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oral histories of the American South
The Industrialization of North Carolina's Piedmont Region

From its rise in the 1930s, powered by the labor of poor southerners, to its decline in a global market, the story of the southern textile industry exemplifies the goal of the interviews collected here: to capture the character of southern industry before accelerating economic change forever alters its identity. The interviews in this collection come from a variety of oral history projects that chronicle changes in industry and the lives of those tied to it. Like a Family gathered the stories of cotton mill people who, by the turn of the century, were leaving their rural communities to join mill towns, where families worked, lived, and in the midst of the Great Depression, held protests to demand change. The North Carolina Business History and Piedmont Industrialization interview series traces the evolution of North Carolina's economy since World War II, by examining the transformation of the state's traditional industries (agriculture, tobacco manufacturing, furniture, textiles, insurance) and the emergence of "new" industries (banking and financial services, high technology, agribusiness, utilities). The Rural Electrification series reveals how the spread of technology changed life inside the home. Together, these collections tell a story of past and present, dusty cotton mills and towering high rises, hard work and hard choices.

1.
Lauch Faircloth, March 22, 1999. Interview I-0069.
Business and Politics Meet in North Carolina: North Carolina businessman and politician Lauch Faircloth describes his ascent through both business and politics.
Interviewee: Lauch Faircloth    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:30:28     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
2.
Kenneth Iverson, June 11, 1999. Interview I-0083.
Steel in the South: Forty Years of Innovation and Growth: Kenneth Iverson, president of Nucor Steel, describes his approach to business, Nucor's success, and the changing profile of the steel industry in the United States.
Interviewee: Kenneth Iverson    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:34:27     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
3.
Lonnie Poole, March 22, 1999. Interview I-0085.
Privatizing Waste Management and Turning a Profit: Private waste management company owner Lonnie Poole discusses the past and present of his incredibly successful endeavor.
Interviewee: Lonnie Poole    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:50:47     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 18 excerpts.
4.
S. Davis (Dave) Phillips, January 27, 1999. Interview I-0084.
The Transition from Personal Financial Success to Statewide Economic Growth: North Carolina business leader and former Commerce Secretary S. Davis (Dave) Phillips discusses his personal successes as a businessman in High Point and his successes as Commerce Secretary under Governor Jim Martin.
Interviewee: S. Davis (Dave) Phillips    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:03:19     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
5.
Harriet Herring, February 5, 1976. Interview G-0027.
Studying Labor in North Carolina Mill Towns: Harriet Herring, a sociologist at the University of North Carolina, recalls her efforts to study labor at North Carolina mill towns in the first half of the twentieth century.
Interviewee: Harriet Herring    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson, Nevin Brown
Duration: 03:47:51     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 13 excerpts.
6.
Jim Goodnight, July 22, 1999. Interview I-0073.
The Slow, Steady Growth of SAS: Jim Goodnight describes the founding and growth of his corporation, SAS.
Interviewee: Jim Goodnight    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:28:54     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 19 excerpts.
7.
Dennis Gillings, June 10, 1999. Interview I-0072.
Marketing Expertise: From Academia to Corporate Success: Chairman and CEO of Quintiles Transnational Corporation describes his company's success and his business philosophy.
Interviewee: Dennis Gillings    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:16:21     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 13 excerpts.
8.
Robert Sidney Smith, January 25, 1999. Interview I-0081.
The Past, Present, and Future of the Hosiery Industry: Robert Sidney Smith, president and CEO of the National Association of Hosiery Manufacturers, discusses the hosiery industry in North Carolina and the United States.
Interviewee: Robert Sidney Smith    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 02:08:26     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 21 excerpts.
9.
Lauch Faircloth, July 16, 1999. Interview I-0070.
Considering the Past and Future of North Carolina Agriculture: Successful farmer, businessman, and politician Lauch Faircloth discusses the changes in North Carolina's agricultural economy since World War II.
Interviewee: Lauch Faircloth    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:30:03     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 13 excerpts.
10.
Sherwood Smith, March 23, 1999. Interview I-0079.
The Power Business and the Power of Business in North Carolina: Sherwood Smith, chairman of the board of Carolina Power and Light, reflects on the energy business, and business in general, in North Carolina from the 1960s to the late 1990s.
Interviewee: Sherwood Smith    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:42:07     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 15 excerpts.
11.
Richard Barentine, January 28, 1999. Interview I-0068.
Molding the Furniture Industry in Winston-Salem, North Carolina: Richard Barentine, CEO of the International Home Furnishing Marketing Association, describes his leadership style and his contributions to Winston-Salem's furniture industry.
Interviewee: Richard Barentine    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier, Dorothy Gay Darr
Duration: 03:05:00     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 14 excerpts.
12.
John Medlin, May 24, 1999. Interview I-0076.
Wachovia and the Growth of Banking in North Carolina: John G. Medlin Jr., CEO of Wachovia, discusses the growth of the Charlotte-based bank.
Interviewee: John Medlin    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:41:48     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 19 excerpts.
13.
Alice P. Evitt, July 18, 1979. Interview H-0162.
Mill Life in the 1930s: Alice Evitt describes her rural childhood and life as a millworker and mother in North Carolina in the first half of the twentieth century.
Interviewee: Alice P. Evitt    Interviewer: Jim Leloudis
Duration: 01:46:32     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 17 excerpts.
14.
Sam Parker, December 5, 2000. Interview K-0252.
Choosing the Simple Life in Madison County, North Carolina: Sam Parker, Madison County Probation and Parole Officer, praises rural life in the interview.
Interviewee: Sam Parker    Interviewer: Rob Amberg
Duration: 01:28:57     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
15.
Letha Ann Sloan Osteen, June 8, 1979. Interview H-0254.
Family and Work in the Farm and Mill Towns of South Carolina: Letha Ann Sloan Osteen discusses how farming and mill work affected the mobility, size, health, and activities of families from about 1900 to the 1930s.
Interviewee: Letha Ann Sloan Osteen    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 01:00:16     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 16 excerpts.
16.
Eva Hopkins, March 5, 1980. Interview H-0167.
Daily Life in a Charlotte Textile Mill: Eva Hopkins worked in a cotton mill from the 1930s until 1952 and recalls various aspects of millwork, union activity, social activities, and life in the mill villages.
Interviewee: Eva Hopkins    Interviewer: Lu Ann Jones
Duration: 01:21:53     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 17 excerpts.
17.
Ila Hartsell Dodson, May 23, 1980. Interview H-0241.
Mill Work in South Carolina: Ila Hartsell Dodson talks about working in a South Carolina textile mill.
Interviewee: Ila Hartsell Dodson    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 01:05:19     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 3 excerpts.
18.
Eula McGill, December 12, 1974. Interview G-0039.
A Life in the Textile Unions: Lifelong textile worker Eula McGill shares her thoughts on the benefits of Alabama textile unions.
Interviewee: Eula McGill    Interviewer: Lewis Lipsitz
Duration: 00:48:20     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
19.
Zelma Montgomery Murray, March 4, 1976. Interview H-0034.
At Home in the World of Southern Cotton Mills: A couple recalls living and working in the difficult conditions of North Carolina's cotton mill towns.
Interviewee: Zelma Montgomery Murray    Interviewer: Brent Glass
Duration: 01:17:48     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
20.
Ethel Bowman Shockley, June 24, 1977. Interview H-0045.
A Mother and Daughter Describe Life and Work in a North Carolina Mill Town: Ethel Bowman Shockley and her daughter Hazel Shockley Cannon describe life and work in the mill town of Glen Raven, North Carolina. Shockley worked at the Plaid Mill from 1927 to 1964; she describes how working conditions changed through the Depression, World War II, and the postwar years.
Interviewee: Ethel Bowman Shockley    Interviewer: Cliff Kuhn, Mary Frederickson
Duration: 01:02:33     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
21.
Eula McGill, February 3, 1976. Interview G-0040-1.
A Southern Woman Becomes a Leader in the Labor Movement: Part I: Eula McGill grew up in Sugar Valley, Georgia, during the early twentieth century. Raised in a working class family, McGill had to leave school because of her family's economic hardships and began to work in a textile mill as a spinner at the age of 14. By the late 1920s, McGill had moved to Alabama, where she became a leader in the labor movement in Selma. Throughout the Great Depression, McGill primarily worked as a labor organizer, first for the Women's Trade Union League and later for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union.
