowed to cross the border! There is a tradition among Catholics in Charleston that a priest of color on board a vessel bound for South America, and which, by stress of weather was driven into that harbor,


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was spared the honor of a police escort to the felon's hotel by the great influence of Bishop England, who got permission to hold him in charge till his vessel got ready for sea. Even this is stoutly denied by one who ought to know a thing or two, who resided in the very house of the bishop at the time, and is still living, a nonagenarian in her perfect senses! Monsignor Corcoran does not believe one word of the Father Paddington story in relation to Charleston; and who knows more about the past of his own city than the learned Dr. Corcoran? Certainly no other Catholic living, except it be the Rev. P. G. McGowan, now of Arkansas, who resided in Charleston sixteen years, dating back all the way to 1831, many years living with the great bishop on the banks of the Ashley, and there ordained by him. Here before us is a letter from this venerable priest dated the fifteenth instant, in which he says, "As to the ordination of a black priest by Bishop England of pious memory, in Charleston, and residing there, there was no such thing. So nothing of the kind took place in my time nor since I left. It seems to me that Bishop England ordained some colored priests in San Domingo or Hayt, while visiting there two or three times in the performance of legatine duties for Pope Gregory the Sixteenth, of pious memory, who held him in great esteem." Bishop England took possession of that new See on the last day of 1820, so our search for the needle in the bundle of straw which hadn't it, from the year of his return to Ireland, "on a visit to his native city, Cork," till the arrival of Father McGowan, is brought down to a pretty fine point indeed (a point of time wholly inadequate to the education and ordination of anybody) by this valuable letter, which covers every inch of the chronological space back to 1831. Will our contemporaries who have copied that fiction for history be good enough to make the amende honorable by sending this messenger in pursuit.


        And then gives also the following notice:

        . . . . And so we have in our midst to-day a colored priest, a native American, once a slave and the son of slaves, one of the ante bellum "four millions" said to be incapable of education, moral habits and what not, upon which assumption their degradation was boldly justified; no hybrid, but the genuine article; a typical Africo-American, the very one of all others we long to see chosen; not your ideal octoroon


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if possible, quadroon at the most, Caucasian in chiseling, Semitic in coloring, a pinch-nosed, thin-lipped and straight-haired "look-at-me," as if picked out for a compromise because of his proboscis and not of his brains, to show well on a perch with that degree of gamboge which comes nearest to whitewash when the stubbles are removed, and he slips out like a peeled onion, spruce, tidy, oil-tongued, a "nice young man," slippery and sanctimonious, of course. Nothing of the kind is Father Tolton, as our perfect fac-simile of his photograph shows; the vivid and striking likeness of a solid man, true as steel, without a shadow of pretension, well up in his sacred duties, able to converse and preach in more than one language, humble as a child, boasting of his African blood, and all aglow with devotion and love for his race. As he passes through the streets of Quincy, white gentlemen raise their hats, and priests at tables take back seats to give him the place of honor. We have seen it; not once or twice, but almost every time--MANHOOD! And on the part of the laity, what a plain act of faith in the power and wisdom of Christ's Spouse on earth, which can and will elevate the lowest above the highest and invest him with a dignity above that of the greatest earthly potentate!



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LVII.

WILLIAM WELLS BROWN, ESQ.

        Author--Lecturer--Historian of the Negro Race--Foreign Traveler--Medical Doctor.

        LEXINGTON, Kentucky, has the honor of giving to the world one of the most illustrious and earnest men, who did much in his lifetime to distinguish himself as well as to make known the virtues of the race, their origin and history, and marked for special mention a few of its eminent sons and daughters. Born of slave parents in 1816, he was in youth taken to St. Louis, Missouri, and was hired to a steamboat captain. After a year or so he was put in the printing office of Elijah P. Lovejoy. Going off on a steamboat, he escaped North. In 1834 he took to boating again, and aided many a slave to Kansas while acting as a steward. In 1843 he accepted an agency to lecture for the Anti-Slavery Society and continued his labors in connection with that mission until 1849, when he took a trip to England. When it was understood that he was going to England, the American Peace Society chose him to represent them at the Peace Congress held in Paris. The executive committee of the American Anti-Slavery Society gave him strong recommendations to distinguished


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people in Britain. He set sail for England, July 18, 1849; arriving at Liverpool, proceeded at once to Dublin, where he was warmly received and given a public welcome. He spent many years in Europe and had considerable attention paid him. He was an admirable public speaker, and charmed large audiences at the Peace Congress in Paris and in many gatherings in London. At this congress Victor Hugo presided and Richard Cobden, Esq., and such distinguished men paid him flattering attention. Mr. Brown is known as an author and lecturer. On one occasion he visited his native State to speak in both of the National associations for the support of temperance, and on the schools among freedmen. After holding a meeting at Louisville he started on a trip to speak at Pleasureville and was met by a colored man who told him that the meeting was five miles in the country. Following the man, they started to walk the distance, having waited a long time for a conveyance that was said to be coming for them. After some time they heard horses coming before and behind them. He was finally captured by a number of Ku-Klux and carried to a house where a man, presumably one of their party, was afflicted with the delirium tremens. The doctor's wit not forsaking him, he said he could cure the man; that he was a dealer in the black art and well acquainted with the devil. Having his doctor's case with him, he asked if he might be permitted to go into a room by himself for a while, which was granted. While in there he charged his syringe with a solution of acetate of morphia, and put the instrument in his vest pocket. Returning to the room he requested the aid of


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these men to hold the sick man while he made passes upon him, as if mesmerizing him; very quickly injecting the solution with his needle syringe into the man's leg, it was but a short time before he was quiet. This produced a wonderful impression upon them and saved his neck. His power having already been displayed, the leader of the band, who was called "Cap," was also suffering from a pain in his thigh. The doctor offered to cure him, if he would retire with him to the other room, which was done. While in there he injected the solution into "Cap" who soon fell asleep. All but one went away, giving him but a few hours to live, and leaving one man, who was full of whiskey, on guard. This one soon fell asleep and the woman of the house knowing that they had set four o'clock as the time to hang the doctor, kindly called the dog in, which the doctor had been wondering how to dispose of, and told him to leave, which the doctor was not long in doing. He got to town and took the morning train to Louisville, and decided never to return to that neighborhood again.

        The doctor is an author of many books, among which may be mentioned 'Sketches of Places and People Abroad,' published in 1854; a drama entitled a 'Doe Face;' the 'Escape or Leap for Freedom;' 'The Black Man,' published in 1863, which ran through ten editions in three years, 'Clotelle,' a romance founded on fact, one of the most thrilling that was ever written, the 'Negro in the Rebellion,' published in 1866; 'The Rising Sun' in 1874, and numerous other works. In this last work he has given a sketch of the race beginning with the Ethiopians and Egyptians,


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describing the slave-trade of Hayti and the republic of Liberia; John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry; proclamation of Freedom; the blacks enlisted in battle; the abolitionists and representative men of the race. His services to the race cannot be estimated. Few men have done as much by their writings as he to elevate and instruct his people. His books were very extensively read and brought quite a large sum of money, many of them running through more than ten editions.


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LVIII.

PROFESSOR WALTER F. CRAIG.

        Solo Violinist--Orchestra Conductor.

        HE was born in Princeton, New Jersey, December 20, 1854. His parents, Charles A. and Sarah E. Craig, moved to New York City in 1861, where he entered the Grammar school No. 4, Mrs. S. J. S. Garnet, principal. He graduated in 1869. He was always apt and smart in school. He was especially bright in mathematics, grammar, history, drawing, etc., and was the leading singer of the school. He commenced the study of violin playing and music in 1868, and made his debut before a New York audience as a violinist at a concert in Cooper Union in 1870. From that time he rapidly improved, and organized the orchestra known as "Craig's Orchestra" in 1872. He then gradually worked his way to the rank of a first-class musician and conductor, and now enjoys the honor of being the representative colored violin soloist and musical director of the race. His orchestra is quoted as being second to none, and his fame as a soloist extends throughout the entire United States and also some foreign countries. He has performed and conducted in all the


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principal cities, such as Boston, Philadelphia, Brooklyn, Providence, Newport, New York, Trenton, Scranton, Pennsylvania; Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania; Washington, D. C.; and Baltimore, Maryland; and all through the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Connecticut and other New England States. He has appeared in the most prominent concerts in the city of New York, and with all the greatest colored talent, such as Madame Selika, Mrs. Nelly Brown Mitchell, Adelaide G. Smith and Flora Batson; and with such eminent male voices as Mr. L. L. Brown, the famous basso; Mr. William I. Powell, the celebrated baritone and humorist; Thomas Chestnut, the famous tenor. Mr. Craig is also a composer of music, and has given great attention to harmony under the best teacher in this country, Mr. C. C. Muller, a German. He has a large number of compositions, and has arranged music in every form, both vocal and instrumental, and is concert master of the Mendelssohn School of Music, and is the first and only colored conductor who is a member of the Musical Mutual Protective Union of New York City, of which such men as T. S. Gilmore, Dr. Damrosch, Cappa and Theo. Thomas are associate members. His orchestra and himself are unrivaled at present in the country. He is also a manager of some repute in New York City, and has given and managed some of the most noted musical affairs ever put upon the stage in the great metropolis. When he appeared in Lexington Avenue opera house, October 29, 1886, the New York Freeman said of this distinguished musician:


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        Professor William F. Craig, the young prince of Negro violinists, mounted the elevated platform and waved his bow over the twenty musicians, and his enthusiastic admirers let forth a perfect storm of applause. The music was of the very best, and judging from the constant applause the musical appetites of the audience could not be easily appeased.


        When he appeared in Steinway Hall, January 20, 1887, the New York Herald said:

        Mr. W. F. Craig, the violinist, is well known to New York audiences as a perfect master of his instrument. His performances of the "Fantaisie of Faust" and "De Beriot's Seventh Air Varie" were marked by exquisite harmony, firm yet delicate.


        September 20, 1886, the New York World pays a compliment to Mr. Craig as follows:

        Walter F. Craig, who is from home visiting a sick relative, is the musician of the race. He was the first colored man who joined the Musicians' Protective Union of this city. He is a composer and violinist and leads an orchestra reputed good.


        He is about twenty-seven years old, and was graduated from the Seventeenth Street Grammar school. His orchestra furnished the music for the grand dramatic festival and full dress ball at the time when Mr. J. A. Arneaux appeared in the complete cast as Richard III, October 29, 1886, at Lexington Avenue opera house.

        It can be seen from these testimonials that Mr. Craig has a reputation that is not without a true basis. Ranking very high in the scale of musical eminence.


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LIX.

REV. CHARLES L. PURCE, A. B.

        President of the Selma University, Selma, Alabama.

        IN 1856, at Charleston, South Carolina, Mrs. Ellen Purce, the wife of William Purce, gave birth to Charles L. Purce, the subject of this sketch. His mother was a slave and his father hired her time in order that she might be able to live with him. In youth Mr. Purce had very many trials and hardships, consequent upon his parents' poverty. At fourteen he learned a trade. In 1875 he was converted and immersed by the Rev. Jacob Lagare. In 1878 and '79, he attended Benedict Institute, under the tuition of Rev. Lewis Colby, D. D., and graduated from the Richmond Seminary after four years' study under the teaching of Rev. Charles H. Corey, D. D. His class numbered fourteen. Two of that number went to Africa as missionaries, the Rev. J. J. Coles and the Rev. J. H. Presley. After graduation, in 1883, he held the pastorate of a large church of eleven hundred members at Society Hill, South Carolina, which he resigned to accept the chair of Greek and Latin at the Selma University, at Selma, Alabama, November, 1886. Since his graduation he has studied Hebrew, and taken a supplementary Greek course


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through the Correspondence Bureau. He is a hard student, and has made it the aim of his life to be always studying and learning a portion of his time every day. His motto is naturally "Dies Sine Linea." The most of his education he paid for himself by hard work, both in and out of school and often consoled himself with the thought that if he could, with the many hardships which he had, he would educate himself. Surely many of those young people who have more opportunities need not stay away from school or fall short of equipping themselves for life's battles. He delivered the Baccolaureate sermon at Lincoln Normal University, the State Normal, at Marion, Alabama, June, 1884. It was the best ever delivered there. The chairman of the board complimented him by saying it was "Bullion's Grammar" meaning thereby that it was a specimen of grammatical and literary excellence. He has a wife and one child. He was married in Philadelphia, by the Rev. William C. Dennis, January 7, 1885. On the resignation of E. M. Brawley, D. D., he was promoted to the presidency of the Selma University by the unanimous vote of the board, which was endorsed unanimously by the General Convention of the Baptists of the State of Alabama. The position which he now holds gives assurance of a wide field of extended usefulness both for himself and for the university. He is a man of strictly temperate habits, very quiet in his demeanor, earnest in his purposes and devoted to the causes which ought to be of interest to all. He has good influence over the students who admire him for the perseverance with which he has risen from poverty to a position of influence and usefulness.


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His life ought to be a lesson to every student. It ought to be an inspiration to every poor boy and none need despair. Though the road be hard, there is hope for all as is proven by the career of Mr[.] Purce. His scholastic habits, sound judgment and diligent application to business gives assurances of a magnificent future. Let Alabama take pride in her distinguished president who shall preside over the destinies of many of her future sons and daughters.


Illustration

CHAS. L. PURCE.


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LX.

ALEXANDER DUMAS.

        Distinguished French Negro--Dramatist and Novelist--Voluminous Writer.

        VERY few colored people know Alexander Dumas as one of the family, not being thoroughly acquainted with the absence of colorphobia in foreign countries. He has become so distinguished that his name enters into the ranks of the literati without question as to color, and no one asks what his color is, but simply refers to his works. The prolific French novelist and dramatist was the son of Alexander, who was himself the son of Marquis Davy de la Pailleterie and a Negro girl, Louisa Dumas of San Domingo. The mother of Dumas was named Marie LaBouret, an innkeeper's daughter, who was very fair, and it is a fact that some of the most tender and touching lines of his memoirs are those which refer to the boyhood days when she cared for him. It is truly remarkable what part the mothers play in the history of men's lives. It is said that the father of Demosthenes was a blacksmith; Euripides, a dealer in vegetables; Socrates, a mediocre sculptor; Columbus, a woolcarder; Shakespeare, a butcher; Cromwell, a brewer; and of Linneus, a poor


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country minister; but the greatness of these men has been accorded by those who speak of them, to the gentility of their mothers.

        The family was very poor, and about 1823 he entered Paris, where he was destined to do such marvelous literary work as would astonish its citizens. By looking at several authorities, there seems to be a difference of opinion as to what is bad among his writings, but it does not materially interfere with the facts, and does not, therefore, play much part in what I am about to say. At fifteen he was a clerk; at eighteen he began writing; he wrote much, but at first received no praise nor compensation for his work, but in 1826, when he was only twenty-four years old, his fame as an author began with the 'Novelles.' In 1829 he put on the stage an historical play "Henry III, et sa cour," which met the sharpest shafts of the critics because he disregarded all the stage proprieties of the times, but gained the applause of the populace and brought thousands to his purse. The Duke of Orleans led the applause, and so pleased and interested was he in this play when put upon the stage that he appointed Dumas as his librarian.

        Dumas was now on the topmost wave of success. His best known works are 'Les Trois,' 'The Three Musketeers,' in eight volumes, 'Monte Christo,' twelve volumes, and 'Le Reine Margot,' six volumes. Much of his literature is classed as immoral. It might be considered immoral in America, but certainly is not considered so in France, and perhaps the times in which he lived had something to do with the character of his writings. Whatever may be said of him, his name cannot be omitted from the triumphs


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of literature. It is said that his name is attached to over twelve hundred separate works. Says the 'American Encyclopedia':

        In 1846 he made a contract to furnish two newspapers with an amount of manuscript equal to sixty volumes a year, and this exclusive of his plays and other productions. Such fecundity raised the question whether he was really the author of the books attached to his name. A lawsuit in which he was involved in 1847 with the contractors of the Presse and Constitutionnel, brought to light the fact that he had engaged to furnish these journals with more volumes than a rapid penman could even copy. But though he made liberal use of the talents of assistants, he claimed sufficient share in the plan and execution of all the work to make it truly his own, and the judicial decision finally supported his claim. Herein the generosity of Dumas is shown, for it was his custom whenever a poor author with no reputation desired his assistance he often gave him a plot, drawing all the outlines and scenes, and permitted him to work it up, after which Dumas put his name to it and the poor author reaped the pecuniary benefit. There is another Dumas, the son of the distinguished dramatist, now living in France, who was born July 28, 1824, and who has inherited some of his father's talent. He was elected a member of the French Academy in 1875. He is the result of a union between his father and Ida Ferrier, an actress of Porte Saint Martin, in 1842.


        Sketches of all three Dumas will be found in various places, but of the father of this younger Dumas see the 'American Encyclopedia,' 'Encyclopedia Britannica,' 'Chamber's Encyclopedia,' and a sketch of the 'Life and Adventures of Alexander Dumas,' by Perry Fitzgerald, in 1873.


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LXI.

REV. WILLIAM REUBEN PETTIFORD.

        A Successful Pastor--Trustee of Selma University.

        THIS popular and influential pastor deserves mention for the trouble he has had to overcome and make his life successful. Hard, persevering labor and strong faith in the Almighty has wrought miracles for him, and through him many things. He was born in North Carolina, Granville county, January 20, 1847. His parents, William and Matilda Pettiford, were free, and consequently he followed the condition of his parents, and was free. While a boy, he had little opportunity more than getting a few lessons on Saturdays and Sundays; at ten years of age he could read very well. His parents sold their little farm and removed to Person county, North Carolina, where he had the benefit of private instruction, by which a fair knowledge of the common branches was obtained. Being the oldest child, a part of the burdens of the family were placed on his shoulders; but all the time he continued his studies and would get help here and there from individuals. The rigorous duties of the farm were indeed a heavy task, but, nothing daunted, only served as the


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means to rise in the hands of this struggling young man. Those days seem now as many of the best; they toughened his muscles, gave him confidence and patience. With all this he has become an ambitious and hard working minister. Converted July 4, 1868, and baptized August 3, 1868, by Ezekiel Horton, in Salisbury, North Carolina, that life was begun which made of the rude farmer boy an apostle of Christ and an upright, honest man. Soon the place of clerk to the Pleasant Grove church of which he was a member was vacant, and he was elected to the vacancy by unanimous vote. July 4, 1869; the young man was married to Miss Mary Jane Farley, daughter of Joseph Farley.

        Scarcity of business forced him to change his place of residence from North Carolina to Selma, Alabama, December, 3, 1869, where his knowledge of farming and books secured him work near Uniontown, not only as a farm hand but as a teacher. Affliction came to him in the loss of the partner of his bosom on March 8, 1870, only about eight months of married life having been enjoyed. This determined his course in getting further education; with a slender purse but strong arms and a full heart, he entered the State Normal school at Marion, Alabama, and remained seven years, teaching in vacations to secure the necessary means to pay expenses the following year. Once illness came on and the term opening, found no money on hand with which to commence; but nothing daunted, a job of work was sought; a garden was found in which he worked hard two and a half hours before and after school at ten cents an hour. This enabled him to get through


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the year with only nine dollars debt. This seems a clear demonstration of the fact that if parents will teach their children some kind of work while young, it will help them to rise in the world. It is also evident that his knowledge of farming brought him from the barn-yard to the pulpit; from the "country school" to a membership of the Board of Trustees of a university.

        His church membership was now with the Baptist church at Marion, Alabama, where he gained favor with the brethren by attending prayer meetings and conducting revivals, and was licensed to preach March 6, 1879. July 24, 1873, he was married to Mrs. Jennie Powell at Marion, Alabama, who died September 5, 1874. For the second time he was afflicted, for after a short season of connubial bliss she departed this life. As principal of the school at Uniontown, assisted by the Rev. John Dozier and Mrs. Florence Billingslea, his faithful laborers, the gentleman had great success, which, however, was resigned in 1877, so he might enter college and finish his education. Here his course was successful until 1878, when the trustees at Selma Institute, now a university, elected him a teacher at twenty dollars per month, with the privilege of studying theology under Brother W. H. Woodsmall, who was the president; this he accepted, but added to these duties the privileges of those of sub-agent. In November, 1879, the Board at the State Convention in its session at Opelika, elected him general financial agent; this was well done, for more funds were collected than ever before. During the first year, contrary to the unanimous wish of the trustees, he resigned to accept the pastorate of Union


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Springs, Alabama. November 23, 1880, he was again married, to Miss Della Boyd, a daughter of Richard and Caroline Boyd of Selma, Alabama.

        He received a letter of dismission from the First Baptist church of Marion, Alabama, and united with the St. Philips Street Baptist church, at whose request he was ordained to the Gospel ministry, November 21, 1880. Rev. W. A. Burch, then pastor, preached the ordination sermon; Rev. W. H. McAlpine gave the charge. These took part also with Revs. H. Stevens and John Dozier in the laying on of the hands after a rigid examination, assisted by Brother H. Woodsmall. He then moved to Union Springs, and here his first work was to release a church of a large debt and to repair and refit the edifice. The membership also was largely increased. At this place his first heir, Carry Bell Pettiford, was born, September 22, 1882. During this time he continued pursuing the study of theology under private tuition and was principal of the city school. On the last Sabbath of February, 1883, he resigned this charge to accept a call to the Sixteenth Street church at Birmingham, being urged to accept it by many of the leading men of the State, who represented to him that he could render the best service to the church in the larger field which this great progressive city afforded. The church at Union Springs refused to accept his resignation, and the pulpit was not permanently filled until the year after. When he took charge in Birmingham, there was only a membership of about one hundred and fifty, and the church was holding services in a down-town store room; while the debt amounted to five


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hundred dollars. His first effort was directed to canceling the debt and erecting a building suitable to present needs and to future growth. This was a work of no light undertaking. Being cordially received by all classes of citizens, he was much encouraged in the work. By August, 1884, the indebtedness was all paid off, and a building fund raised. August 18, the first stone for the new structure was laid, and on the ninth of November services were held in it. The collection on that day amounted to a large sum. The building is large, being 40 × 80, and substantially built, and when completed will prove an ornament to the architectural beauty of the city. Up to the present writing there has been seven thousand dollars paid upon the property, and on account of the recent rise in property in Birmingham, the building could not be purchased in its present locality for twenty-five thousand dollars. The total membership of the church is now four hundred and twenty-five.

