Documenting the American South Logo

The Liberian Exodus. First Voyage of the Azor. Liberia a Delightful Country.
Climate, Soil and Productions. Character of the People in Liberia; and How They Live.
Full Information of the Exodus Movement:

Electronic Edition.

Liberian Exodus Association (Charleston, S. C.)

Funding from the Library of Congress/Ameritech National Digital Library Competition supported the electronic publication of this title.

Text scanned (OCR) by Courtney Vien
Images scanned by Andrew Leiter
Text encoded by Andrew Leiter and Jill Kuhn Sexton
First edition, 2000
ca. 55K
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

No Copyright in US

Source Description:

(title page) The Liberian Exodus. First Voyage of the Azor. Liberia a Delightful Country. Climate, Soil, and Productions. Character of the People in Liberia; and How They Live. Full Information of the Exodus Movement.
Liberian Exodus Association (Charleston, S. C.)
8 p.
Charleston, S. C.
W. J. Oliver's Print
Pam Coll. 5582 (Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University Libraries)

        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South.
        This electronic edition has been created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). OCR-ed text has been compared against the original document and corrected. The text has been encoded using the recommendations for Level 4 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines.
        Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. Encountered typographical errors have been preserved, and appear in red type.
        Any hyphens occurring in line breaks have been removed, and the trailing part of a word has been joined to the preceding line.
        All quotation marks, em dashes and ampersand have been transcribed as entity references.
        All double right and left quotation marks are encoded as " and " respectively.
        All em dashes are encoded as --
        Indentation in lines has not been preserved.
        Spell-check and verification made against printed text using Author/Editor (SoftQuad) and Microsoft Word spell check programs.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

Languages Used:

LC Subject Headings:

Revision History:






The Steamship.


Charleston, S. C.
W. J. Oliver's Print, 127 Meeting-street, Charleston, S. C.

Page 2





        Now that the first voyage to Africa under the direction of this Association has been completed, and the BARK AZOR safely returned, the Council desire to lay before the public the following facts, to answer and satisfy all enquiries concerning this great movement. And we here take the opportunity to say, that since emigration to Africa commenced under the Exodus Association by the colored people themselves, there have been more interest elicited and information obtained this one year than during the whole sixty years previously under auspices of the Colonization Society. The Colonization Society was the parent and originator of emigration to Africa by the African Race from America; and upon this subject, the Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, of Baltimore, President of the American Colonization Society, and probably a member from its organization, in a letter to the Council, dated the 24th of June, 1878, says:

        "Regarding, as I have always done, the action of the American Colonization Society as mainly directed to the preparation for, and the facilitating of just such movements as the Exodus Association proposes, it was impossible for me to see what has been doing in this connection in Charleston, without feeling the liveliest interest; and if the expression of my views in the public prints has given satisfaction to the Board of Directors, I am much gratified.

        Will you say this to them on my account. They are engaged in a great work, not to be accomplished on the instant. They must be satisfied to hasten slowly, to expect an occasional disappointment, to find themselves set back; but, under all circumstances, the conviction that they are carrying out a vast design upon a sound principle, must assure them ultimate success.

Very respectfully,




        We give extracts of a series of ten letters written by a correspondent, A. B. Williams, Esqr., sent out to Africa on the AZOR, expressly to report the facts respecting the country of Liberia, which we take


        Liberia is undoubtedly


and possesses a soil which it is hard to beat. There is money to be made here, and lots of it. But it will take hard work, thrift and good management to get it.

* * * * * * *

        Those who fall short, and come expecting to find a heaven on earth, in which they will have to work no more, and who are unprovided with means, will soon become disappointed and disgusted, and want to get back to America. Many have come here and gone away to abuse the country, but I think they generally belong to the class last named. I can see no earthly reason why a careful, well provided and good emigrant cannot, by a few years' faithful work, achieve independence. There should be as large a portion of able-bodied hands brought along as possible. The man who has no sons or brothers to help him can well afford to bring along two, three, four or five single nephews, cousins or friends. They can all draw land, if twenty-one years of age, and immigrants


        for labor and everything else, as far as possible. They should also bring a supply of mattocks, hoes, &c., and garden seed. In short they should equip themselves completely in America. The first three or four months will be lost here, in building, fever, &c., and for some time after that it will not be prudent to work between 10 A. M. and 2 P. M. They must remember, too, that the land given them is not fenced meadow. It is a dense growth of woods, brush and grass, which will have to be cleared, and the sooner that is done the better. Every cargo of such immigrants that comes here greatly strengthens the country and the more it is settled the easier row the new comers will have to hoe. Let no one come here depending on the government or people for aid.

