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Afro-American Encyclopaedia;
Or, the Thoughts, Doings, and Sayings of the Race, Embracing Lectures,
Biographical Sketches, Sermons, Poems, Names of Universities, Colleges,
Seminaries, Newspapers, Books, and a History of the Denominations, Giving the
Numerical Strength of Each. In Fact, it Teaches Every Subject of Interest
to the Colored People, as Discussed by More Than One Hundred of
Their Wisest and Best Men and Women:

Electronic Edition.

James T. Haley

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(title page) Afro-American Encyclopaedia; or, The Thoughts, Doings, and Sayings of the Race, Embracing Addresses, Lectures, Biographical Sketches, Sermons, Poems, Names of Universities, Colleges, Seminaries, Newspapers, Books, and a History of the Denominations, Giving the Numerical Strength of Each. In Fact, It Teaches Every Subject of Interest to the Colored People, as Discussed by More than One Hundred of Their Wisest and Best Men and Women.
(cover) Thoughts Doings and Sayings of the Race
James T. Haley
xiv, 639 p., ill
Nashville, Tenn.
Haley & Florida
Call number E185 .A27995 1895 (Walter R. Davis Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

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21st edition, 1998

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Afro-American Encyclopaedia;
Addresses, Lectures, Biographical Sketches, Sermons, Poems, Names of Universities, Colleges, Seminaries, Newspapers, Books, and a History of the Denominations, giving the Numerical Strength of Each. In fact, it teaches every subject of interest to the colored people, as discussed by more than one hundred of their wisest and best men and women.


Compiled and Arranged by James T. Haley.


        No man has a right to bring up his children without surrounding them with good books if he has the means to buy them. A library is one of the necessities of life. A book is better for weariness than sleep; better for cheerfulness than wine; it is often a better physician than a doctor, and a better preacher than a minister.--Beecher.


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Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1895, by HALEY & FLORIDA, in the
office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C.
All rights reserved.



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        Twenty years ago we commenced the subscription book business. Our canvass was usually from door to door, embracing both white and colored. The scarcity of books by negro authors suggested the idea of the compilation of this book. The labor connected with such a work as this none can fully appreciate but those who have performed it. We have tried to compress within a few hundred pages the momentous events connected with the Afro-American race during the nineteenth century. The utmost care has been taken in the collation of the matter in this work, and no expense has been spared to make it not only acceptable to the colored people, but to all classes of readers as well. We can scarcely hope that each article our book contains will be found strictly accurate, since authors of the highest repute differ greatly; where there is a difference of opinion we have endeavored to give the explanation which appeared to be the best supported. We hope and believe the book is free from serious error, but if any should be discovered we shall feel under obligation to those who detect the same, if they will kindly communicate with us, so that in future editions they may be corrected. The book, however, is one of reference rather than one of criticism, an accumulation of facts rather than of opinions. It furnishes the most authentic information concerning the race, and we trust it will awaken a more appreciative spirit of enterprise among them. It has aimed to direct attention to their vast capabilities and resources, many of which are yet undeveloped. We have endeavored to meet the wants of the negro, who is desirous of knowing more of the history of his race, and the achievements of its great men and women (but who are without the assistance of books that bear upon this subject), by compiling these subjects, believing that it will incite a more cheerful reading and deeper research, as the best means of obtaining general information. An effort has been made to render it so generally interesting that it may "be dipped into here and there with the certainty of something being found capable of giving instruction to all classes of readers." The matter contained in this volume can be accumulated only by years of labor and research from sources not easily accessible to the general reader, to say nothing of the vast amount that is fresh from the pens of the most eminent men and women of the race.

        Our object throughout has been to produce a useful book, therefore, as far as was consistent with our plan, we have carefully gleaned whatever was of value wherever it could be found. If at any time we have failed to give credit, it has been because we did not know to whom credit was due. It would have been impossible to render this volume as complete as it now appears, without the sanction of living authors, publishers and owners of copyrights to make extracts; for their courtesy, and for all information from whatever source we tender our most grateful acknowledgments. With this preface, we launch our boat, trusting, hoping and praying that it may accomplish some good.


NASHVILLE, TENN., Sept. 1, 1895.

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        To all, of whatever nationality, who desire to know more of the progress and achievements of the race, and especially to Afro-Americans, old and young, but more especially to those noble, consecrated Christian men and women, who have rendered me such valuable assistance in the preparation of this work, is this volume dedicated.

By the Compiler.

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Page xiii.


Page XV




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Africa and the Africans.

        AFRICA is one of the great divisions of the globe--the second in point of size, but the least important as regards civilization and progress. Until recently, this continent, so long a land of mystery, was inhabited by wild and barbarous tribes and untrodden by the foot of civilization. This great continent of the globe lies in the Eastern Hemisphere, South of Europe, and is separated from that continent by the Mediterranean Sea. No other land division of the globe has such a rounded and complete outline. The explorations of travelers within the present century have revealed all the leading topographical features of the country, and enabled us to form a fairly accurate knowledge of its configurations. Lying almost wholly in or near the equatorial regions, its torrid climate and enormous deserts render explorations perilous.

        It is southwest of Asia, with which it is connected by the Isthmus of Suez. It may, however, be described in brief as an insular continent, since it has of recent years been disconnected from Asia by the Suez Canal.

        The continent lies between 37 degrees 20 minutes north, and 35 degrees south latitude, and 17 degrees 33 minutes west, and 51 degrees 22 minutes east longitude. It is, therefore, almost wholly in the tropical regions. The greatest length of this mysterious land, when we measure from Cape Aquehas, just east of Cape of Good Hope to Cape Bon, which is near Bizerta in Tunis, is about 4,330 geographical miles; while the greatest width, taking Cape Verd on the Atlantic side and Cape Gardafin on the Indian Ocean, is 4,000 geographical miles. Figuring the entire length of the country, excluding Madagascar and other African islands, we have about 11,300,000 statute square miles. The explorations of the continent are slowly advancing year by year, but with earnest and unceasing progress.

        The southern portion of Africa is a vast tableland not generally elevated, sloping on its northern side to the equatorial plane of Soudan, and thence to the lowland region which constitutes the greater part of Northern Africa. Senegambia on the west and Abyssinia on

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the east are characterized by mountaneous ridges and plateaus, which "stretch from the southern tableland like rocky promontories into a sea of level country." The only other elevated region of importance is the Atlas range in the northwest. The coast line is about 16,000 miles in extent, or about two-thirds of the entire distance around the globe. The bodies of water which surround Africa are the Mediterranean Sea on the north, the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean on the east, the Southern Ocean on the south, and the Atlantic Ocean on the west.

        This country has been looked upon as pre-eminently the land of deserts. The great Sahara stretches almost across northern Africa. It is not an unbroken sandy expanse, but full of variety, broken up by great oases and green stretches of land. Some of them are 120 miles in length and from three to five miles broad. In Southern Africa is another desert known as Kalahari. The plateaus of Southern Africa are fertile and thickly populated.

        The extent of the mineral wealth of the continent is unknown, but the precious metals are only found in a limited area. Gold is found in Guinea, iron and copper are found in inter-tropical Africa, coal has been discovered along the Zambesi, and salt is everywhere abundant.

        Dense forests with rankest vegetation, teaming with animal and insect life, pervade the equatorial regions. The most valuable productions of the vegetable kingdom are dates, oranges, olives, rice, cotton, indigo, bananas and grains.

        The quadrupeds found in Africa cover a wide range of natural history. The chimpanzee and the gorilla, baboons and monkey abound in great numbers. The elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus buffalo, giraffe, camelopard, zebra, quagga, antelope, lion, leopard, panther, tiger, hyena, jackal and camel are all at home on the "Dark Continent." The camel is used as the principal beast of burden. There are five great mountain systems. The climate is more equable in the distribution of heat than that of America. There are many large and important rivers: The Congo, the Limpoppo, the Niger, the Nile, the Senegal, and the Zambesi. The Nile is the most famous and wonderful of all. Many of the lakes are vast inland seas, whose existence have been verified by recent explorers. The general form of Africa is triangular, the northern part being the base, and the southern extremity the vertex.

        In the northern part of Africa the Mohammedan religion prevails,

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numbering perhaps two-thirds of the entire population. There are about 700,000 Jews, principally in the cities. Christianity pervails in Madagascar, Liberia, the British possessions of Southern Africa, Algeria, parts of Abyssinia and Egypt.

        In the providence of God it seems that this great and glorious country is chiefly for the colored races, and especially for the negro. Centuries of effort and centuries of failure demonstrate that white men cannot build up colonies there. That portion of the continent lying between the Mediterranean Sea and latitude 20 degrees north, is settled principally by tribes not indigenous, such as Arabs, Turks, Moors and Frenchmen. They have gained possession of the country by conquest. Egypt is partly peopled by Copts, supposed to be descended from the ancient Egyptians, but they are probably a mixed race. The greater portion of Africa's population belongs to two races, the Berbers and the Negroes of Ethiopia. The former are nomadic occupying the mountainous regions of Barbary and the Sahara. They are sometimes called the Kabyles. The Berber nation is one of great integrity. They are warlike and predatory. Their religion is Mohammedism. In South Africa there are many Hottentots, entirely different from all the negro race. Central Africa is inhabited by the Ethiopic race. Mohammedanism and Fetishism are the prevailing religious of the continent. Some tribes offer human sacrifices. The principal negro nations are the Mandingoes, the Foolahs, the Yolofs and Ashantees. It is estimated by some writers that 150 languages are spoken in Africa, and that the population is about 200,000,000.

        The principal divisions of the continent are as follows:

        Algeria, Tripoli, Morocco, Tunis, Bambara, Senegambia, Liberia, Ashantee, Dahomey, Gando, Bornoo, Adamawa, Loango, Congo, Angola, Beuguela, Cape Colony, Orange Free State, Madagascar, Mosambique, Zanquebar, Adel, Cazembe, Abyssinia, Darfoor, Kordofan, Waday, Soudan, Sennar, Neubia, Egypt, and Haussa.

        The word negro is a name given to a considerable branch of the human family possessing certain physical characteristics which distinguish it in a very marked degree from the other branches or varieties of mankind.--International Cyclopedia.

        The term negro is properly applied to the races inhabiting that part of Africa lying between latitude 10 degrees north, and 20 degrees south, and to their descendants in the old and new world. It does not include the Egyptians, Berbers, Abyssinians, Hottentots,

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Nubians, etc., though in popular language, especially in the older writings, it comprises these and other dark skinned nations, who are not however characterized by the crisp hair of the true negro.

        The negroes are said to occupy about one half of Africa, excluding the northern and southern extremities, but including its most fertile portions. They have less nervous sensibility than the whites, and are not subject to nervous afflictions. They are comparatively insensible to pain, bearing severe surgical operations well; they seldom have a fetid breath, but transpire much excrementious matter by means of glands of the skin, whose odorous secretion is well known. His skin is soft and silky; hair, though called wool, does not present the characters of it, and differs but little from that of the other races except in color and in its curled and twisted form. He flourishes under the fiercest heats and unhealthy dampness of the tropics, where the white man soon dies.

        In addition to Africa, negroes are found in the United States, Brazil, West Indies, Peru, Arabia, and the Cape Verd Islands. They are rare in Austria, Europe, and Polynesia.

        Negroes were almost unknown to the Hebrews. They were unknown to the Greeks until the seventh century B.C. About twenty-three hundred years B.C. the Egyptians became acquainted with negroes, who helped them on their monuments as early as 1,600 years B.C.

        The African negroes display considerable ingenuity in the manufacture of weapons, in the working of iron, in the weaving of mats, cloth and baskets from dyed grasses, in the dressing of the skins of animals, in the structure of their huts and household utensils, and in the various implements and objects of use in a barbarous state of society.

        Some of them worship idols, and believe in good and evil spirits, in witchcraft, charms and spells, omens, lucky and unlucky days. They make prayers and offerings to their idols, and have sacred songs, and festivals. They sacrifice animals and sometimes human victims. They have priests who are their doctors. They believe generally in an after life, without any distinct idea of retribution. They have great fears of ghosts and apparitions. They become ready converts to foreign religions. All tribes are passionately fond of music, and have many ingeniously contrived musical instruments. They have a keen sense of the ridiculous, and are of a cheerful disposition. Naturally they are kind-hearted and hospitable to strangers,

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and are ready to receive instruction, and profit by it. They are quick to perceive the beauty of goodness, and hence they generally appreciate the services of missionaries in their behalf, and but for intoxicating drinks brought by traders, they would probably soon become Christianized.


        LIBERIA is a negro republic in Western Africa, on the upper coast of Upper Guinea. The boundaries are not definitely fixed, but provisionally the River Thebar has been adopted as the northwestern, and the San Pedro as the eastern frontier. The republic has a coast line of 600 miles, and extends back 100 miles, on an average, but with the probability of a vast extension into the interior as the tribes near the frontier desire to conclude treaties providing for the incorporation of their territories with Liberia. The present area is estimated at 9,700 square miles. The republic owes its origin to the "American Colonization Society," which was established in December, 1816, for the purpose of removing the negroes of the United States from the cramping influences of American slavery, and placing them in their own fatherland. The first expedition of emigrants, 86 in number, was sent out in February, 1820.

        About 36 miles along the coast, with an average breadth of two miles, of the Mesurado territory was purchased in December, 1821. For a hundred years the principal powers of Europe, in particular France and England, had repeatedly tried to gain possession, but the native chiefs had invariably refused to part with even an acre, and were known to be extremely hostile to the whites. On the 7th of January, 1822, the smaller of the two islands lying near the mouth of the Measurado River was occupied by the colonists, who called it Perseverance Island. They remained here until April 25th, when they removed to Mesurado Heights, and raised the American flag. The colony henceforth grew, and expanded in territory and influence, taking under its jurisdiction from time to time the large tribes contiguous. In 1846 the board of directors of the American Colonization Society invited the colony to proclaim their independent sovereignty, as a means of protection against the oppressive interference of foreigners,

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and a special fund of $15,000 was raised to buy up the national title to all the coast from Sherbro to Cape Palmas, in order to secure to the new nationality continuity of coast. In July, 1847, the declaration of independence, prepared by Hilary Teoge, was published. Representatives of the people met in convention, and promulgated a constitution similar to that of the United States. Soon after the new republic was recognized by England and France; in 1852 it was in treaty stipulations with England, France, Belgium, Prussia, Italy, the United States, Denmark, Holland, Hayti, Portugal, and Austria.

        The constitution of Liberia, like that of the United States, establishes an entire separation of the church from the State, and places all religious denominations on an equal footing, but all citizens of the republic must belong to the negro race.

        The most important tribes within and near the republic are the following:

        1. The Veys, extending from Gallinas, their northern boundary, southward to Little Cape Mount: they stretch inland about two days' journey. They invented some twenty-five years ago an alphabet for writing their language and, next to the Mandingoes, they are regarded as the most intelligent of the aboriginal tribes. As they hold constant intercourse with the Mandingoes and other Mohammedan tribes in the interior, Mohammedism is making rapid progress among them.

        2. The Pessehs, who are located about 70 miles from the coast, and extent about 100 miles from north to south, are entirely pagan. They may be called the peasants of West Africa, and supply most of the domestic slaves for the Veys, Bassas, Mandingoes, and Kroos. A missionary effort was attempted among them many years ago by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, but it was abandoned shortly after in consequence of the death of the first missionary, Geo. L. Seymore.

        3. The Barline tribe living about eight days' journey northeast from Monrovia, and next interior to the Pessehs, has recently been brought into treaty relations with Liberia. The Barlins are not Mohammedans.

        4. The Bassas occupy a coastline of sixty miles or more, and extend about the same distance inland. They are the great producers of palm oil and camwood, which are sold to foreigners by thousands of tons annually. In 1835 a mission was begun among these people

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by the American Baptist Missionary Union, whose missionaries studied the language, organized three schools, embracing in all nearly a hundred pupils, maintained preaching steadily at three places, and occasionally at a great many more, and translated large portions of the New Testament into the Bassa language. Notwithstanding this promising commencement, the mission has been abandoned for many years, but the Southern Baptist convention has resumed missionary operations among the Bassas.

        5. The Kroo, who occupy the region south of the Bassa, extend about 70 miles along the coast, and only a few miles inland. They are the sailors of West Africa, and never enslave or sell each other. About 50 years ago a mission was established among them by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions at Settra Kroo, but it has long since ceased operations.

        6. The Greboes, who border upon the southeastern boundaries of the Kroos, extend from Grand Sesters to the Cavalla River. In 1834 a mission was established among them by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which continued in operation for seven years. A church was organized, the language reduced to writing, and parts of the New Testament and other religious books translated into it.

        7. The Mandingoes, who are found on the whole eastern frontier of the republic, and extend back to the heart of Soudan, are the most intelligent within the limits of Liberia. They have schools and mosques in every large town, and, by their great influence upon the neighboring tribes, they have contributed in no little degree to abate the ignorance and soften the manners of the native population of Liberia.

        Agriculture is carried on with increasing success. Sugar is the principal article of produce, also of manufacture. Arrowroot, rice, cocoa, cotton and coffee are cultivated. Lime is made from burnt shells. Trade is rapidly extending. Palm oil, ivory, gold dust, cam-wood, wax, coffee, indigo, ginger, arrowroot and hides are among the principal articles of export. The capital and largest town is Monrovia, a seaport on Cape Mesurado, with about 15,000 population. Liberia has a population of 1,050,000. But speaking of Liberia to-day, in his excellent work, "Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race," Mr. E. W. Blyden says: "No agency has yet been tried for Africa's regeneration, which promises so much and is capable of so much for the permanent welfare of the

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people as the method of the American Colonization Society in the establishment of Liberia. The United States has furnished Africa with the most effective instrument of unlimited progress and development in the Republic of Liberia. The basis of the Liberian political life is the American constitution and laws. But the earlier legislators of the new State very soon discovered that American precedents, in not a few important respects, would have to be set aside; and it is creditable to their statesmanship that they were able to introduce with prudence such modifications into the American system as made it applicable to their new circumstances and practicable for their purposes. Their successors are finding more and more that as they advance into the continent and develop national life, new modifications will be necessary. These must take place if there is normal growth--if the nation is to be the true expression of the race. The friends of Liberians abroad cannot help them to national or racial expression. They must fight their own battles and achieve their own victories, if they are not to be overawed, depressed and overcome, not so much by the merits and virtues as by the vices and failings of foreigners, whose literature they read and whose commodities they purchase.

        The theory upon which Liberia was founded has thus far stood the test. It is a theory with definite practical consequences, which every one who is earnest in the desire for African regeneration and acquainted with the facts must accept, and which no one in these days, however antagonistic to the negro in exile, will strenuously oppose.

        In Liberia, the people, with all the drawbacks incident to their necessarily isolated life, have the legislative control of at least 500 miles of coast, and of an indefinite interior. They recognize the necessity--the prime necessity--of the moral and religious emotions. Their minds are strengthened and expaned by the wide and glorious prospects which their independent nationality and the vast continent on which they live with its teeming millions of their blood relations open before them; and they stretch out their hands to the United States for the return of their exiled brethren, to increase their civilized and Christian force. They ask for greater educational and religious facilities. They could have greater material prosperity; but they look upon the life as more than meat, and the body as more than raiment. For more than half a century they have resisted the appeals of Europeans for an indiscriminate trade in the country, and

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have thus kept an extensive region both on the coast and in the interior in a virgin state waiting for their brethren from the United States, who will know how to protect themselves against the influence of a vicious foreign trade, and who will be able to introduce in a regular and healthful form the blessings of freedom and civilization. As an example of the work in promotion of a genuine Christian civilization which Liberia, as an independent nation, whose laws are final, has the power of performing, see the recent law enacted against Sabbath breaking, which applies only to the seaboard and to the proceedings of foreign vessels. You would understand the import of this fact and its bearing upon Christianity in this country if you could see how all along the coast out of Liberia the Sabbath is disregarded by foreign traders, while the missionaries look helplessly on. In course of time, Liberia will banish the traffic in spirits from the whole of her domain; and in this effort she will be sustained by the great Mohammedan trading community on the east and north.

        Now, here is an instrument--indigenous, sympathetic and permanent--for the aggressive work of the American church. If American Christians will deal with this question earnestly and wisely, they can in a few years revolutionize the migration countries. America possesses the elements--the human instruments--now needed for the work in Africa, and they are anxious to come. Rev. H. N. Payne says: "Much as the colored people are attached to the places where they grew up, thousands of them would gladly go to Arkansas, to Texas, or to any other place where they would better their condition; but they cannot raise the money to emigrate, and must stay and suffer where they are." Now here is disinterested testimony, put not half so strongly as the facts warrant. The any other place is Africa; and if these helpless creatures do not name Africa in the utterance of their tearful longings, it is because thousands do not dream that there is any possibility of ever getting to this distant country. I found, during my travels in the South, in 1882, that hundreds were turning their faces to Arkansas and Texas, who had never heard of Liberia or the American Colonization Society.

        Do not wait until you have trained the negroes up to your ideal--in your peculiar modes of thinking. You cannot make them Anglo-Saxons. You never will make them so in spirit and possibilities, if I interpret the providence of God aright. The Hebrews of Egypt remained illiterate and ignorant, though surrounded for 400 years by the splendors of a brilliant civilization. That civilization was

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not for them, though they had, by providential direction, been brought into contact with it. It was not suited for the peculiar work for which they were destined. So the children of Africa in the United States have the possibilities of a great work in the fatherland. Remove them from the pressure in your country to the freedom and congeniality of their ancestral home, and so open a wider sphere, for the play and development of their social, moral and spiritual nature. It is not the best plan to rely upon college training to fit them for work in Africa.

        The fugitive Hebrew slaves, without the learning of the schools, received the law for their guidance--found the truth for their race--in the solitudes of the desert. In Africa, the merest rudiments of Western learning will have more power upon the negro than the highest culture in America. There is something in the atmosphere, in the sunshine, the clouds, the rain, the flowers, the music of the birds, that makes the a b c of your culture more valuable to him than all the metaphysics and philosophy you can possibly give him in America.

        The Republic of Liberia now stands before the world. The nations of the earth are looking to her as one of the hopeful spots on the continent of Africa. Travelers in Syria tell us that Damascus owes its fertility and beauty to one single stream--the River Abana. Without that little river, the charm and glory of Damascus would disappear. It would be a city in a desert. So the influence of Liberia, insignificant as it may seem, is the increasing source of beauty and fertility, of civilization and progress to West and Central Africa.

        We do not ask that all the colored people should leave the United States and go to Africa. If such a result were possible it is not, for the present, at least desirable; certainly it is not indispensable. For the work to be accomplished much less than one-tenth of the eight millions will be necessary. The question is not whether certain rich men will choose to remain behind, but whether there will be found worthy men who will choose to lead the return. Plenty of prosperous Jews remained in Babylon when Ezra marshalled his band of 40,000, and began a new, glorious epoch in the history of his race, making the preparation for that epoch in the history of the the world which has been held glorious enough to be dated from for evermore.

        There are negroes enough in the United States to join in the return--descendants of Africa enough, who are faithful to their instincts

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of the race, and who realize their duty to their fatherland. There are many who are faithful, there are men and women who will go, who have a restless sense of homelessness which will never be appeased until they stand in the great land where their forefathers lived; until they catch glimpses of the old sun and moon and stars, which still shine in their pristine brilliancy upon that vast domain; until, from the deck of the ship which bears them back home, they see visions of the hills rising from the white margin of the continent, and listen to the breaking music of the waves--the exhilarating laughter of the sea as it dashes against the beach. These are the elements of the great restoration. It may come in our own life time. It may be our happiness to see those rise up who will formulate progress for Africa--embody the ideas which will reduce our social and political life to order; and we may, before we die, thank God that we have seen this salvation; that the negro has grasped with a clear knowledge his meaning in the world's vast life--in politics, in science, in religion.


        THE various colors seen in the natives in Africa, where amalgamation with other races is impossible, has drawn forth much criticism, and puzzled the ethnologist not a little. Yet nothing is more easily accounted for than this difference of color among the same people, and even under the same circumstances. Climate and climate alone, is the sole cause. And now to the proof. Instances are adduced, in which individuals, transplanted into another climate than that of their birth, are said to have restrained their peculiarities of form and color unaltered, and to have transmitted the same to their posterity for generations. But cases of this kind, though often substantiated to a certain extent, appear to have been much exaggerated, both as to the duration of time ascribed, and the absence of any change. It is highly probable that the original characteristics will be found undergoing gradual modifications, which tend to assimilate them to those of the new country and situation.

        The Jews, however slightly their features may have assimilated to those of other nations among whom they are scattered, from

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the causes already stated, certainly form a very striking example as regards the uncertainty of perpetuity in color. Descended from one stock, and prohibited by the most sacred institutions from intermarrying with the people of other nations, and yet dispersed, according to the divine prediction, into every country on the globe, this one people is marked with the color of all; fair in Britian and Germany; brown in France and in Turkey; swarthy in Portugal and in Spain; olive in Syria and Chaldea; tawny or copper-colored in Arabia and in Egypt; whilst they are "black at Congo, in Africa."

        Let us survey the gradations of color on the continent of Africa itself. The inhabitants of the north are whitest; and as we advance southward towards the line, and those countries in which the sun's rays fall more perpendicularly, the complexion gradually assumes a darker shade. And the same men whose color has been rendered black by the powerful influence of the sun, if they remove to the north gradually become white, (I mean their posterity), and eventually lose their dark color.

        The Portuguese who planted themselves on the coast of Africa a few centuries ago, have been succeeded by descendants blacker than many Africans. On the coast of Malabar there are two colonies of Jews, the old colony and the new, separated by color, and known as the "black Jews" and the "white Jews."

        The old colony are the black Jews, and have been longer subjected to the influence of the climate. The hair of the black Jews is curly, showing a resemblance to the Negro. The white Jews are as dark as the Gypsies, and each generation growing darker.

        Dr. Livingstone says:

I was struck with the appearance of the people in Londa and the neighborhood; they seemed more slender in form and their color a lighter olive than any we had hitherto met.

        Lower down the Zambisi the same writer says:

Most of the men are muscular, and have large, ploughman hands. Their color is the same admixture, from very dark to light olive, that we saw in Londa.

        In the year 1840, the writer was at Havana, and saw on board a vessel just arrived from Africa some five hundred slaves, captured in different parts of the country. Among these captives were colors varying from light brown to black, and their features represented the finest Anglo-Saxon and the most degraded African.

        There is a nation called Tuaricks, who inhabit the oases and southern borders of the great desert, whose occupation is commerce, and

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whose caravans ply between the Negro countries and Fezzan. They are described by the travelers, Hornemann and Lyon.

        The western tribes of this nation are white, so far as the climate and their habits will allow. Others are of a yellow cast; others again are swarthy; and in the neighborhood of Soudan, there is said to be a tribe completely black. All speak the same dialect, and it is a dialect of the original African tongue. There is no reasonable doubt of their being aboriginal.

        Lyon says they are the finest race of men he ever saw, "tall, straight and handsome, with a certain air of independence and pride which is very imposing." If we observe the gradations of color in different localities in the meridian under which we live, we shall perceive a very close relation to the heat of the sun in each respectively. Under the equator we have the deep black of the Negro, then the copper or olive of the Moors of northern Africa; then the Spaniard and Italian, swarthy compared with other Europeans; the French still darker than the English, while the fair and florid complexion of England and Germany passes more northerly into the bleached Scandinavian white.

        It is well-known that in whatever region travelers ascend mountains they find the vegetation at every successive level altering its character and gradully assuming the appearances presented in more northern countries; thus indicating that the atmosphere, temperature and physical agencies in general, assimilate as we approach Alpine regions to the peculiarities locally connected with high latitudes.

        If, therefore, complexion and other bodily qualities belonging to races of men depend upon climate and external conditions, we should expect to find them varying in reference to elevation of surface; and if they should he found actually to undergo such variations, this will be a strong argument that these external characteristics do, in fact, depend upon local conditions.

        Now, if we inquire respecting the physical characters of the tribes inhabiting high tracts in warm countries, we shall find that they coincide with those which prevail in the level or low parts of more northern tracts.

        The Swiss, in the high mountains above the plains of Lombardy, have sandy or brown hair. What a contrast presents itself to the traveler who descends into the Milanese territory, where the peasants have black hair and eyes, with strongly-marked Italian and almost oriental features.

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        In the higher part of the Biscayan country instead of the swarthy complexion and black hair of the Castilians, the natives have a fair complexion with light blue eyes and and flaxen or auburn hair.

        In the inter-tropical region, high elevations of surface, as they produce a cooler climate, occasion the appearance of light complexions. In the higher parts of Senegambia, which front the Atlantic, and are cooled by winds from the Western Ocean, where, in fact, the temperature is known to be moderate, and even cool at times, the light copper-colored Fulahs are found surrounded on every side by black Negro nations inhabiting lower districts; and nearly in the same parallel, but on the opposite coast of Africa, are the high plains of Enared and Kaffa, where the inhabitants are said to be fairer than the inhabitants of Southern Europe.

        Do we need any better evidence of the influence of climate on man than to witness its effect on beasts and birds? Æolian informs us that the Eubaea was famous for producing white oxen. Blumenbach remarks that "all the swine of Piedmont are black, those of Normandy white, and those of Bavaria are of a reddish brown. "The turkeys of Normandy," he states "are all black; those of Hanover almost all white. In Guinea the dogs and the gallinaceous fowls are as black as the human inhabitants of the same country." The lack of color in the northern regions of many animals which possess color in more temperate latitudes--as the bear, the fox, the hare, beasts of burden, the falcon, crow, jackdaw, and chaffinch--seems to arise entirely from climate. The common bear is differently colored in different regions. The dog loses its coat entirely in Africa, and has a smooth skin.

        We all see and admit the change which a few years produce in the complexion of a Caucasian going from our northern latitude into the tropics.--The Rising Sun.

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Color of the First Man.


        THOSE who are conversant with the Hebrew language will agree with me in the statement that the Hebrew word Adam, the name given to the first man, means reddish or auburn color, as well as man; or better, perhaps, red man; the name designating the color. I therefore claim two points, which, to any reasonable person, are sufficient proof of Adam's color, namely: The color of the material out of which he was made, and this indicated his name. Is it not more reasonable to believe that a man made out of red colored material, and having a name signifying red color, was red, than to believe that he was white? And is it not strange that many men who seem consistent in making expositions on other weighty matters will agree that the first man was made of red clay, that his name signified red color, that it was given him because of his red color, yet he was white? Mystical inference! If the first man had been made out of chalk, and called Chivvah, which is the Hebrew for white, what rational man is there under the sun who would presume to gravely assert that, notwithstanding his formation from chalk, and his name which implies the color of chalk, yet the first man was red? But I must not cross the Rubicon before I come to it. Perhaps when I have presented my whole argument some opinions will have undergone a change. Was the first woman of the color of the first man? This is a question whose answer will determine my cause of procedure.

        1. Is it possible that the color of the first woman was not of the same color of the first man? To say that it is impossible is to limit omnipotence and omniscience. The same wisdom that produced one color in man, could produce a different color in the woman.

        2. It is probable that the first woman was not of the same color of the first man, from the presumption that God having manifested variety of color throughout the several kingdoms of nature would not make an exception of this rule in the heads of creation. To begin with, there is the black earth and the white light of the sun; and

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there is the black crow and the white crane; the black and polar bear; black and white beasts; the black dolphin and white fish. There is chalk, limestone and lead; coal, granite and iron; black and white stone and minerals; ebony trees and sycamore trees; black-berries and white cap berries; the dun pansy and the white rose, and so forth.

        3. It is probable that the first woman and man were not of the same complexion, from the fact of the existence of divers colors in their offspring, to time whereof the history of man runneth not to the contrary, and the total silence of history, sacred and profane, at the surprise of any race, or individual of any race, in meeting another race, or individual of another race of a different complexion, justifies this probability yet more.

        4. It is probable that the first man and woman were of different complexions, from the fact that all of Noah's children were not of the same color. The words alchemy and chemistry preserve in our own language this meaning of Ham or Cham. They literally mean the "black art," from Kemia, chem--black. They came to us through the Arabs from Egypt. That Ham in Hebrew means swarthy or darkish all linguists are agreed and, as we have before intimated, that in the early history of mankind names given men frequently indicated peculiar physical features possessed by those who bore them, we are therefore to conclude that Noah's second son was of a complexion darker than that of either the oldest or youngest son.

        Japheth, the name of the youngest son, was no doubt derived from Yaphah, which means "to be beautiful," hence fair, that complexion being thought the ideal of beauty among the ancients. But for the children to be of different colors, it is necessary that the parents be of different colors, and again their parents must have been of different colors, and so on back to the diversity of color between Adam and Eve.

        What was Eve's color? She could not have been red like Adam, otherwise their posterity would have all been red. If she were darker than red, or even Adam's color, their descendants, according to physiological law, would have been yet darker. If she was jet black, their children, by the same law, would have been a brown next to black. These results would have been as stated, provided their offspring had taken color after Adam, admitting Eve to have been red, brown or black, and thus, too, accounting for the yellow, brown,

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red and black races of those who hold that there are five distinct races of man. But how about the white race? It seems to have been left entirely out of the enumeration. There can be but one conclusion regarding it. If Adam was of a reddish color--as I think I have clearly shown him to have been--and Eve was of a color which was neither yellow, red, brown nor black, and as some of their posterity are a complexion different from either of these just named, and that complexion is the only one that she could possess, if we agree with Blumenback that there are but five races of men distinguished by their color, then we must conclude that Eve, the first woman, was white. The argument upon which this conclusion is founded is both scriptural and scientific, and from this basis, and none other, it proposes to declare a hitherto hidden truth. Having established the color of the first man by a draft on Scripture narrative, etymology and mental philosophy, I shall, in another chapter, establish the color of the first woman by the same means, perhaps using the argument of two or three affinitive sciences in addition thereto.--The Unity of the Human Race.

Color of the First Woman.


        LET us first consider Gen. ii. 21-23, wherein Moses, Israel's great law-giver, gives the world the only trustworthy history it has of the creation of woman and the beginning of the world. "And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof. And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from the man, made he a woman and brought her unto the man. And the man said, this is now bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man."

        I attach more importance to the fact that woman was made out of man's rib than others do, yet no more than the fact deserves. If Adam was made out of red clay, which made his color red, it is unreasonable to believe that as Eve was made out a white rib she therefore

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naturally received her color from it, or received no color at all, if it be contended that white is no color. In all candor, is not this a more reasonable, a simpler theory than the unscriptural ones that are thrust into notice of the reading public? It puts an end to many theories heretofore advanced, and silences forever Ariel's bray, and brands his infamous assertion that the negro is a brute, a malicious falsehood; it withholds from the murderer Cain and a she ape in the land of Nod the ancestry of the black race; it shows that the color of Ham's descendants is not the result of Noah's cursing Canaan, by proving that the source of their color was in Eden. In a word, it turns a full light upon the Scripture declaration, "God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth," traces it to its true source, and keeps to the text in contending with those who inadvertently overlook this truth, pervert, or willfully deny it. It does not require nearly as great a stretch of faith to believe that Eve took her color from the rib out of which she was created as to believe that she was created out of the rib; therefore let us bow at the shrine of reason and consistency. In proving the color of Adam I resorted to the etymology of his name. Does not the etymology of Eve's name also have reference to her color? Beyond a doubt it has. The word which we translate Eve is Chavvah in Hebrew, and means simply life, and no one who is familiar with Holy Writ will deny that life and immortality are symbolized by white, from the Pentateuch of Moses to the Apocalypse of John, and in human experience from Nimrod until now. Therefore Eve's color indicated that she was the "mother of all living," or the source of all living, as much as her name. In order for the woman to engage the attention of the man she must have been attractive. What color is more attractive than white? For her to claim his protection she must have had a delicate appearance. What color is more delicate than white? To draw upon his affection she must have been fair, or, in other words white; and I do not think it more poetic than truthful for me to say that Eve's color denoted virtue, the brightest gem in the diadem of her priceless womanhood, and the most glorious and most valuable legacy left by her to her posterity.

        It would be unwise for me to multiply these subsidiary arguments in support of the fact of Eve's color being white, which has been already made plain, for in doing so I would underrate the mental ability of the reader to grasp ordinary truth, and see by the clear light of analogy, illustration and reason.

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        Next we will consider the complexions of the descendants of father Adam and mother Eve. At once the important question is proposed: "If Eve was white and Adam was red, none of their immediate descendants could have been white or entirely black. Some of them must have approximated a white color, some a color medium between white and red, and others must have approximated Adam's color, or the colors must have graded from nearly, or quite red, up to nearly white, in several fine shades. Where then is the source of full white and full black people?" This question is not difficult of solution. In answering it I shall show, however paradoxical the proposition may seem, that it is easier to account for the black and white children from a red Adam and a white Eve than it is to account for yellow, red, brown and black children from a white Adam and a white Eve, white and yellow children from a red Adam and a red Eve, or white, yellow, red and brown children from a black Adam and black Eve.

        Knowing that there are different opinions as to the universality of the flood, I shall not insist that all human beings save Noah, his wife, his three sons and their wives, perished therein. My agreeing with those who affirm or those who deny this theory would neither strengthen nor weaken my argument asserting the divergence of color in the first human pair, and per force of reason in their descendants whether they were roaming the tableland of Nod during the flood, or rocking in the Ark upon the billows above Shinar. I have often stated that Noah's three sons, saying nothing of his wife or his son's wives, differed in complexion. The names of two of them indicate this. Ham (Hebrew Cham) means swarthy. Japheth (Hebrew Yaphar) means fair or whitish. Between Ham's swarthy complexion and Japheth's fair complexion it is not unreasonable to believe Shem's auburn complexion had place.

        The Scriptures teach that Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years, but giving no account of his having any other children than those who survived the flood with him and his wife in the Ark. As the Scriptures are mute on this subject I shall be also. Not denying that Noah had other sons and daughters born unto him after the flood, but basing my theory of the re-peopling of the earth upon the fruitfulness of Shem, Ham and Japhet, and the fruitfulness of their children and their children's children, whose geographical distribution alone I shall notice.

        I assume as a matter of course that the white complexion did not

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exist after Eve's death until centuries after the confusion of tongues at Babel, and the dispersion of the three grand divisions of mankind thence "upon all the face of the earth," as the Hebrew has it, nor was the very black complexion known until the people distinguished thereby had subordinated themselves to the circumstances which produced it. To what do these statements lead? They lead to the inevitable conclusion that all the complexions except the white and black were the naturally direct result of the union of Adam's and Eve's complexions, but that these were produced by the "influences of the chemical solar rays, the altitude or depression of the general level, the difference of geological formations, the varying agencies of magnetism and electricity, as atmospheric peculiarities, miasmatic exhalations from vegetable and mineral matter, difference of soil, proximity to the ocean, variety of food, habits of life and exposure."

God's Problem for the South.


        GOD is the greatest of all problem makers. Neither nature nor metaphysics nor grace contains a single problem that is not his by origination and proposal. The mystery of the milky way or the doctrine of perception or the method of reconciliation between God and man are not human. Since no human mind has ever fully understood them, it is but just to infer that they are super-human in origin. When God sets a problem before the human mind he usually indicates general principles by which it is to be solved. He never ciphers out the details for any man. God told Moses to go lead his people out of Egypt. "Come now, therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt." (Ex. iii. 10.) When Moses had insisted upon Jehovah's telling him something about the details of the work, he was at last asked, "What is that in thine hand? And he said, A rod. Cast it on the ground. He cast it on the ground and it became a serpent, and Moses fled from before it. And the Lord said into Moses: Put forth thine hand and take it by the tail. And he put

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forth his hand and caught it and it became a rod in his hand; that they may believe that the Lord God of their fathers hath appeared unto thee." (Ex. iv. 3-5.) Moses' problem was to lead out the people; his method of solution was to be miracles. Jesus stood in the midst of his disheartened disciples on the mount in Galilee, and gave them the greatest problem ever committed to human head, heart and hand. "Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature." Such a problem had never been given to men in the past history of the church; it has not been modified one jot or one tittle since its first announcement. It was original, startling, overwhelming. It gave the world a new estimate of the power of the human soul, that it could embrace with loving solicitude the entire human family. The problem carried within its depths its own solution as a granite mass bearing its imbedded dynamite. The problem was Go: its solution lay in one word--preach. The problem is now before us. It is divine; so is its solution. The church must, and, by God's good grace, will work it out.

        In working it out, the church in the United States has some peculiar conditions to meet. It is better equipped in brains, in money, in spirituality than ever in its history. More people are easily accessible than ever before. Cries for the preached word come from every quarter of our own country and in tumultuous mobs beneath our windows alarm our sleeping consciences. Mute appeals of unnumbered millions of heathen call us irresistibly to their help. The Syro-Phoenician woman in the coasts of Tyre begs for crumbs from the spiritual feast that our Lord spreads before us. Poor Lazarus, outcast, sore-covered, dog-licked, lies at our door piteously pleading, "Give, or I die!" Let us attend to this cry from Lazarus for a little while. We'll not stop to speak of the Chinaman, for he is removed from us by law, nor the Indian, who is fast being removed by powder, rascality, and liquor. Our problem in the South is how to reach the negro with the gospel. It may be solved perhaps by first reaching the white man. For until his brain is cleared and his conscience aroused, very little can be done. What are the conditions of the problem? 1. Many millions of white and black people live in the same territory. 2. The whites once owned the blacks. 3. The whites are vastly in the majority, have infinitely more money, education and spirituality. 4. Against the will of the intelligent majority, the minority was freed. 5. By law both black and white are equal citizens of the same government. 6. Powerful influences

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have for years been at work causing ill-will between the two races. The question that we have to answer is, can these two races live in peace on the same soil as equal citizens of the same government? If so, how?

        What does history say about it? Before the general diffusion of Christianity when two alien races came into contact, one or the other was exterminated or enslaved. Rome and Carthage fought until it was written Delenda est Carthago. But what lesson do the records of nations since our Lord's ascension even down to the year 1891 teach us? An elaborate experiment was made in Spain. But the Moors were expelled in spite of their superior science and art. Spain and Portugal came into contact with the natives of Mexico and South America only to enslave and destroy them. The Puritan and the cavalier met the proud red man on his own soil and have killed him until only a small remnant remains to build the camp-fire and recall the deeds of ancient braves, with no hope for the future except his ration of blue beef and abuse. Slave and Hebrew, though not even of different races, cannot live together unless the Jew will submit to oppression nearly as galling as slavery. What says history? She says emphatically that the experiment that we are making in this country is a crime against humanity--that either slavery or death must be its end.

        What says the Constitution of the United States? Before the adoption of Article XIII. of the amendments of the Constitution abolishing slavery, its existence had been simply ignored by that immortal document. Perhaps no greater experiment in making laws has ever been attempted than the adoption of the last three amendments, making citizens out of slaves up to that time kept ignorant by law. Questions as to the wisdom of their enactment or perpetuation are purely theoretical. They are there, and nothing short of a revolution can remove them. What does the Constitution, our highest and most unchanging law, say about these two races living together? It simply says to all alike, "You shall live together in peace!" This may not be the voice of conscience, but it is the fiat of authority. The Constitution therefore says to us, say we yea or say we nay, "I know that history declares it can't be done, but my voice is louder and my arm is stronger than history. Let there be peace!" The Constitution sought to create peace and interject it between the discordant and warring elements of society. As loyal citizens of our land and as staunch defenders of the Constitution, we must obey the law.

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        What says the gospel of God? "As ye would that men should do to you do ye even so to them likewise." "Follow peace with all men." "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." We are perhaps too prone to apply these wholesome precepts to the lives of others, forgetting for the time their direct bearing upon our own consciences and lives. It is to no purpose that we say that we once did our religious duty to the negroes. Satifying reflections on our past performances may soothe us into present neglect. Energetic resolutions to do our duty in the future may be a subtly delusive way of calming the cryings of an urgent conscience to-day. A shifting of responsibility that God has laid, is impossible, for the only method of discharging responsibility to God is by doing the duties demanded.

        A condition of society exists to-day in the South the like of which has never before been seen. Ignorance and intelligence, poverty and plenty, have always existed side by side everywhere. But when in the history of the ages has a people who were never in bondage to any man, conferred on an alien race, once their slaves, the equal legal rights and privileges which they themselves have created and enjoy?

        When we have set aside all political considerations and social fears, we find that the essence of the whole matter lies in the question of, How shall two men, equal before the law, behave towards one another? History is eloquent with illustrations, and the Constitution speaks with the voice of authority. But to consider this question, neither history nor the Constitution is sufficient. For the Christian, there is but one code of morals, but one yard-stick for measuring this cloth, but one voice--and that of law and love united--that has inherently the power of solution. Political expedients are, at best, mere temporary aids. The law is useful as an educator, but it has no power of producing in its own subjects sympathetic obedience. We must have a solvent more permanent than party platforms, more powerful than all law. Something is needed to arouse the conscience, engage the heart, and direct intelligent effort. There are three persons concerned in this matter--the white man, the negro and Almighty God. The [white man knows his weakness, the negro is expectant, and, unless the Lord show the strength of his right arm, the pessimism taught us by history and aggravated by the demands of an unfailing law, will soon change to discord and open strife. A learned divine once said, "Unless the gospel solve this matter, then it will be bang! bang!" Says the apostle "I can

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do all things in him that strengtheneth (endynamites) me." What says the gospel? "Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel." "For it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth"--"Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God." So long as we walk in such light as that, there is no pessimism, not even a shade of doubt.

        Again, says this same gospel, 1 Thess. ii. 3, 4, For our exhortation is not of error nor of uncleanness, nor in guile; but even as we have been approved of God to be entrusted with the gospel, so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, which proveth our hearts. That is, we were made by Christ, at his ascension, trustees of his Gospel, for the benefit of all mankind. Shall not this stir up our consciences? A trustee must be faithful. Have we, as individuals, or as a church of Jesus Christ, done our duty to the negroes? At the judgment seat of Christ it will be too late to attempt an answer. It is called to-day. "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me," said Jesus, "because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord." Man can have no higher duty, he can enjoy no more sanctifying privilege than to do the works and speak the words of God to men everywhere. Is there a finer field in our South-land for preaching Christ than is afforded by the negroes? Humble, bound by Satan in chains of lust, enslaved to sin, blinded by the god of this world, ignorant of the time of God's calling--among such, surely ought the gospel to be preached.

        The Southern Presbyterian Church is just entering upon the great evangelistic period of its history. For the coming of this time God has been patiently preparing us. He has endowed us with a pure doctrine and an adaptable polity. He has enlarged our borders. He has filled our barns with plenty. He has unstopped our ears to the cry of the heathen. He has opened our eyes to the destitution at home. He has been perfecting us by the sufferings of persecution, dissension and discord from within and from without. Uniform and unified we stand before him to-day. In his own hand-writing he gives us our ploblems. The great home-problem is how to evangelize our colored fellow-citizens, who are our friends and neighbors. Surely, God's people will not halt now. To halt will be to retreat. With heart and head and hand, intelligently, wisely, humbly, patiently,

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cheerfully, sympathetically, for God's own glory, let us now do our whole duty to the negro. Let North, East and West be patient and charitable, while aiding us to adapt the gospel to these hitherto untried conditions. Let all the people conscientiously introduce God into this mighty problem. It will soon be solved then, and, until then, never.

The Providence of God in the Historical Development of the Negro.


        THE orginal condition of the Negro people was heathenism in Africa. Then came two and a half centuries of American slavery with the evils which it bred and fostered. In the dreadful discipline of slavery, there had yet been a great gain in condition over the estate of their ancestors. The race had ceased to be absolutely African; there remained few with wholly African blood.*

        * A Southern authority, in a careful work entitled: "The Resources and Population of South Carolina," published in 1883 with the State imprint, speaking of the Negro people uses the following words, viz. : "One-third has a large infusion of white blood. Another third has less, but still some; and of the other third it would be difficult to find an assured specimen of pure African blood. If the lineage of these Negroes whose color and features seem most unmistakably to mark them as of purely African descent be traced indisputable evidence may often be obtained of white parentage more or less remote."

Not only by the amalgam of race but in other ways, all had gained something from contact with civilization. Those who had lived in towns and cities had taken on certain of the blessings of civilization. The great majority who lived on remote plantations had nevertheless seen something of civilization. Mentally and morally children, their heathenism had been modified by living among white people. The speech of heathenism had been exchanged for the rudiments of the English tongue. Besides this they had learned needful lessons in their hard school of servitude. The spirit of obedience, the consequent reverence for law and respect for authority, in the providence of God, were preparations for the
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day of emancipation. While most of them imperfectly apprehended the meaning of a religion which meant character and conduct, yet nearly all had absorbed a sense of the government of God, which was strong and in some ways controlling. All this was progress in condition over the estate of their African ancestors; a great gain over naked barbarism. This was not the purpose of man, but it was in the providence of God.

        When Christian faith and love said this redeemed people must now be educated and helped into worthy Christian manhood and womanhood, this was another step in the movement of divine providence.

        When the race history began, it began at zero. Four millions of people had existed, but as yet there could be no history. That there may be history, there must be legal marriage, family name, continuity of family life, and possession of property. The Negro had none of these.

        A score and a half years have passed and the Negroes number seven millions of people. Two millions have learned to read. Many have pushed on beyond elementary education, and a small percentage have made attainments which are prophetic of power and position for the race in the times to come.

        While it is true that those who cannot read to-day are in excess of the original four millions when they were set free, and that the Negro left to himself has even degenerated from the Negro of slavery, it is also true that a single generation has witnessed in the life of hundreds of thousands a wonderful evolution in manhood and womanhood. The growth of the race in honorable self-hood has been for such, like the story of Narcissus in the myths of the ancients. Narcissus, you remember, had fallen from the knowledge of his high birthright as a descendant of the gods, and was living low down unmindful of his high origin. But one day at the water side for the first time he saw his own image reflected back to him as from a mirror. It was not a clear vision, but to him it was a revelation. He saw that he was not like the brutes. He felt that he ought to be more than he was. His thoughts within him were stirred. The sense of his high origin and birthright slowly came to him. One thought quickened another, and he found himself rising to his thought until he felt the fire of his divinity. He grew in his purpose toward that which he held in his mind. He cast aside what was low, and he resolutely left all that pulled him down. Thus leaving the things that were behind, he pressed forward, and so

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became transformed in thought, in character and in life, passing from achievement to permanent possession, until the glory of the gods was his, and he took his place among them.

        Thousands upon thousands of the Negro people have had this vision and revelation. The idea of self-hood, and the reaching forth to it, in a single generation of the Negro race has been a wonderful prophecy of possibility in the significance and quality and nobility of life. This is seen to be the master key to unlock the door of caste and hindrance for their entrance to the rights of manhood and womanhood, and to the dignities of life. This is the power that is to settle at last the standing and the recognition of race. This is a gain greater than that which can be tabulated in statistics.

        This is the highest achievement of this generation of the Negro race. It means a people who are capable of storing strength and character. It means the uplift of race life.*

        * When the race history began there was not a school for the Negro; there are now more than 25,000 schools.

        Then there was not a Negro pupil; now there are enrolled 1,309,251 pupils in schools.

        Then the number of Negro people who could read "were not worth the counting;" now 2,000,000 people have learned to read since 1865.

        But elementary education is not all. There are 25 colleges, 8,396 professors and students; there are 25 schools of theology with 755 students; there are 5 schools of law, and 5 schools of medicine.

        Where a Negro teacher would have been a subject for jest and also of arrest, there are now 20,000 such teachers in common schools.

        Where their churches had the ministry of ignorant and immoral preachers these are being displaced by those who are intelligent and worthy. Purer churches are being organized. We sometimes think the progress is slow. It is no slower than Christianity is.

        The Negro who possessed nothing is acquiring property. The estimate of taxable property gained since emancipation for 7,000,000 of people is 264,000,000 of dollars.

        We are not to conclude, however, that a true and living progress of the race is to come easily or in a short period of time.

        The fact that millions are in degradation and are not getting out of it, and that more children are growing up in ignorance than are being educated, is one of gravity, and must excite concern. It will trouble future generations more than it does the present one. It must not only qualify the progress of those who would rise, but it must also make the question of white and black people living side by side in peace and in respect for civil and Christian rights more difficult of solution, and more uncertain in respect to time.

        We may expect no little trouble in such conditions. The alienation between the white and black people will be likely to widen and

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deepen. True peace and cordial relations depend upon conditions which as yet exist but in very small degree.

        The moral evolution of mankind is a very slow process. The development of purity of mind and heart is a long way from perfection yet, in peoples most powerfully affected by Christianity. The development of conscience so that it shall rule the life of man has not been such as to make the best communities unduly elated. The development of civil society which depends upon the development of man, upon the expansion of his mind and the regulation of his moral nature, is slow even when the hindrances are fewer than the helps.

        Consider now a people among whom chastity was an almost unknown virtue, among whom superstition overlaid conscience, among whom conscience was in the alphabet of development, among whom the first principles of civil society and duties were never thought of, and he would be unreasonable who should even in favorable environments expect any permanent progress which shall come in other than in long and patient years. Then remember that for the most part the environments are not favorable. There is the prejudice of race to be overcome--prejudice which lives cruelly and dies slowly.

        The Negro people have not to make their first acquaintance with oppression and injustice, and no one can tell when they and their wrongs will part company. It will be a long time before the Negro race will have even-handed justice. The race will be tolerated, perhaps, and some Christian souls will cherish friendliness and give helpfulness. But to most the Negro will be a social and political burden. He will be discriminated against. If recent events in the South teach anything the negro may not expect his civil rights and perhaps not the protection of equal laws for many a year. We may hope for gradual amelioration with gradual education. We may hope that brute force and violence and personal cruelties will not long continue, but we have no reason to expect that the time of discipline is nearly over. This people are to remain a separate race, who cannot be absorbed with the people by the side of whom they are to live, and yet to live without a separate national existence--always in the minority--always the weaker among the stronger. Here, on the same soil the struggle of life must go on, are two races--the juxta-position of two nationalities--that differ in physical externals, in distinctive characteristics and in sympathies; the weaker condemned to the discouragements which grow out of their weakness, and with no alternative but the generosity of the stronger when any conflict

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of interest may arise. Until Christ shall possess the hearts of men as he does not yet, it requires no prophet to tell us that the history in many respects must be sad, and it may be fearful. There are difficult facts to meet when we consider the development of this race.

        What shall we say as to the providence of God in this history?

        Let us get our bearings. For the sake of comparison suppose we recall the history of the development of some other peoples during this period of two hundred and fifty years, peoples who were civilized when the first shipload of slaves landed in Virginia.

        Our Anglo-Saxon people. It has not been always a sunny day and an excursion of pleasure in the forward movements of our own race. During this same period of time more people in England have lost their lives in their struggles to come where they now are, than have perished in this land through slavery. Not to mention ruder days, two hundred and fifty years past have witnessed stormy times in old England. The dethronement and beheading of a king, bloody wars under Cromwell, persecutions for opinions' sake; imprisonments and executions in the restored monarchy; insurrections in Scotland, conspiracies in Ireland, massacres in all three islands, and that on a large scale. How people suffered for their opinions! How property was taken from them! How families were exiled and scattered! It is a crimson history.

        If we take France, e.g., in the same period, there are the Hugenot persecutions, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes and its attendant horrors, St. Bartholomew's day and its murders, and for centuries men hunted down like beasts and driven from their country to keep their lives; the French Revolution; the Reign of Terror; the Goddess of Reason and the Scourge of Unreason. Germany with its continuous wars poured blood of men on the soil like water.

        All this and more in many lands became history while the Negro was in the tobacco plantations and in the cotton fields. There is in the lesson of history certainly no ground for discouragement for the Negro people in the fact that struggle means struggle, and that struggling up means time, a long time. Said the apostle, "For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together, until now." This is what other peoples have been doing all the ages "until now." The stages of advancement and attainment in the history of peoples are, if you please to call them so, the evolutions in these processes God's providence. The kingdom of truth, of order, of reason, of justice and, finally and supremely, of love,

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that is, the kingdom of God comes in these processes; in and through the conflicts of human thought and the struggles of human will not only, but most often by means of them. The philosophy of the history which records the movement of men's minds through darkness into light, through obstacles and painful transformations, over oppositions and adversaries, the errors and the evils, the discordances and distractions are all in evidence that these very conditions in the providence of God, furnished not only the occasions, but the reasons and methods for growth out of weakness into strength, for the expansion of intelligence, for better laws, for better and larger life. History is full of movements which themselves were big with injustice, and from which were painfully envolved the very arguments to overcome them, and to deliver the people from their evils. The progress of mankind has thus been through storms and against head winds. The course has seldom been a straight one as men planned, but a crooked one as men made it, like a ship beating its way against hard and furious weather. When the evils in one form had come to be at last too grevious to be borne, then under the impulsion of necessity there is a new course of thought and action, and the ship tacks about. She does not point to the goal always but there is a gain in the stretch. The movement is zig-zag, and often apparently away from what is desired, but the resultant of these movements is progress toward the final good. From every century and every race comes this same story. It is this, the law of struggle is the law of life, a severe law, but in the providence of God, and in the long run the law through which comes all human achievement and progress. The peoples who are welded are welded in the fire.

        Now the Negro people will prove to be no exception to this law, unless they are always to be a subject class. If in their hard conditions God has some better things for them they cannot get this in an easy way nor in a short time. They are taking now their first step in their historic life as a people. No people ever got as far as their advanced guard has, more easily or more rapidly.

        If now under the dispensations of God's providences these who have moved up from the lowland to highland look back into the bogs to see millions of people there with little movement to better life and get discouraged, or if they see the difficulties and dangers, the inevitable hostility to which they are subjected, and get apprehensive, we can say to these, other people have been through floods and under the waters. Governments and institutions and races are but human nature

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on a great scale, and what the word of the Lord says to persons is true for aggregations of persons, "Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened to you." It must needs be that peoples which have not been through the fiery ordeal, which is God's school of development for the accumulated strength of trial, must remain in weakness. The accumulated strength of a patient overcoming on the part of a soul or on the part of a people, is a permanent possession, and in the end is worth all the cost. Ideas that have been wrought in by pain and wrought out by patience are those which are permanent. The working and the waiting, the injustice and reactions to the confirmations of justice, the wandering in the wilderness on the way to the promised land, and the dying without the sight of it; the violence of opposers as well as the hand of Christian sympathy, the hostility of caste as well as brotherly kindness, these are all in the process. This discipline, development, evolution, all in the end make for the regeneration of the generations. If the process is hard, it is yet a process in the providence of God, and it prevents weakness. No people who have a history have been exempt. All have found in this way their inheritances. If this stumbles you, does it stumble you any more than the fact of sin in the world?

        Again, if the missionary, or the philanthropist, or patriot, is likely to be discouraged or disheartened because that which will surely take many generations is not secured in one generation, he may call to mind the fact that the providence of God is a continuous providence, and as the great historian of France says, "its logic is not the less conclusive for reasoning slowly." As Christians we may not forget that the first fact of history is sovereignty of God. Men may oppose this, and suffer and cause others to suffer, but they cannot hinder it. The Omnipotent will is ceaselessly working. It has neither change of purpose nor repose. Every detail of history, every attempt to hinder and destroy that which God has purposed, works on and all work together in combination and dependency until God's clock of time shall strike the hour of his providence.

        Very truly did Ex-Governor Bullock, of Georgia, recently testify as to the present avowed purpose in our Congress to practically annul the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to our Constitution, which confirm to white and black alike the rights of freedmen and the privileges of citizenship, in saying, "this is not only unpatriotic, but for our section is bad politics." Yes it is, and it is one more of

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those false movements intended to reverse the providence of God and to secure the will of man, but which always turn out for the furtherance of the divine purposes. The brethren of Joseph took counsel together to hinder the purposes of God. The stronger sold the weaker a slave in another land. But as time moved on, these sinners and brothers must needs go "way down into Egypt land." Then conscience extorted the confession from them, "We have verily been guilty concerning our brother." The one whom they proposed to degrade in servitude God had highly exalted. "Ye thought evil against me, but God meant it unto good." Man is free, but God rules.

        What God in his purposes may have in store for the people whom his providence brought from the jungles of Africa, and whom his providence prepared for the emancipation which he himself ordained and brought to pass, we cannot know until his providence shall have ripened. But this we have learned, that God has overturned the purposes of man. When men proposed to make the chains stronger, God snapped them. Enough already has been concluded to give us a pledge of God's purpose that he intends this people to be at least really and truly free, and to have their opportunity for manhood and womanhood. That which has been settled in heaven will not be unsettled on earth. Prividence takes no step backward. The chariot wheels of God turn only one way. On man's part possession may wait, must wait upon preparedness. The fullest manhood, the truest brotherhood, the best life, is not a gift which one may take and say, "I have it." It is a salvation which one must needs work out with fear and with trembling, as God works it in. As to time, this salvation of a people will move on with the movement of Christianity and Christian faith in our land.

        Finally, we who are working together with God are engaged in that which is assured. There is no uncertainty as to the result. The prayers of good men and good women, the schools and the teachers, the churches and the preachers, the forces that make for righteousness, the promises of God for the accomplishment of his purposes among men, "the stars in their courses," will bring forth judgment unto truth. There may be oppositions, hindrances, and what are to us discouraging delays, but he who came "to bring forth judgment unto truth will not fail, nor be discouraged." And when God shall explain his providences and justify his ways to man, it shall be seen that human history is something more than the fact

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that men can choose, and that one event thus follows another coming and going, but that while they choose there is One who both governs and judges. To the degree that we believe this we shall be faithful and we need not fear.

        Whatever happens on the way to this day of God, it is for us to labor on, confident in his redeeming grace, in the certainty of his holy government, in the pledge of his omniscience, in the help of his omnipotence, and in the amen of his accomplishments.

The Possibilities of the Negro.


        Extracts from His Washington City Address in the A. M. E. Church.

        AFTER dwelling at length upon the marvelous progress of the colored race in the United States, he then pointed out the negro's faults:

        If there is any one thing that will clog the wheels of your material progress it is the fact that some of you try to overreach yourselves. Do not become dazzled at the splendor and magnificence of those who had hundreds of years to make this country what it is today. No man is a success who has not a fixed object as a sign-post--an aim in life to attain unto. A man should get that kind and that amount of education that will best fit him for the performance and the attainment of his object in life. Too much Greek will do you no good; what does a man want with Greek around a table with a white apron on? I do not say that you should not study Greek if you intend to fill a chair in some institution of learning; I do not say that you should not read medicine if you desire to become a physician, or law if you wish to follow that profession. But I tell you our white people are fast growing indolent and lazy. If you watch your chances and take timely advantage of the opportunities offered you, your race will be the wage workers, the skilled artisans, and eventually the land owners and the wealthy class of this country. I advise you to learn trades; learn to become mechanics. You have the ability and capacity to reach the highest point, and even go further in the march of progress than has yet been made by any people.

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        I predict that the time will come and it is not far off when we will have a negro poet from the South. He will set the magnificent splendor of the "Sunny South" to music. His muse will touch the lyre and you will hear the sweet murmur of the stream, the rippling waters, and we shall see the beauty of that country as it was never seen before. It will come; and after him other still greater men. But it takes labor to become a great man just as it takes centuries to make a great nation. Great men are not fashioned in heaven and thrown from the hand of the Almighty to become potentates here on earth, nor are they born rich. I admit that there is, in some parts of this country, a prejudice against you on account of your color and former condition. In my opinion the best way to overcome this is to show your capability of doing everything that a white man does, and do it just as well or better than he does. If a white man scorns you, show him that you are too high-bred, too noble-hearted to take notice of it; and the first opportunity you have do him a favor, and I warrant you he will feel ashamed of himself and never again will he make an exhibition of his prejudice. The future is yours and you have it in which to rise to the heights or descend to the depths.

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        BISHOP HENRY M. TURNER, of the A. M. E. Church, who has stood for many years as one of the foremost representatives of the negro race in this country, has attracted attention of late by his advocacy of the return of the black man to his native land. His published views on this subject have been extensively discussed, and because of the bishop's prominence and his reputation as a student of the Afro-American problem, have had great weight attached to them.

        The bishop is himself an interesting personality. He was born in Newberry, S. C., in 1834. His parents were free, but while a boy he was "bound out" to a slave owner and worked side by side with slaves in the fields until his fifteenth year. Then, tiring of the hard labor and ill treatment, and with restless longings for something higher than the farm hand's fate, he ran away from his master and entered the service of a firm of attorneys in Abberville, S. C., where John C. Calhoun once practiced law. His employers, attracted by his aptitude, especially in spelling, taught him the elementary English branches, and in the intervals of his duties as office boy he read law, often pouring over his books late at night, when his "bosses" had gone home.

        At twenty years of age young Turner became a liscensed minister of the M. E. Church, South. After a few years of itinerant service, during which his fame as an eloquent preacher spread through the surrounding country, he determined to go to Africa as a missionary. About the same time he transferred his allegiance to the A. M. E. Church, and entered Trinity College, in Baltimore, where he studied for four years, completing the courses in divinity, Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

        The war was in full blast when he ended his college term and he was assigned to the pastorate of Israel Church, in Washington. His

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BISHOP HENRY M. TURNER, Of the A. M. E. Church.

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reputation and his congregation grew rapidly, and when the enlistment of negro troops was decided upon, on the recommendation of Chief Justice Chase and Secretary Stanton, President Lincoln made him chaplain of the first regiment of colored troops that was mustered into the service of the Government. He was the first negro chaplain ever appointed and possibly the first colored officer to receive a commission. At the close of the war, so excellent had been his record, he was recommissioned a chaplain in the standing army by President Johnson. Later, he was detailed for Freedman's Bureau service and sent to Augusta, Ga. ; but finding so much religious and educational work to be done among his people, he resigned that place and re-entered the regular ministry of the A. M. E. Church, delivering lectures on educational and industrial subjects, and advising the negroes how to adapt themselves to their new condition of freedom.

        During the reconstruction period he became known as one of the most powerful stump speakers in Georgia. He was elected from Bibb County as a member of the Constitutional Convention, and was afterward chosen to two successive Legislatures. When Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill he resolved to abandon active participation in politics and has never since been an aspirant for an elective position. He was made postmaster at Macon, Ga., being the first Negro postmaster in the State; but resigned on account of the bitter opposition of the white people, and was appointed custom house officer at Savannah.

        In 1876 he was chosen by the General Conference of the A. M. E. Church, publisher-in-chief, with headquarters at Philadelphia. Four years later the General Conference held at St. Louis elected him bishop. During all his other duties he had preached regularly, and had become known as perhaps the greatest revivalist of his race. He often preached three times on Sunday and every night in the week for three or four months at a time, and he has a record of thirty thousand additions to the church to his credit.

        Bishop Turner is one of the best informed men on the Negro question in this country. He has three times visited Africa., once on a flying trip and twice in his official capacity. In 1891 he went to the Dark Continent to look after the missions of his church there, and organized conferences in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The past spring he visited Africa and spent several months on the west coast. The bishop is the general consular representative of the Republic of

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Liberia to the United States, regularly accredited by President Cheesman and Secretary of State Gibson.

        The bishop believes that his race will ultimately return to Africa and that it is the duty of the government to help them do so. He regards slavery not as a divine but as a providential institution of temporary duration, brought into existence for the purpose of bringing the negro in contact with the Caucasian--the great race of the world. He thinks the black man will rise faster in a republic to himself, and that that alone will bring peace and quiet to this country. He declares that for two races of people to be living in the same country, under the same institutions and subject to the same laws with no social contact, is an anomaly and can be productive only of evil results.

        Bishop Turner's home is in Atlanta, Ga., where he is held in high esteem by the best people of both races. He was married a few weeks ago for the second time.--Once A Week.



        EDWARD WILMOT BLYDEN was born in the Danish Island of St. Thomas, West Indies, and is of the purest Negro parentage. Inspired in early youth with a love for the fatherland, and a desire to labor for its amelioration, he went to the United States in his seventeenth year, with a view of pursuing certain studies to fit himself to work in Africa. Influential friends endeavored to secure for him admission to some institution of learning there, but so strong was the prejudice against his race at that time that the effort proved unavailing. He was advised to proceed at once to Liberia, where the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States was about to establish a high school under the care of Rev. David A. Wilson, M. A., a graduate of Princeton College, now Dr. Wilson, of Missouri. After a few months' residence in Liberia, young Blyden entered the new institution among its first pupils. By diligence and perseverance he soon rose to the headship of the school, and, after filling that office for three years to the satisfaction of all concerned, was, in 1862, elected to a professorship in the newly-founded college of Liberia. In 1864 he was appointed Secretary of

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State by the President of Liberia, and managed for two years to combine the duties of that office with his educational work. In 1869 he made a journey to the East, visiting Egypt and Syria, chiefly with the view of studying the Arabic language in order to its introduction into the curriculum of the college.

        In 1871 he resigned his professorship and after a brief visit to Europe spent two years in Sierra Leone, during which time he was



sent by the Governor of this Colony, which was then under the administrations successively of Sir Arthur Kennedy and Sir John Pope Hennessy, on two diplomatic missions to the powerful chiefs of the interior. His report on one of those expeditions was published at length in the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society.

        In 1877 he was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Liberia at the Court of St. James's, and was received by Her

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Majesty at Osborne, July 30, 1878, being introduced by the Marquis of Salisbury, then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He was soon after elected an honorary member of the Athenæum Club. In 1880 he was elected a Fellow of the American Philological Association. In 1882 he was made a corresponding and honorary member of the Society of Science and Letters of Bengal. In 1884 he was elected Vice President of the American Colonization Society. The honorary degrees of Master of Arts, Doctor of Divinity and Doctor of Laws have been conferred upon him by different American colleges. In 1885 he was nominated by the Republican party of Liberia a candidate for the Presidency of the Republic.

        Dr. Blyden has in the course of his labors been brought into contact--epistolary or personal--with some of the most remarkable literary men of his day. Among them may be mentioned Lord Brougham, Mr. Gladstone, Dean Stanley, Charles Dickens, Charles Sumner.

        He seems from his earliest years to have had a central idea, a dominant conviction about the Negro and his country, which has, all along, guided and sustained him in his efforts. He believes his views to be true, and he is only gradually elaborating the exact method by which they may be brought home to others.

        The following articles, though written at different times, will appear, when read carefully, to be linked together. They are not only the sentiments of a careful observer and diligent student, but they are the exponents of a purpose, the patriotic purpose of a lover of the race.--Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race.

Hon. John M. Langston, A.B., A.M., LL.D.

        ONE of the greatest negroes in America is the subject of this sketch. He was born upon a plantation in Louisa county, Virginia, on the 14th of December, 1829. He was born in slavery, and takes the name of his mother. His father was his owner, and upon his death, John was set free and sent to Ohio where he grew up to manhood, receiving in the meantime a fine education, graduating at Oberlin College in 1849. He chose the law as a profession, and graduated in that department at Oberlin College in 1853. He was

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elected clerk of the township of Russia in 1856; in 1857 he was elected City Councilman, and two years later he became one of the Board of Education of Oberlin. In 1867, through the influence of Hon. Salmon P. Chase, Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, he was made inspector of the colored schools, and in July of this year he made a trip through the South, speaking at every prominent place. This same year he was admitted to practice in the United States Supreme Court. In 1869 he accepted a professorship in the Law Department of Howard University, Washington, D.C. He was dean of this department for several years, receiving in the meantime the degree of LL.D. He was appointed by President Grant a member of the Board of Health of the District of Columbia in 1871. In 1877 he was appointed minister to Hayti by President Hayes. Here he remained until July 1885, when he was elected President of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. This school was founded by the government in 1882, and "supported by popular appropriations of twenty thousand dollars annually." This duty he performed with credit to himself and his people until December 1887 when he resigned much to the regret of the students for all held him in the highest esteem. He was elected a member of the Fifty-first Congress to represent the people in the Fourth Congressional District of Virginia in 1888, the first and only colored representative in Congress from the "Old Dominion." Mr. Langston is among the most scholarly men of his race. He is a man of wealth and lives in luxurious style in his "Hillsdale Cottage" in Washington, D. C.

Hon. J. T. Settle, Memphis, Tenn.

        JOSIAH T. SETTLE was born among the mountains of "East Tennessee," September 30, 1850, while his parents were "in transitee" from North Carolina to Mississippi. His father was Josiah Settle, of Rockingham County, North Carolina, his mother belonged to his father, who unlike many prominent slave holders of that period, had a deep and sincere affection for his children and their mother. After several years residence in Mississippi he manumitted the mother and her eight children according to the laws of the State. He feared, however, that their freedom even then,

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HON. J. T. SETTLE, Memphis, Tenn.

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might not be secure, and in 1856 he moved the family to Ohio and located them at Hamilton. It was at this time the highest evidence of his Christian manhood and nobility of character were shown, when in the presence of his family and many prominent citizens of Hamilton he lawfully married the mother of his children, giving the children a legal right to their name and their mother a right to the sacred name of wife. Giving them all the tardy justice which the conditions of slavery had until then rendered impossible.

        He spent his summers with his family in Ohio and the remainder of the year upon his Mississippi plantation until the war came on, when being a "Union man" he came North and remained with his family until his death in 1869 in the 70th year of his age, he having been born in 1799. Josiah T. Settle, the subject of this sketch, attended the public schools in Hamilton and vicinity until 1866, when his father sent him to Oberlin where he prepared for, and entered college in 1868. He was one of three or four colored boys in a class of forty or fifty, yet he was chosen as one of the eight class orators to represent the class when he entered college, an honor much sought by all students. He completed his Freshman year and entered the Sophomore Class at Oberlin. In 1869 having lost his father, who had indeed been a father to him in the broadest sense of the word, he left Oberlin and went to Washington City and entered the Sophomore Class of Howard University, where he pursued his college studies and taught in the preparatory department. During a portion of his "college course" he was a clerk in the Educational Division of the "Freedmen's Bureau." In the latter part of his Senior year he was elected Reading Clerk of the House of Delegates, (the District of Columbia then being under a territorial form of government).

        He graduated from the College Department of Howard University in 1872 together with James M. Gregor, now professor, and A. C. O'Hear, theirs being the first class to graduate from that department. At the time of his graduation he was performing the duties of Reading Clerk of the Legislature, teaching a class in Latin and one in mathematics daily at the University and pursuing his own studies at the same time. Immediately upon his graduation from college he entered the law department of the same institution, then under the control of Hon. John M. Langston, from which he graduated in 1875.

        While a citizen of the District of Columbia, Mr. Settle took an active part in politics and held many positions of honor and profit.

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On July 9, 1873, he was appointed a clerk in the Board of Public Works of the District of Columbia at $1,200 a year by Governor A. R. Shepherd, which he held until some time in 1874 when the Board having ceased to exist, he was on August 29, 1874, appointed clerk in the "Board of Audit," a Board consisting of the first and second comptrollers of the United States Treasury, to adjust the indebtedness of the late Board of Public Works. He continued in this position until the Board had completed its work and expired by act of Congress. He was also trustee of the public schools of the District of Columbia, serving in that capacity several years.

        During the presidential campaign of 1872 he canvassed several counties of Maryland and Virginia in the interest of the Republican ticket, where his youth and brilliancy created considerable attention; he also made speeches for the ticket in Ohio, speaking at Hamilton, Dayton, Cleveland and other places. Upon his graduation from the law department he was selected as one of the orators to represent his class. He was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, but having determined to practice his chosen profession in the South, he left Washington in the spring of 1875 and located in North Mississippi and at once began the practice of law. He returned, however, the same year and married the refined and cultured niece of Mr. J. C. Bishop, of Annapolis, Miss Therese T. Vogelsang, and again made his home in Mississippi. In August of the same year he was unanimously nominated by the Republican convention for the position of District Attorney of the then Twelfth Judicial District of Mississippi in which there was, at that time 2,000 Republican majority. The result of the elections in Mississippi in 1875 was a revolution in the politics of the South, and the virtual death of Republicanism in that part of the country. Mr. Settle was of course defeated with all the rest.

        In 1876 he was one of the delegated from Mississippi to the National Republican Convention which met in Cincinnati. He was the only delegate from Mississippi who voted for the nomination of Roscoe Conkling for president, and continued to vote for him as long as his name was before the convention. This same year he was chosen one of the presidential electors for the State-at-large on the National Republican ticket, and made the canvass of his State for Hayes and Wheeler.

        In 1880 he was presidential elector on the "Garfield and Arthur" ticket. In 1882 he was strongly urged to become a candidate for

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Congress in the Second Congressional District of Mississippi, but in the convention declined the nomination and himself placed General James R. Chalmers in nomination. He was made chairman of the Republican Congressional Executive Committee, and made a thorough canvass of the district which resulted in the election of General Chalmers by a handsome majority.

        In 1883 Mr. Settle was nominated and elected to the Mississippi Legislature. He was elected upon an independent ticket, being strongly opposed to the fusion his party made with the Democracy. It was during this canvass that he made the most brilliant efforts of his life. He was met by the ablest speakers of both of the old parties; but before the people he was irresistible and was triumphantly elected by more than 1,200 majority. Though elected upon an independent ticket, for local reasons he never swerved from his Republicanism, and was one of the recognized leaders of the Republican members of the Legislature. Though his party was in a hopeless minority in that body, his ability and genius were fully recognized, and upon the adjournment of the Legislature he was presented with a gold-headed cane as a token of the esteem in which he was held by his fellow members. The correspondent of the St. Louis Globe-Democrat writing from Jackson, Miss., Jan. 4, 1884, of the personnel of the Mississippi Legislature said of him:

        "A colored orator--but the palm for natural ability as an orator--is borne by a colored man, J. T. Settle, of Panola County. He comes of the famous North Carolina family of that name, is well educated and a lawyer by profession. He is of spare figure, light of color and good looking. When he gets the floor he speaks in a manner to command the attention of the entire house."

        Upon his return from the Legislature he determined to abandon active participation in politics and devote his time and energies to the practice of law, and left Mississippi and located in Memphis, Tenn. About two months after his location in Memphis his success in practice having won for him the respect and admiration of Gen. G. P. M. Turner, the Attorney General of the Criminal Court, he appointed him Assistant Attorney General, which position he held for more than two years. During this time he conducted the greater portion of the public prosecutions. The manner in which he discharged the responsible duties of prosecuting attorney is thus put in a letter written by the Hon. Addison H. Douglas, who was at that time upon the bench of the Criminal Court:

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        "It is at all times a pleasant duty to offer commendation to those whose exemplary professional deportment has been such as to challenge attention. This is peculiarly appropriate in reference to those who have had the good fortune to be admitted to practice in the courts of the country; for in that capacity, with all its surroundings, of contact and associations, a man more readily and certainly develops his true character than almost anywhere else. I am led to these observations in part by closely scrutinizing the general deportment of members of the bar, both from the bench and as an associate practitioner. A remarkable instance occurs to me at present in this connection in the character and conduct of J. T. Settle, Esq. He settled in Memphis about the year 1885, having recently served in the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, and shortly after locating in the practice in this city he was appointed Assistant Attorney General, which position he continued to fill two or three years with marked ability and fidelity. His uniform attention to official business, his manly courtesy and amiability won for him the esteem and respect of the bench, the bar and litigants, and went very far to break down the existing prejudices against his color in the profession. His talent is fully recognized, and his integrity has in no instance been in the least questioned from any source.