        His family consists of wife and three children. His wife is a lady of education, full of energy and push, and in all his labors contributes very largely by way of encouragement and material help. At present he is president of the Ministerial Association in Birmingham, and also a member of the trustee board of Selma University; president of the Negro American Publishing Company, publishing the Negro American Journal of that city.

        Materially he has prospered; the wonderful growth of that city and rapid advancement in the price of real estate have benefited him so that his property on Sixteenth street is valued at eight thousand dollars. Besides this


Illustration

W. R. PETTIFORD.


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he has half interest in another piece of real estate of which the total valuation is placed at twenty thousand dollars. The reverend gentleman has always so comported himself as to gain the recommendation of the State officials and of all with whom he associates. Of him Brother. H. Woodsmall says, in a letter of recommendation to the American Baptist Home Mission Society:

        I take special pleasure in commending Rev. W. R. Pettiford, pastor of the Colored Baptist church, Birmingham, as a minister worthy of the Christian regard and confidence of all whom it may concern. I have known him during the past eight years; he was assistant teacher and a pupil in the Alabama Baptist Normal Theological school at Selma about three years, during the time I had charge of that institution. He was for quite a while financial agent of the school and collected a large amount of money. He not only made a successful agent but faithfully accounted for all monies collected. He was equally faithful as a missionary, and I have always found him a man of admirable spirit, as well as honest and trustworthy. His influence can but be good in any community where he may labor. I regard it as a specially fortunate thing for the Baptist cause that he is pastor of one of the leading churches in Birmingham at this time.


        No man in the United States has better means of knowing the general worth of Southern ministers than the brother who writes the above letter. He has lectured to more colored ministers in the South in any one year than perhaps any other Southern missionary has in any five years, and his testimony is acceptable in every district in the South where he has labored.


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LXII.

HON. ROBERT B. ELLIOTT.

        Congressman--Eloquent Orator--Distinguished Disciple of Blackstone.

        THE most scholarly Negro in any of the United States Congresses was the Hon. Robert Brown Elliott. His fame has been heralded to all quarters of the globe. He was a man of ability and unquestionable intelligence. His eloquence and logic carried his hearers into transports of joy, and swept his enemies before him like chaff before the wind. South Carolina sent more Congressmen to Washington than any Southern State--Rainey, Ransier, Smalls, Cain, DeLarge--but Elliott was easily chief in learning, knowledge of law and the arts of debate.

        This distinguished lawyer, orator and member of the United States House of Representatives, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, August 11, 1842. His parents were West Indians who had settled in this country. While a boy, he attended private school in his native city. Shortly after this he was sent to the Island of Jamaica, where he had superior advantages in the grammar schools. Thence he was sent to England, and in 1853 he entered High Holbon Academy, London. Three years later he was admitted to the celebrated Eton, one of the colleges


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of the University of London, from which he graduated with high rank in 1859. Adopting the law as a profession, he began study under Sergeant Fitz Herbert of the London bar. He soon returned to the United States and began the foundation of that illustrious career which made him the centre of attraction. His eminent teachers, travels in Ireland, Scotland, South America and the West Indies, had broadened his views of life and ripened his understanding.

        Choosing South Carolina as his home, he commenced his life work there as a printer on the Charleston Leader, which afterwards became the Missionary Record, owned by the lamented and eminent Bishop R. H. Cain, D. D. Soon Mr. Elliott became editor, and his powers were shown in the masterly articles he produced. When Congress began the reconstruction of the South, Elliott's eloquence and wisdom was in demand in South Carolina. He was elected to the convention from the Edgefield district. For fourteen days after the Constitutional Convention had met, he said not a word. This was his first public service under the election of the people, but when he did speak, it was the making of him. After the adoption of the Constitution he was elected from Barnwell county to the Lower House of the State Legislature, serving from July 6, 1868, to October 23, 1870. The governor of the State appointed him assistant adjutant-general of the State, March 25, 1869, which he held until elected a representative from South Carolina to the Forty-second Congress of the United States as a Republican, receiving 20,564 votes against 13,997 votes for J. E. Bacon, a Democrat. He served until March 4, 1871, when he resigned. During this session he


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made a most excellent impression on the country; nailed Beck, the member from Kentucky, to the wall, tingled the ears of Harris from Virginia, sent the following shaft full in the face of Alexander Stephens and drove him from the House. Said he:

        I meet him only as an adversary, nor shall age or any other consideration restrain me from saying that he now offers this government, which he has done his utmost to destroy, a very poor return for its magnanimous treatment, to come here to seek to continue, by the assertion of doctrines obnoxious to the true principles of our government, the burdens and oppressions which rests upon five millions of his countrymen, who never fail to lift their earnest prayers for the success of this government, when the gentleman was seeking to break up the union of their States, and to blot the American Republic from the galaxy of nations.


        I will give a passage taken from a very fine "Eulogy on the Life and Public Services of R. B. Elliott," delivered by Professor D. A. Straker, LL. D., Columbia, South Carolina, September 24, 1884. Mr. Straker was formerly a law partner of Mr. Elliott, and is competent to speak of his life:

        There was none abler to defend the rights of the Negro race against the opposition of Georgia's famous son than Robert Brown Elliott. This legislative battle for equal rights was an event in the history of the United States--nay, of the world--never before witnessed. There stood in the halls of Congress the representatives of divergent principles and conflicting ideas about human rights. There stood slavery and freedom, the advocates of rights for the white man only and the advocate of equal rights for all citizens before the law. Face to face stood the Anglo-Saxon and the undoubted African. The issue was before them; the contest began. Mr. Stephens was brought in the House in the accustomed manner--in his chair. He was even in such a condition looked upon as a giant among the Democratic Philistines. He severely arraigned the constitutionality of the Civil Rights bill and its policy, as did Mr. Beck of


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Kentucky and Mr. Harris of Virginia, who indulged in great bitterness of speech. At the close of Mr. Stephens' speech in the House of Representatives, now filled in every possible manner with United States Senators, who had suspended their labors to witness this sight, foreign ministers, judges, lawyers, clergymen, scientists, authors and the laity innumerable, all were there to witness the political miracle, and if God was God to worship Him, and if Baal was God to worship him. Eager eyes were fixed, doubting hearts pulsated with accelerated motion, when at last Mr. Elliott arose and in reply to Mr. Stephens, said: "Mr. Speaker: While I am sincerely grateful for the high mark of courtesy that has been accorded me by this House, it is a matter of regret to me that it is necessary at this day that I should rise in the presence of an American Congress to advocate a bill which simply asserts rights and equal privileges for all classes of American citizens. I regret, sir, that the dark hue of my skin may lend a color to the imputation that I am controlled by motives personal to myself in my advocacy of this great measure of natural justice. Sir, the motive that impels me is restricted by no such narrow boundary, but is as broad as your Constitution. I advocate it, sir, because it is right. The bill, however, not only appeals to your justice but it demands a response to your gratitude. In the events that led to the achievement of American independence, the Negro was not an inactive or unconcerned spectator. He bore his part bravely upon many battlefields, although uncheered by that certain hope of political elevation which victory would secure to the white man. The tall granite shaft, which a gratified State has reared above its sons who fell in defending Fort Griswold against the attack of Benedict Arnold, bears the name of John Freeman and others of the African race who then cemented with their blood the corner-stone of your Republic. In the State which I have had the honor in part to represent, the rifle of the black man rang out against the troops of the British crown in the darkest days of the American Revolution." In these words every man saw the greatness, the ability, and the patriotism of the speaker. Mr. Elliott then continued his speech, addressing himself to the legal, constitutional, political and social features of the Civil Rights bill, in which he completely annihilated the Georgia statesman. He then paid his attention to Mr. Beck of Kentucky, who had during the debate endeavored to cast odium upon the Negro, and to vaunt the chivalry of his own State, little thinking that


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there was in a Negro's brain or intelligence a foeman in retort worthy of his steel. Mr. Elliott reminded the Kentucky statesman that in the second war of American independence General Jackson reported of the white Kentucky soldiers that "at the very moment when the entire discomfiture of the enemy was looked for, with a confidence amounting to certainty, the Kentucky reinforcements, in whom so much reliance had been placed, ingloriously fled." And, with the culture of a well-skilled debater, Mr. Elliott then turned to Mr. Beck and said: "In quoting this indisputable piece of history, I do so only by way of admonition, and not to question the well-attested gallantry of the true Kentuckian, and to suggest to the gentleman that he should not flaunt his heraldry so proudly while he bears this barsinister on the military escutcheon of his State--a State which answered the call of the Republic in 1861, when treason thundered at the very gates of the Capital, by coldly declaring her neutrality in the impending struggle. The Negro, true to that patriotism that has ever characterized and marked his history, came to the aid of the government in its effort to maintain the Constitution. To that government he now appeals, that Constitution he now invokes for protection against unjust prejudices founded upon caste."


        He was re-elected to the Forty-third Congress as a Republican, receiving 21,627 votes against 1094 votes for W. H. McCan, Democrat, serving from December 1, 1873, to May, 1874, when he resigned to accept the very lucrative position of sheriff. In the second Congress of which he was a member, he delivered, April, 1871, his famous and long to be remembered speech on the "Bill to Enforce the Provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution," or better known as the "Ku Klux Bill." May 30, 1872, he again wrestled with the giants, and smote them "hip and thigh." Voorhees and Beck felt the sting of his words when he hurled the most fitting rebuke at them after they had made strictures on the financial condition of the State government of South Carolina. He returned


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home and was elected to the Legislature again. General Elliott made some mistakes in life in being easily deceived by men who used his talents to prop their tottering fortunes. Mr. Straker said:

        ut although himself unstained by any charge or charges by any court, he did not forget his political associates less fortunate, and whenever one was found in the coils of Democratic accusation, he freely gave what assistance he could to his release, both as a lawyer and a former political friend. In this service he did not stop to ask whether the Republican in trouble was his friend or not. Frequently it happened that he was his bitterest political foe and detractor of his just merits; yet he stood by him in his hour of trial, and gave him what advice he could. He was counsel in several cases in which these political trials occurred, and yet a few base detractors would rob him of his good name. And why, sir? Because "base envy withers at another's joy, and hates that excellence it cannot reach." When the din and roar of Democratic political persecution had ended, and the fire of their revenge had been quenched, General Elliott's public life still remained untouched by legal accusation. Mr. Elliott then ceased political life and continued the practice of his profession, contenting himself with the pleasant reeollection of having done his public duty faithfully and impartially.


        In 1881 General Elliott was appointed by Hon. John Sherman, secretary United States treasury, special agent of the treasury, with headquarters at Charleston, South Carolina. As a delegate to the National Republican convention at Chicago, June, 1879, he seconded the nomination of John Sherman for President of the United States. When, therefore, Garfield fell by the hand of the assassin, a change of administration threw him out of office, though he had been first transferred to New Orleans, Louisiana. He re-entered his profession there, having a branch office in Pensacola, Florida, conducted by Messrs. DeTucker &


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Thompson. He was a very brilliant Mason, and did much to re-establish its societies in South Carolina. He laid down his life in the city of New Orleans, August 9, 1884, 11 P. M., and was buried with ancient rights and ceremonies, on Sunday, August 10, 1884. The Plaindealer, Robert Pelham editor, said of him:

        With Robert B. Elliott has passed away one of the brightest types of American manhood and Negro capability. He was a model of the possibilities of a race; pushing against the tide of opposition, he reached an eminence in scholarship and oratory which is enjoyed by a few only. He was qualified to meet the demands of the times and grasp them. This he always did. In the halls of Congress he held the representatives spell-bound by his eloquence. In his social life he was affable and courteous. He was a born leader, made so by indomitable will and untiring energy. In his passing away, he leaves an influence that will inspire many to persevere, and his teaching will continue to develop nobler and truer conceptions of an exalted manhood, such as would be worthy to occupy the position before the American people that he has filled so creditably.


        Eloquent men pay tribute to eloquent men, and hence "The Old Man Eloquent" pays the following tribute to General Elliott, in the New York Globe:

        Living as I have done, in an atmosphere of doubt and disparagement of the abilities and possibilities of the colored race, early taught that ignorance and mental weakness were stamped by God upon the members of that race, Robert Brown Elliott was to me a most grateful surprise, and in fact a marvel. Upon sight and hearing of this man, I was chained to the spot with admiration and a feeling akin to wonder.

         There was no doubt as to complexion, form or feature. To all outward seeming, he might have been an ordinary Negro, one who might have delved as I have done, with spade and pickaxe. Yet from under his dark brow there blazed an intellect worthy of a place in the highest legislative hall of the Nation. I have known but one other black man to


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be compared with Elliott, and that was Samuel R. Ward, who, like Elliott, died in the midst of his years. The thought of both men makes me sad. We are not over rich with such men, and we may well mourn when one such has fallen. I, with thousands who knew the ability of young Elliott, was hoping and waiting to see him emerge from his late comparative obscurity and take his place again in the halls of Congress. But alas! he is gone, and we can only hope that the same power that gave us one Elliott will give us another in the near future.

FREDERICK DOUGLASS.



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LXIII.

PROFESSOR INMAN EDWARD PAGE, A. B., A. M.

        Principal of Lincoln Institute--Oratorial Prize Winner at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

        PROFESSOR PAGE was born under the yoke of slavery in the town of Warrenton, Fauquar county, Virginia, December 29, 1853. His parents were named Horace and Elizabeth Page. In early childhood he exhibited strong moral affections which have grown as he has advanced in years; although often placed under the control of persons who were in the habit of drinking intoxicating liquors, yet his invariable practice was to refuse when such liquors were offered him. This habit of total abstinence he has carried from childhood into manhood, and he has become a man of soberness as well as sobriety. Horace Page moved his family to Washington, District of Columbia, in 1862. The opportunity here presented itself to Inman, and he was sent to the private school of Mr. George F. T. Cook, which he attended a little over three years, and where he made a good record. He was hired out for several years, and in this way helped to support the family. During this time he attended night school taught by the late Professor George B. Vashon, from


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whom he obtained an elementary knowledge of the Latin language. Soon after the opening of Howard University, young Page resolved to enter it as a student. His father being unable to pay for him, he went to the university and applied for work which he obtained immediately. At that time the university grounds had not been graded and the authorities were willing to employ industrious students to do the work. Although quite young and unaccustomed to this kind of labor, Inman, nothing daunted, full of ambition, went to work as an ordinary laborer at the rate of fifteen cents per hour. He continued to work in this way until the beginning of the summer vacation, when he, with a few other students, decided to continue this work during the entire vacation. His zeal for study soon gave him a promotion to a janitorship, which he held until he was placed in charge of the university building. When General O. O. Howard was closing the affairs of the Freedmen's Bureau, Page was employed as one of his clerks. In this way he was enabled to attend the university until 1873. In the fall of 1873 he entered Brown University, at Providence, Rhode Island, he and his friend George W. Milford being the first colored students to enter that institution. Although he met with considerable prejudice, both from students and professors, he continued to struggle and at the close of the sophomore year succeeded in winning a prize in an oratorical contest, which established his claim for recognition; and to emphasize their endorsement, his classmates selected him to write a history of the class in the junior year. Towards the close of that year he was selected by the faculty to deliver an oration at the


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junior exhibition, which was pronounced by the Providence Journal, a leading newspaper in Providence, Rhode Island, "the ablest oration of the day." The impression made upon his white classmates by his scholarship, his orations and the "History" of the junior year, made him a prominent candidate for the position of class orator at the close of the senior year. Although a member of a class of over fifty white students which contained many brilliant young men of the best New England families, yet Inman E. Page, the Negro, was unanimously chosen to fill the position for which the ablest students were accustomed to struggle every year. This was a triumph indeed. He delivered an oration which attracted general attention, not only because of the ability evinced, but also because he was the first young man of color who had been selected by white young men to wear such an honor. The subject of the oration was the "Intellectual Prospects of America." While he was delivering his oration, Professor D. W. Phillips, now of the Roger Williams' University, Nashville, Tennessee, was sitting in the audience. Soon after the exercises were over he stepped up to him and offered him a position in the Natchez Seminary, Natchez, Mississippi. Mr. Page graduated with the degree of A. B. in the fall of 1877 and entered upon the duties of his position in the Natchez Seminary, where he gave satisfaction to the American Baptist Home Missionary Society, which employed him, and the colored people of Mississippi who were interested in the institution. At the close of his year's work he went to Providence, Rhode Island, where he married Miss Zelia R. Ball, a young lady of fine promise,


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who had graduated in 1875 from the Wilberforce University of Xenia, Ohio.

        In 1878 he was employed as a teacher in the Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, Missouri. For two years he was the only regular colored teacher in the institute, but at the close of his second session the board of trustees decided to place the school in the hands of colored teachers, with Mr. Page at its head. To those who thought the change an experiment, there was no confirmation of their opinions, nor were they made ashamed. Mr. Page succeeded in raising the enrollment from ninety-seven to one hundred and fifty-three the first year, and reduced the expenses to students by introducing the "club system." He secured appropriations from the Legislature with which to build a dormitory for young men, costing seven thousand eight hundred dollars, and one for young ladies costing nine thousand dollars, and other appropriations aggregating about three thousand dollars. He also secured bi-ennial appropriations by his solicitations and addresses before the Legislature from ten thousand to sixteen thousand dollars.

        In 1880 he received the degree of A. M. from his alma mater, Brown University. In 1883 Mr. Page was made president of a convention called to meet in Jefferson City for the purpose of organizing a State teachers' association in Missouri, and was afterwards elected president of the association for three successive terms.

        A Springfield paper, published by white men, speaking of Mr. Page, says:


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        He is now only thirty-two years of age and ranks with the most scholarly and cultivated men in Missouri, white or colored. Lincoln Institute was never so prosperous as during his presidency. His addresses abound in happy hits and salutary advice to his race. Large audiences are not only edified but captivated by his scholarly eloquence and simplicity of speech. He carried in himself one of the finest illustrations of what a thorough education can do for a colored man.


        On the fifth of January last he was elected president of a conference of leading citizens in Jefferson City for the purpose of memorializing the Legislature for an industrial school, and for more advanced educational facilities for the colored youth of the State. In the summer of 1885 he was invited to read a paper before the white teachers of Missouri on the educational needs of the Negro in Missouri, which made such a marked impression that he was unanimously elected an honorary member of their convention, receiving a vote of thanks and a pledge that the association would use its influence to promote the interest of Lincoln Institute. At the recent teachers' association held in St. Louis, P. H. Murry, of the St. Louis Advance, paid him the following compliment:

        He succeeded in proving at this convention his eminent fitness, both in culture and moral force, to preside over the educational interest of colored youth of Missouri. Races do not produce great men in very rapid succession. There may be many brilliant men, but with defects so apparent that their brilliancy is overcast with a cloud, and men who are possessed with native ability, can bring their culture, their moral character and habits of industry bravely to the front, side by side, and evenly developed, have the elements of success and usefulness, which brilliancy alone cannot secure. What the Negroes need among the educators of the State is a man of deep convictions, high sense of duty, unswerving will force and eminent culture; a man whose presence commands respect, and such a man we verily believe is Professor Page.



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        I have known Professor Page for many years, and can bear personal testimony to his greatness of heart, to the generosity of his feelings, and his deep sense of responsibility to God. While a student in Howard University he was converted and united with the Baptist church, with which he has ever held pleasant relations; his manly bearing, dignified demeanor, and cultured mind bear rich fruits, and his personal enthusiasm impresses those under his care to such an extent that they cannot fail to become useful citizens and prominent individuals. This, however, can only be attained personally by those who have the privilege as well as the honor to sit at his feet and have at least a great blessing, and are considerably helped toward the attainment of those things which befit them for useful lives. But the best of men have their enemies, and Professor Page has had his trials like all men. The following, taken from the Jefferson City Daily Tribune, is as fine an indorsement as any man would need. It is an honorable document and deserves a place here, and it speaks more eloquently than anything I might say:

        The following testimonial of the regard and high esteem in which the citizens of this place hold Professor I. E. Page, both as a private citizen and the head of Lincoln Institute, should serve as an ample refutation of all the false reports trumped up by mischievous and meddlesome people to injure his standing and that of the school among the colored people of the State:

         "Inasmuch as certain false and injurious reports have been published concerning the management of Lincoln Institute, and derogatory to the high standing of Professor Page and wife, we, the undersigned, feel that some testimonial is due the public in this regard, and cheerfully subscribe to the following facts:

         "Professor Page and his wife have resided in this city eight years, and


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for six years the institute has been under their management. During this time the work of the school has been improving from year to year and has been at all times better than under any former management.

         "Professor Page has labored earnestly and with marked success for the upbuilding of Lincoln Institute. He has extended the couse of study, increased the attendance and secured from the State large sums of money for the support of the school. He is an educator of ability and high intellectual attainments, a gentleman of refined manners and a sincere and earnest Christian, possessing at once the respect and good will of the best citizens of this city. We see no cause for complaint either against Professor Page or his wife. Their influence has always been exerted for the best interests of Lincoln Institute and the elevation of the colored race.

NAMES.