* * * * * * *


        is assuredly a most delightful one, so far as temperature is concerned, the thermometer never falling below 70, and very rarely rising above 93. It generally ranges between 80 and 90 during the "dries," and between 70 and 80 during the rains. Trees, vegetables and flowers retain their verdure, bear and bloom throughout the year.


        of the older and wealthier planters along the

Page 3

St. Paul's resembles in many particulars that of the Southern planter in the "good old days." Having a good brick house built, and his coffee, or sugar plantation well under weigh, the tiller of the soil generally takes his ease, wears good clothes, and smokes, only exercising a supervision of his affairs. The spirit or wine decanter is almost invariably at the service of his guests, and when he goes visiting or to Monrovia, he steps into his canoe, calls his crew together, and travels comfortably and sedately. As the present generation is growing old, the children take charge after the return of the heir from his school and "finishing tour." In view of all this, it is ridiculous to suppose that the Liberians are relapsing into barbarism. On the contrary, it is apparent that EACH GENERATION IS BRINGING THEM STEADILY NEARER TO PERFECT CIVILIZATION. While these old lords of the soil in their conscious or unconscious aping of their former master's former lives, present occasionally ludicrous contrasts to their models by ignorance and lack of culture, their sons and daughters are growing up better educated, trained and supplied with the requirements of intelligent men and women. I saw the Liberians (especially the younger ones) brought into contact, and consequently contrast, with the AYOR's immigrants. It showed there and then that whether the negro is capable of attaining the white man's level or not, he is capable of becoming much nearer a perfect man than he is in America. It showed that there is more capability in him for improvement than we have developed. It is conclusive evidence that there is a vast amount of good mental ground lying fallow, wasting or running to noxious weeds, in the negro. It is as well to say it right here--despite their many ignorances, their conceit and their improvidence and inertness, the average Liberian is in most ways immeasurably superior to the average American negro, and those at Sierra Leone are as far above him in acquirements as the clouds are above the earth. In the social refinements the better classes of colored people there seems perfect. In one thing I could notice distinctly the three degress of progression, as illustrated by the English Colony negro, the Liberian negro and the American negro.* * *


        I had an opportunity of inspecting the interior of more of the houses. Nearly all of the dwellings, in Liberia, outside of Monrovia, are furnished plainly--very much in the style prevalent among colored folks in America. There were the familiar plaster of Paris images, dogs and cats on the mantles, the familiar gaudily gilded and painted china cups and mugs, and the familiar ghastly caricatures of Scriptural scenes, where a knock-kneed Joseph is always being sold into captivity in a yellow shawl by an obviously intoxicated gentleman with very pink legs and very large arms, who holds in his other hand a long walking stick, while a blue camel watches the proceedings with an air of personal interest. Altogether I could easily imagine myself in the best room of a respectable colored family down South. In Monrovia more of an attempt at elegance is made, there being wide settees and more elaborate furniture generally. The pictures, however, are invariably common and poor.* * * *


        This government is fortunate in having no paupers to look out for. The President says there are only two of that class in the teritory. This speaks well for the soil. One thing gives me hope of Liberia, and that is the apparently


