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An Outline of Baptist History: A Splendid Reference Work for Busy Workers:
A Record of the Struggles and Triumphs of Baptist Pioneers and Builders:

Electronic Edition.

Pius, N. H.

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(title page) An Outline of Baptist History: A Splendid Reference Work for Busy Workers. A Record of the Struggles and Triumphs of Baptist Pioneers and Builders
(cover) An Outline of Baptist History
N. H. Pius, D.D.
202 p.
Nashville, Tenn.
National Baptist Publishing Board
Call number B 268 P683 (Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina)
Includes: 1940-1941 First Annual Report of the Historian. Shreveport, Louisiana : National Baptist Convention of America, 1941. Historian C. Charles Taylor New Orleans, Louisiana.
Apparently a reissue of Pius' 1911 work, expanded with new material, but retaining the original t.p.

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N. H. PIUS, D. D.


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        In sending forth this little volume we make no claim of having written fully of the rise, sufferings and achievements of Baptists. Believing that there is an imperative demand for an outline history of the Baptists that would be comprehensive enough to include all branches of the family--East and West, North and South, black and white--we have attempted to meet this demand. Never before have young Christians been called upon to study and to train themselves for Christian service as they are being called upon now, and it is therefore essential that they have knowledge and facts put within their reach. It is inspiring to note how the various denominations are responding to the call; how the men and women of Christian culture and religious zeal are giving the best efforts of their broad minds to the proper development of the present generation of young Christians who are even now being called to leadership in the ever increasing number of new movements among the young people of our churches.

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        Next to the personal call of the Master the greatest incentive to young Christians is a record of the glorious achievements of their noble fathers who fought their way to victory under the matchless standard of the Cross. We will therefore be pardoned if we have pointed with special pride to the magnificent record made by the Negro Baptist army. The peculiar conditions under which these sons of God of sable hue live--separate from their white brethren practically in all things--make it singularly difficult for them to know and to be known by the white Baptists. It is thus very hard for them to understand why the many histories of the Baptists so completely ignore them while conditions in all avenues force them to a separate existence; for indeed where they are not especially pointed out, they are regarded as not being concerned.

        It has been our delight to give full recognition to the glory and honor achieved by the white Baptist Brotherhood and to the great good they have brought to their brother in black. We herewith express our gratefulness to the Home Mission Society, the Southern Baptist Convention, and the American Baptist Publication Society for the chapters furnished for this volume by their representatives. We are indebted to

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authors Cramp, Vedder, Ray and Jarrell for their splendid service to us in the preparation of this work.

        Praying devoutly that this little book may be in some measure a help and an inspiration to the young Baptists of our land,



Nashville, Tenn., 1910.

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        History always interesting and fascinating is especially so when it is a record of the trials and achievements of the heroes of faith--those who have fought, not for earthly fame, but for eternal principles, and for a "a crown of life that fadeth not away." While others may write and sing of the mighty deeds of valor of those who have gone before in their line, Baptists may tell with pride, reverence and joy of the great line of heroes and martyrs who have made the name of Baptists glorious and immortal. They died for the principles we hold most sacred, and in dying they triumphed gloriously. As we thus think, the questions arise, "Whence cometh these defenders of the faith?" and "Where the beginning?" There has indeed been much controversy as to the beginning of Baptist history. Many have proudly boasted of apostolic origin and succession, while others

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have as ardently denied this claim and have insisted that Baptist footprints are first seen during the period of the Reformation or with the entrance of Bunyan upon the stage of religious activities. It may be well to suggest here that "There were Protestants before Protestantism, Reformers before the Reformation," for the corruption and falling away from the faith and the assumption of authority by the papacy provoked a succession of revolts from within the church. It was the combining of these protesting elements that finally gave rise to the great Reformation.

        "Upon this rock I will build my church," was Christ's positive statement made in response to Peter's declaration that "Thou art the Christ." Whatever questions have arisen as to the work of the Master, there is no difference of opinion as to the founding of his church. He did build his church, he and his disciples being the original members. Thus we have a local, visible church of divine authority. The New Testament word which is translated church is the Greek word ekklesia, which according to the world's best Greek lexicons means "An assembly of people called together," "An assembly called out." As is suggested by Dr. J. J. Taylor:

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        "In the New Testament Jesus uses the word ekklesia twenty-two times; in twenty-one of these he clearly uses it in reference to the local, visible, corporeal assembly, and only a manifest violation of all linguistic usage could force a different meaning in the remaining case."