        "He prosecuted without acerbity and with fairness, but neglected no legitimate resources to fix conviction upon the really guilty.

        "He is such a master of elocution and displays such fluency and indeed brilliancy, that he invariably captivated those who listened to him.

        "He is remarkably simple in his manners and utterly without ostentation, and an honor to his profession. Respectfully,


        In the spring of 1888 Mr. Settle lost by death his devoted wife, who had indeed been a helpmate to him in every sense of the word. She left him no children, their only child, a little girl, having died years before in infancy.

        This same year he was made a member of the Republican State Executive Committee of Tennessee and served continuously for six years. In 1892 he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention at Minneapolis.

        Though Mr. Settle takes some part and interest in politics, such as he believes the interests of his race demand, he is by no means

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Residence of HON. J. T. SETTLE, Memphis, Tenn.

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what may be called a politician, and seeks no political preferment. He prefers to devote his entire time and energies to his profession and by his success demonstrates the capacity of his race to successfully measure arms with the Anglo-Saxon in the professional walks of life. Mr. Settle's course at the bar demonstrates the fact that it is possible for a colored American to succeed in the practice of law, if he will thoroughly prepare himself for his professional work and then give it his whole time and energy. He enjoys the confidence and esteem of the entire bench and bar; his practice is large and lucrative, and he is rapidly accumulating a competency. He is now in easy circumstances.

        In 1890 he married Miss Fannie A. McCullough, one of the most beautiful and accomplished ladies in Memphis. She was distinguished for her superior vocal qualities, and at the time of her marriage had charge of the musical department of LeMoyne Institute. This position she resigned upon her marriage. Mr. Settle owns a beautiful house in one of the most desirable localities in Memphis where their friends always find a cordial welcome. Their marriage has been blessed by two extremely intelligent and handsome boys, Josiah T. Settle, Jr. and Frances McCullough Settle, both of whom give great promise for the future. This man's life, thus far, demonstrates what the colored American can do, and is doing in the South.

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[An address of the Hon. J. T. Settle, delivered at Greenville, Miss. Some stirring, new and novel thoughts advanced by an eloquent Memphis lawyer before the first State Bar meeting of his race held in the South.]

        GENTLEMEN of the Colored Bar Association of Mississippi, I have listened with pleasure and profit to your excellent addresses on different legal topics, and I can pay you no higher compliment than to say you are an honor to the profession. I look upon this meeting as the dawn of a new era in the history of our race. It is no new thing for us to meet and participate in the public assemblages of men; in fact one of the misfortunes of our people has been a too great love for meetings and conventions of every kind, out of which little if any permanent good has ever accrued to us. The emotional side of our nature has ever been so easily reached that we have been too often used as instruments in the hands of others in promoting their own selfish ends.

        This organization, of which this is the first annual meeting, marks the advent of the colored citizen into a new field of labor. It evidences the existence of a sufficient number of colored lawyers in Mississippi engaged in active practice of the law to form a State organization to promote their interests individually and collectively and in doing this they cannot fail to promote the interests of the entire race and to contribute to the general welfare of our common country, for we are as much a part of our composite nationality as any element it contains. It is no new thing for the residents of this beautiful delta to see gatherings of colored men. Politics and religion have given us conventions and conferences at short intervals until some have come to believe that we take to them as naturally as birds to the air and fishes to the sea. But whoever thought that here in this beautiful city--queen of the valley--beside this great inland sea, would meet the first colored bar association ever organized in the United States? And I think I may safely say that never in the history of the race has there been a meeting fraught with more significance. It shows that the various and trying ordeals through which we have passed during the last fifteen or twenty

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years in this beautiful southland, have envolved a class of men--educated, thoughtful and conservative--indeed, men who are alive to the present and prepared to meet the demands of the future.

        To be members of this "Bar Association," you must be members of the bar of Mississippi, and this means a great deal; it means that you bear the great seal of the State to a good moral character, and to your possession of sufficient learning in the law to be admitted into the professional brotherhood of her greatest sons, and no State in this beautiful galaxy of States can point with greater pride to her bar than our own beloved Mississippi. Among jurists and advocates, her Sharkey and her Prentiss have few equals, and no superiors, and a long list of those who have emulated their greatness has distinguished Mississippi in the highest courts of our country and of the national legislature. Each member of this association has subscribed to the same oath and presented the same qualifications as were required of Sharkey and Prentiss, of Walthall and George. We are all equals in the world of intellect; though some of us may be small and some great, here there are no distinctions of race or color; circumstances may control the use of our attainments, but our acquisitions of learning are only circumscribed by the limitation which Deity placed upon our minds in the hour of our creation. Most of us here have spent many years in the practice of our chosen profession, many of us began the practice under adverse circumstances; none of us probably had fathers or kinsmen in the profession who could take us into their offices and induct us into the practice; then there were few if any members of the race old enough in the profession to render us much if any material assistance.

        Many of our friends and all of our enemies discouraged us by saying that this was the one profession in which we could not hope to succeed. We have been compelled to realize that we are the representatives of that race which has labored in mental and physical servitude and suffered from political and social degradation since the planting of civilization on this continent. We realized in the beginning that the undertaking to become practical lawyers, and to acquire such a mastery of the law as to enter favorably upon its practice, was a serious one and doubly so to us.

        We have met unreasoning prejudice which denied us excellence of any kind--which declared that we were without intellectual vigor and inventive power, and destitute of strength to grasp, and persistency

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to retain and master any complex and profound proposition. In many instances we have commenced our trial before a jury whose per-formed judgment would disqualify them from sitting in any other case. We have often found, not our client, but ourselves on trial, and not ourselves alone, but the whole race with us--a race which is condemned for the failure of its individuals, while the success of every member of it is pronounced exceptional and due to incidental conditions.

        We have made good soldiers and successful teachers, we have produced some great preachers and distinguished speakers, and this meeting demonstrates the fact that we are equal to the hard, tough and long-continued struggles of the bar, in some respects the severest test that can be applied to a man; and yet the world may be slow to admit our success until, perhaps, we have produced an attorney-general or a justice of the supreme court. We have met these and many other trying difficulties. Most of us here began our professional career alone and unaided, and such success as we have won has come, as come it will, through years of diligent application and earnest endeavor. We find many obstacles in our professional paths, but they are not insurmountable; they are rather crucibles into which we have been placed where the dross is purged away and the best elements of professional manhood refined and elevated.

        I do not mean to say that every young man of color who has begun the practice of the law has succeeded; no, not by any means. Nor is this true of the young men of any race, for along life's highway, in all of the professions, are many wrecks which mark the weakness and frailty of human character; and here I think I may safely say that one of the principal causes of failure in the legal profession is the want of sufficient preparation. Some persons unwisely think that all that is necessary to constitute a successful lawyer is an oily tongue, a vivid imagination and a great capacity to lie; in fact some people profess to think lawyer and liar synonymous terms. Such persons, it is needless for me to say, know but little of the law and still less of the lawyer. They forget, or do not know, that the contests of lawyers are not "ex parte." They confront each other before learned and astute courts and in the presence of the world, where lies and frauds have the least possible chance of success and where exposure would usually prove fatal to a cause.

        No lawyer can build a splendid professional career upon an insufficient education any more than he can build a monument of stone

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upon a foundation of sand. I do not mean to say a collegiate education is absolutely necessary to a successful career, but it is a great help. Few men ever reached distinction in the law who were not thorough scholars. Many also fail who are well equipped intellectually because they depend upon the oily tongue and vivid imagination rather than real earnest work. I know that there are many prejudices against our profession. It has been said that it is full of pettifoggers, who pervert the law to purposes of trickery; with quacks, who sacrifice their clients through ignorance, and with hungry hangers-on, who are continually stirring up law-suits. It is also said that lawyers delight in tricks and chicanery, that they will argue as strenuously for the wrong as the right, for the guilty as well as the innocent, and hire out their conscience as well as their ability to any one who is willing to pay a fee. I, for one, am ready to admit, to some extent, this truth. Ours, above almost any other profession, abounds with opportunities and temptations to abuse its high functions, and it would be strange indeed if it had not some, nay many unworthy members.

        We see many unworthy members of other professions, and therefore take no particular shame to ourselves that some are found in ours. We also take refuge behind the maxim that the supply simply meets the demand. Were there no dishonest clients there would be no dishonest lawyers. Our profession, therefore, does but adapt itself to the community in which it is exercised. Blackstone says "that the law employs in its theory the noblest faculties of the soul," and further he declares "that it exercises in its practice the cardinal virtues of the heart." Let no man make the fatal mistake of entering our profession as a sinecure, for lawyers dearly earn all they obtain, whether of honor or emoluments. Genius may sometimes distinguish a man in some other walk of life, but not here. Here he must toil unceasingly; here there can be no drones; here no fertile imagination can supply the place of patient investigation. A well-balanced mind might easily suggest what the law ought to be, but actual investigation alone must determine what the law is.

        An eminent jurist addressing a class of law students once said: "Let those who would prepare themselves for untying the knots and solving the problems of jurisprudence first of all make up their minds to hard work. Let them weigh well the fact that to scorn delights and live laborious days is the indispensable condition of professional eminence; on somewhat easier terms they may prepare themselves

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to prowl in courts of law for human prey, but nothing short of resolute, emulous study can raise him to that height which alone should satisfy a generous ambition."

        When we examine for a moment the popular impressions against lawyers they resolve themselves into popular delusions. The law rightly practiced is one of the noblest professions that can command our time and employ our faculties. Its effects upon the mind and soul of the practitioner are at once to enlarge and exalt, whatever the world may say or think. Its practice calls into constant exercise his best qualities of intellect, and familiarizes him with the use only of the most honorable means, while as a result of his contests in the presence of the world, those contests are necessarily of the most honorable, and often of the most chivalrous character. As one consequence there is almost a total absence of feuds, animosities and jealousies among the members of the profession, and few tales or slanders concerning its practitioners find inventors or bearers in the atmosphere of the law.

        The rule of absolute integrity is the rule of the first-class lawyer, and he may (as he frequently is) be entrusted with the dearest possessions, and the most sacred of human confidences, with the certainty that good faith will govern his entire conduct in the discharge of all his duties. The practice of the law enlarges and strengthens all the faculties of the mind, and naturally leads to various attainments. The constant dealing with the business and affairs of men makes him an adept and expert in all the varied branches of industry and enterprises. His habit and business of advising in difficult and complex transactions makes him a cautious, safe, and skillful counselor. His constant intercourse with men renders him a master of human nature, the working and weaknesses of the human heart, the play of human passions, and the springs and motives of human conduct. He sees rather the worst of men, and would grow cynical and misanthropic, if he was not constantly surrounded with the illustrations and manifestations of man's better qualities in the persons of his professional friends. His habit of investigating everything and of taking things only on proof, makes him incredulous, and hence he is seldom imposed upon and is never visionary. His love and veneration for the law render him somewhat conservative, while his skill and ability as a public speaker--a real power in a free community--always attract to him the popular admiration, and open to him the highest position his ambition may covet.

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        The successful lawyer unites in his person more of the elements of a popular leader than are usually found in another, and necessarily the members of the bar, although numerically smaller than any other trade, calling or profession, can, and usually do, directly exercise a larger influence among a given people than any other, and by concert could do much to control its affairs and shape its destinies, and it is certainly no discredit to them that the aggregate of his power and influence has always been exercised to promote and build up those institutions that advance civilization, extend the field of human effort, encourage education, promote science and the arts, purify the morals, extend the franchises of the citizen, protect virtue and secure religious toleration.

        The bar has necessarily exercised the whole judicial power of this country. It has furnished the controlling influence in its varied legislation, and contributed out of all proportion to the executive officers. In the main this influence has been enlightened, liberal and patriotic; and in no instance has it attempted to advance its own interests as distinguished from the masses of our people.

        This, gentlemen, is a subdued and colorless sketch of our profession from the modest standpoint of one of its humble members. The law, as a profession, comes to us with the commendations of a remote antiquity. Sages have heaped upon it lofty panegyrics. It has been said not only to embody "the gathered wisdom of a thousand years," but also in sober truth "the perfection of human wisdom;" and he who would win her favors must consecrate himself to her and to her alone, for she is indeed a jealous mistress, and never flirts or coquettes. She will have nothing to do with the danglers, and reserves her favors for those who woo in good faith and with the most honorable intentions. And here I trust you will pardon me if, from practical observation, I refer briefly to some of the elements of character absolutely necessary to every lawyer who would succeed. In this, above all other professions, is honesty the most essential element to a successful career. He who begins his practice with the idea that anything is permissible by which he can secure a fee, may as well stop among the sharks and pettifoggers, for he will never rise above them. No profession demands of its members a higher standard of honesty and integrity, and no man ever became a great or moderately successful lawyer who was not an honest and upright man. Yet honesty is one of the first elements of character which ambition is likely to overthrow; to sophisticate the truth for any

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purpose in the practice, breeds rottenness at the foundation of all personal power. Sooner or later the career based on dishonesty will crumble and fall. Nature is against dishonesty. God is against it. All the conservative and restorative forces of society are against it; it vitiates all the currents of power that flow out of it. The history of this country is full of instruction on this point. Memory does not have to reach far back to recall a list of eminent men who built themselves up by honest endeavor into positions of great personal power and lost such positions by intrigues and compromises into which they were tempted by the desire of place and power.

        A great man turned demagogue presents the pitiable spectacle of a Samson shorne of his locks. Will is another element which cannot be overestimated. No man can be called a strong man who is not strong of will. Will may indeed be called the backbone of power, into which all the other elements of character articulate, and to no character is this element more essential than to the lawyer. The will power of Martin Luther was the most potent factor in the reformation of the sixteenth century. It was the indomitable will of Stanley that revealed the secrets of the "dark continent," and gave to mankind a new world to Christianize. When Disraeli, afterward Lord Beaconsfield, attempted to make his first speech he was openly laughed down; he turned, and shaking his fist in the face of his revilers, hissed in their teeth that the time would come when they should hear him, and the influence of this wonderful man upon the history of Europe does but show how powerful was his will.

        Will has the same office in every walk of life. It may indeed be called a spark struck from Divine might. So long as it flows through honest channels there is nothing more truly divine. Willfulness is not will, it is simply a form of obstinacy. Will is positive and projects a current of vital force, which we break up into words or shape into actions. No weak, easy-going, yielding, good-natured man ever succeeded at the bar, and never will. Courage, moral and physical, are both necessary elements of character. It is the especial privilege of a lawyer never to give up a case. Lord Erskine, confessedly the first of English advocates, had not the courage to defend Hastings, and absolutely failed in the House of Commons through fear of Pitt. It is said that Cicero lost the case of Milo for the want of nerve; he had not the courage to deliver his argument in the spirit in which it was prepared, and Milo in exile said that if it had been pronounced with courage he had not been banished.

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        There is probably no element of character that inspires so much admiration and creates so quick and enthusistic a following as this. A man who is afraid of nothing in the discharge of his duty, afraid of no consequence personal to himself, has his battle half won before he strikes a blow. So great is the popular admiration of courage that it has always been surrounded by a halo of romance.

        In the common thought the test of courage is the test of manhood. In multitudes of minds there is no unpardonable sin but that of cowardice. The truth is that he who plants courage of any kind raises friends. Earnestness and enthusiasm are also so essential that I cannot refrain from mentioning them in this connection. I name them together because they are so nearly akin; indeed, enthusiasm is only earnestness carried to white heat; they are the only qualities that can take the place of personal magnetism in compelling sympathy. Earnestness comes from strong conviction and strong feeling; enthusiasm rising out of it is the fusion and sublimation of all the elements of power within a man, and is strong in proportion as it is rational; the moment it becomes mere passion it becomes weakness.

        The world refuses to be moved by men who are not in earnest. Human nature is very much like iron--if you would bend it or shape it you must heat it. Earnestness is the furnace; enthusiasm the fire whose flames need only to envelop other minds to make plastic or ductile. Truth is often unpalatable and offensive, but borne in the menstrum of a strong enthusiasm, we accept the draught which would otherwise have been refused. These are some of the elements of character most essential to success in any sphere of life, but especially so to those of us who are engaged in the practice of the law. Coming, as you do, from every part of the state, you are indeed a representative body of men. You represent the intellectual and moral worth of the race, which has survived the political revolutions which have swept over the state during the past few years.

        We have learned in the hard school of adversity that we are not the wards of any political body; that the improvement of our condition in life is not the solicitude of any particular section of our country, and that the days of our political bosses are over forever; that we are the architects of our own fortunes and the arbiters of our own destinies. That with the various walks of life thrown open to us we are to enter and win victories or defeats upon equal conditions with every other race or condition of people.

        We are citizens of this country by nativity, not by choice or adoption,

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and here, under God's providence, we mean to stay, and strike glad hands with all lovers of justice, work out our own destinies and vie with every other nationality in developing the material resources and contributing to the greatness of our beloved southland. Agitators may discuss the so-called race problem, but in the busy, active duties of life we have no time for theories. We should prepare ourselves by every energy of mind and soul to solve the problem put to us by those by whom we are surrounded, and with whom we live, viz.: "The survival of the fittest." Citizens by nativity, we have no other land to love. To this we have given our labor for more than 100 years; in defense of her flag we have given our lives; to sustain her integrity we have contributed whatever was demanded of us. At all times have we been faithful and reliable.

        We have never been numbered among our country's enemies. We have never been found in the ranks of the Socialists and Anarchists in their attacks upon social order and our free institutions. Yet we have lived under a condition of things at times unequaled in the history of civilized government. We see the political party to which we have given a blind devotion for a quarter of a century growing tired of our allegiance. We see our rights in Mississippi, together with those of some of our unfortunate white fellow-citizens, diminished and taken away. I must confess these are not incentives to awaken sentiments of "armor patriae" in our hearts. Though sometimes discouraged we are not despondent, and behind the clouds that overhang our horizon we think we can see the silver lining, and challenge any race or condition of American citizenship to a greater love of country.

        Erin's sons were never truer to the Emerald Isle, nor the Highlander to Scotland's cliffs and crags than we to the land of our birth. What member of any race ever gave expression to loftier sentiments of patriotism in the American Congress than the distinguished lawyer and scholar, Hon. John M. Langston, of Virginia, when from his seat in that august body he said: "Ah, my white fellow citizens on the other side of the house, and on every side, black as we are, no man shall go ahead of us in devotion to this country, in devotion to its free institutions, for we hold our lives, our property and our sacred honor in pledge to the welfare of our country and of all our fellow citizens. Do you want us to fight for your flag? Call on us and we will come. Do you want men to tarry at home and take care of your wives and children, to take care of your homes and protect

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your interests? Call on us and we will sacredly keep and perform every trust and obligation." Every member of the race echoes these sentiments, and in the years to come, when man's passions and prejudices have subsided, impartial history will give to no race a prouder place in their country's history than we shall possess, and no race or condition of people will be prompted by a purer or loftier patriotism than we, in our efforts to make our beloved South the home of a happy, prosperous and contented people.

Dr. Robert Fulton Boyd.

        THE subject of this sketch was born on a farm in Giles County, Tennessee, where his early boyhood days were spent. His mother was taken from him before the time for weaning and he never lived with her very much from that till he was nearly grown, and yet he has always been a most devoted son. When the great civil war broke out his mother was carried South and there remained till 1866, when she returned to Giles County and carried her two children, the oldest of which was Dr. Boyd, to Nashville. At the age of eight years he went to live with Dr. Paul F. Eve, one of the greatest surgeons of his day. It was there that our hero first conceived the idea of making a physician of himself. While living with Dr. Eve he attended night school at the old Fisk School, now Fisk University, where he learned to spell and read in McGuffey's First Reader. In 1868 he was put to work on a farm in Giles County. Here he worked till 1871 when he returned to Nashville and began to work at the brick trade. He had not yet learned to write and knew but the elements of reading. His soul was kindled with the hope of an education. His ambition was aroused so in 1872 he hired himself to General James H. Hickman, a real estate agent, to work half the day for something to eat, and he attended school the other half. He kept up this contract with General Hickman for three years, at the end of which he was doing all the outside collections and doing the entire bookkeeping of the office. The General never paid him any money during this time, but when he found that the Doctor meant to quit he offered him $20, $30 and $50 per month to stay and do the same work that he had been doing for his meals. But our hero had

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        Nashville, Tenn.

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higher ambition and more lofty aspirations. He left General Hickman in the early summer of 1875 and entered upon the profession of school teaching at College Grove, Williamson County, Tennessee. His soul was in the work and he impressed the people with his earnest, energetic, conscientious spirit. At the close of a most successful term here, he returned to his studies at the Central Tennessee College. In the summer of 1876 he went to Giles County and began teaching. Here he gradually rose from the country schools to the principalship of the male school of 170 boys in Pulaski. In 1878 and 1879 he was principal of the female department of the public schools in Pulaski. In 1880 he entered Meharry Medical Department of the Central Tennessee College, where he graduated with the first honors of his class in 1882. After graduating the Doctor went to New Albany, Mississippi, where he took the principalship of a high school and practiced medicine till the fall of '82, when he returned to Nashville and was made adjunct professor of chemistry in his Alma Mater. He entered upon his work at Meharry and at the same time he entered the College Department of the Central Tennessee College from which he graduated with honors in May 1886. From 1884 to 1888 he was professor of physiology in Meharry. He graduated from the Dental Department of this college in 1887. In 1888 and 1889 he was professor of anatomy and physiology in Meharry. In the summer of 1890 he took a post course in the Post-Graduate School of Medicine at Chicago, and in the summer of 1892 he took a special course in the same school on the diseases of women and children. While in Chicago he did work in all of the big hospitals there under some of the greatest men of the profession. While connected with the Central Tennessee College as a student he taught in the various departments of the school, and was during the whole time professor of hygiene and physiology. In June 1887 he entered upon the practice of his profession in Nashville, Tennessee. He did not ask nor expect the better classes who were able to employ experienced and well known physicians to patronize him; but he went into the alleys, old cellars, dilapidated stables and unhygienic sections of the city. Under his treatment nearly every case got well and the incurables were greatly benefitted. His success was unparalelled. In all difficult cases he freely sought the consultation and advice of the physicians and surgeons of high standing.

        His work has steadily grown in quantity and quality till it is second in importance to that of no physician in the city. Really he

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does more work than any other physician in Nashville. He goes to the homes of high and low. He goes in the parlors and lowest tenement houses. Whether there is money in the visit or not he goes. He boasts that he has never denied any person his professional services. He is a blessing to the people of Nashville and they realize it. The people there know him well, love him, trust him and honor him, as is demonstrated by the fact that in 1891, they nominated and ran him on the Republican ticket for the General Assembly. In 1892, when both the Democratic and Republican Executive Committees refused to allow colored men to have a say in nominating candidates for Mayor and City Council, the colored citizens met in convention and put out a full city ticket, at the head of which for Mayor was Dr. Boyd. A great many whites were in sympathy with the colored people and voted for this ticket. Colored voters rallied around the ticket to a man, and by so doing forever wiped out the color line in Nashville politics. In May, 1891, his alma mater conferred upon him the degree of A.M. For the years 1889 and '90, he was professor of physiology and hygiene. For the years 1890 to 1893 he was professor of physiology, hygiene and clinical medicine. Since 1893 he has been professor of the diseases of women and clinical medicine. He is at the head of the college hospital and gives two hours free to the sick and indigent poor every Wednesday, Friday and Saturday during the college year. Hundreds attend his free clinic and are helped, benefitted and cured of all kinds of maladies. While the Doctor does a larger charity and benevolent practice, yet he does a good paying practice. He has made money right along and invested it wisely. He owns several pieces of good property among which is a magnificent three-story double brick on a corner opposite the Duncan House, one of the largest and most popular hotels in the city.

        His office, library and instruments will compare favorably with those of our most wealthy physicians and surgeons. His horses and vehicles are of the best. Dr. Boyd is a typical example of what a young man can be in spite of the greatest oppositions. He is a hard worker and uses all of his power to elevate the race and bless mankind. He is at present one of the Tennessee commissioners for the Southern States and International Exposition at Atlanta, Ga.

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Residence of DR. R. F. BOYD, Nashville, Tenn.

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[Read before the Tennessee State Convention of Colored Teachers, held at Nashville, Tenn., June 11-14, 1895.]

        A GREAT deal has been said and written about the great mortality of the colored people in the South, especially in the large cities. The statistics are alarming, so much so that the less thoughtful are expecting the race to become extinct. And why not, since the actual figures show that we die three and four times as fast as we are born in large cities of the South? What is the cause and how can it be diminished? There is no longer any doubt in the minds of physicians and the well-informed laity as to the cause of disease and the real possibility of reducing the mortality of a community and thereby prolong life. Under hygienic rules and regulations the health can be improved and the cause of disease entirely removed. The profession formerly understood and defined hygiene as the art of preserving the health; but under modern investigation it is made to increase as well as to preserve the health. The term applies to the place as well as to the people who live in it. We now go further than this, for we include under hygiene the examination of the conditions which affect generation, development, growth and decay of individuals, nations and races. On its scientific side it is co-extensive with biology, the science of life. It includes both sociology and physiology and whatever can cause or help to cause discomfort, pain, sickness, death, vice or crime. And whatever has a tendency to avert, destroy or diminish such causes are matters of interest to all who are interested in our subject. The old belief that disease and death are due to a special providence or the vengeance of an offended deity still lingers in the minds of many with regard to the great epidemics; but to the more intelligent cause and effect do not thus seem. Some would attribute all disease to vice For this there is an apparent reason, but a deep investigation will convince us of their mistake. Vice and disease are close, their relations are very close, yet each has its separate origin; and in each the public

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is equally interested. Every city and well-organized community are being awakened from their stolid indifference of centuries to a sense of the importance of hygiene; and well they might for all the powers moral, intellectual and physical depend upon a proper knowledge and an obedience to the laws of hygiene--the fundamental principle of all efforts to improve and preserve the health. For man is an organized being just as subject to organic laws as the inanimate bodies which surround him are subject to mechanical and chemical laws, and we as little escape the consequences of neglect or violation of those natural laws which effect organic life through the air we breathe, the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the exercise we take and the circumstances surrounding our habitation, as a stone projected from the hand or a shot from the mouth of a cannon can place itself beyond the bounds of gravitation.

        A proposition well established by an extensive observation of facts is that a human, supposing him to be soundly constituted at first, will continue in good health till he reaches old age, provided certain conditions are observed, strict hygienic rules, and no injurious accident shall befall. At what age he will die we cannot say. There has been much speculation as to the natural term of man's life. Physiologists have fixed it at a hundred years, which is nearly in accordance with the law indicated by Florens. He states that the period of the life of an animal is five times that required to develop perfectly the skeleton. At present the actual duration of life is less than half this time. But there is satisfactory evidence that it can be increased in civilized countries under hygienic rules and regulations. The ancient estimate of the duration of life is expressed in David's declaration that "the days of man are three-score years and ten, and if by reason of strength they be four-score years, yet is there strength, labor and sorrow."

        Kolb, a careful and reliable statistician of our times says that the maximum age reached by man has not changed in many centuries, but the number of persons who now survive infancy, and those who reach ripe old age under hygienic laws and regulations has decidedly increased, and this opinion is sustained and concurred in by Mr. Lewis, the secretary of the chamber of life insurance of New York City. He points out while civilization largely interferes with the laws of evolution by survivorship, it aids by encouraging the waste which occurs in its absence. He says under natural selection when variation in capacity arises, thousands of them are wasted. While we

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have no record of the duration of life in Ancient Greece and Rome, it is quite possible that it was greater than in Western Europe during the middle ages which formed a period of retrocession from a sanitary view. The early Jews and the ancient Romans were clean in their person and dwellings, they undoubtedly had a much smaller degree of mortality than the people at the time when dirt became the odor of sanctity. It is impossible for me to speak truth certainly of the vote of mortality of the ancients because statistics are not at our command. But I can and do speak of the good results of modern hygienic rules and sanitary regulations. When properly observed, they increase the longevity of life, decrease the mortality and bring greater health, comfort and happiness to the individual and the community at large. Then if we would preserve for ourselves and the community in which we live what is justly esteemed the greatest earthly blessing, good health, and live out the naturally appointed time, we must observe ten essential rules:

        If individuals and communities will conform strictly to these rules all avoidable diseases would be completely annihilated and epidemics would be unknown. The physicians would then be employed to prevent rather than to cure. On the other hand wherever hygienic and sanitary science is not enforced, filth, decaying and putrifying matters are sure to accumulate. These are the suitable material for the propagation, generation and development of the disease germs, bacteria micrococci, micro-organism spores, microzomes, etc., which are the cause of all communicable, contagious and epidemic diseases. These germs all have the power of self-propagation in unhygienic surroundings in warm climates such as we have in Southern cities.

        A population under the influence of filth, poorly housed in crowded dwellings or low, damp localities, where no rules regulate the habits of eating, drinking, sleeping and exercise, the mortality is sure to be

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great. Under these conditions infectious diseases spread, become epidemic and stalk through the land carrying death and destruction. I need not tell you that the greater part of the sickness and mortality of the human race are due to these causes, due to the epidemics, and yet these diseases are all avoidable. They can be stamped out by personal efforts. We have a thorough knowledge of how to prevent most of the diseases that enter the body through the respiratory, digestive, cutaneous, circulatory, nervous and genito-urinary system, and yet they are frequent and their effect is great. Now if what I have stated is true, and it is, not only do health and longevity depend upon laws which we can understand and successfully operate, but man has in his power to modify to a great extent the circumstances in which he lives, with a view to the promotion of his well-being and preservation. Everybody knows that the draining of a marsh pond banishes malaria, a change from city to the country reinvigorates, and those who live in the high, well-drained portion of a city have the smallest degree of mortality; and that the greater comforts possessed by the rich and affluent secure them longer life than the poor. To diminish the mortality of our race will depend both upon our individual efforts, as well as upon the public measures of the legally constituted authorities. We must begin in the homes. The dwellings of our people must be improved. The old dilapidated stables in the narrow filthy alleys are not fit for human habitation. The low, damp, dark basements and cellars often beneath the level of the ground with insufficiency of both light and air are occupied by our people. The cluster of homes built in the bottoms and low places, the closely pent up, back to back, so built as to cut off and prevent free ventilation, with only one entrance to each and a privy in the centre, the dirty neglected portions of the cities where heaps of rubbish, animal and vegetable matter, are allowed to decay and send their poisonous odors from house to house are the habitations of colored people. And to add to the woful condition of things, these uninhabitable quarters are over crowded. I don't think I miss it far when I say that one third of the colored people in our Southern cities live in just such dwellings as I have here described, while most of the white population live in well built houses in the healthy portions of the cities. Then is there any surprise that there should be a great disproportion in the mortality of the two races? Do you wonder that the colored people die so fast? Suppose we add to the disgraceful inhumane dwellings of our people the quality of food

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they eat, you will have more light on the mortality of the race. As you know our people are the working classes in the South; they go to the markets Saturday nights and buy the spoiled meats and vegetables on which the flies and smaller insects have preyed all day. In these vegetables are the seed of indigestion disorders and death. The vegetables and meats which are left over and not sold in the market and grocery houses are put in wagons and driven to the colored settlements where they are sold cheap for cash. Do you wonder that the death rate of the colored people is so great? If the white people were similarly situated would their death rate be as it is to-day? Compare the statistics of all the large cities of the North and of Europe and you will find that under similar circumstances this same disproportion exists between the upper and lower classes where the dwellings and food have the same difference. But this same difference exists nowhere else in the world as it does here in our own Southland. In most of the Southern cities it is impossible for a colored man to rent a first-class uptown building, no matter how much money he has, and in many places not even a respectable dwelling can be rented. But the low, dark, damp, confined, ill-ventilated cellars, basements and alley houses are rented to colored people for as much as good comfortable quarters ought to bring. I assert without fear of a successful contradiction that any other race of people situated as the colored people are in the South would be exterminated in twenty years.

        In his last annual report Dr. N. G. Tucker, the efficient health officer of Nashville, states that the entire number of white people who died during the year 1893 was 786, and of colored people 839. He says in his report, "As usual the death rate among the colored people exceeds that of the white. If we were to consider alone the death rate of our white population the exhibit would be an exceedingly favorable one for our city." The good doctor gives facts; but he does not tell the city why the death rate of the colored people is so great, nor does he give a remedy for it. Of course the sanitary measures which he recommends are for the good of all; but the key that will unlock the mystery of high death rate among the colored people is to better their condition, improve their habitation, enact and enforce laws against allowing people to sleep in the basements, cellars, old stables, alley houses and pent up cluster houses in low malarial sections of our Southern cities.

        Make the penalty against landlords so heavy that they will not

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rent such places for dwellings. Regulate the kind of tenement houses to be rented and the number of persons who shall sleep in one room. Enforce the laws against selling tainted meats and decaying vegetables to the poor. Break up these late church meetings in poorly ventilated houses. Prohibit the collection of large numbers of persons in the dens where dancing and whisky drinking are indulged in till the wee hours of morning and the mystery will be solved. By the proper legislation and enforcement of laws we will have prevention. The whole system of medicine is now turning upon prevention rather than the cure of disease. The time has come when physicians must be employed to prevent as well as to cure. If this is done there will be less sickness, and epidemics will be a thing of the past. Then sanitary science under strict hygienic observance will reach perfection. The rude, careless and gross habits of living will be corrected and a system of perfect drainage and pure ventilation will be inaugurated. The pure air and a good water supply will be furnished to every public and private house. Then, only pure and unadulterated foods will be allowed in our markets and grocery houses. Every hotel, private and public boarding house will furnish properly prepared foods, and universal cleanliness will be the law, and the death rate among our people would reach its minimum.

        To reduce the mortality of the race we must begin with the new born. The death rate of colored infants in the cities and towns is alarming. More than half of the children born in the cities die before the third year, and about one half of the remainder die before the twelfth year. Of course the circumstances and condition of the parents affect the children and greatly increase their mortality, but still a greater part of it comes from the ignorance of those who handle the mothers and their infants. The ignorant grannies and meddling old women are very largely responsible for the death rate of colored children. None but trained nurses and educated mid-wives under the direction of a physician should handle mothers and their infants.

        The infant mortality will be reduced at least one half when our people learn that the care of a good, well-informed, conscientious physician is necessary from generation and development through the entire stage of adolescence, not so much to look after the sick but to prevent disease.

        Another most potent remedy for diminishing the mortality of the colored people in the large cities of the South is the establishment of hospitals in which the members of the churches and various

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societies can be treated and have the constant care of trained nurses. The churches and societies with the benevolently disposed people could easily support a hospital in every city. The hospitals would afford an opening for our young women to become trained nurses, and whether they give their services to the public or use their training in the schools, they would be a blessing to the race and the country in which we live. The good physicians everywhere would lend their aid and give their services to these hospitals. Meharry Medical College would furnish interns whose services would be given free of charge and the good people everywhere help. The mortality of the colored people must be diminished. Let us all turn our attention to this particular work of urging upon the people better homes, better food, better clothing and better habits of living. Let us urge upon law makers to pass such laws as will help us in our efforts and the call upon the legally-constituted authorities to enforce them. If we will all do our duty a change will soon come, and we will prove to the world that under proper hygienic laws the colored people will die no faster than other peoples; but, on the other hand, where all things are equal, they will live longer.


[Delivered by L. T. Burbridge, M.D., at New Iberia, La., January 1, 1895, at Emancipation exercises.]

        HAD I been called upon to select a subject upon which to address you on this occasion, I doubt my ability to select one more appropriate to my thoughts and feelings, and more suitable to this audience and this occasion than the one given me by its promoters, viz.: The Colored Man in Medicine. Although I am as yet but a young disciple of the healing art, I believe in common with most young practitioners who have had ample leisure to reflect upon the hopes and possibilities of the medical profession so far as the colored man is concerned there is for him a bright and promising future. I, therefore, thank you for the privilege of addressing you on this subject and on such an auspicious occasion, an occasion (if

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you will allow me to say) when the heart of every true and loyal colored man should turn in thankfulness to God for his great deliverance from the greatest curse that ever afflicted any Christianized people. Thank God we to-day are living under entirely different circumstances to those existing previous to the time this day is intended to commemorate. Under the blessings of freedom we enjoy a purer air, a more lofty existence than before, and the sunlight of peace, prosperity and intellectual growth is shedding softened rays upon our pathway, lighting up the darker places and beckoning us on to a future as bright and promising as any ever enjoyed by any other people. May it shine more and more unto the pefect day.

        Having been so recently released from bondage, burdened with all the ignorance and superstition which that state implies, it would appear that the colored man had had short time in which to prepare himself for the learned professions. Not so however. With his characteristic power of imitation, and his readiness to adapt himself to the study of scientific medicine with the same zeal and earnestness he had manifested in working his old master's crops, naturally quick of perception and kind and sympathetic in disposition, he made rapid strides in the most difficult of sciences, and the medical history of the last few years furnishes ample testimony to his success.

        Had I statistics at my command I could furnish some interesting figures of the growth and progress of the colored man in medicine. It is sufficient to say, however, that thirty years ago, there were few if any Negro M.D.'s to be found, while to-day there is scarcely a Southern town and a large proportion of the Northern towns and cities that cannot boast of one or more colored physicians, regular graduates of authorized Medical Colleges. While this is true we are compelled to admit that there is a field for many more. It is estimated that there is one white physician to every 300 of his people; while there is only one colored doctor to every 20,000 of his people. This furnishes an idea of our need, for we feel assured that when the colored physicians become more numerous so as not to be a rare object then he will be more respected by all classes of people. Then too we feel proud to state that the practice of the colored doctor is by no means confined solely to his own race. For even here in the historic old State of Louisiana, whose fertile vales have often echoed to the cry of the oppressed, the Negro physician enjoys in many instances a small, but growing white patronage. This in itself is a confession of a recognition of skill and ability, wrung as it were from

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the lips of the oppressor. And what has been the reception of the Negro physician from his white professional brother? Has he been laughed at, and scoffed upon as being unworthy of any consideration as a scientific man? By no means is this true. While we admit that in all cases he has not been received with open arms due, more perhaps, to petty prejudices and jealousies than any doubt of his medical skill, still on the whole he has received many marks of respect and appreciation, and many kindnesses in the loan of books and instruments from his white professional contemporaries, for which he has been duly grateful. And in many instances the white physicians have not hesitated to avail themselves in consultation over grave cases of his sound common sense and superior medical and surgical skill. The outlook, I say then, is hopeful yet the path of the Negro doctor is by no means strewn with flowers. Isolated, as many of them are, from a daily intercourse with colored men of their own profession and despairing of any assistance from the opposite race, often their only recourse is their books and journals. Under such circumstances the Negro physician sometimes finds himself confronted with a deep and seemingly impassible gulf over which it seems impossible to leap and around which he can see no way. Turning back is not to be thought of, go ahead he must. Then it is that his self-reliance and manhood, if he has any, show themselves. If he stops to reflect he will remember that others have passed the same way, and why should he not do likewise? So summoning all his skill and strength for the effort he makes the leap, lands safely on the other side and has won. I will cite an instance: A surgical operation of importance is to be performed, and the case falls into the hands of the colored doctor. He knows that there is little hope of any professional assistance from the neighboring physicians and his future reputation and success depend, perhaps, upon the issues of the case. The responsibility is a grave one but does he hesitate? Not for long, but he resolutely goes to work, determined to do or die, with no help but that afforded by untrained bystanders; and he usually achieves success. These are not the only difficulties that confront a Negro doctor, but he meets serious drawbacks in the lack of race pride, and confidence which some of his people manifest toward him. It seems that many of our good people have not as yet learned to appreciate the merits of the doctors of their own race. There are those who not only fail to give their own patronage, but take every reasonable opportunity of throwing

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obstacles in the way of their progress. This, I am glad to say, is rather the exception than the rule, still it is an exception that occurs entirely too often for the comfort of the doctors, and for the welfare of the race he represents. The advent of the colored man into medicine worked an era of better sanitary protection, and better medical attention generally for his people than they had ever enjoyed before, because of the competition it excited. It would appear then that the colored physician instead of arousing their animosity, should be an object of their confidence and respect. The colored physician does not ask patronage on the score of color, and on the other hand he does not want to be denied work on that account. He does not ask that allowances be made for his deficiencies because he is a Negro, and on the other hand he does not want to be denied the privileges that skill and ability should demand for any medical man whether he be white or black. A recognition of skill and competency is all that he asks regardless of color. In other words he wants to be treated as a man--one who has fully prepared himself to do the work as thoroughly and skillfully as any other man of whatever nationality. The Negro physician realizes the fact that this is his only hope for successfully overcoming the many discouraging features of his work, and with this fact in view he has ever bent diligently to the accomplishment of the task set before him. One has not to go far to judge of his success. Here in your own thriving town you have a specimen of a diligent, hard-working, aspiring Negro physician, Dr. Jefferson, who has been with you now about two years, deserves much credit for the success with which his efforts have met in this community. This, I judge, he has won not from the fact that he is a colored physician, but from the manifest skill and ability with which he has undertaken, and accomplished difficult work. So it is that in spite of opposition, in spite of discouragements, in spite of the numerous obstacles which arise to impede his progress, the Negro doctor is steadily moving onward.

        In November last the colored doctors of Florida, and adjacent states, met and formed a Colored Medical Association. At this meeting papers were read and discussed that would have done credit to any medical association of this country, and the daily papers in commenting upon this association spoke of its action as being highly creditable to the colored medical profession, and to the Negro race at large. Is not this encouraging, and does it not bid us to look hopefully forward to the future?

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        The advantages offered to the colored man for a medical education are good. Meharry, New Orleans and Shaw Medical Colleges, in the South are doing good work, and in the North but few if any doors are closed against the colored aspirant; while England, France and Germany all extend to him a welcoming hand. And if as yet we have not a Treve, we have a Newman, if we have not a Koch we have a Stewart, and if we have not a Sims we have a Boyd. These are among the pioneers of the Negro medical profession, and where they leave off their posterity will take up and carry on the work so well begun. I repeat that the colored medical profession is yet in its infancy. If in thirty years they have accomplished so much what may we not hope for a century? When we reflect that our white professional brother has not one, but many centuries back of him, does not that encourage us to look for brighter things for the Negro physician? May we not hope that the day will come when the Tulane and Vanderbilt Medical Colleges will open their doors to all regardless of color, where the white and black doctors of the South will travel side by side in the same railway coach, when there will be no white or black medical associations, but all be united in one band of harmonious fellow workers with but one object, and that the relief of suffering humanity? We smile at the thought, but history has repeatedly chronicled greater and more wonderful revolutions than these, and so will it again. Then with a firm reliance on self, and an unwavering trust in God, the great harmonizer and peace-maker, we press manfully onward in our struggle for truth and right, believing that in the fullness of time all things will end well.

                         "Let us then be up and doing,
                         With a heart for every fate;
                         Still achieving, still pursuing,
                         Learn to labor and to wait."

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A Valuable Remedy for Diptheria and Throat Diseases.

        A FEW years ago, when diptheria was raging in England, a gentleman accompanied the celebrated Dr. Field on his rounds to witness the so-called "wonderful cures" which he performed, while the patients of others were dropping on all sides. The remedy to be so rapid must be simple. All he took with him was powder of sulphur and a quill, and with these he cured every case without exception. He put a teaspoonful of flour of sulphur into a wineglass of water, and stirred it with his finger, instead of a spoon, as the sulphur does not readily mix with water. When the sulphur was well mixed he gave it as a gargle, and in ten minutes the patient was out of danger. Sulphur kills every species of fungus in man, beast and plant in a few minutes. Instead of spitting out the gargle he recommended the swallowing of it. In extreme cases when he had been called in just in the nick of time when the fungus was too nearly closed to allow the gargling, he blew the sulphur through the quill into the throat, and after the fungus had shrunk to allow it, then the gargling. He never lost a patient from diptheria. If a patient cannot gargle, take a live coal, put it on a shovel, and sprinkle a teaspoon full or two of sulphur at a time upon it, let the sufferer inhale it, holding the head over it, and the fungus will die. If plentifully used the whole room may be filled almost to suffocation; the patient can walk about in it, inhaling the fumes with doors and windows shut. The mode of fumigating a room with sulphur has often cured most violent attacks of cold in the head, chest, etc., at any time, and is recommended in cases of consumption and asthma.


        SARAH G. JONES, M.D., the first woman to be licensed to practice medicine in Virginia, is a daughter of George W. Boyd, the leading colored contractor and builder of Richmond. She was born in Albermarle County, Va., and educated in the public schools of Richmond, being graduated in 1883. She then taught in

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the schools of this city for five years. In 1888 Miss Boyd was married to M. B. Jones, who, at that time, was also a teacher, but now is G. W. A. Secretary of the True Reformers. Mrs. Jones entered Howard Medical College, Washington, D. C., in 1890, and was graduated this year with the degree of M.D. She appeared before the State Medical Examining Board with eighty-four others and received a certificate, which entitles her to secure a license to practice her profession. Mrs. Jones received over 90 per cent on the examination in surgery. Out of the class of eighty-five, twenty-one white graduates, representing several colleges, failed to pass. Dr. Jones and her husband are representatives of the best society of colored people in the State, and are well-to-do-people. When a school teacher she was known as one of the brightest young colored women in the city. She will practice among her race.--Noted Negro Women.

        THOMAS A. CURTIS was born at Marion, Perry County, Ala., November 30, 1862. His parents were slaves, but by earnest toil and study his father became State Senator of Alabama. His son, Thomas, inherited his father's love for knowledge, and therefore took advantage of every opportunity to develop his mind. He graduated from the State Normal School at Marion, 1881, and begun teaching in his native State. He afterwards went to Texas where he taught for five years. Abandoning the profession of teaching, he entered Meharry Dental College from which he graduated in 1889 with honors, being the best practical dentist of his class. For this excellency he received a gold medal. His success as the first colored dentist of Alabama was marvelous. During the first year of his labor as dentist he earned more than $2,000, and every succeeding year finds him making improvement both in proficiency of his profession and increase of his practice.

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Montgomery, Ala.

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        HERODOTUS, the father of history, who traveled in Egypt the fifth century B.C., devoted one of his books to the description of the manners, customs, art and science of the Egyptians. Herodotus, speaking of the ancient Colchus, whose inhabitants were originally Egyptians and were colonized when Sesostris was King of Egypt, said: "I believe that the ancient Colchi to be a colony of Egypt because like them they have black skins and frizzled hair." Volney says, in noting these remarks of Herodotus, "It showed that the ancient Egyptians were real Negroes of the same species of all the natives of Africa." Diodorus, another ancient historian, informs us that the æthiopians considered these Egyptians as one of their colonies.

        Egypt, the mother of science and art, claims dentistry as her elder daughter. She was the first nation of the world to adopt dentistry as a branch of medicine. It is not known how far the specialist of that day had advanced in this art; Herodotus, however, five hundred years B.C., noticed that medicine was divided into branches, among which was dentistry. Evidence in abundance is found to prove that the ancient Egyptians understood the art of filling teeth with gold and the manufacture and setting of artificial teeth. Museums contain mummies from Thebes with gold filled teeth, artificial teeth of sycamore wood set in gold; therefore it is evident that the Negroes are the originators of the art of dentistry. He is now beginning to re-enter the dental profession, and may do for its perfection what his ancient ancestors did for its infancy. But little progress was made in the practice of dentistry until the last century. During this period it has outstripped every other branch of medicine, and now stands before the world as a specialty equal in importance to any branch of surgery, in fact it may justly claim what medicine cannot, to have risen from an art to the dignity of a science.

        Prior to 1776 there was not a practicing dentist in this country.

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All operations were performed by the general practician or surgeon. The key, that instrument which came near debasing the profession, was the only instrument in use. Dr. Woffendale, of London, arrived in New York in 1776. Although he was the only man in the entire country devoting his time to dentistry, the public so little appreciated his services that he was obliged to return to England in 1787, being unable to support himself. In 1783 Dr. Jas. Gardetta came to this country and settled in New York. He afterwards removed to Philadelphia and continued there as a successful practician for forty-five years.

        Dr. Hyden commenced the practice of dentistry in Baltimore in 1804. He was a man of great energy and ability. It was he who first realized the importance of a higher standard for the profession. He induced a number of gentlemen to join him in petitioning the Legislature of Maryland to establish a dental college. From this time on dentistry has made rapid strides, until it now numbers among its practicians some of the most scientific and enlightened men of this country. From a mere itinerant existance it has risen to a position equal to any branch of medicine, and is decidedly the most remunerative of all.

        Dentistry now opens to view a broad, lucrative and inviting field for the aspiring and educated Negro youth. The opportunities it furnishes have not been grasped in the past as readily as I hope the possibilities will warrant in the future. Our young men have drifted into a stream which has flown steadily into the medical profession. A very few have stopped to ask the all-important question, "Am I better fitted by nature for the practice of dentistry than for the practice of medicine?"

        Prior to 1862 we hear nothing of the Negro in the dental profession, but at the close of the war he is remarked as being established as a successful practician of dentistry, born and matured, as it were, in a day. When the surprised public had time to ask the question, "Who are these men?" on investigation, they were found to be the former office boys of their masters, who picked up the fundamental principles of dentistry, and now emancipated, practiced it with confidence and ability. The State of Georgia appears to take the lead in producing these noted pioneers, among whom are the Dr. Badger Brothers, of Atlanta, and Dr. Zeque, of Augusta. All of these gentlemen won distinction and wealth in their professions, had as their patients some of the best white families of Atlanta and Augusta. I

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have examined with a degree of surprise and satisfaction some of their gold fillings, which at the time, was more than twenty-five years old. Artistic and durable, their work stands a monument to their ability and profession. Many of these old pioneers have passed away, but I am proud to have had the pleasure of saying to Dr. Badger, of Atlanta, that it was from his success that I caught the inspiration to adopt dentistry as my life's work.

        The late Dr. Wm. J. Simmons, of Kentucky, a noted Baptist divine, entered the office of Dr. DeLangie, a dentist in Bordentown, N. J., he learned rapidly and was soon able to do good work. Though often rebuffed by the white people, he operated on some of the best white families in the city. But he was unwilling to remain in the profession without the thorough knowledge of dentistry, such as only could be given in a dental college, and on being refused admission to a dental college in Phildaelphia, he therefore abandoned the profession.

        Dr. Smith, of Little Rock, Ark., also one of these early pioneers, has won wealth and fame in the dental profession. He is one of the wealthiest Negroes in Little Rock. The dentists of to-day are too numerous to mention. There are now about one hundred Negroes practicing dentistry in the United States, graduated from dental colleges. Some of the most prominent are as follows:

        Dr. Grant, of the Harvard Dental Faculty, has acquired great distinction as a practician and professor of dentistry, having lectured before the Harvard Dental School for a number of years. His practice is said to net him ten thousand dollars a year.

        Dr. C. E. Bently, of Chicago, Ills., is one of the foremost young men in the profession irrespective of color. He has several times been honored with positions in the Dental Associations of Chicago, and is now one of the assistant editors of the leading dental journal of the West.

        Dr. J. R. Porter, of Atlanta, Ga., is a practical dentist, a gentleman, affable, refined and cultured. He graduated from Meharry in 1889, and was valedictorian of his class. His success in Atlanta is assured. Day by day he is building monuments of gold and silver that will attest his worth and ability.

        Dr. Fields, of Memphis, Tenn., and Dr. Ferrill, of Houston, Texas, enjoy the confidence and respect of all who know them. They are the leading young men in the dental profession in their respective States. There are other young men as prominent and successful in

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the practice of dentistry as the ones I have already mentioned. In fact I have yet to hear of a single young man who properly prepared himself for his work who has made a failure.

        As an inducement to young men to enter the profession of dentistry in this country, we cite as a fact that the Americans have the worst teeth of any people on earth. The reason for this is we change the proportion of the various food stuffs we eat more than any people on earth. What nature has stored up in food to build up hard tissue we constantly eliminate, consequently we do not take the proper material into our system that would be carried back atom by atom to take the place of this tissue metamorphises. What is true of the white people under the same circumstances is true of the Negro. There seems to be a prevailing, but erroneous, opinion that Negroes possess better teeth than the white people. There might have been a time when this statement was correct, but since the Negro has adopted all the civilized modes of living like the Caucasian his teeth are no better than his, if as good. The advantage the Negro has over the white people as to predisposing causes he looses in exciting causes, carelessness and wanton neglect.

        In conclusion; we do not evolutionize by the advancement in civilization made by other people as much as we advance and become civilized to the extent we are able to evolutionize ourselves. This evolution is nowhere more noticeable than in the practice of dentistry by the Negroes, the establishment of schools of dentistry, the graduating of young men from these schools to take care and preserve our teeth, mark an epoch in the history of our civilization which only future generations will be fully able to comprehend and appreciate.

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Shall Our Women Extract Teeth?


        THE time has long since passed when the availability and fitness of woman for the practice of dentistry can be questioned; and whatever may have been the differences of opinion as to her qualifications, both physical and mental, for this work, when measured by the standard of male requirements, the fact remains that in dentistry, as in all other branches of the "healing art," woman has found and successfully occupied a field of usefulness in which the sum total of those distinctively feminine qualities, which go to make up an ideal womanhood, have been invaluable.

        Why should not a woman, if qualified, practice dentistry as well as medicine? Dentistry is only a specialty in medicine, and it takes nerve to practice either with success. But remember that dentistry requires coolness and steadiness of nerves. A frail, nervous woman has no business in this profession. Good health is especially requisite for dentists, because they must do most of their work standing, inhale foul and unhealthy breaths, be indoors most of their time; and when all this is added to their business cares, they must have a good constitution not to succumb to these depressing influences. I am told by a practicing woman dentist, who is a graduate of a reputable college of dentistry, that the question her patients usually ask is, "Can you pull teeth?" Her answer is, "Why, yes; pulling teeth is only an art!" I saw her attempt to extract a tooth one day and it certainly required more strength than art. Very few dentists can extract teeth properly, and for this reason dentist are now specializing, performing only such operation as the cases require.

        There are about seventy-five women dentists in this country, and of this number about twelve are practicing in Philadelphia, which seems to be their centre. There they have organized a society, and at their first meeting about half of the women dentists from all parts of the United States attended. Notwithstanding the fact that only a few colleges will graduate them, they are rapidly coming to the

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front. Our New York College has several times refused, to my personal knowledge, to admit the fair sex; and it has been only since the Philadelphia Dental College has been graduating them. I had the pleasure of graduating with a woman dentist, and during our college days we spent many a pleasant hour together over our cadavers. She was an American and full of genius. We have about four practicing in this city and they are doing comparatively well. There is Mrs. Lydia C. Clare on Eighth Avenue taking care of her husband's practice. There is one now on Madison Avenue and one on Third Avenue. The first woman dentist to open an office in this city was Mrs. Dr. Olla Neyman, the daughter of Madame Clara Neyman, the writer and lecturer. With these women already in the field demonstrating the capacity of their sex in this profession, there is no reason why some of our able, enterprising and energetic young women should not take up and successfully practice the science of dentistry. I hope these remarks will come under the eye of some watchful, capable young woman and stimulate her to make the effort. As a rule it certainly hurts a sensitive woman to inflict pain, although eventually, she becomes used to it and maintains her sympathetic nature through it all. Thus this very sympathy would attract to her the sensitive and nervous of both sexes; and men as well as women and children would rather submit a troublesome and aching tooth to the gentle ministrations of a woman, than to the harsher manipulations of a sterner and less sympathetic man. It is difficult for the average individual to associate the idea of profound learning and sciencific attainments with the fair countenance and unassuming grace of a girl graduate, even when the bright, intellectual eyes look up at him and he has the ocular demonstration that she is skillful even to the tips of the dainty fingers that can quiet a throbbing nerve, plug a fulsome cavity or use the forceps, if necessary, with a dexterity equal to some of our old D.D.S.'s.

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        AT the writing of this sketch, Miss Gray is among the leading Afro-American dentists. She resides in Cincinnati, Ohio, and is highly respected by all classes. She was educated at Gaines High School. From there she entered the University of Michigan, graduating from the dental department in 1890. After the completion of her course, she returned to her home in Cincinnati where she opened an office on Ninth Street, and commenced the practice of her profession. The success of Dr. Gray only demonstrates what can be accomplished by an Afro-American lady when they manifest the necessary pluck and energy. In the past few years Miss Gray has built up a lucrative practice, her patients being about equally divided between white and colored. Miss Gray is a very accomplished lady, and is spoken of in the highest terms of the press without regard to nationality.

Prof. Booker T. Washington.

[Principal of the Tuskegee, Alabama, Institute--How and Where the Great Educator Grew to Distinction.]

        MR. WASHINGTON, of Tuskegee, Ala., was born a slave at Hale's Ford, Va., April, 1857. He belonged to a family by the name of Burrows. Very soon after the war he went with his mother, Jane Ferguson, his stepfather and the remainder of his family to Malden, W. Va., to live. Here he worked in the salt furnaces the greater part of each year and went to school during three or four months. Mr. Washington usually secured some one to teach him at night when not permitted to attend school in the day. After working in the mines and furnaces for a considerable time, he secured employment at the house of Mrs. Viola Ruffner, a lady of New England birth and training, and who, though very exacting regarding

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Tuskegee, Ala.

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all matters of work, was very kind and showed her interest in the education of young Washington in a number of ways. In 1871, in some way, Washington heard of the Hampton Institute in Virginia. He at once made up his mind to enter that institution. With his own small earnings, amounting to $6 per month, and with what his family were kind enough to give him, he found himself in Richmond, Va., but friendless, shelterless and homeless. Casting about, however, he soon discovered a hole under a sidewalk that offered a night's sleep. As luck would have it, when he awoke next morning he found he was near a vessel that was unloading pig iron, and application was at once made to the captain for work, which was given. Mr. Washington worked here until he had enough money to pay his way to Hampton Institute, which place he reached with a surplus of fifty cents. He remained at Hampton three years, working his way through, and graduated with one of the honors of his class. After graduating and teaching in West Virginia, his old home, for a while, and spending a year in study at Wayland Seminary, Washington, D. C., Mr. Washington was invited to return to Hampton as a teacher. In this capacity he remained at Hampton two years, till 1881, when application was made to Gen. S. C. Armstrong by citizens of Tuskegee, Ala., for some one to start an institution at Tuskegee on the plan of Hampton.

        Mr. Washington was at once recommended for the position. Upon reaching Tuskegee he found neither land nor buildings, nothing but the promise of the State to pay $2,000 annually toward the expenses of the school. The school was started in an old church and shanty with thirty students and a teacher. The history of the school and its present condition are already known to the readers of this book, and to the world for that matter. It is enough to say that the institution with its 1,900 acres of land, its 28 or more large buildings, with its 1,000 or more teachers and pupils, its wealth in live stock and its valuation of over $250,000, is a prodigy of development. Principal Washington has met with unusual success in making the acquaintance and securing the confidence of prominent and wealthy people throughout the country. This is attested by the fact that he succeeds in raising from $50,000 to $60,000 each year with which to carry on the school work. Several individuals give from $3,000 to $10,000 each annually toward the support of the school. Mr. Washington's services are in constant demand to speak at associations, clubs and prominent churches. The speech that brought him first

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into prominence was before the National Education Association, Madison, Wisconsin, in 1884. Soon after he was invited to address the Boston Unitarian club, the most intelligent and wealthy club in the world, he being the first Afro-American to address the club. He has spoken at Plymouth Church (formerly Henry Ward Beecher's); Trinity Church, Boston, (formerly Phillips Brooks') and many other of the most prominent churches in the country; also before the Political Science Club, of Cornell University; the Congregational Club and the Twentieth Century Club, of Boston. The "Outlook," one of the greatest Christian journals in this country, published in '93 the cut of Prof. Washington, along with those of the presidents of twenty-eight of America's leading colleges. Mr. Washington is regarded as one of the leading men of the country and is held in high esteem in Massachusetts, as was shown by his being made the guest of honor at the governor's table recently. Mr. Washington is among the foremost men of this country and time.

Mind and Matter.

[An address delivered by Booker T. Washington, Principal Tuskegee (Ala.) Normal and Industrial Institute, before the Alabama State Teachers' Association, Selma, Ala., June 5, 1895.]


        THE question comes before me to-night with a greater force than ever, it seems to me, To what extent is our education reaching, penetrating the heart of the masses of people by whom we are surrounded; to what extent is our education affecting the heart, affecting the hand, affecting the head, the whole man, of the masses by whom we are surrounded in such counties as Bullock, Lowndes, Wilcox, Dallas and Montgomery? Now I understand that there are favored ones in all parts of the State, but an education that does not, sooner or later, lift up the masses, has its weak points. The question arises to what extent is the education that we are getting in our universities, academies, high schools, common schools, reaching the heart of the masses of these people, and to what extent are we able to appreciate an improvement in the condition of the masses by reason of the education we are getting from day to day?

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        There was an incident which happened sometime ago up in the State of Kentucky, which aptly illustrates what I am speaking of. There was a man who had spent a good many hundred dollars in educating his son known as Solomon. This man and his wife, both of whom were very ignorant so far as books are concerned, began sending Solomon to school when quite young, keeping him in school four and five months each year. During vacations Solomon would earn two and three dollars a week, which he gave to his father and mother regularly. When he grew older, Solomon was sent to college where he remained seven or eight years at the expense of his father and mother. Finally Solomon received his diploma and returned to his old home. It was not very long before the old folks began to note a change in Solomon's appearance and especially in his disposition to work. There was a kind of restlessness about him. The old people began to notice that he cared little for home, that he didn't go out into the field each day and help his old father as he used to do before going to college, and that at the end of each week Solomon didn't bring in the usual two or three dollars. They noticed that he did nothing but walk around the streets with his hands in his pockets, and that as one Saturday night drew near, Solomon got nearer the old man, and asked him for fifty cents with which to buy a silk necktie. The old man scratched his head, but said nothing. And Solomon continued to walk about the streets with his hands in his pockets and stand on the corners. When the next Saturday night came around, Solomon asked his father to give him four dollars with which to buy a new pair of shoes. The old man had never heard of a pair of shoes costing more than two dollars, and started to speak out, but kept his tongue and gave Solomon the four dollars. These requests and the great changes in Solomon began to make the old man think about Solomon and his college education. Finally there appeared in the town, a man from Massachusetts. Solomon's father one day went to this man, whose acquaintance he happened to make, and said, "I want to speak with you about my son Solomon. He has been to college and has a good education. I am sure of that; but my friend, for God's sake take Solomon aside and tell him what to do with that education."

        Now my friends, wont you agree with me that there are a good many Solomons getting scattered all through the South? Aren't there entirely too many of our people whose heads are full, but who don't know how to use it?

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        This Massachusetts man took Solomon aside and said to him, "Solomon, what did you study in college?" "Chemistry, sir." "Well, that's good, but what are you going to do with that chemistry?" "I don't know, sir," replied Solomon. "Well Solomon, your father is a farmer; you take your chemistry and go out into that field and show him how to enrich his soil. What else did you study at college?" "Geometry, sir." "Well Solomon, isn't it possible for you to go out there with your father and show him how to check off that land, how to run his corn rows straight instead of crooked?" "That is true, I had never thought of that," said Solomon. Then Solomon began to think, and by reason of that good, sound and timely advice, joined his old father and began to apply his education; and to-day, my friends, in the whole State of Kentucky, I venture to say, you cannot find a more intelligently conducted farm than Solomon's. (Applause.)

        Now my friends, I believe there is no difficulty, however great, out of which we cannot find our way. The story is told that at one time, two unfortunate frogs fell into a jar of milk over night. After kicking for several hours, endeavoring to get out, one of the frogs said to the other, "It's no use kicking, I'm going to give up and sink to the bottom. The sooner it's over the better." Not so with the second frog, who kept on kicking until morning when the milk turned to butter, and he once more found himself on terra firma. We must all get out of our difficulties by kicking.

        We are born, so far as our educational career is concerned, in time to take advantage of all the mistakes the white man has made during the last two thousand years, and the question is, simply, Are we going take advantage of these mistakes he has made, or are we going over the same rough ground and learn by the same hard experience what the white man is just realizing? (Applause.) I for one, am in favor of taking advantage of these mistakes, and making the most of them. If you have watched the trend of education for the past fifty years, you have noticed that it has tended in one direction, namely, the cementing of mind and matter. It has tended in the direction of making mind a part of matter. In this city to-day there is extended to the poorest and most humble child the opportunity of receiving a better education than was given the child of the President of the Union fifty years ago. Fifty years ago the little boy of four or five years went to school and was taught to count abstractly, one, two, three, etc.; to-day he goes into the school

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room and counts, one apple, two definite apples that he can lay his hand on. Fifty years ago this little boy learned to read by pronouncing abstract and often meaningless words; to-day he reads of a dog, not some dog far off in the distance which he cannot see and feel, but one that really exists and upon which he can lay his hand. Fifty years ago he studied about chemistry, he sat up in a school or lecture room, and was told about chemistry, and the chemical experiments which were made; to-day, instead of studying about chemistry, the student feels, handles and comes in immediate contact with the matter about which he studies. He performs with his own hands the experiments which, fifty years ago, were lectured about.

        Now my friends this brings me to the question that I have especially in view to-night; it is what we are wont to call industrial education, the application of mind to matter, and to the conquering of the forces of nature. A few days ago I visited a certain institution where mechanical drawing is taught. I went into the room where a class in this study were reciting. I noticed on the black-board, this problem: "Draw out, design and create a plan for dairy." The teacher told me that none of his students had ever seen the kind of building he had in mind, yet he wanted them to draw from their own resources and create a dairy.

        What is education? By education the mind is strengthened, whether through the study of the classics, or through mechanical drawing, or through the carpenter shop. No matter how he gets it, a man is educated whose mind is so strengthened that he has complete control of the organization and use of his mind. And so this teacher told his students to create a dairy. My friends, isn't that education? Compare an education like that with merely having a boy sit down and memorize something that happened a thousand years ago.

        Now, my friends, I never plead for less education. I believe in the highest development of the mind. I believe with the poet--

                         "Had I the power to reach the pole
                         Or grasp the ocean with a span,
                         I'd still be measured by my soul,
                         The mind's the measure of the man."

        But we must remember that I am pleading for the use of the mind, for the use of education, no matter whether it is little or much education, no matter whether it is secured in this way or that way, I am pleading for the use of education.

        We had just as well inculcate this in our pupils once for all, that

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the world cares very little about what a man or woman knows; it is what the man or woman is able to do that the world cares about. An educated man standing on the corners of the street with his hands in his pockets is of no more value to the world than an ignorant man doing the same thing. In almost every community in the South and throughout the North they have what is known as "smart men," men of education and culture. You go into any city and it will not be very long before the news reaches your ears that there is a very smart man in that community. I saw one of these smart men some time ago. I had heard a great deal about him, and asked some one who he was. "O that's Mr. Soandso, and I tell you he's a smart man," "What does he do?" I asked. "O he isn't doing any thing in particular just now; he's just a smart man, that's all." (Laughter.) "Can he build any houses?" "O no, he never builds any houses." "Drow the plans for any? Does he farm, raise hogs?" "Oh, my, no! He doesn't do anything like that, he wouldn't be caught raising hogs for any thing. He's just a smart man, but just now he isn't engaged in any particular line of work."

        Now, my friends, when we speak usually of hand-craft, the average man gets the idea that it is something to teach a man to work. When you speak of industrial education, he is immediately prejudiced. He will say, "My son or my daughter knows how to work already." My friends, never was there a greater mistake made than this. I do not mean to say that the Negro doesn't work. Whether you find him in the Mississippi bottoms, on the sugar plantations of Louisiana, on the rice swamps of North Carolina, or the cotton fields of Alabama, the Negro works hard from morning till night. And he works at a tremendous disadvantage, and he does everything in the most costly manner. I will tell you what industrial education means: It means teaching a man how not to work. That is what industrial education means. It teaches a man how to harness the forces of nature and make them do his work instead of working out his brains and strength, accomplishing very little good.

        Sometime ago, while traveling through the State of Indiana, I saw a man engaged in planting corn. Instead of following a plow he was seated on a large machine called a cultivator. Hitched to this were two fine horses. The man was not only sitting down, but was holding a large umbrella over him, and all the strength he had to expend was in holding the horses back to prevent their working themselves to death. This machine plowed up the ground, laid off the

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furrows, dropped and covered the corn. Besides, instead of planting one row at a time, two rows of corn were planted. On another occasion I saw a farmer plant corn in Alabama. Instead of being perched upon a cultivator, he had an old plow that was loosely tacked together, and about four inches wide. Hitched to this plow was an old mule that traveled about a mile an hour. Instead of riding this fellow was following this plow, barefooted, and carrying with him a long hickory pole which he occasionally laid on the back of the weary-looking mule. Nearly every time he reached the end of the furrow, he would have to stop and repair the plow, and very often the harness, which was composed partly of rags and partly of leather, and too, the mule had only one eye. In addition to ploughing the ground, he had to go over it with the same old one-eyed mule, and then another man came along to drop the corn and then another to cover it. He was what you call one of these "one-gallused" farmers, and he very often found it necessary to stop and repair his suspenders in order to keep his pantaloons in position. Now here was this farmer in Alabama competing with this Indiana farmer? (Laughter.) This man in Indiana had learned how to apply his education to agriculture. And still people tell me that the black man doesn't need industrial education. What I mean by industrial education is getting the black boy to the point where he can sit upon an instrument of that sort that the Indiana man used, and raise more corn than the Indiana farmer can raise. (Applause.)

        While education brings with it certain privileges, it brings with it also certain responsibilities and certain opportunities. Here it brings an opportunity to compete for the American dollar, and there is nothing that has so little sentiment, so little prejudice in it. We are going to be mortgaged in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi and all over the South, we are going to continue buying corn from the Indiana farmers until we can get our boys to raise corn just as fast and just as cheaply as the man in Indiana.

        At Tuskegee we have in operation what is known as the Aladdin Oven, a machine or vessel for the purpose of teaching a woman how to cook a meal and take a nap at the same time. Wouldn't you like to cook that way? I claim that industrial education is meant to teach a person how not to work, how to make the forces of nature work for him; and in this vessel a woman can cook a piece of tough beef by putting a lamp under it, and by morning she will find it ready for the table, tender and nicely cooked. This is industrial education.

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        I was in a dairy a few days ago where I saw men making butter, and in only a few minutes after the milk came from the cow, it was put into a separator, out of which I saw the milk come out of one little tube and the cream out of another. This cream was then transferred to another vessel, a churn, I believe it was, and a man began to turn a crank for a while, and in a very few minutes from that I saw laid off in nice square blocks, some of the finest butter I ever saw. This man hardly touched the butter with his hands. The man who made this butter has had a college education, has studied chemistry. That is the way he applied his education. That is industrial education.

        To be a little more practical. There are some things which we have got to learn to do. If we are going to hold our own in this Southland, right about us, we have got to learn, in the first place, to dignify labor, and in the second place to put brains into labor. Now is it common sense to take a girl and teach her to analyze Mars, bound Jupiter and at the same time neglect to teach her? Now I don't say it is wrong, but is it common sense to teach a girl to do that, and at the same time neglect to teach her the composition of the corn bread that she is compelled to eat three times a day? (Laughter.) Is that common sense?

        It used to be true throughout the North, as it is now throughout the South, that a great many colored men made their living by white-washing. The old colored man came along with his pole and white-wash bucket, and would occasionally get a fence to white wash, and less frequently, some one would let him in their parlor to white wash the walls. He would not only white wash the walls but would also touch up the pictures, curtains and carpet. (Laughter.) When he was done the whole thing would be pretty well white washed. That sort of thing went on, and when anyone wanted any white washing done they always sent for Uncle Joe, and so for many years Uncle Joe was the chief white-wash monopolist. But soon the white man began to think. The white boy went to college, to the school of technology, and learned chemistry, geometry and physics, and came out and applied his knowledge of these branches to mixing materials, figuring and decorating. He went into the house which old Uncle Joe used to white wash and took his job away from him, and wherever that white man has gone Uncle Joe can never go again. But you don't call that young white man a white washer; you call him a house decorator. He has taken that once common occupation, raised it up, put brains into it.

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        You know it used to be true that every large and paying barber shop in Boston, New York, Philadelphia and other large northern cities, was in the hands of colored men. Go into either of these cities to-day and you will not find a single paying barber shop controlled by colored men. When the colored man had a monopoly of this business, he went on in the same old way day after day without thinking and educating himself, without planning how to enlarge his business and advance the work. The whiteman saw his opportunity and opened a barber shop in which he put a newly made chair, a nice carpet and hung some pictures on the walls, and then he published a journal relating to the interests of the trade. He had a desk put in the shop at which he sat and kept his accounts. Thus he dignified that labor. But you don't call that man a barber; you call him a tonsorial artist, but he has got the black man's job just the same. (Laughter.)

        I think I do not exaggerate when I say that three-fourths of the colored families in the cities of the South are supported by washing clothes. Recently I had an investigation made into the condition of twenty-seven families in the city of Montgomery, and there was not a single one that did not support itself in part by washing. We have had a monopoly of that, but, if you will notice closely, you will see that it is passing away. The white boy leaves school to-day with a knowledge of physics or mechanics. He sets up a steam laundry. He introduces a machine that washes two thousand shirts a day by electricity, and at a much less cost than many washwomen can do it. Now how long are we going to sit still and let this thing go on? The fact is, we have neglected too long to put our brains into these common occupations of life.

        We are a great race of consumers, but we produce very little. We consume steam cars, but produce none; hats, but produce none. Suppose a law was passed preventing colored people from wearing hats made by white men; how many of us would go bare-headed? (Laughter.) Did you ever see a colored man who manufactured toothpicks? Of course you have seen plenty of men manufacture one perhaps for his own use out of a piece of dry goods box. You con't afford to do that, can you? The idea of an educated colored man manufacturing toothpicks! He has got to teach or preach. I was up in the State of Maine a few months ago, and found there men who were many times millionaires, and I asked, in one case, how they got their start. I was told that a certain man, one of these rich men

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would go home at night after his day's work on the farm was done, and with a jackknife which he had bought whittled out several dozen toothpicks, and finally he was able to buy another jackknife which he gave his wife, and she whittled. Both would sit around the family fireside and whittle toothpicks, and they kept on in that way until they were able to buy a small piece of machinery, and after a while added another piece of machinery, then applied steam. Thus that man got to be a millionaire by making these little things that we chew up and spit out and think nothing of.

        You have perhaps heard the story told by Henry W. Grady of a burial that took place in Pickens County, Georgia. It is said that the grave was dug through a solid bed of marble, but the marble head stone came from Vermont. The burial took place in the midst of a pine forest, but the coffin in which the dead man was buried came from Cincinnati. An iron mountain overlooked that grave, but the picks and shovels used in digging it came from Pittsburgh, Pa. The wagon that hauled the dead man's body came from South Bend Indiana, yet there was an immense hickory grove near by. The shoes that the dead man wore came from Boston, his pants and coat from Chicago, his shirt from Troy, N. Y., and the cheap white cravat came from Philadelphia, and the old one-eyed mule that drew the corpse was bought years ago in the State of Tennessee, and the only thing that Pickens County produced for that burial was the hole in the ground, and the dead man, and had it been possible these would have been imported also. (Laughter.) I fear that as a race, we are pretty much in the same fix as those people in Pickens County.

        But I am talking about a practical thing, whether or not it is a practical thing for the teachers who know something of agriculture to take their knowledge and go into such counties as Lowndes and Wilcox where the schools are lasting but three months during the year and get the patrons to let you have their children for a half day each day and with their help raise enough cotton and corn to extend your school term four and five months, instead of the usual three months. If our young men and women who are taught agriculture cannot use it in extending the school term it does seem to me that that education is, to a large extent, useless. And the old colored people on these plantations are beginning to think about this thing. I was at the Georgia State Teachers' Association last year, and some one read a table of statistics relative to the colored people's educational progress, and it was stated that they were not giving so much attention

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to college education now as formerly. I do not say that this is true, but if it is, I think I know the cause. The old colored farmer worked hard some years ago, saved every cent that he could get hold of, sacrificed in order that his son might remain in college. But he noticed that as soon as John got his college education he was not satisfied to come and live with mother and father and help them, but wanted to go back to Nashville or Atlanta just as soon as possible.

        Since then John hasn't gone home any more. After awhile another son in that family wants to go to college; he wants to go to the same college that his brother John attended. He lets this boy go, but he thinks of John and his college education, of how much money he has spent on John, and that he has not seen John since he got his diploma. Very soon the time comes for the third boy to want to go off to college; but the old man refuses point blank.

        Now, what you want to do is to take that old man's boy in Wilcox county and so educate him that he will take his knowledge of chemistry and gemoetry, etc., and go back and show his old father and mother how, by reason of his education, by reason of his increased intelligence, on the same acre of land where only ten bushels of corn were formerly raised, to raise forty bushels on the same acre. Do that, and every man in the State of Alabama who was a son will be willing to sacrifice in order that his son may go to college.

        Now, somebody is going to say, "You are too utilitarian in your plea, you overlook the moral and religious." No, I don't. I know that I tell you that we must have a certain amount of industrial and material foundation on which to rest our moral and religious life. The most moral and religious people to-day are to be found in New England. It is easy for a man to be a Christian when he has a hundred thousand dollars in the bank.

        To come out flat-footed, as the old man said, the trouble with us is we are hungry. I don't mean to say that you people here in Selma are hungry, but in the broader acceptation of the term--shelter, clothing, provisions for a rainy day, we are a hungry people; and I know some of these ministers will agree with me. The hardest thing that the minister has to do is to make a good Christian out of a hungry man. You can't make a good Christian out of a hungry man; I don't care how much he gets up and shouts in church, if, after he goes home from church at night and finds nothing there, he is tempted (and very often succeeds) to find something before morning.

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This is human nature the world over, and I don't say that it is confined to the black man.

        As a race you know we are very emotional. The white man can beat us thinking, but when it comes to feeling the white man isn't in it. We can feel more in five minutes than the white man can in a day. The colored man spends much time in preparing to live in the next world. Analyze the average colored preacher's sermon, and you will find that three-fourths of it is devoted to an imaginary description of heaven. It tells about white mansions above, while the members of his congregation live in log cabins; about wearing golden slippers, when more than half his audience are barefooted. He talks about living on milk and honey in the next world, but when he goes to take dinner with one of his sisters he is given cornbread and peas. (Laughter.) I was on a plantation some time ago and heard a preacher preach, and the whole burden of his sermon was, "You get religion and give up the world." Now, I am not speaking irreverently; I have no patience with that sort of thing. I happened to know the people in that community, and I knew that there were not two persons in the whole community who owned land, hogs, cattle and who were not mortgaged. I said to this preacher: "My friend, what have these people to give of the world; what is it you want them to give up?" That is not the kind of doctrine to preach. The people want to be taught to get hold of the world, and mix in with their land, cotton and corn a good bank account, and when they get that, they have a religion that you can bank on seven days in the week.