        From the highest to the lowest all seem to have an unalterable faith in the Almighty, and believe in His active interference in human affairs. Solomon was a wise man, and knew more and had seen more of real life than nine hundred and ninety-nine thousandths of us with all our steam and telegraph, and when he said "in all thy ways acknowledge Him and He shall direct thy paths," he must have meant it. Or looking at it from an absolutely outside standpoint, there is another proposition. Christianity, where it exists, must be progressive. For that we have the word of its greatest exemplars and teachers. The progressiveness of Christianity is certainly towards perfection, and the nearer a people approach perfection their creations must keep pace. This isn't a sermon, but a practical view of matters, which the veriest infidel can agree with. Churches are everywhere, and in almost every settlement in Liberia. The Methodists largely predominate, but there are quite a number of Baptists, with a fair sprinkle of Presbyterians, and some Episcopalians. Of the latter church the Rt. Rev. Dr. Penick, a Virginia clergyman, is the bishop. His residence is at Grand Cape Mount, and I had no opportunity of seeing him, but on all sides he is most highly spoken of both as a minister and a man. From all accounts he is setting the Liberians a good example of the quaintly expessed principle,

                         "Pray to God devoutly,
                         And hammer away stoutly,"
as I was told of his having been engaged in the woods, cutting away with his own hands, preparing timber.

* * * * * * *


        Monrovia, and in fact all of the towns through Liberia, seem to be very orderly and quiet. I have not seen a single drunken or disorderly person. A municipal police system is maintained, however. In Monrovia there are fifteen policemen, who wear no uniform or badge of authority. They stand on corners and expectorate, however, as gracefully and vigilantly as any other guardians of the peace, although the American officer does possess a great advantage in having a club to swing on a great red cord. There are jails in nearly every settlement. but they rarely confine anybody except petty criminals, I think most of the work the jailor at Monrovia has to do is to keep the cows out of the building. It resembles the ordinary country jail in the South but, from what I saw, I can't see why any man should stay in unless he wanted to.

Native Produce and Traffic with Natives.


        which, he informed me, had been growing there for nine years, bearing regularly every year, and on two or three occasions twice a year,

Page 4

from 2,000 to 3,000 bolls. Of the cotton itself I have secured a specimen. It is long staple, and resemble our sea island, only it is not quite so fine. This


        about the country, and nobody seems to pay my attention to it, except the natives, who with their primitive looms, manufacture from it a coarse strong cloth which they wear almost universally. They weave strips about six inches wide, and of any required length. These strips are subsequently woven together into the cloth, which is traded to the Liberian store keeper, who sells it out again to his customers. The cloths generally sell according to width, about 12 1/2 cents being charged for each "strip" contained in them. They are dyed usually with indigo, which also grows wild, in blue stripes of different widths on the white ground. One I saw, however, which was quite elaborate, there being rude attempts at reproducing the shapes of flowers on it. I obtained a couple of these also. From all I can see, I know of no reason why Liberia should not with proper care become one of the great cotton producing countries. There is no replanting necessary except every twelve or fifteen years; the plant bears the first year, and soon becomes strong enough to defy grass.


        In rambling around, my companion, the doctor. showed me the fever plant, the leaves of which, made into tea, are almost a sovereign cure for fevers; the soap tree, the leaves of which, when bruised, lather like soap and are almost as efficacious for cleaning rough surfaces; the tooth plant, a white leaf, which, as I ascertained by experiment, by a little rubbing, clean and polish your teeth beautifully; the hemorrhage plant, the leaves of which when applied to a wound staunch the flow of blood; pepper plants, licorice, ginger and lemon plants a leaf smelling and tasting like lemon and an admirable medical agent; then the mangove ash makes the strongest sort of lye; and the uses of the palm and bread fruit tree, everybody knows. Cassada is a long root, generally about two inches thick, which is palatable when properly cooked, and is very nutritious. Indigo is abundant. Walking about Clay-Ashland you kick up pure silicate from the ground in flakes at every step, and I was shown specimens of ore which, even I could see, were rich in iron. Some of this ore, I am told, yields 85 per cent. of pure iron. The natives bring pure gold from the interior to trade, and we procured a ruby, picked up from the ground. The Liberians claim that there are diamonds also, but precious stones seem very scarce. These things I do not give as rumors but as the result of diligent inquiries among different people at different times and places, and of personal inspection. At Clay-Ashland, as well as every where else in Liberia, everybody is mad on the subject of coffee.