        The churches of which the New Testament speaks were assemblies of baptized believers‐baptized upon a profession of their faith. (Acts 2:41.) With them Scriptural baptism was a prerequisite to church membership; in them were only two ordinances, viz: Baptism and the Lord's Supper. The officers were pastors or elders and deacons. In government these churches were separate and independent congregations, one having not the least authority or power over another. Having pointed out these essential characteristics of the Apostolic churches, we now affirm that Baptist churches of to-day are like unto them in every essential element of faith and practice.

        Apostolic succession not essential

        It is not essential, however, to the life and progress of the denomination that Baptists establish a claim to Apostolic succession, but rather that Baptist churches are Apostolic in character. Prof. Vedder is responsible

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for the following concise statement on this point:

        "To Baptists, indeed, of all people, the question of tracing their history to remote antiquity should appear nothing more than an interesting study. Our theory of the church as deduced from the Scriptures requires no outward and visible succession from the apostles. If every church of Christ were to-day to become apostate, it would be possible and right for any true believers to organize to-morrow another church on the apostolic model of faith and practice, and that church would have the only apostolic succession worth having--a succession of faith in the Lord Christ and obedience to him. Baptists have not the slightest interest therefore in wresting the facts of history from their true significance; our reliance is on the New Testament, and not on antiquity; on present conformance to Christ's teachings, not on an ecclesiastical pedigree, or the validity of our church organizations, our ordinances and our ministry. By some writers who have failed to grasp this principle, there has been a distressful effort to show a succession of Baptist churches from the apostolic age until now. It is certain, as impartial historians and critics allow, that the early churches,

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including the first century after the New Testament period, were organized as Baptist churches are now organized, and professed the faith that Baptist churches now profess."

        It is a matter of history that for several centuries before the Reformation the Roman Catholic Church was kept busy trying to annihilate various bodies of "heretics" that sprang up in different sections at different times. These "heretics" who are known to us as Christians, and called by various names, fought and died for the faith and practices of modern Baptists, some believing and contending for nearly all and others for not so many of these principles. But we must not lose sight of the fact that there was a long period when the Roman church was the only organized visible church, and they had departed from the faith. It therefore appears impossible to trace a succession of Baptist churches during that time.

        Church perpetuity in the Scripture

        Dr. J. B. Moody, in his introduction to "Baptists in History," holds that no one believes that he can prove church succession in the visible congregational sense, and that the Scriptures teach church perpetuity rather than church succession. He further

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maintains that church and kingdom as spoken of in the Scriptures sustain some sort of a relation, and cites the following passages to prove his contention that the Bible teaches church perpetuity: Dan. 2:44, 45; Psalms 145:10-13; Luke 1:33; Matt. 16:18. In support of this claim it is noted that history confirms this faith in the Bible principle of perpetuity, as it is a fact that the main features of the New Testament church were maintained to the third century when the episcopacy of the large city churches sprang up and got to itself more and greater power until the seventh century the papacy became a fact. It is a cause for great rejoicing on the part of the heralds of the faith, that while persecutions and the tyranny of the papacy swallowed up the Jews and the Emperors, they did not wholly destroy the church. Indeed the true witnesses of the Cross contended for the faith against the civil and ecclesiastical powers of the Popes, and the mountain fastnesses and the wilderness became their hiding and abiding places.

        In writing of what Baptists generally believe in regard to their origin Dr. W. P. Harvey says:

        "History points to the origin of the various denominations, and in regard to their

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respective founders there is no controversy, but strange there is no recognized historic account of the origin of Baptists this side of the apostolic age."

        Various sects in different periods held Baptist Views.

        The people now called Baptists have been known by different names in different ages and countries. We trace them not by any particular name, but by their fundamental principles. In more modern times they have been called "the baptized people," "The dippers," and Anabaptists." The latter, Dr. Armitage says, "because they baptized those who came to them from other denominations." They did their own baptizing, and recognized no other. I quote from Dr. Armitage's History of the Baptists, page 329: "By custom their most friendly historians call them Anabaptists, yet many of their opponents speak of them as Baptists." It is no surprise to us that there are some modern historians among the detructive critics who question our apostolic origin. There are Protestant writers who exonerate the papacy from responsibility for the massacre of St. Bartholomew. There are so-called scientists who dispute the law of gravitation. According to Dr. Armitage and other writers,