        There is nothing that is going to be so effective in removing whatever friction that exists between the two races in this country as the idea that I have been trying to enforce, the idea of letting the colored man's education tend in the direction of producing something tangible, something that somebody can feel and see. When I went into the town of Tuskegee, fourteen years ago, there were some white people who wouldn't look at me. I went on for awhile. After a while these same white people wanted some bricks and they came to us to get them. That relation has gone on, so that now we have no warmer friends anywhere than in Tuskegee. When we began the manufacture of buggies they came to us. They came to our printing office to have their printing done, and to-day the main Democratic paper of Tuskegee is printed in our office. I don't say we edit it, we only print it.

        You will find that the friction will pass just in proportion as the

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black man gets something the white man wants. Nobody cares anything for a man that hasn't something that somebody else wants. A white man doesn't care anything about another white man unless he has something, property, influence or perhaps a daughter, and that something brings the two individuals together and makes friends and neighbors of them; and the same thing is true of races. I remember that when I first went to Tuskegee there were some poor white people who were always talking about driving that nigger school teacher away from town. I would meet one of these old fellows and try to impress my importance upon him, but it didn't work. I knew a little about Latin, Geometry and Physics, but what did they care? After a time we began to put up a large brick building. The building brought them and they became our best friends.

        And so we have gone on putting up building after building until now we have 37 on the school grounds, the larger part of them being built wholly by the labor of the students. Our property is valued at $215,000. The annual expense of carrying on the school is about $75,000 or about $250 for every day the school is in session. We have some 250 head of live stock of various kinds, three steam boilers, and thirty-five or forty buggies, wagons, carts, etc. In all the school owns nearly 1,800 acres of land, 600 of which are under cultivation. There are twenty-two industries including the following: Carpentry, wheelwrighting, blacksmithing, tinning, foundry and machine work, shoe making, harness making, dressmaking, millinery work, stock raising, horticulture, dairying, brick making, brick masonry, plastering, printing, cooking, laundering, agriculture, mattress making, agricultural and mechanical drawing, tailoring, painting and saw milling. These industries involve a thorough course in mechanical and architectural drawing. Since the organization of the school over a half million dollars have been collected and expended in building up the work. Students have worked out during the past year $41,000. The whole property as well as the control of the institution is in the hands of a board of trustees. There is no mortgage on any of the property.

        We try to surround students in Tuskegee with an air of thrift and business, so that the spirit of industry gets deep into one's blood and bones, as well as to make the institution an object-lesson as to the capability of the Negro and of Negro civilization. There are over 800 students, representing seventeen States and one Territory. Sixty-six instructors, all colored, are employed. The average

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age of the students is eighteen and one half years, none being admitted under fourteen.

        I have no patience with that class of people who say that the Negro cannot find use for his education after he has obtained it. There are opportunities all about us which we are not using. How many educated horticulturists among the colored people are there in this country? How many educated agriculturists and landscape gardeners are there? Not only are horticulturists needed, but mechanical and civil engineers, architects, brickmakers, trained nurses, educated cooks. If our educated young men and women will turn their attention more and more to the physical, they will find themselves more and more in demand.




        My friends, there is an unexplainable influence about a black man's living in a brick house that you cannot understand. When the black man can make his education felt in producing a brick house or something that somebody wants to get hold of nothing causes friction to pass away so soon. Suppose someone would go into the city

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of Birmingham and make the assertion that the Germans as a race are lazy, shiftless, good-for-noting class of people. Will any heated argument be necessary to prove that he didn't know what he was talking about? No. Some one would say, "Do you see that large block of brick buildings over there? It is owned by a German. Do you see that large cotton mill? That is owned by a German." And there the argument will end. When Thomas doubted whether Christ had arisen from the dead, he did not enter into a long argument with him; he said, "Thomas, do you see where the nails entered my hands and feet?" That was the most convincing, the most tangible argument that could have been produced.

        We had just as well acknowledge that after the war we made some great mistakes. We began at the top when we should have begun at the bottom. We spent time and money trying to go to Congress that could have better been spent in becoming the leading real estate dealer in our town. We spent time in making political stump speeches that could have better been spent in operating the finest dairy or truck farm in the country. We spent all this time uselessly instead of laying a material foundation upon which we could have stood and demanded our political rights.

        Now in conclusion, my friends, there are a good many rights with-held from us, and wrongfully too, yet we must not spend too much time in giving attention to our grievances and neglect the many opportunities that are about us. We are denied the opportunity in many Southern cities of riding in a first-class car, even after we have paid for first-class fare, but in Dallas County, and all through the State, I tell you of an opportunity that is not denied us. We have the opportunity of living 365 days in the year in the neatest, most attractive and comfortable house in Dallas County, and nobody objects to that. The average colored man has the opportunity of being denied accommodation in a first-class hotel about twice in a year, yet at the same time he has the opportunity all through Alabama, of living and sleeping in the neatest and cleanest room to be found, and no low will say he cannot do it. The average colored man is denied the privilege of sitting on a jury about once in two years, but there is no law to prevent our young men and women who are being educated from owing and operating the finest dairy farm from which butter that is eaten by every man who does sit on the jury is raised. What I mean to say is that he who holds the dollars, brains and intelligence will, in the long run, hold the offices.

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        We expect too often to get things that God did not mean for us to have in certain ways. At one time an old colored man was very anxious to get a turkey, and he prayed and prayed for the Lord to send him a turkey. The turkey did not come, and finally the old man changed his prayer somewhat, and said, "O Lord, send dis nigger to a turkey," and he got it that night. (Laughter.) God means for us to get many things in about that same way, that is by working for them rather than by depending merely on the power of mouth.

        At one time a ship was lost at sea for many days, when it hove in sight of a friendly vessel. The signal of the distressed vessel was at once hoisted, which read, "We want water," "we die of thirst." The answering signal read, "Cast down your bucket where you are," but a second time the distressed vessel signaled, "We want water, water," and a second time the other vessel answered "Cast down your bucket where you are." A third and fourth time the distressed vessel signaled "We want water, water," "we die of thirst," and as many times was answered "Cast down your bucket where you are." At last the command was obeyed, the bucket was cast down where the vessel stood and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water from the Amazon river. My friends we are failing to cast down our buckets for the help that is right about us, and spend too much time in signaling for help that is far off. Let us cast down our buckets here in our own sunny South, cast them down in agriculture, in truck gardening, dairying, poultry raising, hog raising, laundrying, cooking, sewing, mechanical and professional life, and the help that we think is far off will come and we will soon grow independent and useful.

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        THIS report marks the closing of the thirteenth year of the history of this Institution. Beginning July 4, 1881, without a dollar except an annual appropriation of $2,000 from the State for tuition, during the thirteen years there has come into our treasury $511,955.42 in cash from all sources. Of this amount $73,000 has come from the State; $5,162.50 from the Peabody Fund; $15,500 from the John F. Slater Fund; $51,450.91 from the students toward their expenses. The remainder, $413.842.01 has come in the form of gifts from individuals, organizations, concerts and the county of Macon. During the thirteen years the students have done labor for the Institution to the value of $203,612.52.

        Beginning in a small church and shanty with no property, the property of the Institution, including land, buildings, live stock, outfit and apparatus, is now valued at $215,000, and there is no mortgage on any of it. In all the school owns 1,810 acres of land. Counting large and small there are thirty-one buildings used for class work, industrial training and dormitory purposes. There are 256 head of live stock, consisting of horses, mules, cows, calves, hogs, etc. The first enrollment consisted of thirty pupils and one teacher. The enrollment for the present year is 809 students and 66 instructors. Including the present class 166 have graduated and are doing excellent work as teachers in the class room and as industrial teachers in other schools, farmers, mechanics, housekeepers, etc. Besides at least 400 under-graduates are doing excellent work in the lines just mentioned. The demand for our graduates is usually larger than we can supply. There are no loafers to be found among those who graduate at Tuskegee.

        Since May 31, 1893, the close of our last financial year, to May 31,

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1894, the income of the shool from all sources has been $73,107. Of this amount two-fifths have gone into the permanent plant, and three-fifths into the current expenses of the school; $7,911.28 has been paid in cash by the students toward their own expenses; $3,000 from the State, and the remainder has come from generous individuals and organizations. Students have done work to the value of $41,893.20 for this year. The average salary paid the teachers is $395.58 per year.

        In connection with the growth of the Institution, it is encouraging to note the following: During last year the John F. Slater Fund Trustee Board increased its appropriation to the school for the present year from $2,000 to $4,000. During the month of February, Dr. J. L. M. Curry, Chairman of the Educational Committee of the Slater Fund, in company with Dr. D. C. Gilman, the President of the Slater Trust, visited and thoroughly inspected the work of the school; and as a result of the visit and report, the Board has just notified us of its decision to increase the appropriation for the coming year to something over $5,000.



Phelps Hall.

        Phelps Hall, the beautiful and commodious building given by Miss Olivia E. P. Stokes, of New York City, for Bible study, has been completed and furnished at a cost of about $12,000--the whole expense being borne by Miss Stokes.

        A lady who wishes to be known simply as an "Elderly Northern Friend," has given $2,000 toward a permanent fund of $10,000 to endow the Nurse-Training Department. $1,000 of this is invested in the Macon County Bank at 6 per cent interest.

        Following is an explanatory letter from the donor of this fund:--

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To the Trustees of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute:

        "Enclosed please find one thousand ($1,000) dollars toward the ten thousand ($10,000) dollars needed for the establishment of Permanent Fund for the Nurse-Training Department of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute; this Fund to be designated as the Lafayette Fund.

        "One-half of the annual interest on the above one thousand ($1,000) dollars, and, also, on whatever sums may be added to this Lafayette Fund from time to time by the present donor, or by other donor or donors, or by accrued interest, is not to be expended, but to be added to the principal, until the needed amount of ten thousand ($10,000) dollars accrues.

        "Meanwhile, the remaining one-half of the annual interest is to be used annually for the benefit of the Nurse-Training Department of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.

        "After the required sum of ten thousand ($10,000) dollars has accrued, then the entire interest thereof shall be used annually to defray the expenses of the Nurse-Training Department of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.

        "Or, at the discretion of the trustees of said Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, part of the annual interest of this said Lafayette Fund of ten thousand ($10,000) dollars, may be used for hospital needs of said Institute.

"May 12th, 1893."

        Mrs. Mary E. Berry, formerly of Macon County, Ala., but now residing in New York City, has given the Institution a deed to a plantation ten miles from Tuskegee, that contains four hundred acres of land; has on it several buildings, including one brick building with nine rooms. The estate with improvements is valued at $10,000.

        The Fund of $2,000, given some time ago by Miss Olivia E. P. Stokes, for investment--the interest to be used in helping students having the Christian Ministry in view--is invested as follows:

        $1,200 temporarily invested in the supply farm, "Marshall" Farm; $800 lent to A. A. Torbert, for building.

        A gentleman and his wife, residing in Boston, who do not care to have their names made public, have established the "Dizer Fund," the object of which is described in the following letter:

To the Trustees of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama:

        I hereby donate to the Trustees of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial

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Institute, Tuskegee, Ala., ($1,500) one thousand five hundred dollars, to be known as the "Dizer Fund," and to be used by them in the following manner:

        As fast as practicable, I desire the trustees to lend the above-named amount to colored people in sums of $50.00 to $300.00, in a way to enable them to secure comfortable homes. In all cases where loans are made, I desire that the Tuskegee graduates or students be given the preference. The loans are to be secured by mortgage on the real estate, and the rate of interest charged is to be 8 per cent. per annum. It is further my wish that the trustees so lend the money as to cause to be built in as many different communities as possible, at least one model Christian home. The annual income from the Dizer Fund is to be used by the Trustees of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in any manner that they deem best for the benefit of the Institution, and if at any time, in the judgment of the trustees, the good of the Institution requires it, they are at liberty to use the Dizer Fund for the immediate wants of the Institution, instead of in the manner specified in the foregoing."

        At present this fund has been loaned to graduates and others on the conditions named, and it is accomplishing great good. It is eagerly sought after by graduates, and there are many applicants now waiting to secure a loan.

        Mr. Henry L. Stearns, of College Hill, Mass., has established a scholarship in memory of his father, Maj. George L. Stearns, by the gift of one thousand dollars, which has been invested at 6 per cent. interest.

        A few years ago Rev. Frederick Frothingham, of Milton, Mass., who has been interested in this Institution almost from its beginning, left by will $20,000 to the American Unitarian Association, of Boston, the income of which was to be used for all time to promote education among the colored people. The American Unitarian Association, at a meeting last fall, voted unanimously to give the income from the Frothingham Fund to this Institution; $10,000 left the Institution some time ago by the bequest of Mr. Horace Smith, of Springfield, Mass., was paid by the executors during the month of March.

        Mr. A. H. Parker, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has recently given us a second mortgage for $1,000. The money, when collected, is to be used in erecting on the school grounds, a Model Home, to be occupied by the girls of the Senior Class. The mortgage is at present in the

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hands of Mr. Parker as a matter of convenience for collecting the interest and principal.

        Three new cottages for teachers' residences have been built on the school grounds during the past year. In connection with the literary work, there are at present 23 industries in operation, which are as follows: Carpentry, painting, architectural and mechanical drawing, brick-making, brick-masonry, saw mill work, plastering, wheel-wrighting, harness-making, farming, shoe-making, tinning, printing, mattress-making, nurse-training, dress-making and sewing, stock-raising, blacksmithing, laundrying, tailoring, house-keeping and cooking.

        There has never been a year in the history of the school when so much improvement has been made in the teaching of the industries. Most of the industrial work now has as its foundation a thorough course in mechanical and architectural drawing. The article to be manufactured in the shop is first drawn by the student and then manufactured in the shop. Every student now receives three-fourths of an hour each day bearing upon the principles and theory of his trade or industry in addition to the practical work. This has greatly increased the interest of the students in the industrial work as well as added to the value of the industrial work. One of the greatest needs in the industrial work is more teaching force, so that the head of the department can have more time for planning, research and study. The colored people throughout the world are beginning to demand industrial education in a way that they have never done before. All of our industrial departments have been full, and many students refused for lack of room.

        A large number of other schools and individuals are applying to this institution for information that will assist them in starting or improving an industrial department, and this furnishes another reason why everything at Tuskegee should be done in the best manner. In a word, an increasing number of institutions are using us as their model.

        The Bible Training School, founded by Miss Olivia E. P. Stokes, of New York, about eighteen months ago, is meeting with very satisfactory success. The enrollment for the present year is forty-three, consisting mainly of ministers or those intending to be ministers. Perhaps the most interesting and unique feature of the Bible Training School is the fact that theology in the usual sense is not taught, and the question of denomination is wholly ignored. The

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students, as a rule, are about equally divided between Baptists and Methodists, but other denominations are also represented.

        The teaching as far as possible is also confined to the simple truths of the English Bible. Special stress is laid upon having the students receive practical training in applied religion, especially in its relations to the industrial and moral needs of the masses of the colored people in the "Black Belt." The simple presentation of the abstract truths of the Bible from the pulpit is not all that the masses of the colored people need. Not much religion can exist in a one-room cabin and in an empty stomach. The prospects now are that the attendance in this department will be greatly increased next year.

        This institution perhaps never did a wiser or more helpful thing than when it inaugurated what is known all over the country as the "Tuskegee Negro Conference," which has now held three meetings, the objects of which have been the bringing together for quiet conference, not the politicians, but the representatives of the hardworking farmers, mechanics, teachers and ministers, to find out the actual condition of the race industrially, educationally, morally and religiously, and to suggest remedies for present evils. The conference devotes itself, not to the discussion of wrongs perpetrated upon the race, but to the race's opportunities to better their condition. The good these conferences are doing is very apparent.

        Some of the most urgent needs of the school at present are closer attention to the improvement in matters that concern the nicer and smaller details of the work in every respect; also during the coming school year much attention should be given to making the literary and normal work more thorough and effective.

        A building to contain sleeping rooms for young men and recitation rooms are badly needed; also a chapel that can be used for large gatherings. Greater efforts should be put forth in the future in securing an endowment fund upon which the school can rely in a large measure for its income.


May 30, 1894.

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        AMONG the colored female educators of the South, the subject of our sketch stands pre-eminently first. In speaking of her, Rev. George C. Lowe, of Charleston, S. C., says: "Miss Laney is a graduate of Atlanta University, and has taught school for a number of years in various places in Georgia. She left Savannah in 1886 where she was receiving a salary of $400 per year, and went to Augusta for the purpose of establishing an industrial boarding school, without the promise of aid from anyone. She rented a large house, became responsible for the support of teachers and the boarding department and began work. The first year her school enrolled 140 pupils; the second, 250, and it has steadily increased in numbers, power, and influence." This school is under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church, but is open to all who will comply with the rules and regulations. A few years ago a benevolent Northern lady gave her $10,000 with which a site was purchased in a desirable locality and a handsome five-story brick building was erected, and four years after it was founded Miss Laney transferred her school to this handsome edifice. We are not surprised at the success with which Miss Laney is meeting since she has associated with her such competent assistants as Miss M. C. Jackson, Miss Irene Smallwood, and Mrs. Mary R. Phelps. Miss Laney is a model for her numerous pupils in everything that the word implies. The "Palmetto Poet," Dr. George C. Rowe, puts it this way:

                         Not on the height of Bunker Hill
                         Nor Concord's battle ground,
                         Nor on the field of Vicksburg, will
                         Our heroine be found.

                         Not in the annals of the wars
                         That history records;
                         Not in sayings 'neath the stripes and stars
                         Shall we hear her thrilling words!

                         But where the ranks of the coming men
                         And women may be found,
                         With books and slates and ready pen,
                         Lo, there is her battle ground!

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                         Not where the din and conflict reach--
                         Nor hidious bugle toot,
                         But where the patient teachers teach
                         Ideas how to shoot!

                         To reach the top her mind was bent;
                         Patience and faith her rule;
                         To-day she sits as President
                         Of Haines Industrial School!

                         Among the women of our race
                         We know of few, if any,
                         Who fill a nobler, worthier place--
                         Thou earnest Lucy Laney.

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Haines Normal and Industrial Institute.

        A VERY significant mission school in the South is that one located at Augusta, Georgia, and known as the Haines Normal and Industrial Institute. It is the life and effort of a young Negro woman, Miss Lucy C. Laney, who when very young conceived the idea of founding a school for the uplifting of Negro women. The idea was too noble to perish. Upon her own responsibility the school was founded in 1886 in rented buildings. Four years afterward the work was transferred to a handsome, spacious, five-story brick building.




        In that building together with a smaller wooden building are taught sewing, printing, and laundry work. The first story of the brick building contains a very large engine used for heating the different recitation rooms and the building in general. The second story consists of a very large assembly room, reception room, dining room, kitchen, music room, and two recitation rooms. The third story has

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six recitation rooms, one music room, library, cloak room and Miss Laney's office. The fourth and fifth stories are rooms neatly furnished and sufficient to accommodate about sixty young ladies, aside from the two bath rooms and reception room. There are small cottages used as dormitories for the young men.

        There are two departments of this school, viz.: A normal and college preparatory. The normal prepares the students for teachers and to fill the many openings for our young people. The college preparatory course fits those wishing a higher education to enter college. Sometimes the young men leaving Haines and going to Princeton, Harvard and Lincoln Universities, etc., on examination make the junior college course, so thorough is the training given in this Institution.

        We feel that we would do Haines an injustice not to mention the special training class for teachers presided over by Miss M. C. Jackson, the assistant principal of Haines. Those wishing a thorough knowledge of "theory and practice" and all or most of the new methods of teaching the young idea how to "shoot," will find themselves greatly benefitted by becoming members of Miss Jackson's training class. There is also a class for training nurses for the sick. How important it is to know how to care for the sick; many die because of ignorant nurses. I would that all Institutions had departments for training nurses. Some of the young women after having finished a course in the training class, nurse in private families for very good salaries, others attend in hospitals as matrons, etc.

        One of the recent features of the Haines school is the establishment of the Kindergarten department, which is so ably presided over by Miss Irene Smallwood, a graduate of the Kindergarten Training School in Buffalo, New York. In this school little children from three to six years old are taken and put through a thorough and practical drill in many things which train the intellect, direct the imagination, and tend to make the little ones skilled in the use of their hands. They sew, learn to call things by their names, learn to distinguish colors, and in a hundred things do they receive a training that is indispensable to them when they enter the school room proper.

        Haines' School is under the auspices of the Northern Presbyterian Board, with Miss L. C. Laney as its principal. The average enrollment of the school has been about four hundred. This is the only Presbyterian mission school in the State of Georgia, and for that reason it is a very interesting part of the Presbyterian Church.

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        MRS. MARY R. PHELPS.
Augusta, Ga.

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        MRS. MARY R. PHELPS is the daughter of Hilliard and Adeline Rice. She was born in Union County, South Carolina. She could read when but four years old, at the age of five she entered the public school. She had a wonderful memory, could recite from memory every dialogue, every piece of poetry, and every page of importance in her school books. When only thirteen years old she was asked to take charge of a large school. With her parents' consent she accepted, was examined and received a teacher's certificate and taught the fall and winter term of said school. Her parents noting her improvement and aptness, notwithstanding her limited advantages, determined to have her educated. They sent her to Benedict Institute, Columbia, S. C., where she remained one term, making one hundred in her examinations. During that vacation she taught as usual, and the term of 1881-2 she entered Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C., where she completed both courses, graduating from the higher course in 1885. While attending Scotia she was noted for her high style of writing, and for her worthiness received a two years' scholarship in Scotia Seminary. After graduating she was principal of the public schools at Glenn Springs, S. C., three years.

        In 1890 she resigned at Glenn Springs to accept a position in the Graded School, of Rome, Ga., where she taught a part of two terms. For the term of 1890-91 she was elected Assistant Principal of the Eddy School, Milledgeville, Ga. On the 25th of October, 1891, she was married to John L. Phelps, of Milledgeville, Ga., at her home, Helena, S. C. In 1893 she was elected Assistant Principal of Cleveland Academy, Helena, S. C., and resigned before the term closed to accept a position in Haines Institute, Augusta, Ga. Aside from these named schools she has taught school in Newberry, Chester, Union, Lexington, Laurens, and Spartanburg, Counties, South Carolina, and Gordon County, Georgia. She has taught more than a thousand children from the age of thirteen to the present. Mrs. Phelps is also a great Sunday school worker. She spends her vacations in the rural districts teaching the country boy and girl, and on Sunday you will find her gathering the children into the Sunday school. If

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the community has none she will organize a Sunday school. The women in the country look forward with eagerness to her coming for she assists in whatever they do, especially in dressmaking. She has written articles for several papers and some of her friends have urged her to write, but she holds to what she feels is her peculiar calling, that is, the school room.

"The Responsibility of Women as Teachers."


        I HAVE a nature somewhat poetic, and might try to please you with simile, metaphor or trope, but the simplest way of saying things is best. To show you the importance of our subject, we would smite you with the wand of imagination and lead you through "Eden" of old to behold man as he languished, surrounded with all the beauties of nature, in a garden of variegated grandeur, till one more perfect came to bless his home in Paradise. Or we might wander with you through ancient days, in the dark ages of the world's history, and there, among the musty volumes of other ages, the dusty archives of long forgotten generations, read of woman's worth from one parchment, and on another behold the world's wretchedness while she is excluded from society. She was bound by fetters of corruption to endure that which was degrading in itself. Yet we find a sense of pure principle and noble purpose found wherever she is found.

        In the dawn of the Christian era she threw off the manacle which society had placed upon her and rose, step by step, from one degree of usefulness to another, filling almost every honorable position, till she comes forth as man's equal and companion. We wish to speak briefly of her responsibilities and the preparation necessary to meet them, trusting that we may say something or suggest some thought that will help the young women of our race to place more value upon opportunities, and to more thoroughly and thoughtfully prepare themselves for the great work of moulding a more perfect negro race. There are manifold reasons to pause on the threshold of womanhood and ask ourselves: "What is the responsibility of women?" If we

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ask this question it is because it is grave; because society asks it; because we have a responsibility. This in itself is significant.

        The first and most important question with every woman should be: "What did God mean for me to do? Am I preparing myself to meet the demands of my people? Am I equiping myself with the elements that make a true woman?" She who seeks to make herself what God intends her to be is sure of success. Woman's responsibility as teacher is great, grand and awful. Great and grand because of the material used; the thoughtfulness and discretion with which she must labor to make a success. The combined influences, the steadfast purposes, patience and several dispositions that constitute the true man and woman must be so simplified and so developed as to appear so desirable that they will in time become a part of those taught. The responsibility is awful because of the results that will follow. Have you ever thought what a fearful thing it is to shape a character for future usefulness, and instil right principles in an immortal soul?

        The field is vast; more than eight millions of negroes in America; the majority to be taught loyalty to one another, and what it is to be true men and women; for the time may not be far distant when they will be called to fill positions of trust. Who can tell what event will begin a new epoch in the history of our country? Who can tell when the balance of power will be equally weighed among American citizens, and the sons of Ham will be a power? We have everything to hope for, though we sometimes murmur and think that stern Justice takes his nap unusually long. So long, until we have cried in our inmost souls, "How long, O Lord, how long?" But this is deviating from our subject.

        To what extent does woman teach, and where does her tutorage begin? Every woman is a teacher, whether she be worthy or unworthy; whether educated or ignorant. In the home circle, and around the fireside, her teaching begins with the first dawn of intelligence. This is her inalienable right, the charter given by the Almighty hand. It is she who first points out those paths which are so full of pleasantness and peace, and directs the innocent minds to a heavenly Father. She makes her own life a daily example (we speak of the true woman) of all that is pure and ennobling. She it is who teaches those qualities that are so essential to any race or tribe of beings, morality, the cornerstone in the building up of any race; Christianity, the thread that must make the warp and woof of a prosperous people;

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economy, one of the foundation stones that cannot be dispensed with.

        It is woman's responsibility to teach the coming generations to live inside of their means, and to reserve extra pennies for rainy days (they will be sure to come), and secure a home for old age. How many are paid large salaries, "live high," unmindful of the future, and end their existence in the almshouse?

        The time is fast approaching, so near that we can hear his footstep in the distance, when nobody will care for that class of persons who are content to live in poverty. Such have neglected opportunities misused means and wasted time. They are content to know little, and possess less, a universal sentiment, because it is a universal experience. Woman's responsibility is great, and its importance vast, when we analyze it. She alone has the power to set at naught the monster, "ignorance," uproot "base desire," break down the barrier, prejudice, and bury the race problem under the black pall of oblivion, beyond the possibility of a resurrection. Why should they fill positions as public teachers? Why, because our educated men are needed for so many avocations that the work of teaching is left almost wholly to women.

        True we have little or no part in the political arena, but that gives time for preparation and thought. Seeing the awful blunders that politicians now make will but give a clearer insight to them when it is theirs to act and to do. While they may be debarred from the ballot-box, and we cannot even offer them a clerkship after having worked manfully to acquire an education, we know of other fields. We need jewelers, machinists, engineers, lawyers, merchants, physicians and an educated ministry. We need leaders, not only in politics, but in the pulpits, in the pews and everywhere.

        Thirty years have passed since we were liberated from a condition of servitude and extreme degradation to enjoy the rights and privileges as citizens of America. We have waited and looked for a leader these thirty years with such anxiety as did our ancestors two hundred and fifty years ago for the glorious light of freedom. It came. So will a leader. Woman's work in the world is great and multifarious. It is a work which she alone can do. We do not mean to compare her with a man, but compare woman with woman. Judge of what I can do by what I have done; of what women can do by what they have done. She can inspire when man fails. 'Tis hers to uplift, purify and adorn. What great cause of the world has brought about the desired result without woman's help? She did not bring

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down the lightning and connect electricity with thought, that different countries could talk to each other; but what did not the Reformation owe to the clear, womanly insight of Catherine Von Bora? Does not American independence owe much to the courage and steadfast resolution of the women of the Revolution?

        She did not soar on telescopic wings and poise on ethereal pinions amid the fiery planets of the blue canopy to make a catalogue of the stars and discover the laws that govern them, and "unlock their complicated movements;" but we find her shaping character and moulding the minds that sway the government of our country. What does not missions owe to the Christian women of our country? It holds true that

                         "Warriors and statesmen have their meed of praise;
                         And what they suffer men record;
                         But the long sacrifice of woman's day
                         Passes without a thought, a word of praise."

        'Tis woman's responsibility to teach the young men what it is to be true men; what it is to be a loyal man; "a man" in every sense of the word. To teach the young woman to be womanly; that it is honorable to work; that fashionable and frivolous women who live only in self-indulgence and to have a "good time" are a dead weight upon their parents and a blot in society. In the age of chivalry and knighthood the laws of human nature were expressed when the crowning of the victor was assigned to woman's hand. As on the knightly fields, so it is on the great battle-fields of life, contestants and combatants are animated and encouraged by woman's approval and cheering words. If you fail, young women, to use this power, you fail positively, not negatively; so fail that you will drag down instead of elevating. This power is yours, and you cannot change it. It belongs to you as women.

        Catherine de Medici urged and Protestantism died in France. The women of Rome became dissolute, and the Romans were conquered by the barbarians from the North. Esther pleads, and a doomed nation is rescued. Abigail intercedes, and her household is spared. She teaches the king to think of the folly of rashness. Young women, if you are weak, wicked and worldly, men will follow you. as if you were pure. They will seek you, learn of your wicked ways and follow you, even to destruction and death. Knowing these things, equip yourselves with all that make a true and noble woman.

        If you have never been a factor in the upbuilding of your race,

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count up the cost and begin to do your part. If you have never thought of race pride, think now. Not only think, but act well your part. Without the ennobling power of the woman we can never be a great and noble race. If young men aspire to reach the highest pinnacles of fame, they rise but to fall lower, unless the women are pure and will demand respect. Learn to resent insults, young women. Learn to respect and defend the women of our race, young men.

        I would that I had a thousand tongues, and every tongue a thousand voices, and every voice a thousand echoes that could reach from America to the utmost parts of Africa, and I would speak in loudest tone, with animating voice to every negro woman, and bid her take up woman's responsibility, come together and begin to act, begin to do, and exert their power in the right direction, and the world will feel it. Not as it would feel an earthquake shock, but as the globe feels that grand cohesive power which cements its heterogeneous masses and binds them in one harmonious band.



        THE subject of this sketch was born in Lancaster County, South Carolina, March 28, 1859. His father having died when he was but two years old, he was brought up in the home of his grandparents, with whom he and his mother lived until he was sixteen years old. He received the training of the common schools of Lancaster County and entered the senior class of the preparatory department of the South Carolina University, an institution which has sent out some of the first men of the South, in both the civil and the ecclesiastical spheres. He remained in the South Carolina University until he had completed his sophomore year in the classical department. This was the year 1876 when Wade Hampton was elected by the Democratic party Governor of South Carolina, and as a consequence colored students were compelled to withdraw from

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the university. His education being thus suddenly broken off he returned home, assisted his mother and grandmother in harvesting the crop of that year, and then began his career as a teacher in the public schools of his native State. It may be observed here that young Clinton was very much devoted to his mother, and that this devotion was largely the natural result of the pious training which she had given him. The death of his father when he was so young necessarily brought him more fully under the care and training of his mother and more constantly into her association. Without any disparagement to fathers, may not such a situation together with the fact that the boy must more largely rely on himself, explain the advancement and success of many a young man?



Salisbury, N. C.

        While at home young Clinton was appointed to the position of clerk in the office of C. P. Pelham, Auditor of Lancaster County, and remained in this position till called to larger fields as a teacher of his

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race. One incident in connection with his experience in this office deserves special mention, because of its suggestion of the guidance of the unseen hand of Providence. In connection with his other duties he began the study of law in the office of two leading Democratic lawyers of Lancaster, and, as it was recommended by Blackstone, he undertook a close and earnest reading of the Bible. His interest in the Bible soon outgrew his interest in Blackstone and Kent; and, having believed on Him who saves to the uttermost, he abandoned law as a profession and was licensed to preach on February 14, 1879. This was the turning point in his life. He continued preaching and teaching until November, 1891, when he joined the South Carolina Conference of the A. M. E. Zion Church, and forsook all and followed Him.

        From this time on Rev. Mr. Clinton's history is a part of the history of his church in South Carolina and in the nation as a preacher and religious teacher with both tongue and pen. His first appointment as an itinerant preacher was near Chester, S. C. He resided in the town and in order to complete his college course connected himself with Brainard Institute, a high grade institution located there. This was another characteristic and significant step. He must complete the foundation upon which he proposed to build the education of a lifetime.

        While studying in this institution he so commended himself as an earnest and successful student that he was given by Rev. Samuel Loomis, A.M., the principal, a position as teacher which afforded some remuneration and at the same time permitted him to carry out his resolution to complete his college course. He graduated with high rank, and entered more regularly upon the work of the intinerant ministry in his conference. He continued in this capacity seven years when he was transferred by Bishop S. T. Jones, D.D., to the Allegheny Conference to take the difficult appointment of John Wesley Church, Pittsburgh, Pa., perhaps the most important appointment west of New York. In this appointment he followed one of the most experienced and successful men in the entire connection and one who, it was thought, had carried "John Wesley" to its highwater mark. But out subject made a new mark for her, and gave her a record and standing which alike astonished and delighted the membership and the chief pastors under whom he labored.

        The proof of the success of his management of this church was given in the manner in which it entertained the great General Conference

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of 1892. This appointment may be considered to mark the end of the first stage of Rev. Mr Clinton's career as a rising young divine of his church.

        Before proceeding to review the second stage of his career, it would be proper to remark that during almost the entire period of Rev. Mr. Clinton's itinerancy in the South Carolina Conference he was without question the leading man of the conference, confessedly the standard by which the best material of the conference was gauged. He was a sort of standing secretary of the conference and perpetual compiler and publisher of the minutes. This distinction was due in no sense to an inclination to favoritism on the part of the conference. He won it by his merit as an accurate, painstaking, scholarly worker, and nobody thought of anything else than that this business of the conference was in his hands. When he was transferred he was conference steward or connectional treasurer of the conference, showing that his colleagues saw in him not only scholarship but sound business methods and unwavering integrity. These characteristics of Rev. Mr. Clinton had already opened up to him the columns of the leading papers of his State, like the Charleston News and Courier, the Charleston Sun, the Century, the Union Times, and the Landcaster Ledger, and all the colored journals sought him.

        His contributions to these periodicals always furnished evidence of thought, literary taste and scholarship. Editor Clinton's popularity in his conference and his influence in his State were the means by which the writer first came to a knowledge of his usefulness and prospects.

        Returning now to the beginning of the second stage of his career, we find him the accomplished, eloquent and popular pastor of John Wesley Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. From this time on South Carolina can claim him only in common with other portions of the great church of which he has now become a leading figure. Even before he left South Carolina, as a representative of his conference in the General Conferences at New York and New Bern, N. C., his merits were acknowledged by the general church in his being chosen assistant secretary at both these conferences; and at the latter he was also created one of the commissioners of the A. M. E. Zion Church to confer with similar representatives of the C. M. E. Church on Organic Union. But along with his appointment to Pittsburgh, the church urges consideration of his as a suitable man to succeed Hon. John C. Dancey as editor of the church organ, the Star of Zion.

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Rev. Mr. Clinton had long ago demonstrated his right to such consideration by his luminous contributions to the papers above referred to as well as to the Star of Zion, and in Pittsburgh as editor of the Afro-American Spokesman, to which position he was chosen by the colored ministers of Western Pennsylvania of all denominations, he proved beyond a doubt that he had talent and calling in that direction. But he gives further and conclusive demonstration of his fitness for the position that was evidently looming up for him by projecting, founding and runnning the A. M. E. Zion Church Quarterly. This effort showed not only his genius for organization but his ability to manage successfully a large and important literary venture. He ran the Quarterly on his own resources for two years and then turned it over to the General Conference in Pittsburgh without a cent of cost to the connection. The Quarterly is now one of the established institutions of the church, and if Editor Clinton had originated and established no other great enterprise this would be sufficient to give him perpetual fame in the church. But brilliant and creditable as is this effort of his it is only the door by which he enters into larger avenues of usefulness to his church and his race. At the General Conference in Pittsburgh in 1892, he was elected by a good majority to the place of editor of the Star of Zion, his church organ. He was by this choice elevated to one of the most responsible and distinguished positions in his church--a position of honor and one matched only by the Presidency of Livingston College in its requirements for scholarship, broad culture and sound judgment as a good business man and high executive officer of the connection.

        Editor Clinton's genius to originate is powerfully evidenced also by the following fact: In February 1893 while attending the Florida Conference, he conceived the idea, and planned its execution, which has culminated in the Varrick Memorial Hall and Publishing House of the A. M. E. Zion Church in Charlotte, N. C. He presented his plan to the Board of Bishops in its semi-annual session in Birmingham in March, 1893, and the fruit thereof will be the connection's great plant at Charlotte, N. C., which in its development will undoubtedly become an honor to the mind that conceived as well as to the church which carries it to success.

        By way of incident, but a very significant incident, it may be remarked that it was Editor Clinton who proposed the organization of our Sunday School Union and who headed the committee that formulated the plan for carrying out the organization. Editor Clinton has

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been progressive not only in the sense that contemplates personal advancement, but he has also manifested a noteworthy philanthropy and public spirit. As an evidence of his philanthropic spirit it may be related that he has assisted seven students through Livingston College, some of whom have gone forward to advanced scholarship and have already achieved considerable success in the professional walks of life. His public spirit was signally illustrated by the brave and courageous part which he took in the famous Flemon-Yeddell case. His earnest and untiring efforts to secure to Flemon justice and his perilous trip to Western South Carolina during the trial were no small part of the means which brought about the acquittal of Flemon.

        No sketch of Editor Clinton would be complete that did not include some reference to his relation as husband and to the influence of his wife on his young manhood. At the early age of twenty-one he married Miss E. J. Peay, of Rock Hill, S. C., who was also a student at Brainard Institute, the alma mater of her husband. This was a most happy union and it is but just to say that Mrs. Clinton was a large factor in the rapid progress and advancement of her husband. The writer was an eye witness of the halo of grace and gentle inspiration which her presence cast around the home of which she was the center. But alas! As the bud fadeth in the time of its sweetest fragrance her soul eluded the grasp of time and was transplanted to the great beyond where it fadeth not for evermore.

        The memory of the General Conference of 1892 becomes poignant only in the vididness of this other precious memory, but its poignancy becomes soothing when we remember what sister Clinton illustrated in her life and won in her death. But the picture must be changed for the final view. Editor Clinton's life has been hallowed in her taking away and his consecration is only increased. He is moving on to brighter goals of success. He is now bending all his energies toward making "The Star of Zion" thoroughly worthy of the great organization which it represents. He is a fair specimen of Zion's coming men, and is making a conspicuous record not only for himself but for his church. One of the proofs in point is the invitation extended to him by Principal Washington, of Tuskegee (Ala.) Institute, to deliver a series of lectures on the Bible in his institution. He is thus chosen as the representative of his church, to do this service calling for theological learning and a wide acquaintance with letters. It will be according to his custom to fill this engagement

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with credit to himself and profit to his hearers. He is characterized by a lucidness of speech and a forcefulness of utterance which mark for him a towering place among the leaders of his church as a preacher and public speaker, and his logical and earnest style together with his sterling integrity guarantees to him no decline in his ascent of the higher heights of Zion.


[For eleven years editor and proprietor of the "Cleveland Gazette," and a member of the Ohio Legislature.]


        THE well known subject of this sketch was born in Clarksburg, West Virginia, on the 28th of January, 1863. He was taken to Cleveland, his present home, in 1865. Here he attended the schools of the city from an early age, finishing in 1882. During the next year he devoted his entire time to the study of band and orchestral music. In this he also reached distinction. The same desire to rise above mediocrity and thereby demand respect for himself and race because of his fitness and thorough preparation for the work of life, took possession of him here as in his earlier life. He lost no time, but continued to plod upward. The result is, that as a young man of scholarly attainments, of comprehensive views, as a journalist and musician--especially a cornetist--he stands to-day facile princeps among the first colored citizens in the State of Ohio.

        In addition to his editorial duties, for years Mr. Smith was leader and musical director of the famous Excelsior Cornet Band, of Cleveland, Ohio. His compositions have found ready sale, especially his song and chorus, "Be True, Bright Eyes," now known throughout the country.

        In August, 1883, H. C. Smith, with three other gentlemen, launched the Cleveland (Ohio) Gazette upon the sea of journalism. Since that time, however, he has become sole owner and proprietor. This paper has proved a success, and is now by far the best colored paper published in the State of Ohio, and is one among the best edited by colored

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journalists in the United States. It is vigorous in tone, fearless in its defense of right, an uncompromising enemy of predjudice in all its forms, a strong advocate of equal rights to all men without distinction, and a staunch Republican in politics, with principle rather than expediency as its basis.

        Mr. Smith has always wielded a fearless and able pen for right and truth. He has fought squarely in behalf of his race, demanding for it recognition wherever denied. No other proof of this is needed


Cleveland, Ohio.

than the Gazelte itself. The Hon. Frederick Douglass wrote: "In the midst of hurried preparations for a long tour in Europe, I snatch my pen and spend a few moments to tell you how completely I sympathize with your political attitude." Then, again, he adds: "I do exhort your readers to stand by you in your effort to lead the colored citizens of Ohio to wise political action."

        Though at times Mr. Smith has been severely criticised, he has never varied from what he considered his duty. He believes that the Republican party conserves the best interests of the Negro, and thereupon he becomes its able and active defender. His articles are read with both pleasure and profit, to which fact is largely due the increased and increasing circulation of the Gazette.

        The Republican governors of Ohio are indebted to Mr. Smith about

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as much as to any one journalist, colored or white, in the State. The colored members of the Ohio Assembly have always had a strong supporter in the editor of the Gazette. A few years ago he was appointed a Deputy State Oil Inspector, at Cleveland (the first Afro-American in the North so recognized) and held the position four years, until the election of a Democratic governor (Campbell). This appointment not only fittingly recognized the race, but the individual in the choice of one in every way qualified for the position and especially deserving of the appointment. The bond required was $5,000. This he soon secured in the persons of three of the oldest and most respected colored citizens of Cleveland. Mr. Smith is what we might call a self-made man, as it is through his own indefatigable efforts that he has reached his present position in life.

        He is the author of several pieces of music for the guitar, in addition to compositions for the voice and piano. His various public utterances rank him as an active, wide-awake observer of passing events. Broad in his views he is withal charitable, zealous and conscientious. He is, perhaps, the first colored member of a white press association in the North, and is one of the youngest of our leading editors.

        H. C. Smith is one of the young men of whom we all may feel proud and from whom we may justly expect an ever increasing career of honor and usefulness. His election to the Ohio Legislature at the election held November 7, 1893, by a majority of over 8,000 over his Democratic opponent (white) in a county (Cuyahoga) which polls over 40,000 Republiacn votes (about 2,000 being those of Afro-Americans), is indeed a fitting recognition of Mr. Smith's ability and worth as a man.

        In order to secure the nomination, he had to contest with a very popular white Republican who had served in the preceding assembly. Nominations are made in Cuyahoga County under what is termed "the popular vote plan." That is, Republicans go to the polls on the day of the primaries and vote direct to nominate as all voters do to elect on election day. The same care is taken by the Board of Elections with the vote of the primaries as with the election day vote. The following from the Indianapolis (Ind.) Freeman, is pertinent.

        "When the voters of 'Old Cuyahoga,' in Ohio, were casting about for a representative to send to the legislature, the Freeman shied its castor in the ring for Editor Smith, of the Gazette, as a proper and fit

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person to be selected for the honor. Mr. Smith received the nomination and was triumphantly elected, and his record as he has made it up to this time has amply vindicated the choice and judgment of his constituents. Mr. Smith has quickly and easily taken first place among the three Afro-American representatives selected by the voters of the Buckeye State to assist in making laws, and is in fact one of the few marked and growing young members who have succeeded in making themselves noticed and esteemed for the merit and value of their work. A few days since the colored citizens of Oberlin held a mass meeting, at which the following resolution was reported and adopted:

        Resolved, That we do most heartily commend Hon. H. C. Smith, our representative in the Ohio Legislature, for the manly stand in behalf of equal rights for all citizens of Ohio he has taken.

THOMAS JENNY, Chairman. GEO. W. M. LUCAS, Secretary.

        His bill against lynching drawn upon lines suggested by Judge Albion W. Tourgee, attracted even more attention than the Civil Rights bill he had passed. Mr. Smith did good work for his white constituents also which they thoroughly appreciate. His term expires November 7, 1895. It is customary to elect members for a second term who make a good record. There is no doubt of his renomination and re-election should he desire it. Two of Cuyahoga's eight legislators are Afro-Americans. Our lives are measured by what we accomplish and not by "paltry years of existence."

Shall I Take a Paper?

        AT this season of the year, when publishers are making special offers to the reading public, we are all debating the mental fare with which we shall spread our table in 1895. We ought to have first a good church paper thoroughly representative of our denomination.

        The Methodist ought to have the South- Western Advocate, published at New Orleans; the African Methodist ought to have the Christian Recorder, published at Philadelphia; the Congregationalist ought to have The Congregationalist, published at Boston, or the The Advance, published at Chicago, and so on for the Baptists, Episcopalians,

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Evangelists and other denominations among us. Each home ought to have its church paper. Next to that stands some good clean helpful race journal. Get one, in the columns of which the editors are seeking to help the race up, and not working to pull it down. When you subscribe for a race journal get one in which the editors display not pessimistic, but optimistic views of the race.

        It will be well to remember that it takes brains to edit a newspaper, and men who have not been trained to think are hardly men to be entrusted with the perilous task of giving direction to public opinion. The editorial chair requires more than that culture gotten from the reading of newspapers. The editor who is sending out week by week his paper into the world ought to be able to grapple with the problems of the day and think them through. There is too much guessing on the grave social problems of the day by editors. Riots and mobs are the result of false teaching, both on the part of the hotheaded anarchists and incompetent editors who are not anachists. In selecting your race journal for the next year find one whose editorial columns show moderation, and one which is not always squared off with a chip on its shoulder daring someone to knock it off. The paper which busies itself with fighting its contemporaries cannot be of very much help to you. When you raise the question about taking a race journal remember there are two reasons especially to be remembered why you should. The first is a duty you owe to yourself to keep up with the movements among your own people. Second, you owe it to the race to support laudable enterprises which look to the betterment of the race. Let us remember, too, that the press, the pulpit and the platform have been the great liberators of the nations In this land of ours we need the influence of all of these to plead our cause up and down the length of our land. Put some good race weekly on your list for 1895.--Cleveland (Ohio) Gazette.

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        The following is a list of newspapers and magazines edited and published by and for Afro-Americans. Alphabetically arranged by States:

1 Birmingham Harrison's Pet Weekly.
2 Birmingham Wide Awake Weekly.
3 Birmingham Southern Broadaxe Weekly.
4 Eutaw Weekly Blade Weekly.
5 Huntsville Huntsville Gazette Weekly.
6 Huntsville Huntsville Journal Weekly.
7 Huntsville Southern Freeman Weekly.
8 Huntsville The Independent Weekly.
9 Lovan The Eagle Weekly.
10 Mobile Southern Watchman Weekly.
11 Mobile Ferret Journal Weekly.
12 Mobile Weekly Sentinel Weekly.
13 Mobile West Alabama Advocate Weekly.
14 Montgomery The Argus Weekly.
15 Montgomery Baptist Leader Weekly.
16 Montgomery Odd Fellow's Journal Monthly.
17 Opelika The People's Choice Weekly.
18 Selma Student's Voice Weekly.
19 Tuskegee The Tuskegee Student Monthly.
20 Fort Smith The Post Weekly.
21 Helena Helena Progress Weekly.
22 Little Rock Arkansas Dispatch Weekly.
23 Little Rock Baptist Vanguard Weekly.
24 Osceola Afro-American Leader Weekly.
25 Pine Bluff The Echo Weekly.
26 Los Angeles The Vindicator Weekly.
27 Los Angeles The Eagle Weekly.

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28 Los Angeles The Hustler Weekly.
29 Los Angeles Weekly Examiner Weekly.
30 San Francisco The Elevator Weekly.
31 San Francisco Western Outlook Weekly.
32 Colorado Springs Western Enterprise Weekly.
33 Denver Exponent Weekly.
34 Denver Denver Statesman Weekly.
35 Pueblo Pueblo Times Weekly.
36 New Haven Zion's Trumpet Weekly.
37 Wilmington Twilight Weekly.
38 Washington The Bee Weekly.
39 Washington The Colored American Weekly.
40 Washington The Globe Daily.
41 Washington The Pilot Weekly.
42 Washington Woman's Tribune Weekly.
43 Washington National Baptist Messenger Quarterly.
44 Washington The Zion Methodist Weekly.
45 Gainesville Florida Sentinel Weekly.
46 Live Oak Florida Baptist Weekly.
47 Jacksonville Southern Courier Weekly.
48 Jacksonville The Daily American Daily.
49 Jacksonville The Advocate Weekly.
50 Winter Park Winter Park Advocate Weekly.
51 Athens The Clipper Weekly.
52 Albany The Dispatch Weekly.
53 Americus People's Messenger Weekly.
54 Atlanta The People's Advocate Weekly.
55 Atlanta Voice of Missions Monthly.
56 Atlanta The Georgia Speaker Monthly.
57 Atlanta Spellman Messenger Monthly.
58 Atlanta Hope Spellman Seminary Monthly.
59 Atlanta Atlanta Times Weekly.
60 Atlanta Southern Appeal Weekly.
61 Augusta Georgia Baptist Weekly.
62 Augusta Augusta Sentinel Weekly.
63 Augusta Methodist Union Weekly.
64 Augusta The Haines Journal Monthly.
65 Blakely The Mouthpiece Weekly.
66 Brunswick The Gleaner Weekly.

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67 Cartersville The Negro Educational Journal Monthly.
68 Dalton Dalton Argus Weekly.
69 Eastman Negro Exponent Weekly.
70 Rome Baptist Banner Weekly.
71 Rome People's Journal Weekly.
72 Rome The Woman's World Semi-Monthly
73 Savannah Labor Union Weekly.
74 Savannah Recorder Weekly.
75 Savannah Tribune Weekly.
76 Valdosta Black and White Weekly.
77 Chicago A. M. E. Record Weekly.
78 Chicago Appeal Weekly.
79 Chicago Bee Weekly.
80 Chicago Brotherhood Weekly.
81 Chicago Chicago Legal News Weekly.
82 Chicago Chicago Standard Weekly.
83 Chicago Chicago Clipper Weekly.
84 Chicago Church Organ Weekly.
85 Chicago Conservator Weekly.
86 Chicago Christian Science Monthly.
87 Chicago Free Speech Weekly.
88 Peoria The Negro Problem Weekly.
89 Springfield State Capital Weekly.
90 Indianapolis The Freeman Weekly.
91 Indianapolis The World Weekly.
92 Terre Haute Afro-American Journal Weekly.
93 Lee Creek Nation Weekly Sun Weekly.
94 Des Moines The Avalanche Weekly.
95 Des Moines The Bystander Weekly.
96 Atchison The Blade Weekly.
97 Coffeeville Afro-American Advocate Weekly.
98 Coffeeville Kansas Blackman Weekly.
99 Kansas City American Citizen Weekly.
100 Leavenworth Leavenworth Herald Weekly.
101 Parsons Weekly Blade Weekly.
102 Topeka The Call Weekly.
103 Topeka State Ledger Weekly.
104 Witchita National Baptist World Weekly.

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105 Hopkinsville Indicator Weekly.
106 Henderson Gleaner Weekly.
107 Lexington The Standard Weekly.
108 Louisville American Baptist Weekly.
109 Louisville National Baptist Messenger Quarterly.
110 Louisville Ohio Falls Weekly.
111 Louisville Zion's Banner Weekly.
112 New Orleans The Crescent Monthly.
113 New Orleans Journal of the Lodge Weekly.
114 New Orleans Christian Herald Weekly.
115 New Orleans Crusader Daily.
116 New Orleans People's Reporter Monthly.
117 New Orleans South Western Christian Advocate Weekly.
118 New Orleans The Ferret Weekly.
119 New Orleans The Monitor Weekly.
120 Baltimore Afro-American Weekly.
121 Baltimore Church Advocate Weekly.
122 Baltimore Prohibition Advocate Weekly.
123 Baltimore The Colored Harvester Weekly.
124 Elkton The Dawn Monthly.
125 Marlborough The Crusader Weekly.
126 Augusta The Wide World Weekly.
127 Boston The Courant Weekly.
128 Boston Watchman Weekly.
129 Boston Advocate Weekly.
130 Boston Woman's Era Weekly.
131 Boston Woman's Journal Monthly.
132 Boston Woman's Column Monthly.
133 Boston Boston Banner Weekly.
134 Boston The Republican Weekly.
135 Detroit American Catholic Weekly.
136 Detroit Detroit Plaindealer Weekly.
137 Detroit National Independent Weekly.
138 Detroit The Beacon Light Weekly.
139 St. Paul The Appeal Weekly.

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140 Columbus New Light Semi-Monthly
141 Columbus Baptist Reflector Weekly.
142 Jackson People's Defender Weekly.
143 Jackson The Jackson Light Monthly.
144 Jackson The Messenger Semi-Monthly
145 Meridian Fair Play Weekly.
146 Natchez The Brotherhood Weekly.
147 Natchez The Reporter Monthly.
148 Senatobia The Baptist Herald Weekly.
149 Shaw The News Weekly.
150 Hamilton Baptist Standard Weekly.
151 Kansas City Future State Weekly.
152 Kansas City Gate City Press Weekly.
153 Kansas City The American Citizen Weekly.
154 Kansas City Kansas City Messenger Weekly.
155 Independence The International Monthly.
156 Moberly Christian Recorder Weekly.
157 Moberly Western Optic Weekly.
158 Pine Bluff The Echo Weekly.
259 Sedalia Sedalia International Monthly.
160 Sedalia Afro-American Weekly.
161 St. Louis St. Louis Advocate Weekly.
162 St. Louis Missionary Record Monthly.
163 Omaha Progress Weekly.
164 Omaha Enterprise Weekly.
165 Omaha Afro-American Sentinel Weekly.
166 Newark New Jersey Trumpet Weekly.
167 New York The Echo Weekly.
168 New York The Age Weekly.
169 New York The Examiner Weekly.
170 New York Union Times Weekly.
171 New York National Temperance Advocate Weekly.
172 New York Home Mission Monthly.
173 Brooklyn National Monitor Weekly.
174 Buffalo The Basis Weekly.
175 Charlotte Afro-American Press Weekly.
176 Charlotte The Messenger Weekly.
177 Charlotte Baptist Pilot Monthly.
178 Raleigh The Gazette Weekly.
179 Raleigh North Carolina Sun Weekly.

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180 Readsville Baptist Headlight Weekly.
181 Salisbury Star of Zion Weekly.
182 Salisbury Livingston Monthly.
183 Winston The Student Monthly.
184 Wilmington A. M. E. Zion Quarterly.
185 Wilmington The Afro-American Presbyterian Weekly.
186 Albany The Diadem Weekly.
187 Cleveland The Gazette Weekly.
188 Cleveland Ringwood Journal of Fashion Monthly.
189 Cleveland Voice of the People Weekly.
190 Cincinnati American Catholic Tribune Monthly.
191 Cincinnati Journal and Messenger Weekly.
192 Cincinnati The Race Problem Weekly.
193 Cincinnati Old Hughes Monthly.
194 Ringwood American Journal Monthly.
195 Springfield The Beacon Weekly.
196 Toledo Afro-American Standard Weekly.
197 Langston City The Herald Weekly.
198 Philadelphia The Christian Banner Weekly.
199 Philadelphia Astonisher Weekly.
200 Philadelphia The Speck Weekly.
201 Philadelphia The Christian Recorder Weekly.
202 Philadelphia Independent Advocate Weekly.
203 Philadelphia Masonic Herald Weekly.
204 Philadelphia Weekly Tribune Weekly.
205 Philadelphia Standard Echo Weekly.
206 Philadelphia A. M. E. Church Review Quarterly.
207 Pittsburg The Spokesman Weekly.
208 Pittsburg The Broadaxe Weekly.
209 Providence New England Torch Light Weekly.
210 Providence The Sun Weekly.
211 Aikin Court House Little Observer Semi-Monthly
212 Beaufort New South Weekly.
213 Bennettsville Pee Dee Educator Semi-Monthly
214 Brunson Hampton County Elevator Weekly.
215 Charleston Enquirer Weekly.
216 Charleston Messenger Weekly.
217 Chester South Carolina Herald Weekly.
218 Columbia People's Recorder Weekly.
219 Florence Baptist Herald Semi-Monthly
220 Valcluse South Carolina Tribune Weekly.

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221 Athens Watchman Weekly.
222 Clarksville Montgomery Pilot Weekly.
223 Columbia Headlight Semi-Monthly
224 Fayetteville Colored Presbyterian (Cumberland) Weekly.
225 Jackson Christian Index Weekly.
226 Knoxville The Herald Weekly.
227 Knoxville Negro World Weekly.
228 Knoxville Weekly Gleaner Weekly.
229 Lebanon The Gleaner Weekly.
230 Memphis Head and Hand Monthly.
231 Memphis Afro-American Weekly.
232 Memphis The Baptist Messenger Weekly.
233 Memphis The Christian Herald Weekly.
234 Memphis The Living Way Weekly.
235 Memphis The Watchman Weekly.
236 Nashville The Citizen Weekly.
237 Nashville Fisk Herald monthly.
238 Nashville Central Tennessee College Record monthly.
239 Nashville Tennessee Baptist Weekly.
240 Nashville The Bugle Blast Weekly.
241 Nashville Immaculate Headlight ----
242 Nashville Hope Monthly.
243 Nashville The Bulletin Weekly.
244 Austin Herald Weekly.
245 Beaumont Beaumont Leader Weekly.
246 Beaumont Weekly Advertiser Weekly.
247 Corsicana The Reflector Weekly.
248 Dallas Missionary Reporter ----
249 Dallas Southern Mercury Weekly.
250 Dallas The Baptist Star Weekly.
251 Fort Worth The Item Weekly.
252 Fort Worth The Organizer Weekly.
253 Galveston Freeman's Journal Weekly.
254 Galveston Galveston Witness Weekly.
255 Houston The Texas Freeman Weekly.
256 Hearn The Hearn Academy Monthly.
257 Kaufman Kaufman Pilot Weekly.
258 Navasota The Echo Weekly.
259 Prairie View State Normal Monthly.
260 San Antonio The Texas Globe Weekly.
261 San Antonio The Blade Weekly.
262 Leguin The New Test Weekly.
263 Waco The Searchlight Weekly.
264 Sult Lake City Western Recorder Weekly.
265 Sult Lake City Womens' Exponent Weekly.

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266 Alexandria Zion's Leader Weekly.
267 Alexandria The Christian Clipper Weekly.
268 Boydton Midland Express Weekly.
269 South Boston The Boston Banner Weekly.
270 Birkley Atlantic Baptist Weekly.
271 Cappahossic Clancester Letter Weekly.
272 Danville The Methodist Weekly.
273 Graham Headlight Weekly.
274 Lawrenceville Southern Messenger Semi-Monthly
275 Lynchburg Counselor Herald Weekly.
276 Lynchburg The Laborer Weekly.
277 Manchester Manchester Weekly Weekly.
278 Newport News The Caret Monthly.
279 Norfolk The Speaker Weekly.
280 Norfolk The Rambler Weekly.
281 Norfolk Recorder Weekly.
282 Petersburg The Herald Weekly.
283 Petersburg The Recorder Weekly.
284 Petersburg Petersburg Lancet Weekly.
285 Petersburg V. N. and C. T. Gazette Weekly.
286 Petersburg National Pilot Quarterly.
287 Port Royal The Press Weekly.
288 Richmond The Planet Weekly.
289 Richmond Southern News Weekly.
290 Richmond Woman's Weekly--Virginia Reporter Weekly.
291 Richmond Young Men's Friend Monthly.
292 Richmond The Times Weekly.
293 Richmond The State Weekly.
294 Richmond The Weekly Cyclone Weekly.
295 Richmond The Performer Weekly.
296 Richmond Religious Herald Weekly.
297 Roanoke Roanoke Daily Press Daily.
298 Suffolk Christian Visitor Monthly.
299 Vanna Grove Henrico News Weekly.
300 Martinsburg Pioneer Press Weekly.
301 Montgomery The Baptist Pioneer Weekly.
302 Parkersburg The Freeman Weekly.
303 Milwaukee Northwestern Recorder Weekly.
304 Seattle The Seattle Republican Weekly.

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        In 1852, when all England and many persons in the United States were greatly enthused and cited to action in defense of the Negroes of this country, who were being crushed and demoralized by the cruel hand of slavery as portrayed by Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe in her famous book known as Uncle Tom's Cabin, there was born to Alexander and Martha Harris, on the 10th day of August, 1852, in the little village of Carthage, Ind., a girl child who was destined to become an instrument in the hands of God for the defense of her people and the cause of temperance. I refer to the lady whose name graces the head of this article, which is a biographic sketch of her life. Mrs. M. A. McCurdy acquired the rudiments of an education in the mixed schools of Rush County, but deprived of the privilege of attending any other college, by the death of her father, nevertheless she was so determined to fit herself for usefulness that she sought diligently for knowledge obtained from books that prepared her for teaching a county school near her home, long ere she was nineteen years old. Soon after the close of her school she was wedded to J. A. Mason, and for more than eight years filled with profit and precision the worthy position of wife and mother, never failing in the meantime to embrace opportunities presented wherein she could glean knowledge necessary to fit her for the promotion of causes that honor God and elevate humanity.

        During the course of time mentioned the all-wise Giver of good gifts and one who doeth all things right took to heaven her four jewels and suffered her to become deprived of her husband. Thus left to herself she became more anxious to do something to elevate humanity, and accordingly became identified with other ladies of Richmond, Ind., in the temperance cause.

        In the year 1884 she became first the secretary, and in a few weeks the editress of the only temperance paper at that time in the city. Through the columns of the paper she became widely known as a staunch advocate of the temperance cause, and was the first person

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Rome, Ga.

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to sound the alarm of prohibition. At a public meeting held by the white people of that city, being of a philanthropic and missionary disposition, a desire to go South where the greatest good could be done for her race, seized hold of her, and through the kindness of Rev. J. M. Townsend, Bishop H. M. Turner and wife offered her a home. Therefore, on the 26th of January, 1886, she landed in Atlanta, Ga., the Gate City of the South, and became a member of the good Bishop's family, and when that learned divine caused to appear on the 25th of September, 1886, the neat journal, known as the Southern Recorder, she became its efficient secretary and served as editor pro tem of the same for at least half the time that it was the property of Bishop Turner, and was therefore styled the mother of the Recorder by many of its supporters. The good Bishop enjoyed frequent hearty laughs over many things said in other papers concerning the wise sayings in his paper that were thought to be his but were things said by Mrs. M. A. Mason, the secretary.

        She is neither a poet nor a fiction writer, but is indeed a ready writer upon subjects of solid and philanthropic character, as has been seen or proven by her utterances in papers South and West. During her four years' stay in Atlanta, Ga., she built up a fine mission in it, St. James A. M. E. Church, of that city. She served as superintendent of the Sunday school in the above church for three years; visited the chain gang in the interest of the temperance cause; acted as secretary of local and county W. C. T. U., and did so much other Christian work, that when Rev. C. McCurdy, of Rome, Ga., did on the 16th of July, 1890, take her unto himself as wife there were many hearts made sad in the Gate City of the South.



        Her coming to Rome has proven to be a great blessing to all the people in many ways. Socially, she has contributed no little to society. She has entered the homes of the people and has been the means of inspiration as well as the means to incite them to greater excellence in morals and religion. She has never had in mind this

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thought, that virtue and intelligence are the greatest interests of a community including all others, and worth all others, and the noblest agency is that by which they are advanced. She is ever active in fostering the truths which are calculated to fit the people into whom she plants them, for the greatest usefulness to God and man. In this she has been eminently successful. She visits daily damp and dark cellars where the people are found in squalor and destitution, and like the good Samaritan she comforts the sorrowing, pours oil upon the wounds of the wounded, feeds the hungry, clothes the naked, and like a messenger from the celestial world points the lost and straying to Jesus, the world's Redeemer and heaven. No home is too humble for her to enter, no person too base for her to labor to save.


        The industrial work which has been done by her has been a blessing to the people throughout this city with its fifteen thousand inhabitants. An organization known as the "Rome Branch of the Needle Work Guild of America," was organized two years ago, in which time it has grown to an immense proportion. Three hundred and three garments have been made and distributed indiscriminately throughout this city and vicinity, also to orphans' homes of Atlanta, Ga.


        She is now serving as Corresponding Secretary of State of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union for the State of Georgia, performing the arduous and difficult work with apparent ease, and certainly she gives the highest satisfaction. Her eminent fitness and ability to do the work make her one of the foremost women of the State, if not the foremost in the State. She has served as editress of the temperance column in the National Presbyterian. In this position she is apt to teach the reading public and thereby leaving upon them the impress or her noble spirit. One has only to read her articles to become a total abstainer. The truths which she has sent forth have at all times been sharper than any two-edged sword. Certainly if the people knew the good that has been accomplished by her they would be convinced more than at any age that "the pen is mightier than the sword." She is a cogent writer; always forceful and impressive whether writing or speaking. Her productions must always live because they will be read with interest by all the peoplle, whether erudite or otherwise.

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        In this department of the great church which has for many years sought to secure the good of man and the glory of God, this great woman is actively engaged in leading the child out while his mind is pliant and susceptible and preparing him for his life work. She is beyond any reasonable doubt better qualified for so great a cause than any of whom it has been my privilege to meet. Her intellectual culture, her religious stamina and her interest in the youth of our land give her the essential merits which the importance of the case demands.


        All who know anything about this work know how difficult it is to do this work accurately. Yet the subject of this sketch has done this work most acceptably and creditably. Her broad experience upon all lines of work makes her useful almost to a limitless degree.


        In the first place she is loyal to her church. The pastor has ever in her a faithful ally; the church an unceasing and untiring worker; the Christian Endeavor and Sunday school, a loving, wise and diligent teacher, one who is in every way possessed with the sublime capability of pushing forward the cause which she so earnestly advocates. The work has been enhanced greatly by her effort. Indeed there is doubt in my mind as to whether anyone has been able to do so much work for God and the whole people as she has done.


        This is a paper devoted to the intellectual, moral and spiritual interest of the people. It has met with marked success as it has gone forth, laden with rich things to bless and uplift and strengthen the minds of the people in their home, like autumn leaves to enrich our earth. It has been wisely and ably managed. The editress is an ardent and firm advocate of woman's suffrage. Seeing she is president of the local W. C. T. U., she believes if women had the right of franchise the infernal liquor traffic would be banished from the land so as never to return to blot the pages of the history of our fair country. In either of these departments of work she has not only made herself known and felt in this city but throughout the State and in all of the important cities. She is the beginner of

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reforms in society; as such she is deservedly popular, esteemed and honored by all. During last Christmas the Mayor of this city had all of the barrooms and drunkerries of this city closed. It is known by many that such an achievement in the history of this city was never accomplished before. It was due to the strong Christian influence of this noble woman. She is an uncompromising foe of this liquor demon and is bent upon his utter destruction. The paper she edits is arrayed against him, her speeches, her articles and her prayers. The difficulty with which she has sustained and kept the W. C. T. U. in this place, where drunkerries meet the gaze of the eye, is in many respects remarkable and bespeaks volumes for her, and must finally result in the downfall of the monster and the final triumph of her tears, prayers, faith and work. She unconsciously throws herself into all she says and does. She is putting spirit into the age, old and young; she labors upon immortal nature; she is laying the foundation of unperishable excellence and happiness. Her work will outlive empires and the stars.



                         "What 'ere thy race or speech, thou art the same,
                         Before thy eyes duty, a constant flame,
                         Shines always steadfast with unchanging light
                         Through dark days and through bright."

        WHEN the Negro was brought to America as a slave and thus held for more than two hundred years, he was robbed of all privileges allotted to mankind to compete morally, intellectually and politically with other races, and as a natural consequence, his five senses became dormant to an alarming extent, and thus made him a subservient creature with but a faint hope of ever being relieved and allowed to exercise his faculties in common with other men. Time upon fleet wings rolled on, the Negro ever submissive and obedient to his earthly master, trustful, prayerful and always confiding in his Heavenly Father, did so ingratiate himself to many, as to cause them to conceive the idea of liberating the slave and then place him on equality to a limited extent with other races of this

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country. This being done, more than 4,000,000 souls found themselves in great need of improvement from a moral, intellectual and financial standpoint, and accordingly sought the aid of friends, who came from the North and other points to their rescue, and have assisted very largely in placing the Negro on the road of intellectual success by the public school system, the erection of colleges and other institutions of learning, that have benefited him quite materially. But all that does not suffice to make him the peer of others in character, morals and political requisites. True, churches can be seen with their spires pointing upward in every village, town and city throughout the United States, owned by the Negro, but they do not serve to save the great number of souls in the higyways and hedges who are starving for the want of that Heavenly Manna that is in the hands of the Anglo-Saxon and Afro-Americans, who employ them to serve in the capacity of servants and come in contact with them as they go about their daily avocations; neither do the churches serve to right the political wrongs. Duty in that respect has not shown itself, it seems to have taken leave of its "strong aid, champion conscience," consequently thousands of human beings are now writhing in the agonies of sinfulness in their forlorn and poverty-stricken homes, while the penitentiaries and other prisonhouses of the land, poorhouses, insane asylums and the few reformatory schools known are oftener crowded than otherwise by those who have been neglected at a time in their lives when they could have been approached and saved from sin and utter distruction of mind and morals, and thus escaped the pangs of deranged senses, the excrutiating pains and scorching fevers that prey upon the vitals of physical wrecks, the horrors of dungeons and cells in prisons, untimely graves and the judgment of an avenging God who says that none but righteous shall see his face and live with him in glory. Then more and more manifestly appears the Duty of the State to the Negro from a political standpoint. True the right of equal franchise is said to have been given to the Negro (males) in a very short time after his emancipation, and we doubt not but that his emancipators fully intended that he should take an unmolested part in the acts of life that make up the mighty drama, and in that way prove himself to be the equal of other races in thought, word and deed, and thus assist mightily in supporting the constitution of the United States, and die, if it need be, in defense of the flag of this great republic; but in many instances he has been deprived of a free exercise of his

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franchisement by office seekers and profligates, who ever take advantage of the ignorant by the use of money, whisky and other things as bribes, and have thereby caused men to cast votes for nominees and thus insured the election of many who otherwise would have been defeated by men more worthy of the position than they. Then again many have been cheated out of a free exercise of their franchisement by wicked men who seek to scare and drive men into subjection by the use of weapons of war. This and many other things have been allowed to come to pass, because of the fact that those who are in power and are acknowledged upright men have failed to do their duty toward the Negro from a strict sense of the word. The Negro forgets, it seems, that "men who sell themselves are slaves" and the buyers prove to be (beyond disputation) dishonest and unprincipled.

        The ignorant need to ever remember that they are always at the mercy of the unprincipled and allow the knowledge of the fact to serve as an incentive for high endeavors that will enlighten the mind, purify the morals and thus prepare them for usefulness and excellency in the political field of battle; notwithstanding all that and the possibility of great changes being made in the future by individual exertion in particular instances and locality, we realize that there is need to plead with those who are in power, to throw the law's strong arm of protection around the Negro. Do their whole duty in the premises and thereby give the Negro a chance to enjoy his freedom as other men. We realize that the Constitution of the United States is beautifully constructed and its diction perfect in every part, yet there is a lack of conformity to the spirit of the law practiced by many who profess to be one of its supporters, and it is the Negro who suffers most from the result of the non-conformity. Then we dare to insist upon the State doing its duty to the Negro (males), and in the meantime forget not the thousands of women who are pleading to-day for equal franchise. Yes, women who are worthy of much consideration; women who would prove most valuable to the State on account of their executive ability, their culture, learning and wisdom, the four great somethings that assist mightily in bringing to pass those things that make for the good of all concerned. Then, there are women who can expound the law of the State in a precise manner and are therefore fully equipped for service in that capacity in this progressive age, while in the performance of your duty to the Negro (males). Emancipate the Anglo-Saxon and the Afro-American

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women who are wearing a yoke of oppression, the equal of that which did hold the slave in bondage for more than two hundred years. Do this and cause such changes to take place as will result in the annihilation of many evils. With all that we remember that there are many moral and intellectual Anglo-Saxons and Afro-Americans who fail to remember that "man does not live for himself alone," and that the sphere of "duty is infinite;" but they go steadily on acquiring knowledge, amassing wealth, striving to save self, seeking honor and fame, and ever pushing aside the inebriate, the poor, the weak and sinful whom they could save in many instances by a kind look, a gentle stroke of the hand, a sixpense or more added to pleasant words, serving to remind them of God and his blessed commands. They (the moral and intellectual) seem to forget that the creatures whom they push aside carry with them the "hidden spring of force" and "creative power" to a large extent "the flower," "the germ," "the potency of life" that has never been cultivated, but could be quickened, caused to grow and to so expand, that there would be no occasion of our reminding the State of its duty to the Negro; but we would be able to exclaim in part as did Wordsworth of duty:

                         "Stern law giver! yet thou dost wear
                         The Godhead's most benignant grace;
                         Nor know I anything so fair
                         As is the smile upon thy face;
                         Flowers laugh before thee on their beds,
                         And fragrance in thy footing treads;
                         Thou dost preserve the stars from wrong,
                         And the most ancient heavens are through thee fresh and strong."

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Opportunities and Responsibilities of Colored Women.

[Delivered before the Ladies' Auxiliary of the Whittier Association, of Memphis.]


        MY heart has been so warmed by the generous kindness of welcome extended to me continuously since my arrival in your city that I shall always be happy to add my testimony to those who have been delighted by Southern hospitality. When some of your good women honored me with an invitation to visit Memphis and speak as best I might in behalf of our women who yearn for a larger freedom of development, I was not sure of my fitness to speak acceptably in a part of our country to which I am so much of a stranger, but your generous cordiality has given me such confidence of heart that I feel at home and in sympathetic touch with women who can do me more good by their soulfulness and suggestions of duty than I can return by any words of advice or inspiration. My own sense of happy surprise in this my first experience of Southern hospitality and eagerness of welcome suggests what we all need, who are respectively on the opposite sides of that imaginary line dividing the North and South is a more perfect understanding of our relationship to each other.

        It is said that genial essayist, Charles Lamb, that when he was asked on one occasion why he hated a certain person he answered, "I don't know him, that is why I hate him." The point of this story aptly suggests that a more perfect knowledge of each other will remove mistrust, hatred and conflict. This radiant Southland, so fair and full of the brightness and abundance of nature and promising, as I want to believe, all the excellencies of social order and human happiness, and yonder North, so buoyant and powerful, with its mighty sweep of commerce, vast intelligence and resources need a closer union of sympathies and interests in order that national progress may be broad enough and intense enough to helpfully reach, protect and inspire every man, woman and child under the flag of the republic.

        We of a peculiar race with our faces ever turned toward the Western

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star of hope and advancement especially need the help that comes from knowing each other better. We who live in the North need to understand better than we do the many peculiar advantages and disadvantages, promises and discouragements that belong to those of us whose homes are under Southern skies. We will think more and better of you and become more respectful in our interest in all that concerns you when we understand more clearly that in spite of the many agonies of the past and the many distressing limitations of the present the progress of the Negro race along the highest levels and in the most surprising instances has been right here in the South. That nearly all the money earned, accumulated and saved by the Negro race since emancipation has been accumulated and saved by our Southern men and women.



Chicago, Ill.

        That our men of real wealth are nearly all Southern men; that most of the men and women who have risen to public importance are of Southern birth and education, and that it is easier for our boys to learn a trade and successfully follow it in the South than it is in the North. I say when we of the North know and appreciate all this our sense of race pride will increase and we will be able to place a higher estimate upon the possibilities of our race. Men and women who can so proudly signalize their freedom and under conditions discouraging in the extreme by so many evidences of real worth are an inspiration to all mankind. On the other hand we of the North who have much freedom and little work, but who are in touch

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with all the forces of intelligence, morality and the regenerating spirit of reform that are fast making for the better weal of our republic, are not understood by our Southern kinsmen in a way that makes for race unity and progress. The young men and women who have been educated in those great free institutions of the North should be the great leaders and teachers of our generation. They are needed as the messengers of newer gospels of love and hope and inspiration. They should be encouraged and welcomed to this ample South where there are so many inspirations to high duties. These young men and women ought to be made to feel that here in the South where their talents are needed so much the highest premium is placed upon brains, character and industry.

        But without further comment on this line, I want to say that I come here in the spirit of good will. I want if possible to bring her a message of hope and inspiration to higher resolves. I gladly come at the bidding of your committee, not to attempt a discussion of the race problem. If I can say anything that is helpful it is not to suggest problems and difficulties, but to suggest duties and responsibilities that our women must begin to feel and exercise if we would become a part of the forces that are working everywhere about us for the things that deeply concern the kingdom of woman-kind. Nothing in the whole realm of questions that effect home, religion, education, industry and all phases of sociology command more interest than the growing power of woman. Interest in woman and her possibilities is so widespread and intense that whatever she does or says or proposes receives more public attention and comment than any other theme of current history.

        Does this absorbing interest in woman and her progress, does this advancing power of woman in all the important determinations of American life concern and affect colored women in any important way? Does the progressiveness of womankind in all things suggest to us any opportunities, duties or hopes that have failed thus far to influence us? Can we say that we are preparing ourselves sufficiently to use and exercise the privileges and responsibilities of that larger and more inclusive citizenship toward which other women are progressing, and for which they are fitting themselves by all kinds of experience? Is it too much to say that no class of women in the world have such rare opportunities for signalizing their worth as the colored women of America?

        If it can be a good fortune for women to come into possession of

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freedom when the heart of civilization is open and responsive to all the complaints, wants and demands of womankind; if it can help to make women strong in sympathy, in unselfishness and in the love of humanity to live in the midst of countless opportunities for heroic devotion, for self-sacrifice, and for the invention of ways and means to help a whole race of people to reclaim itself from the debasement of servitude, then our women are many times blessed. The thing for us to consider is what we can do to become a conscious part of all the agencies at work for the elevation of those of our women who are in, but not a part of, our civilization. Alas! to most of us this question suggests only discouragement and hopeless problems. Our philosophers and leaders have talked so much and confusingly about the vast difficulties in the way of Negro advancement in America that we too have been more or less unfitted to see and do the simplest duties incumbent upon us.