        is a beautiful one, generally growing, when developed and under cultivation, from six to ten feet high, with a large dark green leaf, (here like everything else an evergreen.) It is generally planted by scions or slips, the little trees being taken from the beds when well started and transplanted. The coffee grows in thickly clustering bunches along the branches, and is green in color, until ripe, when it turns red. A thick pod or case envelopes the grains, which is beaten off when gathered and dried. The grains are very large, and the coffee itself is delicious, to my taste fully equalling, if not surpassing, Mocha. The coffee trees are usually planted about 400 to the acre, and begin to bear well the third year. The trees yield from one to five pounds of coffee grains each, which sell at 20 cents per pound, wholesale, at Monrovia. While on this subject, I may say that I saw in the Courthouse yard in Monrovia a coffee tree fully twenty-five feet high, from which from five to ten pounds of the grain are gathered every year. The coffee-picking season is over now, lasting from February to May. I saw the trees growing wild and uncared for in the bush in one place, and about the yards and streets in Monrovia. Almost everybody near the landings along the St. Paul's has a little store under their dwelling where they carry on a


        Exchanging calicoes, kettles, guns, beads, &c., for country cloths, palm kernels, coffee and rice. The palm kernels are the nuts gathered from the palm tree, and, with the oil pressed from them, form one of the chief articles of export, the oil being extensively used for the manufacture of fine paints and soaps. The English and French manufacturers extract the oil from the kernels, and press the remainder into cakes, which is said to make an excellent food for cattle. Almost everybody handles palm oil; nearly the whole of Liberia seems to smell of it, and the odor is not a particularly delightful one.


        also grows in a wild and half wild state, and but little care seems to be devoted to its production. It is kept in the husk until wanted for use, when the required quantity is put in a wooden mortar, and hammered on until it is cleaned, and tolerably well broken up. It is a good article to the taste, being richer than our white rice. The Liberians claim that this effect is produced by keeping it unhulled. Notwithstanding its growth at their very doors, however, they import India rice for consumption. Although in the country with cattle all about, we had English canned butter at Clay-Ashland. I only saw milk at two places in Liberia, and then it was in the coffee. They say that the cows give so little milk that it's hardly worth while feeding them. I believe, though, that the experiment of carefully feeding and attending to milch cattle has not as yet been tried. Clay-Ashland is like the other settlements, scattering far and wide over the country, with every vacant lot densely overgrown with underbrush, and all the roads covered with grass. We left there early on Monday morning, continuing our course up the river. The day was the one appointed for the opening of the quarterly court at Monrovia and as we went up we met quite a number of planters coming down to attend. They make quite


        of the long "dug-outs," having cushioned or covered and backed seats near the stern, in which the "boss" reclines beneath the shade of his umbrella and smoke his pipe, or leisurely discuss a lunch or a bottle of wine, while

Page 5

the seven, eight, nine or ten natives who compose the crew paddle away singing merrily. In one of these craft I noticed the two "bosses," leaning comfortably back, facing each other, with a little table between them, from which they ate breakfast. In several places, on each side of the river, small creeks flow into it. These are generally bridged just at their mouths by flimsy foot bridges, supported on long, insecure looking poles. These creeks are the great resorts of the hippopotamus, (river horse.)

* * * * * * *


        The great probability is, though, that most of them will settle a little way back from the St. Paul's river. In two or three days from now some of the leading men will go up that river to look around, but there is hardly a chance of their becoming permanently located before the latter part of July. The government and a number of the people are very much interested in them, and it is very certain that they will not be allowed to suffer. One of my chief reasons for thinking that they will settle on the St. Paul's is that this part of the country is easier of access than any other.

* * * * * * *

        Besides this, the two or three who have already been exploring seem delighted with the country thereabouts.


        have continued to be tolerably comfortable, and the landing of their furniture has made their condition much more tolerable. Many have been imprudent in eating fruit, which causes some additional cases of sickness to those landing. One family, in two or three days, completely stripped a large mango tree in their yard, many of the mangoes being green. This is only one case that I happen to know of.