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Anabaptists were called Baptists, and Baptists were called Anabaptists. That Anabaptists and Baptists are frequently spoken of as the same people is abundantly supported by the greatest authors who have written on the subject. Most of their articles of faith that have come down to us are essentially Baptistic." Because of their adherence to these principles so dear to the hearts of Modern Baptists the Anabaptists found themselves alone and strenuously opposed by all others. We quote Mosheim in the following: "There were certain sects and doctors against whom the zeal, vigilance and severity of Catholics, Lutherans and Calvanists were united, and in opposing whose settlement and progress, these three communions, forgetting their dissentions, joined their most vigorous councils and endeavors. The object of this common aversions were the 'Anabaptists.' The elector of Hesse, Germany, commended in the following language the zeal of King Henry VIII, who had banished Baptists, giving them twelve days to leave his kingdom on pain of death if they disobeyed: "There are no rulers in Germany, whether they be papists or Protestants, that do suffer these men. If they come into their hands all men punish them quickly.' "

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        Beyond the AnaBaptists what?

        But what of the time prior to the coming of the Anabaptists? In this connection it is highly interesting to note a few concessions of prominent church historians and scholars to Baptist antiquity. We are indebted to Church History for the following:

        "The true origin of that sect which acquired the denominational Anabaptists by their administering anew the rite of baptism to those who came over to their communion, and derived that of Mennonites from the famous man to whom they owe the greatest part of their present felicity, IS HID IN THE DEPTHS OF ANTIQUITY, and is, of consequency, extremely difficult to be ascertained."

        Perhaps no testimony is more significant and convincing on this point than the following by Zwingli, the great Swiss Reformer:

        "The institution of Anabaptism is NO NOVELTY, but for 1300 years has caused great disturbance in the church, and has acquired such a strength that the attempt in this age to contend with it appeared futile for a time."

        As is pointed out by Dr. Harvey, if we take 1300 from 1500, the date at which Zwingli wrote, we have A. D. 200, which brings us very near the apostolic age. In

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his debate with McCalla, Alexander Campbell said: "From the apostolic age to the present time the sentiment of Baptists and their practice of baptism have had a continued chain of advocates, and public monuments of their existence in every century can be produced."

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        Drifting away and why

        As the first century A. D., was passing away a departure from the Faith was evidenced among the Christian churches. The desire and inclination to graft Christianity on to Judaism on the part of the converted Jews and the inability of the Gentiles to fully comprehend the fundamental principles of Christianity led to corruption in the church. Accustomed to the idea that outward ceremonies and sacrifices met the requirements of their Supreme Ruler, the Jews attempted to harmonize the teachings of Christ and the Apostles with the ideas of their former worship. This led them farther and farther away from the ideas of personal faith and communion with Christ, with the result, as a distinguished writer observes that "The natural result was the substitution

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of formalism for spirituality, devotion to the externals of religion taking the place of living faith." It is easily understood how these tendencies led to a corruption of doctrine and polity; how that the simplicity of the New Testament church organization, with its absolute lack of rites and ceremonies, would not meet the demands of ritualists and formalists in the churches.

        Grace through sacraments

        It was thus that the priesthood and grace through sacraments took fast hold on these crude early Christians. Hence, early in the second century we meet with the idea of the one great visible church with its priesthood and its elaborate rituals and ceremonies. With this came baptismal regeneration, thus bringing into the churches the hosts of unregenerated people, whose only claim to the new birth was that they had been baptized. Now the church is no more with them "a body of baptized believers, baptized upon a profession of their faith," but a combination of saints and sinners, the latter supposed to have received grace through baptism. With the church and the world so mixed it was but a step toward the union of church and state with the latter ultimately predominating. As a

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result of this corruption we find the monarchs and potentates of this period, though without Christ themselves, making themselves rulers over God's heritage. Announcing themselves as representatives of the Kingdom of God, they assume the leadership of the church of Christ. Surrounded as they were, by vicious and immoral officials, they soon delivered the church by placing these wretched sinners in high places in the councils of the church. What wonder that darkness followed by a scattering of the adherents to the faith came upon the churches.

        Fundamental principle of baptism vitiated

        The orgin of clinic Baptism

        Having raised baptism to a sacrament, it was but natural that these church authorities should insist upon baptism under all conditions. So that when immersion in water was not possible, some form as near to immersion as possible was to be administered. While there would be no baptism without immersion, they felt that something must be done, hence, when there was not sufficient water in which to immerse, they poured water upon the head. Now as baptism had been vitiated as to its fundamental principle, other inovations soon followed. In the third century we find the introduction of clinic baptism (from kline, a couch), the baptism of sick persons

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confined to their beds. Of this Cramp says: "It was not Baptism, properly so-called, as they were only sprinkled with water or had water poured on them. The reason alleged for this departure from apostolic practice was the necessity of baptism to the salvation of the soul, and the consequent danger of depriving it, lest the sickness should terminate in death. Thus one error led to another. If those clinics recovered they were not baptized afterwards, but they were not admitted to the ministry. Novation, however, was an exception to the rule. He had been sprinkled or received a pouring on his head, when his dissolution was hourly expected. After his recovery, his eminent qualifications for the ministry induced the churches to deviate from the established custom, and he was ordained."