Interviewee: Eula McGill    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 03:49:44     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 11 excerpts.
22.
Eula McGill, September 5, 1976. Interview G-0040-2.
A Southern Woman Becomes a Leader in the Labor Movement: Part II: Southern labor organizer Eula McGill explains her views on leadership in the labor movement and the role of workers' education. After rising through the ranks of the labor movement during the Great Depression, McGill continued to work actively to organize workers from the 1940s to the 1970s. She describes in detail various labor campaigns and strikes in the South, as well as her work with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union and other labor organizations.
Interviewee: Eula McGill    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 02:13:11     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
23.
Carroll Lupton, April 2, 1980. Interview H-0028.
A North Carolina Doctor Describes Practicing Medicine in a Mill Town: North Carolina doctor Carroll Lupton recalls his days practicing medicine in the mill town of Burlington, North Carolina. Focusing primarily on the 1930s, Lupton talks about providing medical care to poor mill workers. Lupton emphasizes medical treatment for pregnant women, treatment of venereal disease, and popular medical remedies of the day.
Interviewee: Carroll Lupton    Interviewer: Mary Murphy
Duration: 01:08:25     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
24.
Carrie Lee Gerringer, August 11, 1979. Interview H-0077.
Making Ends Meet in the North Carolina Textile Mills: Courtship, Family, and Work: Carrie Lee Gerringer describes what it was like to work in the textile mills in Bynum, North Carolina, from the 1920s into the post-World War II years. She discusses growing up in a working class family, focusing especially on balancing family and work. Married at sixteen, Gerringer worked in the textile mills throughout her adult life, struggling to make ends meet while raising six children.
Interviewee: Carrie Lee Gerringer, Carrie Lee Gerringer    Interviewer: Douglas Denatale, Douglas DeNatale
Duration: 01:46:52     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
25.
Paul and Pauline Griffith, May 30, 1980. Interview H-0247.
A Husband and Wife Describe Their Life As Textile Mill Workers in Greenville, South Carolina: Paul and Pauline Griffith spent their working careers in the Judson Mill in Greenville, South Carolina. They offer an overview on conditions in the mill and how the work changed from the 1920s into the 1970s.
Interviewee: Paul Griffith, Pauline Griffith    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 02:29:13     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
26.
Flake and Nellie Meyers, August 11, 1979. Interview H-0133.
A Southern Husband and Wife Describe Life and Working Conditions: Flake and Nellie Meyers describe what it was like to live and work in and around Conover, North Carolina, during the early to mid-twentieth century. As a worker in various furniture companies and as the foreman at the Southern Desk Company, Flake Meyers describes in vivid detail the various kinds of skills involved in furniture making, the role of machinery in the industry, and workplace relationships. Nellie Meyers similarly describes the kinds of family labor systems and social customs that shaped their lives.
Interviewee: Flake Meyers, Nellie Meyers    Interviewer: Patty Dilley
Duration: 01:59:28     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
27.
Geddes Elam Dodson, May 26, 1980. Interview H-0240.
Sixty Years in a Textile Mill: Geddes Dodson worked as a textile mill employee for sixty years. During that time, he progressed through the factory's employment hierarchy, seeing many different aspects of life within the mills. He often focuses on issues involving masculinity and unionism.
Interviewee: Geddes Elam Dodson    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 02:01:28     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 14 excerpts.
28.
Julius Fry, August 19, 1974. Interview E-0004.
North Carolina Textile Mill Worker and Labor Activist Describes the Formation of a Union in Lumberton, North Carolina: Julius Fry was a textile worker for Mansfield Mill in Lumberton, North Carolina from 1927 to 1943. During the early years of the Great Depression, Fry was increasingly drawn to labor activism, especially after the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the rise of the New Deal. Fry describes what it was like to work at the Mansfield Mill, the organization of a union in Lumberton, and his own role within the labor movement in the South.
Interviewee: Julius Fry    Interviewer: William Finger
Duration: 01:31:31     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
29.
Cary J. Allen Jr., April 3, 1980. Interview H-0001.
The Creation of a Local Union for Aluminum Workers in North Carolina: Cary Joseph Allen Jr. an aluminum worker for Alcoa in Badin, North Carolina, describes the establishment of a local branch of the Aluminum Workers of America in the mid-1930s. Initial efforts at organization were hampered by the strong paternalistic influence Alcoa exerted over the community, yet efforts to unionize succeeded by 1937.
Interviewee: Cary J. Allen    Interviewer: Rosemarie Hester
Duration: 01:00:13     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
30.
Carlee Drye, April 2, 1980. Interview H-0005.
Retired Union President Discusses Efforts at Hiring More African Americans at Alcoa: Carlee Drye was a founding member of the local union for aluminum workers in Badin, North Carolina, which later merged with the Steel Workers of America. Drye served as president of the local in the 1950s, during which time he worked actively to change policies of racial discrimination in the Alcoa aluminum plant. He retired from the plant and from the union in 1970s. He speculates about relations between the union, the community, and Alcoa following his retirement.
Interviewee: Carlee Drye    Interviewer: Rosemarie Hester, George Holt
Duration: 02:01:06     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
31.
George and Tessie Dyer, March 5, 1980. Interview H-0161.
Community Life and Union Organizing Among Charlotte Mill Workers: George and Tessie Dyer discuss their jobs in Charlotte cotton mills and their lives outside of work. They describe their childhood and the work their parents and grandparents did. They recall the parties and social events that their friends participated in after work. The interview ends with their observations about local union activity.
Interviewee: George Dyer, Tessie Dyer    Interviewer: Lu Ann Jones
Duration: 01:58:57     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 18 excerpts.
32.
Miriam Bonner Camp, April 15, 1976. Interview G-0013.
A Southern Woman Describes Academia and Workers Education Programs in the Early Twentieth Century: Miriam Bonner Camp describes growing up in Washington, North Carolina, in the early twentieth century, focusing specifically on her mother's strong influence, opportunities for women in the community, and race relations. She moved to California in 1909, and received degrees in English education from Berkeley. She describes coeducational life in college, her experiences teaching at North Carolina College for Women in the 1920s, and her involvement in the women worker education programs in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
Interviewee: Miriam Bonner Camp    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson
Duration: Unknown     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
33.
Ethel Marshall Faucette, November 16, 1978, and January 4, 1979. Interview H-0020.
A Mill Worker's Life and Work in the Glencoe Mill Town in Burlington, North Carolina: Ethel Marshall Faucette describes the working environment and social life of the Glencoe mill town in Burlington, North Carolina. Faucette worked at Glencoe Mill from 1915 to 1954 and she explains the changes to workers' lives over her decades of employment.
Interviewee: Ethel Marshall Faucette    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 02:12:22     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 15 excerpts.
34.
Frank Durham, September 10 and 17, 1979. Interview H-0067.
The Rhythms of Life in a North Carolina Mill Town: Frank Durham discusses how his family first came to work in the mills and describes other people they got to know there. He describes the inner workings of the mill, the ways management negotiated labor complaints with the employees, the social structure of the mill village, and the commonalities of mill town life.
Interviewee: Frank Durham    Interviewer: Douglas Denatale, Douglas DeNatale
Duration: 02:24:26     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 22 excerpts.
35.
Thomas Henderson, October 28, 1999. Interview K-0228.
A Tobacco Buyer Describes the North Carolina Tobacco Industry in the 1930s and 1940s: Thomas Henderson was born in Brookneal, Virginia, a small, tobacco farming community. He later became a tobacco buyer in Greenville, North Carolina. Focusing on the tobacco industry in the 1930s and 1940s, Henderson explains the establishment of gradation policies for the tobacco industry as a New Deal reform measure, the process of buying and selling tobacco at auction, and changes in tobacco farming.
Interviewee: Thomas Henderson    Interviewer: Charles Thompson, Charles Thompson
Duration: 01:56:22     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
36.
Louise Riggsbee Jones, September 20, 1976. Interview H-0085-1.
A Southern Woman Describes Growing Up in a Mill Town: Louise Riggsbee Jones describes growing up in the cotton mill town of Bynum, North Carolina, during the early twentieth century. She discusses her family and household economy, the role of religion in the community, her experiences in school, her work as a spinner in the cotton mill, and the different ways in which people received medical care in this small mill community.
Interviewee: Louise Riggsbee Jones    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson
Duration: 02:02:29     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
37.
Louise Riggsbee Jones, October 13, 1976. Interview H-0085-2.