         "Arnold Krekel, president board of regents; L. C. Krauthoff, vice-president board of regents; R. E. Young, M. D., board of regents; Oscar G. Burch, board of regents; Jesse W. Henry, board of regents; W. E. Coleman, State superintendent public schools; W. T. Carrington, editor Missouri School Journal; Fred Rommel, J. S. Fleming, banker; A. Brandenberger, pharmaceutist; H. B. Church, merchant; J. A. Thomas, George W. Dupee, G. Branham, Howard Barnes, A. McCreary, T. C. Capleton, August Kroeger, deputy county clerk; W. H. Lusk, clerk Circuit Court, Cole county; Nelson C. Burch, attorney at law; John T. Craven, merchant; Jacob J. Peets, Hiram King, Wm. G. McCarty, post-master; F. J. Fromme, Wm. W. Wagner, sheriff of Cole county; W. Q. Dallmeyer, Louis Wolferman, merchant; James Hines, Harry Collins. J. M. Tompkins, C. A. Dixon, John A. Lindhardt, merchant; Archie Drake, John Gordon, C. C. Branham, Henry Bolton, Harrison Ramsey, sr., board of trustees, A. M. E. church; W. H. Jackson, barber; Phil. T. Miller, jr., D. D. S.; Warwick Winston, D. D. S.; Jas. E. McHenry, D. H. McIntyre, ex-attorney-general; Robert McCulloch, register of lands; Prosser Ray, Nathan C. Kouns, O. W. Gauss, pastor Presbyterian church; Hugo Monnig, Rudolph Dallmeyer, C. B. Oldham, J. H. Edwards, A. C. Shoup, R. E. Oldham, superintendent public school: Thos. M. Cobb, pastor M. E. church; J. M. Hays, J. L. Moore, J. W. Carter, C. W. Thomas, W. W. Hutchinson, S. W. Cox, H. Nitchy, S. P. Lewis, pastor Baptist church; John Delahay, John H. Dirck, J. A. Thomas, G. A. Fisher, J. T. Thorpe, physician; P. T. Ellis, L. C. Lohman, Jack Scott, H. M. Ramsey, jr., D. W. Anthony.



Illustration

INMAN E. PAGE.


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LXIV.

REV. E. K. LOVE.

        From the Ditch to the Pastorate of Five Thousand Christians--Editor of The Centennial Record of Georgia--Associate Editor--Honored of God.

        HE was reared a slave and had no educational advantages before the Emancipation; he worked on the farm until 1870. He was born July 27, 1850, in Perry county, near Marion, Alabama. Being very anxious for an education he quit the farm at the time mentioned, and in 1870 entered Lincoln University, Marion, Alabama. After studying one term he reached the highest class except one in the school. He found he had learned many things imperfectly. He left this school and returned to the farm in 1872, and from that to ditching, accumulating by this means enough money to leave home again; therefore, November 17, 1872, he went to Augusta, Georgia, where he entered the Augusta Institute, under the late Rev. Joseph T. Robert, D. D., LL. D. Previous to this he was licensed to preach, and December 12, 1875, at Augusta, Georgia, he was ordained. He was baptized into the fellowship of the Siloam Baptist church by the Rev. W. H. McIntosh, for whom he had a great attachment. In


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the Augusta Institute he gained the front rank in his classes; he entered the lowest, but soon reached the head of the first class which he led until he finished school in 1877. Under the auspices of the Home Mission Board of New York and the Georgia Mission Society; he was appointed missionary for the State of Georgia; this position he filled to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. July 1, 1879, he resigned and took charge of the First Baptist church of Thomasville, Georgia. The house of worship was repaired during his stay there, and four hundred and fifty persons baptized. October 1, 1881, he left this church and accepted the missionary position of the State of Georgia, under the auspices of the American Baptist Publication Society. This position he held for some time and gave entire satisfaction. October 1, 1885, he resigned and accepted the pastorate of the First African Baptist church at Savannah, Georgia. Since he has held that church he has baptized eight hundred and ninety-three persons. This church numbers five thousand members. He has held many positions of trust and honor among the brethren of his State, has been an assistant teacher at one time under Dr. Robert, and has taught three public schools. He has been appointed editor of the Centennial Record of the Negro Baptists of Georgia, which will be read at their first centennial meeting in 1888. He is also associate editor of the Georgia Sentinel, a Baptist paper printed at Augusta, Georgia. He is considered an eloquent speaker and deep thinker; has strong affections and is certainly persistent in pressing his views. He has the honor of holding perhaps the largest church in the United


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States, and perhaps in the world. To be able to do this great work is evidence conclusive of his possessing eminent power over men. His position is one that makes him as especially favored of God who has called him to this exalted station.


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LXV.

J. A. ARNEAUX, ESQ.

        Professional Tragedian, "Black Booth"--Editor--Poet--Graduate of the French Institutions of Learning.

        THE father of J. A. Arneaux was Jean Arneaux, a Parisian by birth. His mother was named Louisa Belle before her marriage, and was of French descent. Young Arneaux was born in the State of Georgia in 1855, and is therefore only thirty-two years of age; he is still a young man and is destined to rise to a wonderful eminence in his profession. He is following fast in the footsteps of the late lamented Ira Aldridge, the great impersonator and remarkable actor. He is of medium height, fair and handsome. He often in a joke says he was born handsome, traded it off for a fortune, and is now bankrupt of both. This is by no means true. His manner is winning and his conversation learned, filled with wit and humor. He is an enthusiast in his profession, and as he has the material which will develop greatness in any department of life, it would be strange if he did not accomplish very much should life be spared to him. His accent is slightly tinctured with a flavor of French, and one would imagine himself in the presence of a Frenchman who spoke English tolerably well.


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His movements are graceful and have the polish of a Parisian. No doubt he takes these qualities from his father and inherits them from his mother's blood. He attracts by his jovial good fellowship, but nevertheless is weighty in argument and as skilful with the pen as with the sword in his masterpiece (Richard III). Losing his mother early in life, when only twelve years of age, he lost the tender care of her faithful hand and the tenderness of her love.

        In 1865 he attended the first public school in his native city where he only learned his a, b, c's; next attended a small private school where he learned the fundamental branches. Then entering Beech Institute, he graduated after close application for four years. Then it occurred to him to go North and seek a better education. His parents had owned some property, but it had not yielded very much, so he was forced to work and pay his own expenses. In New York he was a student in German, Latin and other kindred studies. Being ambitious, he next went to Providence, Rhode Island, where he entered Berlitz School of Languages and mastered French.

        While a school boy in the lower grades he had a reputation for special excellence in the English studies, and was a good speller, easily mastering hard words which troubled others. His success was phenomenal at the Berlitz school, for he secured the head of the class with ease, after only a short time. He then visited Paris, and took two courses, one in the Academic Royal Des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres et Morals et Politique. On his way to New York returning home, he stopped at London and saw many of the sights and scenes worthy of visitation. After much study


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he appeared as a song and dance artist, and filled engagements at the celebrated Tony Pastor's Metropolitan theater on Broadway, New York, as well as at the old Globe theater.

        Mr. Arneaux's first appearance in legitimate drama was in 1876, at the Third Avenue theater, where he appeared as Tom Walcott, a Southern planter, in a drama of Southern life called "Under the Yoke, or Bond and Free." Although he had read Shakespeare, it was not until the spring of 1884 he took to study for the stage. He began after being repeatedly urged by a theatrical manager, with the character of Iago, in which he made his debut at the Brooklyn Atheneum, June 17, 1884. The New York Daily News, commenting on his acting, said:

        Mr. J. A. Arneaux, as Iago, surprised even his most ardent admirers with this difficult character to portray. He did what was his to do in a manner which proves beyond question that he possesses a keen preception of the cunning and craft necessary to a faithful copy of the accomplished villain. The whole play was Iago, and Mr. Arneaux's interpretation the best and truest in the entire cast.


        Thus encouraged he formed the first Shakespearian troupe of colored tragedians, now known to fame as the Astor Place Tragedy company. Under Mr. Arneaux's management this company appeared at several of the leading theaters in the city, including the Academy of Music. But it was not until 1885 that Mr. Arneaux's ambition was triumphantly crowned, when he appeared for the first time to advantage in Shakspeare's tragedy of Richard III. His debut in Richard III was in a contest for a gold medal given to amateurs for excellence by the New York Enterprise.


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At this contest the prize was awarded to him by the New York Sun, the newspaper men being judges upon the occasion. His next appearance in Richard III was in Providence, Rhode Island. Shortly after returning to New York he was tendered a testimonial reception and a banquet by the leading men and women of his race. In this testimonial he played Richard III and was crowned by a committee of ladies with a wreath of laurels, and an address was made in his behalf by an eminent professor.

        On the twenty-ninth of last October, Mr. Arneaux appeared in the Lexington Avenue opera house, and the following criticisms were made by prominent journalists. The Baltimore, Maryland, Director, says:

        We have seen him in the difficult role of the Duke of Gloster, we have also seen Macready, Booth and Barrett in the same character, and we are free to say that Mr. Arneaux's conception of the character, his superb management of the part he assumed, were perfect.


        The New York Clipper has said:

Mr. Arneaux is the rising star of the race.

        The New York Sun said:

Mr. Arneaux scored success as Richard the Third and carried off the prize:

        "Mr. Arneaux," said the New York Daily News, "merits the title of 'Black Booth.' " January 29, 1887, he played to a most refined and elegant assembly of people in the Academy of Music, in Philadelphia. The North American gave the following criticism:

        In his conception of the title role, Mr. J. A. Arneaux followed in most respects that of the best of living exemplars of the part, Mr. Edwin


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Booth, and he could not have taken a better model; but Mr. Arneaux is evidently not satisfied with being a mere imitator, for there were certain features both in his reading and in his manner that showed originality. His walk, for instance, was something peculiarly his own, and if it apparently lacked the silent dragging of the foot of the generally translated morose and cruel Gloster, its rather flippant step was in accordance with his well-sustained theory that Richard was a villain whose humors rapidly changed from wicked to jocose. It was in this spirit of merriment that Mr. Arneaux made Richard take the audience in his confidence by a lightness of phrasing after each of his gravest deeds that showed the insincerity of Richard's good professions.

         The idea is a novel one and most effective. The evenness of Mr. Arneaux's performance, and his accurate recital of the lines, deserve great praise and showed earnest and careful study.


        A correspondent of the Philadelphia Gazette and special correspondent in Philadelphia for the Cleveland Gazette said:

        The most effective and artistic scene given by Mr. Arneaux was the lovemaking with Lady Anne. In so passionate and natural a manner did he portray Gloster's well-concealed subtilty in his declaration to Lady Anne, and his supreme vanity upon his success in winning her, with such skill and pleasing inflection, that his ability as an actor was beyond question. But it was not until Richard was aroused from his dream by the terrifying visitations of the ghost of the murdered King Henry, that the audience were made fully aware of the wonderful talents of this brilliant young actor. It is useless to go into detail of this scene; suffice to say that his rendition of it stamped him a man of great promise.


        Mr. Arneaux has been employed at different times as a writer on the staff of the New York World, and is at this time engaged in writing sketches of the leading editors and educators for the Sunday edition of The New York Sun and the New York World. In 1884 he was employed upon


Illustration

J. A. ARNEAUX.


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the last named journal, and resigned to take the associate editorship of the Literary Enterprise. He soon became the editor and changed the name to the New York Enterprise, when he became sole proprietor. His office was burned out December 14, 1886, since which time the paper has been suspended; but while it was alive it was one of the best and most ably conducted journals in the country. In this paper he advocated the total abolition of the word color, and the substitution thereof of the word Africo-American, and has induced many to adopt this word in their editorial work. He also advocated industrial schools, which can be seen in a pamphlet read at the Sailors' and Soldiers' Reunion, recently held at Dayton, Ohio. He also advocated an African Historical Society for the purpose of preserving the writings and deeds of the colored authors and prominent persons in the race. He has written several poems, one as a tribute to Wendell Phillips; also an epic poem upon General Grant at Appomatox. This poem was the subject of a prize which was offered in a contest among several young colored aspirants, and at the same time secured much praise and comment for its rhetorical composition as well as the subject matter. He has issued a pamphlet of "Richard III," adapted for amateurs and the drawing room. He entered and graduated from the New York Grand Conservatory of Music and Elocution, where he gave diligent and ardent study for the purpose of completing his preparations for the stage. The future of Mr. Arneaux is in his own hands, and if he continues to succeed, will yet immortalize himself and bring credit and honor to the race.


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        We attach here a correspondence which will explain itself and show his immediate purpose:

MR. ARNEAUX AND THE MANHATTAN LEAGUE.

        J. A. ARNEAUX, ESQ.--Esteemed Sir: Being apprised of your intention of retiring from the stage for a period of two years for the purpose of studying--thus equipping yourself thoroughly for your noble calling--we, the undersigned members of the Board of Governors of the Manhattan League, beg to evince our appreciation for what you have already accomplished and applaud your resolution by tendering you a farewell testimonial and banquet and reception at any hall you may designate and any time that will suit your convenience. And beg to further request that you afford us the pleasure of witnessing upon the same evening a performance of a part or the whole of your favorite Shakespearean play. Hoping you may win your way to the realm of immortal fame, we remain yours admiringly, Rufus Hurburt, chairman; Charles Brodie, secretary; C. R. Dorsey, J. E. Garner, W. Landrick,. Frederick Banket.

New York, April 5.

To the Members of the Board of Governors of Manhattan League--Rufus Hurburt, Chairman:

        Dear Friends:-It affords me the greatest pleasure of my life to accept the token of high esteem you so generously offer me, and hope ere my race of life is ended to fully merit the bounteous honors you have bestowed upon me. I shall be pleased to have the testimonial take place at Clarendon Hall on the evening of April 29, and, if it pleases your will, with the assistance of Messrs. Thomas T. Symmons, George Smith, J. W. Harris and Misses Henrietta Vinton Davis and Bertie T. Toney, who have generously made a similar offer, render several of the most important scenes, including the last act of Shakespeare's tragedy of Macbeth. Yours, with exalted fraternal regard,

J. A. ARNEAUX.

New York, April 6.


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LXVI.

REV. RICHARD ALLEN.

        First Bishop of the A. M. E. Church--Founder of that Faith--An Eminent Preacher--A Devout Man.

        THE life and works of Richard Allen should now be read with much interest on account of the following notice that defines a very important epoch in the A. M. E. church:

EPISCOPAL ROOMS, AFRICAN M. E. CHURCH,
No. 1424 R. I. AVENUE,
WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, February 4, 1887.

TO THE BISHOPS, MINISTERS AND MEMBERS OF THE AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH:

        My Dear Brethren:-"Read, mark, learn and inwardly digest" the subject-matter of circular--the "Centennial of African Methodism." Its contents are more than a mere passing interest. "Remember the days of old; consider the years of many generations: Ask your father, and he will show thee; thy elders, and they will tell thee. Remember all the way which the Lord thy God led thee one hundred years in the wilderness!"

        Next November will be one hundred years since Richard Allen and his compeers left St. George's M. E. church, in the city of Philadelphia, (1787) and the bishops of the semi-annual meeting adopted the following preamble and resolutions:

        WHEREAS: November next, 1887, will be one hundred years since Richard Allen, Absalom Jones and others left the St. George's Methodist


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Episcopal church in Philadelphia, because "the colored people belonging to the Methodist Society of Philadelphia convened together in order to take into consideration the evils under which they labored, arising from unkind treatment of their white brethren, who considered them a nuisance in the house of worship, and even pulled them off their knees, while in the act of prayer, and ordered them to the back seats." (See preface to the "A. M. E. Church Discipline.") And,

        WHEREAS: This is the most decisive act of the religious colored people in the United States, and we know of none like it of the descendants of Africa in the world; if we except the resolve of the Haitians under Toussaint, Christophe Petiou and Boyer. These men were to Hayti and San Domingo, in a civil and politicial sense, what Allen, Jones, Tapsico and others were to the colored Christians of America; their act was manhood, freedom, and manhood Christianity. We must fully recognize their action a success--a republic we have--all therefore recognize their manhood because their acts prove it. To resist oppression in Church or State is manly. Toussaint and Allen are by us honored, revered and loved. The success of Allen and his compeers is demonstrated, for it has given us the largest colored organization in the world. It is therefore proper and right that we should commemorate an event so important and so full of interest to us as a race. Therefore be it,

        Resolved, first, That the chief pastors of the African Methodist Episcopal church request that next November, a date in that month be hereafter fixed, to commemorate the one hundredth year since our existence commenced, and that services be held at all our churches throughout the connection. The order of exercises to be fixed by each conference, quarterly conference, and pastor and each church. A general arrangement to be fixed by a committee hereafter appointed.

        Resolved, second, As our publishing interest has long suffered, because of her indebtedness, that a contribution be made by all of our churches, and whatever is collected to be appropriated to assist in the paying off of debts now resting on our publication department.

        Adopted.

Committee of Arrangements.
J. M. BROWN,

T. M. D. WARD,

H. M. TURNER,

R. R. DISNEY,

B. W. ARNETT



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        The growth of the A. M. E. church is a splendid tribute to the Negro genius. Of all the denominations under the name of "Methodist," white or black, it has seemed to have touched the heart of the Negro and made him a man of power. Its institutions and laws are the result of Negro genius, and is also the exhibition of his executive ability and abundant wisdom.

        When Richard Allen manifested his faith in the future and declared himself no longer willing to have the body and blood of Christ prostituted by being withheld from him until his white brethren(?) were served, he put his foot on the neck of hell-born prejudice and stamped it so hard that hell resounded with anger and a new song was given to the angels in heaven.

        It was in the early days of 1816, when the times were not favorable to the expression of a dissent from anything a white man did in Church or State. And he is revered by the African Methodist Episcopal church as the founder of their faith. Says one of their scholarly writers:

        If Luther was the apostle to mind freedom, and Wesley to soul freedom, then Allen was the apostle of human freedom, or liberty of mind and body. If Luther's motto was, "The just shall live by faith;" and Wesley's, "The world is my parish;" Allen's was, "I perceive of a truth that God is no respecter of persons." The sons of Allen, through Bishop Payne, have formulated the sentiment of the three as follows: "God, our Father: Christ, our Redeemder; and Man, our Brother."


        Many a time when a boy have I seen the tomb of Richard Allen in the little railing in front of the "Big Bethel" in the city of Philadelphia. This, the first church of the denomination, stands as a proud monument to the religious zeal


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of Richard Allen. It stands on the site of an old blacksmith shop where the first meeting was held, and as the generations pass this monument on the outside of the church, and go within the walls of "Big Bethel" they feel that Allen still lives. Often good "men's deeds are interred with their bones," but in this noble man's career we see a dignified manhood and religious zeal become the inspiration of four hundred thousand of those who follow in his footsteps. The Rev. B. W. Arnett has, in a graphic description of the times which I give here, shown how great was the cause for their separation from the white church:

        The causes which led to the organization of the African M. E. church are numerous; but a few facts will give an idea of the principal reason of our origin. After the close of the War of the Revolution, while the world was rejoicing at the establishment of a government whose declared principles were universal, political, civil and religious liberty, and while they were singing the anthems of peace, there was another mighty conflict going on--not on the battlefield, with sabre and musket, but in the churches and the social circles of the land. Prejudice, the unrelenting enemy of the oppressed and weak, was asserting its power; and from the year 1787 to 1816, the conflict continued without cessation. The colored portion of the numerous congregations of the North and South were wronged, proscribed, ostracised and compelled to sit in the back seats in the sanctuary of the Lord. The sons of toil and the daughters of oppression remained on these seats for some time, hoping that some of the members, at least, would receive a sufficient amount of grace to enable them to treat these children of sorrow with Christian courtesy. But they were doomed to disappointment; for soon bad yielded to worse, and they were sent up into the dusty galleries. There, high above the congregation, they had to serve the Lord silently--for not an amen must come down from the sable band. These and other indignities our fathers bore with Christian patience for a number of years. They were denied the communion of the Lord's Supper until all the white members had partaken. This treatment continued until forbearance ceased to be a


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virtue, and our fathers drew out from among them; for the watchfires of soul-freedom were burning in their bosoms. These were kindled and fed by the sentiments of the age in which they lived; for on every side could be heard the watchword of the Nation--"All men are born free and equal, and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."


        Allen was a man of independent character, and was converted at the age of seventeen. His influence, though a slave, was so great that his master allowed him to preach and have preachers to preach for him, as he pleased. His master was converted under his preaching, and yet I have some doubt of his conversion, as he made poor slave Richard Allen purchase his freedom. This man may have been a Christian; "God," who "moves in a mysterious way," may have done something for his soul, but he took Allen's money when he should have set him free. How they can ever harmonize God's words with their conduct will take a "general judgment" to tell. If for no other thing it were needed, it will be good for that. However, he had three able, honest men to stand by him: Rev. Absalom Jones, William White and Downs Ginnings, and they determined to erect a building for the colored people. Says an article in the Christian Recorder:

        This undertaking met with strong opposition from both white men in the Saint George's M. E. church and prominent colored men, while some of both classes encouraged him. Ministers of the M. E. church threatened to disown him and his followers, but with much sagacity he told them that if they turned him out otherwise than in accordance with discipline, he would seek redress. His own language is: "We are determined to seek out for ourselves, the Lord being our helper." He and his friends narrated to these brethren of the M. E. church the especial grievances suffered in their communion(?) He also told them: "If you deny us


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your name (Methodist), you cannot seal up the Scripture from us or deny us a name in heaven. We believe heaven is free for all who worship in spirit and truth."