        There has been so much looking toward Providence and so little exercise of our senses and confidence in ourselves that most of us have become useless and stupidly indifferent to the inspirations of the hour. Surely we need no oracle to tell us what to do to be better than we are. A whole race of women whose only heritage has been ignorance and isolation needs no philosophers to lead them to a higher state. Their needs are elementary, and the duties of Christian women in their behalf are near, direct and easy of comprehension. If the colored women who are sufficiently intelligent and warm-hearted to share in the responsibilities of helping where help is needed, could be aroused from their do-nothing, unsympathetic and discouraged condition, and could be conscious of their opportunities for accomplishing good deeds, there would at once come the dawning of a new and better era for the American Negro. We would then understand that the question is not what we ought to demand; but what can we do, not what are our rights, but how can we best deserve them, not so much how to condemn prejudice, but how to remove its cause. The hour is not for the lamentations of Rachel, but for the hopes, courage and duty becoming women who are called by large opportunities to noble work. If we would have the public interested in us and our needs, we must become interesting, and we will become interesting just as soon as we begin to help ourselves to the utmost extent of our opportunities.

        One of our first duties is to inform ourselves as to what has been done, is being done, and what needs to be further done to help ourselves.

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It should never be said that colored women know less about the status of colored women than is known by women of another race. Nearly all the great churches of this country and scores of undenominational societies have for the past thirty years been carrying on missionary work that aims to reach every phase of the general condition of the colored people of this country.

        The reports and literature of these churches and societies are full of encouraging and sugsestive information. The facts and figures to be gleaned from this source form a most interesting history of the mental, religious and material development of the colored people since 1865. You will find in this annual library of interesting information a message, an invitation, an appeal and challenge to every woman's heart. These reports of work done, and to be done, are procurable without cost by any one interested enough to ask for them. I can but wonder how many of us avail ourselves of this opportunity to learn the lessons of our advancement and further needs.

        The one thing that should appeal most strongly to our hearts is the need of a better and purer home life among our people in many parts of the South. I scarcely need tell you that our most embarrassing heritage from slavery was a homelessness and a lack of home ties. All the sanctities of marriage, the precious instincts of motherhood, the spirit of family alliance, and the upbuilding of home as an institution of the human heart were all ruthlessly ignored and fiercely prohibited by the requirements of slavery. Colored people in bondage were only as men, women and children, and not as fathers, mothers, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters. Family relationships and home sentiments were thus no part of the preparation of colored people for freedom and citizenship. It is not agreeable to refer to these things, but they are mentioned merely to suggest to you how urgent and immensely important it is that we should be actively and helpfully interested in those poor women of the rural South who in darkness and without guides are struggling to build homes and rear families. When we properly appreciate the fact that there can be no real advancement of the colored race without homes that are purified by all the influences of Christian virtues, it will seem strange that no large, earnest, direct and organized effort has been made to teach men and women the blessed meaning of home.

        Preachers have been too busy with their churches and collections, and teachers too much harassed by lack of facilties, and politicians

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too much burdened with the affairs of state and the want of offices to think about the feminine consideration of good homes. Money, thought, prayer, and men and women are all freely and nobly given in the upbuilding of schools and churches, but no expenditures to teach the lesson of home making. Colored women can scarcely escape the conclusion that this work has been left for them and its importance and their responsibilities should arouse and stir them as nothing else can do. Let us not be confused and embarrassed by the thought that what needs to be done is too difficult or far away. There should be no limitations of time and space when man needs the helping sympathy of man. If our hearts are strong for good works, ways and means will readily appear for the exercise of our talents, our love, and our heroism.

        The first thing that should interest us, is the fact that thousands of colored families in the South are still living in one-room cabins. Though the South is filled with out professors, ministers, and smart politicians, yet few have attempted to teach these people the difference between a slave cabin and a Christian home.

        Booker T. Washington, who has done more for practical education of the colored people in all things than any other one man in America, tells us that the one-room cabin is the very root of all social evils in the South. It also appears that this indiscriminate huddling together of a whole family, large or small, in one room, is due more to ignorance of a better way than to poverty. The reform so earnestly needed in the mode of living in a large part of the South should not be left to a few chance individuals who are struggling to effect it.

        Colored women in every part of this country, who know what good homes mean to the well-being of the colored race, should come together in organization to study the situation, and earnestly put in motion every possible agency for reform. Such organization would learn at once, to their surprise and shame, how many things they could do that are not being done. They will learn that those who need our hearts, hands, and advice, are not suffering so much for want of equal rights, and political rights, and some easy escape from prejudice, as they are for the simplest necessities that make for decency, order, and the sanctities of home making. Thousands of our women in the South are eager to learn some of the primary lessons of houshold sanitation, moral guides, mental stimulants, and the purifying environments for the children of their hearts yet; these yearnings are heeded not by those who can help and comfort them.

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        Bright and promising children by the thousands all over the South are without clothing to attend either school or church, yet a dozen zealous colored women, in any small town of the beautiful North, or the larger towns of the South, could obtain and supply, almost without cost to themselves, clothing enough to clothe the mothers and children of a whole community.

        Thousands upon thousands of colored children in the South are out of school for want of schoolbooks, yet there are millions of secondhand books in all houses that are lost and wasted every year because no one asks for them to be sent where they are needed for the mental salvation of a whole generation of children. Thousands of capable young men and women, who are eager for enlightenment and culture, are without books, papers, and pictures, yet good literature and art of all kinds are prodigally wasted under our very feet, because there seems to be neither sense nor sympathy enough to know where to send them as rays of light into dark places. In short, there are a thousand sources of plenty and helpfulness for our fellow men and women, if we would but organize agencies to command and use them.

        It is easily possible to establish direct lines of communication between the crying need of every crude and impoverished home, and every philantrophic impulse of our hearts. This is no dream woven in fancy thread. The near possibility and reality of it all lie in the heart and brain of colored women.

        What I have thus suggested has already been accomplished, to a limited extent, by certain white women, whose vigilance and zeal in our cause should be an inspiration to us.

        Some of these women have happily assumed the responsibility of looking after the home interests of certain districts in the South. At regular intervals they send boxes of clothing, books, pictures, and home furnishings, medicines and other comforts, into many households of the darkest South.

        There are very few colored women, who, from time to time, add to their gifts of necessities their personal visitations with messages of sympathy, and deeds of blessed service. The brightness and joy of a new life follow everywhere in the wake of such practical beneficience.

        One of the young lady graduates of the Provident Hospital and Training School for nurses, in Chicago, went down to one of the Carolinas with her heart and hands open to good work in behalf of friendless and benighted women and children, and her letters to Northern friends are a startling revelation of the neglected opportunities for

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the helpful service of colored women. Such is the testimony of all women who have gone among our more unfortunate sisters in a like spirit of love.

        Heaven grant that our souls may be possessed by a consuming desire, by a restless anxiety, and a noble enthusiasm to see and discharge our responsibilities and duties to the Macedonian cry of our sisters in misery.

        In order to equip ourselves with knowledge, sympathy, and earnestness for this work, we need the soul-strengthening influences of organization. Women unorganized in the presence of the heart-stirring opportunities are narrow, weak, suspicious, and sentimental. Women organized for high purposes, discover their strength for large usefulness, and encircle all humanity with the blessedness of their sympathy. Organized womanhood to-day, the world over, is the spirit of reform incarnate. It impresses its reforming influence upon every existing evil, and its protecting power of love hovers over every cherished interest of human society. All combined institutions of Church, State, and civic societies do not touch humanity on so many sides as the organized efforts of women.

        In reference to the interests that especially concern us as colored women, we can receive much inspiration from the examples afforded by the more favored class of women in reformatory movements. In studying the aims, methods, and results of women's organizations, we will learn that no evil that menaces the purity of home, no lurking or open danger to the saving power of woman in all social aims, and no breath of possible harm to life, health, and culture of children, is without the opposing force of organized women. Art, literature, science, invention, and all other things of heaven and earth are made to pay tribute to the refining requirements of women, and children, and home. Take the cause of temperance as an example of the successful earnestness and practical value.

        When woman stood at her hearthstone, with caressing care and fond hopes for her children, and saw the invasion of her home by the dread spirit of intemperance, as she saw all things that were nearest and dearest to her heart menaced and falling beneath the blighting pestilence of drunkenness, she did not falter, or hesitate, or wait for a remedy or protection, but quickly uniting women everywhere in one common cause of resistance, and raising aloft the white banner of home, sobriety, and native land, she has triumphed over Bacchus in more ways than you can dream of. The prayers of women in a million

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homes, the songs of a million women making melody in the sweet influences of purity, and the steady, vigilant, and unyielding activity of women in behalf of soberness, have conspired to make temperance in all things the whitest sentiment of the century, and the saloon power the greatest indecency of our civilization. Whatever safety you may feel in your household against the destroying power of drink, you are more indebted for it to organized efforts of women than to any other cause. Would that colored women everywhere, and in vast numbers, who have homes to make and protect, could be imbued with this anxious, militant, and resistless spirit of temperance. If temperance could be the cardinal virtue of our race, nothing would be able to resist our advancement toward the enjoyment of all the equalities of freedom and citizenship of this country.

        Another fine example of how organization helps women to find work of usefulness in behalf of those who need our helping hand and heart is afforded by those devoted and heroic women of the Salvation Army. The frank and whole-souled sincerity of these women in the cause of a more practical righteousness has put to shame much that passes for religion and goodness in these days of ours. When we see these sisters of a more active mercy, with no shield for their protection save the holy purpose of doing good to others, follow wretched humanity as it slinks away in shame to its hiding haunts of vice, carrying either bread to the starving, a cup of water to the athirst, a blanket to the shivering, a gentle word of sisterly interest, or the uplifting voice of prayer, we can but feel a strong uplift of heart and a desire to be more genuine in our interest in humanity's ills. It is the chivalric spirit of these women, like true soldiers of the cross, extending the gracious influence of the Master into the highways of sinfulness, that our women need to make us eager to put our hearts into human relations, and our hands to good work. The example of these saintly women should say to us, "Be brave in your faith, wait not for duties that are afar off, look not to white women to do that which you can do, be not persuaded that you are too poor, too ignorant, and too humble to be a part of the highest usefulness that lifts up humanity, and remember, that your highest duty is that which is nearest your conscience and capacity."

        The outreaching of woman's heart to help woman is also beautifully exemplified by the wide-spread bands of King's Daughters and kindred societies. "In His Name," is the motto of the women and girls of a higher faith. They stand for the gospel of sincerity, and challenge

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the hearts of Christian men and women to give the impress of their faith to their conduct of life.

        These women have united to show by example, in an impressive way that it is not all of religion to pray and sing, and in soft pews listen to the Word. This new mission is to extend the meaning of the Christian religion so that the Church shall stand more for love than doctrine, more for human worth than for church name, and be wider open more hours in the week for humanity's good than the saloon is open for humanity's woe. So that what men and women do rather, than what they say or profess, shall be the standard of religion; and so that to give force and effect in all human conduct to the example of "Him who came to seek and save that which was lost" will be manifest as such in action out of the church as in worship inside its walls. I scarcely need to tell you all that I feel as to how much our women need the influence of such unions as these. If women who are superior to us in all the chances and advantages of life find it necessary to their advancement to be thus watchful, active and interested in so many ways, can we of greater needs and smaller resources and protections expect to advance by doing less than they? The ministers among us, who are unworthy of their calling, are largely responsible for the fact that our church women generally take less interest in the large field of practical religious work outside of their particular churches than any other class of women. Our women in the churches are organized, for the most part, only for one purpose, and that is to raise money for the churches. Thousands of our women never rise higher in their zeal for good works than the groveling aim of money-getting for the Trustees. Their heads and hearts and strength are all exhausted in devising church entertainments that are largely responsible for so much of the deplorable frivolity of our young people. Much of the needed charitable work among our unfortunate is left to white women because we have no time or interest outside the little church.

        Thousands of young girls who need moral protection of the church as much on Monday as on Sunday, who need instruction in the sacred responsibilities of womanhood and in all things that make for the moral integrity of women, are deprived of them all because so many of our women are to the stern necessity of money-getting to pay church debts. If our women could be released partially from this one narrow aim, and see the possible church in the neglected fields where the King's Daughters are garnering such rich harvests of

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good to humanity, our importance as women of worth in moral work would be wonderfully advanced. Our good church women as well as all women need to be saved from narrowness and its consequences, and the way to be saved is to know more of the resources and possibilities of one another. Our interest in each other as women has been too much gossip sort. The eaves-dropping and key-hole sort of knowledge of what is going on at one another's hearth-stones has almost unfitted us for united efforts. There must be an earnest, honest coming together of all our women to learn what are the essential causes of our common distresses and the great need of reform. Do you know that thousands of our bright young women, comely and capable, are without employment partly on account of American prejudice, partly on account of their own timidity, and especially because no effort is made to suggest or show to them the many new fields of employment that they know not of? Do you know that the tendency of our time is to make all work respectable and honorable that is well and honorably done? and that our girls who can do housework better than anything else, should be as much respected for doing it as they would be if making less wages as clerks? Do you know that thousands of our young men are reckless and unworthy of their privileges because they have no inspiration to better things and no rebuke from our young women? Do you know that our ministers would be nobler in all things, in all the best attributes of their calling, if our women were to insist upon it? Do you know that all things that are pure, healthful, and sacred in the relations of husband and wife and child depend primarily upon worthy women? All these things and many more of like nature are suggested to women who come together in a spirit of reform. Surely we have something more than sorrow, complaints, and tears.

        Out of the opportunity for womanly achievement we ought to be strong enough to inaugurate a new era of hope and endeavor. If we would but once look out from our own monopoly of race misfortunes along the highways traveled by all races of people, from the caves of security to the prominence of human excellence, we would be inspired by our opportunities. In this connection too much emphasis cannot be laid upon the necessity of more contact with the best type of American womanhood wherever it can be had, and especially in the North of course. The truly good women, and thank God their name is legion, are always open-hearted and eager to help those who need their strength of personality and interest. It

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is important for us to know that we cannot learn all about ourselves. We have been so much cut off from every refining influence, from every example and inspiration of good and great women, that our progress in all things womanly will be slow and uncertain unless we can win and deserve this helpful association.

        We are scarcely willing to admit the fact that our own prejudices and lack of self-assertion are largely responsible for our separation from the women who move the world by their intelligent progressiveness. If we would join these women in good works we should at least meet them half way by ridding ourselves of preconceived notions of their hostility and prejudice against us. It would add much to our strength and dignity of character and to our sense of importance among women if we could understand that white women can be strengthened in their generous impulses and made more exalted in their outlook to help weak and struggling women if they knew more of our condition, capabilities, and aspirations. The cause of women in all things needs the co-operation of all women of all races and colors in order to work out the conditions that all need and devoutly wish for. The larger interests of women that concern all that is vital in our civilization cannot be advanced and realized if the race line and color line and church line must always divide into petty fragments the moral strength of united women. Colored women of culture and force of character can do much to urge this thought upon women of the dominant race. If I may be pardoned a personal reference, I will say that my best reward in meeting and talking to representative white women at all times and places, is that they are so susceptible to the idea that they need us to some extent in the same way that we need them. All statements to them concerning our wrongs and how we suffer under all forms of injustice are received with startling surprise. I have been happily repaid for all my efforts by fewest assurances of many of the best women in the country that they have been converted to right thinking concerning us. We may feel safe in the belief that the women who are strong enough to resist the domination of fashion's nonsense and the snobbery of caste, are ever ready to lay aside their false presumption against us and accept the truth of our cause if we would but put ourselves more in evidence in their efforts to benefit humanity. I especially refer to the North of course when I say that a plucky competition for place and honor, a wide-awake interest in all public questions, a facility for making ourselves for good wherever

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and whenever it is proper for true and patriotic women to be, on the part of our women, would do much to change public opinion about us and open up new avenues of influence.

        Timidity, fear, and self-disparagement are not respected as virtues in this country. Heaven help us to appreciate that the liberties of this country are large, that its opportunities for progress are too great to excuse failures, and that here and now, as elsewhere in humanity's struggle for right, love, intelligence, character, thrift, and pluck are mightier for conquest than all the multiplied forces of injustice, prejudice, and ignorance. I know, of course, that to many of you this hopeful strain will seem to have no application to conditions existing here. It is true that what I have said is more prophetic than real to you. But remember, we must look upward. It is the business of a race to be self-respectful, ambitious, and aspiring for all that is best in human life. I would have these young women just looking out into the broad fields of possibilities, catch glimpses of the highland of our destiny. I would have them confident of the coming condition of race independence, and be strong in the conviction that the evils that now beset them are but the thorn-covered steppingstones to our eminence in the future; while it may not now be possible for white women and colored women of the South to unite for any common good, yet as I believe in the regenerating forces of education, as I believe in the ultimate reign of justice and good sense, so do I believe that even sooner than you expect, the right sort of women, on both sides of the color line, will suggest a way for this fraternal coming together in a way by which both will preserve their self-respect.

        To continue in this strain of self-criticism, I would say farther that our women have not as yet distinguished themselves by any large-hearted sympathy. There is no such thing as human progress without a large ingredient of the love principle in all human affairs; that kind of sympathy that knows no social lines, or race distinctions, or religious differences, but everywhere expands its wings of protection, and extends its warmth of helpfulness, is the kind of sympathy we need for our own advancement.

        Dr. Hartzell, of the Methodist Episcopal Society, exhibits among his panoramic views of the condition of the colored people of the South one picture that has always haunted me with a sense of guiltiness for our lack of sympathetic interest in women who are so much in need of it. The picture represents in the door of a Southern cabin,

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two or three children, the oldest not more than four years of age. This child of four years holds in her lap, and acts the part of nurse to a babe of four months old. The mother of these infant children is forced to be away from home and children from early morning till sundown. The life, care, and custody of this infant is entrusted absolutely to a child scarcely more than an infant herself. Alas! how cheap is life. How dear is a mother's love! An infant crying for a mother, and answered by the tears of an infant nurse, an infant crying out for one touch of tenderness from the great warm heart of humanity about it, but its little sorrows and distresses are neither heeded nor soothed. No such picture is possible where women are sympathetically interested in all the possible wants and misfortunes of women. When that white-souled woman, Margaret Etta Creche, saw the working women in our cities, like the hard-working mother of these children in this picture, compelled to leave her children to the uncertainties of fortune, she founded what is called a day nursery, provided with all possible baby comforts. Thus supplying the caressing cares of mother during the day, while the mother is necessarily absent. These day nurseries for children of working women are everywhere engaging the hearts of women, and are the most cherished of all the charitable institutions of city life.

        Surely there ought to be enough intelligence and love in the souls of colored women of the country to enter every home, every school-house, and every church, wherever women and children especially need the supporting arm of woman-kind. It may well be asked, How can we have the love and sympathy of women of another race, when we manifest so little sympathy for one another?

        Many of our more fortunate women seem to feel that any active interest in those who need their friendly interest, will identify them with the degradation of slavery. Others, in still greater numbers, act as if the responsibilities of our condition belong to white women, and that it is for them alone to exercise sympathy for colored women in distress. The wrong of this is too plain for argument. In the spirit of Wordsworth:

                         "The primal duties shine aloft like stars;
                         The charities that soothe and heal and bless
                         Are scattered at the feet of man like flowers."

        I would also appeal to the hearts of our women for a stronger sense of self-respect. I believe that it is an infallible rule that people are always weak who believe themselves weak. We help to make

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ourselves unimportant and underestimated by the habit of confessing our inferiority. We are everywhere hampered by the false and cringing notions that certain positions and achievements are beyond our reach. Hundreds of our young men and women graduate with high academic honors from schools and colleges and pass at once into obscurity as much because of their own low sense of self-importance as from the resisting force of popular prejudice. In nearly all American cities in the North there are libraries full of good literature, art galleries with their refining suggestion, the privileges of university extension, lectures and other institutions that minister to high thought and noble sentiment, but in them our young men and women are seldom seen.

        This general fault of living below our opportunities is largely the cause of the popular conclusion that our women have no interest in the things that appeal to the intelligence and good taste of other people. Non-use of these high privileges is quite as bad as mis-use of them. Our conscience is not as yet sufficiently alive to the fact that by the sanction of the supremest law of the land, by the highest maxims of morality and equity, liberty in all its completness, equality in its truest signification, and responsibility in its proudest implications are all ours to use and to enjoy to the fullest extent of our ability to appropriate them. I can but feel that in spite of the darkness that enveloped our past life, in spite of harassing hinderances to our present promotion, and in spite of our despair for the future, it is after all a great thing to be an American woman, even though she be colored. As I stood from time to time in the midst of the great Columbian Exposition and saw the unspeakable glories of it all rise like the celestial city out of the souls and energies of men and women who are free and brave, I was transported by the thrill of a new life as to how much it meant to be an American woman, as I felt myself swayed from one exalted emotion to another by this American passion for great achievements, by this American energy of soul making all things possible that to us seem impossible, and by suggestion of the infinite resources and opportunities of this America, and saw how all things that are true and exalting are coming faster and faster within the reach and touch of woman-kind, I was inspired by a new sense of trust and courage against all the odds and hate of opposition. And so, my fellow-women of a common heritage, I cannot bring you any message of despair; my best word for you is to seek by all the agencies of enlightenment about you so to broaden your views

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of life as to make you see and feel the forces that are making far better conditions; and that what we complain of is but transitory, and what we so devoutly wish for is surely coming by every highway of civilization.

        Thirty years ago we alone were in the wilderness of bondage crying aloud for freedom. Our happy release from that condition thrilled men and women everywhere with a most exalted sense of the value and sweetness of liberty. To-day we are not alone in any of our claims, disabilities, wants, and hopes. That large number of wretched women who are stitching their lives out in the sweat shops of our large cities in order to get a crumb of bread for their children, the toiling men and women of the land who groan and smart under the oppressions of wealth, women of all kinds and conditions who are restive under the restraint imposed by senseless customs and unjust laws, in fact all our countrymen who are conscious of being forced to live short of a complete enjoyment of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are with us in our every contention. We as surely have no monopoly of misery as we have no monopoly of fortune; there is somewhere and somehow a compensation for every difficulty we meet and complain of. Our poetry has opened the floodgates of philanthropy, prejudice has multiplied our friends and has tended to sharpen the mettle of our character, and all forms of injustice against us react in terms of justice for us. Indeed our advantages and opportunities are large, exalting, and a part of the very constitution of things.

        We are women claiming, yearning, and aspiring for rights at a time when woman's winsome voice of supplication or stern command is heard and heeded above the din and clamor of the times. Would you win the interest and confidence of the world? The answer comes from a thousand sources: Be brave in the consciousness of your own worth, be beautifully graced with all that virtue asks in woman and you shall in time remove from all laws, ways, and customs the darkening blight of woman's prejudice to woman.

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        I WAS forcibly impressed by an editorial in the issue of the Recorder of the 14th inst., representing the need of higher literary work by the men of our race and times. To illustrate the force of this observation, reference need only be had to the work of two of the leading men amongst us. These have contented themselves with the modest gift of an autobiography, in which they closely "hug the shore" of personal experience and reminiscence. In none of these, in so far as I have been permitted to pursue them, is there the least attempt at a broad outlook upon the times in which they have lived and wrought out their own achievements. No comprehensive sweep or survey of the contemporaneous history out of which their own aspirations took rise. The conditions--moral, religious, civil--of the recent centuries, of which the issues of the present time are but the culmination, receive no comprehensive treatment, nothing save the mere coloring of local influence.

        Now when our youth who have been taught, justly, we think, to admire these men and to emulate them, shall have read these compositions, excellent in themselves as literary productions, the question is, What have they learned? Why, only this, that our gifted subject was born in the midst of a slave-holding community at a certain time, and was reduced to the condition of the captive race to which he belonged. And that thenceforth he had a rough time in recovering the liberty that God gave him at his birth. We are not even told how utterly unphilosophical it is, and in morals impossible, that any man can have been born a slave. How that every single case of slavery was a monstrous rape of human rights. The Declaration of Independence teaches both a philosophical and inspired truth, when it says: "It is self-evident that all men are born free." As soon as the new-born babe takes his first inspiration of vital air, he is endowed with the two-fold right of life and liberty. These rights are co-ordinate, and the complement of each other.

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They are natural, universal rights that cannot be combatted without violence to the very principles of our common nature. Then there are other subordinate rights, which may be held as conventional or constructive, but they are nevertheless natural, universal, and hence incontestable. They are:

        1. The right to live where one is born; that is, within the territorial jurisdiction of his birth. If he has not the right to live there, then where? Any attempt to expel him thence is an act of war.

        2. The right of safety, that is, protection for life and limb. Denial of this right is to jeopardize his life, implicate society itself, and forecast its dissolution. All schools of philosophy agree that where human life is less than sacred, there society, in civilized form, must soon dissolve. Now the civilized nature recoils from anarchy, just as physical nature recoils from a vacum; and it will--it must come to pass that the civil body will sooner or later fight the Anarchists in its own defense until it has completely vanquished them. And this is not a matter of choice; they will have to do so or else give up the civilized order.

        3. Along with the right to life and liberty goes also the right of removal from one jurisdiction to another. Wherever the emigrant goes he carries with him these natural rights. This, too, is the united judgment of all enlightened men. Now, in the light of these fundamental truths, feebly outlined, I most confidently affirm that no man can fail of hopefulness as to the future of our race in this land who has broadly studied the problems and the progress of human liberty and civil justice in the world during the last three or four centuries. There has been a constant warfare and many reverses, together with long seasons of gloomy doubt; but the dominant fact in the whole record is, that throughout the long contest, on the forum, in the sacred pulpit, in the hall of legislation, and on countless fields of bloody carnage the struggle has been substantially the same--a struggle for larger liberty for the oppressed multitude--a better chance for the average man. And this further, that in every century--aye, in almost every generation of this mighty conflict, something has been gained for the right. This gain once made has never been lost. These things being so, it is foolish to say that these victories, and this strifeful gain are matters of merely racial application. It is not so. Every inch of ground taken that is based on universal principles has become the property of humanity. They will never be banished from among men, nor effectually overborne while

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civilization, or Christianity endures. Now, as the old Romans used to say: "Quae cum ita sint,--Since these things are so," and since it is true that the best fruit of this long conflict is to be found here in this Western Hemisphere, I believe the future hope of the Negro race is to be found in the segment of that race providentially lodged on this soil. Say what we may about this or that, these United States have given us the most advanced, the most progressive Negro to be found on the face of the globe. And this is true for the reason that she is giving him the largest all-round opportunities, the highest civil ideals, and the steadiest aims. The troubles we suffer here, in our day, are only a part of the old, old conflict that has raged so long.

                         "Must we be carried to the skies
                         On flowery beds of ease,
                         While others fought to win the prize,
                         And sailed through bloody seas?"

        No, we cannot be, and will not be, though we may wish to ever so much. "Through conflict to the skies," is as true for dark humanity as for any other variety of men. Had we then not better learn this lesson and cease our shameful grumbling, as if the Almighty had done us some special wrong? God has given us minds to think, hands to work, and hearts to love. Let us subject these God-given powers to the regimen of a severe discipline, and walking with hope to the future, work out a noble destiny for ourselves and our children.--Christian Recorder.


        Africa and America, by Rev. Alex. Crummell, D.D.

        A History of the Negro Troops in the Rebellion, by George W. Williams, LL.D.

        A Red Record, by Ida B. Wells.

        Anti-Separate Coach History of Kentucky, by Rev. S. E. Smith.

        Are We Africans or Americans? by J. F. Dyson, B.D.

        Apology for American Methodism, by Benjamin Tucker Tanner.

        Afro-American Women of Distinction, by L. A. Scruggs.

        A Voice from the South, by Mrs. A. J. Cooper.

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        African Letters, by Bishop Turner.

        Africa, the Hope of the Negro, by R. C. O. Benjamin, D.D.

        Aunt Linda, by Victoria Earl.

        A Brief Historical Sketch of Negro Education in Georgia, by Prof. R. R. Wright.

        Black and White, by T. T. Fortune.

        Black Phalanx (history of Negro soldiers), by J. T. Wilson.

        Book of Sermons, by Rev. J. W. Hood, D.D.

        Book of Sermons, by S. T. Jones, D.D.

        Church Financiering, by Rev. J. W. Stevenson, M.D.

        Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race, by E. W. Blyden, LL.D.

        Clarence and Corinne, by Mrs. A. E. Johnson.

        Directory of the A. M. E. Zion Church, by Rev. J. Harvey Anderson.

        Digest of Christian Theology, by J. C. Embry, D.D.

        Doctrines of Christ and the Church, by Rev. R. T. Brown.

        Domestic Education, by Bishop Daniel Payne.

        Emancipation, by J. T. Wilson.

        Earnest Pleas, by W. H. Smith.

        Freedom and Citizenship, by Hon. John M. Langston.

        From the Virginia Plantation to the National Capitol, by Hon. John M. Langston.

        From West Africa to Palestine, by Edward W. Blyden, LL.D.

        Future of the American Negro, by Rev. R. C. O. Benjamin, D.D.

        Grand United Order of Odd Fellows in America, by C. B. Brooks.

        Glimpses of Africa, by Rev. C. S. Smith.

        Hairbreadth Escapes from Slavery to Freedom, by Rev. William Troy.

        History of the Colored Race in America, by William T. Alexander.

        History of the A. M. E. Church, by Rev. D. A. Payne, D.D.

        History of the British West Indies, by R. C. O. Benjamin.

        History of the Negro Race in America, by George W. Williams.

        Hon. Frederick Douglass, by J. M. Gregory.

        Iola Leroy; or, Shadows Uplifted, by Mrs. F. E. W. Harper.

        Is the Negro Cursed? by Bishop B. T. Tanner.

        Living Words, by Alexander.

        Life and Labors of Rev. J. W. Early, by Sarah Early.

        Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, by Frederick Douglass.

        Life of Toussaint L. Overton, by R. C. O. Benjamin.

        Liberia's Offering, by E. W. Blyden.

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        Men of Mark, by William Simmons, D.D.

        Memoirs of Poems, by Phillis Wheatley.

        My Bondage and my Freedom, by Frederick Douglass.

        Methodist Polity, by H. M. Turner.

        Negro Civilization in the South, by C. W. Robert (white).

        Negro in all Ages, by Henry M. Turner.

        Negro Literature, by Bishop Arnett.

        Narrative of My Experience in Slavery, by Frederick Douglass.

        Nina; or, the Girl Without a Father.

        Noted Negro Women, by M. A. Majors.

        Not a Man and Yet a Man, by A. A. Whitman.

        Official Sermons A. M. E. Church, by D. A. Payne.

        Origin of Color, by J. F. Dyson.

        Our Father's House, by Rev. J. C. Embry, D.D.

        Origin of the Negro Race, by R. C. O. Benjamin.

        Oak and Ivy, by Paul L. Dunbar.

        Outline of History, by B. T. Tanner.

        Pastor's Annual and Financial Report, by Rev. Robert T. Brown, A. M.

        Plantation Melodies, by M. W. Taylor.

        Plain Theology for Plain People, by Rev. C. O. Booth.

        Poems, by Rev. A. A. Whitman.

        Political X Roads--Which Way? by J. F. Dyson.

        Patriotic Poems, by Rev. George C. Rowe.

        Poor Ben, by Mrs. L. N. C. Coleman.

        Plantation Melodies, by A. E. P. Albert, D.D.

        Recollections of Seventy Years, by Bishop D. A. Payne.

        Richard Allen's Place in History, by J. F. Dyson.

        Rise and Progress of A. M. E. Zion Church, by Bishop Rush.

        Sacred Heart, by B. F. Wheeler, A. M.

        School days at Wilberforce, by R. C. Ransom.

        School History of the Negro Race in America, by Edward A. Johnson.

        Science and Art of Elocution, by Prof. D. B. Williams.

        The Afro-American Press and Its Editors, by I. Garland Penn.

        The Underground Railroad, by William Still.

        The Sons of Ham, by Lewis Pendleton.

        The Work of Afro-American Women, by Mrs. N. F. Mossell.

        The New South Investigated, by D. A. Straker.

        The Negro Baptist Pulpit, by Rev. E. M. Brawley.

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        The Hazely Family, by Mrs. A. E. Johnson.

        The Rape of Florida, by A. A. Whitman.

        The Official Manual and History of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows in America, by Charles B. Wilson.

        The Semi-Centenary of the A. M. E. Church, by D. A. Payne, D.D.

        The Centennial Budget, by Bishop Arnett.

        The Poetical Works of J. E. Gordon.

        The Rising Sun, by William Wells Brown.

        The Negro's Origin, by B. T. Tanner.

        The Negro (African and American), by Bishop Tanner.

        The Negro in All Ages, by Bishop H. M. Turner.

        The Future of Africa, by Alex. Crummell.

        The Negro in the Rebellion, by William Wells Brown.

        The Southland, by Rev. R. C. O. Benjamin.

        The Boy Doctor, by Rev. R. C. O. Benjamin.

        The Model Homestead, by G. L. Blackwell.

        The Aim of Life, by Rev. George C. Rowe.

        Twenty-two Years of Freedom, by J. T. Wilson.

        The Negro Evangelist, by Dr. Albert.

        Theological Lectures, by Benjamin T. Tanner.

        Thoughts in Verse, by Rev. George Clinton Rowe, pastor Plymouth Congregational Church, Charleston, S. C.

        Universal Reign of Jesus, by Rev. A. E. P. Albert, D.D.

        Voice of a New Race, by J. T. Wilson.



        EVERY few months we find amateur literary associations discussing the question of the comparative power of the press and the pulpit. It used to be a standing subject for discussion and amusement, but the laugh, in the opinion of the religious world, has completely died out. That the press is entrenching on the power of the pulpit is growing more evident daily. People are coming to prefer to sit by their own cozy firesides and read sermons at their leisure to traveling in inclement weather to the house of worship;

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and the poor feel they are thus on a level with the rich; or, at least, are not pained by the contrast in their conditions as they often are when assembled in the house of God.

        What world of meaning in the phrase, "The Power of the Press!" Our colored men are realizing its latent force. Through this medium they are rapidly pushing their way, strengthening race pride, and making their wants and oppressions known. Every corporation or large business house now has its own journals advertising its goods, and delighting its patrons with its literary feast. The press is a sleeping lion which men are just awaking into life. We should estimate rightly the great obligation that is upon us to use this immense power rightly. We, of all people, can ill afford to make blunders. We must teach wisely and lead aright that the generation to come may bless us as we bless those who have passed before us. Our press association is well organized, and we should be able at its meetings to give each other wise counsel. The study of other journals from every point of view has its benefits; their circulation and where they circulate; the editorials, the news letters, the personals; every department; reading articles on journalism; noting our own experiences from day to day; and getting the advice of those who have grown gray, and perhaps lost fortunes in the cause. We should study the field from which our support must come. One New York publisher knows every county in every State, and the literary caliber of its inhabitants, and is therefore able to put each book he has for sale on the market at the best advantage to himself and the author. How many of our editors have thus studied the colored constituency of the various States?

        We must watch the signs of the times and show business tact. I am forcibly reminded that the white race, even the ignorant portion, possess this faculty largely beyond our own people, even the intelligent ones among us. A white man knowing it was a season for Negro revivals, furnished himself with a goodly-sized bundle of spiritual hymns, and went shouting them up and down the streets, and the colored people flocked to him with their pennies. Not a single white face did I see among them but that of the singer who was gathering in the dimes and nickels from our poor. It was a fit tribute to his businss tact.

        Our journals should improve greatly in the next decade. Let the work and field be studied, a policy marked out, and the greatest good to the greatest number be the aim of each. Get the intelligent

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sympathy and advice of all connected with publications. Form syndicates and pay for good articles on selected subjects from our best writers and authors. Secure the assistance of some wise, helpful, intelligent, and entusiastic woman. Do your best and success will surely crown your effort.

        Before closing we must speak of "Our Women in Journalism." They are admitted to the press association and are in sympathy with the male editors; but few have become independent workers in this noble field of effort, being yet satellites, revolving round the sun of masculine journalism. They still remain willing captives, chained to the chariot wheels of the sterner element, and deem it well if "united they stand." Let us have a few more years of co-operative work. Our women have a great field in literary work. Sex or color does not bar, for neither need to be known. As reporters, women are treated with the courtesy due their sex. They have tact, quick perception, and can readily gain access to both sexes. Again, we are "lookers on in Venice." We are not in the thick of the battle. We have time to think, frame our purposes, and carry them into effect, unlike the editor harassed with both literary and business work and other great responsibilities incident to such an enterprise.

        Women can do much to purify and strengthen life through the columns of the daily press, or the weekly, or the monthly journals. Right well do they seem to appreciate their opportunities; and a broad view of life and its purposes will come to them through this source. Let one who desires journalism as her life-work, study to acquire a good knowledge of the English language, and of others, if she so desires, but the English language she must. Be alive to obtain what is news, what will interest. Let the woman select her non de plume, or take her own name if she prefers, and use it always, unless for some special purpose it is changed. Write oftenest for one journal and on one subject or on one line, at least, until a reputation has been established. Work conscientiously, follow the natural bent, and the future will not fail to bring its own reward. Hoping that these few scattered, irregular thoughts on "The Power of the Press" may serve as seed-thoughts to lead to more serious thinking, I bid my readers adieu, believing that no brighter path opens before us, as a race, than that of the journalism of the present age.--Afro-American Press.

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        INDUSTRIAL education is the lever by which the Negro race is to be lifted up. "Give us more schools of industry," should be the cry of the dark sons and daughters of the South. The able, scholarly, and masterly address of Prof. Booker T. Washington, President and founder of the great Tuskegee Institute of Alabama, delivered here recently, has attracted the attention of our citizens in a most favorable manner. Indeed, no man in the country is better prepared than he to discuss the important topic and show its material worth and practical application as a factor in the solution of the great problem. That man has labored hard and long to develop the race along the lines of industrial pursuits, and he has won for himself and his race merited distinction for the work accomplished. We should all be ready and willing to give earnest heed and cheerful indorsement to his labors. I desire to offer a few thoughts, hopeful that they may be the means of arresting the attention of our young men and women to the worthy subject, who, perhaps, did not have the advantage of listening to the words as they fell eloquently from the lips of that great man.

        Before offering my thoughts and suggestions I wish to say that this is one great thing which called forth the most rapturous applause. Prof. Washington, though knowing of the difficulties which the Negroes have had to strive against, made no unsavory mention, no incendiary talk, but kindly advised his people to seek for peace with their neighbors, and cease hoisting the flag of distress. "Drop the bucket down where you are." Grand thought, good advice. It is my humble opinion that our system of education until recently has been largely at fault, and even yet it is to be regretted that so much attention is given to the education of the mind, without the application to matter. I mean this: In the schools where the masses must receive instruction there is no industry taught. The head alone is attended to in utter disregard of the hand. Boys and girls are taught that the only avenues in which to be really useful, that the

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only really honorable opportunities afforded to "make their mark," is to be considered "smart." Indeed, only "smart" enough to be a learned professor, teacher, or preacher. They are led to think that any other training is degrading and beneath the standard of true dignity. It is a fact that many of our boys and girls, after coming to the city to acquire higher educational advantages, often abhor going back to the country, as they should, to help the poor old father and mother to a better understanding of the worth of the "forty acres, a mule and plow." It is true that most of our children abhor the "sweat of human industry;" they look with disgust on the "horny hand of toil." They are ashamed of the title "servant;" and yet are not the possessors of the requisites to be the master or mistress. What is the use of learning? I insist that the great end of education is to prepare one for usefulness in life; and an education that does not accomplish this is worse than useless.

        Prof. Washington knows what is required in this age. It calls for the practical man and the practical woman. And the man who will continue to sit at his desk in his classroom and fancifully dream, or the young woman who will leave the schoolroom, after a long day's hard work, and go butterfly chasing the rest of the afternoon, or spend the evening supinely lying about with the novel or story paper in hand, constantly "dreaming dreams and seeing visions," and then looking for their fulfillment, will awake after the great procession of progress has passed, only to discover the awful dangers of the days spent in idly teaching, and dreaming, and failing to discover the true essentials of practical living. If schooling means anything, it means to prepare one for the highest standard of true greatness in its fullest sense. It is a fallacy to seek knowledge simply for the purpose of being smart. Prof. Washington did not dare discourage higher education; nor do I mean to decry the highest education of the mind, yet I say that I oppose any form of education for my boys that is not to be made practical, and carried into their generous life. Again, much of the education nowadays is misdirected. Boys and girls should be trained with an eye single to the place in life they are to fill. Casting a boy adrift upon the world with a mind stored with classic lore, and most of it only shamly crammed into his brain, and while neither he nor his parrents are prepared to find an honorable means of support for that classic mind, is nothing less than a crime. As a bread winner he is rendered a miserable failure. Idleness and uselessness naturally follow as a sequence. This leads to poverty

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and crime, which is feeding our jails, thronging our penitentiaries, and swarming the many houses of prostitution--by many considered a necessity. Industrial ignorance and antipathy, more than anything else, is the cause of anarchism, and, indeed, many of the great evils of the day come from the lack, the total ignorance, of industrial habits. Idleness and industrial ignorance is causing our people to lose their patriotism, and the perpetuity of our national life depends upon our knowledge and the usefulness of industrial pursuits.

        The only star of hope which is to shed the radiant light to illumine our darkened pathway here in the Southland, and open up a way into a new faith and a new inspiration, lies in the education of the hand as well as the head--"the grasping of matter and bringing from it something." The community has nothing to fear from the intelligent, industrious boy or girl. The man or woman who is an earnest, intelligent, and industrious owner of his "forty acres" and farming tools is not shunned. The vacant lands lying around here are calling to us, "Come and till; come and use us and we will do you good." Let us as patriotic people ask, nay, beg, our legislatures to legislate for industrial education in connection with the free school system, and also let us beg that a compulsory system of this education be demanded of parents and guardians. Then will our youths be thrice armed to combat with America's great evils--immorality, intemperance, ignorance, malice, and prejudice. An educated industry will make a man a truer husband, a kinder father, a better neighbor, and a nobler citizen. An intelligent, industrious woman will be a truer wife, a fonder mother, and a more faithful servant. Our State can better afford to found and give to its citizens of color industrial schools, than schools where tactics and athletics are taught. We have more need of carpenters than athletes, and a prosperous, well-educated farmer is worth more to us and to the State than a hundred well-drilled and disciplined soldiers.

        The Negro must look to industry as the bright ray of hope. The few industrial schools where industry is truly and properly taught must be supported. Such opportunities will be the means in many instances of saving from shame and disgrace our boys and will help in preserving the virtue and chastity of our girls. I trust and believe that the many right-thinking colored mothers who listened with marked appreciation to Prof. Washington will treasure the effort put forth by the Whittier Association in bringing him here, and that as they sing the little girl infant to sleep they may look forth to this industrial

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education as the safeguard which is to protect and save her for future usefulness. On my Sunday mission to the county jail I look with pity and remorse, with sorrow and disgust, upon our poor little boys and girls and our young men and women when I see so many of them with brilliant minds wasting their lives in idleness and profligacy, oftentimes dishonoring their parents, disgracing themselves and their race, bringing trouble and expense upon the State and county by their condition. I sit prayerfully considering and sorrowfully begging my Lord to show me some plan by which I can help uplift my people out of the low estate into which so many hundreds of them have fallen. I can but see a gleam of hope as I look forth to the industrial education, the applying of mind to matter, as the only and great lever which is to lift them up and make them a blessing, rather than a curse, to society; a blessing, rather than a curse, to posterity. Teaching our boys and girls of to-day, who will be the men and women of to-morrow, the true meaning of education is the only hope. Demanding of parents and guardians to see to the proper education of head and hand will prove a future blessing to the Southland's glory and greatness.--Commercial-Appeal.



        IT is said that the colored population of Georgia pay taxes on about $40,000,000 worth of real property. The amount of mortgage on the lands of the Georgia Negroes is not stated, but even if it should be one half of the value of the real estate, the result would be the possession by those people of $20,000,000 worth of land, which they have accumulated since the war. It is quite likely, though statistics on the subject are not available, that a similar, if not better, result would be shown in the other Southern States, and the probability is that the Negroes of the South own, free of all encumbrance perhaps $250,000,000 to $300,000,000 worth of real estate. Such a result as this is probably unprecedented in the history of our civilization. It should be remembered that less than thirty years

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ago the Negroes started with less than nothing, for as slaves, they acquired habits of thriftlessness, of wastefulness that almost unfitted them for the accumulation of property. In one generation they have managed to pile up an aggregate of wealth that is simply enormous. It is true that a considerable percentage of the race still retain the habits of idleness that characterized them as slaves. It is also true that no large percentage exhibit talent for accumulation, but are content to earn from day to day the wages of the day before, trusting to chance for the future of the morrow. But after these deductions have been made, there still remains a large number of them who have exhibited decided financial ability. Starting in the most humble way, with limited intelligence, and exceedingly circumscribed knowledge of the manner in which economy is to be practiced, they have nevertheless gone on from year to year accumulating a little until their savings, as represented by their property, have built churches, have erected school houses, they employ and pay preachers and teachers; and all out of the humble earnings of day laborers. Such results as these deserve honorable mention. When contemplating the race as a mass, it is usual to judge its members by its worst representatives, a method both unjust and untrue. The colored people of the South, as a class, should not be judged by the criminals among them who become conspicuous in the newspapers from the evil deeds that are often visited with swift and terrible justice; they should rather be judged from the honest, hard working men and women who, beginning with nothing, have in the course of one generation accumulated an amount of property, that even of our magnficent national wealth, form no inconspicuous portion.--St. Louis Christian Advocate.



        NOT long since the subject of improving the homes of the Negroes as a paramount factor in developing better men and women among them was discussed in a leading New York journal, and the habit of considering all Negroes as Negroes and not as men and women intrudes itself as usual. The writer says that the first need

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of the Negroes is the improvement of the "dark and cheerless abodes" in which these people live. For, says he, the Negroes who live in neat and well kept homes are thrifty and intelligent, self-respecting and respectable; and from this he deduces the conclusion that if the Negroes were placed in better homes they would at once become thrifty and respectable. The true deduction to be reached is that the Negro's thrift and self-respect made the home, and not the home which made the Negro.

        The Negro whose soul is free, like every other man, appreciates the sacredness and beauty which must be inseparable from a happy home. On the other hand the Negro debased and brutified by a servitude of centuries, has no comprehension or desire for home in any exalted sense. Perhaps the least desirable legacy bequeathed by slavery to the children of its victims, is the disintegrating and nomadic tendencies of a homeless and non-familied people. The improvement must begin with the people who are to make the homes, who do make them. Quixotic as seems to us there are those among the freedmen whom no wretchedness can impel, and no opportunity inspire, to alter or to make tolerable the places in which they and their families exist. More than one old Negro lives for years in a one or two-room cabin, declining to build another room "kase he won't be gwine to leave."

        In the same way the pure air and water of the vast open fields and hill sides call in vain to the denizens of the filthy and over-crowded tenements of the cities. In effecting any improvement all the formative and educative influences which touch the colored people must be called into requisition, the schools, the churches and the press. Of these influences none is so powerful or far-reaching in its results as the industrial school since it educates the whole man. The soul is schooled to higher wants and the hand is skilled to obtain them. When these influences have combined to make a generation of virtuous, clean, industrious women, though they may not shine in society or speak but one language, though they may be ugly in feature and unsophisticated in manner; and by their sides a generation of men who will care for and love their own firesides, what though their names are never heard outside the little limits of their own state or neighborhood, what though their hands are hard with toil, we will not need to discuss the improvement of homes; such women and men will improve their homes of their own volition.

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Residence of R. R. Church,
Memphis, Tenn.

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        WHAT would the world be without sunshine--sunshine from above us and from within us. If you can imagine so dark a picture try to think of yourself in a sunless world. Look around you, and see if anything like joy can be awakened by your surroundings. All is dark, dismal and chilly. As we look out upon our now verdant fields and forests, we cannot help thinking of the great body that has furnished light and heat for them and coaxed them to robe themselves in their spring dress. Our woods are full of fragrant flowers. Mother Nature has withheld nothing beautiful from us. But suppose that just as the little plants had peeped up from under the sod they had been deprived of the sunshine. For a time they would have struggled on against adversity, but with so little strength that they would have at last succumbed to the effects of cold and darkness. While living they would have been beautiful. We have seen plants that were deprived of sunshine. Were they rich in the beautiful colors which we see in our woods? No, they could not boast of colors. They were weak, dwarfed and pale. In them we see none of the beauty that characterizes our wild, free flowers. Where the shadow has been predominant, beauty cannot reach its full development.

        In this world we are all plants, and what is strange about it is that our sunshine is received in a large measure from others. We, too, must live and grow. And to support life in us we need sunshine.

        Let us notice, first, ourselves as sources of light or shadow. We are constantly in the presence of others. Whether we know it or not we are causing them to flourish by the genial rays from our hearts, or we are causing them to wither and fade by the gloominess of our looks and words. The little brothers, sisters, sons and daughters in our homes are tender plants. They need warmth and light to make them vigorous and beautiful. Give them this and you are nourishing the great roots of patience, love, trustfulness and self-reliance.

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Through these roots the great tree of manhood and womanhood is to draw its food. They are easily injured now, and too much shade will dwarf them for the rest of their existence. You are putting in the lovely colors such as no artist can portray on his canvas.

        Our parents need our sunshine. How could we have reached our present condition without their love and care? Let us show to them that their rays have been absorbed by us and not misspent. Let us throw our brightest beams in their pathway. They have had enough of the dark side of life. It is our great privilege to be the disseminators of light and cheerfulness to them. If we perform our duties faithfully in this respect, we will be a great power in lightening the burdens that will come to them from other sources.

        In the school-room, at the counter, at the work bench, there is ever a demand for sunshine. Your pupils are encouraged, your customers pleased if your service is given in a pleasant, light-hearted manner. Look among the happy homes and see if you can find the moody, silent, humdrum man. You will usually find him not in such a home as this, but in the home where shades from unloving hearts prevail. He may mount the ladder of fame but he has lost one of the most precious jewels of life. The happy laborer would not change places with him. He grows hardened and the bright rays which would have made his heart glad cannot at once affect him. He does not understand the worth of this treasure. He must be gradually brought to realize it. You may say there are many great men whose early lives were overshadowed. To this we will agree only in part. However dark may have seemed their way, some struggling sunbeams have reached them at some time, and these few rays, on account of their scarcity, were made more precious. There are lives which seem to have no glimmer of light in them, but many of them have some secret hope, some unknown comforter.

        We have been observing this agent as going out from us to others, let us now look at it coming to us from them:

        First, how do we secure it? Sunshine may be poured out upon us from others, and we may make ourselves impervious to its effects. We may cherish such gloomy thoughts that we will fail to be benefitted. When others are happy, do not cast a gloom over them by coldness. It freezes the heart of a friend to be observed with coldness when he is happy. We sympathize with others in their sorrow; can we not also share their joys? It adds to their happiness to have others happy.

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        You feel low-spirited sometimes. You do not to care relate your trouble to others, why then keep up a gloomy appearance? Throw off the shadow and let bright beams radiate from your countenance. If you are naturally of a gloomy disposition you can do no better than to imitate the example of others who are cheerful. If you have some trouble in which your friends can help you, show your appreciation of their kindness.

        What a world of darkness this would be, had we no kind friends to share our woes! How different would seem our surroundings. Nearly all our pleasure comes in having others share our feelings. There are innumerable ways in which we can give sunshine. Of some of them we have already spoken. The sharing of joys or sorrows, the pleasant word, or look, the warm handshake, all bear with them a message of cheer, and oh, how soothing to the heart, how welcome to the ear. There are many valuable gifts which we are unable to bestow, but kind deeds, one of the most precious, we can each give in abundance. We have seen faces from which there seemed to radiate all that was true and beautiful. Our world would know less of woe if there were more of such faces. If we are to be constantly sending forth bright rays, we must have a strong reservoir from which to get our supply. The light shines from our faces, but what is the source? Before we can do much toward giving the light to others, we must have within our hearts love and cheerfulness. One word spoken from the heart is worth more than many spoken from the tip of the tongue. "It needs the everflow of heart to give the lips full speech." We can distinguish between the shallow words of pretension and those of heartfelt interest. Surface words are revolting when we are in need of advice or encouragement. The light that lighteth all the world must be within us. Drawing from that never-failing Source, our supply of light is sure. The bright face is an index to the brighter heart. As we look into the faces of others we can judge whether they are usually happy or not. We notice their actions and judge them by their fruit. God judges them by their roots. We may be deceived as to their fruits, but he is never deceived as to the source of their strength.

        There is a beautiful custom among the natives of Madura. At evening-tide the mother trims and polishes her lamp and sets it on a table in the centre of the room. As the members of the family gather in, each one pays homage to the light before proceeding with the social joys of the evening. This custom is of course connected

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with some of their superstitious beliefs, but a lesson may be borne to us from it. What light have we that draws us together and exerts a binding influence upon us? Sunshine is the philosopher's stone that transmutes everything to gold. It is not miserly, but steals into every crevice and tries to awaken its occupants.

        Our sunshine should not be sparing, but for every one we meet there should be a bountiful supply. Life is too short for us to indulge in shadows. There will be enough of them howe'er the sunshine falls. In all our lives there must be some shadows, but they may be so regarded that we will be strengthened by them. Our sunshine is then made more glorious by contrast. There will be times when we must, with Longfellow--

                         "Be still sad heart and cease repining,
                         Behind the cloud is the sun still shining."

        Life cannot be one pleasant summer day. We each learn by experience that "some days must be dark and dreary." We might grow tired of the sunshine were there no shadows for contrast. Some flowers need all sunshine, some flourish on very little, and seem to require the shade. Out of seemingly dark recesses some beautiful lives grow, but their light comes from above and dispels all gloom. Their sorrows are borne in patience because they live in anticipation of the light to come. Like those flowers whose faces are constantly turned toward the sun, let us ever look toward the source of our light, hoping thereby to become more radiant and beautiful. To-day brings us to a point in our career which has both its sad and joyous features. When we think of the happy hours spent here with our teachers and fellow students, and when the thought comes to us that these hours have ceased to be, a feeling of regret fills our hearts; but we have not the time to look back, and so as we look off into the future and contemplate the work that is before us, we can but rejoice at the prospect of enlarging our work for the Master. Classmates, our pathway which for some time has been one and the same, to-day separates in many branches. We each pursue a different way, resolving to make the best of it, rejoicing in the sunshine, keeping cheerful in the shadow.

        We extend hearty thanks to these kind teachers who have had our interest at heart, and who have striven to aid us in attaining a higher life. Their efforts shall not be lost, for the inspirations which we have received from them we are trying to make part of our lives.

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        We hope that when report of our actions reaches your ears, you will recognize in them the principles of a noble manhood and womanhood.

        Fellow students, to you we must bid adieu. We hope that the good that you receive here may serve to make your path sunny. These opportunities are still yours.

        In saying farewell to-day, we do not feel that we are at the end. We have only laid the foundation; our building we have yet to construct. We go forth among our fellow-men to reflect the light that we have received here--to remove the darkness of ignorance and unhappiness; and in so doing we hope to follow out our Master's injunction, to "Shine as lights in the world."

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        IN the minds of many people religion is associated with gloom. It is something to which they may be compelled to resort to avoid worse evils, but of itself it is without zest or charm. Doubtless the austerity of the Puritan regime has done much to foster this impression. The lines between the church and the world were drawn with precision, and the discrimination was more against external things than against inward dispositions. The old Manichæn notion that matter was inherently sinful, and that material pleasures were seductions of the evil one, colored their conceptions, as they did those of the mediæval church. Gradually, however, the Christian churches have been coming to wiser views. They have been led to see that the world and all it contains is God's world, that he framed his creatures for many grades of enjoyment, and that, other things being equal, he is the truest man who is alive in every faculty of soul and body. We have also come to see that the Christian ideal of life is not one in which the faculties for physical enjoyment are sternly repressed, but one in which all powers are subordinated to spiritual claims and controlled by spiritual motives.

        Self-denial has as much place in the Christian life as it ever had; but we have learned to distinguish between self-denial for the sake of conserving the soul's power for some worthy end or for the sake of self-discipline, and self-mortification, as an end in itself. The former is one of the highest manifestations of the Christian spirit; the latter is heathenism. One essential mark of true self-denial is that it is not morose and gloomy. It sees the superiority of the spiritual end it aims to secure, and gladly surrenders the lower good to gain it. It is only the self-mortification which is always unintelligent, and a dash of superstition that is undertoned and repining. The Apostle Paul is an admirable illustration of the true Christian temper. Few man have sacrificed more than he for spiritual ends, but his letters abound with good cheer. Men constantly turn to them for courage. In the parable of the Prodigal Son, the elder son who could say that while his brother who wasted his living, he had never had a kid to make merry with his friends, unconsciously disclosed

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closed the real quality of his life. He showed that he had all the time been longing for just such a life as that his brother had led. His brother's life was the kind of life he would have led if he could have given free play to his impulses. Inwardly he had wandered as far from his father as ever his brother had outwardly in miles or riotous excess. His heart had not been enlisted in the home life; it was some small motive of decency or self-interest that kept him respectable. The elder son is a type of the men whose religion is gloomy, and who represent it to others as a distasteful experience. They are not quite in the world, though they long to be, and they do not live in the Spirit.

        "The fruit of the Spirit is--joy." The more real one's religion is, the happier, the sunnier he will be. The man who enters into the spirit of Christ will be wary about making external prohibitions for himself or for others. Rather he will seek for himself and others that devotion to the highest things which remands the lower life and its pleasures to their proper place, and, in so doing, finds the deepest satisfactions.--Boston Watchman.

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        EVERY laboring colored man is called upon to choose between the saloon, with its attendant miseries and vices, and the home with its manifold blessings. In the Journal of United Labor, the following letter by Mr. T. V. Powderly, is worth your careful consideration. He says, "I know that in the organization of which I am the head there are many good men who drink, but they would be better men if they did not drink. I know that there are thousands in our order who will not agree with me on the question of temperance, but that is their misfortune, for they are wrong, radically wrong. Ten years ago I was hissed because I advised men to let strong drink alone. They threatened to rotten-egg me. I continued to advise men to be temperate, and though I have had no experience that would qualify me to render an opinion on the efficacy of a rotten egg as an ally of the rumdrinker, yet I would prefer to have my exterior decorated from summit to base with the rankest kind of rotten eggs rather than allow one drop of liquid villainy to pass my lips, or have the end of my nose illuminated by the bloom that follows a planting of the seeds of hatred, envy, malice, and damnation, all of which are represented in a solitary glass of gin.

        He (the drunkard), robs parents, wife, and children. He robs his aged father and mother through love of drink. He gives for rum what should go for their support. When they murmur, he turns them from his door, and points his contaminated drunken finger toward the poorhouse. He next turns to his wife and robs her of what should be devoted to the keeping of her home in comfort and plenty. He robs her of her wedding ring and pawns it for drink. He turns his daughter from his door in a fit of drunken anger and drives her to the house of prostitution, and then accepts from her hand the proceeds of her shame. To satisfy his love of drink, he takes the price

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of his child's virtue and innocence from her sin-stained, lust-bejeweled fingers, and with it totters to the bar to pay it to the man 'who does not deny the justness of my position.' I do not arraign the man who drinks because he is poor, but because through being a slave to drink he has made himself and family poor. I do not hate men who drink, for I have carried drunken men to their homes on my back, rather than allow them to remain exposed to the enclement weather. I do not hate the drunkard, he is what drink effected; and while I do not hate the effect, I abhor and loathe the cause.

        In the city of New York alone it is estimated that not less than $250,000 a day are spent for drink, $1,500,000 in one week, $75,000,000 in one year. Who will dispute it when I say that one-half of the policemen of New York City are employed to watch the beings who squander $75,000,000? Who will dispute it when I say that the money spent in paying the salaries and expenses of one-half of the police of New York could be saved to the tax-payers if $75,000,000 were not devoted to making drunkards, thieves, prostitutes, and other subjects for the policemen's net to gather in? If $250,000 go over the counters of the rumseller in one day in New York City alone. who will dare to assert that workingmen do not pay one-fifth, or $50,000, of that sum? If workingmen in New York City spend $50,000 a day for drink, they spend $300,000 a week, leaving Sunday out. In four weeks they spend $1,200,000--over twice as much money as was paid into the General Assembly of the Knights of Labor in nine years. In six weeks they spend $1,800,000--nearly three times as much money as that army of organized workers, the Knights of Labor, have spent from the day the General Assembly was first called to order up to the present day; and in one year the workingmen of New York City alone will have spent for beer and rum $15,600,000, or enough to purchase and equip a first-class telegraph line of their own; $15,600,000, enough money to invest in such a co-operative enterprise as would forever end the strike and lockout as a means of settling disputes in labor circles."

Ought to be Made Odious.

        "Intemperance, like treason," says Cardinal Gibbons, ought to be made odious in the land, and there is a close similarity between the two. The treasonable man endeavors to dethrone the rightful sovereign, and intemperance dethrones reason, the ruler of the soul."

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The A. M. E. Zion Church on Temperance.

        At the Nineteenth Quadrennial Session of the General Conference of the A. M. E. Zion Church, held in Pittsburg, Pa., May, 1892, the Committee on Temperance submitted the following report, which was unanimously adopted:

        "Temperance has narrowed itself down in these days so that at present it refers to the liquor traffic specially. We recognize the fact that while there are many evils to which our country is heir, and many evil spots of degradation and sin which besmirch the garments of fair Columbia--mistress of the West, pride of the world--there are none which so disfigure her fair garments as intemperance, by which are her garments not only besmirched, but in which they are bedraggled and polluted, and by which, if the cause be not curtailed or extirpated, she will be compelled to follow the path of the grand old government which preceded her, and be buried in the great sea of oblivion; be known as a thing of the past, the very action of whose language, mayhap, like Greece and Rome, be forgotten.

        We aver that above and beyond all the evils which pervade our fair land, this hydra-headed monster dominates them all, and subverts all things upon which it takes hold to become the menials of its will. It lurks in the lowly hovel, and revels in the palaces of the great; it perverts government from its high purpose, and makes it become a weakly, servile imbecile, unable either to direct the affairs of government, or to promulgate its laws. It desecrates the family altar, despoils the sweet influence of the family circle, rends virtue into shreds, and puts a premium on vice. It impels the infuriated mob to deeds of horror and crime more barbarous, heinous, devilish than those wrought by Nero, evidences of which fact may be seen in the many lynchings of recent occurrence.

        Therefore, because of these facts, together with many other vicious influences which it ingenders, the multifarious evils which emanate from it, we, the committee, submit that all means which can be reasonably and legally brought to bear to extirpate this great evil from among the people of our country be endorsed by our connection, and receive its continued support. We further recommend that Zion's ministry give more attention to the great cause of temperance, and that the laity be incited to greater work in a united effort to put under foot the great monster intemperance."

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Temperance Resolutions Adopted by the A. M. E. Church.

        The African Methodist Episcopal Church at its General Conference, held at Indianapolis, Indiana, adopted the following resolutions:

        "Resolved 1, That we discourage the manufacture, sale, and use of all alcoholic and malt liquors.

        2. "That we discourage the use of tobacco by our ministers and people.

        3. "That we discourage the use of opium and snuff.

        4. "That we endorse the great Prohibition movement in this country, also the work done by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and will use all honorable means to suppress the evils growing out of intemperance.

        5. "That it shall be a crime for any minister or member of the A. M. E. Church to fight against temperance, and if convicted of this crime he shall lose his place in the Conference and the church."

        The Bishops at this same conference said in their address: "We should allow no minister, or member who votes, writes, lectures, or preaches to uphold the rum trade to retain his membership, either in the Conference or in the church. And those who are addicted to strong drink, either ministers or laymen, should have no place among us. Visit our station houses, bridewells, jails, almshouses, and penitentiaries, and you will there witness the effects of this horror of horrors. Rum has dug the grave of the American Indian so deep that it will never be resurrected. If we would escape the same fate as a church and a race, we must be temperate.

        "Some of the loftiest intellects have been blasted and blighted by this terrible curse. The use of wine at weddings should never be encouraged by our ministers; it is often the beginning of a blasted life."

        Ordinary observation is sufficient evidence to convince any poor dram drinker that the use of liquor is detrimental to his interests.

Benjamin Franklin on the Analysis of Beer.

        In 1725 Franklin wrote this interesting reminiscence of his apprenticeship in Watt's printing house in London: "I drank only water; the other workmen, nearly fifty in number, were great drinkers of beer. On occasions I carried up and down stairs a large form of types in each hand, when others carried but one in both hands. They wondered to see, from this and several instances, that the

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[water-American, as they called me, was stronger than themselves, who drank strong beer. We had an ale-house boy, who attended always in the house to supply the workmen. My companion at the press drank every day a pint before breakfast, a pint at breakfast with his] bread and cheese, a pint between breakfast and dinner, a pint at dinner, a pint in the afternoon about 6 o'clock, and another when he had done his day's work. I thought it a detestable custom, but it was necessary, he supposed, to drink strong beer that he might be strong to labor. I endeavored to convince him that the bodily strength afforded by beer could only be in proportion to the grain or flour of the barley dissolved in the water of which it was made; that there was more flour in a pennyworth of bread, and therefore if he could eat that with a pint of water it would give him more strength than a quart of beer. He drank on, however, and had four or five shillings to pay out of his wages every Saturday night for that vile liquor; an expense I was free from. And thus these poor devils keep themselves always under."

A Temperance Lecture by Rev. J. C. Price, President National Afro-American League.

        "Remembering the circumstances in which the Negro was placed by the dreadful institution of slavery it is not to be wondered at that he now cultivates a taste, even a love for alcohol. Yet it is remarkable to note the progress toward sobriety that the race has made in the later years of its emancipation. A colored total abstainer is not a rare person in any community nowadays. The various temperance societies and nearly all the other secret organizations supported by the Afro-American race uniformly require those who seek admission to pledge themselves to be sober men and women, and in most cases to be total abstianers. The drift is more and more in this direction, and hence soberness in the race is constantly on the increase. It is remarkable, too, to observe the steadfastness and persistency with which colored teachers as a rule, hold to the idea that the race is to be uplifted morally, as well as materially and religiously improved, through total abstinence as a chief instrument. It is the rare exception, not the rule, to find a colored teacher who does not hold to this doctrine. The result is that many boys and girls in the school-room all over the South and in other sections as well are being trained to habits of temperance, and will in all probability develop into consistent temperance men and women. And it must not be forgotten that the true and most influential leaders of the race, the ministers, are moulding and shaping the opinions of both old and young in favor of soberness and total abstinence. The unanimity with which the churches of all denominations declare for

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the temperance reform is most encouraging. It is a very rare thing to find any considerable proportion of the ministry of any religious denomination exerting an influence in behalf of the extension and perpetuation of the liquor traffic. The church as a factor in this race development and elevation is laboring steadfastly and earnestly for the right. It is the one force that checks and holds the individuals of the race from following the evil propensities of their own hearts when every other force proves unavailing. In it is the chief hope for the present as well as the eternal salvation of the Negro. If the church is kept pure it can lift up and give honor and perfect freedom to the freedmen. The race has implicit confidence in the truth and value of God's word. This confidence must not be shaken but must be cultivated by the selection of clergymen well qualified by special training to teach wisely, acceptably and properly. Along with such cultivation will inevitably go a determination to strengthen the temperance cause more and more.

        I have watched closely the men who are recognized as the race leaders in various States and localities. It is acknowledged that they are generally shrewd, calculating and hard to circumvent when they attempt political manoeuvers. It is my observation that these leaders are strictly reliable and trustworthy when confined in and--however surprising the statement may be to some--that they are generally sober, upright and honest. I confess that in some localities this rule does not apply, but on the whole a more sober class of leaders does not exist in any race than in the Afro-American. One of the evils against which our people have to contend is the crossroads grocery store, to be found all over the Southland--the bane of this section. Here, with no city or town ordinance to make drunkenness an offense and to threaten certain punishment, they congregate and drink their fill, carouse, engage in free fights and do other hurtful and equally unlawful things, while no one dares molest or make afraid, and the grocery keeper finding his trade benefited, encourages the debauchery. This evil instead of becoming less increases. The business of many prosperous towns and villages is being injured seriously by the competition at the cross roads and the resulting vice, violence and impoverishment. The records of

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the courts would show that crime among our people is traceable to a large majority of cases to a too free exercise of the liquor habit. Of the men belonging to the race who are hanged, I think it entirely reasonable to say that at least four-fifths committed their offenses while under the influence of liquor. But speaking of the race broadly, and duly considering all the unusual circumstances that ought to be taken into consideration, I think it cannot fairly be charged with anything like gross intemperance. It is something out of the usual order to come upon a case of delirium tremens among the Negroes. Comparatively few of them drink anything of consequence during the week, but excessive imbibition is mostly indulged in on Saturdays. With their rigorous physical constitution they are able, in six days of comparative temperance, to resist the undermining effects of the seventh day's spree. Therefore this is not a race of drunkards, and there is abundant reason for believing that with proper education and training it may be made a race of sober people and abstainers.

        In all the prohibition and local option contests in the South numbers of colored men have been on the side of temperance and fought valiantly for its success. Many others would have thrown their influence the same way had they not been duped by misguided leaders who raised false cries of alarm, declaring that prohibition was a device to take away their dearly-bought liberty. It is customary to blame the Negroes for the defeats of prohibition in Texas, in the second Atlanta contest, etc.; but it must be remembered that without a large share of the Negro vote prohibition could not have carried in Atlanta at the first trial and would have been lost in hundreds of other fights.

        In order to strengthen the cause of temperance in the South nothing is more important than to treat the Negro fairly, to keep faith with him, to permit no pledge to be broken. Once won, the colored man is the most faithful and reliable of allies. It is of course needless to add that the suppy of temperance literature should be kept up and increased. Especially valuable is the work of arousing total abstinence enthusiasm among the students in the various educational institutions--young men (and women too), upon whom the future of the race and its influence for good or evil so largely depends. I am indeed hopeful for the future of the Afro-American race, and particularly hopeful that it will become a positive and influential contributor to the triumph of the temperance

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reform. It is estimated that Christendom has introduced 70,000 gallons of rum to every missionary. In the great Congo Free State there are one hundred drunkards to one convert. Under the maddening influence of intoxicating drink sent from New England two hundred Congoans slaughtered each other. One gallon of rum caused a fight in which fifty were slain.--Ram's Horn.


        SOON after the discovery of this plant it was introduced into many of the countries of Europe, and soon became an article of luxury. Its use, however, was condemned, and the Sultans of Turkey declared smoking a crime, and death of the most cruel kind was fixed as the punishment. In Russia the "noses of the smokers were cut off in the earlier part of the seventeenth century." Its use was described by King James I., of England, as "a custom loathesome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black, stinking fume thereof nearest resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless."

        Dr. J. H. Kellogg, M.D., in Health Science Leaflet, No. 216, says: "Chemists, botanists and physicians unite in pronouncing tobacco one of the most deadly poisons known. No other poison with the exception of prussic acid will cause death so quickly, only three or four minutes being required for a fatal dose to produce its full effect. The active principle of tobacco, that is, that to which its narcotic and poisonous properties are due, is nicotine, a heavy, oily substance, which may be separated from the dry leaf of the plant by distillation or infusion. The proportion of nicotine varies from two to eight per cent. A pound of tobacco contains on an average 380 grains of this deadly poison, of which one-tenth of a grain will kill a dog in ten minutes. A case is on record in which a man was killed in thirty seconds by this poison. Hottentots use the oil of tobacco to kill snakes, a single minute drop causing death as quickly as a lightning stroke. It is largely used by gardeners and keepers of green houses to destroy grubs and noxious insects (its proper sphere of usefulness)."

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        The habit of smoking was discovered on the island of Cuba. The two sailors who were sent by Columbus to explore the island, report that: "Among many other strange and curious discoveries, the natives carried with them lighted fire brands, and puffed smoke from their mouths and noses, which they supposed to be the way the savages had of perfuming themselves. They afterward declared that they 'saw the naked savages twist large leaves together and smoke like devils.'"

        The use of tobacco in any form is both filthy and pernicious. "Keep thyself pure," was Paul's injunction to Timothy; and again he says, "Let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit." "If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are." 1 Cor. iii. 17.


        EVERY man should make a point to lay up a little money for a "rainy day" which we are all liable to encounter when least expected. The best way to do this is to open an account with a savings bank. Accumulated money is always safe; it is always ready to use when needed. Scrape together five dollors, make your deposit, receive your bank book and then resolve to deposit a given sum, small though it be, once a month, or once a week, according to circumstances. Nobody knows without trying it, how easy a thing it is to save money when an account with a bank has been opened. With such an account a man feels a desire to enlarge his deposit. It gives him lessons in frugality and economy, weans him from habits of extravagance and is the very best guard in the world against intemperance, dissipation and vice.

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        COMPARATIVELY few people are aware of the value of old coins. These rare and valuable pieces of money turn up when least expected, and many persons have become suddenly worth hundreds and even thousands of dollars by making a lucky find. It is the scarcity of the coin, not its age, that determines its value. Following we give a table of quotations:


1793 is worth from $ 1 00 to $ 10 00
1794 is worth from 10 to 3 00
1795 is worth from 25 to 5 00
1796 (Plain edge; without pole) 1 00 to 25 00
1796 (Plain edge; with pole) 5 00 to 50 00
1802 is worth from 25 to 5 00
1804 stemless wreath, is worth from 05 to 50
1811 is worth from 15 to 2 00
1828 thirteen stars, is worth from 02 to 10
1831 is worth from 1 00 to 8 00
1836 is worth from 1 00 to 10 00
1840 to 1848 is worth from 1 00 to 10 00
1850 is worth from 05 to 15
1852 is worth from 2 00 to 4 00
1854 is worth from 3 00 to 10 00
1788 is worth from 40 to 65
1793 is worth from 2 00 to 3 00
1795 is worth from 75 to 1 00
1799 is worth from 4 00 to 6 00
1804 is worth from 1 00 to 25 00
1806 is worth from 05 to 4 00
1808 is worth from 05 to 5 00
1809 is worth from 25 to 7 50
1813 is worth from 05 to 4 00
1816 is worth from 01 to 45
1817 is worth from 02 to 1 00
1827 is worth from 01 to 2 00
1830 to 1840 (inclusive) is worth from 01 to 1 00
1856 is worth from 1 00 to 3 50

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1861 is worth from 01 to $ 05
1863 is worth from 01 to 10
1865 copper-nickel is worth from 01 to 45
1877 pure nickel is worth from 10 to 1 00
1881 pure nickel is worth from 10 to 1 00
1864 is worth from 05 to 50
1865 is worth from 03 to 15
1866 is worth from 02 to 10
1867 is worth from 02 to 10
1872 is worth from 02 to 10
1873 is worth from 05 to 25
1852 is worth from 03 to 25
1854 is worth from 02 to 40
1855 is worth from 05 to 2 00
1856 is worth from 03 to 1 00
1863 is worth from 03 to 25
1864 is worth from 03 to 50
1869 is worth from 03 to 20
1873 is worth from 03 to 20
1866 is worth from 15 to 50
1867 is worth from 15 to 50
1869 is worth from 10 to 20
1870 is worth from 05 to 10
1883 is worth from 05 to 10
1794 is worth from 1 00 to 10 00
1796 is worth from 1 00 to 11 00
1797 (fifteen stars) is worth from 50 to 5 00
1801 is worth from 1 00 to 10 00
1802 is worth from 50 00 200 00
1805 is worth from 2 00 to 20 00
1840 is worth from 10 to 50
1846 is worth from 50 to 3 00
1860 is worth from 05 to 25
1870 to 1873 is worth from 05 to 10
1796 is worth from 50 to 5 00
1797 thirteen stars is worth from 1 00 to 15 00
1797 sixteen stars is worth from 2 00 to 25 00
1804 is worth from 3 00 to 25 00
1809 is worth from 1 00 to 5 00
1822 is worth from 50 to 10 00
1840 is worth from 10 to 30
1844 is worth from 10 to 50

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1852 is worth from $ 10 to $ 20
1854 is worth from 10 to 15
1860 San Francisco mint only is worth from 20 to 1 00
1877-1878, Is worth from $ 50 to $ 1 00
1796 is worth from 2 00 to 15 00
1804 is worth from 1 00 to 10 00
1807 is worth from 25 to 5 00
1822 is worth from 20 to 2 75
1823 is worth from 20 00 to 100 00
1832 is worth from 25 to 1 00
1841 is worth from 25 to 40
1844 is worth from 20 to 1 00
1848 is worth from 25 to 1 00
1853 is worth from 75 to 6 00
1866, Without In God We Trust, is worth from 40 to 2 75
1871, '72, '73, and '74 are worth from 25 to 35
1794 is worth from 1 00 to 15 00
1795 is worth from 50 to 3 00
1796, fifteen stars, is worth from 10 00 to 100 00
1796, sixteen stars, is worth from 20 00 to 110 00
1797 is worth stars, is worth from 20 00 to 100 00
1801 is worth stars, is worth from 1 00 to 10 00
1802 is worth stars, is worth from 2 00 to 10 00
1803 is worth stars, is worth from 50 to 2 00
1805 is worth stars, is worth from 50 to 1 00
1813 is worth stars, is worth from 50 to 1 00
1815 is worth stars, is worth from 1 00 to 4 00
1817, '18, and '19 are worth from 50 to 1 00
1836, milled edged, is worth from 75 to 4 75
1838 is worth from 1 00 to 10 00
1852 is worth from 1 00 to 2 00
1880, '83, and '85 are worth from 50 to 60
1794 is worth from 20 00 to 175 00
1801 and 1802 are worth from 1 50 to 10 00
1804 is worth from 175 00 to 575 00
1836 is worth from 3 00 to 50 00
1838 is worth from 15 00 to 55 00
1851 and 1852 are worth from 10 00 to 40 00
1853 is worth from 1 25 to 7 50
1854 is worth from 1 75 to 10 00
1858 is worth from 15 00 to 35 00
1881 is worth from 1 00 to 1 50

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1850 to 1855 are worth from 1 15 to 1 30
1863 is worth from 2 75 to 4 75
1864 is worth from 5 00 to 10 00
1875 is worth from 4 00 to 14 00
1879 is worth from 1 10 to 1 90
$2.50 (GOLD).
1796 is worth from 5 00 to 12 00
1796, sixteen stars is worth from 13 00 to 40 00
1806, thirteen stars is worth from 10 00 to 20 00
1826 is worth from 10 00 to 35 00
1834 is worth from 3 00 to 10 00
$3.00 (GOLD).
1857 is worth from 3 00 to 6 00
1864 is worth from 3 00 to 9 00
1875 is worth from 4 00 to 35 00
$5.00 (GOLD).
1795 is worth from 10 00 to 35 00
1797, fifteen stars, is worth from 15 00 to 40 00
1798 is worth from 20 00 to 50 00
1814 is worth from 50 00 to 150 00
1822 is worth from 150 00 to 450 00
1829 is worth from 10 00 to 50 00
$10.00 (GOLD).
1795, fifteen stars, is worth from 11 00 to 15 00
1797, sixteen stars, is worth from 15 00 to 35 00
$20.00 (GOLD).
1890 is worth from 3000 00 to 5000 00

        IN Great Brittain and Ireland the Catholics are now a million and one half less than they were fifty years ago.