A Southern Woman Describes Life and Work in a Cotton Mill Town: Louise Riggsbee Jones describes life and work in Bynum, North Carolina, a cotton mill town, during the first half of the twentieth century. Jones discusses the role of religion, marriage, and family in her life and in the community. In addition, she describes working as a winder in the cotton mill, focusing on such issues as work conditions, gender, balancing work and family, relationships between workers, and workers' benefits.
Interviewee: Louise Riggsbee Jones    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson, Mary Frederickson
Duration: 02:12:05     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
38.
Edward L. Gruber, November 11, 1985. Interview C-0136.
Owner and Director of Spring City Mills Describes Business Partnership with North Carolina Senator and Textiles Businessman B. Everett Jordan: Edward Gruber ran Spring City Mills, his family's Pennsylvania-based underwear manufacturing company, for several decades beginning in the 1930s. He explains the expansion of the company; its relationship with department store chains; his efforts to maximize profits by producing a superior, yet affordable, product; and his personal and working relationship with North Carolina Senator and textiles businessman B. Everett Jordan.
Interviewee: Edward L. Gruber    Interviewer: Ben Bulla
Duration: 02:48:48     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
39.
Roger Gant, July 17, 1987. Interview C-0127.
The Business and Political Expertise of Everett Jordan: Roger Gant explains the professional and personal activities of his father-in-law, Everett Jordan, Democratic United States Senator from North Carolina. Gant discusses how he became involved with Jordan's textile mill and how Jordan structured his business. Jordan's skill at relating to people helped him in business and in politics. Gant focuses on a few of Jordan's political successes, including the way he helped Lyndon Johnson before his presidential bid.
Interviewee: Roger Gant    Interviewer: Ben Bulla
Duration: 01:35:27     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
40.
Lloyd E. Griffin, August 20, 1982. Interview C-0135.
North Carolina Lawyer Describes His Views on the North Carolina Citizens Association and on the Leadership of B. Everett Jordan: Lloyd Griffin was a lawyer who was born and raised in Belvedere, North Carolina. Following his service in World War I, Griffin returned to North Carolina and became involved in state politics. He describes his involvement in the North Carolina Citizens Association and his perception of North Carolina politics, focusing specifically on the leadership of B. Everett Jordan.
Interviewee: Lloyd E. Griffin    Interviewer: Ben Bulla
Duration: 01:06:25     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
41.
Horace Kornegay, January 11, 1989. Interview C-0165.
North Carolina Democratic Congressman Describes State Politics in the 1960s: Horace Kornegay was born and raised in North Carolina. He practiced law and became involved in local and state politics during the 1950s. In 1960, Kornegay was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives, where he worked closely with North Carolina Senator B. Everett Jordan to promote the interests of North Carolina textiles, tobacco, and furniture industries.
Interviewee: Horace Kornegay    Interviewer: Ben Bulla
Duration: 01:40:56     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
42.
Thomas R. Ellington, October 10, 1983. Interview C-0122.
Mill Employee Describes Relationship Between Owner and Employees: Thomas Ellington, a longtime employee of the Sellers Manufacturing Company, describes employee interactions in the mill and how the owner, Everett Jordan, treated his employees.
Interviewee: Thomas R. Ellington    Interviewer: Ben Bulla
Duration: 01:14:48     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
43.
Christine and Dave Galliher, August 8, 1979. Interview H-0314.
Life, Work, and the Walk-Out Strike of 1929 in Elizabethton, Tennessee, Textile Mills: Christine Galliher describes life and work in Elizabethton, Tennessee, during the late 1920s through the 1940s. She also discusses their participation in the 1929 walk-out strike at the Bermberg and Glantzstoff textile mills; Christine's attendance of the Southern Summer School for women workers; life during the Great Depression; and balancing work and family.
Interviewee: Christine Galliher, Dave Galliher    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 01:57:27     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
44.
Phillips Russell, November 18, 1974. Interview B-0011-3.
Southern Writer Describes His Part in Worker Education Programs During the 1930s and 1940s: Southern writer and University of North Carolina professor Charles Phillips Russell describes his participation as a teacher in worker education programs during the 1930s and 1940s. Focusing specifically on the Southern Summer School for Workers and the Black Mountain College Institute of the Textile Workers of America, Russell compares the role of faculty, the role of students, and the curriculum at each institution. In addition, he speculates on schools of thought endorsing political action and economic action within the labor movement, specifically as they related to worker education.
Interviewee: Phillips Russell    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson
Duration: 01:03:34     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
45.
Alester G. Furman Jr., January 6, 1976. Interview B-0019.
Southern Businessman Describes His Family's Involvement in the Textile Industry and Higher Education in Greenville, South Carolina: Alester G. Furman Jr. describes his family's involvement in the founding of Furman University in the early 1800s, his father's role in the establishment of the textile industry in Greenville, South Carolina, and the evolution of the textile industry over the course of the early twentieth century.
Interviewee: Alester G. Furman    Interviewer: Brent Glass
Duration: 02:24:13     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
46.
Broadus Mitchell, August 14 and 15, 1977. Interview B-0024.
An Economic Historian From the South Describes His Participation in Leftist Politics During the First Half of the Twentieth Century: John Broadus Mitchell grew up in a family that held to liberal politics and believed in community involvement. Educated as an economic historian, Mitchell conducted extensive research on the establishment of the cotton textile industry in the South following the Civil War. In the 1920s and 1930s, he advocated for labor rights, spoke out against racial violence, and socialist politics.
Interviewee: Broadus Mitchell    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson
Duration: 03:53:51     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 11 excerpts.
47.
Ernest Seeman, February 13, 1976. Interview B-0012.
Southern Printer and Writer Describes Life in Durham, North Carolina, During the Rise of the Tobacco Industry: Ernest Seeman offers a critical assessment of life in Durham, North Carolina, during the late nineteenth century. Seeman spent his early career as a printer, first as his father's apprentice and later as sole proprietor of the Seeman Printery, and he discusses interactions between his family and the Duke family. In addition, Seeman explains his increasing radicalization as head of the Duke Press from 1925 to 1934, and briefly discusses his decision to become a writer in later years.
Interviewee: Ernest Seeman    Interviewer: Mimi Conway
Duration: 02:44:21     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
48.
John Raymond Shute, June 25, 1982. Interview B-0054-1.
A Century of Growth in Union County, North Carolina: John Raymond Shute looks back on a century of growth in Union County, North Carolina. Drawing on his many years active in politics there, Shute shares his considerable knowledge about the agricultural and industrial development in the area.
Interviewee: John Raymond Shute    Interviewer: Wayne Durrill
Duration: 02:58:14     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
49.
Caesar Cone, January 7, 1983. Interview C-0003.
Building a Textile Empire, Resisting Government Interference: Mill owner Caesar Cone reflects on the textile industry and what he views as the pernicious influence of government in business and society.
Interviewee: Caesar Cone    Interviewer: Harry Watson
Duration: 02:15:34     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
50.
Alice Grogan Hardin, May 2, 1980. Interview H-0248.
Farmwork and Millwork in Greenville County, South Carolina: Alice Grogan Hardin remembers her early years in the rural Greenville County, South Carolina, on the farm and at the mill.
Interviewee: Alice Grogan Hardin    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 00:54:27     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
51.
Emma Whitesell, July 27, 1977. Interview H-0057.
A Woman's Life as a Mill Worker: Emma Whitesell recalls a lifetime of work in North Carolina textile mills.
Interviewee: Emma Whitesell    Interviewer: Cliff Kuhn
Duration: 01:15:29     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
52.
Herman Newton Truitt, December 5, 1978. Interview H-0054.
Feeding a Mill Town: A Grocery Owner in Burlington, North Carolina: Herman Norton Truitt describes running a grocery store from the 1920s to the 1940s. The store was patronized primarily by mill workers in Burlington, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Herman Newton Truitt    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 01:43:55     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
53.
Howard Kester, August 25, 1974. Interview B-0007-2.
Southern Socialist and Christian Activist Discusses Civil Rights and Labor Activism During the 1930s and 1940s: Socialist and Christian activist Howard Kester describes his work in various organizations committed to social justice in the South during the 1930s and 1940s. In particular, Kester focuses on his work in promoting equality for African Americans and working people in the South, including his efforts to bridge gaps between those two groups.
Interviewee: Howard Kester    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson
Duration: 01:35:38     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
54.
Jefferson M. Robinette, July 1977. Interview H-0041.
