Workers' rights efforts greeted by harassment
West remembers that as the Angelo Herndon case reached its conclusion, harassment from police grew intense. West was renting an apartment under an assumed name. The harassment continued into the 1960s: West remembers the Internal Revenue Service raiding the folk center he set up in Pipestem, West Virginia, and he recalls hiding in the home of a black minister as the police pursued him.
Citing this Excerpt
Oral History Interview with Don West, January 22, 1975. Interview E-0016. Southern Oral History Program Collection (#4007) in the Southern Oral History Program Collection, Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Full Text of the Excerpt
- JACQUELYN HALL:
You came to North Carolina because of the Burlington case?
- DON WEST:
Let me finish just a little more about Georgia. We had some farmer
support. I was trying to remember… out of Stone Mountain
there was a farmer, just a small farmer. Emory Fields.
I've been to his home lots of times. He was actually right by
Herndon's side when Herndon was leading this group up to the
mayor's office. He has told me numbers of times "I
should have been arrested instead of Herndon. But they arrested Herndon
because he was black. They thought they could get by with it."
He was a native Georgian. His name was Emory Fields.
- JACQUELYN HALL:
Is he still living?
- DON WEST:
I guess he's dead now. I haven't seen him in forty
years. He was pretty middle aged then. But he had children, a wife and
family that were all dedicated. And so there were farmers, there were
white students, there were black students, there were attorneys, three
attorneys— Mack, Ben Davis and John Gear—all
working on that thing. And numbers of white cotton mill workers. And
black ministers. Just before the Supreme Court made its decision to free
Herndon. it got so that the cops, the police, were getting very
vigilent. They were watching everything that went on. Almost impossible
to move without their being on you. And it got so that I could hardly
move around. Actually, you see, as I've
tried to say, we were underground. I din't even carry my own
name and where I was living I didn't live under my name
because, you know, it was an underground situation. I rented this
apartment under a pen name, an assumed name.
- JACQUELYN HALL:
But when you worked with people like Mercer Evans, did they know you by
your real name?
- DON WEST:
Not always. Many people that I've worked with
wouldn't now know me. I've lived under half a
dozen different names. I get a little aside here, but a couple of years
ago I had trouble with the IRS. I guess I was on Nixon's
enemy list. See, Connie and I started the folk life center over at
Pipestem. We saved money. One of our salaries we saved for ten years and
lived on the other. We got pretty good salaries.
. So we had a nice little piece of money. We bought 600 acres of land.
We started building buildings and started a program. Out of our own
funds. And then we got some donations. We were just doing it then. We
hadn't incorporated you see. So the IRS came in and they held
me responsible for personal income for every dollar that had been
donated to go into the program. We had 125 kids there! So I had to dig
up, from my own personal funds, $4,000. And they came in one
night at midnight. Couple of secret service. He flashed his card. He was
with the secret service. "Well, what do you want?"
They wanted to question me on my tax. They took me over to Princeton to
the jail. They were going to put me in jail overnight, you know, like I
was some kind of a desperado might run away. It just happened that the
sheriff over there was a good friend of mine and
it didn't work. He said he'd be responsible. We
had an interview then. Wanted to talk. They were going to tape it, just
like you're taping here. And the first thing he
said—this was the secret service
man—"Hold up your hand. Take an oath." I
said "Now wait a minute, this is a discussion about tax
problems. I'm not in any court and I'm not about
to take an oath." Well then, "we're going
to record it." I said "Okay, I don't mind
you recording it. I haven't anything to cover up."
And the first question he asked was "Have you ever lived under
another name?" I said "What does this have to do with
my taxes for 1972?" And I said "In the first place, I
know that you know more about me than I remember. Because
you've got the whole record." See, they knew about
all these things because they've always kept those records.
That was necessary back in that period. You couldn't be open
with it. We printed handbills and papers and distributed them, very
quietly and very secretly. I remember, just about the week before I left
there I went to visit one of our workers on the committee. He was a well
known black minister over in the black community in the west side of
town—not Auburn Avenue section—Hunter Street, down
in that area. I'd no more than gotten into the living room
and we sat down to talk and the wife looked out the window and coming up
the walk were half a dozen cops. "Oh my gosh," she
said, "here are the police." She grabbed me and took
me into the kitchen and raised up a trap door. "Get down there
right quick." I went under and she threw a rug over it. But
they searched the whole house. They were searching for me, see. They had
a warrant for me. They searched the house and didn't find a
thing. They left and then of course I got out. It
got so that it looked like I was always just one jump ahead of them. I
didn't want to be taken in then, of course. So one night Ben
Davis says "I tell you what we'd better
do." We had our committee together and he proposed that he take
me out of town. He put me in his car. Put some old quilts and things
over me in the back seat. He drove me out to Decatur. Then you could
flag a bus anywhere on the road and get a ride. So I flagged a bus for a
conference in New York. Shortly after that, of course, Herndon was
freed. And then the Burlington thing came up in '34. I came
over here and was in charge of this committee for—I think it
took us about a year before we got this case settled over here.