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        THE Negro needs more and more year by year to launch out into business for himself. The progress made by our people in the South in all lines of business is most commendable. Corporations are growing rapidly on all hands. They are also more united in their efforts than are their brethren in the North and East. Every town where there are three or four hundred colored people ought to have some sort of business enterprise among them. In a great city like this there ought to be many enterprises among colored people. We are glad to note that there are several of our men who are doing good business along their lines of investment. Several groceries, restaurants and barbershops are doing well among us but they might do better if the colored people would throw their patronage that way. As we have before said in these columns, we need united efforts. We ought to have corporations and partnerships. There are a few partnerships and only one business corporation in Cleveland and that is "The Fraternal Printing and Publishing Co., the owners of The Voice of the People. We are the only company owned and operated by colored men, with our own type and press and printing outfit. Our office is to be in the future a training school and the place where our boys and girls who so desire may learn the printing business. At the head of this business are colored men. They are employing colored printers. We are trying to create a business for our people. We are willing to compete with other publishing houses and if we cannot do as good work and as cheaply, then we are willing to have our friends go somewhere else. We have every reason to expect that people who are wanting printing among us will give us a call and get our prices. We urge you also to get the prices of other firms and should you be able to do better by yourself somewhere else we do not object to your going. We feel that every loyal colored man will give an establishment run by colored men a chance to work for them when they are willing to enter on competitive prices. We are sorry that some of our friends

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have without getting our prices gone to other firms where no colored men are employed, to get their work done and have had to pay more for it than our regular prices are. We need not talk about making business and employing ourselves unless the race intends to stand by that business. Colored churches are supported by colored people and colored business enterprises will in most cases be supported by colored people. You say we ought to have banks and railroads and printing houses, etc. What have you done to help the Fraternal Printing and Publishing Co. to establish a business and a paper which shall be a credit to the race? What would it profit colored men to build railroads should colored men all go over and ride on a railroad run and operated by white men? Do not ask why we have no more business enterprises until you have done what you can to help those we have. Do not urge colored men to go into business unless you are willing to help them.



        THE subject of this sketch was born January 1, 1839, in Wilcox County, Alabama. After the death of his father, his mother moved to Ripley, Ohio, where she landed May 15, 1853. Here he was placed in school where he remained for six years. In the fall of 1859 he went to California, where he followed steamboating, returning to Ripley in 1861. In 1863 he went to Saginaw, Michigan, where he engaged in the lumber and real estate business, in which he has been engaged ever since and has accumulated quite a fortune. His property is estimated at more than one hundred thousand dollars.

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        WE need good, honest, painstaking, courteous and obliging business men in every village, town and city in the South. These men should receive the entire support of the race; and they could not fail to succeed. Our people make money enough to support not only retail houses but wholesale stores as well. Why should not our people spend their money with men of the race? Other races trade with and patronize their own. With the full confidence and patronage of our own people we would soon have rich merchants and capitalists carrying on large business enterprises in every section of this country that would demand the respect and recognition of the world. Then prejudice on the account of color would banish and the iniquitous legislation against the race in the South would cease, and every unjust law would be wiped from the statutes. I know that it is said colored men will not give the proper respect to their patrons nor will they stick to their business closely. If this was true, there is no reason why it shall be true in the future. Better things are both expected and demanded of us. The dark cloud of ignorance, superstition, jealousy, envy and race hatred which hung over us at the time of our liberation has been rent in twain and is vanishing before education and intelligence. Why not? We live in the most progressive age of the world's history. Here we are in the evening of the nineteenth century where inventions and discoveries are seen on every hand. Here we have steam cars that carry us along at the rate of more than one hundred miles per hour, telegraphs by which thought flies around the world at the twinkle of an eye, telephones by which we can converse with persons and recognize their voices hundreds of miles away, and gas and electricity meet our gaze wherever we go. Then why should we not change from the false ideas of slavery and walk in the light that God has given us. There is no reason why we should remain longer in the dark. Then let us come together and help one another in every

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laudable undertaking. In unity there is strength. Don't imagine because a colored man prospers in business, buys a horse and buggy and can turn out with a respectable showing on the public drives that he has the "big head;" but rather be proud of him and his success. Trade with him yourself and pay for what you get. Encourage others to trade with him, talk him up everywhere you go, and point the youth to him as an example of what they may be. Throw away this old spirit of envy, jealousy and race hatred. Cultivate patriotism and race pride. Go several blocks, yes, go a mile if necessary to trade with a good, honest Negro in business. The Irish, Jews, Germans and other peoples are recognized and respected by nations, only as they are united and hold together. All races of America are united except ours, in helping one another by their speech, by their vote and with their money. We must do the same. In this way only can we rise as a people. I look forward with great hope for the day when our people shall know and do the right. God grant that it shall come speedily.


        THE Negro population of the South will have a complete, all-round exhibit at the Atlanta exposition; and the indications point to something creditable. It ought to be, and everything possible is being done by the directory to make the exhibit full, attractive, and instructive.

        The Negro of the South pays taxes on over $300,000,000 worth of real and personal property, indicating that the true value of the race holdings in 1890, was not less than $650,000,000. Practically, every dollar of this has been accumlated in the last thirty years, about the period of a single generation of our colored race; and it shows, as nothing else can show, that the spirit of thrift and enterprise is being embeded by the Negro, from his white neighbors.

        The race has in its possession, certainly, a sound and strong basis of means for displaying its progress, objectively, to the high credit of the colored people and greatly to their benefit.

        The Atlanta Constitution has taken high and broad ground on this matter, and is doing all in its power to encourage the leading Negroes to take hold of the exposition, and make it what it should be.

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All of our leading business men over the South should follow the Constitution's lead. If we would make the average Negro a safe voter, good citizen, a representative of Southern acquisitiveness, and common comforts of our civilization, we must stimulate the pride of self-respect of the race, by all proper means.

        The Negro is our American citizen; the white race serves its own interest in making him a good and useful man. He fills the rank of one-fifth of the regular army; he absorbs a large per cent. of the Southern school funds. The white people have built colleges for the race, and urged on the leading and wealthy Negroes the creation of industrial schools, for the Negro boys and girls. All of these beneficencies should have brought forth creditable fruit, and the way to do this is to induce the Negro to display, in the aggregate, specimens of his agricultural and mechanical acheivements.

        We hope the Negro exhibit will be something of which the intelligent men and women among them can be justly proud; and it will be that if the white people take in it the kindly, helpful interest they should take.--Chattanooga Times.


        THE Boston Banner says, "The white man takes his children at an early age and apprentices them to a trade, and when they grow to man's estate, they are armed for the battle of life. The colored man takes his children at an early age and hires them out for a sum of money that is hardly sufficient to buy them shoes; and when they grow to man's estate they are common, yes, very common laborers, eking out a very meager existence, and when old age comes upon them, they go to the poorhouse. Teach your children a trade." Good advice. Heed it.

        IT is estimated that 12,000,000 square miles of the land area of the globe are still uninhabited.

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        QUIET and unassuming, yet bold and daring in the field of business is the man whose name appears at the head of this sketch. Thirty years of untiring industry and unceasing fidelity to business in this city has placed him at the head of Nashville's most reliable, solid, and successful busines men. His four-story brick business house is in the heart of the city, at the corner of Cherry and Demonbreun streets.



Nashville, Tenn.

        Mr. Winter has every faculty for the successful management of his large and growing businss. His goods are bought direct from

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first hands, for spot cash, in large quantities. He pays the farmer or huxter the highest market prices for his goods, and places the same on the best markets in the largest cities in the country--North and South. His integrity is unquestioned. He has acquired an enviable reputation for fair dealing. Mr. Winter employs about one dozen hands, but he gives his business his personal attention.

        He was born at Lebanon, Tenn., June 23rd, 1839. At the age of six years he was separated from his mother by that evil institution, slavery. He worked on a farm until 1865, when he came to Nashville and started into business with forty dollars as his capital stock. To-day (Sept. 1, 1895), he is variously estimated at from 35,000 to 75,000 dollars.

        He is an active, official member of the A. M. E. Church, and belongs to the St. Paul congregation. He was one of the founders, and and the first and only President of the House Banking and Loan Association, the most prosperous and successful association of its kind among the Negroes of America. It has declared a dividend of ten to twenty-five per cent. annually ever since its organization.

        Winter Chapel, Lebanon, Tenn., was named in his honor, he having donated the ground. He owns Little Bethel Church, of Nashville, having bought it at public sale. He still holds it subject to redemption. He was a trustee of Wilberforce University for many years. He has twice been a delegate to the General Conference of his church. He is to-day the senior member of the firm L. Winter and Son, and counts his friends by the thousand, without regard to race.


        JOHN MITCHELL, JR., was born July 11, 1863, of slave parents. His father was a coachman and his mother a seamstress. He attended the public schools of Richmond and graduated June 15, 1881, at the Richmond Normal and High School. Since that time he has pursued his studies at home, taking the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle four years' course of instruction. Young Mitchell taught during the sessions of 1881-82 and 1882-83 at Fredericksburg, Va., after which he taught one session in the public schools of Richmond, Va. He took entire editorial charge of the Richmond Planet in December, 1884, and has held that position ever since.

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        He served five years as President of the National Afro-American Press Association and declined re-election in Sept., 1894. He was elected to the Common Council of the city of Richmond, in May, 1888; elected to the Board of Aldermen to serve an unexpired term 1890; re-elected for a four years' term in 1892, occupying at present that position. Mr. Mitchell has a natural aptitude for drawing, and the Planet gives abundant evidence of his skill. He was awarded a gold medal by the School Board of Virginia for a map of Virginia which he drew. He was awarded another gold medal for scholarship and still another for oratory.

        He is a pleasing and forceful speaker, and has received many compliments for his gracefulness upon the rostrum, and the fervid eloquence of his rhetoric. As a debater he has few equals, and his quite pointed thrusts unmarred by scurrilous assertions win the respect of even those with whom he is debating. He is noted for his bravery, and has been designated by high authority the "gamest Negro editor on the continent."

        SAMUEL FARRIS was born in Barren County, Ky., March 10, 1845. To avoid the enemy he was taken by his young master in 1861 to Mississippi and placed on a cotton plantation. In 1863 his young master died, when Samuel tried to make his way back to Kentucky, but fell in with a company of rebel soldiers who took him to Montgomeny, Ala. He had a severe spell of sickness at this place and was left in a dying condition. After his recovery he worked on the farm of Capt. Thornton for nearly two years. In 1865 he lit out for Memphis, Tenn., walking most of the way. He reached Memphis in the fall. Mr. Farris engaged in steamboating for a while, but soon changed his occupation for that of draying, in which he continued for thirteen years. He had saved $500 at the end of these long years of toil, and in September, 1878, he engaged in the undertaker's business in which he is still engaged. He was married to Emilene Yose in 1872. In June, 1893, he professed faith in God and joined the A. M. E. Church. He has filled several official positions in the church to which he belongs. He is a trustee at Avery Chapel. He is a temperate, honest, generous and industrious man. Counts his friends by the hundreds of both races. Has a business that is daily increasing. His motto is, "Owe no man anything," and this accounts for his being out of debt. He is worth about $15,000.

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SAMUEL FARRIS, Funeral Director,
Memphis, Tenn.

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        JAMES EDMUND BRYANT was born in Washington, D. C., Dec. 26th, 1848. He was left an orphan at ten years of age. He remained in Washington after the death of his parents until he was fifteen years of age, but during this time was enabled to secure only an ordinary education. On the first of January, 1863, he left Washington as the body servant of James A. Garfield. In 1864, on the 23rd of November, he entered the service of the rebellion, and was made chief drummer boy of the One Hundred and Twenty-Second


J. E. BRYANT, Barber,
Paducah, Ky.

United States Colored Infantry; he was mustered out of service November 23rd, 1865, when he returned to Louisville, Ky. He was soon employed to work on a steamer that plied between Louisville and New Orleans. In May, 1870, the boat was laid up for repairs at Paducah, Ky. Mr. Bryant being an active, energetic man, soon found other employment. He served an apprenticeship as a barber, and at this point, began his success. By close application to business, and econemy, he has accumulated from $10,000 to $15,000, which he has
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judiciously invested in real estate in Paducah. He is an official member of the A. M. E. Church, and devotes much of his time to religious work. He is liberal, kind-hearted, and true. He loves his race, and wants to see it elevated and refined. Mr. Bryant is not an educated man except in a business sense. His example is worthy of imitation.




        ONE of the enterprising and successful carpenters in the city of Nashville, Tenn., is the subject of this sketch. He is a man of charitable, warm-hearted and generous impulses. All cannot teach nor can they preach; they must therefore go into trades where success awaits them if they will but pursue the methods that were

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adopted by Mr. Randle early in life. He was born in Bledsoe County, Tennessee, September 22, 1839. He was born a slave. When only eight years old his mother with her five children were sold for debt. When he was about eighteen years old he was again sold. He changed hands several times and was finally brought to Nashville by the soldiers, with two suits of clothes and $2.50 in cash. Mr. Randle secured a position in a restaurant where he worked for his board until he could find employment that was more lucrative. Through the influence of friends, coupled with his own energy, he soon secured a position at $1 per day as porter of a grocery store. After he had accumulated sufficient money he decided to secure an education and entered Fisk University, which was then in its prime. After three years' close application to books, Mr. Randle decided that he had an education sufficient to master his chosen profession. He lost his mother about this time and shortly after married Miss Irene Webb, who has proven to be a helpmate indeed and in truth. By their perseverance and economy they have secured considerable property. He is blessed with three children all of whom he is giving a fine education.

        The writer claims Mr. Randle's family as his friends; has known them for many years and can say that he has yet to find a family where there is more supreme happiness. Father, mother and children are worthy of imitation. His property is valued at $15,000.


        THE population of Richmond, Va., is estimated at 100,000, of which 45,000 are colored, of which almost half are in Jackson ward, one of the largest in the city. This ward is controlled by the Negroes. They have property assessed at $650,000 for taxation. This ward has eleven halls, valued at $65,000; it has ten churches. It has four lawyers, seven doctors, and the ward is represented in the City Council by six men, four of whom are Afro-Americans. An armory on West Leigh street is soon to be erected at a cost of $20,000. This part of the city contains many handsome residences, and one not accustomed to seeing such, would be surprised at the uniform richness and neatness in which the "Africa of Richmond" is kept.

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        "The True Reformer Hall," valued at $20,000, is said to be the most imposing structure in the ward. The Odd Fellows' Hall, valued at $8,000, comes next. All the societies have their halls. Among the property owners of Jackson ward, the following are the most prominent: Mrs. Bettie T. Lewis, $150,000; Mrs. Fannie C. Thompson, $15,000; W. I. Johnson, $13,000; A. Hayes, $12,000; William Lyons, $10,00; John Oliver, $10,000; Dr. S. H. Dismond, $8,000; J. B. Harris, $7,000; William Tennant, $7,000; W. H. White, $7,000; Rev. W. W. Browne, $6,000; Rev. J. E. Jones, $5,000; B. F. Turner, $5,000; Dr. R. E. Jones, $5,000; S. W. Robinson, $5,000.

        Many other colored men of wealth in Richmond deserve to be mentioned in this connection, but time and space forbid. The above are only examples of what can be done by the industrious, economical colored men in every city.


        THERE are many wealthy colored men who live in New York City. Several who were formerly slaves, count their dollars by the hundred thousands. Four or five physicians in this great metropolis have a practice of eighteen or twenty thousand dollars a year. The late Mrs. Gloster, who lived on Brooklyn Heights, was very wealthy. J. W. Bowen, a member of the Board of Education of Brooklyn, is worth $150,000. Mr. Hasdra, who owns a country seat on the Hudson, has also a bank account of $160,000. Mr. Roselle, recently deceased, left $300,000. Hiram Thomas is worth $100,000. Dr. White, a druggist, owns a cottage at Sea Cliff, and is estimated at $200,000. Joseph Tenych is rated at $300,000. Dr. P. Ray is worth $250,000. Mrs. Daniel Brooks has $200,000. James W. Mars, possesses $85,000. Dr. P. Guignon, a druggist, is worth $100,000. A dozen or more others could be named who are worth less than the above down to $25,000.

        THE RICHEST COLORED MAN IN GEORGIA is Mr. Harry Todd, of Darien. His personal property and real estate are valued at $500,000. When a youth his "master" died, giving him his freedom. He was kept by the family on a fair salary as assistant overseer. This money was invested in real estate, slaves and

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confederate bonds. When the downfall of the Confederacy came he lost all except his lands. He has made his money by raising cotton. He has an interesting family, five children, all well educated and highly respected. He has a summer resort in the mountains and is altogether delightfully situated.


        THE richest colored man in the United States probably is Tony Lafon, a quadroon of Creole decent--that is to say, of French Lauisiana blood. The lowest estimate of Mr. Lafon's wealth is $1,000,000, and he is more frequently rated at double that amount.

        He inherited a moderate fortune, speculated successfully in real estate, and passed gradually to the condition of money-lender and note broker. Like most men of that class, he cannot be said to be popular, and the colored people do not rely upon him as a political leader. Indeed, he is in politics rather more consevative than an old-fashioued white planter, and not at all desirous of seeing the colored people rule the State. He is seventy-three years of age, and even anxious to increase his wealth.


        THE wealth of the Negroes in the several Southern States is as follows: Alabama, $9,200,125; Arkansas, $8,010,315; Florida, $7,900,400; Georgia, $10,415,330; Kentucky, $5,900,010; Louisiana, $18,000,528; Mississippi, $13,400,213; Missouri, $6,600,345; North Carolina, $11,010,635; South Carolina, $12,500,000; Texas, $18,000,500; Tennessee, $10,400,200; Virginia, $4,900,000.

        THERE are nearly 2,000 women practicing medicine in the United States.

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        IF any race of people on this earth need to have courage it is the Negro.

        Have the courage to say "no," when you are tempted to drink. Have the courage to wear the old suit of clothes, rather than go in debt for a new suit.

        Have the courage to acknowledge your ignorance, when asked about something of which you do not know.

        Have the courage to pay a debt when you need the money for something else.

        Have the courage to be polite though your character may be assailed.

        Have the courage to speak the truth, remembering the command, "Thou shalt not lie."

        Have the courage to own you are poor, and thus disarm poverty of its sharpest sting.

        Have the courage to own you are wrong, when convinced that such is the case.

        Have the courage to be good and true and you will always find work to do.

        Have the courage to say your prayers, though you may be ridiculed by man.

        Have the courage to tell a man why you will not lend him money, instead of whipping the devil around the stump by telling him you havn't a cent "in the world," calling one of your pockets "the world."

        Have the courage of your convictions. "According to a mans faith, so be it unto him." This is true on every plane of life, from the lowest to the highest. A man's power in everything is measured by his convictions. The statesman who has the profoundest convictions is surest of bringing others to see as he sees on any question which he discusses before the public. The minister who can most completely identify himself with his people, if he has the courage of his convictions, is the one who is most likely to be successful.

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        OUR subject is the leading minister of the Church of the Disciples. He was born in Shreveport, La., Nov. 7, 1849. He was born in slavery. His parents were Zed and Betty Taylor. He was carried to Kentucky when a year old; he was a promising boy and shed sunshine wherever he was. At the age of four years he heard his first sermon on the spot where the First Baptist Church now stands in the city of Lexington, Ky., and afterwards told his mother that he would be a preacher some day; so deep was the impression made on his young mind that years have not been able to eradicate it. He was affectionately cared for, and grew up as Samuel of old, ripe for the duties of his life. When the war broke out he saw the soldiers marching and determined to join them at the first opportunity, and so he enlisted in Company G., One Hundred and Sixteenth United States Infantry, in 1864, as a drummer, and was at the Siege of Richmond, Petersburg and the surrender of Lee. His regiment also did garrison duty in Texas, then returned to New Orleans where they did garrison duty until mustered out of the service. He then learned the stone cutter's trade and became skilful in monument work, and also in engraving on marble. He went to Louisville, Ky., and in the leading marble yards found plenty of work, but the white men refused to work with him because of his color. He was offered a situation as train porter on the L. & C. Railroad, and for four years he was classed as one of the best railroad men in the service, and when he resigned he was requested to remain with a promotion to assistant baggage master; but as he could be no longer retained, the officers gave him a strong recommendation and a pass over all the roads for an extensive trip, which he took through the North. He accepted on his return a call to the pastorate of the Christian Church at Mt. Sterling, Ky. He remained there fifteen years, and

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the Lord prospered him in building up the largest congregation in the State among those of his faith, besides building them the finest brick edifice as a place for the worship of God in that section of the State. During these fifteen years he became known as the leading minister of his church in the United States. Not only in Kentucky has he been instrumental in organizing and building both congregations and meeting houses, but he was unanimously chosen the general evangelist of the United States, which position he held for a number of years besides assisting in the educational work of his race.

        He very recently purchased the large spacious college property at New Castle, Ky., which originally cost $18,000, exclusive of the grounds, and at once began the task of paying for it. The school is in operation with a corps of teachers, and has a bright future before it. He is still one of the trustees, and the financial agent of what is now known as the "Christian Bible College," at New Castle. Some idea can be given of this man of push and iron nerve and bold undertakings by giving a passage in his life: When the Big Sandy Rail road was under contract to be completed from Mt. Sterling to Richmond, Va., the contractors refused to hire colored men to work on it, preferring Irish labor. He at once made a bid for sections 3 and 4 and was successful in his bid; he then erected a large commissary and quarters for his men, bought seventy-five head of mules and horses, carts, wagons, cans and all the necessary implements and tools, and with one hundred and fifty colored men he led the way. In fourteen months he completed the two miles of the most difficult part of this great trunk line at a cost of about $75,000.

        The President of the road, Mr. C. P. Huntington, said he had built thousands of miles of road, but he never saw a contractor who finished his contract in advance, and so he then was requested by the chief engineer of the works to move his force to another county and help out some of the white contractors. This he did not do. Afterwards he was offered other important contracts, but declined. A syndicate in Nebraska offered him the position of superintendent of their coal mines, but knowing it would take him away from his chosen calling, he declined the offer. For a number of years he was editor of "Our Colored Brethren," a department in the Christian Standard, a newspaper published as the organ of his denomination at Cincinnati, Ohio, with a circulation of 50,000 copies a week. He has written for many books and periodicals. He is a member of both

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Nashville, Tenn.

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Masonic and Oddfellow Lodges and was State Grand Chaplain of the former and State Grand Master of the latter and held these positions for three years and traveled all over the State, speaking and lecturing. Especially do the Oddfellows owe much to him for their rise and progress in the State of Kentucky, and the order conferred upon him as a mark of honor all the degrees of the ancient institution. He has represented his Lodge in many of the National Conventions of the B. M. C., preaching the annual sermons for a number of years.

        I will give another incident that will show the character of this man, how he loves his race, and with what respect he treats them: While serving the church in Nashville in 1886, the choir of the church gained great reputation by taking a prize over every other church choir in the city in a musical contest. The Nashville American gave a very flattering account of the results which caused forty-two of the leading citizens of the white race to petition, through the pastor of the church, for a concert to be given in the Opera House for the special benefit of their friends.

        When Mr. Taylor met this Committee they informed him that on the night of the concert the colored people would be expected to take gallery as usual. Mr. Taylor refused deliberately to have anything further to do with the matter, and publicly denounced the whole crowd in his church, which was very satisfactory to the colored citizens who urged him to give a concert nevertheless, and he consented. On the night of the concert there was scarcely standing room for the people, who said they desired to show their appreciation of this manly stand in resenting such overtures, and the result was an increase to the treasury of over two hundred dollars. He is one of the leading men in the community where he lives, commanding the respect of all who know him. A slight idea may be given of his popularity by stating that once when a gold cane was voted for in some entertainment in the city of Nashville his name was submitted by his friends to be voted for, he opposed the suggestion, but nevertheless, when the votes were counted out of the three thousand votes in that large city, he got over two thirds of the number. A quotation from the Christian Standard, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 3, 1886, will give some estimate of how he is held by the editor of that paper. A grand party was given for his benefit, and the editor used these words in reference to his absence:

        "We have just received an invitation to a tea party at Nashville,

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Res. of Dr. Preston Taylor

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Tenn., to be given in honor of Elder Preston Taylor. We would go all that distance, were it possible, to show our respect for the zeal, ability and untiring energy of Preston Taylor. As we cannot go, we take this method of atoning for our absence."

        Mr. Taylor is a man who will impress you when you meet him as thoroughly in earnest. He is never idle, always with new plans, warm hearted, generous, sympathetic and a true brother to all men who deserve the cognizance of earnest, faithful workers for Christ.

        In the spring of 1888 he embarked in the undertaker's business, and has met with unbounded success; few business men can claim the unanimity of the community as he can, he stands at the head of his profession not only as a funeral director; but as a safe and wise business man. It is said by men competent to know, that he does the largest business of any man of his race engaged in the same business in the country. He owns and occupies the large two-story brick at 449 North Cherry Street; the building is 42x180 feet and it is divided and furnished in the most convenient style, with reception hall, office, chapel, show rooms, supply rooms, trimming rooms, dry rooms, carpenter shops, paint shops and a morgue. In the rear stands a large stable occupied by eighteen head of horses, seven carriages, hearses and all kinds of vehicles used in the undertaker's business. The entire building is lighted with electric lights and fitted up with electric bells. He is the only one in the city that manufactures his own goods. He works sixteen men in his establishment and often is compelled to call in extra help. He has the honor of managing the largest funeral that ever passed through the streets of Nashville, it was the three colored firemen that were killed on January 2, 1892, in a great conflagration. He builded a large catafalque with his own men, which held all three of the caskets, which were drawn by six beautiful black horses, followed by sixty carriages, two abreast, accompanied by all the officials of the city, the police and fire departments, the schools, the lodges and citizens by the thousands. In all his business enterprises he ascribes his marvelous success to his Heavenly Father, and he never neglects his chosen calling, the preaching of the word of God. In the last few years he has bought and builded one of the most handsome and convenient churches in the city, the Lee Avenue Christian Church, of which he is now the pastor.

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        MRS. GEORGIA GORDON TAYLOR was born in Nashville, Tenn. At an early age she left home with the "Original Fisk Jubilee Singers," traveling extensively in this country and abroad in the interest of Fisk University. Mrs. Taylor possesses a soprano voice of rare quality that is always pleasing and in demand. After retiring from public life she became the wife of Elder Preston Taylor, minister of the Lee Avenue Christian Church at Nashville, Tenn. In this capacity she has proven herself an efficient helpmete in church work, entering into it with all the zeal of an ardent Christian.

        REV. J. F. BAULDEN, of Natchez, Mississippi, was the first man to petition Congress, asking the right of franchise, and the first Emancipation celebration. The petition was granted and the first celebration took place January 1, 1866. He made the first Republican speech that was ever delivered in his town, and was a member of the first Republican convention in the State, which met at Vicksburg, July, 1867.


        IN speaking of "Music and Morals" Rev. H. R. Haweis, of London, says: "The Negro is more really musical than the Englishman. Singing very often merrily, with the tears wet upon his ebony cheek, no record of his joy or sorrow passed unaccompanied by a cry of melody or a wail of plaintive and harmonious melancholy. If we could divest ourselves of prejudice, the songs that float down the Ohio River are one in feeling and character with the songs of the Hebrew captives by the waters of Babylon. We find in them the same tale of bereavement and separation, the same irreparable sorrow, the same wild tenderness and passionate sweetness, like music in the night."

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Nashville, Tenn.

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        Chicago Afro-Americans pay taxes on three million dollars' worth of property.

        In the State of Missouri there are 750 colored teachers and 51,000 colored pupils.

        Charleston, S. C., has fifty Afro-American policemen, and under democratic rule at that.

        Washington, D. C., has a Home for Friendless Colored Girls, which has been in existence eight years.

        Matthew Lancaster, a well educated Negro of St. Louis, will head a colony of colored people which will take up Brazilian lands.

        The National Steamboat Company is the name of the new boat company now being organized in Washington, D. C. It is officered by some of the best colored citizens.

        Between 1866 and 1871, the colored people deposited in the Freedman's Savings Bank about $57,000,000.

        "Above all, let the Negro know that the elevation of his race can come only and will come surely through the elevation of its women." --Senator George F. Hoar.

        President Cleveland has appointed Rev. W. H. Heard, of Pennsylvania, to be Minister to Liberia. He now has charge of a Methodist Church in Harrisburg, Pa.

        Mrs. Ida DePriest, of Denver, Col., has been elected third vice President of the Colorado State Republican League. Mrs. DePriest is a colored lady.

        C. H. Smiley, an Afro-American caterer, of Chicago, has a $100,000

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building. He caters for the elite and his establishment is as elegant and complete as any of its kind in the city.

        The Woman's League, a progressive organization composed of colored women of Denver, has been admitted to the Colorado State Federation of Clubs.

        Capt. W. H. Bentley is one of the most successful military men of Georgia. He has held many positions of trust, and ranks as one of the foremost men of the race.

        Miss Kate Crawford, who for many years was a teacher in the Simmons School, St. Louis, Mo., is studying medicine in Ann Arbor, Mich. Miss Crawford was the first colored graduate from the Ann Arbor High School.

        Mr. H. D. Smith is the wealthiest colored man of Greensville County, Va. He owns a valuable farm and runs one of the largest sawmills in that section. At one time he represented his people in the State Legislature.

        There are two colored steamboat companies in Washington--the National Steamboat Company and the People's Transportation Company.

        Rev. Jno. Albert Williams is the first colored man nominated for the city school board of Omaha, Neb.

        The third lieutenant of police of Charleston, S. C., is an Afro-American, who is re-elected year after year.

        The Afro-American population of Rochester, N. Y., is 900, and only six men and women cannot read and write.

        Granville T. Woods, the electrician, mechanical engineer, manufacturer of telephone, telegraph, and electrical instruments, was once a day laborer in Springfield, Ill.

        There are two Negroes now studying medicine and engineering in the University of Copenhagen, Denmark; one is at Heidelberg and the other is at Leipsic, Germany.

        Mme. Sissieretta Jones has signed a contract with the Walter Damrosch Orchestra Company for a three years' tour to Mexico and Europe, at a salary of $35,000 per year.

        In Macon county, Alabama, where the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute is located, there are at present only three people in

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jail, and all of these are white people. This shows something of the influence of the Tuskegee Institute and the Tuskegee Negro Conference.

        Rev. Dr. M. C. B. Mason, of Atlanta, Ga., a colored man, the field agent of Freedman's Aid and Southern Education Society, has been elected assistant secretary of the same, the position which Rev. Dr. J. D. Hartzell (white), of Cincinnati formerly occupied.

        There are more than fifty Negro establishments in Atlanta, Ga., representing $100,000 in business employed, giving employment to not less than one hundred persons of the race, and affording them an opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of business.

        There are 1,416,302 Afro-American children in the public schools of the United States, and in these 1,329,613 are of the public schools of the sixteen Southern States. This is an encouraging showing. A generation ago it was a penitentiary offense in all the South to Educate an Afro-American.

        Mr. John W. Wilson is the leading colored clothier of Baltimore, Md. He has a good trade, and keeps on hand a full supply of the latest goods.

        Mr. Madison Short is one of the most prominent farmers of Surry County, Virginia. He owns a beautiful farm and has some of the finest horses in the State.

        Two books from the pen of Thomas W. Stewart, of Kalamazoo, Mich., will soon make their appearance. One is the "Universal History of the Great Race of Ham," and the other is "The Encyclopædia of the Universal Progress and Achievements of the Great Hametic Race."

        Dr. R. F. Boyd, of Nashville, Tenn., recently purchased a three-story brick house on Cedar Street, price $14,000. The building contains twenty-eight rooms. This is the largest transfer of real estate ever given to a colored person in Tennessee.

        Says the Cleveland Gazette: "William R. Stewart, Esq., of Youngstown, Ohio, one of the brightest of Ohio's young Afro-Americans, has been nominated by the Republicans of Mahoning County as one of their candidates for legislature, and will be elected too, because he is capable, an active Republican and an exemplary citizen."

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        The American Railway Union, operating principally in the North, denied its privileges to colored operators.

        The American Federation of Labor will not grant membership to colored workmen.

        An evangelical church in Iowa dissuaded a colored candidate from pressing his application for fellowship.

        The Woman's Club of Chicago refused to admit a colored lady of cultured mind and elevated character.

        The managers of an ice skating club in Chicago would not sell admissions last week to decent young men of color, though white men and women too need no moral health certificate to gain entrance.

        These are not pleasant incidents to refer to, but it is worth while keeping them in mind whenever we are tempted to lambast the South for imposing unequal social burdens on its colored population. --Ram's Horn.

        Lewis Bates is probably the wealthiest colored man in Chicago, being rated at nearly $500,000. He is entirely uneducated, dresses poorly, and lives like a poor man. He was born a slave nearly seventy years ago. In 1861 he reached Chicago by the "underground railroad," and began by working in a foundry. He soon became an expressman, and at once began investing his savings in real estate. In this he has shown excellent judgment, and nearly all his investments are gilt-edged. Though he spends little money on himself, he is open-hearted and kind. He has no family, and his only heirs are a few very distant relatives.--N. Y. Tribune.

        The first female student in the world who received a diploma in law was Miss C. B. Ray, a young colored lady of New York city. She graduated at the Howard University, Washington, D. C.

        Nation Guards.--The ninth Batallion, Ohio National Guards is composed of three companies of well-drilled Negroes.

        "The Good Jesus Factory."--Bishop Taylor, of Africa, says there is a rum factory in Liberia which the natives call "The Good Jesus Factory." Christianity and rum being closely associated in the minds of the natives.

        Over thirty-five thousand Negro soldiers have given up their lives in the defense of the United States government.

        Fugitive Slave Law.--An act passed by the United States Congress in 1850. It imposed a fine of $1,000 and six months imprisonment

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on any person harboring slaves or aiding in their escape. It was declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court, February 3, 1855, and was repealed June 13, 1864; it was never fully carried into effect, Massachusetts failing to recognize it.

        Emancipation Day, April 16.--An annual commemorative holiday kept by the colored people in the United States, particularly in Washington, D. C., the day being the anniversary of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln in 1863.

        The first colored school south of Mason and Dixon's line was organized May 20, 1865, in Lexington, Ky. It was established in the same building over which Capt. John Morgan hoisted the first Confederate flag in Kentucky.

        The first and only colored Roman Catholic priest in this country is Rev. Augustus Tolton, of Quincy, Illinois.

        Slavery in England.--Up to the year 1772 slaves were bought and sold openly in England.

        Slavery Abolished.--The total abolition of slavery in the United States was officially announced December 18, 1865.

        Black Douglass.--Frederick Douglass, the Great Afro-American orator and philanthropist, was so called to distinguish him from Stephen A. Douglass.

        The greatest Negro scholar in the world, Dr. Edward Wilmot Blyden, a full blooded Negro, and formerly Minister of Liberia to England is an extensive contributor to English literature.

        "The Black Phalanx," written by Col. Joseph T. Wilson, of Va., has had the most extensive sale of any book written by an Afro-American. He is the oldest colored Newspaper man now living in Virginia.

        The first colored woman to receive the Degree of A.M., was Miss Mary Patterson. She graduated in Oberlin College in 1862.

        History records the fact that during the late rebellion, the Negro soldier participated in more than four hundred engagements.

        Jacksonville, Florida, is famous for its numerous colored secret organizations.

        The first blood spilt in the war of the revolution was that of a

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Negro, Crispus Attucks, who fell in the first charge made on the British troops at Boston, March 5, 1770.

        Rev. Lott Carey was born in Virginia in 1780, and died November 10, 1828 in Liberia. He was the first colored American Missionary to Africa.

        The first ballot ever cast by a woman in the State of Mississippi was that of Mrs. Lucy Tapley, a colored woman.

        There are 300 Negroes in the universities of Europe.

        There are over 2,000 colored people employed in the executive departments of the government at Washington.

        There were between four and five hundred Negro soldiers who were engaged in the battle of New Orleans.

        Dahomey is the smallest State in Africa. It has 4,000 square miles, almost the exact size of Connecticut.

        About 6,000 Negroes were connected in different ways with the Confederate Army.

        There are 1,928 colored public schools in the "Old Dominion;" the attendance is up to the average, and they are advancing all along the line.

        The Presbyterian denomination has 1,622 communicants in Africa.

        The first colored regiment to enter the services of the Rebellion was the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers.

        Rev. H. H. Garnett, of the Presbyterian Church, was the first colored man to preach in the capital of the United States.

        The first daily newspaper published by the colored people was the Cairo Gazette, owned, edited and published by Hon. W. S. Scott, of Cairo, Ill. The first issue came from the press April 23, 1882.

        In 1873, Hon. M. W. Gibbs, of Little Rock, Ark., was elected City Judge, the first colored man in the United States ever elected to such a position.

        Hon. J. A. Brown, of Cleveland, commenced life as a laborer on a steamboat, and has risen step by step until his eloquence has reached the legislative halls of the great State of Ohio.

        R. C. O. Benjamin was for some time the local editor of the Daily

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Sun, of Los Angeles, Cal. This was a prominent white paper, and Mr. Benjamin was the first colored man to edit a white journal.

        Hon. John M. Langston was the first sanitarian of his race. He was appointed by President U. S. Grant, March 15, 1871, on the Board of Health for the District of Columbia.

        The Lone Star Medical Association is the first Negro medical association ever organized in the United States.

        S. B. Meyers is the first Afro-American theatrical manager of the United States.

        The first and only representative in Congress from the "Old Dominion" was Hon. John M. Langston.

        Washington, D. C. has a colored population of 80,000. About 3,000 of them own their own homes, and other real estate valued at $10,000,000.

        The census report of 1890 gives the colored scholastic population of the State of North Carolina 216,524, with an enrollment of 116,689, and a daily average attendance of 68,992.

        There are 1,820 public school buildings for colored children, valued at $240,402.60.

        Albino.--White Negro of the African coast; so named by the Portuguese voyagers.

        James Smith, of Columbia, S. C., was the first colored student to enter West Point.

        Hon. Jonathan J. Wright, of Columbia, S. C., was the first (and as yet), the only colored associate Justice of the Supreme Court of any State.

        Miss Ida Platt, of Chicago, is the first woman of the race to be admitted to the bar of any State.

        The "Davenport House," of Montgomery, Ala., is finely furnished in all of its apartments. It is owned, patronized, and controlled by colored people.

        "Mammy," was the name usually given to the Negro nurse of Southern white children.

        The African Methodist Episcopal Church owns church property

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to the amount of $5,000,000. This church gave last year for school and church purposes $1,484,784.

        Negro Minstrels are Negro musicians, or white men, who often blacken their face and hands, and assume the customs and manners of Negroes, go from place to place singing Negro melodies and playing upon the banjo and "bones." Their humorous parodies upon popular songs, with their manner of singing and their jokes render their entertainments popular among both white and colored.

        The increase of colored population in the last decade is greater in Arkansas than that of any other State.

        Prof. Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegee, Ala., is the first Afro-American ever invited to address the Boston Unitarian Club, which is one of the most intelligent and wealthy in the United States.

        As a historian Geo. W. Williams is to the Negro race what George Bancroft was to the Anglo-Saxon race.

        Rev. Harvey Johnson, of Baltimore, was the first representative colored man from the State of Maryland who cast his political fortunes with the Prohibition party.

        Theodore D. Miller was the first colored, man ever appointed to preach the introductory sermon of the Philadelphia Baptist Association.

        The colored Baptists of the United States report a membership of 1,500,000, with 11,000 ordained ministers; 13,000 church buildings, valued at $10,000,000, and 9,000 Sunday schools with more than 500,000 scholars.

        Lemuel Haynes was born in Hartford, Conn., July 18, 1753. He graduated from Middleburg College, Vermont, and was the first Negro in the United States to receive the degree, A. M.

        In the seventeenth century slaves were sold in most all the New England States. Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut contained not less than 15,000 in 1764.

        According to the latest census resort there are 3,125 deaf and dumb, and 9,610 blind Afro-Americans in this country.

        There are 6,535 insane and 10,574 feeble-minded colored people in the United States.

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        Five thousand Negro soldiers is the official number reported as bearing arms in the Continental Army.--G. C. R.

        The Negro capitalists of Washington, D. C., have organized a Union Trust and Loan Company under the law of that district.

        $200,000 per Month.--There are at least 80,000 Negroes in the National Capital who draw $200,000 per month salaries from the government.

        Thirty-five Afro-Americans are employed on the police force in Pittsburgh, Pa.

        Rev. O. Summers, colored, is the chaplain of the Legislature of California.

        There are about ten Afro-American lawyers in New York, thirteen in Boston, and more than twenty-five in Chicago.

        There are 7,309 colored Odd Fellows in the "Old Dominion."

        "Bishop Tom," the famous pianist, remembers nearly four thousand compositions.

        Bishop B. F. Lee, has the pre-eminence in scholarship in the A. M. E. Church.

        Slaves were first introduced into the United States in 1619, when a Dutch war vessel entered James River and landed twenty Negroes, who were offered for sale.

        In 1869, colored men, for the first time in the history of the District of Columbia, were drawn as jurors, and served with white men.

        The colored people of Massachusetts are taxed for property valued at $9,004,122.

        Bishop J. W. Hood is credited as being the the most Conservative and far-seeing of all the Afro-American Bishops,

        Rev. W. B. Derrick enjoys the reputation of being the finest orator of the A. M. E. Church.

        Bishop Benjamin W. Arnett, of the A. M. E. Church, is called a "walking encyclopædia."

        Alabama appropriates $3,000 annually for the benefit of Tuskegee State Normal.

        Maryland appropriates $2,000 annually for the support of a Normal School for the training of colored teachers.

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        Missouri contributes $5,000 annually to Lincoln Institute for the training of colored teachers.

        Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and in fact most all the Southern States make annual contributions for the education of their colored citizens.

        Old Midway Church in Liberty county, Georgia, is the most ancient house of worship in the South, having been built in 1752. The midway Society is an organization whose mission it is to perpetuate the historical assciations of the venerable building. Negroes own this structure.

        Fully nine-tenths of the colored church members are Methodists and Baptists, and between these two they are pretty equally divided.

        Slowly yet surely the slaves of Brazil are being emancipated. Fifteen thousand are annually liberated.

        Prof. M. A. Hopkins, of Franklinton, N. C., a colored teacher of marked ability, was appointed by President Cleveland, first term, as Minister to Liberia.

        In the State of Missouri there are 750 colored teachers and 51,000 colored pupils.

        A. Humbles, a colored man, recently loaned the Baptists of Virginia, $13,000 with which to build a seminary at Lynchburg.

        Mrs. Alpha V. Miner, of Kansas City, Mo., has the reputation of being one of the most successful business women of her race in the West. She is quoted at $10,000 and free from debt. She commenced business several years ago as a dressmaker. She now has a dozen or more employees.

        The largest silk worm grower in the South is a colored man, S. R. Lowry, near Huntsville, Ala. He took a premium at the New Orleans Exposition over several foreign competitors from China, France, Japan and Italy. Mr. Lowry is of the opinion that the culture of silk in the South will supersede that of cotton.

        T. Morris Chester, of New Orleans, was the special war correspondent for the Philadelphia Daily Press. He was also the first colored man in the United States to report phonographically the proceedings of the Tenth Grand Triennial Assembly of the Patriarchal Order of Past Grand Masters of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows in America.

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        Underground Railroad.--A popular and half-humorous synonym for the numberless methods by which fugitive slaves from the Southern States were aided in escaping to the North, or to British territory during the anti-slavery agitation. William Still, for many years connected with the anti-slavery office in Philadelphia, is author of a book bearing the above title.

        Rev. A. E. P. Albert, of New Orleans, is editor of a white paper, the South Western Christian Advocate, that is owned by the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a reliable, able and pleasing writer and his paper is read by more white people than any other paper in the United States.

        In 1880 there were only 31 Afro-American journals published in the United States; it 1890 there were 155, and to-day (July 12, 1895) there are over 300. Wonderful strides of journalistic progress!

        The "Tennesseans."--They were a popular troup, who established a national reputation, and delighted thousands of intelligent audiences with their popular plantation melodies. With the proceeds obtained by these gifted singers, an elegant and commodious four-story brick structure was added to the Central Tennessee College, which is designed only for the benefit of colored students.

        "The most wonderful chapter in the history of education is that which tells the story of the education of the Negroes of the South since 1865. No people were ever helped so much in twenty-five years, and no illiterate people ever learned so fast."--Bishop Haygood.

        Wiley Jones, of Pine Bluff, Ark., is one of the wealthiest colored men in his State, and is said to be the largest blooded stock breeder of his race. Besides his herds of Durham and Holstein cattle, he has a stable of trotting horses valued at $50,000.

        Since the death of Dr. J. C. Price, of Livingstone College, Rev. J. H. Hector, of York, Pa., is the most popular temperance lecturer of the race.

        The oldest colored church in the United States is Evan's Chapel, Fayetteville, N. C., (A. M. E. Zion).

        The youngest bishop in the United States, and perhaps in the world is Alexander Walters, D.D., of the A. M. E. Zion Church.

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        The first A. M. E. Zion Church established South of Mason and Dixon line, was St. Peter's, Newberne, N. C., in 1862.

        The most prominent layman, so says Anderson, of any colored religious organization in the United States is the Hon. John C. Dancy. He is held in high esteem by all denominations.

        The increase of colored population in Tennessee in the last decade is 7.73 per cent.

        East Tennessee has a colored population of 12.02 per cent.

        Middle Tennessee has a colored population of 24.87 per cent.

        West Tennessee has a colored population of 37.24 per cent.

        Three counties in Tennessee, Fayette, Haywood, and Shelby, have more colored persons than white.

        The colored scholastic population of Tennessee is 176,614, while the daily attendance will average 105,458.

        There are 1,609 public colored schools, having 1,745 colored teachers in the State of Tennessee.

        The emancipation of slaves in all the French Colonies took place February 4, 1794.

        The complete emancipation of slaves in the English Colonies occurred in 1838 and 1839, when more than 800,000 men, besides women and children, were liberated.

        Sweden emancipated her slaves in 1846, and this was soon followed (in 1848), by the Danish Colonies proclaiming the freedom of her slaves.

        Holland delivered her American Colonies from slavery August 8, 1862.

        The African slave trade was closed in this country on the first day of January, 1808.

        A gentleman in Brooklyn, N. Y., is building a cottage for the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute to be used for the Young ladies of the Senior Class as a "Model Home," where the latest improved methods of housekeeping will be put in practice during the girls' Senior year.

        On the twenty-third day of May, 1881, President Garfield appointed ex-Senator B. K. Bruce, of Mississippi, Register of the United

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States Treasury. This was the first colored man whose signature made money of worthless paper.

        Dr. Henry Fitzbutler, of Louisville, was born December 22, 1842. He graduated in the Michigan University in 1872. He was granted a charter by the legislature of Kentucky in 1888 to practice medicine, having graduated at the Louisville National Medical College. He was the first regular physician of the Negro race to enter upon the practice of medicine in the State of Kentucky.

        The National Republican Convention, held at Philadelphia in June, 1872, received as delegates a number of colored men, and for the first time in the history of presidential conventions, the Negro's voice was heard and applauded.

        Charles L. Remond was the first Negro to take the platform as a regular lecturer in the anti-slavery cause, and was no doubt, the ablest representative that the race had till the appearance of Frederick Douglass in 1842.

        The Freedman's Journal was issued March 16, 1827, and was the first newspaper published by an Afro-American in the United States.

        Hon. Frederick Douglass, in his early life, was a local preacher in the A. M. E. Zion Church.

        Prof. William H. Day, of Harrisburg, Pa., is said to be the leading scholar in the A. M. E. Zion Church. He is the only colored man in the United States who enjoys the distinction of presiding over a white school board of a city of 50,000 population. He is also president of the county school board. The unsurpassed excellence of the public school system of Harrisburg is said to be due to his efforts.

        Grand United Order of Odd Fellows in America.--This grand institution was founded by Peter Ogden. To-day they enroll a membership in 32 States. Wm. T. Forrester is Grand Master, and Charles B. Wilson, Deputy Grand Master. Total lodges, 2,043; households, 880; total inmates in the 880 households of Ruth, 25,000; councils, 161; patriarchies, 76; male membership, 71,744; whole number of P. G. M.'s and M. V. P.'s, 4,500; total membership in all branches, 98,244.

        Mr. J. C. Farley, of Richmond, Va., is one of the finest photographers

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in the United States. His work has been exhibited at national fairs, taking the premium at many places.

        The Afro-American Benevolent Association, of Birmingham, Ala., was organized under the State law and has many worthy features in connection with its management.

        In his will, George Washington set his slaves free, and hundreds of other slave owners did the same thing.

        Felix Weir, a colored boy of Chicago, 11 years old, is a musical prodigy on the violin. He plays a great many very difficult compositions with sassy grace and skill.

        Freedman's Bureau.--Congress passed an act March 3, 1865, organizing in the War Department the "Bureau of the Refuges, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands," which was popularly known as the "Freedmen's Bureau." This remained in operation, with somewhat enlarged powers, until July 1, 1869, when its functions ceased, excepting the educational department, which continued until July 1, 1870, and that for the collection of claims. The bureau exercised a general supervision over the freedmen, protecting their rights, deciding their disputes, aiding them in obtaining work, extending facilities of education, and furnishing them with medical treatment. It was discontinued about five years after its organization, as the chief object for which it was organized had by that time been accomplished.

        The "Jubilee Singers."--They were a company of educated Negroes, from Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn., who for seven years of almost continuous labor, both in Europe and America, gave popular entertainments of a species of singing which originated among the slaves of the Southern States. Their efforts were crowned with success, and the proceeds of their concerts were used in purchasing the University grounds, and the building of Jubilee Hall. This building is elegantly located, and is absolutely one of the handsomest structures to be found anywhere in the South.

        First Newspaper in the South.--The first race newspaper published in the South was The Colored American. It was published in Augusta, Ga., and was edited by J. T. Shuften in 1865. We find the following discription of this paper in The Afro-American Press: "It is designed to be a vehicle for the diffusion of Religious, Political and

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General Intelligence. It will be devoted to the promotion of harmony and good will between the whites and colored people of the South, and uniting in its advocacy of industry and education among all classes; but particularly the class most in need of our agency. It will steadfastly oppose all forms of vice that prey upon society, and give that counsel that tends to virtue, peace, prosperity and happiness."


        ALABAMA.--The derivation of the name "Alabama," like that of numerous other states, is of Indian origin, and is commonly supposed to signify "Here we rest," and these words are on the States coat-of-arms. It takes its name from its principal river and is generally known as the "Cotton State."

        ALASKA is an Indian name and signifies "great land" or "main land." The name is said to have been given by Captain Cook in his voyage of 1778. It was purchased by the United States in May 1867 for $7,200,000.

        ARIZONA is supposed to be of uncertain meaning.

        ARKANSAS, after its chief river. The meaning is in doubt. By an act of the State Senate in 1881, the true pronunciation of the word was declared to be Ar-kan-saw. Formerly it was so spelled, but the original way has not yet been restored. It was admitted into the Union June 15, 1836. It is called the "Bear State."

        CALIFORNIA is of Spanish origin. First permanent settlement made at San Diego, April 11, 1769. Has been supposed to mean "hot furnace," but the term is not applicable, on account of the general climate of the State, which is temperate and healthful. The name is said to have been given to an imaginary island in the Orient, "near the Terrestrial Paradise." In 1535 a company of Spanish explorers supposed they had found this poetic island, or its twin sister and named it accordingly. It is called the "Golden State."

        CAROLINAS.--This name was given to a fort not far from Bufort, South Carolina, by Ribault in 1562 in honor of Charles I. of England, or Charles IX., King of France. Is one of the thirteen original

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States. Was ratified November 21, 1789. South Carolina is familiarly known as the "Palmetto State," while her neighbor is known as the "Tar State," or "Old North State."

        COLORADO is a Spanish word and means "Red or Colored." It was named for the river of the same name. It was admitted into the Union in 1876, just one hundred years after the Declaration of Independence, and hence the favorite nickname--"Centennial State."

        CONNECTICUT.--The name is of Indian origin, meaning "Long River," or "upon the long river." The State is sometimes called the "Land of Steady Habits." It became a State January 9, 1788. It is popularly known as the "Nutmeg State," from the jocular slander that its peddlers were in the habit of palming off wooden nutmegs on their customers.

        DAKOTAS.--The word Dakota is a name by which the people of the greatest northwestern Indian Confederacies called themselves. It means "leagued." South Dakota was admitted into the Union Nov. 2, 1889. It is sometimes called the "Swiagecat," or "Cayote" State, while her Northern sister has been called the "Sioux," or "Flickertail" State.

        DELAWARE.--This name was given first to the bay, next to the river, and lastly to the State, in honor of Lord de la War, Governor of Virginia. It is called the "Blue Hen State," or "Diamond State."

        DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.--Congress, on the 28th of June, 1790, passed an act providing, "that a district of territory on the Potomac, at some place between the mouths of the Eastern Branch and the Connogocheague, be and the same is hereby accepted for the permanent seat of the Government of the United States." Ten miles square was laid out for this purpose, Virginia and Maryland contributing the land.

        FLORIDA is the Spanish for "flowery." It is the Spanish name for Easter Sunday, the day on which Ponce de Leon discovered Florida in 1513. It is called the "Peninsular State."

        GEORGIA, named in honor of King George II., of England, who granted to General Oglethorpe a charter for same. She was admitted into the Union January 2, 1788. Seceded January, 1861; re-admitted December, 1870. Popularly known as the "Cracker State."

        IDAHO.--Indian name and means "Gem of the Mountains," said to refer to the "bright sunshine on the mountain tops, so characteristic of that strangely beautiful country." Admitted as a State, July, 3, 1890.

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        ILLINOIS, the name of its chief river, and of the confederated tribes dwelling on its banks. The name signifies "a superior class of men." It is one of the most important States in the Union in point of wealth and population. It is appropriately called the "Prairie State" on account of its broad expanse of prairie lands. It is also called the "Sucker State."

        INDIANA is sometimes called the "Hoosier State," a term of which the origin has never been satisfactorily explained.

        IOWA.--The meaning of this word has been variously interpreted. It is generally conceded, however, to mean "The abode of peace," also "across" or "beyond," and this name is supposed to have been applied by the Illinois tribes to their enemies across the Mississippi river. It is called the "Hawkeye State," and is apparently intended to commemorate the famous chief, Black Hawk.

        KANSAS.--This State is called after a tribe of the same name which in the Indian dialect signifies "South Wind." It is popularly known as the "Sunflower State."

        KENTUCKY.--Admitted as a State June 1, 1792. It is an Indian name and signifies "Dark and bloody ground." It is sometimes called the "Corn Cracker," but is most generally known as the "Bluegrass State."

        LOUISIANA.--Named in honor of Louis the XIV., of France. Popularly known as the "Pelican State."

        MAINE signifies the "Main" or "Mainland." From the immense white pine forests it has been given the name of the "Pine Tree State."

        MARYLAND, named in honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I., of England. It is properly known as "The Old Line State."

        MASSACHUSETTS.--This name is of Indian origin, and means "About the Great Hills." The first settlers were known as the "Pilgrims," who landed in a small vessel known as the "Mayflower." Three large bays indent the Eastern shore, and for this reason it is called the "Bay State."

        MICHIGAN.--This word signifies "A weir for fish" or "Lake Country." It is called the "Wolverine State."

        MINNESOTA after its river of the same name; in the Kakota language, minne means "water," and sotah means "sky-colored." It is usually called the "Gopher State," but is sometimes called the "North Star State," from the motto on its coat-of-arms.

        MISSISSIPPI is from the Indian, Algonquin, missi-sepe, "great

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river." "Father of Waters," the accepted interpretation, and one that has been so popular, is only a fancy. From the frequent bayous formed by the changing of the stream, the State is called by the nickname, "Bayou State."

        MISSOURI is of Indian origin and is derived from two words, missi souri, signifying "great muddy" (river). It is said to bring down from the "Rockies" so much mud that the water, when taken up in a small vessel, has the appearance of coffee.

        MONTANA, a Spanish name, meaning "mountains." It was admitted into the Union Nov. 8, 1889, and is called the "Stubtoe State."

        NEBRASKA is an Indian name, meaning "shallow water." It is popularly known as the "Antelope" or "Black Water" State.

        NEVADA is of Spanish origin, and from is chief product is known as "The Silver State." The meaning of the word is "white with snow." It took its name from the Sierra Nevada, a range of lofty mountains dividing it from California. It is sometimes called the "Sage Brush State," from the scope of country covered with sage brush.

        NEW HAMPSHIRE.--Named after the country of Hampshire, England. From the rocks of the White Mountains, it is called the "Granite State."

        NEW JERSEY.--Named after the Isle of Jersey, in the English Channel. Called the "Sharp Backs State."

        NEW MEXICO, after Mexico.

        NEW YORK--"The Empire State," so call on account of the fact that it takes first rank in population, wealth, and commerce among the States in the Union. It was named for the Duke of York.

        OHIO is an Indian word, meaning "beautiful river." This name was first applied to the river between Pittsburg and Cairo, and the first State erected north of this stream was named for it. It is popularly known as the "Buckeye State," from the abundance of buckeye or horse-chestnut trees.

        OKLAHOMA is an Indian word, and signifies "beautiful land," or "fine country," and so it is. This beautiful country is increasing rapidly in population and material prosperity

        OREGON.--This is a Spanish word from "Oregano." The name signifies "Thyme." It was admitted to the Union February 12, 1859. It is called the "Beaver State."

        PENNSYLVANIA is the most celebrated State in the Union for extensive coal beds. It was named in honor of admiral Penn, father of

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William Penn. The meaning is Pennis--"Sylva"--woods. It is called the "Keystone State," probably because its name was carved on the keystone of the bridge over Rock Creek, between Washington and Georgetown. She is also the middle of the thirteen original States.

        RHODE ISLAND, from her size, is universally known as "Little Rody." The probability is that it was named in honor of the Greek island in the Mediterranean--"Isle of Rhodes."

        TENNESSEE is named after her principal river, a Cherokee word, signifying "crooked river," or "river of big bend," and is popularly known as the "Volunteer State."

        TEXAS takes her name from a tribe of Indians who passed through that country in 1536. The word is of Indian origin, and signifies "friends." It is called the "Lone Star State," from the device on her flag and shield.

        UTAH is named after a tribe of Indians. The word signifies "Mountain Home." Mormans call it the "Deseret," which they claim means "The Land of the Honey-bee."

        VERMONT is of French Origin, and is derived from two words--vert, green, and monts, mountains, hence the nickname, "Green Mountain State."

        VIRGINIA.--Commonly called "The Old Dominion," because Charles II. allowed it to call itself the fourth dominion of his empire, that is, England, Scotland, Ireland, and Virginia. The name is in honor of Queen Elizabeth, of England. It is also known as the "Mother of Presidents." Slavery was also first introduced here in 1619.

        WASHINGTON was named for the "Father of his Country," and is called the "Chinook State."

        WEST VIRGINIA separated from the "Old Dominion" in 1863, and is called the "Little Mountain State."

        WISCONSIN, after the name of its chief river, which means "wild rushing channel," "westward flowing," or "Prairie River." It is popularly known as the "Badger State."

        WYOMING is an Indian word, said to mean "broad valley.

        ABOUT one forth of the population of the world is not under the law of civilization.

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        Absence makes the heart grow fonder.--J. H. Bailey.

        He that hides is no better than he that steals.

        He who accuses too many accuses himself.

        Brave actions never want a trumpet.

        He who does not advance recedes.

        Adversity often leads to prosperity.

        Adversity tries virtue.

        He asks advice in vain who will not follow it.

        When advice will not correct the rod will not.

        Afflictions are the best blessings in disguise.

        He that corrects not youth controls not age.

        Give not your alms to a sound-limbed beggar.

        Giving alms never lessens the purse.

        Angels hear the humblest human cry.--Bulwer.

        A man is a stark fool all the while he is angry.

        A soft answer is a specific cure for anger.

        Do not always judge by appearances.--La Fontaine.

        By hammer and hand all arts do stand.

        All asses do not go on four feet.

        Even an ass loves to hear himself bray.

        It is often better not to see an insult than to avenge it.

        A bad tree does not yield good apples.

        He is a sorry barber that has but one comb.

        It is a base thing to betray a man because he trusted you.

        One cannot teach a bear to dance in a day.

        Beard was never the true standard for brains.--T. Fuller.

        A fair face may hide a foul heart.

        A thing of beauty is a joy forever.

        Beauty may have fair leaves but bitter fruit.

        Beauty without virtue is a curse.

        A beggar's wallet is never full.

        From small beginnings come great things.

        What a man desires he easily believes.

        Put money in thy purse, but put it honestly.

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        Better a tooth out than always aching.

        Blessings are not valued until gone.

        A blind man wishes to show the road.

        Boasting renders one ridiculous.

        Believe a boaster as you would a liar.

        Better buy than borrow.

        Borrowing is the mother of trouble.

        Much borrowing destroys credit.

        Many are brave when the enemy flies.

        Every man thinks his own burden the heaviest.

        Business neglected is business lost.

        A fine cage won't feed the bird.

        Keep no more cats than will catch mice.

        Change of pasture makes fat calves.

        People often change and seldom do better.

        A charitable man is the true lover of God.

        Cheaply bought, dear in the end.

        Cheerful company shortens the miles.

        Children are what they are made.

        A Christian is the highest style of man.

        Better come late to church than never.

        Go not to hell for company.

        The rotten apple spoils it companions.

        Do all you can to be good and you'll be so.

        Do not publish people's defects.

        A clear conscience is a good pillow.

        Contempt is the sharpest reproof.

        A contented man is always rich.

        Good counsel is not to be paid with gold.

        Keep your own counsel.

        A man of courage never wants weapons.

        A covetous man does nothing that he should till he dies.

        Credit is dead; bad pay killed it.

        Crosses are ladders which lead to heaven.

        To everyone his own cross is heaviest.

        A crow is never whiter for often washing.

        Curiosity often brings its own punishment.

        Every day is not a holiday.

        No day passes without some grief.

        The longest day is sure to have its night.

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        If to-day will not, to-morrow may.

        Every to-morrow brings its bread.

        All death is sudden to the unprepared.

        He would be a good one to send for death.

        Six feet of earth make all men equal.

        A man in debt is stoned every year.

        Debt is the worst poverty.

        Good deeds remain, all things else perish.

        If your desires be endless your cares will be so too.

        No one can have all he desires.

        Diligence is the mother of success.--Don Quixote.

        A good dog deserves a good bone.

        An old dog cannot alter its way of barking.

        Let not the sun look down and say inglorious here he lies.--Franklin.

        The morning hour has gold in its mouth.

        Economy is a great revenue.

        A rotten egg cannot be spoiled.

        He that endureth is not overcome.

        Evils that are passed should not be mourned.

        Never do evil that good may come of it.

        Who doeth no evil is apt to suspect none.

        No great good came without looking after it.

        A scalded dog thinks cold water hot.

        It is best to be cautious and avoid extremes.

        The eye is blind if the mind is absent.

        A good face needs no paint.

        A single fact is worth a shipload of argument.

        Facts are more powerful than words.

        Fancy requires much; necessity but little.

        A father lives after death in his son.

        A father loves his children in hating their faults.

        The most faulty are most prone to find fault.

        Nothing is easier than fault-finding.--Robert West.

        He who asks fewest favors is the best received.

        Fear is often greater than danger.

        The first in the boat has choice of oars.

        From great rivers come great fish.

        All flowers are not in one garland.

        It is a bad soil where no flowers will grow.

        A fool alway finds a greater fool that admires him.

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        A fool thinks nothing right but what he does himself.

        Fools for arguments use wagers.

        Fools laugh at their own sport.

        Young fools think that the old are dotards; but the old have forgotten more than the young fools know.

        A wise man will not reprove a fool.

        A coward never forgave, it is not his nature.

        A man does not seek his luck, luck seeks its man.

        Fortune is not far from the brave man's head.

        Fortune makes friends and misfortune tries them.

        A poor freedom is better than a rich slavery.

        Friendship is stronger than kindred.

        A true gentleman will respect woman even in her weakness.

        God delays, but does not forget.

        God helps the sailor, but he must row.

        When God says to-day, the devil says to-morrow.

        Gossiping and lying go together.

        The sweetest grapes hang highest.

        Gratitude is the least of virtues; ingratitude the worst of vices.

        Grief is satisfied and carried off by tears.

        Grief pent up will burst the heart.

        The only cure for grief is action.--George Henry Lewis.

        The handsomest flower is not the sweetest.

        Happy is the man that keeps out of strife.

        A cool mouth and warm feet live long.--George Herbert.

        There are no riches like health.

        A cheerful countenance betokens a good heart.

        A happy heart is better than a full purse.

        Help yourself and God will help you.

        Help yourself and your friends will help you.

        Travel east or travel west, a man's own home is still the best.

        There is no place like home even if it is a cellar.

        An honest countenance is the best passport.

        An honest man does not make himself a dog for the sake of a bone.

        An honest man is not the worse because a dog barks at him.

        A lady's honor will not bear a soil.

        Hope is the poor man's bread.

        A good son makes a good husband.

        By doing nothing we learn to do evil.

        Idleness is the rust of the soul.

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        Industry is the parent of fortune.

        Insolence puts an end to friendship.

        Never judge by appearances.

        A forced kindness deserves no thanks.

        Many kiss the child for the nurse's sake.

        A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

        To know everything is to know nothing.

        Learning is better than house and land.

        Learning refines and elevates the mind.

        Life is labor, death is rest.

        Little birds may pick a dead lion.

        A little pack serves a little peddler.

        Little and often make a heap of time.

        A living bog is better than a dead lion.

        The loss that is not known is no loss.

        He loves well who chastises well.

        Love is the touchstone of virtue.

        Love knows no measure.

        A liar is sooner caught than a cripple.

        He that hears much hears many lies.

        Show me a liar and I'll show you a thief.

        There is no vice that hath not its beginning in a lie.--Dryden.

        You may shut your doors against a thief but not against a liar.

        A mad horse must have a sober rider.

        Every mad man thinks all other men are mad.

        Maidens should be mild and meek, swift to hear and slow to speak.

        A man has two ears and one mouth, that he may hear much and speak little.

        Men, like cattle, follow him who leads.

        Be sure before you marry.

        Hasty marriage seldom proveth well.--Shakespeare.

        Marriage is heaven or hell.

        Every fool will be meddling.

        The meekness of Moses is better than the strength of Samson.

        Small minds are captivated by trifles.--Ovid.

        A merry heart doeth good like a medicine.--Bible.

        Mirth and motion prolong life.

        Misfortune makes us wise.

        The mob has many heads but no brains.

        Modesty has more charms than beauty.

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        A man who is proud of his money has rarely anything else to be proud of.

        Money borrowed is soon sorrowed.

        A mother is a mother all the days of her life; a father is a father till he gets a new wife.

        A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.--Bible.

        Better is a neighbor that is near than a brother that is far off.--Bible.

        It is more noble to pardon than to punish.

        Govern your passions, otherwise they will govern you.--Horace.

        Be patient toward all men.--St Paul.

        None patient but the wise.

        Punctual pay gets willing loan.

        Who pays beforehand is served behindhand.

        A good pay master needs no security.

        Perseverance brings success.

        He that hath pity on the poor lendeth to the Lord.--Bible.

        No dish pleases all palates alike.

        An ox and an ass don't yoke well to the same plow.

        He who sleeps much learns little.

        Sloth is the key to poverty.

        Be slow to promise, quick to perform.

        The sluggard's convenient season never comes.

        A small coin in a big jar makes a great noise.

        Small axes fell great trees.

        One may smile and smile, and be a villian still.

        A snow year, a rich year.

        Solitude is of the best society.

        The son disgraces himself when he blames his father.

        There is a salve for every sore.

        A day of sorrow is longer than a month of joy.

        Provide for the soul by doing good works.

        Early sow, early mow.

        He that sows thistles, shall reap thistles.

        Sow good works and thou shalt reap gladness.

        He that spares vice wrongs virtue.

        Who speaks, sows; who listens, reaps.

        The brightest of all things, the sun, has its spots.

        Rolling stones gather no moss.

        Deserve success and you shall command it.

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        He who succeeds is reputed wise.

        Nothing succeeds like success.

        It will not always be summer.--Hesoid.

        The sun shines for all the world.

        The sun is the King of torches.--Western African Negro.

        He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it.--Bible.

        He that hateth suretyship is sure.--Bible.

        There is no sweet without sour.

        What so tedious as a twice told tale.--Homer.

        Great talkers are commonly liars.--German.

        A thief thinks every man steals.

        He who takes no care of little things will not have the care of great ones.

        He that has most time has none to lose.

        A still tongue makes a wise head.

        Put a key on your tongue.

        It is better to turn back than go astray.

        One never loseth anything by politeness.

        No one is poor but he who thinks himself so.

        Poor without debt is better than a prince.

        The poor sit in Paradise on the first benches.

        T'is God's blessing makes the pot boil.

        Poverty is the reward of idleness.

        He is a fool that praises himself.

        Let another man praise thee and not thine own mouth.--Bible.

        Self praise is odious.

        The nobler the blood the less the pride.

        Don't promise what you cannot perform.

        Providence assists not the idle.

        A profitable religion never wants proselytes.

        Religious contention is the devil's harvest.

        A good name is better than riches.--Bible.

        Be resolved and the thing is done.--Chinese.

        Rest is good after the work is done.

        Forgetting of a wrong is a mild revenge.

        Give me neither poverty or riches.--Bible.

        He is rich who owes nothing.

        The rich man is often poorer than the beggar.

        Be sure you are right then go ahead.--D. Crochett.

        No one is always right.

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        The nearer to Rome the worst Christians.

        On his own saddle one rides the safest.

        Salt spilt is never all gathered.

        Every one that repeats it adds something to the scandal.

        A smooth sea never made a skillful mariner.

        The lazy servant takes eight steps to avoid one.

        Unwilling service earns no thanks.

        He is lost whose shame is lost.

        Often shooting hits the mark.

        Better be silent than talk ill.

        Deep rivers move in silence, shallow brooks are noisy.

        Silence is as great an art as speech.

        Silence puts an end to quarrels.

        Speaking is silver, silence is gold.

        All who snore are not asleep.

        Travel is the great source of true wisdom.

        Travel makes a wise man better, but a fool worse.

        The tree must be bent while it is young.

        No one gets into trouble without his own help.

        If you trust before you try, you may repent before you die.

        Trust in God, but keep your powder dry.--Cromwell.

        Buy the truth and sell it not.--Bible.

        Truth is better than gold.--Arabian.

        Every man thinks his own copper gold.

        Vanity is the food of fools.--Swift.

        He who is free from vice himself is the slower to suspect it in others.--Greek.

        He that forgives gains the victory.

        Virtue is a jewel of great price.

        A wager is a fool's argument.

        War makes robbers, and peace hangs them.

        Running water carries no poison.

        A misty morning may have a fine day.

        No garden is without its weeds.

        Such a welcome, such a farewell.

        Welcome is the best dish in the kitchen.

        A wicked companion invites us all to hell.

        A wicked man is afraid of his own memory.

        The wicked grow worse, and good men grow better from troubles.

        A good wife and health are a man's best wealth.

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        A man can never thrive who has a wasteful wife.

        A prudent wife is from the Lord.

        It is a mark of wisdom to dislike folly.

        He is the wise man who is the honest man.

        Wit does not take the place of wisdom.

        A silent woman is always more admired than a noisy one.

        Better break your word than do worse in keeping it.

        Good works will never save you, but you cannot be saved without them.

        Youth looks forward and age backward.

        Too much zeal spoils all.

        Zeal is fit only for wise men, but is found mostly in fools.


        WE want educated farmers who will own their lands, stock and farming implements. We want farmers who will highly appreciate their calling and study all the latest improved methods of tilling the soil and supply themselves with the best implements in the market. We want farmers who will raise fine stock and cattle, fruits and vegetables for our own and foreign markets. Let the world know where, who we are and what we are doing. As a rule our young men who come to the cities from the farm are ashamed to be known as farmers. They consider farming menial--below the profession. In this they are wrong. No profession can be higher and more honorable than that of farming. The farmer feeds all of the professions. But for the farmer there would be no professions. He supports the people and all other callings; and just as the farmer is successful in producing plenty, all other business is prosperous: and just in proportion as he fails all suffer.

        The farmer deserves to be honored, for we are all dependent upon him for that which supports life, bread. Every farmer should be proud of his calling, and by his appreciation of it compel others to respect it. If you will go over the history of all the great men and women of the world you will find that most of them were born and reared on the farm. The purest men and women of to-day are on the farm free from the crazes of city society. Not only our bread

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and what we eat come from the farm, our clothing as well. Who but the farmer settles our new States and Territories, clears away the forests and makes the waste places to blossom? He plows and sows and reaps and mows for us. Then don't despise the farmer; if you have no employment in the city go to the farm. Thousands of our people lie around the cities and towns, living from hand to mouth in old cellars, dilapidated stables, closely packed tenement houses, not fit for human habitation, often at the point of starvation and often compelled to steal and beg to keep the "wolf from the door," that might make an independent living by going to the country and working farm lands.

        Some say that those who own the lands will not pay a fair price; then there is greater reason why we should own lands ourselves. Work and save your money and buy lands. If the price is too high where you live go somewhere else. If you cannot buy a big farm buy a little one. Buy one or more acres and cultivate every inch of it and add more to it when you can. Off an acre-and-a-half strawberry patch, nine miles from Nashville, Mr. John Goodrich picked 1,485 gallons, which brought him $303.75. He commenced picking May 4, 1895, and finished May 29. Land in his vicinity, equally as productive can be had from $15 to $25 per acre. There are thousands of acres of land in Texas, Arkansas and the Western States that can be bought for a trifle. Go in colonies and buy their lands, withstand a few hardships and become independent and useful, patriotic citizens. The homestead lands are not all taken yet. Go out and possess these lands that are free to all who comply with the laws. The poor Germans, Bohemians, Italians and other peoples of the continent come to this country and settle on these homestead lands and in a few years they are independent. We can do the same. Then let us lay aside extravagance, low, base, useless and expensive habits and begin anew. Let us begin at the farm with thrift energy and intelligence to demonstrate our worth. Let us economize and get money and property of our own. "Get money, not to hide away in a hedge, nor for a train attendant, but for the glorious privilege of being independent."

        THE African ostrich has but two toes on each foot, and one of them has but one claw.

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Cotton Picking in Mississippi.

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        The Purpose of this Paper.--The oldest psalm in the whole collection of these marvelous sacred songs is the ninetieth (XC.). It was born in the heart of a man who had felt the bitter hardship of slavery. "They made their lives bitter with hard bondage," was the pitiful record of his race in Egypt. Moses, the author of this psalm, knew well of those wretched experiences of slavery. The influence of those dark days, and the thirty-eight years wandering in the wilderness, oppressed the Poet General of Israel, and he exclaimed "We are consumed by thine anger, and by thy wrath are we troubled. For all our days are passed away in thy wrath." It was the influence of slavery in the songs of the Israelite nation. You can trace the same effects in the sacred writings after each captivity. The experience of slavery colored their religious songs, as it touched their national life and moulded their nation's history.

        It would be a most interesting study to follow out this same line of investigation and note how the suppression of national independence, the subjugation of any people, has colored their religious thought, and found expression in their sacred songs. It is my purpose, however, only to note the fact of this influence, not to illustrate it.

        The growth or development of sacred songs is an interesting study. Take some familiar hymns. We sing "Hail to the Lord's anointed," written by James Montgomery, in 1822. "Jesus shall Reign Where'er the Sun," written by Isaac Watts, in 1819. "Rescue the Perishing," by Fanny Crosby. "My Country 'tis of Thee," written by Rev. S. F. Smith, in 1832. Eighteen Christian centuries stand behind these sacred hymns. Each mighty century contributed its rich gifts to the development of the races whose blood flowed in the veins of Montgomery or Watts, or Crosby or Smith. There is evolution of Christian song. Now in studying these old slave songs, we touch hands with heathen Africa. Two hundred and fifty years

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of enforced bondage and thirty years of freedom are all separate those who sung these songs from barbarism. We cannot expect to find the models of expression that eighteen centuries of free Christian development have produced. We shall discover crude, weird, quaint words, and often fantastic music. But this study and analysis throws light upon race development, and proves, I think, that the great truths of the Christian faith comforted and uplifted the humble, ignorant slave just as truly as the wealthy, and intelligent, and refined.

        "The best commentary on the Scripture is the Scripture," said a learned divine. So the best commentary on the Negro is the Negro. We have done almost everything with and for the Negro, except let him speak for himself. We preach at him; we hold him up as a remarkable example of total depravity, of hopeless corruption, or as rich in his religious nature. We tell of his terrible degration, or his wonderful progress, as the whim may strike us. We do everything except let him speak for himself.

        This paper is a humble effort on the part of the writer to let the Negro speak for himself concerning his religious faith. These three introductory considerations just mentioned are of importance in studying the slave songs of our own bondmen.

        1st. The influence of slavery in coloring their Christian songs. 2nd. The evolution of sacred songs. 3rd. The value of the Negro's views of the Negro.

        Turning aside from the statistics of church growth, let us ask the question, What is there among the Negroes of the South to build up-on in Christian work? Have they correct ideas of the great fundamental truths of Christianity? What was the theology of the plantation? What are the fundamental elements in the religious thought of these freed slaves? Must we recast their conceptions of religious truth, or only seek to intellectualize that which is spiritually discerned? What are the religious conceptions of these uneducated Negroes? What was the theology of the slaves?

        The answer to this question determines largely the future of our church work among the mass of colored people. The progress will be painfully slow, if we must lay the foundations of religious truth before we can build the super-structure of church work. But if we discover that they hold evangelical truth substantially correct, we have a great advantage.

        "They that do His will shall know of the doctrine," we read.

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These poor Negroes walking never in the full day of opportunity of religious truth communed with God in the night of their oppression and wrong, and it is marvelous how wonderfully he revealed himself to them. They have no polemic literature, no dogmatic theology We learn of one old colored preacher who had a trial for heresy on his hands, because he preached against stealing chickens!

        Indeed they had no literature at all as a race, but coming out from these two and a half centuries of bondage they have brought with them a whole body of Christian song. Like the Homeric plays or the Scotch ballads, these Negro songs, which came from their hearts and grew out of their religious experiences, were preserved by being repeated--handed down by word of mouth from father to son, from mother to child.

                         "The triumph note that Marian sung,
                         The joy of uncaged birds;
                         Softening with Africa's mellow tongue
                         Their broken Saxon words."

        Now do these plantation hymns give evidence that the great fundamental doctrines of evangelical Christianity were held by these humble people in their days of slavery? In pushing our Christian work in the South, can we assume this fact? It is not only a very interesting question in ethnology and race history, but also of great importance in our missionary enterprises to know just what these humble people learned of God's truth in the school house of slavery, having little human instruction but communing with God's Spirit. That we may discover the answer to this question, let us arrange somewhat systematically these old plantation melodies, these songs that were never written, but that burst from the hearts of the slaves when crushed under the weight of their bondage.