A Laboring Life in North Carolina: Jefferson Robinette recalls a lifetime of labor in textile mills, furniture factories, and a dairy. He got his first job when he was twelve and worked until he was eighty-three.
Interviewee: Jefferson M. Robinette    Interviewer: Cliff Kuhn
Duration: 01:32:38     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 3 excerpts.
55.
Eunice Austin, July 2, 1980. Interview H-0107.
A Woman's Work in North Carolina's Textile and Furniture Industries: Eunice Austin remembers her life in Catawba County, North Carolina, focusing on her many years working in the textile and furniture industries.
Interviewee: Eunice Austin    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 01:53:44     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
56.
Roy Lee and Mary Ruth Auton, February 28, 1980. Interview H-0108.
Skilled Labor and Troubled Love in the Growing South: Roy Lee Auton reflects on a string of jobs and a string of wives in this engaging interview.
Interviewee: Roy Lee Auton, Mary Ruth Auton    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 03:04:29     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
57.
Flossie Moore Durham, September 2, 1976. Interview H-0066.
Childhood, Wifehood, and Motherhood in a Southern Mill Town: Flossie Moore Durham fondly remembers mill work, the mill community, and her long life as a wife and mother in Bynum, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Flossie Moore Durham    Interviewer: Brent Glass, Mary Frederickson
Duration: 01:22:54     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
58.
Josephine Glenn, June 27, 1977. Interview H-0022.
Around Burlington: Josephine Glenn's Experiences in the Mills of Alamance County, North Carolina: During the course of her career, Josephine Glenn worked in several mills around Burlington, North Carolina, allowing her to compare the textile factories in Burlington and their various working environments. She covers many topics, including wartime production, the end of segregation, and the changing roles of women in the factories.
Interviewee: Josephine Glenn    Interviewer: Cliff Kuhn, Cliff Kuhn
Duration: 01:02:08     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 14 excerpts.
59.
Jean Cole Hatcher, June 13, 1980. Interview H-0165.
The Cole Manufacturing Company and Industrial Development in Charlotte, North Carolina: Jean Cole Hatcher became president of Cole Manufacturing Company, her family's business, in 1953. Hatcher describes her family's history in the Piedmont, the establishment and evolution of the Cole Manufacturing Company in the industry of agricultural technology, and she illuminates life in Charlotte, North Carolina—both for workers and as an economic center of industry.
Interviewee: Jean Cole Hatcher    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 01:22:33     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
60.
Junie Edna Kaylor Aaron, December 12, 1979. Interview H-0106.
Sewing for a Living in North Carolina: Junie Edna Kaylor Aaron remembers her long working life in the clothing industry in North Carolina.
Interviewee: Junie Edna Kaylor Aaron    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 01:31:21     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
61.
Eula and Vernon Durham, November 29, 1978. Interview H-0064.
The Lives of Mill Workers in Bynum, North Carolina: Eula Durham and her husband Vernon recall their experiences as mill workers in Bynum, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Eula Durham, Vernon Durham    Interviewer: Jim Leloudis
Duration: 01:50:43     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 14 excerpts.
62.
Evelyn Gosnell Harvell, May 27, 1980. Interview H-0250.
Remembering Thirty Years as a Weaver: Evelyn Gosnell Harvell recalls growing up on a South Carolina farm and the more than three decades she spent as a weaver in a textile mill.
Interviewee: Evelyn Gosnell Harvell    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 00:53:21     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
63.
Hill Baker, June 1977. Interview H-0109-2.
Accepting a Lifetime of Labor: Hill Baker recalls his long working life as a railroad worker and a factory employee in Conover, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Hill Baker    Interviewer: Patty Dilley
Duration: 00:55:13     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
64.
Kathryn Killian and Blanche Bolick, December 12, 1979. Interview H-0131.
Sisters and Glove Makers Reflect on Lives and Careers: Kathryn Killian and her sister Blanche Bolick recall their upbringing near Conover, North Carolina, and their careers making gloves.
Interviewee: Kathryn Killian, Blanche Bolick    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 01:00:42     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
65.
Junior Johnson, June 4, 1988. Interview C-0053.
Race Car Driver from North Carolina Discusses the Evolution of NASCAR: Junior Johnson became a stock car racer during the early 1950s and participated in the exponential growth of that industry. He describes growing up in Wilkes County, North Carolina, his role in the evolution of NASCAR, and his business endeavors in poultry farming.
Interviewee: Junior Johnson    Interviewer: Pete Daniel
Duration: 01:34:00     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
66.
George Watts Hill, January 30, 1986. Interview C-0047.
Durham Area Business Leader Discusses Banking, Insurance, and Farming: George Watts Hill was a prominent business leader in the Durham area during the twentieth century. He offers his perspective on the changing nature of business and its impact on the community. In particular, he describes his business endeavors in such areas as banking, insurance, land development, dairy farming, and public service.
Interviewee: George Watts Hill    Interviewer: James Leutze
Duration: 07:11:55     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 13 excerpts.
67.
Hoy Deal, July 3 and 11, 1979. Interview H-0117.
Youth and Manhood in Industrializing North Carolina: Hoy Deal recalls his youth and young manhood in rural North Carolina, including stints at lumber mills and glove factories, two industries that, along with textiles, were a vital part of the state's economy in early twentieth century.
Interviewee: Hoy Deal    Interviewer: Patty Dilley
Duration: 03:26:07     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
68.
Gladys and Glenn Hollar, February 26, 1980. Interview H-0128.
Sharing Work and Life: A Couple Remembers Early Twentieth-Century North Carolina: Gladys Irene Moser Hollar and her husband, Glenn Hollar, share recollections about work and rural life in the early twentieth century.
Interviewee: Gladys Irene Moser Hollar, Glenn Hollar    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 02:17:23     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
69.
Mattie Shoemaker and Mildred Shoemaker Edmonds, March 23, 1979. Interview H-0046.
Sisters and Mill Workers in Burlington, North Carolina: Sisters Mattie Shoemaker and Mildred Shoemaker Edmonds discuss their experiences at a textile mill in Burlington, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Mattie Shoemaker, Mildred Shoemaker Edmonds    Interviewer: Mary Murphy
Duration: 01:39:10     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
70.
Arthur Little, December 14, 1979. Interview H-0132.
A Factory Owner Remembers the Glove Business in Newton, North Carolina: Arthur Little describes glove making from his perspective as the owner of a glove mill in Newton, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Arthur Little    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 01:49:31     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
71.
Wilbur Hobby, March 13, 1975. Interview E-0006.
Southern Tobacco Worker Describes His Involvement in the Labor Movement and Politics: Wilbur Hobby describes growing up impoverished in Durham, North Carolina, during the Great Depression and his eventual involvement in the labor movement. Employed by the American Tobacco Company after World War II, he became an active member of the union and eventually became a leader in such organizations as the Voters for Better Government and the Committee on Political Education.
Interviewee: Wilbur Hobby    Interviewer: William Finger
Duration: 01:28:53     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
72.
Joseph D. Pedigo, April 2, 1975. Interview E-0011-1.
Labor Organizer Describes Unionization of Textile Mills During the 1930s and 1940s: Joseph Pedigo was an active participant and leader in the labor movement among textile workers in the South during the 1930s and 1940s. In this interview, he describes his role in the formation of a local union at American Viscose in Roanoke, Virginia, and his work with the Textile Workers Union of America towards organizing textile workers throughout the South.
Interviewee: Joseph D. Pedigo    Interviewer: William Finger
Duration: 02:05:37     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
73.
Scott Hoyman, July 16, 1974. Interview E-0010.
Textile Workers Union of America Bargainer Describes His Work in the South during the 1950s and 1960s: Scott Hoyman worked as an organizer and bargainer for the Textile Workers Union of America (TWUA). In the 1950s, he was transferred to the South, where he was primarily based in North Carolina, following the Baldanzi-Rieve split in the TWUA. He describes his work during the 1950s and 1960s, focusing primarily on obstacles the TWUA faced in organizing southern textile mills during these years.
Interviewee: Scott Hoyman    Interviewer: William Finger
Duration: 02:06:52     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
74.
Scott Hoyman, Fall 1973. Interview E-0009.