        With manly dignity and a clear indication that he knew he was cutting loose entirely from a great body of people, believing as he did on religious doctrines, he said, when told finally that he would be disowned: "This was a trial I never had to pass through, but I was confident that the great Head of the church would support us." He states that on the first day he and Absalom Jones canvassed for money with which to purchase. They raised three hundred and sixty dollars after he had been authorized by the committee. He bought a lot on Sixth street, near Lombard, the site of the present Bethel church, Philadelphia. The committee agreed to purchase a lot on Fifth street and threw the Bethel lot on his hands. Having the true grit of manhood in his moral constitution, he said: "I would rather keep it myself than forfeit the agreement I have made." This he did. He says:

        As I was the first proposer for an African church, I put the first spade into the ground to dig the cellar (basement) for the same. The old blacksmith shop was made a temple in which to worship God. On canvassing the little society it was found that a majority preferred joining the Church of England, rather than force themselves upon the Methodist Episcopal society, by which they considered themselves badly treated. But Allen was a Methodist, and though but one other member of the society agreed with him, he stuck to the old church, again showing the true metal for a leader of the colored Americans.


        Richard Allen was born in Philadelphia in 1760. At seventeen he united with the Methodist society in the State of Delaware. At twenty-two he commenced preaching, and


Illustration

R. Allen


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traveled through the Middle States extensively. He was ordained a deacon in 1799, by Rt. Rev. Francis Ashbury, bishop of the Methodist church. At the organization of the A. M. E. church, A. D. 1816, he was elected and ordained the first African bishop in America. The following names were enrolled in the first conference held on this occasion:

        Rev. Richard Allen, Jacob Tapisco, Clayton Durham, James Champion, Thomas Webster, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Daniel Coker, Richard Williams, Henry Hardin, Stephen Hill, Edward Williamson, Nicholas Gailliard, of Baltimore, Maryland; Peter Spencer, of Wilmington, Delaware; Jacob March, Edward Jackson, William Andrews, of Attleboro, Pennsylvania; Peter Cuff, Salem, New Jersey.

        These men had faith in God and faith in themselves, and the splendid results of this day show that they did not miscalculate their calling. The power of this denomination is felt in the land; its leaders are courageous, bold and intelligent, and it has some of the ablest men in the country in its ranks. My personal relations with them have been of the warmest kind, and I give them credit for utilizing every man they can lay hold on, and they know how to nurse their young eaglets into strong eagles, and to put their best efforts at work for the spreading of their views.


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CHAPTER LXVII.

HON. SAMUEL ALLEN McELWEE, A. B., LL. B.

        Lawyer--Legislator--President of the Tennessee Fair Association--Orator--Speech in the Legislature on Mobs.

        IT is wonderful how easy some men rise in the world and how hard others struggle to accomplish the same ends. Every step with some seems marked with bitter trials; severe hardships and apparently insurmountable difficulties; but when at last the goal has been attained the prize seems ever so sweet--aye, sweeter than it could possibly be without the conflicts and discouragements. Samuel Allen McElwee is a brave soul, who can wear on his forehead ad astra per aspera "through difficulties to the stars." The chains of slavery bound his body not half so tightly as ignorance his mind. Already his voice holds the Tennessee Legislature with fixed attention while he defends his race and advocates the bettering of their condition. When the war ended he could not read. His father moved from Madison county, Tennessee, to Heywood county, Tennessee, in 1866. He was a farmer boy for many years, going to school only three months in the year; yet the boy studied till midnight, burning patiently the light which would give him opportunity to read, and


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which in after years gave him a brighter light whereby he might see the condition of his race and find a remedy for their many ills. Though worn with the daily toils, he never neglected his studies, and at each examination day entered with his class and passed the test, from the year 1868 until 1874. He then taught school awhile. He often tells how at the time he had been influenced by the National Era, Fred Douglass' paper, and how a thirst entered his soul for more education. He matriculated at Oberlin and waited on the table, picked currants and washed windows for his board. He then went to Mississippi at the end of that year, where he taught school for five years. After that he secured a school in Alabama for a time, and on one occasion, failing to secure employment, walked thirty miles to secure a school in Tennessee. He was often without money and even a place to sleep. Still anxious to get means for returning to college, he commenced selling Lyman's Historical Charts, Bibles and medicines, from which he became known as a great "Chill Doctor." He, however, could not return to school, and determined to study Latin, German and algebra under a a private teacher. After teaching a very large school in the day, he would walk ten miles two nights in the week to recite to a white student at Vanderbilt University, and if this effort meets some young man's eyes it is sincerely hoped that he will make the same effort as young McElwee. Victory awaits the daring, and reward always follows the persevering. His story of privations and sufferings, of the long tramps, selling maps, and his zeal for books so weighed upon the student teacher's mind


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that he told the president of Fisk University of the ambitious boy. He was invited by the president to enter the university. After one year in the senior preparatory class, for which he found himself prepared, he entered college and graduated thence May 26, 1883.

        June 30, 1887, Mr. McElwee will only be twenty-nine years old, and yet he seems a natural born politician, having canvassed his county every year save one since he was fourteen years of age. In the campaign of 1882 he traveled over the Eighth and Ninth congressional districts for the Republican party, advocating a just settlement of the State debt. He took his seat in the Tennessee Legislature, January 1, 1883, while he was still a student. He has just completed his third term. He studied law in the Central Tennessee College in Nashville, and graduated thence in 1885. He was a delegate to the Chicago convention which nominated Hon. James G. Blaine, and with six others voted for him on every ballot. In the Republican State convention of 1886 he was elected temporary chairman. Mr. McElwee takes a deep interest in the moral, social and industrial future of his people, and is president of the West Tennessee Colored Fair Association and the Memphis Fair Association. He was a commissioner in the colored department of the New Orleans Exposition, placing his State in a very favorable attitude. Mr. McElwee is a very magnetic speaker, forcible debater and indefatigable worker, a manly man and a truly honest citizen. Under the caption of a "Remarkable Record," this was written


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by a Kentucky editor after hearing him deliver a party speech in Hopkinsville, Kentucky:

        A biographical sketch of this gentleman reads like a romance. No colored man in the South ever rose as rapidly upon the rounds of the ladder of fame. In 1879, Mr. McElwee was an ignorant, friendless colored tramp, going over the country, disposing of maps and charts in order to put bread in his mouth, and keep body and soul together. In the summer of the year above mentioned he tramped from Hopkinsville to Nashville, a distance of seventy-two miles in three days, in order to attend school. He was elected to the Tennessee Legislature in 1882 without opposition, and was successful in having a bill passed appropriating sixty-six hundred dollars towards further protection, progress and prosperity of the Normal school. In 1884 he was again elected his own successor, beating his opponent, Mr. H. C. Nolan, a popular white Democrat, by a large majority. It was in this last session of the Legislature that this able colored man fought a hard and successful battle in passing a bill appropriating eighty-five thousand dollars to the West Tennessee Insane Asylum, and also fifty-five hundred dollars to the Deaf and Dumb Institution. He is a brilliant conversationalist and eloquent political orator; his countenance is pleasing and intellectual and the formation of his head favorable to the belief that he possesses a phrenological development of a very superior character; the dogmas of philosophy and crudities of theology are impaled by his humor, and his wit is so boundless that it crops out often in his more serious utterances.


        A man's associates can generally give good testimony as to his standing, so we quote a speech of R. R. Butler, who was selected by the Republicans of the Legislature to nominate Mr. McElwee for Speaker of the House of Representatives of the State of Tennessee during his second term. He says:

        Mr. Speaker: It affords me much pleasure to nominate a candidate for speaker, one who was a slave in the days of slavery, which I thank God have passed away. One that by his own strong arm and determined will, and being blessed with a splendid intellect, graduating a short time


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since at the Fisk University in this city with high honors, and those of us here who served with him in the last Legislature remember his gentlemanly bearing and industrious habits, always vigilant and active, looking after the interest of his constituents and especially his race. I mean the honorable S. A. McElwee of Heywood county. I am proud of this occasion, and it is but another evidence of where the race must look for recognition. Having been born in the midst of slavery, and a slave-holder myself, I am grateful to know that I state the feelings and sentiments of my party associates. I would not say a disparaging word of the gentleman nominated by the Democrats. I have served with him a long time, rating him to be an honest man and will preside over the deliberations of this house impartially and will treat the minority with fairness. While I say that much in justice to Mr. Hanson, I can say of a truth that S. A. McElwee is the peer of any member on this floor, and will make an excellent speaker, and it affords me much pleasure to vote for him.


        The future is big with promises for Mr. McElwee, and if his course is as steady in the future as it has been in the past, much can be expected from him in the way of honors, and he will lend inspiration to those around him. The Union, published in Nashville, gives a two column extract from his speech delivered on the subject of "Mobs" in the Tennessee Legislature, the issue of February 23, 1887. The words are those of a scholar, an orator and a patriot. They are full of wisdom and statesmanship--full of courage and boldness.

        Said he:

        It is remarkable to note the sameness with which all these reports read. It seems as if some man in this country had the patent by which these reports are written. Statistics do not show the number of Negroes who have in the past few years been sentenced in Judge Lynch's court, but judging from the number coming under our observation we are convinced that the number is most astounding. So prevalent and constant are the


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reports flashed over the country in regard to lynching of Negroes that we are forced to seek shelter with the poets and cry, "O for a lodge in some vast wilderness, some boundless contiguity of shade, where rumor of oppression and deceit, of successful or unsuccessful mobs might never reach me more." My ear is pained, my soul is sick with every day's report of wrong and outrage perpetrated upon the Negroes by mob violence. I am not here, Mr. Speaker, asking any special legislation in the interest of the Negroes, but in behalf of a race of outraged human beings. I stand here to-day and enter my most solemn protest against mob violence in Tennessee. Hundreds of Negroes, yes thousands, from all parts of this Southland, are to-day numbered with the silent majority, gone to eternity without a tomb to mark their last resting place, as the result of mob violence for crimes which they never committed. As we to-day legislate on this question, the spirits of these Negroes made perfect in the paradisiacal region of God, in convention assembled, with united voices, are asking the question, "Great God, when will this Nation treat the Negro as an American citizen, whether he be in Maine, among her tall pines, or in the South, where the magnolia blossoms grow?" Mr. Speaker, Tennessee should place the seal of eternal condemnation upon mob violence. "Your sins will find you out." The spirit of God will not always strive with man. For years American slavery was the great sin of the Nation. In the course of time God made clear his disapproval of this National sin by a National calamity. Four years of destructive and bloody war rent our country in twain and left our Southland devastated. The war came as the result of sin; let us sin no more lest a greater calamity befall us. We have had several cases of mob violence in Tennessee within the past six months. The saying that "light itself is a great corrective," is as true as trite. What is the position of the public press on mob violence?

         I stand here to-day, Mr. Speaker, as a member of this body and a lover of my people, and indict the public press of the State for condoning, by its silence, the wrongs and outrages perpetrated upon the Negroes of the State by mob violence. Who doubts for a moment but that the public press of the State could burn out mob violence in Tennessee as effectually as the mirrors of Archimedes burned the Roman ships in the harbor of Syracuse? Read the dailies and the majority of the weeklies, and you will find them on the mobs at Jackson, Dyersburg and McKenzie as dumb as an oyster. The mob at Dyersburg took place in broad day-light, and


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as the result of that mob hundreds of Negroes refused to attend the second annual exhibition of the West Tennessee Colored Fair Association, which was held at Dyersburg in October, 1886. The mob at Jackson is without a parallel in the annals of our State. Go with me, Mr. Speaker and gentlemen, to Jackson and look at that poor woman, with that weakness and tenderness common to women, as she is taken from the jail and followed by that motly crowd to the courtyard. The bell is rung, they enter the jail and strip her of every garment, and order her to march--buffeting, kicking, and spearing her with sharp sticks on the march. "She was led as a sheep to the slaughter; and like a lamb dumb before her shearer, so opened she not her mouth." She was swung up. her body riddled with bullets and orders issued not to interfere with her until after nine o'clock the next morning, in order that she might be seen. Men who spoke against it and said it was an outrage, had to leave town. Others who thought of giving vent to their feelings en masse by series of resolutions, were told that they had not better attempt it. Mr. Speaker, society prepares crime, and the criminal is only the instrument by which it is accomplished.

         I therefore again indict the public press and citizens of Madison county for the foul play upon the person of Eliza Wood, and hold them to a strict account before the bar of eternal justice for the wrong done. The mobs of Jackson, McKenzie and Dyersburg are mentioned because they are the most recent, not because they are exceptional or that we lack other examples. Grant, for the sake of argument, that these parties were guilty, does that make it right and accord with our principles of justice? When the citizens of Madison, Dyer and Carroll go to judgment with the blood of Eliza Wood, Matt Washington and Charles Dinwiddie on their garments, it will be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in that day that it will be for Jackson, Dyersburg and McKenzie. For two hundred and fifty years, Mr. Speaker, we were regarded as chattel. More than twenty years ago we were made citizens, and as such we ask at your hands that protection which is common to American citizens. The sainted Garfield told us to go home and make friends with our neighbors. We are here to-day knocking at your door and ask that you "entreat us not to leave you or return from following after you; for whither you go we will go, and where you lodge we will lodge; your people shall be our people, and your God our God; where you die will we die, and there will


Illustration

S. A. McELWEE.


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be buried; the Lord do so unto us, and more also, if aught but death part you and us." If this mob violence continues, its influence upon society will be worse than the malign influence which Cataline wielded over the reckless and abandoned youth of Rome. Mob violence is sowing in America a seed that will ripen in a conspiracy that will eclipse in gigantic proportions the great conspiracy of Cataline to lay Rome in ashes and deluge its streets in blood, for the purpose of enriching those who were to apply the torch and wield the dagger. Mr. Speaker, the time has passed in the history of this Nation for race wars. We cannot afford it. There are at present questions of very great importance demanding the attention of both races. They call for the united effort on the part of both. The labor question, tariff and public service are all important, the interest of the white man is the interest of the black man, that which hurts one will hurt the other; therefore, as a humble representative of the Negro race, and as a member of this body, I stand here to-day and wave the flag of truce between the races and demand a reformation in Southern society by the passage of this bill.


        The bill was defeated, but great excitement was produced by the terrible lashing which they received. His style was impressive and they listened with no slight interest to his powerful arraignment. It will yet bear fruit and do good. All the members of the Legislature have a high respect for his ability, integrity and loyalty to his constituents. His popularity with the people of his race is unbounded, and he is careful to live honorably and with soberness, thus challenging their admiration and courting their friendship.


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LXVIII.

REV. LOTT CAREY.

        First American Missionary to Africa--The God-sent Missionary.

        CAREY was an earnest disciple of Christ. He began life as a poor tobacco packer in a warehouse in Richmond, Virginia. Born about 1780, he lived a very profane and wicked life. About 1807, in the gallery of a Baptist church, he heard a sermon from the third chapter of John, and he was so impressed with the story of Nicodemus that he determined to learn to read, that he might know the story for himself, and be able to repeat it word for word as he heard it. A Testament was his first reading book. He was a prudent man, who made and saved money with which he purchased his freedom. While in a night school, to the astonishment of everybody he announced his intention of going to Africa as a missionary. His teacher, William Crane, had that night been lecturing to them on the Messrs[.] Burgess & Mills report of an exploration on the coast of Africa. The matter so stirred up Carey that it made him declare his intention as heretofore stated. He was worth about fifteen hundred dollars in real estate, and his employer not desiring to lose his services,


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offered to raise his salary two hundred dollars more per year: but Carey having fully consecrated himself to this service, accepted an appointment as missionary of the "Tri-ennial Convention" and set sail to Africa, accompanied by Rev. Collin Teague, who was the first American to go to that country on such an errand. Teague was a great admirer of Carey, and once said very enthusiastically to a white man, "I don't hear any of your white ministers that can preach like Lott Carey." He sailed on the twenty-third of January, 1820, and after forty-four days reached Sierra Leone. Says the story of 'Baptist Missions:' "The agent of the Colonization Company had not yet purchased any land, and therefore could not receive him and his friend Teague as cultivators of the soil." Hence they were obliged for some months to work as mechanics. In 1824 he was appointed physician to the settlers in Africa, a position, the duties of which his studies of the diseases of the country enabled him to discharge. In 1828 he became acting governor of Liberia. It is said that in 1823 Mr. Carey and his fellow-colonists lost confidence in the administration of the colored society. They found its government oppressive and demanded reform. Some few of the malcontents took advantage of the general insubordination and siezed a portion of the public stores. We have only Governor Ashmun's account of these transactions. However, Lott Carey declared that he acted only on principle in the matter, which was afterwards compromised, and on his death-bed Mr. Ashmun urged that he should be permanently appointed to conduct the affairs of the colony, expressing perfect confidence


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in his integrity and in his ability to discharge the duties of the office.

        Sometimes they would have difficulties with the natives in Liberia, and it was necessary to do fighting as well as preaching. Carey was pretty good at both, and lost his life while making cartridges. An explosion took place in which he was badly injured, and after lingering some days he died, November 10, 1828, leaving many to mourn his loss, and besides, leaving as a legacy to the American people the life of a devoted missionary. It has been said the Negroes have no fine feelings and that they are but little above irrational animals, but here is a man with no circumstances to inspire him, bearing in his heart a tender love for the Africans who knew not Christ, even though he, himself, was fettered with the chains of American slavery, and could see something for him to do in relieving others who, while free in body, were chained in sin. It is a remarkable fact that Lott Carey is the namesake of William Carey, the "singing cobbler" of London, who first carried the gospel to the dark skinned races of India. The white and the black Carey shall forever live side by side in the hearts of those who sympathize with downtrodden people. It has been said that the race has not furnished sufficient great men for biographers and encyclopedists to take cognizance of them, but here is a man who was born before this century began its course, whose name is imbedded in the history of his time and solidly wedged in the great books of the age.

        Fair sketches will be found of his life in the American Baptist Missionary Union literature, the story of 'Baptist


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Missions,' 'Encyclopedia of Missions,' by Harry New-comb, 'American Encyclopedia,' and in a sketch called "Africa in Brief," by the Rev. J. J. Coles, present missionary to the Vey tribes in Africa.


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LXIX.

HON. JOHN MERCER LANGSTON, A. B., A. M., LL. D.

        Lawyer--Minister Resident and Consul-General--Charge de Affaires--President of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute--Formerly Dean and Professor of Law in Howard University.

        ONE of the greatest Negroes in America is the subject of this sketch. His name has become a household word, especially among the younger generation, and his deeds shine brightly alongside of those of even older men. My personal acquaintance with him dates from the time I was a student attending Howard University, in 1870, to the present day. I remember him well as a man who did not fear to speak his opinions. In those days there were many colored men who bowed and scraped to any kind of bloated, shoddy aristocracy. We all had faith in him, and I remember distinctly that of all the six hundred students at that time, not one could have been found who believed Langston thought himself less than the best citizen of the country. At present, however, we have to deal with his distinct acts which, developed him into the great man we now find him.

        He was born in Louisa county, Virginia, December 14, 1829, and is, in blood, Indian, Negro and Anglo-Saxon. He


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has the fortitude of the first, the pride of the second and the progressiveness of the third. He was born in slavery and takes, since his father was his owner, the name of his mother's family, which was Indian and Negro mainly, and was closely related to the family of Pocahontas. In this he can make the boast that he belongs to the F. F. V's. Emancipated when a mere child upon the death of his father, by his will and testament he was sent to the State of Ohio, where he grew to manhood, and was educated and pursued a professional and official life to the year 1867.

        In 1884 he entered Oberlin College, located at Oberlin, Ohio, and graduated after five years regular collegiate study in 1849. He then sought admission to a law school, conducted by Mr. J. W. Fowler at Ballston Spa, New York, but was refused admission on account of his color. He was advised to edge his way into the school, claiming he was a Frenchman or Spaniard coming from the West Indies, Central or South America, for he could well pass for either, but his open manly nature scorned a trick even for success. He next tried to gain admission to a law school in Cincinnati, Ohio, conducted by Judge Timothy Walker, but he was refused here too, with the kind assurance from the judge that he being a young colored man could not find himself at home with white scholars. That man never made a greater mistake in his life.

        He was forced to seek a situation as a student in some lawyer's office, and his success in this direction was poor enough, as few white lawyers in our country were ready in 1849 to take a Negro law-student into their offices. Only the Hon. Sherlock J. Andrews of Cleveland, Ohio, would


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consent to furnish Langston books, with an occasional opportunity for explanation of law doctrines and principles, so that no interference was made in ordinary office business. Of course there was little accomplished in this way, and the attempt under such cruel embarrassments only served to discourage him, so he abandoned the study for awhile, and entered the Theological Department of Oberlin College, from which he graduated in 1853. Then he entered upon the study of law under the tuition of Hon. Philemon Bliss of Elyria, Ohio, at the time one of the first lawyers of the Ohio bar, distinguished especially for his excellent culture, and his anti-slavery sentiments and utterances, as well as his large and commanding influence in the community. About one year later Mr. Langston appeared by order of the court for examination, with reference to his admission to the bar, before a special committee appointed by the court, composed of two Democrats and one Whig. The matter of admitting colored men to the bar was novel. No one of this class up to that time had the temerity to offer himself as a candidate for such an honor. Mr. Langston was in the lead so far as the western part of the country was concerned, but his erudition in law was so apparent, and his general knowledge, classic and scientific, so profound, that he at once won the favor of the committee; but here again was the ghost of color. "Shall a Negro or mulatto be admitted to the Ohio bar?" "Can he be, legally?" At once the answer was made to these questions in the negative and in the judicial phrase with emphasis. The old Whig member of the committee, a man of generous and manly sentiment


Illustration

JOHN M. LANGSTON.