        They could not read nor write. But let us remember that our own race is indebted for its highest poetic expression of Christian truth in the early centuries to one who could not read, Ceadmon Monk, of Whitely. He was the greatest Anglo-Saxon poet and father of English song. He gave us our first Paradise Lost, equal, in many respects, to John Milton's greatest book.

        1. These slave songs teach, beyond doubt, that the slaves held to the truth of Divine Sovereignty. We repeat in our churches the beautiful language of the Apostle's Creed: "I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth." So do these humble

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Negroes believe. This great truth bursts forth from their lips in jubilant song.

                         "Didn't my Lord deliver Daniel,
                         D'liver Daniel, d'liver Daniel?
                         Didn't my Lord deliver Daniel,
                         And why not every man?"

        What a strange pathetic appeal to this Divine Ruler are these words in the hymn, "Keep me from sinking down:"

                         "I bless the Lord I'm gwine to die;
                         Keep me from sinking down.
                         I'm gwine to judgment by-and-bye;
                         Keep me from sinking down.
                         "O Lord, O my Lord! O my good Lord!
                         Keep me from sinking down."

        It suggests to one Jean Ingelow's "Brothers and a Sermon," and the touching prayer of the old fisherman to whom the Lord Jesus came in the night season.

                         "O, Lord, good Lord,
                         I am a broken down poor man, a fool
                         To speak to thee." . . .
                         "O Lord, our Lord,
                         How great is thy compassion. Come, good Lord,
                         For we will open. Come this night, good Lord;
                         Stand at the door and knock."
                         "Only the wind knocks at my door, Oh, loud and long it knocks,
                         The only thing God made that has a mind to enter in."

        Yea, thus the old man spake. These were the last words of his aged mouth.

        But one did knock. One came to sup with him, that humble, weak, old man; knocked at his door in the rough pauses of the laboring wind.

        And when the neighbors came the morrow morn they said: "He looks as he had woke and seen the face of Christ, and with that rapturous smile held out his arms, to come to Him."

        The appeal of these Negroes was to Divine Justice, not to fickle human passion, and they rejoiced in view of such a judgment day. "God, the Father Almighty," they held to, they gloried in and no mystery of suffering ever dimmed their faith. We can assume its existence and build upon it in pushing our church work among them in the Southland.

        Calvinism seems to have crept in at the very basis of their doctrinal

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views. Original sin finds recognition in the following odd song:

                         "Old Satan thinks he'll get us all,
                         Yes, my Lord;
                         Because in Adam we did fall,
                         Yes, my Lord."

        Whether they hold to the federal headship of Adam, I cannot state positively. If they adopted Professor Shedd's theory that the whole race was actually, physically present in Adam and consciously sinned, it would be another argument for the unity of the human race, or else hint very strongly that Adam was slightly off color.

        2. Again these slaves held to the Divinity of Christ--crudely stated, imperfectly discerned, but tenaciously maintained. Among their plantation hymns, illustrating this, I refer to only two or three.

                         "Just stand right still and steady yourself,
                         I know that my Redeemer lives.
                         Oh, just let me tell you about God his self,
                         I know that my Redeemer lives."

        Or another, the refrain of which runs:

                         "Reign, Oh, reign; Oh, reign my Savior!
                         Reign, Oh, reign; Oh, reign my Lord."

        Or still another:

                         "Why, He's the Lord of lords,
                         And the King of kings.
                         Why, Jesus Christ is the first and last,
                         No one can work like Him."

        3. There is little in their songs concerning the Holy Spirit. The Father and Son were relations that they could understand. The more mysterious work and personality of the Holy Spirit they did not so easily grasp. But they did not doubt that God was with them and that the Lord Jesus Christ was their companion.

        4. The Atonement, the Son of God dying for them to open the way of salvation, was a truth most precious to them in their life of painful neglect or bitter persecution. Their plantation melodies are full of this truth. One, however, will illustrate the fact as well as a dozen. And what more beautiful than that with the refrain,

                         "I've been redeemed, I've been redeemed,
                         Been washed in the blood of the Lamb."

        If we turn from Theology proper to Anthropology, we find here the fundamental truths entering into their religious conceptions. They

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thoroughly believe in human freedom of the will, if not of the person, and in human responsibility. They sung as they swayed back and forth in their weird gatherings at night, under the old pine forests, or on a hillock in the midst of some swampy jungle, these words:

                         "Don't you want to be a soldier, soldier, soldier,
                         Don't you want to be a soldier in the year of jubilee?
                         Then you must rise and shine and give God the glory, glory,
                         Rise and shine and give God the glory in the year of jubilee."

        They believe that they must "work out their own salvation with fear and trembling," but they never forget that "it is God that worketh in them both to will and to do of his good pleasure."

        The personality of Satan they never doubted, and his ability to tempt human souls is illustrated in many of their hymns. They sing at Tougaloo, Miss., a hymn which especially emphasizes this fact. The refrain goes,

                         "Old Satan, he wears de hypocrite shoe,
                         If you don't mind, he slip it on you."

        A warning that is not limited in its application to the Southern Negroes.

        5. Again, how tenaciously they hold to the doctrine of Conversion and Regeneration, the union of the Divine and human in this great change of the soul, is abundantly proved.

                         "Run to Jesus, shun the danger,
                         I don't expect to stay much longer here."

        Here is illustrated human effort, conversion, turning to Jesus. This hymn is especially interesting, for Hon. Frederick Douglass told us that these words, "Run to Jesus," sung on the plantation where he was a slave, first suggested to him the thought of escaping from slavery, "Praying with his feet," as he put it.

        But carrying out the thought further, we find their idea of conversion and regeneration, and the joy of a new born soul illustrated in the following quaint hymn, "The Angels Done Changed My Name."

                         "I went to the hillside, I went to pray;
                         I knew the angels done changed my name,
                         Done changed my name for the coming day;
                         I knew the angels done changed my name.

                         "I looked at my hands, my hands was new,
                         I knowed the angels done changed my name;
                         I looked at my feet and my feet was too,
                         Thank God the angels done changed my name."

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        Souls that sung and felt that, knew the experiences of the great apostle, when he said, "Wherefore if any man is in Christ Jesus, he is a new creature; the old things are passed away; behold, they are become new." 2 Cor. v. 17. N. V.

        But if we go a little deeper into philosophy or doctrinal analysis, we discover the familiar old doctrine of the "perseverance of the saints." Did they hold it? Did they sing it? Listen as they sing of the poor inch-worm:

                         "T'was inch by inch I sought the Lord,
                         Jesus will come by-and-by,
                         And inch by inch he blessed my soul,
                         Jesus will come by-and-by.

                         We'll inch and inch and inch along,
                         Jesus will come by-and-by,
                         And inch and inch till we gets home,
                         Jesus will come by-and-by.

                         Keep inching along, keep inching along;
                         Jesus will come by-and-by;
                         Keep inching along like the poor inch worm.
                         Jesus will come by-and-by."

        Now, I submit that this quaint old plantation song not only teaches the "perseverance of the saints," but aptly illustrates about the rate of progress most of us make, "Inching along like the poor inch worm."

        But they believe that conversion should change their lives. It is not true that they entirely neglect ethics in their religious conceptions. Take this hymn as evidence:

                         "You say you're aiming for the skies,
                         View the land, view the land;
                         Why don't you stop your telling lies?
                         Oh, view the heavenly land.

                         You say your Lord has set you free,
                         View the land, view the land;
                         Why don't you let your neighbors be?
                         Oh, view the heavenly land."

        6. Their views on eschatology were also sound. They believed in future punishment and future rewards. The former is strange. It would seem as if this whole race of Lazaruses, who received only the crumbs that fell from their rich masters' tables would feel that they experienced their share of evil in this world. But, no! they held firmly to the idea that sin must be punished and incorporated this idea into their songs. Many of their melodies illustrate this. None better, perhaps, than the one beginning:

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                         "My Lord, what a mourning, what a mourning,
                         When the stars begin to fall;
                         You'll hear the sinners mourn,
                         When the stars begin to fall."

        But their hope in future rewards, or, better, blessings bestowed by a Heavenly Father, was bright and fadeless. We who were born in freedom can never realize how jubilant was the Christian slave in view of death. It was release. It was victory.

        Heinrich Heine, the witty scholar and poet, speaking of his return to the Bible and its sources of consolation in the last years of his life, uses the following remarkable language:

        "The re-awakening of my religious feelings I owe to that Holy Book, the Bible. Astonishing! that after I have whirled about all my life over all the dance-floors of philosophy, and yielded myself to all the orgies of the intellect . . . without satisfaction, I now find myself on the same standpoint where poor Uncle Tom stands--on that of the Bible. I kneel down by my black brother in the same prayer! What a humiliation! . . . Poor Tom, indeed, seems to have seen deeper things in the Holy Book than I. The poor Negro slave reads with his back and understands better than we do." Heine had discovered the truth that physical suffering often brings clearer spiritual vision. Paul scourged, was Paul triumphant. John in exile, was John in the Spirit. These physical hardships prepared the Apostle the better for the glories of the spiritual revelation. So these Negro slaves had no light on earth, but the glories of the Son of Righteousness burst through their gloom, and lighted and warmed and thrilled them. In view of death they broke in triumphant song as they sang of

                         "Those bright mansions above,
                         Bright mansions above:
                         Lord, I want to live up yonder,
                         In bright mansions above."

        Their life was full of misery here, but they looked forward with confident expectation and sang:

                         "Wait a little while, then we'll sing the new song;
                         Wait a little while.
                         My heavenly home is bright and fair,
                         We will sing the new song.
                         No pain nor sorrow enters there,
                         Then we'll sing the new song."

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        We can understand some of the references in their songs to peculiar victories and delights in the heavenly country, only by understanding the customs that prevailed in times of slavery. Take this one: The young men of neighboring plantations were accustomed to organize and ride over the country to watch the Negroes at night. There might be some one escaping or possibly a danger of general uprising. Now the slaves must avoid these "patroles," as they called them. Even when going out at night for prayer or their revival services, they must avoid detection.

        One old Negro told me that he used to hide in the smoke house to pray. A Negro woman related in a most interesting manner her experiences on her master's plantation in attending revival meetings on the river side at night, creeping out from her cabin to avoid the patrol and hounds. Now, in this heavenly country, to which these humble people looked forward, one great blessing would come to them, there would be no "patroles" nor hounds. In daylight fair and full, before the hosts of the redeemed, they could sing and pray and shout. How they gloried in this thought in their songs!

                         "Shine, shine, I'll meet you in that morning,
                         O my soul's going to shine, to shine;
                         I'm going to sit down at a welcome table,
                         Shine, shine, my soul's going to shine."
                         "I'm going to walk all about that city,
                         Shine, shine, my soul's going to shine."

        Or, another, the refrain of which runs:

                         "Chiluns, chiluns, we all shall be free,
                         Chiluns, chiluns, we all shall be free,
                         When the Lord shall appear."

        Or that other sweet, weird song that charmed crowded audiences on both sides of the ocean, and that Mr. Gladstone himself called for whenever he heard the Jubilee singers in England. "Swing low, sweet chairot, coming for to carry me home."

                         "I looked over Jordan, and what did I see?
                         Coming for to carry me home.
                         A band of angels coming after me,
                         Coming for to carry me home."

        To those who were crowded in unwholesome dungeons, waiting the auction block, or were packed in the foul hole of some Mississippi steamer, to be released only as they went to the miseries of sugar plantations or rice swamps, crudely mingled with their ideas of

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heaven was the comfortable thought that they would be no longer harassed and annoyed and crowded, and they sung:

                         "For my Lord says there's room enough,
                         Room enough in the heavens for you,
                         My Lord says there's room enough,
                         Don't stay away."

        But my object is not to illustrate their hymns, but to get if possible from them their conceptions of fundamental religious truth.

        One other thought. These hymns are remarkable not only for what they contain, but also for their omissions. 1st. We have in these plantation songs no mariolatry. Many Negroes belonged to Catholic masters. In Louisiana, about New Orleans, I have attended many meetings held by these Negroes. I have never heard, nor have I found anywhere in these plantation melodies, any which sung the praises of the Virgin. Such a figment of a theological brain does not have power in it. It needs the truth to take hold of humble souls and become an inspiration in their songs. 2d. We note with wonder the entire absence of all vindictiveness in these melodies. This certainly is a marvelous fact. Downtrodden, abused, sold from kindred, outraged in every way; it would seem more than human if there did not run through these songs, coming from their bleeding hearts, an undertone of vindictive satisfaction that their masters must suffer under a just God due recompense for these bitter cruelties, but you scarcely find a trace of it. There seems a hint of it in "Turn back Pharoah's army, Hallelu!"

                         "When Moses smote the water,
                         The children all passed over,
                         And turned back Pharoah's Pharoah's army, Hallelu!
                         And turned back Pharoah's army, Hallelu!

                         "When Pharoah crossed the water,
                         The waters came together,
                         And drowned ole Pharoah's army, Hallelu!
                         And drowned ole Pharoah's army, Hallelu!"

        But this is rather the triumphant song of a black Miriam, taking the timbrel as she "sings unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously, the horse and the rider hath he thrown into the sea." This Negro song heralded the victory of God over his enemies, not over theirs. And we find them, even in the crude language of these plantation songs evidence that among these uneducated millions of Negroes there is a sound and wholesome belief in the great fundamental truths of Christianity. 1st. That God governs the world. 2d.

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That Christ is divine. 3d. The fact of the necessity and efficacy of the Atonement. 4th. Man's lost and ruined condition. 5th. The need and possibility of conversion and regeneration. 6th. Progress in the Christian life. 7th. Future punishment of sin and the rewards of faith and obedience. We mark also the absence of the mischievous doctrines of the Romish Church, and also all vindictive bitterness.

        We can assume that these truths are in the hearts of the people whom we seek to reach as we push forward our church work. For around us there lie unreached millions of black Americans; across the ocean the uncounted millions of heathen Africa; these are to be saved under God by the Negroes of America. What a prospect! What an inspiring work! What a blessed God-given opportunity to the churches of America!

        You remember that scene between Cassy and Uncle Tom, unmatched in other profane literature, when Cassy having unsuccessfully urged Tncle Tom to kill that monster Legree, determined to do it herself. With flashing eyes, her blood boiling with passion long suppressed, the abused Creole woman, robbed of womanhood, exclaims, "His time is come, and I'll have his heart's blood!"

        "No, no, no," said Tom, holding his small hands which were clenched with spasmodic violence. "No, ye poor lost soul, that ye mustn't do. The dear, blessed Lord never shed no blood but his own, and that he poured out for us when we was his enemies. Lord, help us to follow his steps, and love our enemies."

        "Love," said Cassy, with a fierce glare; "love such enemies! It isn't in flesh and blood."

        "No, Miss, it isn't," said Tom, looking up; "but he gives it to us, and that's the victory. When we can love and pray over all, and through all, the battle's past and the victory's come, glory be to God!" And, with streaming eyes and choking voice, the black man looked up to heaven.

        "And this, Oh, Africa! latest called of nations, called to the crown of thorns, the scourge, the bloody sweat, the cross of agony, this is to be thy victory; by this shalt thou reign with Christ when his kingdom shall come on earth."

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        COME with me into the haunts of nature. Hand in hand let us tread her rural solitudes, roam through her beautiful valleys and majestic forests, climb her sublime mountains and, standing upon their lofty peaks, behold the world with its ever-changing scenery stretched out before us; descend into her seas and view the beautiful, wonderful things there. Let us wander through her lovely dells and beautiful meadows, sprinkled with the lovely daisies and modest violets; across the babbling brook, over hill and dale, by murmuring rill and gurgling spring, over rolling prairie and level field; now through fields of ice and snow and now through balmy fields radiant with blossoms and fruit; now where the north wind whistles over treeless plains and now where the south wind gently stirs the lovely flowers and whispers softly through the beautiful trees dressed in green.

        The coal that gives us heat, the iron that supplies so many needs, the gold, silver and diamonds we use for ornament, the copper that is put to so many uses, and many other useful metals have been cradled in the bosom of the earth for ages. How harmonious is nature in all her workings, from the earth in whose bosom countless riches have been locked for ages to the beautiful sky, radiant by day with the refulgent rays of the sun and by night spangled with the lovely stars and bathed in the pure, pale light of the moon; from the murmuring rills and babbling brooks to broad rivers flowing between their fertile banks; from the lakes to the sea, whose waves roll over priceless treasures; from the mountains, rearing their proud heads heavenward, to the valleys in their peaceful rest; from the snowbound North to the sunny South.

        How sublime yet how awful are the hurricanes that sweep houses from their track, uproot the giants of the forest, lay low even the rocks in their path; the cyclones that rise and dip, and dip and rise, carrying houses and trees in their course; the storms whose lightnings

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flash and thunders roar; the volcanoes belching forth fire, smoke, lava and rocks.

        As we contemplate the work and workings of nature, who, we ask, made the laws that govern nature? As we stand by Niagara and hear its booming thunder, who, we ask, gathered the mighty waters and sent them whirling, rushing and leaping a hundred feet downward? Who guides the sun in his cause? Who gives the moon her stated time to rise and set? Who guides the stars in their trackless path across the sky? To all these questions we answer God. His are the laws that govern nature; his the hand that holds back the boundless billows of the deep, that gives the tints to the lovely flowers and the color to the fragile ferns. In nature's haunts can be found food for the artist, thought for the poet, ideas for the sculptor, inspiration for the musician, reflection for the thoughtful.

        To the lover of nature she is beautiful at all times; as beautiful when the earth is wrapped in her winding sheet of snow and the branches of the trees are bending beneath icy freight, and glistening in the sunlight like diamonds as when the trees are dressed in green and laden with blossoms and fruit, when the wheat fields are gently stirring in the soft summer breeze, and the corn gently rustles in the playful zephyrs, and when the hay fields are filled with fragrant, new-mown hay. If you be a true student of nature, you should study when the winds blow bleak and cold, as well as when the soft summer zephyrs woo you to indolence and ease. There is much that we may study in nature. Here we find a lofty oak, proud, strong, defying the storms that rage and roar about it; the tender ivy clinging closer as it mounts higher, teaching us the lesson as we mount higher in our Christian life to cling closer to God.

        By studying nature you can be better able to fulfill the duties that rest upon you, for by this study the mind is exalted and purified. Study nature, make nature a daily study; study nature so that in her humblest children beauty may be found. If we study nature thus earnestly, and submit ourselves to the will of Him whose laws govern nature, when we come to cross the dark river we will sweetly glide from the arms of nature to the arms of nature's God.

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        HOW many of us know that blinders are almost intolerable "and cause thousands of accidents because the horses are thus prevented from seeing behind them?" How many men who hire a hack on Sunday--or any other time for that matter--think that in their zeal to get their money's worth out of the turnout, they are driving some poor, tired horse until he is almost ready to drop from exhaustion? How many boys and girls know that constant twitching at the reins, indulged in by most inexperienced drivers is almost unbearable by the poor horse? Ah! it is facts such as these that we should impress upon the children's minds and hearts. To every true teacher, minister and parent come with irresistible force the words of Longfellow:

                         "How can I teach my children gentleness
                         And mercy to the weak, and reverence
                         For life, which, in its weakness or excess,
                         Is still a gleam of God's omnipotence?"

        Allow me to quote here from Our Dumb Animals, a monthly paper published by the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

        "Query.--What is the use of teaching kindness to animals in schools and in Sunday schools? Answer.--The eminent French teacher, Du Sailly, says that when he began to teach kindness to animals in his school, he found that his pupils became not only kinder to animals but kinder to each other. In a large Scottish public school at Edinburgh, out of about seven thousand pupils carefully taught kindness to the lower animals, it was found that not one had ever been charged, after going out into active life, with any criminal offense in any court. Out of two thousand criminals inquired of in American prisons some years ago, it was found that only twelve had any pet animal during their childhood. Edward Everett Hale says: 'We are all in the same boat, both animals and men. You cannot promote kindness to the one without benefiting the other.' Every

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kind act we do, every kind word we speak, which adds to the happiness of others also adds to our own happiness; and when we teach the boy and girl to be doing these kind acts and saying these kind words a hundred times a day to the lower animals, are we not teaching that which will make their own lives happier?"

        I have quoted thus extensively because I want to get this matter before you in the strongest light possible, and I see no better way than by using George T. Angell's vigorous words. It makes my heart ache to see how the lower creation is misused and abused by man, the proud monarch of them all. How useful are these creatures to us--how dependent upon them are we for so many articles of food, clothing and shelter! How grateful, too, are they for any kindness! We have never found a Judas among the lower creation. What more useful friend has man than the cow--and how cruelly is it often dealt with! Says George T. Angell, President of the American Humane Education Society: "I have stood in slaughter houses and witnessed scenes which compelled me to leave or drop fainting on the floor. I have seen hundreds of cattle compelled to stand and see other cattle killed and dressed right before their eyes and knowing that their turn was coming next." Great God! how horrible! Do all of us, who, following the craze made the fashion by Izaak Walton, know that the fish we lucky anglers take out of the stream suffer from lacerated mouths and the removal from their native element, and should be put out of pain at once by a sharp blow on the back of the head? Indeed, it is a law as unalterable as nature that "every pain which an animal suffers before dying poisons the meat." How many boys, and girls too, are given to robbing birds' nests? Would not "a word in season" work wonders in opening their eyes to the cruelty of such conduct? The wanton slaughter of birds in order to procure feathers for ornament seems about to depopulate the forests, and it is a grand move on the part of the Princess of Wales, the Dutchess of Portland and other ladies of high rank, who, in order to stop this cruel work have pledged themselves to wear no feathers save those of the ostrich, "now, henceforth and forever." The dog, called by some, man's most faithful friend; the cat, beloved by such men as Cardinals Wolsey and Richelieu; the toad, rendered illustrious by Shakespeare, which with its fellow sufferers, the bat and the owl, destroy myriads of insects which infest the fields and would blight vegetation--all these have proved their friendship to man "by their works," and he should

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have gratitude enough to treat them with some little consideration.

        "The quality of mercy is not strained," says Portia; and even when we are compelled to kill creatures that are harmful, we need not cause them unneccessary suffering. "Kind hearts are more than coronets," sings Tennyson; and it should be the aim of every instructor of youth to make his pupils kind-hearted. Kindness to animals indeed begets kindness to our fellow-men, and the cruelty fostered in the heart by some act of unkindness to a defenseless animal will break out some day in cruelty to one's fellow-men. Teach the young people kindness to animals. Petition the School Board, if it be necessary, to allow you to form Bands of Mercy among your pupils. Train their young minds to be compassionate, to be forbearing, to be merciful. Constitute yourself the champion of the weak, and arouse in them a chivalrous regard for the defenseless. The lessons learned from you relating to the mercy to be excised toward the dumb beasts may develop into the deep-rooted, abiding principle which shall keep them from doing acts of violence and bloodshed. There is a bond between humanity and the lower creation which few of us acknowledge, and none of us can comprehend. Kindness grows by what it feeds upon, and so does cruelty. Knowing this, how untiringly we should strive to inculcate kindness into the minds and hearts of our pupils! Implant in them the spirit of kindness, and the influence will be felt to all eternity. In the words of Sidney Herbert:

                         "Open thy lips and speak;
                         Protect the dumb and weak;
                         Their cause maintain.
                         Why should we them abuse?
                         Why these kind friends misuse?
                         O let us never choose
                         To give them pain."

        A grand, cultivated brain is a great thing, but a grand, cultivated heart is better. It is well to know the Rule of Three, it is well to be able to analyze water, it is well to know all about the government and people of Tahiti, it is well to be able to tell the distance to the sun and to "call the stars by name," but it is far, far better to be a good, true, noble man or woman, with heart "full of the milk of human kindness," and life spent in harmony with God's own plan. Our ambition should be to make good citizens, rather than brilliant scholars. Work upon the children's better natures, so that they will become imbued

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with the spirit of kindness, and show it in every act of their lives. So may we lessen much suffering, and have a conscience and mind at ease.

                         "A man of kindness to his best is kind,
                         But brutal actions show a brutal mind.
                         Remember, He who made thee, made the brute;
                         Who gave thee speech and reason formed him mute.
                         He can't complain, but God's all-seeing eye
                         Beholds thy cruelty and hears his cry;
                         He was designed thy servant, not thy drudge,
                         And know that his creator is thy judge.

        MRS. LILLIE ENGLAND LOVINGGOOD, was born in Louisville, Ky., in 1871. After successfully passing through the public schools of Louisville, she spent two years at Knoxville College finishing the normal course. Her career at college was marked with great success. Earnest, studious, diligent, she ranked among the best students of the school, loved and respected by all. In 1889 she won the A. E. T. Draper medal of the college for general scholarship and elocution. After her graduation she taught successfully in the public schools of Birmingham, Ala., until Christmas, 1894, when she was happily united in wedlock to Prof. R. S. Lovinggood, a graduate of Clark University, Atlanta, Ga., who was then and is now Principal of Cameron Public School, of Birmingham, Ala. In 1894, she passed an examination which entitled her to a life-time license to teach in Birmingham, Ala. Mrs. Lovinggood is a constant and voluminous reader, devouring dry history with almost as great relish as "Hypatia" or "Le Miserables." She is a devoted Christian and an excellent musician. She has become imbued with the feeling that she has a great mission to perform in the elevation of the race on the line of literary work, social purity, economy, etc. May we not confidently expect great things from this able young lady of the race?

        THE product of the wax tree of the Andes cannot be distinguished from beeswax.

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        IN speaking of the race, we speak in general terms, and by it we mean the race of mankind, Jew or Gentile, black or white, male or female. We conceive of no inherent difference in the races. Are not all men prompted by the same impulses of right and wrong, love and hate, happiness and misery? Did our beneficent Father in the creation when he commanded the first man and the first woman "go forth and multiply" have it in his heart to make any discrimination in his children? Were we not all created in his own image? We all sprang from the same great Spirit, however, much men may seek to deny the fact. Our physical make-up is the same no matter from what nation we sprang. It is unnecessary to expatiate on the advantages of the higher civilization, how it makes one nation become the ruler of another et cetera. The fact remains that we carry within us, be we ever so savage, the possibilities of greatness. It takes only the advantages of the higher civilization to bring to a happy fruition these latent possibilities.

        Since the ruler and maker of the universe made us all of one blood, all that he did was for the good of all mankind. So it is, the race is a general term. Whatever of good one nation has accomplished is of help and profit to another. We all profit by the experiences of others. The road to greatness is by emulating the example of those truly great and good. The males of the human race have from the earliest times been its main benefactors in whatever line we take it. He has given us our laws, has explored from the earliest ages the vast fields of the sciences, has reveled in the mysteries of ancient lore; in fact he has well-nigh had a monopoly of everything, and rather enjoyed monopolizing all the fields of usefulness and learning. So much so that the many restrictions thrown around women had well nigh crushed out all ambition or desire to be anything but a slave to man's wishes. Her sphere of action was proscribed. Only here and there in the history of the earlier times do we find an occasional

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woman chafing in her bonds, longing for a breath of free air, and finally escaping the thraldom of ignorance.

        In enumerating some of those women who have been of inspiration to a people we cannot refrain from mentioning Miriam, the Jewess and Prophetess of Israel. Her very name was an inspiration to the Jews; the Queen of Sheba, Sappho the Greek, and Joan of Arc, have played conspicuous parts in the history of the world. Charles Kingsley gives us an excellent illustration of the character of woman in his Hypatia.

        In more recent times the work and labors of Florence Nightingale, have been of an incalculable value to the world. Woman played a drastic part in the anti-slavery cause in this country. There were Lydia Maria Childs and Harriet Beecher Stowe who fairly electrified two continents by their graphic and realistic portraiture of slave life and its attendant horrors. Miss Frances E. Willard in the temperance cause, Susan B. Anthony and her co-laborers have worked for Woman's Suffrage, and the cause grows. Already woman has a full ballot in a number of our States and many vote on school questions in quite a number of other States. They have surmounted almost insuperable barriers and are now taken for their true worth.

        Let us now speak more specifically of the Negro woman. What are her possibilities for usefulness? Is she less capable than other women? To all of which we affirm she is as capable as her sister in white. She is fired with the same ambitions, her sense of right and wrong are just as acute, she experiences the same emotions of love and hate, joy and sorrow. Her piety and love for God are as sincere.

        What has she done? We have some among the race who have run well. Sojourner Truth stood at the side of Douglas and Garrison; Phylis Wheatley, by her intellectual power, extorted praises for her literary genius. The work of Miss Ida B. Wells cannot be estimated. There are others, worthy women, that could be named.

        The Negro woman, while being capable, is less fortunate than her white sister. She lacks money, a very necessary factor; then, too, prejudice prevails. But shall her poverty make the Negro woman less active? Shall prejudice dampen, and finally quench her ambition? Is it possible that she will sit down merely lamenting her sad condition, and make no effort to the amelioration of it? No. She must bestir herself and be up and doing. It is a case of Mahomet and the mountain. If the mountain will not come to you, then you must go to the mountain.

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        We have need for good, faithful women, women of broad culture, women with sympathy for the distressed condition of our people. Many there are longing and thirsting for knowledge, desiring to be fed. What then can she do? What is her duty?

        1. If the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world, the home is a great field for woman. The Negro race need homes, not hovels and pens. Christian character is built most largely there. Beautify the home, make it cheerful and cultured. Be economical in expenditures. Cultivate economy in all lines. Be thrifty and industrious housewives.

        2. We do not confine woman's work to the home. Her sphere is any where she can do good. As women are doing most of the teaching now, here is a vast field for her activity that should be well cultivated. Next to the home the school room is probably the greatest factor in character building. As Daniel Webster once said: "If we work upon marble, it will perish; if we work upon brass, time will efface it; if we rear temples they will crumble into dust; but if we work upon immortal minds, if we imbue them with principals, with a just fear of God and love of our fellow man, we engrave on those tablets something that will brighten to all eternity." Teachers, be faithful.

        3. Reform in mode as well as quality of dressing. Dress neatly and well if your income will allow. One can always be neat and clean, however. It is certainly a miserable mistake that makes the majority of our people think that they must dress so as to be conspicuous for blocks away, wearing hats that are veritable flower gardens. Tight lacing should be abandoned by all sensible women.

        4. Social Purity among our Girls. The thinking, solid women of our race ought to take some steps to save the young girls of our race, especially that vast throng in the larger cities, who have no gentle home influences; thousands are being dragged down to destruction every year. Raise the fallen, and so fulfill the law of Christ.

        5. Industrial Schools. Teach dressmaking, cooking and house-wifery generally. These can be established with little or no capital. One may be mentioned who has entered this field, Lucky Laney, of Augusta, Ga.

        6. Professional and Literary Work. Women should study medicine, law, music, elocution and become the best in those professions. Write books, poetry, history, etc. Do not be content to be ornamental alone. Let us not cultivate our tastes for the merely frivolous.

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Let us rather rejoice in doing good for our weaker brothers and sisters. The good results of labor for good will bid us hope for a better and brighter future, a future in which the homes of refinement and culture will predominate. Is it too much to hope for such a happy result after years of self-denial and toil? We think not.

        The women of the race then, whatever parent, teacher or in whatever sphere of life their lot is cast should pursue that plain path of duty. Some will say, "What recompense shall I have for all my years of self-denial and toils? our people are ungrateful, etc." True, they are a little ungrateful; and true there is nothing "so unkind as man's ingratitude;" yet our duty is obvious and we would be very selfish if we held back for that consideration. What is done should not be done with a view to notoriety, but with the desire to accomplish good results from our labors. Sometime in the near or distant future our reward will come if we faint not. We urge the women of the race to action. The words of the sweet singer, Longfellow, are wonderfully befitting:

                         "Let us then be up and doing
                         With a heart for any fate;
                         Still achieving, still pursuing,
                         Learn to labor and to wait."



        FROM time immemorial, woman has been a subject for voice and pen. Volumes have been written on the progress of woman. Speeches many have been delivered in defense of her rights. Biographies of great women have been written. Why has so much attention been paid to woman? It is because of the importance of the influence she has had in shaping the history of the world. In the different stages of the world's history, the regard in which woman has been held has varied greatly. In the earliest stages she was very highly regarded. Some of the earlier people were noted for the respect and attention they paid to their women. Later this regard seemed to fade away and women were respected only in so far as they could be made use of to aid the men, and to provide for their

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happiness. The idea of woman being created for anything other than to be a slave for man was lost sight of. She was denied the privilege of every accomplishment, especially that of learning. For awhile learning was locked up, so, to say, from the mass of the people, but it was not so effectually locked up that it remained out of their reach. Gradually it became unlocked and within reach of the people, at least the sterner element of the people. It was not thought necessary for those of the weaker element to have much of an education. At first it was thought they might become too knowing and wise.

        All efforts were turned to educate the boys; to teach them trades; in short to thoroughly equip them for fighting life's battles. The young girls were refused admittance to colleges and all higher institutions of learning. Some colleges to this day refuse to admit women. But such an advance has been made, such a change has wrought, that now a woman can stand almost on a level with man, and so she should. Truly it has been said that the degree of civilization reaching a people is measured by the respect and attention it pays to its women. Since woman has been allowed to influence the affairs of the world, what has she not done? Since she has been allowed to know and learn something of the world in which she lives, its people, customs, manners, art, literature and music, has she not been an invaluable factor in the world's progress?

        We now find woman engaged in almost every profession. Her influence is felt in every avenue of life. We find her not unhonorably filling the lawyer's position. We find her successful as physician and druggist. How invaluable is she for the success of many of the newspapers and journals of the day; many of which must thank women for their high moral tone, and often for their best articles and editorials. Literature is very greatly indebted to woman. The deep love of purity, truth, and honor so deeply implanted in the nature of every true woman has been very vividly shown in many of the best works of literature we possess. If time permitted, noted instances might be cited.

        Her influence in music and art has been of the greatest importance. The influence of woman in her immediate surroundings in the social world and in the religious world cannot but be seen and appreciated. How often has she, by her encouragement and advice, been of invaluable service in times of great distress and doubt. Yet with all the power which has gradually become hers, she has lost none of her charms, none of her grace and sweetness of nature. The hope of a

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nation lies in its children. Where do we find the most conscientious, sympathetic teachers and trainers of these children? The granting to woman the aforenamed privileges has in no way made her less fit to reign like a queen in that most blessed place of all places, "Home." "The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world." Should not the owner of that hand be allowed every means to become all that is necessary to make the world better? Is she not better prepared by the power and privileges she is gradually gaining? Is she not enabled to be a far better help-mate and companion to man? thousands of whom have woman to thank for the success they have made in life. Truly we may adopt a quotation of the illustrious poet Tennyson, and say:

                         "Yet I doubt not through the ages one increasing purpose runs,
                         Widened is the path of woman with the process of the suns."

        --Omaha Enterprise.



        IT is a deplorable fact that, too often many of our women and girls forget what are the real qualifications of a lady, and as such is the case, girls who are compelled to earn their own living, and who have not an over-abundance of money to spend upon clothes, are, it seems, too often apt to spend that little foolisly in a vain display of cheap finery. A girl would look much more ladylike dressed neatly and plainly, with no attempt at ornamentation, which, at the best, give to a lady a cheap and tawdry appearance.

        A true lady is, to a great extent, judged by her conversation and behavior when on the street or in any public conveyance. To hear a woman or a girl talk loudly on the street or in a street car, is a practice quite unbecoming and disagreeable, because it is common.

        Our girls should beware of the company they keep, for "on the choice of friends our good or evil name depends," and the girl who is seen with common, ill-bred, or rude companions, no matter how ladylike she herself may be, will as a rule, be judged by them.

        The books and papers that a girl reads has much to do in forming her habits and character of conversation. If she reads the poor and

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trashy books which she finds exposed for sale on many newspaper stands, her mental life will, of necessity, partake of the character of the poor, unwholesome food with which she feeds it. If on the other hand she reads instructive and interesting books and papers, which she may obtain at no greater cost, she will be laying the sure foundation of a good, useful, and happy life in the future.

        The question of girls' amusement is a very important one at the present time, because of the silly and vicious attractions that are being offered on every hand, and mothers should see that their girls are not present on all occasions, regardless of the fact that they are accompanied by some intimate gentleman friend, because true enjoyment is not to be found in continually attending places of amusement, but rather in living a quiet, wholesome life, doing one's duty from day to day, reading useful and inspiring books, doing our daily work, striving to do service for Christ on any and all occasions. Then let our girls be modest in their dress, careful as to what and to whom she talks, choice in her selection of books and companions, moderate as to her indulgence in amusements, and she will find that she will not only win the approval of all who causually come in contact with her, but the Lord will greatly bless her, and open ways for her to fit herself for usefulness in honored positions in the ranks of true ladies.



        DOUBTLESS, there is a calling for every person born unto the world. In infancy the signs of the future man are stamped upon the features, and if we could read them many would be overcome with doubts and discouragements. But God has so limited our knowledge that we are left without a glimmer of the future at that age. Day by day the brooklet winds its way to the mighty deep. Just so we are making our way to man and womanhood, and erelong

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we will reach the honor which boys and girls so much desire. When a lad, thoughtless and indifferent, he frolics over the compass of life wholly without a thought of the future. We must entreat, coax and sometimes scold, for fear that he will stray from the way in which God said he must be brought. Watch him as he takes a peep into manhood. He begins to think, What must I be when I grow to manhood? What must I do to sustain life? Generally, the first thing to be thought of is a teacher, a preacher, a lawyer, a doctor, etc. There are almost numberless occupations equally as good but considered of less importance. This somehow creeps into the mind at an early age and it has been the means of many a shipwreck in life. "All work is honorable," says one. Then why not be a farmer, a carpenter, a blacksmith, with strong and brawny arms? No! I would rather lean against the sunny side of some building than to soil my already rough hands or disfigure my tattered apparel. There are battles in life which are just as hard for a teacher, a lawyer, or a doctor to fight as the peasant. Do not understand us to say that they should not aspire for said positions, for such are needed in our land and country. But there are many who have been mistaken in their calling. They have not the ability to discharge their duty, to do honor to their position, to make the hearts of those who placed them there glad. Hence it is necessary that the matter be given much thought and prayer. We think when a boy or girl has grown old enough to choose his or her path in this world's "broad field of battle," he or she should have at least a common education mingled with Christianity and a heart full of beautiful thoughts from the lips of a Christian mother. Then he has a guide, sword and shield, and he is prepared to stand the many temptations of the world. Mothers, you are entrusted with these precious gems, which we might call the ruling powers of the world. See that you do not allow them to be led astray and at last they will have a higher calling, probably a call to the duties which angels now perform.

        There is a duty for each of us, and why not begin in early life? Young men, creation would be incomplete without you. From the beginning, God made you ruler over every living thing. Do you properly appreciate the kingdom over which you reign? We know that these thoughts do not take hold on you in boyhood, but there is a time when they are fully realized and yet neglected. God has called you because you are strong. Then exercise that strength, both spiritually and temporally.

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        Young women, there is a duty for you to perform also. It has been well said that "It is easy to judge what the men are, when you know what the women are." Oh, the word woman! We pause to think of the purity and innocence which existed in her when first placed in the garden of Eden. Make society good by your true Christian character, live so that the world may be better for your having lived in it. The path of duty in this world is not all gloom or sadness or darkness and it is only when we turn to the right or left that we are lacerated by piercing thorns and concealed dangers. When we learn that doing our duty will help some poor, weak one, it will strengthen us and we will do more in the interests of our brothers and sisters. When we have a task to perform, we should go about it with a cheerful heart, with an eye single to doing our best; then duty becomes a pleasure. Now having attained man and womanhood let us aim to be first in the pursuit of our life's work; we cannot reach the topmost round at once, and if we get there at all there must be something in us worthy of the upper rounds. Can we ask Him to be our guide who noticed the falling of a sparrow to the ground? Do so; then we will not choose the wrong path, we will not stumble in our darkest hours. We will not think solely of our slavery, of our closing hour or how we will spend the evening, but will put our mind on our duties and resolve that they shall have the best that is in us; and by-and-bye, we shall enjoy the reward which is laid up for the finally faithful.--Woman's World.

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        THAT man is a creature of habit no one can deny. What the little child observes its mother do, it instinctively tries to copy. The infant mind is very much like a plate overspread with wax; smooth and unimpressed, yet so sensitive that each touch is mirrored there. Hence we see how important that the whole atmosphere of the home life be such as to leave only impressions for good upon the children committed to our care--education we call it. Our mental, moral and physical growth, to be in harmony, should all grow equally. Were we to educate one to the exclusion of the others we could not expect to build up a perfect man or woman. The prime object in all education is the amelioration of our race; it is the lever that moves the world.

        The body is the home of the soul and of the intellect, and it is all important that that dwelling place be a pure and perfect one. In order that it may be so, we must guard our lives and educate each member of our body by strict cleanliness and exercise. We can do much to improve a deformed body, and it is our duty, by athletic exercise, to develop and perfect ourselves. For this reason some system of gymnastics should be enforced in our schools. Then, with a healthful body and pure soul, a sound and cultivated mind, who can say how high we may ultimately rise? In this nineteenth century it is the all-important object in life. Without it we are objects of commiseration and pity. With the proper appreciation and seizure of the opportunities offered us, there is practically no limit to the greatness, goodness and grandeur we can attain. The child is thrice blessed who has a cultivated mother, for she forms the infant mind. She is the God-given guardian of the little feet as they totter in infancy and she teaches the tongue to lisp its first phrases. Be she as great morally as intellectually she it is who teaches it to lisp its first prayer to Him who sitteth between the Cherubim and

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whose fatherly love is over us all. How grand a thing it is to train the mind; to awaken high and noble impulses, and to lead the child from a contemplation of nature up to nature's God.

        God's written word, and the Sunday school, with its excellent system of moral training, where God-fearing men and women strive to lead us to a higher moral plane, where that great command is inculcated, "Love the Lord thy God with all thy soul, with all thy mind and with all thy strength, and thy neighbor as thyself," where lessons of self-forgetfulness are taught and where the soul is enabled to rise on wings of faith from the gross scenes of earth to revel in the bliss of a brighter and better soul. Education raises a nation from barbarism to the highest degree of civilization. All culture must needs be of slow growth to be enduring. We must "make haste slowly." "Line upon line, here a little, there a little" must be our motto. As an instance of what education can do to lift an individual out of the depths and set him upon the proud pinnacle of fame, I refer to the life and history of that great and good man, Frederick Douglass, the noted orator and diplomat, who died at Washington, February 20, 1895. Let his example be followed by all youths in our land. May we ever hold in view the advancement of ourselves, both as individuals and as a whole, until we stand the equal of any.


[An essay by Miss Katherine Mitchell, of Washington, D. C., read before the Epworth League at Ebenezer.]

        WHAT is liberty? Liberty is a solemn and glorious thought, and when liberty comes it is welcomed. Liberty is something that you and I, and each of us should appreciate as though it was a jewel to us, and that it is. Some of our ancestors had no liberty, and of course they were not a free people, but to-day we have liberty, and are a free people; we must be serious, for we have to do the greatest thing that ever was done in the world, What is it? that is to govern ourselves. Our mothers and fathers have said to us, "The hour is most serious with you children when it passes from parental control into free man and womanhood." Then is our time for thought, and we must bind the righteous law upon ourselves more strongly than our

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parent ever bound it upon us, and where a people leaves the band of servitude and enters the ground of freedom, that ground must be fenced with law, must be tilled with wisdom, and must be hallowed with prayer. The court of justice, the free school, the holy church must be built there to entrench, defend, and to keep the sacred heritage.

        Liberty, I say is a solemn thing. The world up to this day has regarded it as a boon and not as a bond. I believe there is nothing in the present crisis of human affairs, no point in the great human welfare on which our ideas need to be cleared up, to be advanced, to be raised to a higher standard as this grand, terrible responsibility of liberty. In the universe there is no trust so awful as moral freedom, and all good civil freedom depends upon the use of that. But look at it; around every human, every rational being is drawn a circle, the space within is cleared from obstruction, or at least from all restraint. It is sacred to the being, him or herself, who stands there, it is secured and consecrated to his or her own responsibility. May I say it? God himself does not penetrate there with any absolute power. He compels the winds and waves to obey him, compels animal instinct to obey him, but he does not compel man and woman to obey him; that sphere he leaves free; he brings influences to bear upon it, but the last, final, and solemn question between right and wrong he leaves to themselves. Oh! instead of madly delighting in his or her freedom, we could imagine a man or a woman to protest, to complain, to tremble that such a prerogative is accorded to them, but it is accorded to him, and nothing but willing obedience can discharge that solemn trust; nothing but a heroism greater than that which fights battles, and pours out its blood on its country's altars; the heroism of self-renunciation and self-control. We, the young Negro people, should think that it is an honor to us for the Hon. Frederick Douglass to continue speaking of slavery and refreshing our minds of the injustice done to our fathers and mothers. Why? So we can know for ourselves what our parents have been through for us, make us feel that we should be slaves for our parents.

        Come that liberty, come none that does not lead to that, come, the liberty that shall strike off every chain, not only of iron laws, but of painful construction of fears, of enslaving passion, of mad self-will; the liberty of perfect truth and love, of holy truth and glad obedience. Come, the liberty that we shall appreciate higher than anything that ever was given to us.

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        LIVING beyond his income has been the ruin of many a man. Extravagance is a disease, and be it said to their shame, many professing Christians have caught it. Cotton plaids are no more worn; girls must have silks, and the dressmaker's bill is long as a security debt, and quite as hard to pay. Show and style have bankrupted many a wealthy man, and a poor man who tries to keep apace with so-called "society," is simply a fool. "Cut your coat according to your cloth," is the advice of a philosopher. Spurgeon says, "debtors can hardly help being liars, for they promise to pay when they know they cannot, and when they have made up a lot of false excuses they promise again, and so they lie as fast as a horse can trot." Now if owing leads to lying, who shall say it is not a most evil thing? Of course, there are exceptions to the rule, and I do not want to bear hard upon an honest man who is brought down by sickness or heavy losses; but take the rule as a rule, and you will find debt to be a great dismal swamp, a huge mud hole, a dirty ditch. Happy is the man who gets out of it after once tumbling in, but happiest of all is he who has been by God's goodness kept out of the mire altogether. If you once ask the devil to dinner it will be hard to get him out of the house again. Better have nothing to do with him. When a hen has laid one egg she is likely to lay another; when a man is in debt once he is likely to get into it again; better keep clear of it from the first. He who gets in for a penny will soon be in for a pound. Never owe a dime and you will never owe a dollar."

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[Delivered before the Scientific and Literary Institute of the Georgia Conferences, in Bethel A. M. E. Church, Atlanta, Ga., May 24, 1893.]

        LOOK out of the window and tell me what you see," were the words of Prof. J. P. Shorter to his class at Wilberforce University last year, during the summer school. One said: "I see a cow;" another, "I see a tree;" a third, "I see a house." "No," said the Professor, "the answer is I see one." Then he proceeded to show that there is no such thing as a concrete number. That same, "one" can be fitted to anything, and we can just as well say, "One man, one horse, one child," etc. Therefore, just what it is behind the appearance of things, and that makes them what they are, it has been the object of philosophy to find out.


        The word philosophy is derived from the Greek phileo, to love, and sophia, wisdom, and means the love of wisdom. But what is wisdom? You say, wisdom is the best application of knowledge. Still, going into the etymology of the word, we find it made up of the German wissen, to know, and the Latin domus, a house. Hence, wisdom means knowing what is in the house. The real man lives in several houses--first, in his own body; next, in the clothing he wears; then the house proper; next, the community; the state; after these in time and space; but, above all else, in God; for says the Apostle, "In him we live and move, and have our being." Philosophy, therefore, is an inquiry into the cause and nature of things.


        The word "search" expresses the mode of philosophical operations. It contains the idea of the Latin circum, a circle. Circus is

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the ring where the show performs. Curriculum, the race course, from curro, to run, is the notion adopted by the schools to include their range of studies, and you are expected to know all the subjects contained. The primary school, normal school, the college, each has its curriculum, rising higher and growing wider, until we reach the university courses, leading to the highest branches of studies.

        "All knowledge begins with the ability to distinguish one thing from another." Therefore, it is said a little child cannot tell its right hand from its left. With this first knowledge, we start out classifying and arranging things until, step by step, we traverse the great fields of art, science, and philosophy. Search, investigate, are the words of command in philosophy. The second word means--follow in the tracks of what you want; and the first one tells how far you are to go.

        We are all familiar with the parable of the woman mentioned in the Bible, having a hundred pieces of silver and lost one. She forgot the value of the others in the desire to find the piece that was lost. She drew her circle and determined to investigate. This she did by thinking out a plan and following it. Said she, "I have not been down town, nor into the yard; therefore it must be in this house. I will look all through the house." She did not find it. Next she said, "I shall move every piece of furniture in the house," but was still unsuccessful. "Now," said the woman, taking up her broom, "I shall sweep the entire house, every corner and crevice till I find it." That was fortunate for the house, for some people's houses never in years get such a cleaning up. By this method it was not long till she found it. Then, said she, "Go out and tell my neighbors to come and rejoice with me, for I have found my piece that was lost." This is the same spirit that animated the great philosopher who, after a long and weary search, exclaimed, "Eureka"--I have found it--and this has ever since been the triumphant shout of the successful searcher after truth.


        Lord Bacon divided the whole field of thought into three knowledges--Nature, Man and God. The knowledge of nature is science with its several great branches--astronomy, geography, geology, biology, etc. The knowledge of man gives us the field of philosophy proper, showing the relations of man to man, to nature and to God. Here we have the great departments of mental philosophy, moral

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philosophy, political economy, æsthetics, etc. And, lastly, the knowledge of God gives us theology with its sweeping divisions, including theology proper, God in his essential nature, and his relations to the universe; second, anthropology--man in his constitution and relations to God and the universe; and thirdly, soteriology--man as a sinner and the plan of salvation by a Savior. There is no essential difference between science and philosophy. "Science is systematized knowledge." It gives all that may be known upon a particular subject. It is like a bunch of fish--when you lift up the string you raise the whole bunch. "Philosophy is unified knowledge." It embraces every science, and seeks to explore the universe. It is a system of systems, so that when a man has adopted a system of philosophy, there is nothing you can bring to him that he cannot explain by his system of philosophy.


        Science and philosophy agree in the fact that everything is included in a reign of law. What then is law? Ask any lawyer and you will get the greatest and simplest definition--"Law is a rule of action." The first law then, is that everything must go. A minister told me that he fell in love with his wife at first sight, and married after six months' acquaintance. "But," said he, "during that whole time I went to see her every day. At four o'clock I was always there." Some young men do not choose that delightful hour to visit, but go later. One young man after a long visit lingered at the gate and the girl began to cry. He said, "Dear, don't cry; I will come to see you again." But she cried on. "O darling, don't cry so; I will be sure to come again." Still she cried. At last he said, "Love, did I not tell you I would soon come again to see you?" And through her tears she replied, "Yes, but I am afraid you never will go; that is what is the matter with me." We must all go. The great sun in the heavens; the moon in her silver orbit; the stars in their glory, keeping time to the celestial music; the winds, the waters, the flowers, the dull clod, iron and flashing steel wherever found--all are moving upon their appointed rounds.

        Law shows how things must go. That way they must go or become the means of their own destruction. They are like the railroad trains, the cars must go upon the rails or move at their peril. By examining the term law, we find its essential idea to be what is laid down, fixed. By observing things going we see how they go, how

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they develop; and by induction, we conclude they will always go that way. That is the law of the thing. When God created the world, he imposed or fixed in each particular thing the law of its being. Take the fire, it is the law of fire that it will always go upward. Try to make the flame burn downward, it goes out, and after much smoke you have no fire. It is the law of water that it will run downward. Try to make water run up hill, and you will have much mud, and after a while you will have to get out of the way of the angry waters. Just so, rising into the range of philosophy, we observe people in their social relations, through long times and various circumstances. Then, taking each one by the hand, in the words of the blessed Savior, we say: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul and with all thy mind." This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it: "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." "On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets." "Love is the fulfilling of the law." It is the law of the highest social development; and in families, communities, and states, people will be virtuous and happy just in proportion as this law is obeyed. On the other hand, try to reverse it, and misery, crime, and suffering will increase until you create a hell upon earth.


        Uncle Jim was once asked a great question. It was: "If you had to be blown up which would you choose, to be blown up on the railroad or on the steamboat?" "Well," said Uncle Jim, "I don't want to be blowed up no way; but if I had to be blowed up, I would rather be blowed up on the railroad; because, you see, if you is blowed up on the railroad, dar you is, but if you is blowed up on the steamboat, whar is you?" He was practical in his philosophy.

        Philosophy teaches us the proper use of knowledge in the explanation of phenomena, and in the practical affairs of life. Not long since a man was telling me about a rabbit. The rabbit said: "I don't blame the man that caught me, but the man that jumped me up." It was noted as a first fact in nature that everything must go. We find it true, however, that man in his physical constitution is composed of matter, and in him as elsewhere, matter has its essential principle called inertia; hence man has a tendency to get in one place and stay there. It is a scientific fact that all motion is based upon resistance. From this is derived the familiar formula that "action and reaction

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are equal." Also, the greater the resistance, the greater will be the motion that is set up. Suppose we put a ball into a gun, and put in a very loose wadding of cotton. The ball will not go very far. But suppose we put in a good charge of powder, then a stout wadding, and ram down ball so tight that we say to it: "You never shall get out of here!" When shot off the explosion will be terrific, and the ball will leave the gun with corresponding force.

        Col. Ingersoll says: "It is not the man who has conquered every time that can boast as a man of courage, but the one who has been whipped the oftenest, and yet comes up to try it again." Bishop A. Grant, D.D., on the same line, says: "If a man wants to know his own strength, he need not measure himself. He needs only to size up the fellows who are pulling against him to find out how strong he is."


        When we come to consider the Negro, no race has probably been so oppressed with opposition and resistance. It has been like piling upon us the entire mountain system of the country. Yet, what are the facts? If the Negro had been a weak race, it must evidently have been crushed under this weight of slavery, ostracism, caste, and persecution. If he only survived he would by the law of action and reaction, be as strong as the combined weight of his opposition. But we find that as a race we have been more than equal to the surroundings, for our rapid advance since emancipation, in the march of progress, has become a wonder to the world. Before freedom we used to hear it said: "A nation that has once tasted of liberty can never be re-enslaved." We do not hear it now, but can say it for our own benefit.


        All movements take place under the law of supply and demand. According to this law "things must move from where they are abundant to where they are needed." The movements of populations come under the same general law. The Negro has been blamed for his lack of integrity and business success. But along these lines there is a mighty improvement. I have just returned from a trip through Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi, and I will tell you something of our people in these States. At the corner of Gilmer and D streets in Chattanooga, Tenn., is the magnificent "Conyers Block," built by Mr. J. F. Conyers, a colored man who left Atlanta six years ago. It is built of fine brick, with marble trimmings, and

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is three stories high. There are four stores on the first floor; on the second floor eighteen rooms, arranged in suits; and on the third floor is a beautiful hall 72×45 feet, handsomely arranged, and lighted with elegant chandeliers. This building cost $30,000.

        In Little Rock, Ark., at the corner of Ninth and Gaines streets, is the "Jones Building," taking up half a block, a three story brick building, with nine stores beneath, the rooms above affording meeting places for all societies in the State. On the corner is the handsome drug store, with George E. Jones in raised letters on the iron doorstep.

        There is a colored drug clerk, and four colored physicians with offices in this building. Mr. Jones has several other business places, and is a large owner of real estate.

        At Pine Bluff, Ark., we paid a visit to the stables of Mr. Wiley Jones, the owner of the street railroads and other business in that city. He has two horses valued at $10,000 each, and several others at $5,000. To a question, he replied: "I own $50,000 in horse flesh." On leaving, a gentleman said: "Why don't you ask Mr. Jones how much he is worth?" "I do not like to," said I, "but if it pleases Mr. Jones I would like to know." He said: "They tax us pretty lively here, so you may just put me down at $200,000."

        At Natchez, Miss., I was in the splendid offices of the "Interstate Mutual Benefit Association," and of the "Mississippi Co-operative Benefit Association." Both are in the great building, corner of Main and Union streets. To look in here you would never suppose that such business places were controlled by colored men. Col. G. F. Bowles is General Manager of the "Interstate Mutual Benefit Association." It employs eighteen men, colored and white, in the building, and has five hundred agents, and an authorized capital of $5,000,000. They print four weekly newspapers, and have more than $5,000 worth of new printing material. Mr. Lewis J. Winston is General Manager of the "Mississippi Co-operative Benefit Association. They employ five men in the office, have twelve traveling agents, and $80,000 out on loan. The authorized capital is $10,000,000. This business is represented by a weekly paper called the Natchez Reporter.


        "Revolutions never go backward." In the matter of education, to say nothing of the race, what has the A. M. E. Church done in this

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direction? It may almost be said that the A. M. E. Church was born of the new educational movement. The church began its formation in 1787, and in 1796 Bishop Allen had not only commenced the day school work, but had supplemented it with both the Sabbath school and the night school. When Bishop Allen moved into the blacksmith shop, the whole African M. E. Church, as it now is, was wrapped up in him, in an undeveloped form. All of our five hundred thousand members, two hundred thousand Sabbath school children, with $8,000,000 worth of property, are the outcome of the forces put in operation by him. What shall we say then of the long and herculean labors of the venerable Bishop Payne, Bishops Cain and Dickerson, Bishops Brown and Campbell, Wayman and Ward, to say nothing of the great educational works of our younger Bishops Turner, Gaines, Tanner, Lee, Salter, Handy, of Bishop B. W. Arnett, D.D., President of the Board of Education, and of Bishop Abraham Grant, D.D., your own presiding officer, "the noblest Roman of them all?" These efforts have resulted in Wilberforce University, Allen University, Paul Quinn and Morris Brown Colleges, the Western University, Edward Waters College, and the whole column of forty schools of the A. M. E. Church. In 1892, we had thirty-eight schools; one hundred and thirty-four teachers; four thousand and fourteen students; three hundred and seventy graduates; with $502,650 worth of property under our educational banner.


        It is the law of every successful organism, or organization, that every part shall work for the good of the whole. Any failure to do so imperils the life of the organism, or threatens the existence of the organization. This result is not goverened by the will of man, but is a law of life laid down by the Creator. The human race is one organic whole, and every nation is a member of the one body of humanity, subject to a common life and destiny. And when, through the full operation of education and religious rectitude, the peoples of the earth shall be brought into harmonious relations, it will be realized that the good of one is the good of all, so that no man in the universe can be benefited, without extending a part of that benefit to every member of the race.

        There is no mistake about the residence of the Negro in America. It is to be hoped that, through the superior advantages and achievements of the race in this great land, "the heart of the fathers may

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be turned to the children, and the heart of the children turned to their fathers," so that the touch of kinship may lead us as descendants of Africa, to spread the light of Christian education and civilization upon her benighted shores. But just now, the attention of our people is needed at home. I say "home," for as a part of the American people, "we are here to stay"--here in a country set apart as the world's arena for all nations to work out the problem of human liberty. We are among the oldest inhabitants of the land, and everybody wants us to remain. We have a glorious record in peace and in war. We have been raised to the full grade of citizenship, and admitted into the highest functions of the nation. And this is not all--the labor, the business, the art, the science, the philosophy, and the religious teachings of the United States, and the Christian civilization are so many irresistible forces sustaining the claims of American Negroes to full recognition in the common heritage of humanity--a humanity glorified and exalted by the life and teachings of Christ.

        Let us, as Negroes, educate--let us survive--let us live up to our opportunities of doing good to ourselves and to others--so shall we work out a glorious destiny upon earth, and contribute our share of the good and great immortals out of every nation, that shall take their places among "the spirits of just men made perfect who are without fault before the throne."




1. Jones University Tuscaloosa, Ala.
2. Talladega College (Con.) Talladega, Ala.
3. Emerson Institute (Con.) Mobile, Ala.
4. Tuscaloosa Institute (Pres.) Tuscaloosa, Ala.
5. Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School Tuskegee, Ala.
6. Central Alabama Academy Huntsville, Ala.
7. Philander Smith College (Meth.) Little Rock, Ark.
8. Haygood Seminary (Meth.) Washington, Ark.
9. Helena Normal (Con.) Helena, Ark.

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10. Wayland Seminary (Bap.), valued at $150,000 Washington, D. C.
11. High and Normal School Barton, Fla.
12. Cookman Academy (Meth.), valued at $30,000 Jacksonville. Fla.
13. Florida Academy Jacksonville, Fla.
14. Normal School (Con.) Orange Park, Fla.
15. Edward Waters College (Meth.) Jacksonville, Fla.
16. Atlanta University Atlanta, Ga.
17. Clark University (Meth.), valued at $350,000 Atlanta, Ga.
18. Gammon Theological Sem. (Meth.) $100,000 Atlanta, Ga.
19. Atlanta Seminary (Bap.), valued at $50,000 Atlanta, Ga.
20. Spelman Seminary (Bap), value $147,000 Atlanta, Ga.
21. Walker Institute (Bap.) Augusta, Ga.
22. Paine Institute (Meth.) Augusta, Ga.
23. Beach Institute (Con.) Savannah, Ga.
24. Dorchester Academy (Con.) McIntosh, Ga.
25. Ballard Normal Institute (Con.) Macon, Ga.
26. Allen Normal and Industrial School Thomasville, Ga.
27. The Holsey Institute (Meth.) Lumber City, Ga.
28. Chandler Normal (Con.) Lexington, Ky.
29. Atkinson College Madisonville, Ky.
30. Berea College (Bap.) Berea, Ky.
31. Eckstein Norton University (Bap.) Cane Spring, Ky.
32. Leland University New Orleans, La.
33. New Orleans Univ. (Meth.), value $100,000 New Orleans, La.
34. Southern University New Orleans, La.
35. Straight University (Con.) New Orleans, La.
36. Bebee Institute New Orleans, La.
37. Homer Institute Homer, La.
38. Gilbert Academy (Meth.), value $50,000 Winstead, La.
39. Morgan College (Meth.), value $100,000 Baltimore, Md.
40. Jackson College (Bap.), value $35,000 Jackson, Miss.
41. Meridian Academy Meridian, Miss.
42. Rust University (Meth.), value $55,000 Holly Springs, Miss.
43. Tougaloo University (Con.) Tougaloo, Miss.
44. Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College Rodney, Miss.
45. George Smith College (Meth.) $50,000 Sedalia, Mo.
46. Western Baptist College Macon, Mo.
47. Gregory Institute Wilmington, N. C.
48. Washburn Seminary Beaufort, S. C.
49. Riddle University (Pres.) Charlotte, N. C.

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50. Shaw University (Bap.) valued at $175,000 Raleigh, N. C.
51. Livingstone College (Meth.) Salisbury, N. C.
52. Bennett College (Meth.) Greensboro, N. C.
53. The Agricultural and Mechanical College Greensboro, N. C.
54. Shiloh Institute Warrenton, N. C.
55. Carr Academy Norwood, N. C.
56. Skyland Institute Blowing Rock, N. C.
57. Saluda Seminary Saluda, N. C.
58. Wilberforce University (Meth.) Wilberforce, Ohio.
59. Allen University Columbia, S. C.
60. Claffin University Orangeburg, S. C.
61. Brewer Normal Greenwood, S. C.
62. A very Institute (Con.) Charleston, S. C.
63. Benedict College (Bap.) Columbia, S. C.
64. Central Tennessee College (Meth.) $125,000 Nashville, Tenn.
65. Rodger Williams College (Bap.) $225,000 Nashville, Tenn.
66. Fisk University (Con.) $350,000 Nashville, Tenn.
67. Le Moyne Institute (Con.) Memphis, Tenn.
68. Lane Institute (Meth.) Jackson, Tenn.
69. West Tennessee Academy Mason, Tenn.
70. Morristown Academy Morristown, Tenn.
71. Samuel Houston College Austin, Texas.
72. Bishop College (Bap.) Marshall, Texas.
73. Wiley University (Meth.) Marshall, Texas.
74. Hartshorn Memorial (Bap.) $45,000 Richmond, Va.
75. Virginia Seminary Lynchburg, Va.
76. Morgan College Annex Lynchburg, Va.
77. The Virginia Baptist Seminary Lynchburg, Va.
78. Female Seminary Burksville, Va.
79. Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute Hampton, Va.
80. Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute Petersburg, Va.

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        THE Central Tennessee College is situated in the southeastern part of Nashville, on Maple street. This location was chosen because at the time of its purchase no other more suitable property could be bought for a school for the Freedmen, either in Nashville, or any of the principal towns of Middle Tennessee. The school was originally begun as a school for "Refugees," or "Contrabands." In 1865, as soon as the smoke of battle had cleared away, the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church appropriated ten thousand dollars for the purpose of establishing a school for the Freedmen in the South. Bishop D. W. Clark, D.D., to whom the matter was referred, visited Nashville, and determined to locate the school in this city. Under his directions the school was opened in Clark Chapel, formerly Andrew Chapel, of the M. E. Church, South, which had been purchased for this purpose, and also for religious services. The school was under the supervision of Rev. John Seys and O. O. Knight, with other assistants. During the year 1865-6, the church became too small. Early in the year 1866 a board of trusees was selected, and a charter from the Legislature of Tennessee was secured. The school was then moved into a building known as the "Gun Factory," on South College street, where it remained for two years. This building had been used by the Federal Army as a hospital, and the Government returned it to the owners. This made it necessary to seek another location. Attempts were made to purchase property, but there being prejudice by the white people against having a school for Negroes in their neighborhood, it was no easy matter to secure such property as was desirable. At length the present site on Maple street was purchased, and the school moved, in 1868, into the only building on the ground, which was entirely inadequate to accommodate the students who attended during the year. The building was repaired during the year, and the chapel and boarding hall erected by the Freedmen's Bureau. These buildings afforded ample room for the school for several years. In 1872 the number of students was such that additional buildings became necessary, and a band of students, known as the Tennesseans,

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Nashville, Tenn.

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sung in the North, and raised nearly all the money for the large, four-story building, which is now the main school building. Other buildings have been added, as the Model School and Webster Hall, the latter used for industrial purposes and dormitories, the blacksmith, carpenter, and machine shops. Other buildings and grounds have been added by purchase. Rev. Bishop Walden has recently purchased what is known as the Hurley Place, joining on the rear of the original purchase, which, with other additions, gives ample grounds for other buildings, which are greatly needed to meet the requirements of the literary departments and African Training School. In 1880 the building for the Meharry Medical Department was opened, and in 1880 the Dental and Pharmaceutical building was first used for these departments.

        In its early history, the college was only a primary school. The object was to prepare teachers and preachers as rapidly as possible, to meet the great need for both classes among the colored people. There was an intense desire among the colored people for some education. Some wished to learn to read so they could read the Bible; some because the white folks had given so much time to educate their children, hence, if good for white, it was good for black folks; some because it would help them in business, and some, few in number, because they believed they had minds capable of development, and education would add to their power of usefulness. The school was at first composed of pupils of varying ages, from the "tot" three or four years old to the octogenarian. Children, parents, and grandparents were in the same classes, and the primer, spelling book and first reader were the principal text-books used. As time passed by, these gave place to the higher readers, arithmetics, geographys, grammars, and to pedagogics. Then as these were mastered, the preparatory studies, higher mathematics, natural science, languages, and the full college course of study was introduced. This was the work of years. The first college graduate was Miss Araminta P. Martin, in 1878, who was a member of the school almost from the first, who graduated with honor, and was employed as teacher of Mathematics, Latin, and History until her death in 1883.

        As the students advanced in their studies, the query arose, What shall we do? Some said, "We want to be doctors," but there was no medical school open to colored students in the Mississippi Valley. The Meharry family, living in Indiana and Ohio, who were deeply interested in the education of the Freedmen, furnished the means

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with which the Medical Department was opened in 1875, with Drs. W. J. Sneed and G. W. Hubbard as faculty. This department has had a very prosperous history. The faculty now numbers fifteen, and the students from the first class of eight to one hundred and twenty-one. The Pharmaceutical and Dental Departments have been prosperous. From these departments there have been graduated in Medicine, two hundred and sixty-four; in Dentistry, twenty-one, and thirty in Pharmacy, making a total of three hundred and fifteen.

        The Law Department was opened in 1879, with the Hon. John Lawrence in charge. He devoted much care and labor to the instruction of the young men who were desirous of preparing themselves for practice in any of the courts of the States. There have been twentyfive graduates in the law course. Some of them have won very honorable positions in the estimation of the members of the Bar in the courts where they have practiced. They have been fairly well received by the white lawyers, where they have proved themselves competent for the discharge of the duties of an attorney. This department has been of slow growth. The young men who enter this profession must be well prepared to meet their antagonists in trials, where prejudice is so strong against the color line as it is in most parts of the United States. The crowded condition of the profession, and the ease with which white lawyers can be retained, if the fee is only sufficient, make it quite problematical whether the young colored lawyer may not starve before he can get a paying practice. The department, however, seems to be steadily growing, and has already proved that the well educated colored attorney, who is wise in his deportment toward all, and industrious in his preparation of his cases can succeed.

        The great need of intelligent preachers for the colored people at the close of the war made it necessary to try to provide for this want as soon as practicable. Hence the earliest work done by the various schools of the church was to provide biblical instruction, and such other theological training as the candidates for the ministry were capable of receiving. The charter of the college requires that a Biblical Department shall be maintained at all times. This department was opened the first year of the school and Rev. John Seys gave such instruction as the candidates were capable of receiving. The course of study was enlarged from time to time so as to embrace the ordinary studies of the theological seminary. The degree of Bachelor of Divinity has been conferred on those who have

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secured the A.B., before graduating in this department. While only a few have finished the whole course of study in this department, many have enjoyed the privilege of the instructions given, and have been made more useful by the partial course of study which they have been enabled to take. The graduates of this department have occupied very honorable and useful positions in the denominations to which they belong.

        The colored people have a musical element in their make up, which was wonderfully manifest in the days of slavery. The strangely moving melodies which they sung in their religious meetings, and also in their cabins, were sources of the great power of endurance which was a striking characteristic of their slave life. These melodies inspired as they were wedded to words as peculiar as themselves, emotion, hope, faith, resignation, joy and through the clouds that shrouded their final triumph and freedom. These songs were sung in the school. Vocal music was taught in the school from its beginning without extra charge, the whole school being considered in music which is demanded everywhere. It is required in the home, the church, the social circle, in the school room, in peace and in war, on earth and in heaven. Music is a science. It must be studied. The Musical Department at first was to direct in the singing the old-time melodies. Then the music of the Sunday school and church was brought in. Soon the desire for instrumental music was expressed, and the parlor organ and piano were added to the course in music. The young people made commendable progress in this delightful art, and soon from humble homes could be heard from these instruments the strains of Sunday school or church music. This was followed by the more difficult music of American and European composers till at length the works of the most renowned authors were executed with great skill and excellent taste by the students in this department. Instruction on the violin has been given and a number of efficient performers on this famed instrument has been developed. Instruction is offered on all orchestral instruments. Voice culture has received considerable attention, and the promise is, that the best voices of the future, and the most renowned singers and musicians in this country may be from among the descendants of the freedmen. The study of harmony and musical composition is a part of the full course. The students make excellent progress in composition, and it would not surprise the world if from this same people should come in the future some of the world's

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greatest composers. The students have furnished the music for all public occasions, almost from the beginning of the school. Many have become proficient as teachers of vocal and instrumental music. Miss Lula Evans, of Franklin, Tenn., was the first graduate of this course in 1894. The department has the advantage of the best methods of instruction, and is rapidly growing in favor with all who seek its advantages.

        The Industrial Department was openend with the carpenter shop, in 1884. Mr. C. S. Randals was the first superintendent. Since that time there have been over two hundred different students who have learned something of the use of tools, and their care, as well as considerable knowledge of the trade. A number have made such progress as to make their living at the trade.

        In the blacksmith shop, over fifty have learned how to do much that is done by blacksmiths. In the tin shop, about forty different students have had lessons in soldering and making the usual variety of tin vessels. In the sewing classes over five hundred girls have learned how to do plain sewing, many others, more elaborate needle work, and quite a number have learned the learned the art of dress-making, and are able to make a livelihood in this useful avocation. There has been a class of twenty-four in cooking who made rapid progress in bread making, and other culinary arts. There have been fifty students in the classes of Phonography, who have made some excellent shorthand and typewriters, doing good work for their employers.

        This rapid survey of the Industrial Department gives only a cursory view of what has been done. How many homes will be made better, more tidy, more healthful, happier by the lessons taught in this department will be difficult to estimate. But that many will be more useful, more able to meet the responsibilities of life and bear life's burdens more cheerfully and discharge its duties more successfully, cannot be a matter of doubt. The college has been in operation for more than a quarter of a century. It began as a primary school. It is now, in fact, a university. It has sent forth graduates from every department. The English, the Normal, the Preparatory, the College, the Theological, the Medical, the Dental, the Pharmaceutical, the Law, the Musical, the Industrial, the African Training School, have all given their graduates to the world. The world has, we trust, been made better by them, as they have entered upon their fields of labor. In the school room they are successful. They fill the place of primary, intermediate and grammar

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grades. They are principals of city and high schools. They are professors in colleges and presidents of colleges and universities, and they fill these positions with ability and success. The graduates of the Theological Department have filled the most important pulpits in their respective churches. They have represented their brethren in the highest judicatories of their churches. They have filled the places of agents, secretaries and editors, and have been successful preachers of the gospel of Christ. The graduates of the Law Department have made a favorable impression on the courts where they have practiced, and have given satisfactory evidence that the colored attorney will be able, in the near future, to stand side by side with the best representatives of the bar.

        The graduates of the Medical Department have been received with favor in all parts of the country. They have shown themselves capable of discharging the high functions of physicians, dentists, pharmacists. They are recognized by the white doctors as worthy members of this distinguished profession. They have been successful practitioners in their several departments and have made themselves useful to a large area of our country. That they have done good is admitted on all hands. They have given instruction to their patients in reference to the laws of health, also in regard to their homes and methods of improving them. They have attended the people in sickness, and by faithful work have reduced in some places the death rate of the colored people, and have met a great need of intelligent physicians for a poverty-stricken people.

        The aim of the school in all departments has been to prepare the students for the practical duties of life. Care has been taken to infuse as far as possible the idea that education and Christianity are very closely related, and that education without religion is not the kind that will best prepare young people for a successful life. Thoroughness in all school work is the aim in teaching and the monthly examinations are intended to aid in securing this end. While the great need of teachers has made it necessary to pay attention to the normal classes, and the necessity for improved preaching rendered important the theological work, the college course has not been forgotten, as leaders of the people must have the best intellectual culture as well as the highest moral character. The college authorities favor a full college course for all who propose to enter any of the professions, and all the students will be encouraged to take the full classical course whenever practicable.

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        The annual enrollment of students has varied from 150 in 1869 to 676 in 1892. The entire number of students from the organization in 1865 is over 5,000. The number of teachers has increased from three in 1867 to forty-four in 1895. This school is supported by the contributions of Christian people; its education must be distinctly Christian. While under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the principles of the Bible are taught without special reference to denominational dogmas. It is expected that students entering any of its departments will cheerfully comply with such regulations as have been found salutary in the past history of the school. The use of tobacco and all intoxicants are forbidden, and such attendance on religious services is required, as a well-regulated Christian family might reasonably require of all its members.




        The Meharry Medical College was organized as the Medical Department of Central Tennessee College, Nashville, Tenn., in October, 1876. It takes its name from the noble and philanthropic family for

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whom it is called. The first members of this family who lived in the United States were Alexander and Jane Meharry who were of Scotch-Irish descent, and came to this country in 1794. They lived in Pennsylvania until 1798 when they fitted out a flat boat and floated down the Ohio river and landed at Manchester, Adams county, Ohio. Here, in what was then a dense wilderness, they cleared the forest, built their humble cabin, and raised a family of eight children. The father was suddenly killed on his way home from a camp meeting in 1813 and the care of the family then devolved on the mother who was a woman of great force of character and deep piety.

        When the boys grew to manhood, most of them moved to Indiana where they soon had comfortable homes of their own, and by industry and economy accumulated a considerable amount of property. Five of these boys have aided in establishing and supporting Meharry Medical College. Alexander was a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church; he was admitted to the Ohio Conference in 1841, and for thirty-seven years did faithful work as itinerant minister, presiding elder and financial agent of Wesleyan Female College, of Cincinnati, and the Ohio Wesleyan University. He died at Eaton, Ohio, in 1878; and after his death his widow faithfully carried out the benevolent plans of her deceased husband. Hugh and Jesse died many years ago, leaving most of their property for benevolent purposes. David has recently passed from his labor tn his reward, while Samuel is still living in Lafayette, Ind.

        This Institution from the beginning has been under the care of the Freedmen's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church and its former secretary, Rev. R. S. Rust, D.D., and his successors, Drs. Hartzell and Hamilton have been its firm friends and supporters. We are indebted to the John F. Slater Fund through its agents, Bishop A. G. Haygood and Dr. J. L. M. Curry for timely and valuaable assistance for many years. This college was the first one opened in the Southern States for the education of colored physicians, and since it was organized 432 students have been enrolled, 263 of whom have received the degree of M.D., and most of them are now engaged in the successful practice of their profession in the Southern States. They have been cordially received by the white physicians who have counseled with them in dangerous cases and assisted in difficult surgical operations.

        The success which has attended the labors of the Alumni has been

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most encouraging, and the professional reputation they have acquired is such as any college might well be proud of. Four of the the graduates have been appointed United States Pension Examiners; one has been Medical Director of the Texas State Colored Asylum for the Blind; two are Professors at the Medical Department of New Orleans University and several are lecturers in different schools and colleges. They have been unusually successful in passing the different County, District and State Medical Examinations before which they have appeared; as far as heard from, every graduate of the class of 1895 has passed with honor the required examinations. A large number have purchased homes of their own, and their professional income is probably greater than that of any other class of colored citizens. There are seventeen members of the faculty, nearly half of whom are graduates of this college.

        The character and appearance of the college buildings will be seen by examining the engravings which accompany this article; they are located at the corner of Maple and Chestnut streets and are on the line of the city electric railroad. The main building is constructed of brick, is forty feet wide and sixty feet in length, and four stories in height, including the basement. The ground floor is used as laboratories for practical work in chemistry; the second story for office, museum and dwelling apartments; the third floor contains a lecture room of sufficient size to accommodate one hundred students, recitation room and cabinet of materia medica; the fourth floor is fitted for dormitories.

        An additional building has been erected for practical demonstrations in anatomy. The Dental and Pharmaceutical Hall contains a clinical amphitheater capable of seating two hundred students, a Dental Infirmary, Dental Laboratory, two rooms for pharmaceutical work, a laboratory for analytical chemistry and a museum. It requires four sessions of five months each to complete the course of study, which is as follows:

        First Year.--During the first year's attendance students will be required to recite daily in Anatomy, Chemistry and Physiology, and work two hours a day in the Chemical Laboratory for ten weeks.