Organizer for the Textile Workers Union of America Discusses the 1973 Oneita Knitting Mills Strike in South Carolina: Textile Workers Union of America (TWUA) organizer and regional director Scott Hoyman discusses the Oneita Knitting Mill strike of 1973 in South Carolina. Throughout the interview, he focuses on strategies of the TWUA in organizing textile workers, bargaining and negotiating with textile companies, and tactics for successfully protecting workers' rights.
Interviewee: Scott Hoyman    Interviewer: Dan McCurry, Carolyn Ashbaugh
Duration: 02:28:04     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
75.
Lacy Wright, March 10, 1975. Interview E-0017.
Southern Worker Describes Life's Work in the Textile Mills and His Thoughts on the Labor Movement: Lacy Wright worked for Cone Mills in Greensboro, North Carolina, for nearly fifty years, from the late 1910s at the age of twelve to the mid-1960s. He describes work in the textile industry, life in the mill villages, and the role of the labor movement in the southern textile industry during a large stretch of the twentieth century.
Interviewee: Lacy Wright    Interviewer: William Finger, Chip Hughes
Duration: 01:34:44     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
76.
John Russell, July 25, 1974. Interview E-0014-2.
Organizer for the Fur and Leather Workers Union Describes the Events Leading to the Merger with the Amalgamated Meat Cutters Union: John Russell describes the events leading to the merger of the Fur and Leather Workers Union with the Amalgamated Meat Cutters in 1955. Russell focuses on the progressive political views of the Fur and Leather Workers, their strong regional presence in the South, the role of leaders within their trade union movement, and the aftermath of the merger.
Interviewee: John Russell    Interviewer: William Finger
Duration: 01:18:50     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
77.
John Russell, July 19, 1975. Interview E-0014-3.
Radical Labor Activist Describes His Work With the Amalgamated Meat Cutters in the South and the Changing Nature of the Labor Movement: John Russell describes his work as an international representative and organizer for the Amalgamated Meat Workers Union following its merger with the Fur and Leather Workers Union in 1955. Russell discusses the limitations and opportunities that resulted from this merger, his work organizing poultry workers, and his thoughts on the changing nature of the labor movement.
Interviewee: John Russell    Interviewer: William Finger
Duration: 01:34:50     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
78.
Thomas Burt, February 6, 1979. Interview H-0194-2.
A Journeyman Remembers a Working Life in Durham, North Carolina: Thomas Burt, a journeyman worker, recalls a variety of jobs he took in and around Durham, North Carolina, with a focus on his employment in a tobacco factory.
Interviewee: Thomas Burt    Interviewer: Glenn Hinson
Duration: 01:20:51     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
79.
Jessie Lee Carter, May 5, 1980. Interview H-0237.
Family Life at Home and Work in a South Carolina Mill Town: Jessie Lee Carter remembers life as a mill worker and mother in rural South Carolina.
Interviewee: Jessie Lee Carter    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 01:13:36     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
80.
Blanche Scott, July 11, 1979. Interview H-0229.
From Tobacco Factory to Beauty Shop: The Two Careers of a Motivated Woman: Blanche Scott describes her careers as a tobacco factory worker and beautician in Durham, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Blanche Scott    Interviewer: Beverly Jones
Duration: 00:57:14     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
81.
Frank Gilbert, Summer 1977. Interview H-0121.
A Life of Labor in Conover, North Carolina: Frank Gilbert recalls his laboring life in and around Conover, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Frank Gilbert    Interviewer: Patty Dilley
Duration: 03:17:35     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 11 excerpts.
82.
Murphy Yomen Sigmon, July 27, 1979. Interview H-0142.
Memories of Wide Experience in North Carolina Industries: Murphy Yomen Sigmon reflects on a working life, most of which he spent in a cotton mill in Hickory, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Murphy Yomen Sigmon    Interviewer: Patty Dilley
Duration: 01:30:43     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
83.
Naomi Sizemore Trammel, March 25, 1980. Interview H-0258.
A Comfortable Career in South Carolina Textile Mills: Naomi Sizemore Trammel recalls her life as a textile mill worker in Greer, South Carolina.
Interviewee: Naomi Sizemore Trammel    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 00:59:37     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
84.
Clyde Cook, July 10, 1977. Interview H-0003.
African American Worker Describes Social and Economic Inequalities: Clyde Cook describes life and work for African Americans in Badin, North Carolina. Discussing such topics as school segregation, racial hierarchies in the workplace, and the lack of job opportunities, Cook offers insight into social and economic inequalities in a southern working community.
Interviewee: Clyde Cook    Interviewer: Rosemarie Hester
Duration: 00:58:44     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
85.
Johnnie Jones, August 27, 1976. Interview H-0273.
Fifty Years at a Terra Cotta Factory in Greensboro, North Carolina: Johnnie Jones remembers his fifty-year career at the Pomona Terra Cotta Factory in Greensboro, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Johnnie Jones    Interviewer: Brent Glass
Duration: 01:41:01     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
86.
Orlin P. Shuping, June 15, 1975. Interview H-0290.
A Mill Owner Remembers a Lifetime of Community Service: Orlin P. Shuping describes running a mill in Rowan County, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Orlin P. Shuping    Interviewer: Brent Glass
Duration: 01:00:29     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
87.
George Perkel, May 27, 1986. Interview H-0281.
The Failure of Unions in the American South: George Perkel evaluates the failure of unions in the post-World War II South.
Interviewee: George Perkel    Interviewer: Patricia Raub
Duration: 01:05:19     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
88.
Dora Scott Miller, June 6, 1979. Interview H-0211.
Tobacco Work, Unions, and African American Durham, North Carolina: Dora Scott Miller reflects on the changes in tobacco factory work from the perspective of an African American woman.
Interviewee: Dora Scott Miller    Interviewer: Beverly Jones
Duration: 01:17:18     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
89.
Robert Cole, May 10, 1981. Interview H-0311.
Strikes and Violence in a Textile Mill Town: Robert Cole recalls a violent strike in a textile mill located near the Tennessee-North Carolina border.
Interviewee: Robert Cole    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 00:56:13     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
90.
Ashley Davis, April 12, 1974. Interview E-0062.
Member of the Black Student Movement Describes the Food Workers Strike at the University of North Carolina: Ashley Davis was a member of the Black Student Movement (BSM) at the University of North Carolina during the late 1960s and early 1970s. In this interview, he describes how the BSM supported the striking food workers at UNC in 1969.
Interviewee: Ashley Davis    Interviewer: Russell Rymer
Duration: 01:36:10     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
91.
Jim Pierce, July 16, 1974. Interview E-0012-3.
Southern Labor Organizer Describes his View of the Movement During the Mid-Twentieth Century: Jim Pierce first learned about the labor movement while growing up in Oklahoma during the 1930s. By the late 1940s, he had become a leader in his local union at Western Electric in Fort Worth, Texas. During the 1950s and 1960s, he organized unions for the CIO, the IUE, and the IUD. He describes his belief in labor activism but also his growing disillusionment with the movement by the end of the 1960s.
Interviewee: Jim Pierce    Interviewer: William Finger
Duration: 02:04:47     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
92.
Clay East, September 22, 1973. Interview E-0003.
Founding Member of the Southern Tenant Farmers Union Discusses Socialism and Organized Labor: Clay East was a founding member of the Southern Tenant Farmers Union. In this interview, he describes life in Tyronza, Arkansas, during the 1920s and 1930s; his conversion to socialism; his observation of the problems of tenant farmers and sharecroppers; and his role in the formation of the union during the early 1930s.
Interviewee: Clay East    Interviewer: Sue Thrasher
Duration: 03:44:22     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 13 excerpts.
93.
Roy Ham, 1977. Interview H-0123-1.
Storytelling and Song in Ashe County, North Carolina: Roy Ham tells stories and sings his way through an interview that reveals more about Ham the character than it does about the industrializing South.
Interviewee: Roy Ham    Interviewer: Patty Dilley
Duration: 03:42:15     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
94.
Dock E. Hall, January 7, 1976. Interview H-0271.
Mining in the New South: Dock Hall recalls his laboring life, focusing on his years as a miner.
Interviewee: Dock E. Hall    Interviewer: Brent Glass
Duration: 01:24:03     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
95.
George R. Elmore, March 11, 1976. Interview H-0266.
From Farm to Mill, Laborer to Manager: George Elmore discusses a life that took him from farm labor to mill management in rural North Carolina.
Interviewee: George R. Elmore    Interviewer: Brent Glass
Duration: 01:40:23     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
96.
Margaret Skinner Parker, March 7, 1976. Interview H-0278.