        Infant Baptism a result of corruption

        Infant baptism was another result of the idea of baptismal regeneration, the deduction being that infants being unregenerated, if they died were lost. This being true, as they reasoned, they baptized infants that they might be regenerated and thus saved. It is hardly necessary to point out the fact that infant baptism

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is to be found nowhere in the New Testament.

        The corruption of the Lord's Supper

        As Vedder points out, the idea of sacramental grace did not stop with the corruption of the doctrine of baptism, but extended to the Communion, or the Lord's Supper. He says: "With the decrease of faith the increase of formalism kept pace and the administration of the Lord's Supper, from being a simple and spiritual ceremony, became surrounded by a cloud of rituals and finally developed into the mass of the Roman Church." Laying as great stress as Luther did later upon the mere letter of Scripture, the Church of the third and fourth centuries insisted that the words "This is my body" were to be accepted by all faithful Christians as a literal statement of truth, and that Paul's words when he says that the broken bread is the body of Christ do not indicate a spiritual partaking of Christ's nature, but a literal and materialistic reception of it in and through the bread and wine."

        The catechumenate and its evil

        With the elaborate system of rites, ceremonies and mystic principles that had become connected with the churches through these new and false ideas they had brought

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in the establishment of a catechumenate, a system of rudimentary instruction in Christianity for those who were to be baptized and become members of the church. So elaborate was this that the idea soon became prevalent that one was to work his way into the Kingdom rather than to be born into it. Thus the church of the New Testament was led into "the wilderness, and as a visible, local organization we lose sight of it for a long, dark period."

        Peter of Bruys and his followers

        Despite the obscurity of various periods since the first and second centuries, it is plainly evident to the searcher after truth that the principles and sentiments for which Baptists contend have been in evidence, and men have suffered and died for them somewhere at all times since apostolic days. We shall now give a brief sketch of various sects, who kept alive the fires of New Testament principles during the dark period, from the third century to the Reformation. It may be that none of these held to all the doctrines and practices of Modern Baptists, but each contended for some of them. THE PETROBRUSIANS, among the earliest of these sects, were the followers of Peter of Bruys, in Southern France, who preached with great power and blessing. We know not by

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what means he was led to the thoughts and conclusions which brought him to the position of the bold reformer. Cramp defines his position as follows: "Baptism and the church were contemplated by Peter in the pure light of Scripture. The church should be composed, he constantly affirmed, of true believers, good and just persons; no others had any claim to membership. Baptism was a nullity unless connected with personal faith, but all who believed were under solemn obligation to be baptized, according to the Saviour's command." The Petrobrusians brought down upon their heads the wrath of Peter the Venerable, who wrote a book against their "heresy," because they absolutely rejected tradition and appealed to the Scriptures as the sole authority in religion, and because they denied sacramental grace. With Vedder we can see that these "errors" of the Petrobrusians were what Baptists have always held to be precious and fundamental truths. After twenty years of splendid labor amid fiery trials Peter of Bruys was burned as a heretic about the year 1126.

        We pause in passing to speak of Arnaldo da Brescia who followed very close upon Peter of Bruys as a reformer and "heretic." It is said that the most serious revolts of

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the twelfth century against the church are traceable to his lecture-room. He will always hold a prominent place in Baptist history, as he was the first to proclaim so eloquently and effectively the doctrine of soul liberty and the separation of church and state.

        Peter Waldo and the Waldenses

        The Waldenses, who were, according to several recognized authorities, the disciples of one Peter Waldo, a rich merchant of Lyons, came to notice in southern France about 1150. Their leader was a magnetic character, who, though not connected in any way with Peter of Bruys, reached the same conclusions and became "the spiritual heir of his predecessor and namesake" and took up the same work. If we are to believe early Roman writers, the doctrines of the Waldenses are identical with those of the Petrobrusians. Ray, in his Baptist Succession, differs from other authorities in asserting that Waldo, instead of originating the Waldenses, joined them and received his name from them. He says further, "These Waldensian Baptists were the seed of the primitive church, and upheld by the wonderful providence of God, so that those endless storms and tempests which shook the

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whole Christian world for ages failed to shake the courageous Waldenses." Camp calls attention to the fact that there has been much dispute respecting the Waldenses, some having represented them as being originally all Baptists while others, on the contrary, contend they were Pedobaptists. But in this connection it is interesting to note that in one of their confessions they say, "We acknowledge no sacraments, as of divine appointment, but baptism and the Lord's Supper." Camp adds, "How the Waldenses were led to change their practice (if they did change) we need not inquire; it is sufficiently manifest that their views harmonized with ours in the early stages of their history."