* * * * * * *

        Most of them seem well pleased so far, and some have sent for their friends to come. One head of a family only seems discouraged, and expresses a wish to return. The others seem disposed to re-echo the sentiments expressed (whether sincerely or no, I cannot say,) by most of the Liberians, who say that they would not leave the country for any inducement that could be offered. Several planters have expressed


        to work on their farms, and I heard one or two offer to house several families GRATIS in the country until their own places were fit for occupation. A few of the AZOR's people who are rather better off than the general run may locate at Grand Cape Mount. Clement Irons, the millwright, has received several advantageous offers from persons along the St. Paul's, and will doubtless locate there. The immigrants generally seem to have made a favorable impression, and fraternize rapidly with the Liberians. Arrangements have been made to keep the readers of "The News and Courier" fully advised of the fate and doings of all of members of the immigration. I think they are generally of


        to succeed. They, one and all, avow their eagerness to get to work, and their determination to "stick at it" until they accomplish something. All have, as before mentioned, a good supply of seeds of various sorts. Several valuable and useful pieces of machinery, carts, ploughs, &c., were also brought along. So far as it is possible to judge, they will prove enterprising and energetic.


Letter to Rev. B. F. Porter from a Prominent Citizen of the Black Republic.

The following letter was received, addressed to "The News and Courier," and evidently intended for publication. The writer is high sheriff of the county of Montserrado, and a prominent and influential man:

MONROVIA, June 16, 1878.

To the Rev. Benjamin Porter, President of the Liberian Exodus Association:

        MY DEAR SIR--I have the pleasure of announcing to you the arrival of your vessel, the AZOR, commanded by Capt. Holmes. The vessel had a passage of forty-three days, which was owing, after the vessel had come on our coast, to the light winds prevailing at this season of the year. I congratulate you on your selection of Capt. Holmes as captain of the AZOR. He deserves thanks for his good management and his humanity towards the emigrants. They themselves have accorded the same praise to him without a dissenting voice, and we further think that he is the right man in the right place, and that the company would well consult its interest every way by continuing or getting a man like him in their service. As to the selection of emigrants our citizens are favorably impressed with them, and consider them as an effective industrial material, capable of raising any nation. We cannot blame the white people for not wishing to lose such labor-power, and such a quantity of it.

        With regard to your commissioners, Mr. C. Irons, Mr. Gaillard, and Mr. S. F. Flegler, Mr. Curtis, their associate, does not seem to harmonize with them. I have done all I could to mediate between them, as the Good Book says, "Blessed is the peace-maker." I would advise you to so arrange your commissioners on this side of the Atlantic that they may be empowered to work under your charter--of the "Liberian Exodus Association"--so that in case that any of our citizens here should wish to take shares, they can do so with the same security as they would do where the society was originated, since it has been mooted that a similar company is to be established here.

        A disposition on the part of our people out here to be just and upright will allow nothing to be started or organized of the kind outside of what you have done. They are willing to co-operate, unite and extend that which you have begun and nothing else.

        Being a well-wisher to your policy and plans, I shall discourage everything that does not appear to me to correspond with it and promote its interests.

        There is another very important thing. Whenever you have occasion to send vessels out here, it would pay fifty per cent. to send a cargo of provisions, &c., independent of all things else. It will always keep your vessels from returning empty-handed from this coast. Your vessel, the AZOR, came here freighted with nothing else but the emigrants and their effects.

Page 6

        Now to have made this expedition itself pay, had you put on board an additional trading cargo of provisions and general merchandise, she never would have returned in mere ballast.

        The commercial statistics of England show the large amount of products exchanged for their manufactures on the Liberian coast. Besides, we are becoming fast a coffee-producing people, nor can the world well compete with us so far as the quality is concerned.

        Yates & Porterfield's vessels always return home well ladened with our coffee. The percentage of the revenue is well on to $200,000. These figures intimate what you can do, if you like, commercially, at the same time you are engaged in your noble work of transferring our people out here. Believe me, the whole trafic of Liberia is yours if the proper policy is pursued, not to say anything of what the interior is capable of producing when developed.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


St. Paul's River, Clay-Ashland.


About land.

MONROVIA, LIBERIA, W. A., June 6, 1878.

Mr. Aaron Logan :

        DEAR SIR:--I received your valued favor bearing date 10th April, ult., and assure you that it was much appreciated by me, because I see that your object is to till the soil, etc. This is the grand enterprise that is calculated to bring up a young and feeble country and will secure to yourself wealth and independence, as well as freedom.