Life, Labor, and World War II in Cooleemee, North Carolina: Margaret Skinner Parker recalls life in the mill town of Cooleemee, North Carolina, in the first half of the twentieth century, sharing recollections of fun and financial struggle.
Interviewee: Margaret Skinner Parker    Interviewer: W. Weldon Huske
Duration: 01:27:30     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
97.
Josephine Turner, June 7, 1976. Interview H-0235-2.
A Wealth of Ambition in Durham, North Carolina: Durham, North Carolina, resident Josephine Turner reflects on her struggle to leave behind a life of poverty.
Interviewee: Josephine Turner    Interviewer: Karen Sindelar
Duration: 01:44:16     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 16 excerpts.
98.
Gordon Berkstresser III, April 29, 1986. Interview H-0263.
A Short Course on the Textile Industry: Gordon Berkstresser III shares the fruits of his study of the textile industry.
Interviewee: Gordon III Berkstresser    Interviewer: Patricia Raub
Duration: 01:16:11     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
99.
George F. Dugger Sr., August 9, 1979. Interview H-0312.
Violence and Negotiation in the 1929 Elizabethton Rayon Plant Strike: George F. Dugger Sr. describes his family history and experiences as the plant lawyer during the 1929 Elizabethton Rayon Plant Strike.
Interviewee: George F. Dugger    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 01:27:39     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
100.
John Thomas Outlaw, June 5, 1980. Interview H-0277.
The Growth of the Trucking Industry in North Carolina: John Thomas Outlaw, who headed the rate bureau of the North Carolina Motor Carriers Association, discusses the history of the trucking industry in North Carolina.
Interviewee: John Thomas Outlaw    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 01:23:59     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 11 excerpts.
101.
Mary Robertson, August 13, 1979. Interview H-0288.
Organizing Asheville: The Labor Movement in Western North Carolina: Mary Robertson offers an insider's view of the organized labor movement in western North Carolina.
Interviewee: Mary Robertson    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 01:35:09     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
102.
Andy Foley, May 18, 1994. Interview K-0095.
A Unique Factory Closes Its Doors: Andy K. Foley lost his job when the White Furniture Company closed, but he lost friendships and a playful work atmosphere as well. In this interview he recalls the fun he had on the job and laments the factory's closing.
Interviewee: Andy Foley    Interviewer: Jeff Cowie
Duration: 01:16:03     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
103.
Tracy L. H. Burnett, November 15, 1994. Interview K-0088.
Finding Success in the Aftermath of a Factory Closing: Tracy L. H. Burnett finds financial success after the closing of the White Furniture Company.
Interviewee: Tracy L. H. Burnett    Interviewer: Jeff Cowie
Duration: 00:58:34     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
104.
Cynthia Sykes Cook, February 19, 1994. Interview K-0091.
Closing a Factory, Shutting Down a Community: Cynthia Sykes Cook recalls the closing of the White Furniture Factory in Mebane, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Cynthia Sykes Cook    Interviewer: Valerie Pawlewicz
Duration: 00:47:02     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
105.
Barbara Hanks, August 10, 1994. Interview K-0098.
White Furniture Factory: The Closing of a Workplace and Social Center: Barbara Hanks remembers her career at the White Furniture Company and the effects of the company's closing on her community in Mebane, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Barbara Hanks    Interviewer: Patrick Huber
Duration: 01:10:57     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 13 excerpts.
106.
Vickie Jacobs, December 11, 1993. Interview K-0100.
Finding Work and Losing It in North Carolina's Furniture Industry: Vickie Jacobs describes her career in North Carolina's furniture industry, including her time on the job and her response to the closing of the Hillsborough location of the White Furniture Company.
Interviewee: Vickie Jacobs    Interviewer: Joyce Blackwell-Johnson
Duration: 00:58:06     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
107.
Lawrence Rogin, November 2, 1975. Interview E-0013.
Labor Activist Discusses Radical Politics, Organizing Hosiery Workers in the South, and Labor Education: Lawrence Rogin grew up in the Northeast in an immigrant family inclined toward radical politics. In the 1930s, Rogin became actively involved in the labor movement. In this interview, he describes his work in labor education, focusing specifically on the Brookwood Labor College, the Central Labor Union, and his work with the Hosiery Workers Union in the South.
Interviewee: Lawrence Rogin    Interviewer: William Finger
Duration: 02:26:38     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
108.
Millie Tripp, August 12, 1994. Interview K-0112.
A Single Mother's Forty Years at the White Furniture Factory: Millie Tripp describes her career at the White Furniture Factory, focusing on weathering a merger and a plant closing.
Interviewee: Millie Tripp    Interviewer: Valerie Pawlewicz
Duration: 00:55:41     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
109.
Mareda Sigmon Cobb and Carrie Sigmon Yelton, June 16 and 18, 1979. Interview H-0115.
Workers and Witnesses: How Mareda Sigmon Cobb and Carrie Sigmon Yelton Saw the Southern Cotton Mills: Mareda Sigmon Cobb and her sister Carrie Sigmon Yelton both worked long careers in North Carolina textile mills, completing the family journey from farm to factory in the early decades of the twentieth century. Here they describe their family lives both as children and parents, the many implications of the Depression, working conditions in the mills, religion, and other themes central to social and labor history. The economic and material realities of textile employment are explored in detail; each suffered a major injury on the job, neither favored unionization (though their husbands did), and neither received a pension.
Interviewee: Mareda Sigmon Cobb, Carrie Sigmon Yelton    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall, Patty Dilley
Duration: 03:50:12     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 36 excerpts.
110.
Ivey C. Jones, January 18, 1994. Interview K-0101.
A Decline of a Personal Management Style: The White Furniture Factory's Closing: Ivey C. Jones, who spent sixteen years working at the White Furniture Factory in Mebane, North Carolina, describes the effects of the plant's takeover and closing.
Interviewee: Ivey C. Jones    Interviewer: Jeff Cowie
Duration: 01:38:01     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 11 excerpts.
111.
Ralph Waldo Strickland, April 18, 1980. Interview H-0180.
Working on the Rails: Ralph Waldo Strickland Remembers His Time as a Railroad Employee: Ralph Waldo Strickland grew up on an Alabama farm before joining the navy and later making a career with the Seaboard Railroad. He offers a range of recollections concerning his childhood in the rural South, his encounters with the Roosevelts following their relocation in 1921 to Hot Springs, Georgia, and life as a railroad worker and union member.
Interviewee: Ralph Waldo Strickland    Interviewer: Lu Ann Jones
Duration: 02:23:00     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 17 excerpts.
112.
Carl and Mary Thompson, July 19, 1979. Interview H-0182.
The Special Hands: Carl and Mary Thompson's Work as Skilled Textile Employees: Mill workers Carl and Mary Thompson describe their experiences as skilled employees and active members of their local communities.
Interviewee: Carl Thompson, Mary Thompson    Interviewer: Jim Leloudis
Duration: 02:58:09     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 22 excerpts.
113.
Robert Riley, February 1, 1994. Interview K-0106.
Back on the Job Market after Thirty-One Years: The Closing of the White Furniture Plant: Robert Riley Sr. describes his thirty-one years at the White Furniture plant in Mebane, North Carolina, a tenure that ended with the plant's closing in 1993.
Interviewee: Robert Riley    Interviewer: Chris Stewart
Duration: 01:37:34     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
114.
Kong Phok, December 19, 2000. Interview K-0273.
A Cambodian-American in a Greensboro Mill: Cambodian-American Kong Phok describes his experiences at Guilford Mills in Greensboro, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Kong Phok    Interviewer: Barbara Lau
Duration: 01:18:10     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
115.
John Ledford, January 3, 2001. Interview K-0251.
Growth, Crime, and Law Enforcement in Madison County, North Carolina: John Ledford, the sheriff of Madison County, North Carolina, describes the effects of economic growth on his job and his community.
Interviewee: John Ledford    Interviewer: Rob Amberg
Duration: 01:33:49     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
116.
Koka Booth, July 6, 2004. Interview K-0648.
Helping Cary Grow: A Former Mayor Reflects on Spurring Community Growth: Koka Booth, former mayor of Cary, North Carolina, describes the growth of his city during his twelve-year tenure.
Interviewee: Koka Booth    Interviewer: Peggy Van Scoyoc
Duration: 00:44:58     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
117.
Oscar Dearmont Baker, June 1977. Interview H-0110.