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suggested to his colleagues and the court composed of five distinguished lawyers, that it might be well in view of the late decision of the Supreme Court of the State of Ohio to inquire whether Langston was either a Negro or mulatto; "for," he urged, "Judge Bliss is taking care of his case:" whereupon the color of Langston was inquired into and when it had been decided that he had more white than Negro blood, as it was phrased, he was ordered to be sworn by the court as a lawyer, October 24, 1854. Constant and uninterrupted scholastic labors including school teaching during the winter season from 1844 to 1855, eleven consecutive years, had considerably disturbed Mr. Langston's health. At the suggestion of his physician, he went, therefore, as soon as he was admitted to the bar, upon a farm in Brownhelm, Lorain county, Ohio. This was a rich, popular, intelligent and progressive community of white people in one of the best sections of the Western Reserve. He was the only colored person residing in that part of Ohio, but he no sooner purchased his farm and settled among these good people, than he was cordially welcomed with opportunity for the employment of all the ability, legal and otherwise, which he possessed. One week, just after he had moved into this new home, a leading Democrat lawyer of the community called upon him to assist in a trial of a very important case involving several questions of possession and occupancy of land, requiring consideration and verdict of a jury. Mr. Langston was, of course, delighted with such a call, and he hastened to accept it. It was well he did so, for no man ever gained a greater advantage and more various than


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that which came to him from the call of his friend, Mr. Hamilton Perry. For the first time, in the fall of 1854, on a beautiful Saturday afternoon, a colored lawyer appeared in an important suit as the assistant of a white attorney. The court, the witnesses, the lawyers, except Langston, were all white. Such was the success of the colored lawyer in connection with this case that he found himself at once surrounded by numerous clients with fat retainers. From that time he grew in business and influence rapidly and solidly. The spring elections in 1875 in the State of Ohio was signalized for the first time by the nomination and choice to the clerkship of one of the most advanced townships of the State, of a colored man, upon a total white vote. For the first time, too, in the history of our country, a colored man had been elected to an office of responsibilities and emoluments upon a popular choice. This fortunate colored man was Lawyer Langston. He was immediately called in view thereof to take part as one of the orators of the May meeting of the American Anti-slavery Society, held in 1855 in New York City.

        The speech on that occasion was of such character in sentiment, delivery and effect as to secure its full report and publication in the daily papers of New York and the leading journals and periodicals of the Anti-slavery societies of the times. Those who heard the speech of the young orator never can forget how his first sentences were uttered. His words were these:

        A nation may lose its liberties and be a century in finding it out.

         Where is the American liberty?


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         In its far reaching and broad sweep, slavery has stricken down the freedom of us all;

         And American slavery itself has gone glimmering into the things that were.

         A schoolboy's tale, the wonder of an hour.


        In his capacity as clerk in Brownhelm township, Mr. Langston was given special opportunities in connection with his profession, but he was, by reason of his peculiar relations to the Board of Education of the township, given special duties as regarded its common schools. Indeed he was ex-officio school visitor. In the fall of 1860, Mr. Langston was engaged in looking after the school interests of the colored youth of Ohio, organizing schools among them and supplying teachers thereof, traversing the entire State from Lake Erie to the Ohio river. When the war came, Mr. Langston signalized his conduct by loyal patriotic labors in favor maintaining the authority of the government, and although he did not go into the field as a soldier, he engaged actively in recruiting troops and did more, perhaps, than any other single man to recruit the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth regiments, to the latter of which regiments he gave the colors. He also recruited the Fifth regiment of colored troops of Ohio, to which also he gave colors, and finally when he thought the colored American should be given the full recognition which he had won, as introduced to Secretary Stanton by General James A. Garfield, he asked of that great war officer a commission as colonel, with permission to recruit and command a colored regiment officered by colored men who had already won distinction in the service. Such proposition


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was taken under discussion by the government, but it was not decided in time to give Mr. Langston his commission before the war closed.

        Moving to Oberlin in 1856, Mr. Langston was at once elected clerk of the township of Russia; next year a member of the council of the incorporated village of Oberlin for two years, and a member of the Board of Education in that village, successively for eleven years. In this time he became especially distinguished for his skill in examining witnesses and his eloquence and power in addressing courts and juries.

        Mr. Langston was an able, bold, determined advocate, using tongue, pen, and all the force of his nature and learning in behalf of the enslaved and oppressed colored Americans, demanding for them freedom, legal rights, and educational advantages. In 1867 Mr. Langston was invited by General O. O. Howard, through the influence of the Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, Hon. Salmon P. Chase, to act as general inspector of the schools of the freed people of the country. It was in July of the same year that he made his first trip southward on the errand indicated. He went entirely through the State of Mississippi on this trip, visiting and speaking in every prominent place in the South. On his return he found President Johnson declaring at the White House and through the journals of the country, that he intended to relieve General O. O. Howard of the commissionership of the "Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands," to which he had been appointed by President Abraham Lincoln, and that he would appoint thereto Langston, if he would


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consent to take the place. Langston would not consent to such a change, claiming that General Howard should be retained and supported in his position, going even so far as to tell General Howard all that the President held and said against him, and tendering his services in his support, to the extent of a call upon and an argument to General U. S. Grant in his behalf. He did call upon General Grant, then secretary of war, whom he found altogether ready and willing to hear all that could be said in General Howard's favor. In his interview with General Grant, Mr. Langston became enamored of him and made bold to say to him that the advocacy of such sentiments as he had so clearly and eloquently expressed with regard to the reconstruction, the rights, the education and the care of the newly emancipated classes, would make him the next President of the United States. General Grant was elected to the position. About this time President Johnson offered to Mr. Langston the mission to Hayti. This he declined, preferring to remain at home.

        This same year, 1867, he was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of the United States, on the motion of Hon. James A. Garfield. He continued to act as general inspector of Freedmen's schools, traveling throughout the South during the time, to 1869, when he was called to a professorship in the Law Department of Howard University. He at once became Dean of that department, organizing it, and for seven years he was at the head of what was recognized as one of the finest law schools in the country, and graduating therefrom many of the first white and colored male and female students of the law


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that ever went from such an institution. It was from this: school, while under his charge, that the first female student of the law in the world, a young colored lady, Miss C. B. Ray of New York, was awarded a diploma. During the last two years that Professor Langston remained at Howard University he was, by especial request, made vice-president and acting president of the institution. He filled this position with such marked efficiency and success, that at the close of his first year of such service the Board of Trustees of the university conferred upon him by special arrangement and in an especial and impressive manner, with address by General Howard, the degree of LL. D. During this time he was appointed by President Grant a member of the Board of Health of the District of Columbia. For seven years he acted as attorney of the board and for one year as its secretary. As a sanitarist, he was able and efficient.

        In 1877 Mr. Langston was appointed by President Hayes United States minister resident and consul-general to Hayti. In this position he served his country in an acceptable and conscientious manner, as the records of the State department will show, from September 1, 1877, to to July, 1885, almost eight years. As a diplomat he was an entire success, and the citizens always found him ready to serve them, as well as the officers; and the people of the country, near whose government he resided, united in bearing testimony to the fact. Besides being the Dean of the Diplomatic and Consular Corps, he was most of the time while in Hayti, a personal and great favorite in general society. It was as the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps.


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that, during the yellow fever in the country when the very popular representative of the French government died of such disease, he pronounced an eulogy upon him at his tomb, in the French language, of such character and order of elegance and beauty that it found its way into the public journals of Paris and brought to him, through the French government, the cordial acknowledgments of the family and friends of the deceased ambassador. In the government of San Domingo, Mr. Langston was charge de affaires of our government, and his relation with the officers of that government, though many of the matters he had to deal with were like most of those in Hayti, difficult and trying, he won the warmest respect and consideration from all parties concerned. On the thirtieth of January, 1885, Mr. Langston, of his own choice, resigned the position of United States minister resident to President Arthur, having resolved on the expiration of his administration to return to this country and enter again upon the practice of his profession. After considerable delay, in July, 1885, he returned, and was at once employed by one of the first business houses of the country to attend to its interests in the West Indies. He made a single trip in such services, when, upon his return in the same year, he found that he had been elected by the Board of Education of Virginia, President of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, which was founded by the government in 1882, and supported by popular appropriations of twenty thousand dollars annually. The faculty, as at present constituted, is composed of ten well educated, scholarly persons, four ladies and six gentlemen. In


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addition to the ordinary departments and courses of study established and pursued in the institute, covering all the branches of the higher mathematics, philosophical, scientific and classical studies, the law provides for and creates a summer school for the public school teachers, which was attended at the last session by over two hundred teachers. The estimate put upon President Langston in his present position by the officials of the educational department of the government of Virginia, is discovered in the following words of the late superintendent of public instructions of Virginia, Hon. J. B. Farr, in his annual report for 1885:

        After considering the applications of all who presented their claims for the place, the board determined not to confine its selection to applicants, but to seek out a man that would add most dignity and weight to the position, and whether he had applied or not to tender him the appointment. After taking into consideration the education, intelligence, honesty, energy and general ability, Hon. John Mercer Langston, ex-minister to Hayti, was considered pre-eminently fitted for the great work, and the Board of Education, November 19, 1885, unanimously elected him President of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. This was done without solicitation on the part of Professor Langston or his friends. Indeed he knew nothing of it until the official announcement of the action taken by the board was made. This was one of the extremely rare cases on record where the office sought the man, and we believe the quest was well rewarded. Fortunately for his race and State, he is a Virginian by birth, and he had patriotism enough to accept the honor and assume the responsibilities of building up an institution which has in its compass the grandest possibilities, and which reaps a wide and untilled field of usefulness. President Langston's reputation is national, and he not only enjoys the highest esteem and confidence of his own people, but by his education and ability commands respect of all with whom he is thrown in contact.



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        The following resolutions show how the president is appreciated by those over whom he presides: At the close of his usual Thursday lecture, on the twentieth of January, 1887, Professor D. B. Williams, on behalf of the faculty of the institute and its two hundred students, presented the following preamble and resolutions:

        WHEREAS, The Hon. J. M. Langston, LL. D., did at a very critical period in the history of the institute, accept the presidency unanimously tendered him without his solicitation by the Honorable Board of Education at much personal pecuniary sacrifice, and

         WHEREAS, He has succeeded so well not only in placing it upon a solid foundation, but is rapidly making it one of the leading institutions of the country; therefore be it

         Resolved, first: That we regard our president as being fully equipped for the great work in which he is now engaged, in everything that pertains to intellectual ability, high moral purpose and religious culture.

         Resolved, That his coming into Virginia as an educator has proved a great blessing to the people of the commonwealth and is indicative of great future results for good.

         Resolved, That in these resolutions we voice the sentiment of the people of the State by asserting that his administration of the affairs has been entirely successful, and has caused the sons and daughters of Virginia to turn their faces toward this fountain of learning.

         Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be handsomely engrossed by the committee and presented to the president.


        He is amongst the most scholarly, refined and accomplished gentlemen of the race. Surrounded as he is by wealth, and even luxury, he is a good parent, and owes much to his charming wife, who has been a great help to him in reaching this eminence. She has made his home pleasant and entertained his guests well, all of which goes a great distance towards a man's promotion. He has many testimonials of all kinds, that show his standing


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among men and testify to the worth of his character. What a beautiful picture is the engrossed resolution of the Board of Health of the District of Columbia, awarded President Langston as he took his leave of it in 1877, as the same hangs upon the wall of the broad and magnificent passage of his residence, and his certificate of life-long membership as a fellow of the great English philosophical association, the Victoria Institute, composed of the distinguished scholars and thinkers of the world. Then still how beautiful and interesting to witness the fact that a great library, law, scientific, literary, commercial, industrial, in the French, Spanish, Hebrew, Greek, Latin and English languages, gathered by him during the thirty-five years of his student life, occupying cases located in every part of his house, inside and outside the library room proper--every available nook and corner thereof.

        It seems only a question of time when Mr. Langston will be made member of Congress from Virginia, and may it be so. He would be heard from on the most important questions of the day, nor would the matters pertaining to the race be neglected.

        Let me close with the opinion of the Montgomery (Alabama) Herald, concerning President Langston:

        It is impossible for the Fourth Virginia Congressional District to elect a man that would reflect more credit upon his constituents and race, or American statesmanship, than Mr. Langston. He is undoubtedly the highest type of Africo-American citizenship. All through his long, eventful, venturous course, leaping with giant-like strides, from the valley of obscurity to the summit of human grandeur and manly excellence, not one act of his has tended to reflect dishonor upon himself, his people, or his country.



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        To which we add a comment from another Negro Journal:

        This country has never yet produced a more remarkable man than Hon. John M. Langston. He is a man of observation, and nothing escapes his keen and penetrating eye, with knowledge of human nature that it would be almost impossible to deceive him. The life and services of no man will fill a brighter page in history than his. The future historians will record the remarkable fact that he has been equal to every emergency, and used only honorable means to attain his ends.



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LXX.

REV. WILLIAM H. McALPINE.

        Baptist Divine--President of a College--Editor of a Weekly Journal.

        REV. W. H. McALPINE was born in Buckingham county, Virginia, near Farmersville, June, 1847. He was carried to Alabama by a Negro speculator when about three years old, in company with his mother and younger brother. His mother, brother and himself were sold by the speculator to a Presbyterian minister by the name of Robert McAlpine, in Coosa county, Alabama. His owner died when he was about eight years old, and the property being divided William was separated from his mother and taken by one of the sons of the McAlpine family, who was a doctor, and lived in Talladega county, Alabama. Here William remained in the family of Dr. McAlpine until the close of the late war. As it was customary for young boys to be nurses to the white children, we are not surprised to find him a nurse in that family for about ten years. Mrs. Dr. McAlpine being a Northern woman and not well pleased with the way Southern people taught their children, would not send hers to the school, but had them taught at home, when she did not teach them herself. The young slave being the nurse, and


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required to be in the white people's house with the children, and not allowed to assemble with those of his own race, and even not allowed to eat and sleep with them, learned to read and write, and gained some knowledge of arithmetic, grammar and geography. He was separated from his mother from the time he was eight years old, in 1855, until 1874, and for sixteen years of that time didn't even know whether she was living or dead. He never saw his father to know him.

        He was converted to Christianity and joined a white Baptist church in the town of Talladega, Alabama, just one year before the close of the war of secession, under Rev. J. J. D. Renfroe, D. D. In 1866 he worked at the carpenter's trade. In the summer of the same year he taught school in Mardisville, a little village about five miles from Talladega. In the winter of the same year he entered the Talladega College, and not being able to pay for his board and buy his books and clothing, and having refused proffered aid, hired out himself and worked mornings, evenings and Saturdays in order to pay for the same and go to school during school hours. In a few months after conversion he felt that he was called to the work of the gospel ministry, but refused for some years to accept a license from his church, as he believed in thorough preparation.

        Mr. McAlpine remained in connection with the Talladega College, from 1868 to 1873, and only lacked six months of graduating in 1874. He was licensed in 1869 and ordained in 1871, being called to the pastoral charge of a colored Baptist church in the town of Talladega,


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Alabama, in the fall of 1871. The call was accepted. The present house of worship for the colored Baptists of Talladega was erected during the pastorate of Rev. Mr. McAlpine. He was also pastor of a Baptist church about seven miles from the city, when he gave up that church. He was called to the pastorate of the church at Jacksonville, Cannelton county, Alabama, where he also taught public schools for several sessions. He was instrumental in organizing the Rushing Springs, Mount Pilgrim and Snow Creek associations in North Alabama.

        While pastor in Talladega, he attended the college there, and during vacation was employed by Rev. E. M. Cravath, field secretary of the American Missionary Association, to canvass the State for students for the institution. The following is a letter from him at the close of the term of canvass:

NEW YORK, March 2, 1871.
WILLIAM H. McALPINE, Talladega, Alabama.

        Dear Sir: Yours with bill, March 14, is to hand. Mr. Safford will pay you the balance due on account, and I feel sure that you have done us good work in the State, that will tell in the results more largely in the future. I hope that you will succeed in your efforts for the church, and that a blessing may rest upon your labors.

Very truly yours,

E. M. CRAVATH.


        Rev. Mr. McAlpine was in the first meeting held in Alabama, in 1868, for the organization of the Colored Baptist Missionary State convention, and has attended every time except two since its organization. In the session of the above named association, November, 1873, in the city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, when the white and colored conventions


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had a meeting in the same city, and at the same time, Mr. McAlpine framed and offered a resolution to attempt the establishment of the present Selma University; and while the same was pending before the colored convention, a committee was appointed from the colored body to bear the resolution to the white brethren in their convention and ask their advice on the subject. The white brethren appointed a committee to advise the colored brethren, said committee consisting of Revs. Drs. Tague, Cleveland and Winkler. The committee waited on the Colored convention and advised them to turn what money they had over to them, and they would send such young men off to school as they, the colored brethren, deemed fit, and not to undertake to establish a school, as such a thing would be folly. In the face of these gray-headed D. D's., Rev. McAlpine arose and asked to differ from them as having quite a different view, and succeeded in convincing the convention that it was their duty to attempt to establish said institution.

        In the 1874 session of this convention, in the city of Mobile, Alabama, he was chosen to canvass the State six months of 1875, and try what could be done for raising money for the proposed school. During this time he raised two hundred dollars above expenses, and awakened such interest all over the State that the next session of the convention was fuller than ever before, and about four hundred dollars was in the treasury after adjournment. He was then employed by the convention for the whole year of 1876, and raised over five hundred dollars above


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expenses; there was left in the treasury about one thousand dollars.

        Having been elected traveling and financial agent for 1877, and not thinking the prospects favorable for raising money, he resigned and took charge of the Marion Baptist church. Arrangements, however, were made with him by the State Board to conduct the agency and do what he could to raise money in the field. In the fall of 1877, in convention, in the city of Eufala, it was decided to locate the school, now called Selma University, in Selma, Alabama. The convention had at that time one thousand dollars to put into property, and with that amount purchased the old Fair Grounds of Selma, for which they contracted to pay three thousand dollars. It was through the efforts of this earnest laborer that the school has been established, and the colored Baptists own a school second to none in the State.

        In 1881 his brethren, seeing his adaptability to the work, elected him president of the institution, which position he held for two years. Feeling that the school needed a more scholarly man at its head, against the advice of all the board of trustees, teachers and students, he resigned. As soon as the church at Marion heard of his resignation, he was forth with called back to the pastoral charge.

        When the Baptist Foreign Mission convention of the United States was organized in the city of Montgomery, Alabama, in 1880, he was elected president, and served two sessions, and could have filled the office a third term but refused to let his name go before them as a candidate, because the constitution prescribed two terms for the


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presidency; although the members would have then and there changed the constitution, he stoutly refused. When the Baptist Pioneer was started, in 1878, he was chosen editor, and held the position till 1882, when he resigned in favor of Rev. E. M. Brawley, D. D., who succeeded him as president of Selma University. For six years his services were given as a member of the Board of Trustees of Lincoln Normal University, at Marion, Alabama, he being the only colored member of the board. He was for three years pastor of a large country church near Marion, which church had eight hundred members, and was served in connection with the Marion church, which church he now serves.

        He is a man of fine parts, genteel, intelligent, faithful and earnest. He is much respected and beloved by all who know him. As he grows in age, he grows in wisdom, and the work of Alabama Baptists is largely guided by his suggestions. He has arisen to many offices of honor and trust, because he is always on the side of right.


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LXXI.

REV. ALEXANDER CRUMMELL, A. B., D. D.

        Rector of St. Luke's Church, Washington, District of Columbia--Professor of Mental and Moral Science in the College of Liberia--Author.

        BISHOP HOOD says Dr. Crummell is among the most scholarly black men of the age. He is prominently a representative man of the Protestant Episcopal church. He is the son of a royal paternity on the one side and a free born maternity on the other side. He was therefore born free in the city of New York. His father was the son of a king and was born on Timanee, West Africa, a country adjoining Sierra Leone. He lived till he was thirteen years in the usual manner common to boys, and yet when quite young he began to study in what was known as the Mulberry Street school in New York City. His classmates were such men of fame as George T. Downing, Patrick Reason, Professor Charles L. Reason, Ira Aldridge, Dr. James McCune, Samuel Ringgold and Henry Highland Garnet. In the year 1831, Rev. Peter Williams, a white preacher, established a high school for the purpose of giving an opportunity to the colored youth of New York City to study the classics. In this school also, were found Garnet, Sidney and Crummell, but its facilities were not the best,


Illustration

ALEXANDER CRUMMELL.


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and after hearing of a new school started in Canaan, New Hampshire, the parents of these boys, who had formed a close intimacy with each other, decided to send them there, as no color line was drawn. On arriving at the school they were welcomed by the students, about thirty in number, in the most generous manner. Fourteen colored lads had gathered there seeking superior advantages. They had not been in the place more than three months when the people in the neighborhood decided to break up the "nigger school;" and the end came when the people brought ninety oxen and pulled down the building, and threw it in a swamp half a mile from the place. This was accomplished after two days hard labor. They then drove the scholars out of town. Mr. Crummell relates the circumstances in an eulogy on Garnet, which he delivered May 4, 1882, when he said:

        Meanwhile, under Garnet as our leader, the boys in our boarding house were molding bullets, expecting an attack upon our dwelling. About eleven o'clock at night the tramp of horses was heard approaching; and as one rapid rider passed the house he fired at it. Garnet quickly replied to it by a discharge from a double barrelled shotgun which blazed away through the window. At once the hills for many a mile around reverberated with the sound. Lights were seen from scores of houses on every side of the town, and villages far and near were in a state of great excitement. But the musket shot by Garnet doubtless saved our lives. The cowardly ruffians dared not attack us. Notice, however, was given us to quit the State within a fortnight. When we left, the Canaan mob assembled on the outskirts of the village and fired field-pieces charged with powder at our wagon.