        Land on the St. Paul's River is taken up to the foot of the rapids, a distance of 20 miles. You might purchase land from private individuals, say from 10 to 100 acres and perhaps more, four, five to ten dollars an acre, but I would not advise you to purchase these lands. You can secure any quantity of land from one to three miles back from the river, for seventy-five cents to one dollar and fifty cents per acre; but the lands that I think would suit can be had on Little Cape Mount River, or at Grand Cape Mount, which will be direct on the front. This land you may purchase from two to five dollars an acre, and can get as much of it as you may want. If you choose to do so you may appoint some agent or friend to select some choice place for you. Perhaps a private sale might be effected, and it might be purchased at a much less fignre from the Government. You might have any preparation and improvement made upon the land previous to your arrival here. This land could be secured by deed, accompanied with a plat of the survey, etc., previous to your arrival here, and the place be somewhat prepared for your reception on your arrival. This is a country of land which can be obtained almost for any price, but choice positions, of course, sell at a higher rate. You had better come over as soon as possible and save your hay while the sun shines; we have a blessed climate, water and country, and delays are bad in all things.

        Cattle, sheep, goats, ducks, turkeys, and fowls thrive well here. Our principle products for export are, sugar, coffee, ginger and arrowroot. But for home consumption we raise nearly everything you raise in America.

        The AZOR arrived here with emigrants on the 2d inst., forty-two days from Charleston. On account of head winds she had to be towed from Sierra Leone to Monrovia by a mail steamer, which I learn cost them $200 or $960. I learn that twenty-one emigrants died on the voyage, the rest all well and doing well at present.

        I may say in addition that good lands can be secured on the Farmington River, within miles of a little town on the sea coast called Marshall or Junk, which is situated at the junction of three different rivers and is about forty miles south of Monrovia. Little Cape Mount is about thirty miles, and Graud Cape Mount about forty miles north of Monrovia. You can readily see from the situation of Junk it is in time destined to become an important place.

        I would write more fully but as I hasten to answer your valued favor, time will not permit.

Yours very respectfully,


Reception of the Exodus Emigrants.


Mr. Aaron Logan:

        MY DEAR SIR--I enclose to you the resolutions of a meeting held in Monrovia upon the arrival of the Azor, together with the doings of that meeting, in order that you may see the sense and spirit in which our people are prepared to receive and accept things;

        WHEREAS, a spirit of emigration to country from the Southern portion of the United States of America now prevails among its colored population, the earnestness of which is shown by their exterior combinations, and systematic organizations, as well as the purchase of a commodious vessel for their transportation, and WHEREAS, we have now in our harbor the bark "Azor " (the property of the Liberian Exodus Association of South Carolina) with the first company on board fleeing from that social ostracism and political oppression in the land of their birth, that were born of slavery, and that so palpably counteract those grand principles set forth in the magna charta of that country, that all men are endowed with certain inalienable rights, life, liberty and the acquirement of property: that all men are created equal, that to secure these rights governments are instituted amongst men; and WHEREAS, now they are removed beyond those influences which depressed them in their native land, and are here enabled to enjoy those rights and privileges, and exercise and improve those faculties with which they have been endowed by the God of nature, in common with the rest of mankind. Therefore

        Resolved, That we hail their arrival, in our city, with pleasure, and extend to them a hearty welcome, we give them the right hand of fellowship to take part with us in the great work of civilizing and evangelizing, a continent.

        Resolved, That we recognize them as fellow workers, laying aside then every unworthy motive, discountenancing demagogism, and keeping aloof from a narrow and unintelligent view of public acts and politics on the one hand, and the ultra liberalism, on the other, that would copy entirely the views and acts of

Page 7

other wealthier and more advanced nations, let us unitedly make a policy of our own, to be dictated by our surroundings and influenced by or our circumstances and natural peculiarities.

        Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing preamble and resolutions duly signed by the chairman and secretary of the meeting, be presented to the directors representing the "Liberian Exodus Association" in behalf of the citizens of the city of Monrovia.

Respectfully submitted.

Signed. J. T. Richardson, H. D. Brown, J. W. Hilson, C. L. Parsons, T. G. Fuller.