        Second Year.--Daily recitations in Anatomy, Materia Medica and Therapeutics; Physiology completed; Analytical Chemistry, with two hours' work a day for ten weeks in the laboratory; Prescription writing; Urinalysis, Toxicology, Elements of Botany and Dissecting.

        Third Year.--Medical Chemistry, Materia Medica and Therapeutics

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completed; Theory and Practice of Medicine; Elements of Pharmacy, Pathology, Bandaging, Physical Diagnosis, Microscopy, Bacteriology, Hygiene, Obstetrics, Medical Jurisprudence and Dissecting.

        Fourth Year.--Surgery, Diseases of the Genito-Urinary Organs, Dermatology, Gynæcology, Practice of Medicine, Medical Ethics, Electro-Therapeutics, Mental Diseases, Ophthalmology, Otology, Laryngology, Dissecting, and Review of Anatomy.

        Dr. Georgia L. Patton, who graduated in 1893, has for the past two years been serving as a self-supporting medical missionary at Monrovia, Liberia, where she has done most excellent work in that difficult and onerous field of labor. It is expected that in the years to come, many young men and women will be trained in this college for missionary work in the Dark Continent.




        The Meharry Dental Department was opened in 1885, and since that time twenty-two have completed a course in Dentistry and received the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery.

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        It was once supposed that the colored people rarely required the services of a dentist. However, that may have been in the past, it is not true now. There is a large and rapidly increasing demand for this kind of work, and in every large city in the South a good colored dentist will find plenty of work, and at least fair remuneration. A most promising and useful field is now open in this profession, and we hope, in years to come, our alumni will occupy it with honor to themselves and credit to their race. This school is now a member of the "American Association of Dental Faculties," and its diplomas receive due recognition wherever they are presented.




        The Meharry Pharmaceutical Department has been in successful operation for five years, during which time thirty-one students have finished a course in Pharmacy, and have been fitted for the responsible position of practical druggists.

        There is an increasing demand for well qualified colored Pharmacists; and there is a promising outlook for this department in the future. It requires two years to complete this course.

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        During the past session one hundred and two medical, twelve dental, and sixteen pharmaceutical students were enrolled.

        The tuition in each of these departments is thirty dollars per session. G. W. Hubbard, M.D., has been the Dean of this college since it was first established, nineteen years ago, and to him all inquiries concerning it should be addressed.

        TROY PORTER. The subject of this sketch was born in Fayette county, Kentucky, April 15, 1855. He moved to Illinois early in life, learned the trade of plumbing, gas and steam fitting, and after the expiration of ten years he had accumulated enough to establish a business for himself. His intelligence, industry, and attention to business, made for him a friend of every citizen in Paris. He was appointed superintendent of the water works in 1883, and in 1885 was elected town clerk of Paris, which was the first colored man in the county to be elected to this position.

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        THE chartered schools of the American Missionary Association, though doing an essentially similar work, are yet strongly individualized. Tougaloo University is emphatically the black belt plantation school of the Association, located in the country, in midst of America's darkest Africa, touching that by far most




        numerous and important class on which the future of the Negroes mainly rests--the plantation Negroes. Forming the bulk of the colored population, least tinged with white blood, they are at once the most ignorant and the most hopeful class. Within seven miles of Jackson, the State capital, on the Illinois Central road, easily

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accessible, not only from Mississippi, but from large regions of Louisiana and Arkansas, it draws pupils from a wide area and sends its trained teachers and graduates to a region still wider. Its location is healthful and one of beauty, and removed from town distractions and temptations, it is admirably situated for efficient work. The school was established in the autumn of 1869, and




        the early reports show a surrounding region which in its drunkenness, fighting and iniquity, is quite in contrast with the present condition of affairs. Five hundred acres of land were purchased and with them a fine mansion (page 307) then not many years old, intended for the finest plantation house of the State and built for a bride who came not. As the illustration shows, it is a



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handsome structure--the only one with any decided architectural pretensions in the place. It served at first for school rooms and dormitory purposes, and has been thus used during most of the life of the school. Now it contains the offices of president and treasurer, the main library--which greatly needs more books--music rooms, the doctor's office, teachers' rooms and the president's home. There are



now nine large buildings for school use, with several smaller ones. The next oldest of the large buildings is the girls' dormitory, just south of the mansion, where is the common dining room, with the necessary kitchen, laundry and bake house appliances, and dormitory room for several teachers and eighty to ninety girls.

        Washington Hall, built just north of the mansion about the time of the girls' dormitory, was burned some years ago, and now on its site

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stands the Ballard Building, containing the study and recitation rooms of the grammar and intermediate departments, which lead up to the normal and the chapel, where all general exercises and Sabbath services are held. One of the greatest needs of the school is a church building, that can be specially devoted to religious purposes. There is a grand chance for a memorial building. A little northeast



of Ballard is the boys' dormitory, Strieby Hall, erected in 1882, a brick structure 112×40 feet, and three stories high, with a basement which has a laundry and bathrooms. In this building the normal and higher work is carried on, with a fairly good physical and chemical laboratory and reference library, but needing great enlargement and additional facilities. The normal work is of chief importance, for the future of the race lies largely with the trained teachers of the
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common schools. Those who have gone from Tougaloo have won golden opinions from both races and do a work which in its scope and missionary character multiplies greatly the influence of the supporters of the school. Strieby has, by crowding, dormitory room for seventy to eighty boys. A separate building for normal work is greatly needed, one having a library, reading room, recitation room, museums and laboratories. Just northwest of Strieby is the large barn, which, with the picture of the cattle, will suggest the large agricultural department of the school with its stock, garden, fruit



raising, etc. Here, too, a building is greatly needed for the farm boys and a foreman, where a special course of instruction can be given in fitting out good farmers. Not a few graduates and former students have been successful in the conduct of farms and market gardens, some of them in connection with teaching. Back of the mansion is a little and not at all beautiful building that has been a slave pen, day nursery for slave children; then, under the American Missionary Association, a dormitory known as Boston Hall, then a carpentry class room, then girls' "Industrial Cottage" and is now dignified as Bible Hall, and houses the theological department, which was established two years ago. This department has the beginning of a library, but needs books and maps very greatly, and has two courses based on the English Bible, one of two and one of four years. Though having this year but few pupils in the regular course, it is doing very thorough work. The evening class for outside preachers has been for some
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years a power for good. A glance at the picture will convince anyone that theology should have better quarters. Who will give them? Berkshire Cottage, of which a picture is given, accommodates the industrial training work of the girls. Here are class-rooms for needlework and cookery, with courses extending over four years, and which all girls in the grammar grades are as much obliged to take as they are the English branches. To the normal girls special instruction in dressmaking is given. Berkshire, besides accommodating several teachers, has a kitchen, dining and sitting room, and several bedrooms, devoted to practical housekeeping, where, at present, four girls at a time keep house practically for six weeks at a time, so becoming competent for homemakers. Not far from this cattage is the Ballard shop building, where the manual training of the boys is carried on. Here to the small boys of the Hand school instruction in knife work is given, and to the boys of all higher grades





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careful instruction, in accordance with the best manual training methods, in woodworking, with excellent accommodations for more than twenty boys at a time, forging, at which eight at a time can work, and mechanical and architectural drawing, with tables and tools for two dozen. The outcome of this work and of the girls' industries, teachers of which are supported by the Slater Fund, which has done, and is doing, so grand a work, has been most satisfactory and encouraging in the skill manifested, the increased earning capacity imparted, the greater ability to gain and maintain homes, and the development of character.




        One other picture, the Hand Primary building, suggests the practical work of the Normal Department, for here the Normal students have practice during the two closing years of their course, gathering pupils from surrounding cabins.

        Underneath all the work of the school is the dominating thought of the development of Christian character. The preaching, the Sabbath school, with its class prayer meeting directed by the Sabbath school teachers, the religious societies, the Covenant for Christian service, the personal influence of teachers and older pupils, all tend in that direction with most blessed results. Upon the surrounding region growing influence is exerted through the four Sabbath schools from two to four miles away, in which teachers and students from the University assist. A picture of one of the schools, McCharity, is given here. Mention should also be made of "Tougaloo University

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Addition to Tougaloo." One hundred and twenty acres of land have been divided into five-acre house lots, which are being sold at $100 each to former students and those who wish to educate children at the University. In a few years it is expected that a fine community will be there.

        Around three great fundamental ideas the work of Tougaloo, with its nearly 400 students and 23 instructors, with its theological, college preparatory, normal, agricultural, industrial, musical and nurse-training departments, its religious work, is grouped and carried on



with notable success. These are the development of the family and home, leadership and pure religious life. Who will endow a chair? Who will endow the University and perpetuate one's influence in a most fruitful way? Successful as Tougaloo has been, its largest, widest work is yet to come.


        It would quite repay those who would study the problem of saving these children of the rural districts of the black belt to go far out of their way to visit Tougaloo. They should take time for it, to ride

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over its broad acres of cultivated land, its cotton fields, its fields of sugar cane and corn, its hay fields, all under the care of those who are being educated. They should see its shops for iron working, wood working, and its varied other industries. They should see those who work by day, diligent students at the books all the long evenings until late. They should see the self-help of all. They



should go through the grades and notice the quality of the work done and its character, its classes in mathematics and in languages, and its work in the physical sciences. It is a great school--Tougaloo--and if people could see it, they would quote it more for its economy and efficiency. Not always are efficiency and economy found pulling equally in the same harness.

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        AMONG the evidences of Negro ability to establish and control great institutions, we have no better example than the Living-stone College. In a quiet, antiquated looking town of historic connection with those stirring times of our American Revolution, is the town of Salisbury, N. C., and in this town is Livingstone College--the pride of a great church and the honor of a noble race.

        October the 9th, 1882, the first session of Livingstone College began on its present grounds in the town of Salisbury, N. C. It was then known as Zion Wesley Institute--later it was called Zion Wesley College, and in '86 or '87 became Livingstone College in honor of the African explorer--David Livingtone. It may not be out of place to mention here that the president and faculty felt that in the scope of the work the institution aimed to do, it would be less hampered by the new name. The wisdom of this has doubtless been seen by those intimately associated with the college. As to the early history of the institution the writer wishes to insert the following account, taken from a paper read by Bishop Harris at the Decennial Celebration at the commencement, in May, '93:

        "Livingtone College is a monument of the intense yearning of the A. M. E. Zion Church for a thorough education of her children. It also teaches the fact that to maintain an institution of the high grade to which Livingstone College has attained, earnestness and self-sacrifice are required not only of the teachers, but also of the students, and of the church which is to maintain it.

        Incorporated in 1879 under the name of Zion Wesley Institute, and depending almost exclusively upon the collections from the churches in the bounds of the North Carolina Conference, after two sessions at Concord, N. C., it was compelled to close its doors. Livingstone College, the successor of Zion Wesley Institute, would not now be in existence, but for the fact that at the close of the Ecumenical Methodist Conference, held in England, in May, 1881, the able and far-seeing Bishop President of the Board of Trustees of Zion Wesley Institute,

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saw the swelling of the tide, which, taken at the flood, would lead on to fortune. He prevailed upon Rev. J. C. Price, a delegate to the conference from the A. M. E. Zion Church, to remain in Europe and solicit funds for the Institute, then holding its second session under the instruction of Prof. A. S. Richardson.

        "The agent thus selected, already known as an eloquent orator by his speeches during the session of the Ecumenical Conference, was heartily welcomed everywhere, and by well directed plans, secured an amount which finally footed up to $9,100. Seeing the agent so highly successful, the trustees of the Institute, though offered a tract of seven acres by the church at Concord N. C., concluded that Salisbury would be a more favorable site, and located the Institution at that place.

        "In the spring of 1882, Bishops J. W. Hood and T. H. Lomax, trustees, visited Salisbury, and with $3,000 from England, supplemented by $1,000 donated by business men of Salisbury, with the influence of Mr. M. L. Holmes, purchased the premises we now occupy. It consisted of a two-story building, with a basement, containing ten rooms, with forty acres of land, the total cost of which was $4,600.

        "In September, 1882, at the bishops' meeting at Chester, S. C., Zion Wesley Institute came under the fostering care of the entire connection. Mr. Price made a complete report of his doings in Great Britain. A suitable remuneration was voted him, and the faculty chosen, with Rev. J. C. Price, President; Rev. C. R. Harris and Prof. E. Moore, as Assistant Teachers, and Mrs. M. E. Harris, as Matron.

        "In the next month, October 9th, 1882, was opened on its premises in Salisbury with five day students the first day. About the middle of the month in came our first student from abroad, Miss Lizzie Williams, Newbern, N. C. A week or so later, five students were sent from Beaufort, N. C., by one of the trustees of the Institute, who was so zealous in securing students that some of them were unprepared to pay their board. How erroneous and damaging the presumption that an unendowed school is able to give instruction and board free. We kept them, however, and did the best we could, but the precedent was a bad one, and hundreds, if not thousands of dollars are now due the institution for unpaid board of students.

        "Students from town and from abroad continued to come. A pressing need arose--the want of room. The girls were crowded in rooms having two beds each, and were sometimes obliged to sleep

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three in a bed. A new building, 16×40, was erected for the boys. This session closed with ninety-three students.

        The President being required to travel and solicit donations, another teacher was needed. A friend of the President, Rev. W. H. Goler, attended our commencement, or closing exercises, as they were then modestly called. He preached the annual sermon and at the conclusion of the address of the orator of the day, Bishop S. T. Jones added encouraging words. He became one of the members of the faculty at the next session.

        At the end of the first term of the second session the number of students enrolled was one hundred and twenty. Hence, the building for the boys was given to the girls, and the boys had to be provided for as best we could in renting houses, one of these being named by the students the White House, and the other the Black House. How they had to tramp through mud and snow that winter. But with characteristic gallantry, they willingly gave up the comfortable building erected for them to the gentler sisterhood.

        If I mistake not, the summer of 1883 was occupied in erecting an addition (42×56) to the original ten-room house for a chapel, a dining room, and dormitories for girls. The chief donor to the fund for this building was the "railroad king," C. P. Huntington, whose picture you may see in the center of the group in the rear of the chapel. Hence the name Huntington Hall given to the building.

        It will be remembered by those who are acquainted with the history of Livingstone College, that too much can hardly be said of the work of Bishop Harris in helping to establish this institution. The entire dimensions of the building mentioned above are 91×38, four stories high including the basement.

        In the fall of 1885, the necessity for more buildings caused Dr. Price to visit the Pacific coast. After lecturing about four months, he secured the donation of $5,000 from the late Senator Leland Stanford and $1,000 from Mrs. Mark Hopkins. The entire amount collected by Dr. Price on the coast was about $9,000. Only a little over $1,000 was needed to make up the sum of $20,000. The Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, who had assisted Mr. Price through school, promised him a donation of $5,000 if he should raise that sum. Dr. Price lost no time in securing the residue, and Mr. Dodge kept his word.

        In March, 1886, ground was broken for the erection of a dormitory for boys--Dodge Hall--a four-story brick building, 60×40, and a four-story brick, 100×40, for girls, known as Hopkins Hall, forming a

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nucleus to Stanford Seminary. It will be observed that these buildings are named for their principal donors.

        In 1887, Mr. Stephen F. Ballard, of New York, erected the Ballard Industrial Hall, 66×39, and fitted it up with complete outfits for the departments of carpentry, shoemaking and printing. The entire valuation of the buildings and grounds (now about fifty acres), is estimated at $100,000.

        The aim of the school has been to give a thorough literary training to colored young men and women. The industrial feature has not been neglected, although in the past two years the school has not been able to do as much in that line as formerly. The reason of this has been the withdrawal of the Slater Fund. However, this department has been operating with such means as the officers have been able to obtain. The students in the carpentry shop make and repair all the furniture used in the school, such as bedsteads, chairs, tables, desks, washstands and dressers. The printing office is well equipped and during the past year much minute and pamphlet work has been done beside the publishing of the college journal, which is now conceded to be one of the best, if not the best college magazine published by a colored institution in the country. The institution has been running but little over a decade. It boasts, however, of a prominence equal to any institution in the South founded and sustained by colored men. The character of its graduates and the showing they have made bespeak the thoroughness of its work. In fact the officers of the institution while recognizing the need and the cry for the industrial training of the Negro have stoutly maintained that industrial education should not supplant the higher educational development of the Negro. The success of the 108 graduates since 1885 has been sufficient argument for them to hold this point.

        The young men who have entered the ministry are all prominent in the great church under whose auspices the school works. Many of the largest and most prominent churches in the connection are held by them and they have merited each place. In the law and in medicine they are not behind, and in the school room as teachers, many brilliant records have been made by its young men and women. As teachers they are in demand and in most cases give entire satisfaction. The work of the great Dr. Price in his efforts to lift the race to a higher plane of intellectual and moral development is well known on both sides of the Atlantic. To speak of Livingstone and its aim, is to speak of the one great desire of its lamented president.

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So thoroughly wedded was he to this idea and its development through the work of Livingstone College that no honor in church or State, however tempting the emolument attached to it, could induce him to give it up. His great influence rests upon his successor and his associates, ten in number. These are making noble self-sacrifices to carry on the work.

        The maintenance of this work is wonderful when it is remembered that Livingstone has no endowment fund for teachers; no scholarship fund for students, and only a small appropriation from the church that is support it. And only a little over half of this is received annually to carry on the work and pay teachers.

        The last commencement was one of the most successful and brilliant in the history of the institution. Dr. W. H. Goler, the new president, took charge with a vim and purpose that delighted all. His ability, his friendship for and acquaintance with Dr. Price and his experience in the work obtained under that great leader give him a confidence that makes success doubly sure.

        The present session has opened with the most flattering outlook. During the past five or six years the school has averaged an enrollment of over two hundred students. The enrollment one year was about three hundred. Students representing New England, Michigan, Missouri, Kentucky and all the States along the coast from Massachusetts to Florida as well as Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Tennessee have been enrolled. Besides these representatives of Liberia, West Coast of Africa and the West Indies are among the number.

        The death of Dr. Price, which occurred October 25th, 1893, was a great blow to Livingstone. Its friends within and without were thrown into a state of anxiety for its future. But many believed that Price's work was accomplished when he demonstrated to the world his practical production of his great lecture, "Negro Capabilities." When Livingstone started the world had not learned that a college could be established and controlled entirely by Negroes. The school is the argument and the proof. Price is gone but the school is going on and it is doing nobly and well its part in swelling the stream of workers for God and humanity.--The A. M. E. Zion Quarterly Review.

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        THE work of founding Fisk University was begun in October, 1865; the Fisk School was opened January 6, 1866. It was founded and is still fostered by the American Missionary Association of New York City. The University has just held its thirtieth annual commencement. The educational work was begun with a race just emancipated by our great civil war and the first department established was the common English. There have since been organized the following departments: College preparatory, normal, college and theological. The University also has a department of music, which, during the past year, has had 116 pupils. Departments of medicine and law will be established in due time. In the Industrial Department, printing, carpenter work, plain sewing, dress making, cooking and nursing are taught. The average attendance during the past five years has exceeded five hundred.


        The University campus contains thirty-five acres, most favorably located for beauty and health, one mile and a quarter in a straight line northwest of the State House. The property of the University is valued at $350,000. The accompanying pictures of the four principal buildings will convey a more vivid impression of their size and architectural beauty than any description can do.


        This is the "Home" for young women and for the female teachers. It is surrounded by eight acres of land, beautifully ornamentd by trees and shrubbery. This building was erected with funds earned by the famous Jubilee Singers, who left the University October 6, 1871, under the leadership of Mr. George L. White, Treasurer. They spent seven years of continuous labor in the United States, Great Britain and Ireland, Holland, Germany and Switzerland.

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        This building was erected, principally, through the gift of $60,000 by Mrs. Valeria G. Stone, of Malden, Mass. It is the "Home" for young men, but the first two stories are now used for chapel, library and recitation rooms. When the great recitation hall is erected on the central square midway between Jubilee Hall and Livingstone Hall, the entire work of instruction will be transferred from Livingstone Hall.


        This chapel was secured through the legacy of $25,000 in railroad bonds left the University by Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, which netted with interest nearly $30,000. This Memorial Chapel gives a perfect audience room for one thousand persons in the regular seats.


        The cost of this handsome building was about $25,000. The money was furnished partly by the band of Jubilee Singers, which pleaded for it during the fall and winter of 1890-91, and partly by the American Missionary Association.


        Fisk University was the first institution for colored youth to establish a gymnasium for the physical training of students. The main floor of this building is devoted to this purpose and the basement is a large and well-equipped shop for instruction in wood working.


        The University has made a good beginning in securing the necessary apparatus for instruction in the various branches of natural science. Laboratory work in elementary chemistry and mineralogy is now systemized and established. The museum contains a well-arranged collection of over three thousand specimens in natural history, geology, mineralogy and ethnology.


        The library now contains 5,227 bound volumes and a large number of pamphlets. The reading room is an adjunct of the library and this year has been provided with twenty-five of the best periodicals and thirty-five newspapers.

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        Fisk University aims to be a great center of the best Christian educational forces for the training of colored youth. During the thirty years since its founding, the faculty and trustees have held unfalteringly to this purpose and all plans have been laid for providing the best possible advatages for the "Higher Education." The University in all its methods seeks to develop character and to give its students a thorough preparation for the practical duties of life.


        The Alumni are making a record of useful services to which Fisk points with pride as ample vindication of the wisdom of founding a University for the Negroes of the South in the very dawn of their freedom. Christian education accomplishes the same beneficent results in the case of the Negro that it does in the case of other races. College and university education are a vital necessity to the study and permanent advance of any race or class of humanity.

REV. E. M. CRAVATH, D.D., President.

REV. A. K. SPENCE, M.A., Dean.

REV. E. C. STICKEL, M.A., Treasurer.

        REV. CHARLES E. ALEXANDER, Memphis, Tenn. The subject of this sketch was born of slave parents in Princeton, Ky., on Jan. 31, 1853, was transferred by sale to Mississippi where he remained until the breaking out of the war, when he, with his parents, ran away to Memphis, remaining in Memphis until after the war; he then attended school at Nashville where he graduated in the Normal class in 1876; he was then elected Principal of the Mason Preparatory School where he spent fourteen successful years as the principal of that school. Many of the young men are now in professional life in this and other cities. He is now the present Pastor of Centenary M. E. Church.

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        LANE COLLEGE was founded by the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in America, and is still under its fostering care. In November, 1878, in a session of the Tennessee Annual Conference, in Capers Chapel, at Nashville, the project was begun by a resolution offered by Rev. J. K. Daniels. The Conference appointed a committee to solicit means for purchasing ground. Rev. C. H. Lee, J. H. Ridley, Sandy Rivers, Berry Smith and J. K. Daniels constituted the committee. Owing to the great epidemic of 1878 the committee did not do much. But notwithstanding hindrances when the Conference met in 1879, with the scanty means collected it was decided to purchase a lot at Jackson, Tenn. Four acres were purchased January 15, 1880 for $240. After the lot was purchased renewed efforts were made to obtain the building. Through the united efforts and great energy of Bishop Isaac Lane and others the means were secured, the building was erected in 1882 and the school began under the title of the High School of the C. M. E. Church.

        The school began its first session in November, 1882, under Miss Jennie Lane until January. Prof. J. H. Harper, of Jackson, finished the unexpired term. After Prof. Harper Dr. C. H. Phillips took charge. Meanwhile, taking into account the labors of Bishop Lane, and supposing it would be promotive of good to the school, in two years afterwards the school was chartered under the laws of the State and its name changed to Lane Institute.

        It is a handsome brick building, 90×66 feet, three stories, twelve recitation rooms and a dormitory for boys, sufficient to accommodate eighty boarders. It is our aim to open the Fall Session in the new building; but it will take at least $2,500 to finish and furnish the first two stories. Bishop Lane has been in the field for several years soliciting aid for this noble enterprise, and has succeeded far beyond the most sanguine expectation of its friends, and has collected more than $8,000. The untiring efforts of Bishop Lane to permanently establish this institution of learning are worthy of commendation. We humbly appeal to the friends of education everywhere to help us in this our time of need. May the contribution to this noble

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Lane College. Jackson,Tenn.

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cause be transformed into a lasting memorial that shall be a blessing to the youth of this country for generations to come.

        The Normal Department is designed to give such instruction in the methods of teaching as will fit students for the practical duties of teachers, and they will be expected to teach as soon as they are proficiently qualified. Students in the most advanced classes are allowed to teach in the college, in order that they may obtain such practice in hearing, drilling and handling classes as will assist in making them successful teachers when they will have completed their course.

        Recognizing the fact that the mind is often cultivated at the expense of the body, and that trades are mediums through which young men may obtain occupation, giving them a capital to fall back on should they fail to make practical what they have learned from books, industrial features are added. Owing to scarcity of means, little has been done in that direction. Girls will be given lessons in needle-work, cutting sewing and cooking. Young men will be given lessons in elements of gardening and carpentry. An experienced teacher will have charge of each department. Efforts are being made to secure a printing press, which will be of untold value to all.

        It is the purpose of the Theological Department to give theological instructions to young men who are preparing for the ministry, and to furnish to the church ministers learned in the Scriptures, sound in doctrine, pure in heart, fervent in spirit, abounding in good works, and ready to go to any field of labor to which the church may call them. Any student completing this course, who has completed the normal course, or its equivalent will receive a diploma in testimony of the fact.

        The Boarding Hall for young ladies joins the school building, and is convenient, comfortable, and well furnished. It is our purpose to make the boarding department a pleasant home, with all the protection and advantage of a well-arranged household.

        Special instructions are given on moral, social, and religious subjects. Prayerful attention is given to the cultivation and development of the mental and moral powers, and the formulation of superb habits.

        All boarders are required to board in the building, unless there are special reasons for boarding elsewhere. In every case the consent of the President is required. All boarders in the hall are required to work one hour per day, and to comply with the rules and regulations

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of the boarding department. To pupils boarding on the grounds, $7.50 per month for board, tuition $1.00.

        Rev. I. H. Anderson has charge of the boarding department for young men. With him they are safe, and in the midst of a healthy Christian influence. Many young men who are not able to pay their board may secure it by working morning and evening in the city.

        The Intermediate Department is established for those who have finished the Primary and Elementary English branches, thus preparing them to meet the educational wants of the people among whom they must figure prominently as educators.

        No extravagance in dress will be allowed in the school. All parents will please see that their girls come provided with plain, substantial clothing.

        Vocal music is required in all departments, and voice culture in music classes and elocutionary drill, with pure tone and breathing exercises receive due attention.

        Instrumental music on organ or piano will be provided for and special attention is called to this important branch of music. For this we have a skillful intrumentalist. Vocal music is given free. For instrumental music a reasonable charge is made.

        METHODS OF INSTRUCTION.--Recognizing the fact that the memory is an important faculty and should be properly cultivated, the mere memorizing of lessons is discouraged. The pupils are required to understand their studies; to give in their own language the substance of the author, and original explanations and illustrations. It is not deemed sufficient for a pupil to recite, ever so readily, rules and definitions; he must understand the principles involved and their proper application. Nor is it sufficient that a pupil can merely solve a problem or an example according to some definite rule; he must be able to analyze it, to give the reason for every step in the process, and to demonstrate the correctness of the rule itself. In the study of language, special attention is paid to parsing, analyzing and the derivation of words. The main object is to train the pupil to think closely, correctly and quickly.

        A Literary Society, conducted by the pupils, has been formed, which adds greatly to the discipline in speaking, writing and parliamentary usages, so necessary in the practical duties of life.

        Through the influence of Rev. J. B. McFerrin, D.D., of Nashville, Tenn., the institution secured a large number of books. A library was organized and called McFerrin Library, in honor of him who

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himself largely contributed and solicited others. The library has received literary contributions from friends almost constantly since its organization. It is yet small, containing not more than 1,200 volumes. In this collection, though comparatively small, are valuable religious, scientific, historical, and literary works. Constant additions are being made by friends favoring right education.



        THERE is resting upon all mankind a moral obligation, the highest law known by which they are mutually bound to render unto others, each in his own particular sphere, that assistance necessary to fulfill all that is required of them at the hands of the great Creator. This duty is imperative, and nothing can excuse human beings from its performance. A failure to do this duty, this moral duty, is to fall short of the principal act in life's wonderful drama, the act which alone can bring to men and women the greatest of all returns--the consciousness of knowing that they have at least obeyed the teachings of the Golden Rule.

        Think, the Negroes of the South have but emerged from the darkness of slavery, ignorance, and superstition, from which they have had to struggle hard and long, and it must be acknowledged by thoughtful people that the struggle has not been in vain. Ah! Great and glorious Southland! Thou art the country to which kind Providence directed the Dutch to locate this wonderous African race. We cherish thy name in recognition of the sorrow commingled with joy borne and enjoyed by our mothers. In thy pleasant valleys rest alike the hoary frost and the sweet dews of morning, the piteous and gentle recollections of our early life. Around thy hills and mountains, by thy rivers and streams, and on thy bluffs like gathering clouds and floating mists, cling the mighty memories of the terrible struggles of our grandmothers, and far away in the horizon of the past gleam like thy own strong lights the awful virtues of our grandsires. A thousand sad and fond associations throng upon us rousing

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us by the spirit of the age to duty. This retrospection should not make us forget the duty we owe to the present. We exult in the reflection that, though we count by thousands the miles which separate us from the birthplace of many of our ancestors, still our country is the same. America is our home. The Southland, the most beautiful part of this great Republic, is the native home of the greatest number of our race. Here floats the same banner, with its many stripes and stars, the same which has rustled above our heads for many years, differing only in the fact that its many folds are wider, its glittering stars have increased in number; and though once we could only look in anguish and sorrow upon it as it waved gently above us, we can now look upon its beautiful colors as free American citizens.

        The daughters of the South are found now in nearly every State of our broad Republic, in the East, the North, and in the unbounded West, their blood mingling freely with every kindred current. They have but changed their rooms in this earthly mansion, yet in all its rooms they are at home, and all who inhabit them are their kindred, for of "one blood hath all nations been made."

        As free American citizens, it is our bounden duty to help in everything that will redound to the glory and greatness of America.

        We have no great reason to be discouraged, cast down, nor hopeless about our future, because of the many unfavorable happenings; we must not expect to be entirely free from the struggles necessary to be encountered to reach true greatness. It is our duty to use every possible and legitimate effort to avert dangers and troubles. We are earnestly persuaded to believe that the brightness of the future glory of the Negro of America is heightened by the darkness of the present clouds. All our sad experiences exhort us to proceed and inspire us with animating hopes of success, should we seek to "lay the foundation well."

        Character building is to be considered the "Duty of the Hour." Some people argue that this work belongs to the home, but in how many homes do we find it neglected on account of ignorance. True, the training of the child is declared to be woman's special work at home, but few of our mothers know just how to do the right kind of training; and many do not even care if they do not know. It is painful to see how some mothers undertake the training of their children. They grope blindly among the complex mind and heart machinery under their charge, touching here and there a spring with a careless and uncertain hand, finding often too late that they have undertaken

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to control the most powerful of creative forces, the human will, passions and propensities, not having the secret of power. They love their children, but love without knowledge is a mighty force working at random, hurting very often where it would heal, destroying often-times where it would save. Whether we consider the mothers of wealth, or the mothers of the poorer classes of children, everywhere do we find pressure, and the hindrance of circumstance, and a lack of parental responsibility; and down among the slums where abject ignorance, careless indifference and depravity hold sway, surely no character building that will benefit the child, home or State can be looked for there.

        Again the children of the more enlightened and respectable classes with their many views, ideas and "curious notions" of what constitutes "superority," actuated by worldly ambition and moral prejudice, and the children of the poor, ignorant and "repulsively vicious" classes in their badly developed, their blighted and almost hopeless condition, what of them? Have we ever stopped to consider that these boys and girls will soon be men and women? Have we stopped to think that these men, and perhaps women, will soon be the rulers of the State, indeed they will be the State? During their youth they were largely in her power, a few years hence and the State will be in their power. Wisdom says and it is policy that the State should take the advantage of giving her subjects the proper training at the proper time. She should train the mind while it is capable of being easily trained. No need to argue about home training, that cannot be relied upon for securing a saving kind of citizenship, neither can this ever be the case until the young shall have been educated with some special reference to their parental vocation. Admit though, for the sake of argument, that home is the place for moral training, character building, so essential to the salvation of the State, do we not find in the majority of homes a thoughtless, careless, foolish, forceless, aimless, ignorant and injudicious parentage? And in view of the abject, degraded and vicious parentage it must be acknowledged that this home work must and needs be supplemented by earnest and thoughtful, careful and intelligent endeavors on the part of the State. Justice demands that strength and nobility of character can only be secured by well-directed efforts in the schools where the masses must be educated. Justice says that it is better far to treble the school tax and legislate for compulsory education and inculcate good moral principles in the

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minds of the young, than to deprive them of the advantages of the necessary training.

        Think of the State permitting its children to remain on the streets daily, and then in turn taxing itself to support them in idleness in its jails and penitentiaries and almshouses. Wisdom requires the State to look around and see about the condition of her subjects, for if she punishes them for going astray, justice demands that she set their feet surely in the right path at the right time that they may keep from going astray. Every child has the possibilities of becoming either a blessing or a curse to the State. Wisdom demands that its little body and limbs, and its little mind and heart be trained aright. The germs entrusted to the care of the public or common school should be nourished well. The plants set out in this garden of a progressive age should be carefully nurtured, should be rightly pruned. Not one little germ should be neglected and left to grow up and become a useless plant, nor a noxious weed, in the great garden. It is the duty of the State to see that her subjects grow up with noble characters. It is her fault, and she alone must bear the blame for every vicious act, for every diabolical crime done and perpetrated within her borders if she neglect this duty. Does she blame herself for unsatisfactory harvest from her own poor spring planting? Not at all. She visits her displeasure upon the wrong--doer oftentimes by crowding her jails and filling up her prisons. She sends forth oftentimes her own ill-trained, commissioned officials to seize her poor, ignorant and pitiless erring ones and places them oftentimes in the charge and keeping of depraved and vicious men who have not themselves been taught not to err. She denounces and punishes the poorest and most ignorant ones for not proving to be worthy subjects, through sentences pronounced oftentimes from the lips of men who themselves have not been properly taught honesty, truth, and integrity. Think--how did the State prepare her wayward subjects to battle with the conflicts of life? How did she prepare the child to resist the temptations of the evil one? How did she commission her officers? What were the instructions and obligations given and made by her officials? The few schools she bade the poor criminals attend, gave no moral training. Oftentimes they were taught, or rather encouraged to outrival and outshine others; they were taught to bound every country on the globe and tell about the inhabitants of foreign countries, but were not taught the duty they owe to themselves and their neighbor.

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        Indeed, while we have reason to be proud of our public schools, yet we would that the system was so changed as to embrace something that will make the children good as well as "smart and quick." All the sciences are taught; yes, intellectual requirements are considered, but the more and equally important thing is neglected. Goodness is not in demand. That moral obligation which every human being should know is neglected.

        The State has problems confronting her which are indeed hard of solution. What shall be done with the poor criminal? And now as she points to the gloomy and badly managed prison jails she moves the sad condition of her citizens. She weeps over the youths who are daily being driven to her crowded cells. The inmates of the prison say, "Our homes were the abode of vice and crime and we are here shut up and confined within the walls where vice and crime are also nourished and tolerated." Think of it, poor women, poor, black women, in prison for crime and then being allowed or perhaps forced to continue in depravity oftentimes worse than the crime for which they are sent to pay penalty. What will be the future of such characters? The State knew the evil passions were strong within and yet took very little if any pains to help restrain them at the proper time. Thus we see the State striving to save herself by means which do not and cannot save; "using her resources to maintain a scrowling avenger at the end of the wrong path, instead of rearing up a smiling guide at the beginning of the "right path."

        The Negro of the South must still look to her with a sense of gratitude for the good she has done, and with a sense of shame and disgust upon what she has not done. The Negro is one of the individuals who help to compose the State, and it is his duty to help save the State from further disgrace and shame. He mnst be found asking, nay, pleading with the authorities whose duty it is to listen to the prayers and pleadings of the black man as well as the white man to provide schools for their children and to change the system of education so that the fundamental principles of good conduct and self-support as well as those of the sciences are so given that a way-faring man, though he be running, may read and understand how to build true character.

        How beautiful the members of a community when conscience rules, where honesty, integrity, justice and love are the foundation stones of the nation's building. People oftentimes speak of the compelling power of badness, seeming not to know that goodness is

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equally as compelling as badness. A woman inwardly righteous is compelled to show righteous conduct. Oh, that all our American mothers and teachers would aim at this inward necessity rather than at mere outward obedience, then would we find the characters of the children growing better. Indeed by wise and judicious measures a child can be so trained, so hedged in that to him dishonor would be an utter impossibility. There is in every child a divine principle awaiting development, a precious germ awaiting unfolding; duty requires that this principle be divinely developed, that this germ be properly enfolded. "A good shepherd leads, does not drive; a good mother, a good teacher chides often, lashes seldom or never."

        To combat evil by scoldings, by threatenings, by anger or by the most cruel and brutal relic of barbarism, "blows," is but a true confession of incapacity to train the child. Meeting badness with badness can never make goodness. The State owes to every citizen a proper and true education. I repeat, a character is not only the saving but the controlling element as well, it is proper and necessary, it is the duty of the hour that moral problems are instilled into the minds of the youths as well as mathematical ones. Whatever the pupil may have either of influence or opportunity, of talent or capability, the uses made of these depend on the kind of person he is and the State should secure the very best kind of citizens. The chief factor of an advancing civilization is a sound system of instruction which every child, no matter his color or nationality, may receive. Great distress and burdens have been brought upon our State by this sore neglect; so it follows that the greatest duty of all citizens and especially of those who are chosen by the people to carry forward the business of the State to bring their very best powers and their highest intelligence into the noble service of perfecting the very best educational system and methods which shall be of a four-fold nature, head, hand, heart, mind, both public and private, both primary and advanced. It must be borne in mind that we are not now considering the practicability of accomplishing this character work under the present school system of a number of our States South, but of its being done at all. It is the duty of every generation to think and to act in advance of the preceding one; otherwise there can be no progression. The question is not then shall the present system endure, but does it effect in the human mind that development of the highest and truest which alone can be called education? And we may add will the present system and methods of the

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education of the Negro youths of the Southland, which is so very different from that of the white youths, benefit the next generation?

        Indeed can the Southern States be saved from error and crime, from disgrace and shame, by the negligence in the proper education of hand, head, heart and mind? As character influences character children must be accustomed to a high moral atmosphere. They must be fed upon nobleness. The Negro race and although of mixed blood, we like the term Negro, (spelled of course with one g, no i) race of America, more especially of the Southland because of our numerical strength, need to be thoroughly aroused not only to the necessities of character building, but also as to the means of perfecting a better system of education, compulsory and universal. The scarce, weak, slothful and indifferent manner of parents concerning the true education of their children is distressing to us as civilized and free people. Parents, teachers and leaders in all conditions of life need a constant, strong and attractive stream of educational literature which embodies argument, thought, emotion and appeal from the brightest minds and ablest pens, such as may move, excite and elevate kindred minds to action; such as stir men and move them to greatness of character. We are encouraged in the expectation of being enabled to awaken a sense of duty in the educators of the South as shall bring about a consummation thus devoutly wished for, and though we have lingered somewhat behind the great progressive movements in the physical world until we are confronted with serious perils, indeed until the "Crisis" has been reached which threatens to destroy our civilization and bring about that prophetic catastrophe depicted of "nations which contined in sin and abomination," we are awakened and will arise to duty, seeking to aid the next generation to better civilization and worth of character.

                         "Ill fares the land to hastening ills a prey,
Where wealth accumulates and men decay."

        We have awakened to the awful responsibility resting upon us as to the nation's needs. Let us as loyal, patriotic citizens of the South unite in an effort to assist as far as our humble ability may serve to aid the good, the great, and chivalric men of the South to awaken to their responsibility towards its patient and humble citizens, and let us earnestly seek their aid in helping to correct this fatal tendency downward; let us all engage in clinging to that sheet anchor of our hope as a people, the intellectual, industrial, and especially moral development of the masses of our race to the full extent of our powers.

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May heaven grant us aid as loving and devoted parents, honored teachers, and leaders that we may live aright; fill our places well, and seek faithfully to bring to the front true womanhood that will not make any nation ashamed; honest, reliable, and industrious manhood that will not disgrace civilization. Let us make it the duty of the hour to garnish with art, strengthen with acquirement, and elevate with eloquence and good character, the great and transcendent theme which commands so many true and willing votaries throughout the whole dominion of the civilized world, which, by the grace of our great Creator, can marshal in its defense a mightier and more invincible host than has ever responded to Crusaders' rally cry. All hail the auspicious day when the dark sons and daughters of the South shall arise to conquer wrong!

        "He who would cure must first cure himself."

        "Peace on earth good will towards mankind."




        Africanize.--To place under Negro domination.

        Africanization.--The act of placing under Negro domination. This and the preceding are words of recent introduction by Southern political writers.

        Anti-Negro.--Hostility to Negroes.

        Anti-Slavery.--Hostile to slavery.

        Anti-Slaveryist.--An opposer to slavery.

        Colored.--A term applied to persons who have Negro blood in their veins. They are called "people of color," "colored people."

        Contrabands.--Negro slaves, first so called by General B. F. Butler, and treated as Contraband of War. The history of the application of the term is as follows: The establishment of a military post by General Butler at Newport News, on the 22nd of May, 1861, threw the white inhabitants of Hampton into such alarm that most of them

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prepared for flight, and many left their homes the same night. "In the confusion, three Negroes escaped, and making their way across the bridges, gave themselves up to a Union picket, saying their master was about to send them to North Carolina to work upon rebel fortifications. They were brought to Fortress Monroe, and the circumstance was reported to the General in the morning. He questioned each of them separately, and the truth of their story became manifest. He needed laborers. He was aware that the rebel batteries that were rising around him were the work chiefly of slaves, without whose assistance they could not have been erected in time to give him trouble. He wished to keep these men. The garrison wished them kept. . . . Here it was he pronounced the electric words: 'These men are Contraband of War. Set them at work.'"--Partin.

        Darkey.--A common term for a Negro.

                         I wish de legislatur would set dis darkie free,
                         Oh! what a happy place den de darkie land would be.
                         We'd have a darkie parliament,
                         An' darkie codes of law,
                         An' darkie judges on de bench,
                         Darkie barristers and aw.--Ethiopian Melodies (1848).

        Dixie, Dixie Land.--An ideal paradise in the Southern States. In a small volume entitled Bryant's "Songs from Dixie's Land," is the following note on the origin of the term of Dixie's Land: "In the popular mythology of New York City, Dixie was the Negro's paradise on earth in times when slavery and slave trade were flourishing in that quarter. Dixie owned a tract of land on Manhattan Island, and also a large number of slaves; and his slaves increasing faster than his land, an emigration ensued, such as has taken place in Virginia and other States. Naturally, the Negroes who left it for distant parts, looked to it as a place of unalloyed happiness, and it was the 'Old Virginny' of the Negroes of that day. Hence Dixie became synnonymous with an ideal locality, combining ineffable happiness and every imaginable requisite of earthly beatitude."

                         The sweetest, the happiest place on earth
                         Is Dixie, sweet Dixie, the land of my birth.
                         I wish I was in de land of cotton,
                         'Simmon seed and sandy bottom--

                         CHORUS.--Look away--look away--Dixie Land.
                         In Dixie's Land whar I was born in,
                         Early on one frosty mornin',

                         CHORUS.--Look away--look away--Dixie Land.

--Negro Melodies, Dixie Land.

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        Free States.--Those States in which Negro slavery does not exist.

        Equal and exact justice to both slave and free States is the only ground upon which the Southern States can maintain their claim to equal rights in the Federal Union.--Richmond Inquirer, Aug., 1858.

        Maroon.--The name given to revolted Negroes in the West Indies and some parts of South America. The appellation is supposed to be derived from Marony, a river separating Dutch and French Guiana, where large numbers of these fugitives resided. In many cases, by taking to the forests and mountains, they have rendered themselves formidable to the colonies and sustained a long and brave resistance against the whites. When Jamaica was conquered by the English in 1655, about fifteen hundred slaves retreated to the mountains, and were called Maroons. They continued to harass the island until the end of the last century, when they were reduced by the aid of bloodhounds.--Encycl. Americana.

        Marooner.--A runaway slave; a maroon.

        Mulatto.--See Negro.

        Negro.--The various grades of the colored people in Louisiana are designated by the French as follows, according to the greater or less predominance of Negro blood:

        Mulatto, one-half black, white and Negro; Quarteron (Quadroon), one-fourth black, white and mulatto; Metis, or Metif, one-eighth black, white and quarteron; Meamelouc, one-sixteenth black, white and metis; Demi-meamelouc, one-thirty-second black, white and meanelouc; Sang-mele, one-sixty-fourth black, white and demi-meamelouc; Griffe, three-fourths black, Negro and mulatto; Marabou, fiveeighths black, mulatto and griffe; Sacatra, seven-eighths black, griffe and Negro. All these varieties exist in New Orleans, and experts pretend to be able to distinguish them.

        Negro-Catcher.--Men engaged during the civil war in catching and stealing Negro slaves.

        Negro-Cloth.--A light cloth made of cotton and wool, expressly for the clothing of colored people.

        Negro-Corn.--The Indian millet or durra; so called in the West Indies.

        Negro-Driver.--A person who conducts coffles of slaves; an overseer of slaves.

        Negro-Fellow.--A black man.

        Negro-Hate.--A version to Negroes.

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        Negro-Head.--Tobacco prepared by softening with molasses, and then pressing it into cakes.

        Negro-Hound.--A hound formerly used in hunting fugitive slaves.

        Negro-Minstrels.--Negro musicians, or more frequently white men who blacken their hands and faces, and assuming the manners of the Negroes of the Southern plantations, go about singing Negro songs and playing upon the banjo and "bones." There is much melody in their music, while their humorous parodies on popular songs, their manner of singing and their jokes render their entertainments popular among all classes.

        Negro-Worshiper.--An opposer of slavery; an abolitionist.

        Nigger.--The vulgar pronunciation of the word Negro.

        Peculiar Institution.--Negro slavery, so called as being peculiar to the Southern States. The dangers which at present threaten the peculiar domestic institutions of the South make it necessary that all strangers from the North should be examined and their business ascertained.--South Carolina Gazette.

        Pro-Slavery.--In favor of slavery. An expression much used by political speakers and writers, and but recently inserted in the dictionaries.

        Quadroon.--See Negro.

        Sambo.--A term often applied to Negroes. Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe says: "No race has ever shown such capabilities of adaptation to varying soil and circumstances as the Negro. Alike to them the snows of Canada, the rocky land of New England or the gorgeous profusion of the Southern States. Sambo and Cuffey expand under them all."

        Slave-Breeder.--A breeder of slaves. Formerly slaves were raised in Virginia and North Carolina, to be sold to planters farther South, where they were in demand, and hence commanded a higher price.

        Slave-Code.--A body or digest of laws relating to slaves or slavery.

        Slave-Dealer.--A slave-trader.

        Slave-Driver.--A Negro driver, a subordinate overseer of slaves on a plantation.

        Slave-Hunt.--During slavery times, a hunt after runaway slaves often with the aid of bloodhounds.

Have ye head of our hunting, o'er mountain and glen, Through cane brake and forest, the hunting of men?--Whittier.

        Slave-Labor.--The labor of slaves.

        Slave-Liberator.--A person who liberates or frees a slave.

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        Slave-Lord.--A man made arrogant and imperious by slave-holding.

        Slave-Owner.--A slave-holder.

        Slave-Pen.--A place for confining slaves.

        Slave-Power.--The political power of slave-holders; the body of slave-holders.

        Slaver.--A vessel engaged in the slave-trade.--Webster.

        Slave-Ship.--A ship employed in the slave-trace.--Webster.

        Slave-State.--A State in which Negro slavery exists.


        THE name applied to a remarkable migration of freedmen from the Southern States of America, in the beginning of 1879, and through that and the succeeding year. On April 7th, in the year named, a memorial reached Washington, signed by many of the most influential citizens of St. Louis, Mo., including ex-senators and ex-representatives in Congress, the mayor of the city, an ex-minister to Liberia, and others without distinction of party, setting forth the following facts: That during the two weeks preceding April 7, there had arrived by steamboat at St. Louis, having come up the Mississippi river, chiefly from the States of Louisiana and Mississippi, as many as 2,000 Negroes, including men and women, old and young, with many of their children. That this multitude expressed an eager desire to reach Kansas; and without exception, so far as could be learned, refused all overtures or inducements to return South, even if their passage back was paid for them. That the condition of the great majority of them was that of absolute poverty; they being clothed for the most part in thin and ragged garments, and supported during their stay in St. Louis partly by public and partly by private charity. The older ones in this migration had been formerly slaves in the South; all related the same story as to the causes of their departure from their homes--great privation and want from excessive rent exacted for land; murder of their colored neighbors, and personal violence threatened against themselves. The memorial was accompanied by affidavits given by the Negroes, relating instances of political and other assassinations, and other cases of personal violence and outrage. This migration continued to flow

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steadily northward, and the colored people already living in Missouri and Kansas were embarrassed by the necessity imposed upon them of affording assistance to the emigrants, in which they were comparatively little aided by the white population of the North, although earnest calls by the press and by public speakers were made in all directions. By the middle of April it was publicly alleged that certain counties in Mississippi, and some river parishes in Louisiana, were being depopulated so far as the Negroes were concerned; also from interior points numbers had fled to St. Louis by rail. It appeared, on investigation, that this movement had been a matter of discussion among the Negroes of the Gulf States during several years, but the simultaneous character of the migration was not explicable on any general theory. Nor was the reason for selecting Kansas as the concluding point made clear. The climate of that State was so severe in the early spring that great suffering occurred among those who reached it; but neither this fact, nor the stories of hardships and dangers which were industriously circulated by those interested in opposing the movement, appeared to have the slightest effect in retarding it. It was alleged that local associations had been formed in the Southern States for the purpose of encouraging migration northward. There was, however, no evidence of any united action by such associations. It was alleged also that the movement had been devised and executed partly in the interest of certain Kansas land speculators, and partly by railroad companies. Mass meetings of colored people were held in New Orleans, Vicksburg and other Southern cities, during the spring of 1879, for the purpose of encouraging the Negro migration; while meetings of planters and others employing Negro labor were convened, at which the dissatisfied Negroes were invited to state their grievances, with a view to redress if practicable. A colored convention assembled at Nashville, Tenn., on May 7, at which delegates were present from Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Tennessee.

        The whole subject of the condition of the Negro race in the South since the act of emancipation was considered in a report which was offered and adopted, and a plan to improve this condition was submitted:

        "Resolved, That it is the sense of this conference that the colored people should emigrate to those States and Territories where they

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can enjoy all the rights which are guaranteed by the Laws and Constitution of the United States, and enforced by the executive departments of such States and Territories; and we ask of the United States and appropriation of $500,000 to aid in the removal of our people from the South."

        By August 1, more than 7,000 needy colored refugees had arrived in Kansas from the Southern States, and the flow continued steadily during the summer. Public attention was diverted from it, however, and as an occasion for popular excitement it gradually died out. During 1880 but little was heard of the exodus, though the migration continued, not to Kansas alone, but to the older and more thickly settled States, and in bands of fewer members, thus avoiding notice.--International Cyclopædia.



        THE death of a gentleman in this city three weeks ago has recalled the last slave auction in the South in 1859. This gentleman was the clerk of the sale, and he wrote as a memento an elaborate and circumstantial account of the two days' proceedings, and this he did secretly, so intense was the desire of the managers to prevent any reports getting to the papers or to the North. The sale was held at the race track, near Savannah, and the slaves were the property of Pierce Butler, of Philadelphia. His family name was Mease, but inheriting a fortune in land and slaves from his grand-father, Major Pierce Butler, of South Carolina, he changed his name. He very generously shared the fortune with his brother John, who, after service in the Mexican war, died about 1850. Mr. Butler was an inveterate and most unlucky card player, and spent most of his time in Joe Hall's rooms, Eighth above Sansom, then the most fashionable and exclusive card saloon in the city. Hall was, despite his profession, much respected and liked. He died a few years ago, a poor Methodist minister, on the Eastern shore. It was in Hall's place that Mr. Butler made the losses that forced him to sell his slaves. It is said that on one occasion he held four deuces, and proceded,

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to bet in a fashion that made Hall remonstrate, but Butler laughed at him. With $26,000 up the game was called, and Hall held four kings.

         Butler inherited the beautiful old mansion, now the site of the Sharpless Building, Eighth and Chestnut streets, Philadelphia and this he was forced to sell, and in 1859, his creditors began to press for their money, and his agent, Charles Munford, conveyancer of this city, went to Georgia to arrange the sale of his slaves. It was a cheerless day in October, 1859, when there came trooping into the raceground 988 slaves, divided into groups representing families. At the head of that procession were a withered man and woman, bent almost double with toil and with them a giant, their only son, and a well-known blacksmith.

         All were marched under the sheds, and at once began to gather sticks for a fire. About half of them came from the rice fields of Darien. These were pure Congo, and in many instances retained there uncouth African language. The rest were far more intelligent in their appearance, and were from St. Simon Island, a cotton plantation. Here and there, scattered among them were strange men with banjos, hired by the management to stimulate cheerfulness and gayety that was not, however, realized. The various groups sat silent and apathetic, some of the women mourning with hands resting on their knees.

         The white crowd was a typical Southern one--partly slave traders, flashing in diamond shirt pins and gaudy chains--some of them Northerners. All of these were heavily armed, and made an ostentatious show of their weapons.

         There were two reporters, Thompson "Doesticks," for the New York Tribune, and a Buckeye named Pike from the Toledo Blade. The Tribune man was in a state of pronounced furor from the first, and his report was poor enough, while Pike was persuaded to leave the grounds early, as he showed a strong disposition to proclaim his identity and fight everything in sight. There was not a single representative of the old planter families from the vicinity, as they were disgusted with the whole proceedings. It was one of their traditions that they had never sold a slave born on their plantation, except for persistent misconduct, and after the sale Butler found himself a stranger among his former associates. And now the bell in the grand stand rang and the crowd gathered around the portly Major Stone, who, in a speech fluent with adjectives, praised the

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crowd, the "niggers" and our beloved Georgia, first among the States--and that was business in those halcyon days. There were 429 lots of black humanity, and prices ranged from $260 up to $2,000--this last for a first rate blacksmith, bought for an estate in the neighborhood. Ten years later the slave was in the legislature and the master's family lived on his bounty. The professional traders were the largest buyers, Colonel Pate, of Vicksburg, taking 220. It was announced from the first that no division of families would be permitted, and this made the sale less profitable, as many of the members were old or infirm, and to get the good ones purchasers had to take others less desirable. It took two days to make a finish, and the proceeds amounted to $303,850. The second day brought in a wind from the sea and cold fog that swept in waves over the grounds. The slaves huddled about the fires, cooking their bacon and hoecake, and here Mr. Butler put in an appearance. From a bag carried by a servant he gave one of his old servants $1 in bright quarters, and of this the Tribune made much scornful pleasantry. After all was said in denunciation of the sale the fact remained that it was necessary on Butler's part; his creditors ordered it, and one of the most vigorous people in enforcing his claim was a Philadelphia gentleman who was a leading and oratorical abolitionist.

        Out of the sale of one of the groups arose a series of tragedies that fitly illustrated the tendencies of slave trading. Most of the men in the business were fighters. They knew they were despised and avoided by gentlemen, and so exacted a certain amount of respect socially by their readiness to resent an insult. Tom Pate, a well known Vicksburg trader, bought at the sale a man, his two sisters and wife with the guarantee that they should not be separated. Disregarding this Pate sold the sisters, one to Pat Somers, a brother trader, and the other to a resident of St. Louis. What legal rights a slave had in the South were well protected. Somers was told of the guarantee and sent the girl back to Pate and demanded his money. A quarrel was the result and Somers was shot dead. Ten days later his nephew killed Pate and died from wounds received. The fued was kept up until every male bearing the name Pate was wiped out, and the war liberated the sisters who were alive in St. Louis in 1887.--Phialdelphia Press.

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        SENSIBLE of the fact that we are not a prophet, or even given to, occasionally, having prophetic visions, we feel safe in making the prediction that it will be many years yet before the Negro will cease harping upon what has been called his own problem. The world has formed so many bad opinions of him, and so many of his so-called white friends, those who are in a position to do him incalculable good, have failed up to date to come to his rescue and plead in his behalf, that he has decided, in order to change public sentiment, tear down the barriers which retard his progress, remove obstacles, subdue enemies, make new friends, and prove these reports false, he must, himself, pick up his gauntlet, plead his own cause and fight his own battles. Others cannot and will not do so for him, as they have, as much as they can do in taking care of themselves and guarding their own interests. If this be true, and undoubtedly it is, the Negro has a job on his hands as tedious as it is important, and it will take him more than a few years to emit it satisfactorily, hence our prediction. The press is a mighty and an indispensable factor in the accomplishment of this work, so much so that without it the work cannot be perfected; thus its importance which any one can see at a glance is more than ordinary.

        The Negro occupies a rather unique place in the history of the American nation; unique because of his past and present environments, which were and are dissimilar to those of any other race or nationality; and unique, more especially, because of his past and present standing--what he once was, what he now is. We all know the past; it speaks for itself. We know that for about two hundred and fifty years he was considered nothing but a beast of burden; a fit companion for the horse, mule and ox. In many instances he was not considered human, senseless, feelingless--the missing link between

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the chimpanzee and man, and as such he was treated. We all know of his opportunity for study and his advantages--how he was commanded, kicked about by many and made to do, under the penalty of the lash. These were hard times, severe times, perilous times--times when the soul of the Negro groaned beneath its burden of infliction; times when his heart grew faint and sick, and he was weary of his longings; times when his manhood was crushed and his eyes were closed to a true sense of his condition. But as time rolled on God raised up friends for the Negro, among whom may be mentioned: Garrison, Lincoln, Sumner, Brown and a few others, including our own late, but immortal Douglass, who obtained his freedom, to use his own words, by praying with his legs; and by their speeches--eloquent, thrilling, forcible and denunciatory--fanned a flame of fire into the hearts of the American people against the system of cruel slavery, and shook the continent as if by magic. Several years of war intervene and after the elapse, we see the platform of this great system of tyranny and oppression toppling in upon the heads of the once proud, arrogant and relentless former master.

        A struggle, and slavery "yields up the ghost" and "dies amidst its worshipers," and the Negro steps out on top. His freedom is secured and he sets to work to alleviate his condition. He comes up out of the gulf of privations and hardships "rejoicing as a strong man to run a race," and he thus realizes the truth in the saying that "behind every dark cloud there is a silver lining." He sets out on his journey with patience, (though some we perceive are growing weary) fortitude, and a spirit of aggressiveness to achieve success or perish in the attempt. Thirty years have wrought wonders. We have found him true to his spirit, branching out into every avocation in life, business and professional. He has demonstrated to one and all that he has ability--ability to legislate in the halls of congress, edit newspapers and books, represent our country in foreign courts, register the Federal currency and such like, as well as to clear out farm lands, drain swamps, make roads, build harbors and perform all other servile functions, as one.

        Mr. Hawthorne, of Boston, has had the dare front to assert through the columns of a Northern weekly that for that, and that alone, was the Negro mentally and physically fitted.

        However, without regard to what has been or may be said by race-haters, the present status of the Negro is quite different, alarmingly so, to what they or anybody else expected. No one ever dreamed

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twenty-five or thirty years ago that the race would have advanced so rapidly in such a short length of time, under such adverse circumstances.

        The march of the race towards the acquisition of wealth, education, and character has been so steady and fruitful, that critics, proscriptionists, and even the bitterest enemies have favorably criticised our movements, stating that if placed in a like or similar condition, no other race would have accomplished what we did.

        Educationally, religiously, morally, and financially, the Negro, in the main, is a success. Houses of worship, built on modern style, some very costly and ornamental, and schools and universities, first-class in every particular, dot each smiling landscape, within which walls are taught morals and all other things necessary for race elevation.

        Lynch law, as base and infamous as it was malicious in conception, has been turned loose among the race as a wolf among sheep, and many an innocent victim has been slain. It has tried its utmost to check the Negro's progress, but what did the efforts avail?

        Like Luther climbing the steps in the convent, the Negro, notwithstanding the mighty gush of blood spilt from the veins of many a mangled corpse, and the ocean of tears flowing from the weeping eyes of numberless mothers, fathers, and children, has continued to clinch the steps of success as steady as he ever did, with the assurance that truth, justice and the right will ultimately triumph. Light is bursting forth in the eastern horizon, and it looks like the sun of equity.

        Whether it be real or a fancy, we cannot as yet tell, but we do know, that so long as God reigns, birds sing, flowers bloom, and years roll, it will rise, and with its advent into the concave sky of duty, the mists of lynch law, caste prejudice, murder, fraud, and proscription will vanish before its effulgence, and we, the members of the Negro race, will enjoy its full, bright, and invigorating beams, whether we be at the time in America, Africa, or Mexico, as sentiment now seems terribly divided, and we cannot predict with any degree of certainty our future destiny, so far as place and permanent location are concerned.

        The many different reports which we often read through the newspapers of this country, telling in piteous tones the hardships, misfortunes, and disappointments immigrants have met, and are constantly meeting with in Mexico, plainly evinces the fact that Williams'

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scheme is unsafe, and that it is not the place for us. The glowing reports which are brought to us by distinguished African visitors are enough to assure us, since they are reliable, that that continent is a very rich and inviting field for all of those who love and cherish freedom, liberty and protection, while others are a little loath to accept reports, even if they do come from high sources, and having no desire to depart at any rate from their present American home, happy, jubilant, enthusiastic, sit down in the rocking-chair of contentment and chant away in joyous strains:

                         "My country 'tis of thee,
                         Sweet land of liberty,
                         Of thee we sing."

        Suffice it to be said, that wherever his future home may be, the Negro is going to be a success, because in him are the elements necessary to make him successful, viz.: grit, thrift, integrity, stability, and intelligence. These are they which have made him what he is to-day, these are they which have given him success in medicine, art, and journalism, at the bar, in the pulpit, on the platform, in the schoolroom, and in every line he has pursued.

        Genius has dealt kindly with the race, and given to it many great men, talented and gifted, mighty giants, who could almost rend the skies with their eloquent peals, and though the hand of fate has softly and gently, yea, tenderly, borne away quite recently, within the last few years, some of the brightest stars that ever graced either an American or English platform, in the persons of Payne, Price, Brown, Williams, Clark, Simmons, and Douglass, yet we can rejoice to know that we have quite a number of other eminent men, who are in every way worthy to prove their compeers, among whom are, Turner, Fortune, Langston, Derrick, Morris, Washington, and others.

        The present status of the Negro is such as is highly commendable. Paying taxes upon three hundred million dollars worth of property throughout this country, occupying offices of high trust and honor as national gifts, educating his children, accumulating wealth, and advancing in every line of industry, the Negro has need to congratulate himself and praise his Maker for such full and free benedictions so copiously showered upon him during the past dark and stormy thirty years.--The People's Advocate.

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        BISHOP ISAAC LANE was born in Jackson, Madison county, Tenn., March 3, 1834--a slave by birth. And as all slaves were deprived of an education, but with a strong desire to learn, he secreted his books and hid himself in order that he might have some advantage of literature. He embraced religion the eleventh of September, 1854, and joined the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, October 21st, 1854, and received license to exhort in the fall of 1856, by the quarterly conference. As the law of this country would not allow a Negro licensed to preach, he preached with exhorting license until 1865, and was licensed to preach by William H. Lee. The next year was ordained deacon by Bishop Pain. The following year was ordained elder, and appointed to the Jackson District, where he served four years. In 1872 he was elected delegate to the General Conference, which met in Augusta, Ga., March 19, 1873. At this conference he was elected and ordained Bishop, and has served in the Bishopric for twenty-two years, holding from six to eight Conferences each year, a greater portion of these conferences being in the Southern States. Seeing the great need of education in his race, he and other ministers of his church decided and planned to erect an institution of learning. He being the President of the Board of Trustees, has succeeded in erecting a school (Lane College), situated on four acres of land, which is situated at Jackson, Tenn., his home. The work on the main building of this school was begun in 1893. He has raised and paid out $9,000, and is in great need of $6,000 for its completion, of which more than two hundred students are in attendance each term.

        JR. CLIFFORD was born at Williamsport, W. Va., Setpember 13, 1849. Before he had reached his majority he became proficient as a penman. In 1870 he went to Wheeling, where he taught a successful writing school. He followed this avocation in 1871, 1872 and 1873 in the State of Ohio. He graduated at Stover College at Harper's Ferry in 1878. For ten consecutive years he was principal of the public school of Martinsburg.

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Jackson, Tenn.

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        THE secret of self-culture lies in training the will to decide to the fate of an enlightened conscience. Self-culture may be divided into three parts, the physical, the moral and the intellectual. First, we may not be able to treat each of these divisions exhaustively. Second, we must not develop it exclusively; but the three must be wisely trained to make it complete. You may think this subject not worthy of referring to; but it is astonishing how much may be accomplished by the energetic and persevering, who are careful to use fragments of spare time, that the idle permit to pass by. God has garnished our minds with priceless qualities of far more value than precious diamonds, or lustered ore imprisoned in the bosom of the earth, and as we dig after wealth and precious stones let us dig after knowledge which is a power bestowed upon all who realize its value. The grand idea of self-training is to make us more useful, more studious that we may employ our opportunities to greater and grander advantages. We must learn the difference between the true and the false. We must not believe a thing because everybody says so; trace back as far as possible, find out the truth for yourself, there is no better employment for the mind; it makes it elastic and ready to render the necessary service when called upon. Set a price upon your leisure moments, remember they are sands of precious gold, and if they are properly used they will procure a stock of precious and great thoughts, thoughts that will be grand in securing you better and higher situations than you now fill.

        Self-education is another subject to refer to. It is something more than mere reading for amusement, it requires a prolonged and laboring study. No one can hope to rise in life by mere reading. You must study hard if you wish to advance in the world and prepare for a higher position than the one you now fill. Diligently and earnestly you must labor or in after years how can you hope to stand

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beside those who have done excellent work for their fellow beings? Be sure and imitate good examples, for soon you will take a part in the active scenes of this life, and you will either lead or be led. How sad to think of this, for I do believe that God has blessed everyone of us to do what others have done if we could only realize the meaning of self-culture.

        How can the golden crop be garnered in until after the seed has been sown, nor do the stones turn up as we pass to reveal the hidden wealth beneath. How can we expect to stand still and be conquerors? We must labor if we must win. There are ages yet to live, if not here somewhere else. It may not be on this earth, but the grave is the lock which must be opened before we enjoy the treasure beyond its dark keeping, before we can go to the punishment or reward that awaits us. The impression cannot be made till after the type is set in order that the errors may be shown in the proof. Let us then look around and see the rich earth, the laughing brook that runs joyously along; see the woods; listen to the sweet songs of the birds; look on the flower that fills the earth with its sweet fragrance, then look upon the trees that plume their bright pinions in the air; stand on the seashore and observe the beautiful shells, then think, oh, think. But the young are not always ready to devote themselves to this slow, toilsome self-culture. Could they soar on the wings of lazy genius the world would be filled with great men and women; but this can never be, God donates to his favorite children, he conducts none but the studious and laboring to distinction. For instance, Lincoln, our first martyred President, in his early life of privation, his successive victories maintained disadvantages, his life is worthy of imitation. Even the late Vice President Henry Wilson in speaking of his early life said: "I was born in poverty; want sat on my table; I knew what it was to ask a mother for bread when she had none to give." We have learned that he was nurtured in adversity; had a vigorous constitution and, above all, had an inspiration. He read whatever book came to his hand. The first month after he was twenty-one years of age he spent in cutting logs, working at the rate of fifteen hours a day and receiving for the work the munificent sum of $6. Speaking of this event, he says: "Three dollars looked as large to me as the moon to-night." The after events of his history are written on the hearts of his countrymen. He never received elevation, dollars nor place that were not the result of his honest exertions; therefore, his life was made up of

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great and noble qualities, and should be an encouragement to every young man and woman.

        I have only presented these names as illustrations of self-training, as we all know, their histories are in every library and almost every household. Their years were full of struggles and trials, such as few of us have ever realized. Let us then, as men and women, imitate these bright examples. To-day there are a great many men and women that are deficient along the line of a good education but have excellent minds, and because they are not graduates are kept back, and labor under great disadvantages; but I would urge upon all and present this important subject, Self-education.

        The deficiencies of early years need not keep you back, press to the front with untiring zeal, there is no such word as fail, and I will assure you an elevation in the world. The great thoughts of great men are precious at nominal prices--public lectures are abundant, attend the best of them, treasure up the richest ideas and, above all, learn to reflect more than you read. Reading is to the mind what eating is to the body. So to eat without giving nature time to assimilate is to rob her, first of health, then life; so to read without reflecting is to cram the intellect and paralyze the mind. In all cases, dear friends, reflect more than you read in order to present what you read to your hearers. In reading of Benjamin Franklin's life we learn that he was never taught by a teacher nor even guided by them. For like many of us he did not have these high advantages, but his education progressed under the supervision of his own mind. He had to correct his own errors, and you, dear friends, can do the same with the few opportunities, and you may become as eminent and useful a man as Bejamin Franklin.--Charleston Enquirer.


        REV. A. F. BEARD, D.D., one of the corresponding secretarries of the American Missionary Association relates an incident in the April Missionary, that is interesting, and should be instructive to every son and daughter of the Afro-American race. In the very heart of the black belt of Mississippi, is located the great Tugaloo University. It was while visiting this school that the following incident

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occurred. Dr. Beard says, "A discussion of the topic 'How can We Improve Our Homes?' called from one of the students these words:"

        "I find the Negro lacks race pride. He despises his own makeup. Who of you ever heard any Negro say that he thought the general characteristics of his race were as becoming as those of other races? Nor or they. The Anglo-Saxon is proud of his race characteristics. The Indian is, also, but the Negro despises himself, and would be anything else than what God has made him. But how can we escape hell if we hate ourselves because we are Negroes, when this is the divine wisdom of a just God? We may talk about improving our homes by getting an education as much as we please, but we will never be anything until we have race pride, and try to carry out the great plan of God who made us and knew what is best for us. Let us be genuine Negroes, pure and good, and not desire a drop of other blood in our veins."



        1. DEAR SIR: You ask me to assign a reason why the Negro should be "proud of his race." I say, "Because of its antiquity." A careful investigation shows that the early history of all races had its origin in the "one blood of all nations of men" who dwell upon the face of the earth.

        2. "Because of their kind disposition. He is ready at all times, and under almost all circumstances, to assist a fellow man in distress regardless of the color of his skin."

        3. I answer, "Because of their cheerfulness. Even our white friends admit that we have the happiest and most cheerful disposition of any race of people on earth."

        4. "I think every Afro-American should be proud of his race, because 'it has builded better than we knew.'"

        5. "Why should I be proud of my race?" "Because of the literary achievements of our leading men and women. Some of them have climbed to dizzy heights, and are still climbing."

        6. "I think I can answer your question by saying, "We should be

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proud of our race because it is making such progress from a moral standpoint."

        7. "You ask me to assign a reason why the Negro should be proud of his race. I am sorry you want but one reason. I would like to give a dozen or more, but since I am limited to one, I answer, Because of its ability to write its own history."

        8. "Because of its intelligence. When the Negro has had the same advantages, he has been able to measure swords with his Caucasian brother on every contested field."

        9. "Because we are a race of musicians. No one will deny that the Negro stands first when it comes to natural instrumental or vocal music."

        10. "We should be proud of our race because of its giant master-spirits who are able to grapple with the political and religious problems of the nineteenth century."

        11. "I am proud of the Afro-American because I believe that God intended that the 'Dark Continent' should be bronght to the light of the gospel of Jesus Christ through his instrumentality."

        12. "Possibly we can assign no better reason to your question, 'Why should the Negro be proud of his race?' than the fact that God has delivered it from the bondage of slavery."

        13. "I am proud of my race because God made us, and I think for this reason we should have more race pride."

        14. "I am asked why I should be proud of the Negro race. My reply is, Because it is willing to let bygones be bygones and do all it can toward the elevation of its once down-trodden and degraded people."

        15. "The Negro should be proud of his race because of its progress. The past thirty years have demonstrated to the world that our race has accumulated more property than any other under similar circumstances. We now pay taxes on $300,000,000 worth of property."

        16. "You ask me why I should be proud of our race? In the language of our late Douglass, I answer, 'Not because of the height to which we have attained, but from the depth from which we have come.'"

        17. "The question you ask is easily answered. I am proud of the Negro race; but you ask for a reason. I think my best reason is because it has been found worthy of such noble friends among the white race as yourself. The Lord bless you in your work. The race will owe you a debt of gratitude forever."

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        THE first State to abolish slavery within her borders was Vermont, which adopted a plan for general emancipation in 1777, before she had joined the Union, and in 1800 slavery in that State had entirely ceased. The new Massachusetts Constitution, adopted in 1780, contained a clause declaring that "all men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential and inalienable rights, among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties." which had the effect of freeing all the slaves, a very small number, then held within the borders of that State. In 1780 there were 4,000 slaves in Pennsylvania, and in that year their gradual emancipation was provided for by legislative enactment. Sixty-four of these were still living in bondage, however, in 1840. Rhode Island and Connecticut followed the example of Pennsylvania, and the former had but five slaves left in 1840, and the later seventeen. New York passed a gradual emancipation act in 1799, at which time she had upward of 20,000 slaves, and slavery was totally abolished in the State from July 4, 1827. In 1850 there were still 236 persons living in bondage in New Jersey, although the State had adopted the gradual emancipation plan in 1804. The census of 1810 showed that there were no slaves held in Massachusetts, New Hampshire or Vermont, New Hampshire having emancipated the few slaves held in the State between 1800 and 1810. In Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey, large numbers of slaves who could not be held in those States were nefariously sold to Southern slavedealers by unprincipled owners, notwithstanding the fact that each State had adopted, at the time of emancipation, the most stringent laws regarding the exportation of slaves. By the census of 1860 it was shown that slavery was entirely abolished North of Mason and Dixon's line.--Fugitive Facts.

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        WE take the following article from Fugitive Facts by Robert Thorne: "This institution, he says, was established in March, 1865, as a charitable enterprise, to encourage frugality and thrift among the newly liberated slaves. The institution was started at first in Washington, but afterward branch banks to the number of thirty-four were located in different parts of the Union. The bank was not intended to be a money-making concern, either for bankers or for depositors, but as a place of deposit for the savings of Negroes, which savings were to be invested in the stocks, bonds, treasury notes and other securities of the United States. During the existence of the bank, nine years, it handled no less than $56,000,000 of deposits, the Negroes being led to believe that the safety of the institution was guaranteed by the Government, which was untrue. The institution was managed by a number of trustees of unsavory financial reputation, and as a consequence, at the expiration of nine years it suspended payment. At the investigation which was made by a committee appointed by Congress a most scandalous condition of affairs was discovered. The regulations of the charter had been completely ignored, and the funds had been dissipated by loans made upon inadequate securities. By law the investments of the bank were confined to Government securities alone. Unimproved real-estate, unsalable stocks and personal notes were among the assets of the bank. Deficits and embezzlements at the branch banks also produced many losses. The unsecured debts owed to the depositors amounted to $2,900,000, and the assets yielded about $1,700,000. For some years three bank commissioners were employed, at a salary of $3,000 each, to wind up the affairs of the institution. After $475,000 had been expended in this "winding-up" process the affairs of the bank were all turned over to the Comptroller of the Currency. Dividends have been paid at various times; but many small depositors, through ignorance and despair, forfeited their dividends by not calling for them. In all, 77,000 dividends, amounting to $112,000, were thus forfeited."

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[Being the address delivered by him as fraternal delegate from the African M. E. Church to the General Conference of the M. E. Church, South, Atlanta, May 22, 1878.]

        Mr. Chairman, Bishops and Brethren in Christ:

        LET me here state a circumstance which has just now occurred. When in the vestry there we were consulting your committee, among whom is your illustrious Christian Governor, the Hon. A. H. Colquitt (applause), feeling an unusual thirst, and expecting in a few moments to appear before you, thoughtlessly I asked him if there was water to drink. He, looking about the room, answered, "There is none; I will get you some." I insisted not; but presently it was brought by a brother minister, and handed me by the Governor. I said, "Governor you must allow me to deny myself this distinguished favor, as it recalls so vividly the episode of the Warrior King of Israel, when with parched lips he cried from the rocky cave of Adullam, "Oh, that one would give me drink of water of the well of Bethlehem that is at the gate!" And when three of his valiant captains broke through the host of the enemy and returned to him with the water, for which his soul was longing, regarding it as the water of life, he would not drink it, but poured it out to the Lord." (Applause.) "So may this transcendent emblem of purity and love, from the hand of your most honored co-laborer and friend of the human race, ever remain as a memorial unto the Lord of the friendship existing between the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the African Methodist Episcopal Church, upon this first exchange of formal fraternal greeting." (Applause.)

        It was not with great reluctance that I was hurried away from the quiet of my pastoral work to a position of the highest eminence, in appearing before you as a fraternal messenger of the African M. E. Church, as you are doubtless aware that certain others had been expected

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to do this distinguished service; and since we are here, it strikes me that silence to the next Quadrennial would be for us the most becoming introduction to your graces. But since the world is waiting for some indication of the real animus of the two races brought, for once, face to face in authoritative assembly, let me speak, and God grant me words befitting the occasion.

        And, Mr. Chairman, your General Conference being made up, as it is, of the best intellects and purest hearts of the land, and seeing we come as the fraternal messengers of a peculiar people, who sustain also peculiar circumstances, and at a peculiar time, I can very readily conceive that you are making all allowance for informalities and saying, just state your observations as best you may.

        First of all then, in the name of our six bishops, eight thousand itinerant and local preachers, our members and congregations aggregating nearly half a million souls, and above all in the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, we greet you. We rejoice at your triumph and are anxious to assure you our hearty good will. (Applause.)

        I trust I shall here be pardoned for obtruding what might in some way contribute to more solid judgments upon whatever may be advanced by your humble speaker to-day. Born upon your strong border State of Maryland, my father a slave and his own father a planter of the royal type, my mother a free woman descended from the African kings, educated in Pennsylvania through the patronage of that great and good man, so justly esteemed in this State, the Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, (applause) and from the further fact that I was raised in our Sabbath schools, graduated as a stewart, class leader, exhorter, local preacher, deacon and elder, being for the last ten years a preacher in Florida and Georgia, and a member of our last General Conference, in view of all this I shall no doubt obtain, if not the approbation of many, at least the credit of knowing whereof I affirm.