        This Canaan was not by any means the sweet Canaan that the good old colored people love to sing about. In


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1836 Mr. Crummell attended the Oneida Institute at Whitesboro, a manual labor school which had been opened for colored boys by Beriah Green. Here our student triumphantly entered and spent three very happy and prosperous years. In 1839 Mr. Crummell was received as a candidate for Holy Orders, under the tuition of Rev. Peter Williams, rector of St. Phillip's church, of which he was a member. He applied for admission to the General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal church, but was not admitted on account of color. He was received in the diocese of Massachusetts, and in the established order and procedure of his denomination was ordained to the diaconate by Bishop Griswold. He was a hard student, and after much theological training he was admitted to the Priest's Orders by Bishop Lee of Delaware. He was enabled afterwards to take a course in the Queen's College, Cambridge, England, where he completed his studies and after graduation went as a missionary to Africa, where he was rector of a parish and Professor of Mental and Moral Science in Liberia. While in Africa he was a leading spirit in every public meeting, and was often called upon to use his pen and voice in addressing the people by special invitation. It will not be out of place to give some idea of the great preacher's style and thoughts by excerpts from his writings. On the subject of "The Responsibility of the First Fathers of a Country, for its Future Life and Character," delivered to the young men of Monrovia, Liberia, West Africa, the first of December, 1863, he said:

        I ask you also, what will you do? Look around you, then, at the vast moral waste that surrounds us in this country and throughout this


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continent, and think of the multitudinous minds and the vast energies of the painful labors of the martyr-like self-sacrifice on the part of both Church and State, which are to be expended from generation to generation, ere the great work of God and humanity on this soil will approach its consummation. Open your eyes upon the deep vista of grand futurity; glance along the long alleys of coming times, crowded with the rising generations of both emigrant and native, coming up into life and falling into the ranks of society and the State; and then think of all the sober, earnest work that is to be done by us in our day to prepare them for the burdens and duties of their position. You will have to participate in this work, and, therefore, I entreat you, gird up your loins, young man, for duty. Serve God and serve your country just where you are, however lowly your position, however rugged your pathway, serve God and not the devil. Serve your country and not your lusts, and this, by meeting the duties of your sphere; not by leaving them, but by ennobling them by faithfulness and manhood.


        In an address delivered at the anniversary of the Pennsylvania Colonization Society, in October, 1865, upon the subject "How shall the Regeneration of Africa be Effected," he said:

        It is all God's work. To him be the glory. While for two hundred and forty years the brutal hand of violence has been at the black man's throat, God has been neither blind nor quiet. He has seen it all; He has been moving, too, amid it all, latent and restrained in power, although atrocious and repulsive as it has ever been to Him. To use the words of another, "the ways of God are not found within narrow limits." He hurries not Himself to display to-day the consequences of the principle that he yesterday laid down; He will draw it out in the lapse of ages when the hour is come.


        Winding up that same address, he used these beautiful words, after having urged them to use every endeavor to go as missionaries to other countries, said:

        And then, in a sense far deeper, more real than ever he thought of when he uttered them, will the words of Henry Clay be realized--that every


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shipload of emigrants to this country will be a shipload of missionaries, carrying the gospel to Africa, and even now, the time, it seems to me. has come; and "the day is at hand," and all the great obstacles to the redemption of Africa are well nigh removed; the wide door of saving opportunity is open; and now good men everywhere should seize the "staff of accomplishment," and enter in at once, and claim that continent for their Lord.


        In 1862 he published a volume of addresses, most of them delivered in Africa. They are varied as to their subjects, full of learning and written with the intention to promote the cause of God and the people. Perhaps the most sublime and elegant thought is found in one delivered upon the subject of "God and the Nation," from which a short extract is given in order to show his confidence in the God of Nations. He said:

        Our only safety under the moral governments of this world is in fastening our country upon the throne of God. Without Him there is no life, in the body nor in our souls, in the States nor in institutions, in nature in plants nor in trees, in the depths of the sea, amid the whirling hosts of the Heavens, and so there is no life in the Nation without God. "In Him is life," and there is none besides. All growth proceeds from Him, whether it be the tiny plant "beneath the mossy stone" or the spiritual vitality of the grandest archangel in the eternal Heavens. All fixedness, all endurance depend on Him, whether it be the firm seating of the hills around us, or the everlasting permanency of the eternal throne, . . .and therefore I say again--"God and our Country"--for if this idea, in all its true relations, governs the minds of this people, then shall our country be unto God forever for a people, and for a name, for a praise, and for glory. For happy is the people that is in such a case, yea, blessed are the people who have the Lord for their God. In 1883 he published a volume of sermons to which an introduction is given by the Rt. Rev. Thomas M. Clark, D. D., LL. D., bishop of Rhode Island, and so far there seems to be only three colored men who have published volumes of sermons. The first was probably the Rev. William Douglas,


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formerly rector of St. Thomas church, in the city of Philadelphia; the second was Rev. Alexander Crummell, D. D., and the other was Bishop James W. Hood, D. D.


        His writings are chaste, scholarly, instructive and entertaining. They flow from a heart full of tenderness and love toward mankind and show a simple faith in Christ, which is touching and tender. He longs for a higher spirituality himself, and seeks to impress the same earnestness of soul into the minds of others. In personal appearance the doctor is slender, very neat and trim. He is a true African in color, and his intellectual development is of the highest order. His retiring disposition, his earnest enthusiasm and kindly demeanor are all very noticeable and give him a commanding presence. One feels like venerating his frost-white hair and patriarchal style, to the extent that he would rather stand than sit in his presence, not because he overawes one by his sternness, but because you wish to honor him. He has had abundant success in all his undertakings. He has a fine church and congregation, and his affable, genial manners do much towards maintaining it, in the capital of the Nation, a place of public worship. His refined and ladylike wife assists him in her devotion to the cause of the church and seeks to aid his ministry by attention to the missionary labors incident to the life of a successful minister.


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LXXII.

HON. GEORGE H. WHITE.

        A Member of the House of Representatives and the only Colored State Solicitor and Prosecuting Attorney.

        AMONG the representative men of our race, George H. White holds an important position. He is a young man, having been born in 1852, and is scholarly, dignified and powerful. In his alma mater, Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, where he graduated from an elective course in 1877, he was known for his excellence in science and mathematics, and especially literary tastes which have characterized his life. As a teacher in the public schools and Presbyterian Parochial School, and the Normal School of North Carolina, he was most successful.

        The Supreme Court granted him, in 1879, a license to practice law in the Courts of North Carolina after he had completed that study under Judge Clark. But not only as a lawyer has this young man made his mark, still in this, his chosen avocation, his achievements are unrivaled.

        Such wonderful skill has Mr. White always shown in the management of famous cases, often winning against the ablest white lawyers of Newbern, North Carolina, that


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the last Republican convention chose to nominate him over many white lawyers for State solicitor of the Second Judicial District. By an overwhelming vote was Mr. White elected, and January 1, 1887, he entered into office.

        Previous to this election he was a member of the North Carolina Legislature, and for two years he was an efficient worker in the House of Representatives at Raleigh. Later in the State Senate, for the good of his people and his State, he devoted his untiring energies, and he aided much in securing Normal schools throughout his native State. As a speaker, Mr. White is eloquent; as an advocate, clear-sighted, pointed and wise; and the persuasive address with which he holds audiences spellbound, has won for him many honors in public life.

        During the Centennial celebration in Philadelphia, Mr. White served as assistant in charge of the United States Coast Survey.

        He is not an active politician. His desire is to honor his profession and uplift himself and race by his sterling worth. Such men elevate the race and prove that they are susceptible of high culture and that they can rise amid difficulties and embarrassments. The law opens a wide field for eloquence, learning and fame, and it is an incentive to the young to be pointed to such examples. His alma mater has had much honor reflected on her by such men as the Hon. G. H. White.


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LXXIII.

HON. JOSIAH T. SETTLE, A. B., A. M., LL. B.

        Eminent Lawyer--Assistant Attorney-General of Shelby county, Tennessee--Eloquent Orator--Legislator.

        THIS gentleman was born September 30, 1850, on Cumberland Mountains, while his father and mother were en route from North Carolina to Mississippi, and as his parents continued their journey as soon as circumstances would permit and settled in Mississippi, he claims this as his native State. His parents were named Josiah and Nancy Settle. His mother belonged to his father, who was one of the famous Settle family of Rockingham, North Carolina. He had no wife at the time he began raising a family by his former slave, being at that time a widower. Unlike a great many Southern men of his time, he was devoted to his children and their mother. After a few years residence in Mississippi, he manumitted his children and their mother. After he had made them free he was informed that they could not remain in Mississippi as the laws of the State forbade "Free Negroes" residing therein. In March, 1856, he carried them to Hamilton, Ohio, where he bought them a home and located them there, spending his summers with them, and the remainder of the year


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upon his Southern plantation. Soon another difficulty presented itself. His Northern neighbors told him that he could not continue his relations with his family unless he was married. His reply to this was: "That is what I have always desired to do," and in 1858 the mother of his children became his lawful wife in the presence of their children, whom the law, at the same time, in its beneficence, made legitimate. He then went backwards and forwards attending to his property in Mississippi. At the breaking out of the war, being a Union man, he came North and remained until he died in 1869.

        There is not a nobler specimen of manhood in the history of the South than this Southerner, who dared to do right. "Joe," as he was familiarly called, first attended school near Hamilton, Ohio, where there were no colored schools and few colored people, and mixed schools were not very popular in the State of Ohio at that period. When he was finally allowed to enter a little country school, he had to commence fighting at the same time. Sometimes his teachers were so prejudiced that it was impossible for him to attend and stand the punishment of teachers and scholars combined. Finally a good Christian woman, and an excellent teacher, took charge of the school and gave the "odd sheep" a chance. He soon became deeply attached to her, and she took a warm interest in him, and it was not long before he became first in all of his classes. It was this kind woman who first inspired him with a desire for something more than a "country school-house." He went to Oberlin, Ohio, in the spring of 1866, where he prepared for and entered college in 1868. He was chosen one of the orators to represent


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his class when they entered college, an honor much coveted by the students. In the spring of 1869 his father died, and at the close of his freshman year he left Oberlin College and went to Washington city and entered the sophomore class of Howard University, where he pursued his college studies and taught in the Preparatory Department. He graduated from the College Department of the Howard University in 1872, together with J. M. Gregory and A. C. O'Hear, the class of 1872 being the first class that was ever graduated from the College Department.

        During the last two years of his college course, he clerked for a white man in the educational division of the Freedman's Bureau; during the latter part of his Senior year, he was elected reading clerk of the House of Delegates, Washington then being under a territorial form of government; and at the time of his graduation was performing his duties as reading clerk, and teaching two classes a day at the University, and pursuing his own studies at the same time. Immediately after his graduation from college, he joined the Law Department. He took an active part in the district politics, and held many places of honor and profit. He was clerk in the Board of Public Works until its expiration, then accountant in the Board of Audits.

        He was also trustee of the county schools for District of Columbia. During the presidential campaign of 1872, he canvassed several counties in Maryland, where his youth and brilliancy created quite a sensation. He also made speeches in Ohio, speaking at Dayton, Cleveland and other places. At Dayton, he spoke after Gen. John Harlan, and after the meeting was given a banquet, he being the first colored


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man at that time who had ever delivered a speech from the court-house steps of Vallandigham's home. Upon his graduation from the Law Department, he was selected as one of the orators to represent his class. He was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of District of Columbia, but he determined to locate in Mississippi. He left Washington for that purpose in March, 1875, and was admitted to the bar in Mississippi upon an examination at Vicksburg, but traveled over a considerable portion of the State before he found a favorable location. He finally located at Sardis, Panola Co., in the North-western part of the State, and formed a partnership with Hon. D. T. J. Matthews, under the firm name of Settle & Matthews. He returned to Washington, and married Miss T. T. Vogelsang of Annapolis, Maryland, a refined and cultivated lady, already distinguished for her superior mental qualities, and she has made him a faithful wife. He returned with his bride to the South, and commenced there the practice of law. In August of the same year he was unanimously nominated by the Republican convention for the position of District Attorney of the Twelfth Judicial District of the State of Mississippi, in which there was a Republican majority of 2500. The result of the elections in Mississippi in the year 1875 was a revolution of the politics of the South, and the virtual death of Republicanism in that part of the country, and Mr. Settle was of course defeated with all the rest; but he made an active and vigorous canvass, filling his appointments wherever made, knowing that he did so at the risk of his life. In 1876 he was a member of the State convention, which sent delegates


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to the National Republican convention at Cincinnati, Ohio. He was elected as a delegate, and was also selected as Republican elector for the State-at-large, on the Hayes and Wheeler ticket, in that convention. He was the only delegate from Mississippi who voted for the nomination of Roscoe Conkling for President, and continued to vote for him as long as his name was before the convention. In this convention he was selected by the members of the Mississippi delegation to second the nomination of Stewart L. Woodford of New York, for Vice-President, and addressed the convention in a telling speech. In 1880 he was again chosen as Republican elector on the Garfield and Arthur ticket.

        In 1882 he was strongly urged to become a Republican candidate for Congress from the Second Congressional District of Mississippi. At the time, Gen. Jas. R. Chalmers moved from the Shoestring district to the Second, and Mr. Settle only declined to do so at the earnest solicitation of some leading Republicans in Jackson and Washington City, District of Columbia. Being induced to believe the interests of the Republican party demanded the indorsement of Gen. Chalmers, and in the convention where he could have been nominated with ease, he withdrew, and himself in an eloquent speech placed the name of Chalmers before the convention. He was made chairman of the Republicans Congressional Executive Committee, and made a thorough canvass of the district, and Chalmers was elected by a handsome majority. In 1883 some of the Republicans and Democrats made a fusion ticket for county officers and members of the Legislature. This, Mr. Settle vigorously


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opposed and became a candidate for the Legislature on an independent ticket. It was during this canvass that he made the most brilliant efforts of his life; he was met by the ablest speakers of both parties on every stump in the country, and although he was single-handed, he was before the people irresistibly, and was triumphantly elected by more than twelve hundred majority.

        During his term in the Legislature, he won golden opinions on every side, and was regarded as one of the ablest men in the House. The first time he rose to address the House he won all hearers, and ever after that he had no trouble in getting the eye of the speaker. He never addressed the speaker unless he had something to say, and possessed the happy faculty of knowing when he had finished. At the adjournment of the Legislature he was presented with a gold-headed cane, as a token of the esteem in which he was held. Upon his return to his home he determined to abandon active participation in politics and devote his time to the practice of law, and moving from Mississippi he located at Memphis. In the spring of 1885, about two months after his location at Memphis, he was appointed Assistant Attorney-General of the Criminal Court of Shelby county, which position he held until the expiration of General Turner's term of office. During this time he was left almost in entire charge of all the responsibilities and duties of the position, and so thorough and able was his management of the prosecution, that he was on several occasions complimented by the Court from the bench, and at all times enjoyed the unbounded confidence of the of the Attorney-General and the


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Court. During his term of office as Assistant Attorney-General, Mr. Settle built up for himself a good practice. He is now engaged in the practice of law at Memphis, where he enjoys the esteem and confidence of the entire bar. His practice is constantly growing, and as he is a comparatively young man, his prospects are very flattering. In religion he is inclined to the Episcopalian views. This orator did not disappoint the expectations of his friends. While in school, we all admired him and predicted a splendid career. I remember hearing him make a Sunday school address to the pioneer Sunday school in Hillsdale, District of Columbia, and his eloquence was such that it was never forgotten. "Joe" owes much to Theresa, as she was called in the Howard, when Mr. Settle courted her. It is hoped that he will yet live many days to fulfill the measure of honor that awaits so learned a disciple of Blackstone. While in Memphis once, we heard it said "that young man is too eloquent to be a prosecutor for the State, because the jury would be so blinded by his eloquence that the opposing counsel could not persuade them to give a verdict of acquittal."


Illustration

J. T. SETTLE


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LXXIV.

WILLIAM H. GIBSON, ESQ.

        School Teacher in the Slavery Days--Musician--Mail Agent--Revenue Agent--Grand Master U. B. of Friendship.

        THE narrative here given of the career of William H. Gibson, Sr., is worthy of perusal. Beginning life humble, he has become one of most respected citizens of Louisville, Kentucky. Philip and Amelia Gibson, free Negroes in the city of Baltimore, were the parents of this honored son.

        They gave him all the advantages of an education, that the city of his birth offered to the Negro child, and in 1834, when he was but five years of age, he could read. Continuing his studies, he had for several years as instructor John Fortie, a prominent teacher.

        His color prevented him from learning the printer's trade as his parents desired, but it did not close every avenue for advancement. He served for ten years as porter in the book store of the Lutheran Book Company, and the kindness of the clerks at that place enabled him to continue his studies. Bishop D. A. Payne, D. D., was one of his instuctors in English and Latin grammar. Music was one study that possessed his soul, and he began its study in boyhood,


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under the best teachers of Baltimore in vocal music, and Professor James Anderson, violinist. The Sharpe Street choir and musical associations of that city were honored with his membership. In 1847 he moved to Louisville with Rev. James Harper, and with Robert Lane he taught in this city, opening a day and a night school, and a singing school in the basement of the Methodist church, corner of Fourth and Green Streets. His school numbered from fifty to one hundred pupils, many of whom were slaves whose masters gave them written permits to attend school. His singing classes were led by the violin.

        He introduced the first instrumental music in the colored churches of this city, which was regarded by many as a sacrilege and intolerable. The study of the piano and guitar were added to his accomplishments, and he imparted to others of this knowledge, until the breaking out of the Rebellion, in September, 1862, which closed schools and churches in this city.

        He then went to Indianapolis, Indiana, and taught a school partially supported by the "Friends," for the freed children of the soldiers in the war.

        During his whole life he served on many important committees, and held many positions of trust. In May, 1863, he received a commission from Colonel Condee, recruiting officer of the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Colored Regiment, to raise colored soldiers. He accepted the commission for Louisville, Charleston, Albany and Jeffersonville, Indiana. In Indiana he succeeded in recruiting, but the military authorities of Louisville decided that Massachusetts had no right to Kentucky recruits, and he was arrested and ordered


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to leave the State. He returned to Indiana and thence to Leavenworth, Kansas, where he taught partly under the supervision of the American Missionary Society until the close of the war, when he returned to Louisville, July 1866, and his schools were reorganized under the Freedmen's Bureau. He taught day and night until 1874, when he resigned to accept the position of assistant cashier in the Freedman's bank. This position he held until it closed. In 1870 he received a commission from General Grant, as mail agent on the Knoxville branch of the L. & N. R. R. He was transferred at the expiration of eight months to the Lexington branch. On his second trip he was attacked by the Ku-klux-clan, and his life was so endangered that a military guard attended him for some months.

        In 1874 he received an appointment in the Revenue Department as United States gauger, which position he retained until the defeat of the Republican administration. In 1847 he was initiated in the Masonic fraternity in Baltimore, Maryland. He organized Enterprise Lodge, No. 3., and Mt. Moriah Lodge, No. 1, of Louisville. In 1859 he was elected Grand Junior Warden of Grand Lodge of Ohio, and was Grand Master of Kentucky in 1872, and has taken all degrees to Knights Templars. In 1869 he was a delegate to the colored National Convention held in Washington, District of Columbia.

        In the city of Louisville, W. H. Gibson, Esq., will always hold an exalted place in the hearts of its citizens, as no project has been on foot for the improvement of the minds and morals of its citizens that has not met his sanction. In the Sunday school he is an active worker, and


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for several years has been president of the Sunday School Union of the Methodist churches. In society and church, home and country, W. H. Gibson ranks as one of the most respected Christian supporters of right, liberty and union.


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LXXV.

HON. GEORGE W. WILLIAMS.

        The Most Eminent Negro Historian in the World--An Author of World-Wide Reputation--Legislator--Judge Advocate of the Grand Army of the Republic--Novelist--Scholar--Magnetic Orator--Editor--Soldier--Preacher--Lawyer--Poet and Traveler.

        AMONG the intellectual stars which shine in the zenith of the Negro world, increasing in brightness day by day, dispensing its light to the dark corners of the world, is the Hon. George Washington Williams. He was born at Bedford Spring, Bedford county, Pennsylvania, on the sixteenth day of October, 1849. His mother's maiden name was Nellie or Helen Rouse, who came of Negro and German parentage. His father was of Welsh and Negro extraction. He was a man of large mould, standing about six feet high and weighing from one hundred and eighty to two hundred pounds. His mother was medium in size, of fair complexion, large dark eyes and black hair, and was a woman of rare intellectual power, speaking German fluently, and was well up with the times in current literature. She was noted for her dramatic and elocutionary powers, of which the son is possessed of a large share, no doubt inherited from his mother.


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        When young George was about three years old, his parents moved to Newcastle, Lawrence county, Pennsylvania, and his early education was obtained in that State and in Massachusetts, comprising two years with a private tutor, four years in the common and high schools, two years in an academy, and four years at Newton Center, Massachusetts.

        He was enlisted in the United States volunteer army by Major George L. Sterns, and served until the close of the war. Being only fourteen years old he ran away from home and begged to be accepted, even against the advice of the examining surgeon. He didn't give his own name when he enlisted, but used that of one of his half uncles. By his intelligence and attention to the duties of a soldier, he rose rapidly from one grade to another, beginning as private and ending the war as sergeant-major of his regiment. Having been severely wounded he was discharged from the service, but soon re-enlisted and was detailed on the staff of General Jackson in 1865, and accompanied him in May to Texas. While there he was ordered to be mustered out, and he immediately enlisted in the Mexican army, where he was at once made orderly sergeant of the First battery from the State of Tampico, and in just one week was made assistant inspector-general of artillery, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. After the capture and death of Maximillian he returned to the United States and entered the cavalry service of the regular army, serving in the Comanche campaign of 1867 with conspicuous bravery. February, 1868, while at Fort Arbuckle, this hero was converted, and in late autumn left the army for civil life,


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having been convinced as a Christian that killing people in time of peace as a profession was not the noblest life a man could live. As soon as he completed his six hundred miles' journey across the plains, he went to St. Louis, Missouri.

        His father was a Unitarian, and his mother a devoted member of the Lutheran church; but the son read the New Testament and came to the conclusion that the Baptist church, in practices and doctrines, came up to the New Testament standard. Not being acquainted with a single person in St. Louis, save a few officers at General Sheridan's headquarters, he sallied forth into the streets to inquire for a Baptist church. Singularly enough the first man he met was a deacon in a church of that denomination, and on the following day, which was the Sabbath, he told his experience in the First Baptist church and was that evening baptized into the fellowship of the Baptist communion by the Rev. H. H. White.