Reflections on Work and Community Changes in Conover, North Carolina: Oscar Dearmont Baker spent his childhood and most of his adult life in Conover, North Carolina. In this interview, he describes his experiences working in the furniture and hosiery industries, paying particular attention to his time spent at Conover Furniture. He also describes broader changes within the city of Conover.
Interviewee: Oscar Dearmont Baker    Interviewer: Patty Dilley
Duration: 02:04:22     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
118.
Edna Y. Hargett, July 19, 1979. Interview H-0163.
Southern Woman Describes Life and Work in Charlotte, North Carolina: Edna Yandell Hargett describes life and work in North Charlotte, a mill village in Charlotte, North Carolina. Focusing primarily on the 1920s through the 1940s, Hargett discusses her work as a weaver in North Charlotte textile mills. In addition, she explains in detail how textile mill workers functioned like "one big family" both at work and in the community.
Interviewee: Edna Y. Hargett    Interviewer: Jim Leloudis
Duration: 02:01:38     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 13 excerpts.
119.
Nancy Brown Tysor, October 19, 1999. Interview K-0811.
The Decline of Siler City, North Carolina: Lifelong Chatham County, North Carolina, resident Nancy Brown Tysor describes the changes she has witnessed in Siler City.
Interviewee: Nancy Brown Tysor    Interviewer: Bruce E. Baker
Duration: 00:45:10     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 3 excerpts.
120.
L. Worth Harris, June 11, 1980. Interview H-0164.
Trucking in Charlotte: The Freight Business at Mid-Century: L. Worth Harris discusses the trucking company he started in Charlotte, North Carolina, in the early 1930s.
Interviewee: L. Worth Harris    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 00:55:11     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
121.
Clyda Coward and Debra Coward, May 30, 2001. Interview K-0833.
A Distant Past and an Uncertain Future: Tick Bite, North Carolina, Before and After Hurricane Floyd: Clyda Coward, joined by her daughter Debra and other family members, reflects on her childhood in rural North Carolina and the state of the small community of Tick Bite in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd.
Interviewee: Clyda Coward, Debra Coward    Interviewer: Leda Hartman
Duration: 01:21:19     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
122.
Floyd Adams, August 16, 2002. Interview R-0168.
The Challenge of Progress: Urban Renewal and the Black Community in Savannah, Georgia: Two-time mayor and newspaper publisher Floyd Adams Jr. describes urban renewal past and present in Savannah, Georgia, and its impact on the black community.
Interviewee: Floyd Adams    Interviewer: Kieran Taylor
Duration: 01:03:11     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
123.
Walt Ulmer, November 20, 1998. Interview S-0034.
Former President of the Center for Creative Leadership Discusses the Organization's Rapid Growth in the 1980s and 1990s: Walter F. Ulmer Jr. served as the president for the Center for Creative Leadership, based in Greensboro, North Carolina, from 1985 to 1995. In this interview, Ulmer discusses various changes the Center underwent during his tenure, focusing primarily on the Center's rapid economic and geographic growth.
Interviewee: Walt Ulmer    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:38:51     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
124.
Samuel James (S. J.) and Leonia Farrar, May 28, 2003. Interview K-0652.
Hard Work and God's Work: Labor and Worship in North Carolina: Samuel and Leonia Farrar remember a lifetime of hard work in rural and urban North Carolina.
Interviewee: Leonia Farrar, Samuel James (S. J.) Farrar    Interviewer: Peggy Van Scoyoc
Duration: 01:29:20     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
125.
John Harris, September 5, 2002. Interview R-0185.
Driving Greensboro: Race, Community, and the Taxi Business in Greensboro, North Carolina: John Harris, longtime cab driver and businessman in Greensboro, North Carolina, describes his community in the context of race and redevelopment.
Interviewee: John Harris    Interviewer: Kieran Taylor
Duration: 02:05:33     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 13 excerpts.
126.
Jane Squires, September 21, 2002. Interview R-0192.
A Woman in the Warehouse: Obstacles and Opportunities for a Female Tobacco Auctioneer: Jane Squires describes building a career as a tobacco auctioneer, a male-dominated profession.
Interviewee: Jane Squires    Interviewer: William Mansfield
Duration: 01:06:01     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
127.
Robert R. Sampson, October 9, 2002. Interview R-0182.
Urban Renewal and the Decline of Black Business in Greensboro, North Carolina: Pharmacist Robert Sampson describes how urban renewal efforts dispersed a thriving black business community in Greensboro, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Robert R. Sampson    Interviewer: Angela Hornsby
Duration: 00:45:17     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
128.
Edward Stephenson, September 21, 2002. Interview R-0193.
"The Beauty of It Is Too Good to Go": A Tobacco Auctioneer Takes Bids in a Changing Industry: Tobacco auctioneer Edward Stephenson reflects on his two decades of brokering tobacco sales and shares his concerns about the decline of the industry.
Interviewee: Edward Stephenson    Interviewer: William Mansfield
Duration: 01:13:47     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
129.
Paul Edward Cline, November 8, 1979. Interview H-0239.
"When You Ain't Able to Work, They Kick You Out": Poor Health, Violence, and Mill Work in South Carolina: Paul Cline remembers mill work as a violent, unhealthy profession.
Interviewee: Paul Edward Cline    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 01:08:35     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
130.
Stan Gryskiewicz, November 5, 1998. Interview S-0016.
Center for Creative Leadership Psychologist Describes His Work During the Organization's Formative Years: Stan Gryskiewicz worked as a psychologist for the Center for Creative Leadership from its inception in 1970. In this interview (the first of two), Gryskiewicz describes his background in psychology, his initial duties with the Center during the 1970s, the Center's 1973 managerial reorganization, his perception of various leaders within the Center, and his research in creative leadership development.
Interviewee: Stan Gryskiewicz    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 01:35:20     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
131.
Stan Gryskiewicz, January 15, 1999. Interview S-0017.
New Directions for the Center for Creative Leadership: Stan Gryskiewicz worked as a psychologist for the Center for Creative Leadership beginning with its inception in 1970. In this interview (the second of two), Gryskiewicz describes the Center's development in creativity leadership programs and marketing, its evolution and gradual globalization from the 1970s into the 1990s, and the role of various leaders of the organization.
Interviewee: Stan Gryskiewicz    Interviewer: Joseph Mosnier
Duration: 02:03:09     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
132.
John W. Snipes, September 20, 1976. Interview H-0098-1.
"Weren't Too Thickly Settled": Work, Play, Food, and Worship in Rural North Carolina: John Wesley Snipes recalls his childhood in rural Chatham County, North Carolina, in the early twentieth century.
Interviewee: John W. Snipes    Interviewer: Brent Glass
Duration: 01:20:44     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.
133.
James Pharis, July 24, 1977. Interview H-0038.
Forty Years of Mill Work: A Textile Mill Supervisor Looks Back: James Pharis reflects on his forty years the textile industry, most of which he spent as a supervisor.
Interviewee: James Pharis    Interviewer: Cliff Kuhn
Duration: 01:43:14     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
134.
Carolyn Rogers, May 22, 2003. Interview K-0656.
Black Educator Describes the Shift from Rural to City Living and School Integration in Cary, North Carolina: Carolyn Farrar Rogers discusses how growing up in rural North Carolina sheltered her from racism and taught her the values of hard work and racial self-worth. These values served her well as a teacher during the early desegregation period.
Interviewee: Carolyn Rogers    Interviewer: Peggy Van Scoyoc
Duration: 01:32:42     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 8 excerpts.
135.
William Fonvielle, August 2, 2002. Interview R-0174.
Black Flight: The Disappearance of Black-Owned Businesses in Downtown Savannah, Georgia: Pharmacist William Fonvielle mourns the passing of black economic autonomy and communal unity in Savannah, Georgia.
Interviewee: William Fonvielle    Interviewer: Kieran Taylor
Duration: 01:05:03     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
136.
G. Sherwood Stewart, September 21, 2002. Interview R-0194.
Tobacco Auctioneer Describes His Craft and the Role of Auctioneering in the Tobacco Industry: G. Sherwood Stewart grew up in Smithfield, North Carolina, during 1940s and 1950s. The son of a tenant tobacco farmer, Stewart determined at any early age to become a tobacco auctioneer. By the time he was in his late teens, Stewart was honing a unique auctioneering style and had begun to establish a formidable reputation as a successful auctioneer throughout the Southeast. In this interview, he offers an insider's perspective—based on several decades of experience—regarding the unique role of the auctioneer to the tobacco industry.