        There was once a question as to the maternal relationship of a certain child, and when the question could not be settled by the parties more immediately interested, it was decided at a stroke, by the wisest of all judges, when he said, "Divide the living child." The precarious condition of the living child bears a strong analogy to the history we might repeat in the hearing of our mother to-day. At least, you were our mother when we left the grand old mansion of American Methodism many years ago.

        We have never forgotten those tender years, nor the deep concern

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of our mother. But we return to-day with our sheaves of rejoicing, to tell only to confiding ears our deep regard for you, and to state some little part of our experience.

        Bishops and brethren: The African people of the United States, long silent themselves, being confounded, like Job and his friends, by the deep suffering and untowardness of our situation, presenting, as we have done and do to-day, the great human problem of the nineteenth century, often misjudged by our foes and misrepresented by those unauthorized to speak, or unacquainted with our heart and true condition, and, as for the first time, we have the high privilege of your venerable presence and patient hearing, let it be declared we have come of age to-day, and can speak for ourselves. (Great applause.)

        Then, in the name of the African M. E. Church, and I declare the true sentiments of thousands, I say, that for your church and your race we cherish the kindliest feelings that ever found a lodgment in the human breast. (Applause.) Of this you need not be told. Let speak your former missionaries among us, who now hold seats upon this floor, and whose hearts have so often burned within them as they have seen the world sown by them in such humble soil burst forth into abundant prosperity. Ask the hundred thousand of your laymen who still survive the dead, how we conducted ourselves as tillers of the soil, as servants about the dwelling, and as common worshipers in the temple of God! Ask your battle-scarred veterans who left their all to the mercy of relentless circumstances, and went, in answer to the clarion call of the trumpet to the gigantic and unnatural strife of the Second Revolution! Ask them, who looked at their interests at home; (great cheering) who raised their earth-works upon the field; who buried the young hero so far away from his home, or returned his ashes to the stricken hearts which hung breathless upon the hour! Who protected their wives and little ones from the ravages of wild beasts, and the worse ravages of famine? And the answer is returned from a million heaving bosoms, as a monument of everlasting remembrance to the benevolence of the colored race in America. (Immense applause.) And these are they who greet you to-day, through their chief organization, the African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States of America. (Loud and continued applause.)

        And now, though the yoke which bound the master and the slave together in such close and mutual responsibility, has been shivered

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by the rude shock of war, we find ourselves still standing by your side as natural allies against an unfriendly world. (Applause.)

        Mr. Chairman: It was as one of the nations included in our Lord's inheritance, that we were sent to you over two hundred years ago for instruction in the government of the Prince of Peace (applause) that the little leaven might be hidden within the true and trusty hearts of the chosen representatives of a mighty race; and right well have you performed your duty. And if you did scold a little sometimes--(applause)--it was as a teacher and a friend. It was through you we learned of Christ, and to-day graduated from the highest department of the common Methodism, instructed in the arts, the sciences, the literatature, the religion, and the morality of this age of light, we only await the command of the Chief Shepherd and Bishop of Souls. We know his voice; and as we have well learned the much coveted lesson of obedience, we shall be found moving as his good providence may direct. Whether it be that we shall stand with you under the banner of the E Pluribus Unum in this land, and hold up the standard of Jesus to the on-coming millions who seek the fire of our religious liberty, or whether in whole or in part, as a people, we shall away to our fathers and our father-land, God knoweth. So far, we are at sea, sailing under sealed orders; and the only instruction we now have is: "Do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith."--Gal. vi. 10. (Applause.)

        Mr. Chairman: We must be pardoned if we sometimes show a decided wish for development (laughter), since progress is a law of life; and as illustration of the inherent principle, we are told that in the ice-bound belts of Siberia, where the entire summer consists of but a few days, the vegetation may almost be detected in the act of growing. (Applause.)

        We must understand that the different nations make up the household of our Father in Heaven just as different children make up the household of the natural parent. Thus the elder are set to instruct the younger until the good Father sets off these also in a separate house. Hence we conceive it now to be our duty to gather all the scattered bands of the colored Methodist family into one household for better protection and instruction till in his wisdom Jesus shall otherwise indicate. (Applause.)

        Mr. Chairman: We can never forget the magnanimity of your organization to us in the dark days succeeding the close of the war;

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how your ministers recognized our divine commission, in many cases turning over to us the property as well as the people, with their prayers and benediction. (Applause.)

        We remember also how helpful have been the kind words you have spoken to us both in our pastorates and annual sessions. How also you have so cordially thrown open the doors of your metropolitan churches to our bishops and preachers, thus declaring in the midst of doubts and fears, no whit behind the chiefest, that character and ability, and not the mere accidents of color and clime, entitle mankind to respect. And to-day you have set the seal upon it.

        And, although your labor of love has added greatly to our instrumentality as an organization, although our vast numbers may surpass even the figures before indicated, with four million dollars of property, the wolf never cares how many the sheep may be; besides when we look out on the fields already white into harvest, how many are there yet to be brought to the Master! And, while we have six eminently holy men who abound in labors by night and by day; while we count in the ranks of our ministers D.D.'s and LL.D.'s, (laughter) with young men who are heroically struggling after knowledge, we point to our Book Concern (laughter) about at par with others on the score of difficulties (great laughter), to our ably-edited weekly newspaper, to our effective University and lesser schools either carried forward or projected; and last, but not least, we point to our regularly educated young missionary, with his brave young wife, battling against the most fearful odds in the war-stricken island of Hayti, sustained by the noble women of our church (applause), and to one other of our missions on the Bahama Islands.

        Now, Mr. Chairman, after all this, it must be apparent to you that in comparison with the work to be done--crippled and ostracised as we have been, yet persisting like a "root out of the dry ground"--I say, you must perceive that our strength is simply insignificant.

        Then, brethren in Christ, to-day, in the name of the African M. E. Church I appeal to you! You know our condition as well, if not better, than we can tell you; for I contend that I venture nothing in saying that the white and black men of the South are better acquainted with each other than any other two distinct races or portions of races upon the face of the globe (applause); and it is only by the dust raised in the great upheaval that has caused a change of position, that "blindness in part happened" to us both. (Applause.) But, thank God, it has almost subsided, with the best consequences

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to us all. Your eyes open much faster than ours (laughter); but I assure you that many thousand "blind will receive their sight" by your proceedings to-day. (Applause.)

        Mr. Chairman: I ask, How can the unenlightened perceive the viciousness of vice? How can they guard against the plausible delusions of popery, whose keen artillery is turned upon us to-day? (Applause.) How stand against the sweeping deluge of intemperance that is rolling down upon us like a fiery flood? Echo repeat it, How? General Conference, in all this you can assist us. Yea, more, you can tell the unbelievers among your own people, if any there be, that the African M. E. Church and the race of its members are your friends, and not your foes. (Applause.) You can pour oil upon the troubled waters of ignorance and strife among our people. You can protect them in all these high privileges you have so generously accorded them. Above and beyond all, you can educate them. Ignorant, they love you; but educated, they will love you more. (Great applause.)

        This General Conference can form a grand galaxy of States around the great Empire State of Georgia, that has done so nobly for the education of her colored citizens, so that they will even vie with her in lighting the undying flame of intelligence that shall illuminate continents and worlds when it shall burst forth in its glory upon the Christian firmament. Then I ask you, brethren, beloved in Christ, will you not do it? (Applause.)

        One other request, and I ask no more; and let it be written upon the eternal rock. Mr. Chairman and brethren, will you not see to it that the great honor you have to-day bestowed upon the last inheritors of heaven--for all nations shall be there--in admitting us into one of the highest ecclesiastical courts of the world, shall forever stand as the criterion for all lesser and inferior places where we ought to be?

        Mr. Chairman: We declare our heart to you, as a body we desire to reverse the principle of the Arab of the Desert whose "hand is against every man and every man's hand against him," and stretching out our hands first to you and then to the human family, we desire to join our voice with the united declaration of Methodism, everywhere breaking out like the sound of many waters, in the immortal words of the First Founder, our common Wesley, when he said, "I have a league offensive and defensive with every soldier of Christ." (Applause.)

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        It has ever been a fact that great men were born out of the demands of the times in which they lived. We have ever affirmed, and I believe it to-day, that if the colored people of this country are ever elevated, and that they must be, it could only be done through their own personal efforts, sanctioned and encouraged by the white people of the land, and I believe, further, Mr. Chairman, that the strong advocate of African-American Methodism and the African race, the "arms of whose hands shall be made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob," that advocate, I believe, is yet to arise out of the assembly of massive intellects and fearless moral heroes who follow the lead of the conscientious Christian men of your honorable body--men who have ever been ready to peril their lives and their all for the right, as they have understood it to be the right. (Great applause.) God speed the day of his coming. Let him arise. (Renewed applause.) Let his voice be heard for the poor and the oppressed! God give his speech the wings of the lightning and the power of the earthquake to proclaim "peace on earth and good will to men." (Applause.)

        Now, Mr. Chairman, I must have done, ("Go on.") But let me assure you that the religious truth which was planted by your missionaries among us in the days long ago, has ever been guarded with all the vigilance of the sacred fire. The same "hymns and spiritual songs," which stirred the depths of those days, are still to be heard in all our sanctuaries. And there are those among us who still speak with the most affectionate regard of those holy and devoted ministers, Bishops Capers and Wightman, the Rev. Drs. Pierce and Evans, Godfrey, J. W. Burke, and a host of others of their former pastors and guides. (Applause.)

        God bless the church and the General Conference, and increase it more abundantly! (Amens.) And if there is ever to be an organic unification of all the Methodist bodies, you may depend upon it, we shall not be found wanting (laughter and applause), even if we are to be the foot of the grand autonomy, since to some of us the foot is the principal feature of beauty (great laughter), and is sometimes suggestive of the highest use, yea, even double honor, especially where the exercise of great strength or rapid locomotion is required. (Renewed laughter.) Already by its aid, being "shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace," we are brought up through great tribulation to sit with you in one of the "heavenly places in Christ Jesus." (Applause.)

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        Here, time depends upon a fleeting breath! We must pass but too soon from our victories upon the Asiastic plains and the halls of the Montezumas. We can give but a glance to the contending hosts upon the far away isles of the sea, and the cloven tongues of fire sitting in grandeur upon the Eternal City. Worlds of light sweep the path of vision; and there, your sainted Bishop Marvin flashes around the earth, as a golden band of fire; and in an instant, as it were, he departs; he is "not, for God took him." But, hark! A voice divides the flame. It is "My father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof!" It is answered by the prophetic response, rolling upward from the near future: "The watchmen shall lift up the voice; with the voice together shall they sing; for they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again Zion!"

        God speed the day! Amen. (Applause.)


        ONE of the notable showings of the last census is the low percentage of mortgaged property in the South. In Georgia this percentage is 3.18; in Tennessee, 3.87; in Florida, 3.63; in Alabama, 3.98, and in Louisiana, 3.94. The census of 1890 also gives another evidence, that is more direct, of the improved condition of the Negroes in the South. In 1890 there were 12,690,152 homes and farms in the United States, and of this number 1,186,174 are occupied by pure blacks and 224,595 by mulattoes. Of the Negroes, 207,616 own their own homes or farms, and 978,558 rent them. Of the mulattoes, 56,662 own, and 167,923 rent. The percentage of mortgaged property owned by Negroes is only 10.71, while the percentage of mortgaged property for the whole country is 38.97. Of the property held by Negroes, 88.58 per cent is owned without incumbrance. In the North Atlantic States there are 5,808 homes and farms owned by Negroes free from mortgage, and 3,921 that are mortgaged; in the North Central States there are 20,060 homes and farms owned by Negroes free from incumbrance, and 9,691 that are mortgaged; in

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the South Central States there are 100,591 homes and farms owned by Negroes free from incumbrances, and 7,608 that are mortgaged; in the Western States there are 1,204 farms and homes owned free by Negroes, and 289 that are mortgaged. In the whole country there are 234,747 homes and farms owned by Negroes free from all incumbrance, and 29,541 that are mortgaged. In the South the percentage of home owners is larger than in the North, and the proportion of these owners on farms of their own is larger than that of those who have homes in cities and villages. With the white race the condition is just opposite, the larger percentage of owners having homes in cities and villages rather than farms.--Chicago Inter Ocean.



        We prefer this title to all others for the reason that it is euphonious, beautiful, true. It is a correct as well as euphonious description of the class of men to whom it should be applied. We believe that the scholarly descendants of our African forefathers should neither adopt nor recognize the intended stigma which European and American slave holders invented for us We have the highest and most affectionate regard for "the brother in black" as we ought to have for all the children of our Father's household. The boy in black is as sure to be heard from in the years just before us as the government of God is sure and just. But the point we make is that the title "Negro" is too narrow and exclusive to comprehend the race. It is certain that all Africans are not Negroes, nor are all who are Negroes Africans. But why should the race name of the millions in Africa, and the millions of African descent in America, be derived from color only? No such rule is applied to any other of the great races of men. The Caucasian, the Indian, the Mongolian, the Arabian tell us only of the people's origin to which these names apply. We hold that if geographical divisions are sufficient to give title and description to all others, it ought to be sufficient for us This title "Negro" is an intruder--an outlaw in our literature--it is not the language of science, nor the voice of religion

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and fraternity. No scholar among us, and especially no Christian scholar, ought to tolerate it, in book, pamphlet or paper. It deserves banishment from our literature. Standing here to-day, we denounce it in the name of Christian scholarship as a device of our enemies, designed to make us contemptible in the eyes of the world. To our cultured fellow citizen, the Hon. John M. Langston, is due the honor of giving us the title most nearly correct. He was the first, so we are informed, to speak and write of the "colored American," with reference to the people of African descent. But there, as in the other case, objection lies against a color title for the race. It is comprehensive enough, to be sure. For as distinguishing its subjects from the people called white, it embraces all blacks, all Indians, Mongolians, Mexicans, Malayans and all others who may choose to come among us. Hence the adjective epithet is too large, and we must reject it. To Mrs. M. I. Lee, an honored foster-child of Wilberforce University, we owe the honor of introducing into our literature the only accurate, beautiful and classic title ever applied to our race. In a thoughtful, rippling poem, first delivered on these grounds and afterward published in the A. M. E. Church Review, she gave us the title, "Af-Merican," by contraction from Afer, Afra, Afrum, the pure classic phrase of Horace and Ovid. We say let this just name stand. Tested by any rule, historic, literary or scientific it is gold, containing as it does, all the elements of color, weight and ring In correcting proof, when you have written and come to this honored title, say to your printer "stet!" and if any man ask you why so, tell him she (Africa) is the land of our origin; and since she is, by the facts of history and archæology, mother of the oldest civilization, the oldest science, the oldest art, she is by eminent fitness placed first in the compound title, "Afro-American." Let it stand!

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        TIME brings about many changes. Some of them are very strange indeed. At the breaking out of the late Civil War, so it is said, Gen. Wade Hampton, of South Carolina, was the largest slave-holder in the South, and he was also the last man to acknowledge the changed condition of things under the Constitution of the United States. While addressing a Democratic meeting from the court house steps at Staunton, Va., in 1880 he said: "We are fighting today for the principles for which Lee and Jackson fought." But those principles did not prevail, as the good people of this country would not have them, and to-day no man better understands that fact than does Gen. Wade Hampton for he has been educated. He has been forced to make common cause with the colored voters of his State, because the machinery which Gen. Hampton's party built up for the suppression of Negro votes has been turned against the General and his friends, and he finds it as a "two-edged sword, cutting between the bone and the marrow."

        General Hampton comes to the rescue of the Negro. He speaks for him, and in so doing he tells a truth which the American people ought to thoroughly understand and appreciate, and that is that the Negro is the conservative element in American politics, and that no harm will ever come to the Government by allowing him to vote just as he has a mind to. Gen. Wade Hampton said so much in a public utterance only last week. This is the test of the man who has known the Negro in every capacity, and is competent to speak concerning him.

        General Wade Hampton upholds the Goff decision, and in so doing sustains the Federal Constitution, and ex-Senator M. C. Butler follows suit. We are glad of the attitude they have assumed, and we hope that they will throw the prestige of their names, and the weight of their powerful influence on the side of a full vote and a fair count, and thereby make it possible for every man who is entitled to vote to have an opportunity to cast that vote as he sees fit, and have it counted as cast.--Colored American.

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        MEMBERS of the Whittier Association, ladies and gentlemen: To me the name of your organization is one most fitting and proper. In adopting it you have done yourselves and the race great credit. One needs only to read the poems written by John Greenleaf Whittier to see the wisdom of your association in taking the name it now bears so proudly, and holds up to the world with such becoming grace and dignity. If you wish to know how he hated oppression, and desired with a longing heart to see slavery abolished in this and all other lands, just read the following poems: "Toussaint L'Ouverture," "The Slave Ships," "The Yankee Girls," "Song of the Free," "The Hunters of Men," "Clerical Oppressors," "The Christian Slave," "A Sabbath Scene" and many others equally brave and orthodox.

        Gentlemen of the Association, prosperity and long life be to you in your laudable endeavor. I am asked to address you on "Our Fallen Heroes." That the Negro race is of greatest antiquity; a hardy people; endowed with some enviable qualities; has and is struggling under almost insuperable obstacles and burdens; has always been loyal to the old flag which now floats over a free united people; shown himself worthy and competent to a commendable degree; that he has contributed and does by his own strong, right arm add to the material development of his country; and as a soldier, he has, in every struggle of his country for liberty marched to battle, laid bare his noble breast, fought like the bravest and died by the thousands that he might attest his devotion to the cause he loved; yea, that a braver, more docile, more reliable, self-sacrificing soldier never donned uniform or bore arms more creditably against his country's foe, no student or history will question or deny. With this declaration let us proceed to notice historical facts. Hear them!

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Historians tell us that the Negro, even when a slave, has shown a greater willingness to lay himself upon the altar of his country than the white man North or South has been willing to allow him to do. But a wise, over-ruling Providence has invariably opened the way, and in he has gone to do all he could to help save the government against her foes. Hence, we see him in the war for American Independence against British injustice, the War of 1812, and that of the late rebellion against the Federal Government.


        And here, before the war was on we find a Negro, in the person of Crispus Attucks, in the streets of Boston, endeavoring to repel the advance of the British troops on their march through the city. The feeling against these soldiers, on the part of the citizens was intense. Urged on by the popular indignation, Crispus Attucks, the leader, advanced upon them with his motley crew using as weapons, stones, clubs and their clenched fists, crying: "The way to get rid of these soldiers is to attack the main guard; strike at the root; this is the nest." The order was given and the attack was made. The British fired upon them and Crispus Attucks fell dead. This brave Negro leader was the first to shed blood, and that his own, for American independence. He with the three white heroes who died on the same spot were buried in the same grave. Of them the poet says:

                         Long as in freedom's cause the wise contend,
                         Dear to your country shall your fame extend;
                         While to the world the lettered stone shall tell
                         Where Caldwell, Attucks, Gray and Manerick fell.

        The scene of this sacrifice was under the shadow of Fanueil Hall, known as the Cradle of Liberty, and within whose sacred precincts the body of our hero was laid in state till the day of burial. American discontent with British taxation without representation increased until the Revolutionary War broke out in all its fury. Here again the black hero claims first honor. There is a historical spot in Charlestown, Mass., marked by that old Revolutionary monument, Bunker Hill. It was here on the 17th day of June, 1775, that the troops of King George pitched battle against the hardy sons of irrepressible America. The gallant British Maj. Pitcairn ordered the charge, saying, "The day is ours." His commanding presence and courage so alarmed the Americans that none seemed to know what must be done. Then it was that the intrepid Negro soldier, Peter

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Salem, advancing to the front, leveling his gun at the King's officer, sent a ball through his body and killed him. This shot won the day for American freedom from the British yoke. So long, therefore, as Bunker Hill monument shall be remembered, so long let the memory of the black hero of that day hold a green spot in our minds--erect an imperishable monument to his praise and honor. Right here notice that the Negro shed his own blood first and was first too to spill the blood of the enemy to give America the boon she then sought and gained. Another Negro who comes in here to get honorable mention was Salem Poor. He was a man of dignified bearing, fearless as a soldier and trusted as a comrade. Fifteen white men of eminence, who had full knowledge of him (I quote only a small part of their high praise of him--note their language) said:

To set forth the particulars of his conduct would be tedious; we only beg leave to say, in the person of this said Negro, centers a brave, gallant soldier. The reward due to so great and distinguished a character, we submit to the Congress.

        We are told of another daring, successful feat of a Negro soldier in Newport, R. I. Lieutenant Col. Barton laid the plan for the capture of the British Maj. General Prescott. The Negro soldier was named Prince. Barton and Prince were close together. The guard was misled by them. The house was reached. Prince, by well-directed rams with his hard head, gained entrance to the mansion. Once inside he forced open Gen. Prescott's bed-room door, with butts of the head, and captured his man before he could recover from his surprise. This was a double military stroke as an important prisoner was made and an American general was set free, in the person of Maj. General Lee. In recognition of the valuable services of the Rhode Island Negro troops in this war, let us listen a moment to the words of Rev. De Harris, himself a white soldier and an anti-slavery man. He said:

Yes, a regiment of Negroes, fighting for our liberty and independence--not a white man among them, but their officers, stationed in this same and responsible position. Had they been unfaithful, or given way before the enemy all would have been lost. Three times in succession were they attacked, with most desperate valor and fury, by well disciplined and veteran troops, and three times did they successfully repel the assault, and thus preserved our army from capture. They fought through the war. They were brave, hardy troops. They helped to gain our liberty and independence.

        Let it be remembered by all, that by far the greater part of the Negroes who fought so nobly in the war for independence, were at the outbreak of the same, slaves. They were promised their freedom as a reward for their services. This was not adhered to after

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the war closed and independence was secured. This is to be remembered among the many other wrongs done the poor Negro by his white superiors. With a full knowledge of these injustices, the Negro is willing still to endure it, hoping for a better day, and he is still at the beck and call of his country when it needs his service. Re-enslavement was not all that the ex-revolutionary Negro veterans were compelled to endure at the hands of white men. Let us notice one instance. In a battle in charge of Gen. Stump, the Americans were badly repulsed. In a critical moment, Jeffry, who was only a common Negro soldier, rushed forward and mounted a horse, took the command and gained the day for the Americans. As a reward for this successful bravery, he was titled Major Jeffry. Long after the war he was respected by all classes. See this aged hero, with the weight of seventy odd years upon him, ripe for the grave, and looking for the Master's summons to his well-deserved reward. On the verge of the grave he had heaped upon him an indignity from a white ruffian, which he resented in self defense. For this, he received on his nacked person thirty-nine lashes. Humiliated by such disgrace and injustice, his proud heart broke, and he sank to rise no more. The valuable services rendered by Negro troops was finally recognized by the whole country. They were not generally wanted for soldiers until the masters found they could be saved themselves from service by substituting the slvaves in their stead, and, too, when white men shirked the duty of defending their country from the foreign foe.

        As to the number engaged in this war I know not, but judging from the loss Virginia is said to have sustained, there must have been at least 50,000 Negroes who fought to gain American Independence. In battle, they were the acknowledged equals of the white soldiery. Let the Negroes feel the force of the lines which go thus:

                         "Our country tis of thee,
                         Sweet land of liberty,"
and take courage. Let the Negro youth learn, with pride, what the black American heroes did in Revolutionary times, to give to the world the grandest republic ever known.

        Then following down the line of the history of our country, we come to the war known as the War of 1812. This war was waged against the British as a protest against the insults which that government perpetrated upon our nation's navy. The strife culminated

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in the battle of New Orleans. That city, which is the queen city of the Gulf, was threatened by the invasion of the royal troops. This caused great alarm among the Americans. The hearts of the people beat heavy with fear. Gen. Jackson, who was in command of our interests at that place, called for volunteers. The black sons of the republic, rejoicing in the opportunity given them to serve their country, flew to arms at once. Five hundred of them placed themselves at the command of Gen. Jackson. These were the more acceptable, because the whites were divided on the issues of the war. The hour of conflict came on. Every man, black and white, was a general in himself, and an inveterate foe. The enemy advanced, the order to fire was given and executed with precision and deadly effect. When the smoke of battle was cleared away, the British were gone, leaving their dead and wounded on the battlefield, dyed in their own blood. The day was the Americans, with equal honors to the black and white heroes. Thus we see freedom's cause defended again by the noble black braves.

        Note the words of Hon. Robt. C. Winthrop, in Congress, in 1850. He said:

"But, however it may have been in the Northern States, I can tell the Senator what happened in the Southern States at this period. I believe that I shall be borne out in saying that no regiments did better service at New Orleans than did the black regiments, which were organized under Gen. Jackson himself, after a most glorious appeal to the patriotism and honor of the people of color of that region; and which, after they came out of the war, received the thanks of Gen. Jackson, in a proclamation which has been thought worthy of being inscribed on the pages of history."

        All of this and more also, is to be said of their valor in naval battles.

        We now come, with pride, to the late war of the Rebellion. Let us tell what part the Negro took in that strife as concisely as our time will allow. First, be it remembered, that as in the Revolutionary War, the Negro, in the beginning, was not wanted to do battle for the Union. Soon, however, his perfect fitness, valor, heroism, and patriotism won for him due recognition at the hands of Banks, Thomas, Sherman, Sheridan, Grant, President A. Lincoln and the liberty-loving people of the country from Maine, the pine tree State on the East, to California, the golden shores on the West. Tell it to our children that their fathers rallied to the stars and stripes for freedom and the Union to the number of 192,000 of black braves, as true and tried as ever pulled the trigger of a musket; 80,000 laid down their lives. Were they false to any trust? Never! Never! Were

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they cowards? The confederates, whom they fought so well, have never charged them with it. Were they obedient to the commands of their superiors? Why, just for this one soldier quality, they were the pride and boast of their commanders. All of this was done in the face of every conceivable indignity heaped upon them and discrimination unfavorable to them as soldiers of war. This came from white comrades and officers in the Federal ranks which makes it almost unpardonable. From the enemy came even worse things, by far. The Confederates, obeying the proclamation of the Confederate President, refused to make prisoners of Negroes. Agreeable to the sentiments of that mandate we have the massacre of Fort Pillow in Kentucky, where every Negro soldier, 262 in number, were slain.

        We shall make brief mention now of other battles in which our heroes took a noticeable part. The first of these is that of Port Hudson. Before going into this battle the regimental colors were presented with this charge; Col. Stafford said:

Color-guard, protect, defend, die for, but do not surrender these flags.

        Hear ye this Negro sergeant's eloquent reply. He said:

Colonel, I will bring back these colors to you in honor or report to God the reason why.

        Brave words these.

        After a long, wearisome march they reached the scene of battle. They were repeatedly ordered to charge the enemy's stronghold, and repeatedly they obeyed with alacrity and undaunted courage, under a torrent of grape shot and musket balls. It was:

                         "Cannon to the right of them,
                         Cannon to the left of them,
                         Cannon in front of them
                         Vollied and thundered;
                         Stormed at with shot and shell."

        What must they do?

                         "Theirs was not to make reply,
                         Theirs was not to reason why,
                         Theirs but to do and die."

        Seven times they charged the Confederate inpregnable fortress only to fall back with diminished numbers. It was here they proved to the world that Negroes will fight. The color guard did not return with his flags, but reported to God the reason why, together with the hundreds who fell by his side. To speak in detail of our fallen

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heroes in the battles at Milliken's Bend, Fort Wayne, Olustee, Boykin's Mills, and a score of other contests in which the odds were against us, would be to repeat in substance what has already been said. In all these battles the foe were made to respect the Negro soldiers, while friends rejoiced and gloried in such intrepid, fearless allies. Let us, however, speak particularly, but briefly of our colored troops in the battles of Nashville and Petersburg. On the former field, 10,000 "black phalanx" soldiers were arranged in battle array; after the smoke of the battle had cleared away, 3,000 Negro heroes were found dead on the field, a noble sacrifice on freedom's altar. When Gen. Thomas rode over the battle field and saw the bodies of colored soldiers lay side by side with the foremost on the very works of the enemy, he turned to his staff, saying:

Gentlemen, the question is settled; Negroes will fight.

        Now, a word about Petersburg. This was a stronghold of the Confederacy. To dislodge them, tons of powder were buried near their lines. It was to be exploded, and in the consequent confusion, in the Confederate ranks, a charge was to be made and capture their forces. 4,400 Negro braves were on hand to do this work. The refusal to allow them to do so, many believe, lost the day to the Union Army. Ah! but the black braves that day proved that they were willing to fight, bleed and die for their kindred in chains so cruelly forged. Black men fell on the very parapet of the enemy's works, in a hand to hand fight with his white antagonists. The soil was saturated in the blood of colored valiants. When Petersburg did fall into Federal hands, and Richmond followed later, Negro soldiers were among the first to enter and claim these cities in the name of the Federal Government. Close on the fall of these Confederate cities, Lee surrendered at Appomattox under the shade of the old apple tree. Thus ended the war leaving our brave black heroes covered with glory and crowned with imperishable laurels. When, therefore, the last drum shall beat, the last bugle note shall sound, and the roll call of nations shall be heard, and the names of Phillips, Leonidas, Alexander, Hannibal, Cæsar, Napoleon and Wellington are sounded on the lips of the worshipers of heroes, with equal praise shall be heard the name of Attucks, Peter Salem, Captain Cailloux, Colonel Shaw, the talented, and Toussaint L'Overture, a race with such indomitable courage, under such discouragements, must have under God a future, inspiring and glorious.

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        WASHINGTON, D. C., February 21.--Frederick Douglass died suddenly at his home in the suburbs of this city last night, at 7 o'clock. He had been apparently in his accustomed good health during the day, and attended the meeting of the National Woman's Council. Returning home he was chatting quietly with his wife when he suddenly clasped his hands to his heart and fell over unconscious. Death followed in twenty minutes afterward.

        Frederick Douglass, the most remarkable man of Negro blood yet produced in the United States, was born in Talbot County, Maryland, in February 1817, and had just completed his seventy-eighth year. He was the mulatto son of a Negro slave mother, and consequently himself born a slave. At a very early age he went to Baltimore to live, where he acquired a rudimentary education. His owner allowed him to employ his own time at $3 a week, and he obtained work in a shipyard. When just 21 years old he ran away to New York, and from there went to New Bedford, Mass., where he supported himself as a laborer. He came, by some means, under the observation of William Lloyd Garrison, who assisted his efforts at self-education, and under Garrison's auspices he was brought out as an orator at abolition meetings in New England. In 1841 he attended an anti-slavery convention at Nantucket and made a speech that brought him into national notice. After this, as agent of the Massachusetts Anti-slavery Society, he traveled through the Northern States making abolition speeches. Anti-slavery agitation was a sensitive and exciting theme in that period of the country's history, and the bold utterances of the colored orator, the first of his race to display such capability, made him a very much discussed person. He afterward edited The North Star, an abolition paper, at Rochester, N. Y., and published one or two books, giving his experience as a slave, and intended to promote the then fast growing abolition sentiment.

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        The Maryland family to whom Douglass had always belonged as a slave were named Lloyds, but after going North he adopted for himself the name he has since borne. When he had become distinguished his friends in England raised a purse of $750, with which his freedom was legally purchased.

        He visited England in 1845, and made many speeches that were well received. He was charged with conspiracy in the John Brown raids into Virginia in 1859, and Governor Wise made a requisition for his arrest on the Governor of Michigan. Legal complications were avoided by a second visit to England. When the civil war broke out he urged emancipation and the employment of Negro troops. Later he was active in organizing Negro regiments in the North. Since the war he has held various offices under Republican administrations. Mr. Cleveland removed him from the office of Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia in 1886, and three years later Mr. Harrison made him Minister to Hayti, the last official position that he filled. The Haytian Government made him one of the commissioners for its exhibit at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago.

        In early life, while residing at New Bedford, Mass., Douglass was married to a woman of his own color, by whom he had two sons and a daughter that survive him. A few years ago he was married to Helen Pitts, a white woman from New England, who was employed as a clerk in the office while he was Recorder of Deeds. In appearance Douglass' Caucasian blood was very manifest. He was of bright complexion, with prominent, clearly defined features and hair only slightly curly. In old age he has worn his hair and beard long, which gave him an air at once striking and venerable. His oratorical gift was of no ordinary quality, and no man in American public life was a greater factor in that agitation which led up to the events of 1860-65 and created such a revolution in the country's condition. He leaves a fortune, the accumulation of savings during a long life, estimated by some as high as $200,000.

        A GREAT, a good man is gone from among us.--Houston (Texas) Freeman.

        HE has built a monument of perpetual interest in the mind of the American citizen, which will de handed down from generation to generation.--Philadelphia Speck.

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        MY earliest recollection of Frederick Douglass was about 1845, when I was seven years old, and he used occasionally to come to my father's house. The story of his early life, and the interests attaching to his personality made a great impression upon me. In the anti-slavery meetings his eloquence always attracted, especially as he spoke of slavery with an interior knowledge and experience that no white abolitionist could possess. The iron had entered his soul, and his burning words were most effective. He was a natural speaker, having a fine presence; a powerful voice, admirably in control; an ease and force of expression, without that fatal fluency so often the bane of ready speakers; a native wit and gift of sarcasm; and, behind all, an intellectual quality that weighted every sentence. Other colored orators have attained great success upon the platform and in the pulpit; but it is no disparagement to them to say that Frederick Douglass towers above them all, like Saul among his brethren. My own conviction is that, had he been thrown as a white man into the nation's councils,--even when Webster, Clay, and Calhoun were in the ascendant, with equal early advantages,--he would not have been dwarfed by their companionship.

        The abolitionists were very few in those days. In Boston only three or four houses were ready to entertain colored people, or anti-slavery advocates. Of those who kept open houses, I can recall only Francis Jackson, Joseph Southwick, and my father. At any time, day or night, they were liable to be called upon to shelter fugitive slaves on their way to Canada, or receive itinerant lecturers, or others who had suffered for the cause. The fugitives came to our house as a natural refuge, and the feelings of the household were harrowed up by the details of cruelty which the poor terrified creatures told. But more impressive than any words were the scarred backs and maimed limbs, the welt made by the driver's lash being most often in evidence. Sometimes white men who had tried to help slaves to escape were brutally dealt with. A noble man, Capt. Jonathan Walker,

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allowed some slaves to escape on his vessel. He was a Down East skipper, and his vessel was in the coasting trade. He was arrested, imprisoned, and sentenced to have his right hand branded. I remember the astonishment with which my brothers and myself examined the rigid letters on his palm, "S.S." They were supposed to stand for slave-stealer, but the abolitionist insisted that their true meaning was "Slave Savior." He was a gentle and brave man. The story of his experiences is preserved in a book, which contains a picture of the branded hand.

        In 1846 Mr. Douglass was sent to England on an anti-slavery mission, his old friend James N. Buffum accompanying him. There he lectured to enormous and enthusiastic audiences, making a host of friends for life. The color prejudice did not exist in Europe, and the man who was dragged out of the Lynn car, and barred out of American churches and theatres, was received on equal terms in fashionable drawing-rooms and in the houses of the nobility in Great Britain. It was a gratful contrast from persecution and malignity to courtesy, appreciation, and respect. It is strange that any colored person, once feeling the difference, was ever tempted to come back to the land of chains.

        Samuel J. May, in his delightful "Recollections of the Anti-slavery Conflict," tells of Mr. Douglass' reception in Great Britain: "He was treated with great attention by the abolitionists of the United Kingdon, was invited to lecture everywhere, and rendered most valuable services to the cause of his oppressed countrymen. So deeply did he interest the philanthropists of that country that they paid $750 to procure from his master a formal, legal certficate of manumission, so that on his return to the United States, he would be no longer liable to be sent back into slavery."

        Douglass' own delight in the sudden transition from a region of prejudice and persecution, to an atmosphere of equality and respect was expressed in an eloquent letter to his friend, Mr. Garrison, to be found in "The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass."

        Mr. Douglass moved to Rochester, N. Y., and established a paper of his own about the year 1847, and, on account of differences with his old friends, no longer visited them as was his wont. But wherever he lived or went the marked personality of the man, his eloquence and intellect, and, added thereto, a tact and judgment that allayed social antagonisms, and never unnecessarily aroused them, made him a center of force and attraction. It was the tendency of

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many colored men who felt deeply the degradation inflicted upon them, simply on account of color, to emphasize their sensitiveness, and be quick to resent the least appearance of a slight. Not so with Frederick Douglass. He never looked for insult, nor showed a consciousness that he was different from other men. To meet him and converse, one would forget that he was of a despised race, and think only of the charming qualities which this interesting human being possessed. It was an evidence of his magnanimity and greatness of spirit.

        I remember a story of Douglass and Sojourner Truth, a character as remarkable in her way as Douglass was in his. She was a thorough African, of unmixed blood, gaunt and black. She was born a slave at New York, and emancipated when slavery was abolished in the State. She could neither read nor write, whereas Douglass had educated himself and was the peer of any so-called self-made white man. At an anti-slavery meeting, when the aspect of affairs was particularly dark, Douglass was speaking, and indulging in a gloomy view of the situation. Sojourner, who was a listener, and was possessed with an intense religious faith, was disturbed at the tone of despondency, and in a moment relieved her feelings, and those of the meeting as well, by saying in her deep voice, "Is God dead, Frederick?" Nobody could appreciate the hit better than himself, and the closing remarks were in a more hopeful strain.

        John Brown, when contemplating his raid on Harper's Ferry took Douglass into his confidence. After the tragedy, Douglass was sought by Governor Wise, of Virginia, who issued a requisition for his arrest, to escape which, he went again to England, staying till the danger had blown over. Of the wealth and honor that naturally came to Frederick Douglass in his later years, I do not propose to speak. They happen in the lives of all successful men. Of course it was noteworthy for an ex-slave to be Marshal of the District of Columbia, under both a Republican and a Democratic administration, and be received and honored at the White House in a high official capacity. His last representative distinction was at the World's Fair, where during its existence he was a conspicuous and attractive personality. Since the war, he has lived on a fine estate at Anacostia, Washington, where he died so suddenly the other day.

        He took a sympathetic interest in reforms, notably that of woman's suffrage. The day of his death he attended the great convention of women in Washington, and was escorted in honor to the platform by

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two ladies, one of whom was his old Rochester anti-slavery friend and neighbor, Miss Susan B. Anthony. With Frederick Douglass has passed away a life as full of romance and wonder as can be found in the world of fiction. His career is an incentive and encouragement to all down-trodden and unfortunate human beings.--The Monthly Review.



        NO word in the English language is more indiscriminately used than the word orator, and in speaking of Frederick Douglass as an orator, we should mutually understand what an orator is, that we may to some extent properly estimate his greatness. The mere orator is the production of the schools of rhetoric, and oratory lies in the method of expression; rhetoric is indeed the theory of which oratory is the practice. It is the art of speaking well, speaking according to the rules of rhetoric. A man may therefore be an orator of some distinction and yet be a very ordinary man. While the orator is the production of art, it does not follow that art alone can produce all the elements necessary to make the truly great orator. There are as many grades of orators as of painters or poets. Every man who daubs canvas may be called a painter but he is by no means a Rapheal or Angelo. Every man who can write a verse may be called a poet, but he is neither a Shakespeare nor Mitton; and so every man who delivers a discourse embracing all the necessary elements of oratory may be called an orator, but he is neither a Frederick Douglass nor a Wendell Philips. The truly great orator must possess a quality that cannot be acquired, something that is born in him, he must possess in addition to all the other elements of the orator, the power to produce eloquence, and he is called great in proportion to the extent he is eloquent. Oratory is an imitative art, and is used to express the sentiments of others, while eloquence speaks one's own feelings and comes from the heart and speaks to the heart. A mother pleading for the restoration of her child torn from her arms, employs her eloquence, while the lawyer at the bar employs his oratory in defence of his client.

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        There is sometimes a mute eloquence in look or jesture, that is not even denied to dumb brutes, that speaks for more than all the studied speech and graces of the orator. Eloquence often consists in a mere look or jesture, while oratory must always be accompanied with a large display of words. In a word, there is the same difference between eloquence and oratory, there is between nature and art. If to all the other elements of the orator be added the divine power of producing eloquence, then indeed is the possessor an orator in the broadest acceptation of the word. Eloquence is to the orator what fragrance is to the flower, what power is to the engine, and what the soul is to the body. To say what eloquence is would to me be impossible. I cannot describe it. It has never been described and definitions are failures. Many have tried to analyze it and think they understand it and will sell you a recipe to make it. To me it is indescribable and will only communicate itself. Eloquence is not a property of matter, it does not dwell in the mind, nor is it a quality of spirit; it does not inhabit a man's body nor have its seat in the soul, nor hide in the passions, nor run in the blood, nor haunt the voice, nor linger in the manner, jesture or look. All may unite to produce it, but it cannot be produced by the highest art of the most accomplished orator. It lies out of the realm of mere art, nature and happy circumstances may combine to produce it, but born of an inspired moment its memory alone lives. The great Webster said: "True eloquence cannot be brought from afar, labor and learning may toil for it, but they toil for it in vain. It must exist in the subject, the occasion and the man." The great man whose life and character we commemorate to-day was all that the schools of rhetoric could make as an orator, and endowed by nature with that rare power, which when the occasion demanded could produce the highest type of eloquence, combining in his nature probably as high a type of the eloquent orator as this or any age has ever produced. Measured by the greatest products of the world, he ranks among the best, and if indeed, we consider the conditions of his birth, and the difficulties of race prejudice he had to encounter and overcome before he reached the acme of his fame, we must concede he traveled further along the road to greatness than any other orator who ever lived.

        Demosthenes, the first great 'orator of the world, was born a free man and of distinguished family, and at an early age was placed under the best instructors and given every opportunity to perfect himself in the arts of oratory. Cicero, the greatest orator of free

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or imperial Rome, was the son of a man of wealth and culture, who carried him to Rome at an early age and placed him under the instruction of Crassus, the orator. Here all that wealth and power and influence could do, was done to perfect him as an orator; and the Roman Senate was the theater of his triumphs, and the power of Rome was his to make himself immortal; and he will live as long as learning lives, next to Demosthenes, as the most accomplished orator of ancient times. Yet his greatest efforts will live rather for beauty of language and rhetorical perfection than for pure and lofty eloquence. His orations against Catiline, and his appeal for the poet Archeas, and his defense of Milo, were the productions of the statesman and lawyer, rather than of the divinely inspired orator. And so the great orators of modern times, in the English-speaking world, were nearly all born of rich and distinguished parentage and favored with all the opportunities which birth, wealth and power could give. Lord Brougham was born into the peerage, Canning came from a distinguished ancestry, Edmund Burke, the gifted son of Ireland, was the son of a great lawyer, who carried him to London to better prepare him for his seat in parliament; and Fox, of whom Burke said "he was the greatest debator the world ever saw," was put in parliament by his father at the age of 19. William Pitt who, at the age of 23, was the premier of England and at 25 master of his cabinet and the idol of his king, his parliament and his people, was the son of Lord Chatham, himself one of the most distinguished orators and statesmen England ever produced, and so the great orators of our own country, if not "born in the purple," had unobstructed roads to distinction. Patrick Henry found a field and time for the display of his impassioned and eloquent oratory in the Virginia Convention, when he, a free man, saw political chains and slavery in longer submitting to British rule; and so with Webster and Haynes and Clay and Sumner and Lamar and Blaine and Garfield and all the other great American orators. They all had parents and training and friends, they were all free in body and soul and mind to catch the enthusiasm of the newest and greatest republic on earth, in which there was a field for the development of the genius of every white man where there was no limit to their ambition. To them there were no barriers of race or condition to encounter or overcome, upon their ocean of life there were no Charybdis and Scylla; they could bend their sails to any breeze and with their genius extract progress from every force.

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        Every white American, who had achieved distinction as an orator in this country up to the time Douglass began his career, had a fair field with the broadest opportunities, in which to realize the summit of his ambition He knew every avenue to distinction was open to him, and that there was no limit to his achievements, save that put upon him by Deity in the hour of his creation. The glories of a new and grander civilization were his, the resources of this great and wonderful country were his, and the blessings of the greatest and, to him, the most liberal form of government on earth were his heritage. Baptized in the fire of freedom, he drank from the fountain of liberty, and with an enthusiam born of his surroundings, the white American entered upon his career to greatness with advantages superior to those ever before enjoyed by any race or nationality in the history of the world. How vastly different were the conditions under which Frederick Douglass began his career! How dark and starless was the moral and political sky under which he was born. Nowhere on earth did the waiting angel, who bore from God the jewel of his soul to place it in his mortal body, grope through more intense Egyptian darkness, than when nearly eighty years ago he wound his way along the sands of the sterile "Eastern Shore" of Maryland, seeking among the cabins of the lowly slaves, the casket of his jewel; and when the lordly Master Loyd knew he had another slave the American people little dreamed that in this slave America would find one of her greatest orators. No orator of ancient or modern times was ever so lowly born. The poorest white boy of this time, though born a pauper, was rich compared with him, for he was born the market value of his body, poorer than poverty. When he had struggled through boyhood, and in his young manhood found freedom by flight, though free, how dark must have been the clouds above him! What orator in the history of the world ever stood upon the threshold of his manhood under such conditions?

        At the age when Demosthenes was under the best instruction Athens flourished; when Cicero, under the instruction of Crassus, had mastered the arts of oratory, and had the Roman forum for this display; when Brougham, Burke, Canning, Fox, and Pitts had taken their degrees from college, and their seats in parliament; when Patrick Henry had tasted the sweets of American independence, and in the future saw the greatness of his country; when Webster had graduated from Dartmouth, and had already won distinction as lawyer and statesman; when Clay had begun his glorious career, and

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was the brightest and newest star in the political firmament of his beloved State; when Charles Sumner had left the classic halls of Harvard and was the growing pride of the "old bay State," at this time of life, when all the other great orators named had started upon their careers under the most flattering conditions, Frederick Douglass was a fugitive slave, only free while he remained out of the reach of the slave catcher. He had never seen inside of a school house or college. While others were inspired by love of country to deeds of greatness, he had no country to love; no avenue to distinction was open to him; there was nothing, absolutely nothing he could aspire to. Such were the conditions under which Douglass began his career as an orator. Dark indeed must have seemed his future when he looked out upon it.

        But when invited by an anti-slavery society in "New England" for the first time to deliver an address against slavery, he revealed to himself and to his hearers the wonderful powers of the inspired orator, and sounded the key-note of his future greatness. His speeches against slavery were the greatest productions of his life. These gave him his greatness as an orator. In this field he was without a rival. Though at the beginning he was a stranger to schools of rhetoric, he seemed to have been gifted by nature with all the requisites of oratory and, more, he inherited what the schools could not give. Wherever he spoke throughout the North he aroused the hearts of men to a sense of the wrongs of slavery as no other speaker had ever done, his arraignment of the great crime fanned the embers of abolitionism into a flame that shone from one side of this country to the other and reached beyond the seas. No orator of any age or race ever sprung so quickly into permanent prominence as did Douglass. He was soon known everywhere, and when he went to England and spoke throughout England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, he received such ovations as few Americans of any race or nationality have ever received before or since. The guest of John Bright, he was entertained by the nobility of Great Britain wherever he went. Though a fugitive slave in free America, he was a man in monarchical England, and was accorded his proper place among the distinguished men abroad, though denied recognition even as a man at home. So strong was the sentiment which he aroused against slavery by his speeches abroad, and so strong was the sentiment for his personal safety, that his friends abroad raised the requisite amount to purchase his freedom. Thus did British gold

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pay to an American master the price of an American to the manor born, that he might return to the land of his birth and be free. Upon his return from abroad he began more earnestly and eloquently than ever his war upon America's national crime. His experience abroad made him more powerful than ever, and his speeches were marvels of eloquence. The oratory of Douglass was not the oratory of the schools of rhetoric. It was of a higher, grander and sublimer character. The schools were but the imitators of the art of which he was the master.

        Though in maturer years he became one of the most widely read and thoroughly informed men of any age, and was at home in every department of learning, no amount of culture could equal the inspired efforts of his earlier life. His carefully prepared lectures before refined and cultured audiences, upon the platform of the lyceum on learned subjects do not equal, in eloquent oratory, his anti-slavery speeches; and the Elder Douglass reading from a carefully prepared manuscript, upon some social or economic question did not reach the heights of oratory to which the younger and inspired Douglass reached, when with the fire of his soul aglow in every feature and utterance, he stood before enraptured audiences and hurled his terrible denunciations against slavery. To him nature was most prodigal in her gifts; his form was majestic, his height above the average and his step elastic, while on his broad and symmetrical shoulders rested the magnificent head which once seen towering above the throngs of men could never be forgotten. When standing before his audience his very appearance commanded attention, and when his voice fell upon their ears they realized its power and influence. Few great orators were ever blessed with such a voice as he. Strong and powerful, yet it could be as soft and musical as the sound of an æolian harp. As a speaker he was clear, easy and flowing with matter; his attitude, voice and gesture were all in perfect harmony, to this he added creation, inspiration and heart and soul. He gave life to inanimate things, beauty to ugliness, and grandeur to the commonplace. His voice could melt to the soft, sweet tones of conversation with its marvelous, flexile flow. In his description of the tender, the beautiful and the pathetic, he would use the dear, sweet words of every-day life, everyone of which would bring the clinging memory and warmth of the fireside flowing as gently as the touch of caressing hands, at times he created the marvelous thing we call sympathy, which comes and places the

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speaker's pulse against the listerners' hearts, and they beat and throb together. Then sympathy becomes magnetism, and the highest point of eloquent oratory is reached, when speaker and listeners become one, with one life, one emotion, kindling and glowing and flowing together, and finding exquisitely satisfying expression by the mouth of the speaker, mutually giving and receiving, the audience bearing the speaker on and upward, and the speaker lifting the audience to higher and still higher levels.

        When he denounced wrong and demanded redress his voice could become as deep and terrible as the roar of the cataract, and his words the strongest and best the English language could furnish; with a master's hand he brushed away the sophistry of wrong, plucked the trembling heart from his subject and held it before his astonished audience. His best and greatest speeches were those he made against slavery; on them he won his fame, and on them his greatness as an orator will forever rest. Never in the history of the world was there such a crime, and never such a man as Douglass to denounce it. For who knew slavery as he knew it? And who could see it as he saw it? And who could denounce it as he did? When he arose to denounce this monster there was no necessity for the arts of oratory, the products of the highest art were absorbed in the terrible earnest with which he spoke. At such times he was what art may try to imitate, but what nature alone can produce, as well try to imitate Niagara with mechanics' tools, or by science produce another Mount Blanc, as for the rhetorician to duplicate the eloquent oratory of Douglass against slavery--his argument was unanswerable, his invective deep and burning, his sarcasm withering, and his pathos and pity so tender and touching, that he caused the bosom to swell with anguish and the eyes to fill with tears.

        On one occasion sometime before emancipation, he attended the Fourth of July celebration, I think, at Rochester; he was then a man of international fame, and was called upon to speak. I have not seen the speech in print for more than 30 years, but as I read it then and remember it now, taken in connection with the times and circumstances under which it was made, the man and the occasion, nothing could have been more truly eloquent. When he arose and looked over his audience, among other things he said: Why am I called upon to speak on an occasion like this? Why should I celebrate your Fourth of July? What freedom have my people and I to celebrate? Above your shouts, and the roar of your cannon I can hear the crack

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of the slave whip, the clanking of the chains and the groans of my enslaved brethren in the South. Your rejoicings do but fill to overflow my cup of bitterness! You were willing to bare your breasts to English cannon to evade a tax on tea, but you turn a deaf ear to three millions of human beings made in the image of God, who are vainly pleading to you in chains, that they may own their own bodies and that they may be protected in the commonest ties of husband and wife and parent and child. While you celebrate the anniversary of your independence, you have coiled up in the bosom of your youthful republic the serpent of slavery, sucking her life's blood, and sending its poison into every member of her body. Your Declaration of Independence is a lie! and your flag contaminates the very air of God. Every stripe upon it represents the blood and bondage of my people, and every star glitters to your country's shame."

        In 1871, when slavery was dead, and the government of his birth began to recognize his worth, be went abroad again, not as a fugitive slave, but bearing the commission of his government, as assistant secretary to the commission sent by President Grant to the Republic of Santo Domingo. His last and most distinguished services abroad were as Minister to Hayti. His services there are a part of the diplomatic history of our country. At no time, however, was Douglass, the statesman or diplomat more signally honored abroad than when as a fugitive he first went to England, and spoke throughout the united Kingdom, receiving one continual ovation all over the British Isles. And no services he has rendered his country, however great or distinguished they may have been, since emancipation, can be compared to those he rendered his country and mankind by his sublime work in the overthrow of slavery, and enfranchisement of his race. Had Frederick Douglass been a white man, he would no doubt have found his place in the United States Senate, and taken rank with the greatest statesman of his time, but his enduring fame will be that of the orator. No race prejudice could keep him from rising to distinction in the firmament of the world's greatest orators, and no star will shine brighter and with more enduring splendor than that which glitters to the name of Frederick Douglass. God grant that his mantle may fall upon some younger man of the race, who will take up the work where he left it, and with an eloquence and love of race, as pure and patriotic as his, do as much to release us from our moral, social, intellectual, and political thralldom, as did Frederick Douglass to release us from the chains of slavery.

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        IT is a great pity that some Boswell was not at the elbow of Frederick Douglass all the days of his later life to jot down and to preserve to posterity his precious gems of speech. It is painful to think that some of his most delightful sayings, and pleasing bon mots have never appeared in print, and are irrecoverably lost. Mr. Douglass was an unrivaled talker and liked to talk among his friends. One hour with him at his home on Cedar Hill when he was in the vein of talk was worth a week's reading of books.

        In private conversation there was a sparkle in Mr. Douglass words, a flow in his sentiments, a grace in his manner as sweet as summer, a calm and cheerful philosophy that no pen can photograph, no language accurately illustrate. He could tell of his own trials and triumphs in the most modest way. I once heard him repeat a climax to one of his famous speeches delivered forty years ago. It was eloquent even in its repetition. On some patriotic occasion he had been invited to speak. Having declared to his audience that he was no part of that day or that event, he said: "There is no mountain so high, no valley so deep, no plain so extensive in all this broad land where I may stand and call these hands my own." I quote from memory. And then there would be tears in his voice. He could relate an incident with so much pathos that there would be few dry eyes among his listeners. He used to tell how he had been invited to deliver an address in other days in our Western towns. Quite an audience assembled to hear him. When he had concluded his speech no man was found gracious enough to invite him to his home and offer him a bed and a supper. So he wandered away down the road all alone, at last into a deserted graveyard, and while standing there amidst the graves of the dead the thought came to him that "Foxes have holes, the birds of the air have nests, but the Son man hath not where to lay his head." Said Martin Luther, "Sorrow has pressed many sweet songs out of me." Injustice to an oppressed

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people and sorrow for their condition gave both music and strength to the utterances of Frederick Douglass.

        Mr. Douglass believed in the colored people. He believed that in this country there is a great future for them and that they will ultimately justify every prophecy for good made with regard to them. He not only gave expression to his belief in their ability to become capable men of business if given a fair trial, but he emphasized that confidence by contributing his money liberally to help their industrial enterprises. Right here in the city of Washington he was the first President of the Industrial Building and Savings Company; a large stock holder in the Alpha Life Insurance Company, and one of the heaviest depositors in the Capital Savings Bank--all institutions controlled and managed by colored men. It is fresh in the memory of everyone how he attempted three years ago to establish what was called the Freedom Manufacturing Company. The object of this concern was to buy a part of the old estate in Maryland upon which Mr. Douglass had lived and suffered as a slave, and there to plant a great industrial school for colored boys and girls as well as build factories that would give employment to hundreds of colored men and women. The scheme failed utterly, because of the lack of support by the colored people. Its death carried with it many hundreds of Mr. Douglass' dollars.

        I saw Justice Harlan, of the United States Supreme Court, at Mr. Douglass funeral, paying his last respects to one who in life had been his friend. It was a memorable occasion when I last saw Judge Harlan and Frederick Douglas together. It was a scene that represented the most striking contrast between the periods of the history of our nation. The Honorable Justice was presiding officer of a meeting at which Mr. Douglass was the chief speaker. Only thirty-five years before a Justice of the same court had made his name notorious by rendering a decision that placed even Frederick Douglass outside of the pale of human association. Roger Brooke Taney, in his elaborate opinion in the famous Dred Scott case declared that a Negro had neither social nor civil rights, nor legal capacity. When Frederick Douglass and Justice Harlan met on the same platform, on the occasion referred to, each valuing the other for his worth as a man, here was a scene that represented a change in public sentiment that was more than revolutionary.--The Monthly Review.

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[Extract from a memorial address delivered at Atlanta, Ga.]

        FREDERICK DOUGLASS is dead! How strange that sounds to those of us who from earliest boyhood have been accustomed to hear him spoken of as the living exponent of all that is noblest and best in the race. The mind reluctantly accepts the unwelcome truth. And yet it is a truth--a serious, a solemn truth. Frederick Douglass is no more. The grand old hero of a thousand battles has at last fallen before the shaft of the common destroyer, and upon his well-battered shield loving hands have tenderly borne that stalwart form to its last, long resting-place. Earth to earth, dust to dust, ashes to ashes! And is that all? Nay, verily, I tell you, no ordinary piece of clay has been laid away in the silent tomb. No mean or craven spirit has suddenly taken its flight. A character so massive, so colossal in its proportions, a life so singularly grand in its achievements, passes not away unnoticed. The great mad world in its giddy rush after material gains has paused to take note that a great man has fallen in our Israel; and humanity, enriched and blessed by his long and faithful services, lingers in tearful gratitude about his new-made grave. It were well for us to pause. It were well for us, turning aside from the humdrum duties of the day, to lay upon his bier the tribute of gratitude and affection. It were well for us to contemplate, even though briefly, that remarkable life, and discover if we may, what were the elements that, entering into it, made it so strong, so symmetrical, so sublime.

        This country will never again see another Douglass; this world will never again see another Douglass; for in all probability there will never again exist that peculiar combination of circumstances to produce exactly such a type of manhood. Man is, in a measure, the product of environment. Yet it would be injustice to Frederick Douglass to say that he was simply great because of environment. He was great in spite of environment. Born a slave, subjected in his early youth and manhood to all the degrading, stultifying, demoralizing

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moralizing influences of slavery, he has left behind him after a public life, long and varied and stormy, a name as clean and spotless as driven snow. Take notice of this, young men, you who have ambitions, you who are aspiring to public place and position and power. Take notice that a public life need not be separated from unsullied honor.

        I said Frederick Douglass was great in spite of environment. Had there been no slavery to fight, no freedom to win, he would still have been a great man. Greatness was inherent in his being, and circumstances simply evoked it. He was one of those choice spirits whom the Almighty sends into this world with the stamp of a great mission upon their very form and features. Said Sam Johnson, with reference to Burke: "Sir, if you were to see him under London Bridge in a mixed multitude who had hastily run there out of a passing shower, you would instantly recognize him as a great man." The same could well have been said of Douglass. No one could look on that massive, well-formed head, that strong, leonine face, with eyes that even in the seventies could flash fire, without feeling the power of a great personality. Those of you who saw him here in Atlanta a few years ago will long remember him. Nimble as a lad, straight as an arrow, tall, broad-shouldered, well-proportioned, he was just such a form as the old Greek sculptor would have delighted to put in marble.

        The splendid physique of Douglass was in keeping with the strength and grasp of his masterly mind. Without the privilege of a day's instruction in a school-room, he acquired a fund of useful knowledge that would put to shame the meagre attainments of many a college graduate. His speeches and writings are models of pure English style, and are characterized by simplicity, directness, force, and elegance.

        Many of the interesting facts and incidents in the life of this great man will udoubtedly be brought out by the speakers and essayists to follow. If I were asked to sum up in a word what made Douglass great, I would say a noble purpose--the purpose to render the largest possible service to mankind. Verily he has served us well, faithfully, unselfishly; and now, full of years and full of honors, loaded with such distinction as this poor world has to give, he dies--dies as he lived--a brave, strong, pure, good man.

        No more shall we behold that manly form. No more shall we listen to those eloquent lips upon which for over fifty years so many

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thousands have hung with rapture--those eloquent lips that have made his name famous in two hemispheres, and will surely keep it so as long as freedom has a history, God grant that the mantle of this old hero may fall upon a worthy successor! God grant that our young men, contemplating his life and emulating his example, may be lifted up to a higher conception of life, of duty, of responsibility, of usefulness!



        THE death of Frederick Douglass removes from the arena of public life one of the most picturesque and historic figures that ever occupied the attention of the American people, and secured a hearing from the civilized world.

        His life work was completed years ago, and yet he persistently refused to retire, and expressed a desire to remain in public life to the last.

        Mr. Douglass' career during recent years has been somewhat remarkable in that he has shown a disposition to encourage every race enterprise which appeared to deserve success, and to speak out in behalf of a people with whom he was identified, and time and again he had been called upon to defend.

        He was truly a remarkable man, and his transcendent greatness will be all the more apparent since he has left this world, in which for half a century he has been the most striking figure.

        He was a lover of mankind, and the implacable foe of oppression.

        He became the watchman on the wall, and at no time did he give forth an uncertain sound.

        He was independent and conscientious in all of his utterances, dealing with great questions, and an authority upon many things which transpired during his life time.

        He never lost entirely his old-time eloquence.

        A race sheds tears over his bier, remembering only the many excellent characteristics, and the exercise of those mighty powers which did so much to hasten enfranchisement, and cause them to

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drink from the fountain of freedom, the life-inspiring draught of emancipation.

        Stricken at his post of duty, falling on his knees as he received the summons, he bowed his head in submission to the divine will, and child-like was led to the heavenly home on high, no doubt accompanied by the strains of sweet music. May our good-night be like his.


[Extract from an address delivered in Washington.]

        HIS love of liberty and flight to obtain it, and his thirst for knowledge, which he acquired to such a remarkable degree, demonstrate that he was no ordinary man. He would not only be free himself, but he must do something to shatter the fetters which bound in hopeless bondage, millions of other human beings. Self-emancipated and self-taught! What a wonderful and striking object-lesson to young and aspiring mankind everywhere his life presents in its march from the poor and unlettered slave boy to the orator, editor, statesman and one of the foremost men of his time. It forcibly illustrates the marvelous possibilities of the human intellect when afforded opportunities for development and the stimulus of a field for employment. It is a very common thing for writers and public speakers to declare that opportunity is nothing; that men make their own opportunity. The history of the world's great men does not, in my opinion, sustain this assertion. Rare gifts, and even genius itself, remains dormant and undiscovered when subjected to the rust of inactivity. The human mind and intellect must have constant employment to obtain their highest perfection, and there never was in the history of the world a more inspiring cause than the abolition of American slavery, the cause in which Mr. Douglass labored and which wrought in him such a marvelous development. With the fall of slavery his occupation was not, like Othello's, gone; its attendant evils, prejudice and hatred, wrong and injustice, continued to follow the race, and this kept him like a sentinel on the watch tower of public opinion, ever ready and willing to enter in dignified and manly terms his protest against their encroachment upon his people. It was this ceaseless demand upon his time and talents which accounts for his continued growth and the colossal form he reached in the public eye.

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        His life is picturesque and interesting from every point of view; but in no way more remarkable than in its wonderful perseverance and endurance. It has often been said of Mr. Douglass that he was not a leader, and in the common acception of the term, this is true. It was not his province to lead men, he soared away above such a leadership into the realms of thought and reason. But in the broader, deeper and higher sense--the maker and molder of public sentiment--he was a leader of leaders, "the noblest Roman of them all." The great men who preceded him were all, without an exception, the outgrowth of fortuitous circumstances or the descendants of illustrious ancestors. In their several fields of action they not only had precedents to guide and assist them in their labors, but abundant resources and an army of followers.

        Not so with Mr. Douglass. He had nothing but his tongue and pen to advance the great cause in which he was enlisted. The human brain and heart were the citadels he had to besiege, storm, and capture. His own people were, in the main, in the most abject slavery, and utterly unable to render him any assistance, and a large majority of the dominant class--the people before whom he must plead his cause--were strongly fortified against him by race prejudice and hatred. On all sides trials and perils without a parallel without a parallel in the world's history confronted him, but he never faltered, and for over half a century, with more than Spartan courage, he performed with his eloquent tongue and matchless pen, inestimable service for his down-trodden and helpless people.

        A born orator, and possessed of rare eloquence, he also had an abundance of that still rarer gift--common sense. It was this quality which enabled him to avoid extremes and exaggeration in his public utterances.

        Incessant and aggressive in his war on slavery, he made his argument against it with such consummate judgment, that he commanded the attention of friend and foe alike, and acquired the fame which has placed his name high up on the scroll of the famous men of the world.

        Without a precedent or predecessor, he leaves no imitator or successor. Both he and the occasion which developed him are gone forever. Measured by his humble origin, his limited opportunities, his poverty of resources, and the uncongenial field in which he had to labor, he leaves an impress upon the civilized portion of mankind unexcelled by any other man in either ancient or modern times, except the lowly Nazarene.

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        What a splendid panorama his life presents! and how singularly fortunate he was in living to see the fruition of his labor, and the realization of his dearest hopes, the emancipation and enfranchisement of the race for whom he had labored so long and earnestly.

        It was a consolation and joy vouchsafed to very few men. He was conscious of the fact and it mellowed and sweetened his disposition, softened his heart toward all mankind, and rendered him forgiving and indulgent even to his bitterest opponents.

        On his last day on earth, I had the pleasure of listening to one of his charming conversations, in which he was always instructive and entertaining. He was apparently hale and hearty, and deeply concerned about the shadows which still lower over the future of the race in this country. A tinge of sadness pervaded his conversation, but it was relieved by the most boyish glee and satisfaction with which he spoke of the compliment he had just received from the Ladies Convention. It was a splendid compliment to a splendid man, and was highly appreciated by him.

        On that day, as ever before, the uppermost thought with him was the betterment of the condition of his people; and it was while in the act of going forth to speak words of encouragement to them, that the grim monster seized him. The end was sudden, but providential. It was meet that his majestic form should be spared the ravages of disease and decrepitude. It was with intellect undimmed, mind unimpaired, strength vigorous, and armor still on, that he fell. Peculiar and extraordinary in life, exceptional in death! His absence from the affairs of life leaves a void which I fear generation after generation will not see filled. It will require no statue of marble, or bronze, or granite monument to perpetuate his name and fame. His great services to humanity are a living monument, and it will last as long as memory holds a place in the brain of man.

        Rev. Rush H. Shippen related some interesting incidents and memories of Douglass, and Rev. W. A. Creditt discussed Douglass' place in history. Mrs. Charlotte Fortin Grimke read a poem, and Mrs. Lena Miller McKinney sang a solo. The benediction was offered by Rev. Francis J. Grimke, after the adoption of the following resolution as the sense of the meeting, offered by Mr. F. G. Barbadoes:

        "Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting of citizens that in the death of Frederick Douglass America has lost a most distinguished son and the Negro race a leader and champion whose whole

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life was one of unswerving devotion to their redemption from slavery, their rights as citizens, their progress as a people. That 'fame and honor from no condition rise' was exemplified in his life more than in that of any other man of his time. He was born a slave, yet he became a chieftain in the army of anti-slavery men and women; for twenty-five years his clear voice, in stentorian tones, rang out for the nationality of freedom. His battle cry was, 'Let my people go.' His contribution to the anti-slavery cause makes a splendid chapter in its history.

        "The story of his own sorrows and sufferings, no less than his eloquence, touched the hearts of two continents, and did much towards winning for the millions of bondmen in America the sympathy of Christendom. And when the emancipation and enfranchisement of his people came, he then turned his attention to their preparation for citizenship, with all its dignities and responsibilities. His voice and his pen and his personal influence were always enlisted in the cause of the oppressed. He believed profoundly in the brotherhood of humanity and in the equality of races, and during his entire public life he never once compromised his convictions to any expediency or policy for the purpose of advancing his personal ends. Everywhere in his speeches and writings shine out noble sentiments and lofty standards of duty--indices of the purity of his thoughts, the greatness of his soul, and the beauty of his character.

        "The lessons of his public career will be an inspiration to the present and future generations of the American Negroes to righteous determination and aspiration for attaining the highest possibilities of our country. Such was his private life that mothers will endeavor to teach their sons to emulate it and keep it constantly before them as an ideal. We mourn the loss to our country of so great a citizen."

        HEAVEN "LENT" DOUGLASS an eloquent tongue, touched, as it were, by a live coal from the altar of liberty and patriotism that aroused a nation to rise up against such a cruel system as slavery. No voice or pen, save those of William Lloyd Garrison and Harriet Beecher Stowe, contributed more liberally or effectively to the cause of freedom than the voice of the late Frederick Douglass. He was never a patronizer or syncophant. He believed in the man-hood rights of man--not as white man or black man, but as a man. He knew but one race, and that was the human race. He combated

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all counter arguments and maintained his position to the last. He has held several important and responsible offices, among which we name a member of the Territorial Council of the District of Columbia, Marshall of the District of Columbia, Recorder of Deeds and United States Minister to the Republic of Hayti. His integrity and consistency in the principles of right and virtue have never been brought into question. He was also the author of several books, the greatest of which is the "Life and Times of Frederick Douglass."

        Mr. Douglass early learned to believe on the Lord and accept him as his guide and help. He remarked while addressing the A. M. E. Zion Centennial Committee: "Nearly fifty years ago the A. M. E. Zion Church at New Bedford gave me license to preach and I have been preaching ever since." He had written a friend that he could not accept any invitation to travel far to deliver a lecture, but he promised to come as far South as Salisbury, N. C., to visit Livingstone College. Had he lived he would have been Livingstone's next annual orator. But he is gone. He ceased at once to work and live. He was about to leave his home to deliver a lecture for the benefit of a church when he was stricken down. Shortly after his death the carriage that was to have conveyed him to the church rolled up; but it was too late. An earlier carriage, or chariot if you choose, had come and borne his spirit home to the God who gave it. His death leaves the race without a successor to him and deprives the nation of one of its greatest and purest men.--Star of Zion.


[Extract of Memorial Address.]

        THERE has been removed from the scene of his earthly labors one of America's greatest citizens. Born to the heritage of a bondage, nurtured at the breast of a slave, rocked in the cradle of adversity, taught in the school of slavery and oppression, he overcame all the disadvantages and hardships of his environments: he burst the bonds that held him as a slave and launched the ship of his life upon one of the most illustrious and useful voyages ever accomplished by an American citizen. From his obscure birth to his illustrious death and burial it can but be conceded that he traveled more miles of usefulness to humanity, to his country, to his race than any of his co-workers. He loved the Southland and the place of

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his birth; he loved his neighbors of all colors, creed and sexes, and he fled from the South, not to escape the Southland itself, but to satisfy his restless spirit and to escape the chain's influence of bondage. As soon as he arrived at the age of discretion he began to hate the institution of slavery, and from that time until its entire abolition in his native land he allowed no opportunity to escape, to strike a blow at its existence. How unceasing and how effectual were these blows the history of his country will tell all generations to come. He loved his country too much to look disinterestedly on and see its prosperity blighted, and its greatness obscured by the destructive and degrading influence of slavery. He therefore despised slavery for his country's sake. He loved his race and the cause of humanity with too deep affection to permit any earthly consideration to change his determination to devote his entire life to securing its freedom and elevation to the highest plane of citizenship. To the end therefore that shackels might be stricken from the arms of 7,000,000 of slaves of his own race and fellow men, he fought the institution of slavery wisely, but always with all the vehemence and power with which his God had so liberally endowed him. A brighter star than that worn by Frederick Douglass will not appear in the crown of any American citizen in recognition of his great services in the overthrow of slavery in this country, and in the emancipation of thought and speech and in the personal liberty of the citizen. When race prejudice shall have died, when men shall be judged by their worth, by their work, by their intentions; when history shall look impartially on and judge him and the men of his times, no name will be written higher upon the roll of honor as a philanthropist, as a patriot, as an orator, as a leader, as a liberator and as a benefactor to his country and his race, than will be that of Frederick Douglass. He was honest, honorable and upright in all his walks of life, whether in the performance of duty he was called to high or low estate the same sense of honor, courage and uprightness characterized his every act and movement. His career is full of ripe honors, civil, diplomatic and literary. His name and his services are indissolubly linked with liberty wherever in the English language the word freedom is pronounced. Frederick Douglass' race is proud of the heritage he has bequeathed it.

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        THE DEATH OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS has been followed by wide public notice of the honors he had received, the considertion with which he has been treated and the position he has filled. But it is worth while remembering, in the interest of justice and equality, twin duties of the Republic, that these honors and this consideration were both infinitely less than he would have received in any other civilized country in the world, though more than one American goes through life imagining that "the Republic is opportunity" for all its citizens in a better sense than in other lands. As a matter of fact, it is not, where color is concerned.

        In England, with his ability as a speaker, Frederick Douglass would unquestionably have become a member of Parliament, and he might easily have been knighted, as men darker than he have been. In France he would have found Dumas, a man darker than himself, honored through life in every social circle, and after death, one of the few whose statue stands in the Theatre Francais. If, as might easily have been the case, Douglass had been elected to the French Academy he would have found there, now and in the past, men of his race. In no corner of France and in no part of Europe would he have found the hotel, the theatre, the railroad car, the school, or the home in which he would not have been accepted on his merits as a man and his manners as a gentleman.--Philadelphia Press.

        THE UNEXPECTED AND SUDDEN DEATH OF MR. DOUGLASS has awakened a sense of profound sympathy never before expressed toward a person identified with the Negro race, and seldom toward one of the white race. We are not surprised at the manifestations of profound respect and sorrow of the colored people, and we rejoice, too, that the white race has shown almost equal regard for his memory, by their attendance when he lay in state in Washington, and when his body was interred in Rochester. The press has voiced the sentiment of the nation in the full and eulogistic notices of his life. Frederick Douglass deserved it all.

        No man, perhaps, in this country has broken through so heavy a crust of ignorance, poverty, and race prejudice as was done by this boy born on a slave plantation, stealing his education, fleeing from

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his slave home, and then achieving for himself a rank among the foremost men of the nation in intelligence, eloquence, and of personal influence in the great anti-slavery struggle of this country. He has achieved honors in the public service of the nation, and has faithfully and honorably fulfilled every trust laid upon him.

        Mr. Douglass is among the last survivors of that band of Abolitionists that were so potent in their influence in arousing the nation to the evils of slavery. The recent death of Theodore D. Weld, in his ninety-first year, recalls a name now almost forgotten, but that two generations ago indicated the foremost orator in the anti-slavery ranks. The poet of anti-slavery, Whittier, has gone recently, and now the most conspicuous name left of that noble band is that of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe.

        The American Missionary Association has reason to congratulate itself that its last annual meeting was made memorable by the presence of Mr. Douglass, and its vast audience stirred most deeply by his eloquent address. In that address he expressed his gratitude for himself and his people for the work done by the Association in their behalf. And in a letter subsepuently addressed to the senior secretary of the Association, he says, in speaking of that address: "I am very glad to have been able thus publicly to record my sense of the value of the great work of the Association in saving my people. I am a friend of free thought and free inquiry, but I find them to be no substitute for the work of educating the ignorant and lifting up the lowly. Time and toil have nearly taken me away from the lecture field, but I still have a good word to say in the cause to which the American Missionary Association is devoted."--The American Missionary.

        MR. DOUGLASS HAD AN UNPLEASANT EXPERIENCE as president of the "Freedman's Savings and Trust Company," otherwise known as the Freedman's Bank, to which office he was elected at a time when by the grossest mismanagement and actual theft on the part of its officers it was inevitably becoming bankrupt. This connection, as he says in his life, brought upon him such detraction and abuse as he had never encountered, and yet he was in no respect blamable, and his sole effort in his office was to wind up the concern with as little loss to the depositors as might be.

        Mr. Douglass married, a few years after his escape from slavery,

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a woman of his race who had also escaped, and she was the mother of his children, all of whom, we believe, are still living, worthy citizens, doing their work in the world. A few years ago he married Miss Helen M. Pitts, a white woman of fine breeding and culture, who had been a clerk in the United States Marshal's office in Washington. The marriage brought to him for a while some unpopularity among the people of his race, and even caused some family trouble, but neither result was lasting. Those who met Mr. and Mrs. Douglass in their fine home at Anacostia know that the marriage justified itself in the perfect community of relations. It should be added that Frederick Douglass has been, from the earliest impulse of his public life, an advocate of the suffrage for women.--Springfield Republican.

        A REMARKABLE LIFE HIS CERTAINLY WAS, covering the span of slavery, a freedom gained by flight, his subsequent freedom by purchase, and the subsequent freedom of his race through the fortunes of a war in which they took no controlling part. Leading up to this war, the undoubted eloquence of Douglass contributed a great deal. It was felt throughout the North that if a man of his talent was a fair type of his race, that their freedom was worth procuring at any cost. The result, of course, has been disappointing to those enthusiasts, for Douglass was but the meteoric exception in a cloudless sky. Even the form of his exception did not indicate the strong traits which characterize great people, for it is a fact of history that many of the weakest people of the earth have excelled in the one line of oratory. For the last few years Douglass has not been in favor with his people. He lost caste with them when he did not esteem one of their women worthy of being his wife, but married a white woman instead. Having lost the favor of the women of his race, the sentimental chord which made his name as music to their ears was snapped in twain.--Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution.

        THE death of Hon. Frederick Douglass, announced in these columns last week, has called forth from every section and every class expressions of the deepest regret and sympathy. Memorial services have been held in all parts of the country, and the most tender tributes of respect have been paid to his memory.--American Baptist.

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        IT was vouchsafed to Mr. Douglass to live to a ripe old age, and to see the cause for which he struggled and with which he was so closely identified, blossom and ripen into a glorious fruitage. He died rich in honors, but richer still in the affections of patriotic and liberty-loving people everywhere; and in the humble cabin home of the lowly, as well as in those of more affluent circumstances, his name will ever remain as an inspiration to high and noble deeds.--New Orleans Monitor.

        FREDERICK DOUGLASS, thoroughly identified with the colored race in the public estimation, though with a full half of white blood in his veins, was a man superior in mental ability to the average representative in the Congress of the United States. He had a taste for politics, and many of the characteristics of that class of men who are known as politicians. Yet Frederick Douglass never ventured to offer himself as a candidate for Congress in any Northern district. The truth is, and it may as well be admitted, that there is a great deal of color prejudice North as well as South. We have never believed in electing a man to office because he belonged to the colored race, but where races are equally recognized as entitled to citizenship there is no adequate reason for refusing a man the distinction in public to which his talents entitle him because his skin is darker than that of most of his fellows. The country is not yet equal to according this justice, but perhaps it may be in the next century.--Boston Herald.

        FREDERICK DOUGLASS stood for a cause, and his name is symbolical of the struggle for human liberty in the United States. He was the oracle of his people. He spoke for them, and they listened to his counsel and followed where he led. A man with a more angular character could not have accomplished what Mr. Douglass did. It is well for the race that he so thoroughly comprehended the temper of the American people, and was able to disarm opposition by good natured argument. Those who would wear his mantle