        From 1868 to 1874 he devoted himself to study, and graduated from the Newton Theological Institution, June 10, 1874, delivering an oration on "The Early Church in Africa." Here at once can be seen the tendency of Mr. Williams. He always inquires into the history of some subject connected with the race. He early developed the power of search and the love for deep investigation, and thus laid the foundation for his present and future life, which has become so widely connected with historical subjects which materialized themselves into the great histories which he has written. He was licensed to preach June 1, 1874, as the following will show:


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        This is to certify that the Watertown Baptist church, having confidence in the Christian character and fitness of our brother, George W. Williams, did on the thirty-first of May, 1874, unanimously vote to give him license to preach the Gospel of Christ.

        In behalf of the church,

WILLIAM BLODGETT,
Church Clerk.

Watertown, June 1, 1874.

        His ordination to the Gospel ministry took place at Watertown, Massachusetts, June 11, 1874, under the call of the First Baptist church in Watertown.

        April 4, 1874, he received a call to the Twelfth Street Baptist church in Boston. He accepted this call, and the following services were held by way of recognition of the new pastor. Sermon by Rev. Dr. George Lorimer, from 1 Corinthians chapter i, 16-17 verses. Prayer of Recognition, by Rev. R. M. Neale, D. D. Charge, Rev. D. C. Eddy. Hand of Fellowship, Rev. J. T. Beckley.

        While pastor of this church he wrote the history of its struggles and labors, for the purpose of calling the attention of the charitable to its pecuniary needs. The church had done excellent work among the colored people of the West End and deserved to be sustained. It was organized in 1840, with an original membership of only about forty, who withdrew from the First Independent Baptist church. The volume contains eighty pages and was published in a popular form, by James H. Earle, No. 11 Cornhill. While pastor of this church, he preached a memorial sermon before the Robert A. Bell Post 134, Grand Army of the Republic, Sunday, May 24, 1874.

        Mr. Williams applied to the Massachusetts Legislature


Illustration

GEORGE W. WILLIAMS.


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for the position of chaplain. The request was not granted, but he made an open and plain request for that which he desired.

        He served the Twelfth Street Baptist church one year as supply before he was ordained, and was pastor one year. The Divine favor that was shown him was an evidence of the fruitfulness of his ministry. His relation was terminated with that church in August, 1875, by his own voluntary resignation. He then went to the city of Washington, and the following notice is given of his purpose for visiting that city, in a speech which he delivered in the Presbyterian church, at a meeting held for the purpose of taking steps towards establishing a journal in that city to be managed by colored men, and devoted to the interests of the colored people. The report says: "The Rev. George W. Williams delivered an eloquent address in which he stated that he proposed to establish a journal in the District of Columbia, devoted to the interests of colored people." There was no question as to the necessity of such a journal. It was offered in objection that the colored people were not a reading people, but educational statistics of the country show that within the last decade they have become a reading people.

        Speaking of Horace Greeley, he said that he considered him the most remarkable man of the nineteenth century in every respect, and especially in journalism. He, Mr. Williams, proposed to edit a paper devoted to the colored people--politics, art, and the events of the day.

        He had been waiting a long time for an opportunity and was willing to sacrifice everything in the enterprise,


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because duty urged him. Mr. Douglass, in this meeting, said that he had listened to Mr. Williams with great satisfaction, and was impressed with his range of vision and decided ability. A committee was appointed to draft resolutions; said committee consisted of Messrs[.] Frederick Douglass, J. B. Sampson and M. M. Holland. The following is one of the most important resolutions which they reported.

        Resolved: That we have heard with satisfaction the proposition of Rev. George W. Williams to establish such a journal in Washington, and we will do what we can to make the proposed enterprise a success.


        The following persons took part in this meeting: Those above mentioned and Messrs. Barbadoes, Wall, Smith, Matthews, Emerson, Wilson, Professor John M. Langston and C. C. Crusoe. The result was the establishment of the Commoner, which did good service during its existence.

        December 22, 1875, he was appointed in the Post Office Department at Washington, District of Columbia. He accepted, but resigned this position February 15, 1876.

        He was called to take pastoral charge of the Union Baptist Church of Cincinnati, Ohio, on Thursday, February 10, 1876, which he accepted, and preached his first sermon on Sabbath, February 20, 1876. He was installed as pastor of the Union Baptist church, Thursday evening, March 2, 1876.

        July 21, 1876, at the forty-fifth anniversary of their church, he delivered an address, in which he reviewed somewhat the history of the church. An extract of the address is here given to assist in preserving the history of that church,


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and also to pay tribute to some distinguished men who have done service in founding and sustaining this old and substantial church:

        From 1831 to 1835, the pulpit of the Branch of Enon Church was filled by supplies, as the brethren were able to serve them. Drs. Lynd and Patterson often administered the Eucharist, baptized and preached as they found opportunity. In 1832, the venerable Elijah Forte was chosen to take the temporary oversight of the church. He was a man of fervent piety, unabating zeal, wisdom and discretion. He was a successful business man, and the same system, energy and caution which distinguished him in business, made him a leader among his brethren--a leader at once safe and judicious. How much the church owes to the faithfulness of Elijah Forte can not well be estimated.

         After the Church was re-organized as the African Union Baptist church, the same year, 1835, the Rev. David Nickens was called to take the pastoral oversight of the church. He was probably the first ordained colored minister in Ohio. He did not possess the culture of the schools, and yet he was no stranger to books, especially the Bible. He was not fluent in speech, but careful. He was faithful to every trust, and earnest in manner. He accomplishment much, baptized many, was loved by his people, respected by all classes, and died in the midst of his labors, deeply lamented, in 1838.

         His ministry was brief, though wonderfully successful. During these four years he had organized a day and Sunday school, which were flourishing at the time of his death, receiving, per annum, $300.

         The church was casting about for a shepherd, and laid hands upon a young man by the name of Charles Satchell. He was a young man or promise, and the church gave him the splendid opportunities that made him one of the most eminent divines the Colored Baptists have produced during the last half century. The Rev. Charles Satchell was every inch a general. He cast his eye over the field in which he was to marshal his little company, and carefully reviewed his troops. His policy was to make every member sensible of individual responsibility, and found something for every one to do. He soon had a working church, because he was a working pastor, and his example was contagious. His sick were well cared for, the dying received


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the consolations of Christianity from the lips of a faithful pastor, and the wayward were affectionately sought and brought back to the love and service of Christ.

         As early as 1841, the church had grown under Satchell's administration, from forty-five to two hundred and seventy-five. And its strength was not to be found in its numbers, but in the intelligence and spirituality of its members. He was a teacher as well as a pastor. He continued to work successfully for eight years, when he resigned, to the regret of his charge, and was succeeded by the Rev. Allen Graham. He was the esteemed pastor of the church for two years, working successfully and acceptably.

         In 1850 the Rev. W. P. Newman followed brother Graham, and resigned in 1852 to accept a call to Canada. The late Rev. Henry Adams became pastor of this church immediately upon the retirement of Newman, and remained until 1855. Rev. H. L. Simpson was the successor of Adams, and held the pulpit for a term of three years. Rev. H. H. White, the polished writr and graceful speaker, followed Simpson in a pastorate of three years, and did well.

         The Rev. W. P. Newman was tendered the pastoral charge of the church again and accepted. He was a man of spotless integrity, scrupulously conscientious, and strong in his likes and dislikes. He was unostentatious and generous in his private relations, earnest, forcible, original, and, at times, rough and severe; he was no apologetical, but rather a polemical preacher. He had the spirit of a reformer, with boldness and severity not always judicious or praiseworthy. The sinner who sat under his preaching, felt his searching, burning language, and felt every word was directed at him. He was unsparing in his denunciation of every species of ungodliness, whether in or out of the church, and was feared by one and respected by the other.

         He was just in the most successful days of his ministry, when on the third of August, 1866, he was cut off by a brief but severe sickness from cholera.

         The Rev. H. L. Simpson was recalled, and served until 1869, three years, when he tendered his resignation as pastor.

         The Rev. James H. Magee was called during the same year, and was past or for four years.


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         The pulpit was vacant for some time, when it was supplied by Revs. Campbell, Emery, Sage, Stone, Early, Barnett, Thardkill and Darnell.

         During the first ten years of the church's existence, it grew so large that there was no longer sufficient sittings in the small edifice on Central Avenue. The brethren were casting about for another location, when a proposition came from the trustees of the First Baptist church, to the effect that their building on Baker Street could be had for $9000, its actual worth being $12000, and thereby donating $3000. The offer was accepted, and in 1839 this church began to worship on Baker Street, and continued there for a quarter of a century.

         From 1864 to 1874, ten years, the church enjoyed great prosperity, in spiritual as well as temporal things. It paid all its debts, gave with an unsparing hand, and enjoyed many glorious revivals. She had a strong hold upon the young people of this city, and a reputation for intelligence and usefulness throughout the Southwest, and especially in Ohio.

         This church has set apart to the Gospel ministry twenty of its members, many of whom are faithful workers. The reverend brethren Shelton, Scott, Fassitt, Webb and Early are the sons of this church, and earnest pastors in or near this city.

         About twenty members of this church, led by our venerable brother, Elder Henry Williams, Senior, withdrew with their letters, and formed the Zion Baptist church, in 1842. The church grew in numbers, and became quite influential under the pastoral charge of Rev. Wallace Shelton.


        Rev. G. W. Williams resigned December 1, 1877. September 2, 1878, he was appointed internal revenue storekeeper by the Secretary of the Treasury, and served also in the Auditor's office as secretary of the four million dollar fund to build the Cincinnati Southern railroad.

        He studied law in the office of Judge Alphonso Taft and the Cincinnati Law School; and was admitted to practice in the Supreme Circuit Court of the State of Ohio in the city of Columbus, June 7, 1881; and admitted in the Supreme Judicial Court at Boston, within the aforesaid Suffolk county, on the second Tuesday in September, A. D.,


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1883. He began his political life in Cincinnati. At first he was averse to going into politics, as he said in a speech at Hopkin's hall when addressing an enthusiastic meeting of colored Republicans:

        As a rule, I believe that ministers of the Gospel should remain as far from the political arena as possible. But when the storm clouds thicken and darken our National sky, when the hand of treason is at the throat of the Nation, when the temple of justice, humanity and equality is about to be desecrated by traitors; when the Constitution is about to be eliminated and the gracious, benign amendments thereof to be rendered nugatory; when the proud institutions of America--our joy at home, and our glory among the civilized powers of the earth--are imperiled, I would be false to the race to which I am bound by the ties of consanguinity, false to the flag under which I fought, false to the great issues of this hour, false to the instincts and impulses of my better nature and deserving of the execrations of God and man, if I did not lend my pen, my voice, my soul, to the cause of the illustrious Republican party.


        September, 1877, he was nominated for the Legislature from Hamilton county, Ohio. At the ratification meeting of the colored Republicans, Mr. Williams delivered an address of which the following is an extract. Said he:

        My friends and fellow citizens--I appreciate the high public spirit of which this large and enthusiastic meeting is born. I am deeply touched by the manifold expressions of kindly sentiment concerning myself, and am cheered by the pledges already made to support the Republican party in the approaching canvass. I would, indeed, be an ingrate if I were insensible to the honor conferred upon me by my party and race. I did not seek the nomination, did not ask it. The party and my friends bestowed it with lavish hands, and, as I believe, with honest intentions. I said to my friends, who urged me to be a candidate for legislative honors, that I would yield to their wishes if it were certain I would serve the whole people. The nomination was made with a heartiness that led me to believe that the leaders of the Republican party, at least, honestly desired to give proper representation to the colored people; and that


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when a colored man, representing the people, should come to the front, they would give him their unqualified support. Then, when I turned to my people and found them almost a unit as to my nomination, there was but one thing left for me to do, and that was to accept the nomination--this unsought compliment.

         I was not a stranger to every person when I came to this beautiful Queen City. I was known to quite a number of the people, either personally or through the press. From 1863 till the present moment I have identified myself with the various interests of my race and country. Upon the field of battle, under the mellow and enlightening blaze of the student's lamp, in the wide and useful field of journalism, in the sacred pulpit and in the political arena, I have striven for all that is noble, just and of good report. I was welcomed to your city by white and black men, by Democrats and Republicans, by saints and sinners. And I now call you to witness that I have labored for my people and party with zeal and faithfulness. For this you have honored me with a foremost place in your midst, a warm place in your hearts and confidence. One could scarcely be affected by a spirit of vainglory, standing where I stand to-night. I stand here, not for myself, not for the three thousand loyal colored men in this county, not for the fifteen thousand colored voters in this grand old commonwealth; but I stand here as a representative of the sovereign people. I am before you, fellow citizens, as an exponent and defender of the immortal teachings of the Republican party, the party that represents the loyal sentiment and political conscience of the American people.


        During his term as a member of the Legislature, he was chairman of the committee on library, special committee on railroad terminal facilities; second member of the committee on universities and colleges, and took part in all the legislation, and secured the passage of several bills referring to police, railroad legislation and school legislation.

        He has been a member of the Grand Army of the Republic for many years, and has been a National delegate and officer from the beginning of his membership. January 26


Page 560

and 27, 1881, the fifth annual encampment of the above order met at Columbus, Ohio, at which time he was appointed to deliver a speech in response to the welcoming address of the mayor. In the minutes of the session which met at Cincinnati, January 18 and 19, 1882, will be found his report as judge-advocate of the department of Ohio, Grand Army of the Republic.

        Mr. Williams is a man who has delivered many orations upon many topics and is still in great demand as an orator. As an author he has written two standard works, 'The History of the Negro Race in America from 1819 to 1880; Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiers and as Citizens, together with a Preliminary Consideration of the Unity of the Human Family.' 'An Historical Sketch of Africa and an Account of the Negro Government of Sierra Leone, Africa.'

        At this writing he has in Harper Brothers' press a voluminous work on the 'Negro as a Soldier.' We will give two criticisms of his 'History of the Negro Race,' simply to show how the work is estimated. The first will be from the Westminster Review, London, England, which was sent to him with the compliments of that magazine, July, 1883. It says:

        A 'History of the Negroes' (the author insists on the propriety of spelling the word with a capital) has just been brought out by the first colored member of the Ohio Legislature and late Judge-Advocate of the Grand Army of the Republic of Ohio. He gives no particulars about his own life, whether he was ever a slave or not; but to judge from the honorable position he has attained, he must have been born before the emancipation of his race, though his portrait shows him to be still a young man, probably not of pure African blood, with the face indicating clearheadedness and resolution. The materials have been collected with great


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care, official documents in most cases printed in full; and though a member of an oppressed race cannot be expected to write calmly about the wrongs of his people, there is no needless or offensive vituperation. The style is clear and straightforward, with a few Americanisms here and there, some of which will be new to many of his readers on this side, as the verb "to enthuse," meaning to inspire enthusiasm.


        From the Kansas City Review of Science we give the following:

        Having referred quite fully to the general scope of this work in the April number of the Review, it is unnecessary to recur to it or to repeat the favorable comments then made upon the ability and skill manifested by the author in handling his subject. The present volume is devoted to an account of the Negro race in America between the years 1619 and 1800. Commencing with the unity of mankind and considering the subject in the light of philology, ethnology and Egyptology, the author proceeds to discuss primitive Negro civilization, the Negro kingdoms of Africa, the Ashantee Empire, African idiosyncrasies, languages, literature and religion, Sierra Leone, the Republic of Liberia, etc.

         In part two heconsiders the history of slavery in the Colonies of Virginia, New York, Massachusetts, Maryland, Delaware, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania and Georgia, giving the laws regulating slavery in each, and many other facts which have been collected with great pains and carefully condensed.

         Part three is devoted to an account of the services of the Negro during the Revolution, including their military employment, the legal status, the statutory prohibition against educating them; notices of Banneker, the Negro astronomer; Fuller, the mathematician, and Derham, the physician; slavery during the Revolution as a political and legal problem.

         Mr. Williams, though a very dark-skinned and pronounced Negro, is a lawyer and has been a member of the Ohio Legislature. He is a vigorous writer and a hard student. In the preparation of these volumes he has consulted over twelve thousand volumes, besides thousands of pamphlets, and has succeeded in producing a work which will be authority on the subject treated until a better one is produced, which is likely to be a long time.



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        The honorable gentleman has traveled extensively in our own country, especially giving some attention to Mexico and New Mexico, and has visited nearly every country in Europe, and though quite a young man, he has distinguished himself so that with all justice the following titles can be given him: Reverend, Honorable, Colonel, Editor, Traveler, Legislator, Lawyer, Orator, Poet, Historian and Novelist. Space forbids us to give quotations from all of his writings, but we will content ourselves with giving some at the close of this sketch.

        One matter we might refer to here, before we close the biographical part of this work, and that is his appointment at the expiring hour of the Congress just before the inauguration of President Grover Cleveland. It will be remembered that President Arthur appointed him to office very nearly, if not the last act of his administration as President of the United States, and Grover Cleveland found him in office confirmed as Minister to Hayti, and the following extract which I take from the New York Tribune will give sufficient explanation of the matter. It will be remembered also that he did not fill the position, but was removed and another substituted in his place:

        WASHINGTON, April 20.--Mr. Williams, United States Minister to Hayti, addressed to President Cleveland, on April 13, a letter of which the following is a copy:

         "It is unnecessary for me to give you the history of my case. It is brief and a matter of public record. You will remember, however, that when I called to pay my respects a month ago, I informed you of my nomination and confirmation as United States Minister Resident and Consul-General to Hayti. When you expressed pleasure at this statement, which was news to you, I abandoned my avowed purpose of tendering


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my resignation. Several weeks later I learned that a fight was being made against my appointment. Vice-President Hendricks had told me that he wanted the position. I came to you, Mr. President, and told you that if the administration had a candidate for the Haytian mission I would resign. You told me that you had no candidate. I then told you that a fight was being made against me in the dark, and that I understood that an effort was being made to have me recalled. You told me that my recall had been suggested, but that the matter would be judicially considered. Your promise of fair play, Mr. President, gave me confidence. I had then, and have now, absolute confidence in your promise. I have sent two communications to the Department of State. I have received no reply. After waiting forty-two days since I took the oath of office, I called to-day to draw my thirty days pay for "waiting instructions." After waiting an hour in the public hall, I saw the secretary in a private room. I was informed that there were charges pending against me. I asked for a copy but was refused. I was subsequently informed by the chief clerk that I could have my thirty days' salary, provided I would write my resignation. He said the secretary had sent him to me. I declined. I declined to be bribed to resign with charges hanging over my head. This is a very brief statement of the case, but there are many more important matters that I cannot properly mention at this time.

         "Mr. President, I appeal to you for justice and fair play. My case ceases to be a personal matter from to-day. I am on trial before the country for my race, and, as far as I am concerned as a young man now some time in public life, I cannot in justice to myself seek a back door. I am a public officer; let my case have the same open examination that every honest official should court; let the charges be made in the light; let my accusers face me, and if I shall be found unfit for public station, let me be dismissed. If I shall endure the test, let me have my rights. I make no claim to perfection, but I do honestly believe that I have striven to be a man and a gentlemen. I have no apology to offer for my record as a Union soldier and Republican citizen. I have not always felt enthusiastic over the candidate of my party, and sometimes have wished that my party had pursued a different policy. But all parties are human, and party policy is rather dictated by what is necessary rather than by what is right in the abstract. I rejoice in the noble record of the Republican party, and yet sincerely and honestly wish the present Democratic


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administration abundant success. I am a citizen and a patriot first, and a partisan last. Your election was a personal promotion and triumph of an honest public officer, and the Democratic party is in power to-day on account of your personal popularity. It is natural, therefore, that the shout-hearted, clear-headed New Englanders who gave you their moral support should be solicitous about the position of your administration toward the Negro, for whom they have worked for three generations. Believe me, Mr. President, I have no personal ambition; I do not beg to be retained. I have good reasons to believe that I am sought as the victim of race malice. It is my duty to endure the fire like a man. I certainly shall.

         "Mr. President, you will doubtless see the justice of an early decision in my case. I feel confindent that whatever it may be it will be dictated by a high-minded, honorable man, whose highest ambition is to rule wisely and mercifully over all elements in our composite nationality, by a man who desires to be President of the blacks and whites of the Democrats and Republicans of the North and South."


        Colonel Williams has adopted original and unique methods of literary investigation and composition peculiar to himself. He believes that a literary man should take the best care of his health and consequently is scrupulously careful in the selection and preparation of his food, in his dress, ventilation of his study and bed chamber, and the character and quantity of his exercise to be taken indoors and outdoors. While residing at Columbus, Ohio, and in New York City, during the years he was engaged on his work, the 'History of Negro Race in America,' he took a great deal of exercise. At Columbus he purchased the Young Men's Christian Association's Gymnasium and bath rooms, employed a business manager, and engaged a professional gymnast from New York and by giving his personal attention for thirty minutes a day brought the institution up to a high standard.


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        He does not go into society except on rare occasions and then proves himself a congenial and racy conversationalist. There is but one place in which he may be found regularly, except prevented by indisposition or inclement weather, and that is the Thursday evening prayer meeting. He is a member of the Baptist church, and during his Christian life has been an active Sunday school and Young Men's Christian Association worker, until a severe attack of pneumonia and increased literary duties admonished him to husband his strength.