Interviewee: G. Sherwood Stewart    Interviewer: Sally Peterson
Duration: 01:04:51     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 5 excerpts.
137.
David DeVries, November 23 and December 2, 1998. Interview S-0010.
Creativity and Conservatism at the Center for Creative Leadership: David DeVries, who spent fifteen years at the Center for Creative Leadership, reflects on the organization's history and its contributions to leadership training.
Interviewee: David DeVries    Interviewer: Elizabeth Millwood
Duration: 01:57:58     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
138.
Icy Norman, April 6 and 30, 1979. Interview H-0036.
"I Give the Best Part of My Life": Pride and Regret in the Life of a Textile Mill Worker: Icy Norman recalls her long working life, most of which was spent at a textile mill in Burlington, North Carolina.
Interviewee: Icy Norman    Interviewer: Mary Murphy
Duration: 04:05:23     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 17 excerpts.
139.
John W. Snipes, November 20, 1976. Interview H-0098-2.
Life and Work in the Farming, Textiles, and Timber Industries in North Carolina: John W. Snipes grew up in an agricultural family during the early twentieth century and worked on a farm, in a cotton mill, and in the timber industry. He offers a unique perspective on various industries, and he describes in vivid detail various aspects of workers' lives and culture.
Interviewee: John W. Snipes    Interviewer: Brent Glass
Duration: 01:23:49     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
140.
Vesta and Sam Finley, July 22, 1975. Interview H-0267.
Union Activists Recall the 1929 Marion Strike: Sam and Vesta Finley describe their roles in the North Carolina factory strike that led to the "Marion Massacre."
Interviewee: Vesta Finley, Sam Finley    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson
Duration: Unknown     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 31 excerpts.
141.
James and Nannie Pharis, December 5, 1978; January 8 and 30, 1979. Interview H-0039.
Southern Woman Remembers Work, Family Life, and Foodways in a Mill Town: James and Nannie Pharis both began working in the cotton mills of Spray, North Carolina, as children during the turn of the twentieth century. In this interview, which focuses primarily on Nannie Pharis, they discuss working conditions, family life, community gatherings, and foodways in a southern community that merged industrial and agricultural lifestyles.
Interviewee: James Pharis, Nannie Pharis    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 02:49:47     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 12 excerpts.
142.
Nell Putnam Sigmon, December 13, 1979. Interview H-0143.
"I Was a Good Hand": Glove Maker Nell Putnam Sigmon Remembers Her Life: In this 1979 interview, Nell Putnam Sigmon describes her upbringing in a large family, her decision at age eighteen to take a job sewing women's gloves, her work in the mill, and her experiences as wife and mother of two children.
Interviewee: Nell Putnam Sigmon    Interviewer: Jacquelyn Hall
Duration: 01:50:32     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 20 excerpts.
143.
Lawrence Ridgle, June 3, 1999. Interview K-0143.
Urban Renewal and Division in the African American Community in Durham, North Carolina: Lawrence Ridgle describes his childhood in Durham, North Carolina, during the 1930s and his belief that urban renewal of the 1960s and 1970s ultimately worked to the detriment of African Americans. In this interview—the first of two—he emphasizes the changing nature of the African American community in Durham during his lifetime.
Interviewee: Lawrence Ridgle    Interviewer: Alicia Rouverol
Duration: 01:03:50     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
144.
Lawrence Ridgle, June 9, 1999. Interview K-0144.
Demographic Changes and Challenges in Durham, North Carolina: Lawrence Ridgle, a near-lifelong resident of Durham, North Carolina, discusses his family's work at the American Tobacco Company and his role of leadership in the newly integrated United States Army during the early 1950s. In addition, he discusses the changing nature of the African American community, focusing on perceived threats to its solidarity, and the impact of demographic changes, primarily the rapidly growing Latino community.
Interviewee: Lawrence Ridgle    Interviewer: Alicia Rouverol
Duration: 02:13:25     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
145.
Mildred Price Coy, April 26, 1976. Interview G-0020.
Moving to the Left: Mildred Price Coy's Civil Rights Journey: Mildred Price Coy discusses the development of her egalitarian ideals, her involvement in various justice movements during the twentieth century, and the societal changes she witnessed.
Interviewee: Mildred Price Coy    Interviewer: Mary Frederickson
Duration: Unknown     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 20 excerpts.
146.
Gladys Harris, August 8, 1979. Interview H-0124.
Hosiery Mill Worker Describes Life and Work in Gastonia, North Carolina: Gladys Harris grew up in a farming family during the 1910s and 1920s. In 1940, she went to work as an inspector and as a sewer in Gastonia, North Carolina, hosiery mills. Because her husband was unable to work, Harris was the chief earner for her family. She describes her experiences at work over the course of several decades.
Interviewee: Gladys Harris    Interviewer: Patty Dilley
Duration: 01:10:01     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 4 excerpts.
147.
David R. Hayworth, February 6, 1997. Interview I-0099.
From Plywood to Partitions: A History of Hayworth Roll and Panel Company: David R. Hayworth describes the history and business model of his family business, Hayworth Roll and Panel Company.
Interviewee: David R. Hayworth    Interviewer: Dorothy Gay Darr
Duration: 01:44:53     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
148.
J. D. Thomas and Lela Rigsby Thomas, November 14, 2000. Interview K-0507.
Change Comes to Sprinkle Creek: Growth and Development in a Rural Community: J. D. Thomas and his wife, Lela Rigsby Thomas, remember the Madison County, North Carolina, of their youth and describe the changes that have transformed the area since then.
Interviewee: J. D. Thomas, Lela Rigsby Thomas    Interviewer: Rob Amberg
Duration: 01:34:00     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 9 excerpts.
149.
Mary Moore, August 17, 2006. Interview U-0193.
Civil and Labor Rights Activist Discusses the Struggle for Equality in Birmingham, Alabama: Mary Ann Moore was only a high school student when she began participating in civil rights activities in Birmingham, Alabama, in the 1960s. After becoming a laboratory technician at the VA Hospital in Birmingham, Moore followed family tradition by becoming an active member of the union. She discusses her social justice activism in this interview while drawing connections between the civil rights and the labor rights movements of the second half of the twentieth century.
Interviewee: Mary Moore    Interviewer: Sarah Thuesen
Duration: 01:44:22     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
150.
Gemma Ziegler, June 22, 2006. Interview U-0181.
A Louisville Nurse Discusses Her Role in Efforts to Organize Nurses: During the mid-1970s, Gemma Ziegler became a nurse in Louisville, Kentucky, and joined the campaign to organize nurses. In this interview, she discusses her experiences as a nurse; her work as an organizer for We're Involved in Nursing (WIN); her role in the founding of the Nurses Professional Organization (NPO); and the NPO's various activities from the late 1980s into the early twenty-first century.
Interviewee: Gemma Ziegler    Interviewer: Sarah Thuesen
Duration: 01:58:53     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 7 excerpts.
151.
Kay Tillow, June 23, 2006. Interview U-0180.
Labor Activist Discusses Her Work with Local 1199, the Machinists, and the NPO: Kay Tillow discusses her career as a labor activist, describing her early work in social justice movements of the 1960s and with Local 1199 in Pennsylvania during the 1970s and 1980s. In the late 1980s, Tillow returned to her home state of Kentucky, where she worked closely with the Nurses Professional Organization (NPO) as a representative of the Association of Machinists, who sponsored the NPO in their initial effort to organize Louisville nurses. She continued her work with the NPO towards achieving bargaining power into the early twenty-first century.
Interviewee: Kay Tillow    Interviewer: Sarah Thuesen
Duration: 02:03:33     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 6 excerpts.
152.
Betty and Lloyd Davidson, February 2 and 15, 1979. Interview H-0019.
Husband and Wife Describe Their Lives as Weavers in Burlington, North Carolina: Lloyd and Betty Parker Davidson grew up in Danville, Virginia, during the 1910s and 1920s. After establishing themselves as weavers in Danville, they moved to Burlington, North Carolina, in 1932 to work at the Plaid Mill. In this interview, they describe their experiences as weavers, focusing especially on working conditions in the 1930s and 1940s.
Interviewee: Betty Davidson, Lloyd Davidson    Interviewer: Allen Tullos
Duration: 01:59:13     Annotated Excerpts: Listen to and read all 10 excerpts.