Letters from Exodus Emigrants.


June, 1878.

Mr. E. R. Middleton:

        MY DEAR FRIEND--I had a very good time of sailing, only I was sea-sick when I reached here. At my surprise I found that we are well cared for by our friends; they all seem to love us, saying to American Africans "fathers and mothers, sons and daughters, come home and let us build up our fatherland, there is more land here than you all will be able to occupy." I find it to be a good place--the best land for planting in the world; twenty-five acres will produce as much as one hundred acres in America, and fruits of all kinds. As far as you can see, are nothing but green fruits and valuable trees--we have potatoes, sugar-cane, corn and rice growing here, but everything is very dear, such as you have to contend with in America, and all who are coming please tell them to bring everything that they can possibly buy. Your greenbacks and silver coin are used out here, all except coppers which are by far different. Those who are coming here--brother Alston wanted to know if it is needful to bring his horse, yes, bring everything that you all can afford: for things are very dear--cloth is selling from 25 to 50 cents a yard, that is, cloth at 8 and 20 cents in America; sugar 25 cents per pound, meat 25 cents per pound, shawls at $4 and $5 a piece, such as what you pay $1.50 for in America. So then supply yourselves sufficient with everything. I will say without fear, this is the best country in the world;--a man can live happy here without the least fear; come all who wants to enjoy freedom, what you all raise there you can here; there are more kinds of trees here than there is in America; there are also mines of all descriptions: iron, silver and the finest kind of bricks and stones covers the streets; the finest houses can be erected here, all that is wanting are workmen and money, and Charleston would be but a lighthouse to this place; and every person that can come, there is room sufficient for them, I my friends expect to die here, for every blow I strike is freedom. Our friends out here rejoices to see us, and wants all of you to come and commence to work. I am happy as I can be, and now to my young friends, come on, and all if you want to enjoy freedom, it is nothing but freedom; if you have a trade of any kind bring your tools along.

        You will have to try and put steamers and ships on the line, so that you can come in haste; the more you buy the more powerful you will make your country; we are going to work. You all can afford to buy goods out there and bring them out here cheaper than the English or any other country, and make a plenty to bear your expenses, so send or bring your goods with you. Oh, this is a great country, the bricks and precious stones are under our feet, and all that is desire is for us to put forth an effort and thus be benefitted by it. This is the coolest season of the year, and the right time to plant. Major M. R. Delany is well known out here Rev. B. F. Porter's labor is not in vain, and it will be remembered throughout the world--do not mind what men may say or do, but go on.

        To the members of Morris Brown Church I send you my heartfelt love, and hope that you are remembering me when you pray; stand up for brother Porter, aid him in his works, and if you will listen to him and come out here like we have, you will be done with serfdom, starvation and want, and the light of Christ will shine in our hearts. Now, in conclusion, I say to you and all, that these are facts, and if I were not sick I would have sent you something to look at. I am happy to write to you.

I remain yours as ever,


A Letter from Africa.


The following letter has been received from Africa by Mr. H. H Mouzon, of Kingstree, S. C. MONROVIA, LIBERIA, June 9, 1878.

        My dear Brother--I take the opportunity of writing you a few lines, I hope they will find you all well as they leave me.* * *

        I had a very fine time coming across the ocean, and all would have had the same if it had not been for the measels which we had to contend with; we lost (on the voyage) twenty-five persons, mostly children, that had the measels and caught colds.

        Brother, this is one of the finest countries that I have ever seen, you could not imagine the intelligence there is in this place. You can come over here with only a small amount of money and in a short length of time show yourself a man. There are men here in this place that have only been here ten years and they are now independent, owning from $5,000 to $40,000 each; you can judge how things are working here. All that is wanting is labor and skill. The society here is just as fine as you can find anywhere.

        Please give my love to all of the family. I shall try and get home by the last of November or the middle of December. Let me hear from you all as soon as you can make it suit. I remain your brother,



        Private letters have been received from Mr. Gaillard and Mr. Irons who left here on the Azor, for Liberia. Mr. Gaillard says to his mother that if she wants to see him again she must sell out and come to Liberia. Mr. Irons says he is walking on gold every day, has bought 100 acres from the government and is superintendent of seven mills at a salary of $500 for each mill--total salary $3,500: How is that for Liberia? It is better than being Governor of South Carolina.