        Few persons have had the privilege of knowing him intimately, but those who have come in close contact with him socially have found him an intelligent and interesting gentleman. He is loyal to his friends, but pays little attention to his enemies, except they provoke and bring about war; then it may be said of him truly "Beware of the wrath of a patient man." He is the equal or the superior in general learning, information and originality of any of the representative colored men in this country. He is familiar with the classics, with several modern languages, and is well-informed upon all questions of domestic and foreign politics. He writes poetry with grace and unction and is authority on English classics. As an orator he takes first rank. He has written three novels and a tragedy; the last two productions are destined to create a profound sensation on both sides of the Atlantic and give him additional fame. Although a good lawyer, and, in the practice making a good deal of money, his real tastes are those of the scholar and literary man; and the rest of his life will be devoted to literary pursuits.


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        At the commencement of the State University, Louisville, Kentucky, May 17, 1887, the Hon. G. W. Williams delivered an oration on "Books and Reading: How to read, what to read, and when to read." The oration was a masterpiece and at the same time a voluminous index to the orators reading, an epitome of the varied and extensive historical research after wisdom. At this time the degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by the authorities of the State University. The "Eureka," the society before whom he lectured, was especially proud of the honor conferred on him.


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LXXVI.

PROFESSOR WILLIAM EVE HOLMES,
A. B., A. M., LL. D.

        Hebrew, German and French Scholar--Professor in the Atlanta Baptist Seminary.

        IN slave life there were many pleasant scenes, many lives that ran smoothly and presented pictures of a happy home, and it was the wont of American slaveholders to liken slavery to the patriarchal days of father Abraham.

        It was under very favorable scenes that W. E. Holmes was born in the city of Augusta, Georgia, January 22, 1856. Has parents were slaves, his father belonging to one family and his mother to another. Separated as they were, the care and responsibility of rearing him devolved upon his mother. Fortunately for her, in the immediate service of her master, who was a planter, she never spent a day. From early youth to the close of the war she was hired out, and the family in whose employ she passed the last fourteen years of her slave life, consisting of a father, mother and son, were very kind. The head of the family was a contracting carpenter and did business on a large scale, and as is characteristic with most Southern men, lived an easy and flowing life, never thinking of providing for the


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wants of his family. There being no children on his premises, he took a liking to young William at an early age, and made a pet of him. He ate at his table, slept in his bed, and accompanied him in his walks. In this kind treatment his wife and son vied with him. His home was indeed a pleasant one. Books and papers were not kept from him, or indeed anything which was elevating and ennobling in its tendencies. His mother being able to read, early inspired him with a love for books, and taught him to read simple paragraphs with some degree of ease. During the last years of the war she sent him every day to school, carefully concealing his books under his clothes to avoid arrest; for the elementary instructions of Negro youth in slavery was forbidden, and the authorities were ever on the alert.

        All over the South they were preparing in this secret manner a host to go forth and raise up their people, for had not this been the case our race would never have made such progress in so short a time. The war closing in 1865, gave better opportunities for continuing her labors, which she did, until 1871. During those years he enjoyed the instruction of some of the best teachers from New England. On account of ill health, he suspended studies that year, and was hired out to a cabinet-maker and undertaker, in whose employ he continued two years, but he still kept up his studies. On December 10, 1874, he was converted and joined the Thankful Baptist church, at Augusta, and on the seventh of February following, was baptized in the Savannah river. That year he began school again at the Augusta Institute, prosecuting his studies for seven years without interruption--four years in the city


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of Augusta, and three in the city of Atlanta, after the removal of the school to that city, and its incorporation under the name of the "Atlanta Seminary," Dr. Joseph T. Roberts, President.

        He was a trust worthy disciple of that good man to whom he owes much for his instruction. Shortly after he entered the institution, he was gradually promoted till graduation, when he was made a full professor. Besides doing the work of the prescribed course of literary and theological studies, he has had good instruction in branches not taught in the seminary. In addition to careful preliminary instruction in the Hebrew language, he has been favored with the personal training of Dr. William R. Harper, the learned professor of Oriental languages at Yale University, and for two years he pursued the study of German under a gentleman who completed his education in one of the German Universities, and French under a graduate of Colby University. He was licensed to preach on the twenty-first of June, 1878, and on the second of September, 1881, was ordained to the ministry. In May, 1883, he was elected to the corresponding secretaryship of the Missionary Baptist Convention of Georgia, a body representing more than one hundred and thirty thousand communicants. He held the position for one year. The pressure of business being so great as to require his full time for the school, he declined re-election. He is still however officially connected with the convention and attends it every year. The denominational and educational work--a work in which he feels a deep interest, and which to-day he is laboring to advance, attracts much of his attention. Recently


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he delivered a speech at Spelman's University, which probably epitomizes his views concerning the race, his subject being: "A Problem to be Solved."

        He said:

        The National Baptist of Philadelphia says: "Let the Negro alone." This is just where the trouble lies. He has been let alone and severely alone. George W. Cable thinks that at once the Negro should be admitted to mingle freely with those surrounding him. I don't think so. Bishop Dudley of Kentucky says that the Caucasian should help us. This is good. The sentiment of Fred Douglass, that inter-marriage with a dominant race will settle all difficulties, is of course out of consideration. Grady thinks that if the whole matter be left to the South, that she is able to settle it. The South has had time to do it, and she has not done it. Who, then, shall solve this problem? It must be solved by the colored people themselves; so said Charles Dudley Warner, and with his view mine accords.


        In pointing out the steps to be taken in the solution of this problem, he said:

        There are three, the first is to make solid moral progress; I want our people to recognize the fact that there is rottenness and evil in society, and to that remember, until this is remedied we must keep out mouths shut. Second step is to make common social progress as we are too free and familiar, though not wishing to underrate the kindly hospitality, not wishing that we should be social icebergs, yet dignity is to be cultivated. Much that is called politeness, is downright vulgarity. The third step is to make sound mental progress. We must have men of learning that are broad and deep.


        Speaking of industrial education, he emphasized the importance of handiwork, saying that "the colored men and women must come to recognize the fact that if they are to hold their own in America beside the progressive Caucasian,


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they must learn to work, the training of head and hand must go side by side."

        The degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon him by the University of Chicago, June 11, 1884. He is worth about five thousand dollars in property. He married Miss Elizabeth Easley, a graduate of the Atlanta University, July 15, 1885, who taught in the public schools of Atlanta. He is a man universally beloved and admired by all who know him.


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LXXVII.

REV. RANDALL BARTHOLOMEW VANDERVALL, D. D.

        A Self-Made Man--A Graduate from the School of Adversity.

        KNOWING of the many difficulties through which the good man whose name stands at the head of this sketch has psssed, and admiring his success, which has been wrung from the severest circumstances, and delighting to honor such, it is with marked pleasure that we introduce a few words concerning his struggles and the manner in which he has succeeded in compassing every trouble and arriving at the place where he has become an honored citizen, useful preacher, a man distinguished among the race and his brethren in the ministry.

        He was born in 1832 at Nesley's Bend, on the Cumberland river, ten miles above Nashville. His mother's name was Sylvonia. She was the property of a Major Hall, who had brought her from Virginia when a baby in her mother's arms. His father's name was Lewis, and was the property of a man named Foster; and serving said owner as coachman, he was allowed to visit his wife only once a year. There were eleven children in the family. After the death of Mr. Hall, the mother and children


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became the property of his only daughter, Anna, who hired out all the children that were old enough to leave their mother. When seven years old, young Vandervall was taken on New Year's day to the hiring ground to be hired out. An old white man came to him, saying, "Come with me." He was afraid of white people, and then the thought of leaving his mother was terrible. He snatched him violently from his mother's arms and threw him on a sharp-backed horse and carried him twenty-two miles away from all that was dear to him on the earth.

        He was compelled to sleep on the floor, with only one quilt in which he rolled himself as well as he could and cried all night. A white lady next day tried to comfort him, but he was broken-hearted and dreadfully homesick. After several months he became accustomed to the place and remembered the prayer that his mother taught him. He slept in the house with the white people, and every night after they had gone to bed, he would go down on his knees and say his prayers. Sometimes as he was doing so, it seemed as if his mother's hand was resting on his head; then the tears would flow freely down his cheek. Those were bitter days with the young boy. He stayed there three years and enjoyed one advantage of unspeakable importance: he was permitted to attend school, and the white boys at home taught him to spell. After this time he was taken to Nashville and hired to a man by the name of Garite, who was a minister of the gospel and also kept a boarding house. At that time all the children had reached maturity and the guardian, Mr. Steele, was released and the property was now divided. Mr. Charles


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Hall secured him as part of his share, and came out one night to get him to go to Kansas. He ran off and did not return while he was there. He was shortly bought by Mr. Vandervall, with whom he was living, for the price of five hundred dollars. When he was fifteen years old he was converted and became more thirsty for knowledge, which he gained by attending night school, being aided very much by John Vandervall, the son of his master. He paid for his lessons by splitting rails. His spare time was given to holding prayer meetings and doing other religious work. Having been immersed by Elder Peter Tuckenway, he began preaching at the age of sixteen, walking twenty miles to appointments, and feeding five hundred at times with the bread of eternal life. He was the only colored Baptist raised in the neighborhood since the split in the denomination which occurred at that time. The brother who baptized him and indoctrinated him, as was common at the time, was called very hard names, but he was strong in the faith. Sometimes he preached for what was called the "Old Baptists," who were greatly in the majority--especially when there were a dozen or more to follow him, their object being to tear him to pieces. They would say, "He is young, he doesn't know any better." He was the wonder of the day, on account of his being so young.

        He was married to Miss Martha Nicholson of Hill Brook, by the Rev. Daniel Watkins, and was sent shortly after his marriage to work on a railroad, and was, by this arrangement, permitted to live with his wife; but the man who had hired him, finding he could read and write,


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abused him so that he ran away, went home, and persuaded his master to let him go to Nashville and work, which he did. For this privilege he paid $200 a year. In six months more, he had his wife living with him, having arranged to pay for her time also. Next, a horse and dray were bought, with which he made considerable money, but he was destined to more trouble. An old white man told him one day that his master was fixing to sell him to one Dr. Wallace, to go South and drive a team. He dreamt the night before that he was sold. On the Sunday following he went home to his owners, and when he arrived they were in the wood-lot and he told them his dream. Mr. Barter said it was not so, but his wife said it was. After some conversation, he told them he could not believe that they could sell him, as they had promised not to do so. Mr. Vandervall said to him, "God is just, and every man shall have to give an account of himself to God. Now, Mr. Barter, how would you like it to be treated as you have treated me?" "I should not like it," said he. He threw the blame on his wife, and said she would not rest until it was done. He then asked Mr. Barter what he was to do, and then Mr. Barter swore that he would not sign the papers.

        Vandervall then asked them to let him keep on paying for his time as he had started to do, and further asked if he had ever been untrue to them, or ever gave them any trouble. They answered "No." He then asked why he wanted to sell him from his wife. To this they made no reply. Mr. Barter then said that he was willing that Vandervall should have a chance to buy himself, if he could do


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so. This was agreed upon, and the price fixed at $1800, $500 cash. With all his promises, Mr. Barter, before he was through paying for him, sent a "nigger trader" to see him. Mr. Vandervall mounted his horse, and stayed away from home day and night. He secured Mr. R. L. Bell to become his executor; to him he looked for all protection in money matters.

        Amid great difficulties, however, he succeeded at last in raising the money, but in the meantime his troubles were aggravated by the loss of several horses. Grief and hard work began to show themselves on his health. All this time of great darkness his wife was a help-mate indeed to him. Finally, his health was restored, and he started out again full of hope and courage, to secure blessings for himself and family. God with his unerring hand upheld him.

        Wherever he went to preach, large audiences greeted him. On account of his power over men, he was sent as an evangelist, and met with great success. It seemed for a while as if the clouds were breaking away, but this did not last long. His wife belonged to an old bachelor who died, and another trouble came upon them, and they were sore afflicted. There were rumors that his wife would be set free, but she was sold to a man named Nelson Nicholson, her own father's grandson. Mr. Vandervall again hired his wife from him. He had saved a little money and he deposited it in the bank of Tennessee, and when it broke he lost it, and thus had another fall. A short time after that, Mr. Nicholson, who bought his wife, called at the hotel where he was at work, and inquired to whom he belonged, saying that he did not want to separate him from


Illustration

R. B. VANDERVALL.


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his wife, but that he would have to leave town, and would either sell his wife to his owner, or he would buy him. It ended with the young man, whom his wife had partly brought up, buying him, but he had hardly finished paying for her when the war broke out. From that time until the war closed they both hired their time.

        Mr. Nicholson, who owned his wife, was rather weak-minded, and allowed a Mr. McKenzie to persuade him to let him have Mr. Vandervall, his wife and child. It was a wicked plot to accomplish a selfish purpose. Both husband and wife moved away, but stayed, however, only a year, when they returned to the city. Several of their children were dead, but amid all these troubles he has given education to those who are now living. James N. Vandervall is a graduate of the Medical Department of the Central Tennessee College, and is now practicing medicine in Waco, Texas. His son and two daughters obtained their education at Roger Williams University.

        He has been living in East Tennessee about fifteen years, and when he first settled in that place there was no Baptist church. The Lord has been with them and blessed their labors, and now there is a neat plain building and a membership of nine hundred. Some years ago his church made him a life member of the American Baptist Publication Society. For many years he was President of the State Sabbath School convention. Since the death of Rev. N. G. Murray, he has been President of the Baptist State convention. In the early days of reconstruction he was one of those who aided Dr. J. B. Simmons in selecting the place where the Roger Williams University now stands,


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serving as a trustee when the school was chartered and since that time. The degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by this institution during the commencement of 1886. His work in organization of churches is worthy of mention, for he has organized nine churches.

        After freedom came, he was married to his wife under the laws by the Rev. D. W. Phillips, his staunch friend and adviser. He has succeeded in gathering around him many friends, a valuable home and a good library.

        Thus ends the life of a man who suffered in the bonds of American slavery and yet has risen to prominence.


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LXXVIII.

REV. ELIJAH P. MARRS.

        Preacher--Soldier--Treasurer--Author.

        IN Shelby county, Kentucky, January, 1840, was born Elijah P. Marrs, the subject of this sketch. His mother and father were Virginians by birth, the latter of whom received his freedom at the age of thirty years from an indulgent master. When quite a boy, Mr. Marrs displayed such elements in his character for successful work in the things that developed the spiritual being, that the neighboring folks called him a "little preacher."

        Although the laws of Kentucky forbade the Negro to acquire such knowledge as books give, yet Mr. Roberson, his owner, being a Christian, desired that he should know enough to read the Scripture, and accordingly secretly taught him when still very young. At the age of eleven he professed hope in Christ and was baptized at Simpsonville by Rev. Charles Wells. He says with all sincerity that he never uttered an oath or spent a cent for liquor in his life. The year Abraham Lincoln was made President, manhood in him asserted itself. He devoured the contents of newspapers and books, and being the only colored man, except


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his brother, H. C. (now deceased), in the neighborhood who could read, he kept the colored people in the community well informed on the state of affairs. At this time Shelby county was threatened with Confederate soldiers, and his former master warned him to be on the alert and not be captured; but though heeding the caution given, he mustered a company of twenty-seven men, Sunday night, September 25, 1864, armed them with clubs, and as their captain, armed himself with an old pistol which had long discharged its last shot, marched a distance of twenty-two miles to Louisville and enlisted in the United States army. Two days later he was made a sergeant of Company L, Twelfth United States Heavy Artillery. His army life was full of excitement, and his company took part in several important engagements. While at home on a furlough before being mustered out, in 1866, he was attacked by a mob of Confederates, but having his presence of mind he held his ground and dispersed his assailants.

        August 3, 1871, he married Miss Julia Gray, of Shelbyville, who died April, 1876. He has been a very successful teacher in Shelbyville, La Grange, Louisville, Beargrass, and other places in Kentucky. June 16, 1873, he was licensed to preach at the New Castle Baptist church, thereby realizing his boyhood dreams, and was ordained to the gospel ministry August 22, 1875. He has held no small place in the estimation of his fellow men. He was a delegate to the first educational convention held in Kentucky in 1868, and in the first political convention in 1869, looking forward to the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment. He enrolled himself as a member, and was appointed


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a committeeman on resolutions. He was a member of the convention which nominated Governor Harlan, and was also in the State convention of colored men that met in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1882, and the National convention of colored men which met in Louisville in 1883, and the great educational convention which met in Frankfort in 1884. He has been a member of the Executive Board of the General Association of Colored Baptists for six years; a member and secretary of the Executive Board of the Central District Association, and for twelve years secretary of the Central District Association, and is at present treasurer of the General Association. From 1879 to 1880 he was business manager for the State University, then known as the Normal and Theological Institute. March 16, 1880, he was called to the pastorate of the Beargrass church, which position he has held until this time, excepting an interval of three months. This is one of the most successful churches in the State, though by no means the largest.

        He has published a book containing a sketch of his life, which has brought him considerable revenue. It treats of his army life, his life as a teacher, of his ministerial labors. He has assisted in setting apart to the work of the gospel ministry fifteen young men. He has amassed some worldly goods, in value to the extent of $3,500. Mr. Marrs is a man admired by all who know him. His quiet, gentlemanly deportment makes him beloved by all the brethren. Usually in earnest, he is no enthusiast, but when he undertakes a thing he goes through with it. He is a strong friend to the cause of education, and can be depended on to be on the side of temperance and against the cause of Satan


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at all times. Above all he is a true preacher of the Word and a friend in truth and sincerity to those who prove themselves worthy.


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LXXIX.

REV. DANIEL JONES.

        Presiding Elder of the M. E. Church--His Hairbreadth Escapes.

        ON June 30, 1830, our subject was born in Reading, Pennsylvania. His parents were Henry and Catharine Jones. His father was a slave on the eastern shores of Maryland, up to the age of twenty-five, when he made his escape into Pennsylvania, where he raised a family of eight children, five of whom are living. Daniel left home at ten years of age to learn the barber's trade in the city of Philadelphia, where he worked at this employment for seven years; but becoming disgusted with it, he concluded to go to sea. After quite a lengthy voyage he landed in Charleston, South Carolina, and being of a venturesome disposition he went ashore with the mate to see the sights, having been warned at the same time of the risk he would run in so doing; nevertheless he thought he would try it. At nine o'clock a bell rang as a warning for all the colored people to get in the house; and as he did not understand the signal, of course he did not retire. Mr. Jones is so fair that at first the patrols did not discover that he was not a "simon pure;" and when they undertook to arrest him, then began a mighty race for the vessel, which was


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footed in dead earnest; being fleet of foot, he managed to make his escape, and never had a desire to repeat the experiment.

        On the sixteenth of January, 1849, he started around Cape Horn for the newly discovered gold fields of California, in one of the first of a class of clipper ships, Gray Eagle. After sailing four months and two days, passing into the Golden Gate he entered the harbor of San Francisco. He worked in the gold mines of California and Oregon for five years with good success, and concluded to make the latter place his home; and so he located at Jacksonville, for some years and then, on recommendation of physicians, he moved to Cresent City, California, on the seashore. He recovered his health and moved to Salem, the capital of the State of Oregon. Here he lived in the midst of the famous Oregon Indian War and had many narrow escapes from death. One especially, he says, he shall never forget. A white man with whom he was traveling on horse-back, requested him to leave the main road with him that he might talk with some Indians that he saw a few hundred yards from the roadside, and about half a mile from the Indian camp. He found an Indian whom he said had a short time previous killed a relative of his. He drew his revolver and quickly shot the Indian dead. He started up the mountain side at full speed, leaving Mr. Jones almost dumfounded at the side of the gasping Indian. The shot and screams of the poor fellow brought the entire Indian camp to the spot with cocked revolvers and rifles. They rushed upon him with the intention of slaying him. He thought surely his time had come and that his


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race had been run to the end. But, like the disciples at Pentecost, he talked different tongues very rapidly until they understood that he was not the man who did the cowardly deed. Lieutenant Underwood of the United States Army, had charge of the Indians, taking them to the reservation, and to him, under God, was his preservation largely due.

        He taught school in Jacksonville and Salem, Oregon, at different periods. In the latter place he joined the M. E. church in 1869. He was converted really in the middle of the street in the city of Philadelphia at the age of twelve, but didn't unite with any church until the time mentioned. He was licensed to exhort soon after, attaching himself to the church, and was soon admitted on trial in the Oregon Conference. He entered the Williamette University at Salem, being the first colored man ever admitted within its walls as a student. A young white man in the class refused to recite in the algebra class with him because of a dread of the contact. The teacher, Mr. O. Frambes, with his big, sympathetic heart, told him at once to pack up his little bundle and leave the institution; but a good night's rest and a cool reconsideration caused him to become reconciled, and the next morning found him working at the "minus and plus," for he had just discovered the unknown "quantity" in Jones.

        In 1873 Bishop R. S. Foster gave Mr. Jones about as long a transfer as Methodist preachers usually get, four thousand miles, from the Oregon to the Newark, New Jersey conference. He was stationed, for three years at Newark, New Jersey, and then transferred to Cincinnati, Ohio.


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where he remained one year, and was sent to Indianapolis, Indiana, as pastor for two years, and was then appointed presiding elder of the Lexington, Kentucky, district, by Bishop Wiley. After serving four years, he was returned to the pastorate at Paris for two years, and then to Winchester, Kentucky, as pastor of Clark's chapel. He received the ordination of deacon at the hands of Bishop Edmund S. Jones, and as an elder at the hands of Bishop Edward Ames.

        His intellectual qualities and goodness of heart made him a general favorite with his brethren, and he received a number of votes for bishop at the general conference in 1880, at Cincinnati, Ohio.

        He was elected a delegate from the State of Oregon, to the Civil Rights convention, which met in Washington, District of Columbia, in 1873. Also a delegate from the same State, to the National Convention of Colored Men, which met in Nashville, in 1880. He was elected delegate to the Educational convention which met in the city of Lexington, Kentucky; was one of the committee to present the work necessary to the Legislature at Frankfort; though not present at Frankfort, on account of having to perform the funeral services of a valued friend, he was thoroughly int