Page 8

Rev. B. F. PORTER, Jr.,
Rev. J. E. HAYNE,
M. R. DELANY, Chairman,

Committee on Home and Foreign Correspondence.

Charleston, S. C., September, 1878.



        That the Public may be thoroughly informed, the Board of Directors of the Steamship Company lay before it, the following important facts:

        1st. The Capital Stock of the company is two million dollars; the Charter running forty seven years.

         2d The number of shares is two hundred thousand; the price of stock is consoquently only Ten Dollars a share.

         3d. Any stockholder is entitled to a passage to Africa on one share of ten dollars, without regard to time, whether one day after purchase or at the end of the forty-seven years of the charter limitation.

        4th. Each share is always good for, and entitled to a dividend by the holder, whenever such profits are declared or made by the directors; but no share can be used more than once for a passage in any of the company's vessels.

         5th. The object of this organization is not to accumulate means by the enhancement of the valuation of stocks on the market, but to establish a permanent means by which the African race, in this country, may be able to get to Africa.

         6th. This scheme fully ensures that, by placing a passage in the reach of the humblest individual by his taking one share of stock in this company.

         7th. When the company shall have exhausted their entire stock of two hundred thousand shares, it is apparent to every one capable of comprehending it, that the surplus funds invested, over and above all current expenses, will enable the company to continue the carriage of emigrants at ten dollars a passage to Africa, through all coming time.

         8th. Instead of requiring emigrants to furnish their own provisions on the passage experience has compelled a change, and each passenger is hereafter required, on entering his name on the passenger list, at the office of the company, to pay the sum of $12 50 (twelve dollars and fifty cents) in cash. This is much more economical to the passengers, saving them from imposition in the purchase of provisions, and waste on the passage.

         9th. All transient steerage passengers will pay at the Company's office before going on board, $37 50 (thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents) cash; cabin fare $65 00 (sixty-five dollars). Children twelve (12) years of age, full fare; all children under twelve, half fare; infants at the breast, free passage.

         10th. Ten thousand shares of stock must be sold as soon as possible, as the demand for a steamship is now most pressing; and the sale of thirty thousand shares will enable us, in two years time, to have three steamships capable of carrying a thousand people each, and thereby make monthly voyages to and from Africa.

         11th. To this end, we must have in each of our sister Southern States, an efficient agent to solicit and sell shares of stock, such agents must be well recommended, and acceptably vouched for by known men of integrity. But any gentleman remitting, by express, the cash from subscribers for one hundred shares, will be entitled to an agency, and so appointed.

         12th. Ten per centum is paid to all stock agents, each of whom must be duly commissioned by a credential from the company, with its seal, and supplied with receipt books of the company, which receipts when returned to the office of the company in Charleston, will be received in exchange for Certificates of Stock to the holder.

         Receipts may be returned for the holder from any place by the agent, to whom the certificates of Stock will be sent for the owners. This, as a general rule, is the safe and business like way of transacting such matters.

         13th. Our line does not connect with any other transportation company, by land or sea, excepting a co-operation with the Liberians, arrangements to which effect are now being made, all to be of one and the same company--the L. E. J. S. S. S. Company--and the placing on of steamers, will enable us to send a vessel EN ROUTE from the port of Charleston, to touch at any port on the Atlantic coast, where passengers to the number of forty may be in readiness to embark for Africa.

         14th. Freight of every description, and merchandise will be carried by our line, orders for which must be sent to the Exodus Office, No. 5, Exchange-street.

         15th. Ten thousand shares of stock must be sold immediately, that a steamship may be put on the line at once; as we shall not open negociations for its purchase until the cash is in bank to pay for it. This is positive.

         16th. The advantage in securing shares immediately is, that passengers are received by the number of their certificate of stock, and consequently, those who got their shares before others have the preference in going on the vessel that is to sail.

Rev. B. F. PORTER,
R. DELANY, Chairman.
Committee on Warehouse & Transportation.
September, 1878.