        Anabaptists of Switzerland

        The Swiss Anabaptists came into prominence about the year 1523, their numbers increasing with astonishing rapidity. This latter fact has led many writers to the conviction that there was a connection between the Swiss Anabaptists and their Waldensian and Petrobrusian predecessors. Discussing this fact Vedder says: "Another problem demanding solution is furnished by the fact that these Anabaptist churches were not gradually developed, but appear fully formed from the

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first--complete in polity, sound in doctrine, strict in discipline, it will be found impossible to account for these phenomena without an assumption of a long existing cause." The character of men who were foremost among the Swiss Anabaptists made the sect one of great power and influence. Zwingli, the great Swiss reformer, was himself at first, according to his own confession, greatly inclined toward Anabaptist principles, but was kept from casting his fortunes with them by his belief in and support of the state church idea. He repudiated the Anabaptist idea of a spiritual church, and contended against them to the point of cruel persecution for the ascendency of civil authority in church matters, and the government of the Zurich adopted his policy. By a strange fate Zwingli was slain by the Papists in the battle of Chappel while a Chaplain in the Protestant Army. But several of Zwingli's lieutenants and closest associates became ardent Anabaptists, the line separating them and him becoming more and more marked between the years 1523 and 1525. Among these faithful supporters of true principles were Conrad Grebel, Felix Manx, Balthazar Hubmeyer and George Blanrock.

        Grebel was the son of a member of the

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Zurich Council and a man of much learning. He is said to have been converted about the year 1522, after whiich time he has a reputation for great piety. Having derived his views concerning the church from his own study from the original Greek New Testament, his influence was great among the other followers of Zwingli.

        The Martyrdom of Manx and Hubmeyer

        Manx was a native of Zurich of a very liberal education. He took early to the principles of the Reformation and thus became intimately associated with Zwingli and other Swiss Reformers. But reaching the conclusions that infant baptism and the union of church and state were not upheld by the Scriptures, he took the Anabaptist position and in consequence was imprisoned by the Zurich Council, and finally because he persisted in preaching and baptizing those who professed faith, the Zurich magistrates denounced him as a rebel, apprehended him and he was drowned in 1527.

        Hubmeyer was a Bavarian, born at Friedburg about the year 1480. He was noted as a man of great learning and eloquence, and after much deliberation and research became a most conscientious and zealous Anabaptist. He was baptized with one hundred

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and ten others by William Roubli, a Swiss Baptist, after which he preached with great power and results. In July, 1525, he was imprisoned, tortured and starved until he promised to recant; but when brought to deliver his recantation his spirit reinserts itself and he reaffirms his opposition to infant baptism. He was sent back to prison, where he was again tortured almost beyond the point of human endurance, and it is said that a written recantation was finally extracted from him. He was then released, but was kept in town under strict surveillance until he escaped from Zurich, resumed his Anabaptist preaching and forming churches. In 1528 he was again apprehended by King Ferdinand and sent to Vienna, cast into a dungeon and sentenced to death. In March of the same year he was burned at the stake, another Martyr to the cause of righteousness.

        Although the Swiss Anabaptists were compelled to meet in secret or in the quietness of the night, their numbers grew amazingly. From their confession we glean that they held to "the baptism of believers only, to the breaking of the bread by those alone who have been baptized, and to a pure church discipline." The only fault charged against them by their contemporaries, that

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is supported by evidence says Vedder, is that they had the courage and honesty to interpret the Scriptures as Baptists to-day interpret them.

        German Anabaptists: Their Persecution

        The German Anabaptists were persecuted as cruelly as were their fellow believers in Switzerland. The Catholic and Protestants vied with each other in their efforts to show their extreme hatred for them and their desire to exterminate them. While there were those among their leaders who were noted for their knowledge of the original Scriptures and for their eloquence, the masses were unlearned people. Much odium has been cast upon the German Anabaptists because of Thomas Munzer's connection with what some historians call the Peasant War, and others call the Munster Riot. That this was an ill-advised and cruel affair no one will deny. But putting the blame upon Baptists is foolish indeed, for Munzer was not a Baptist, though a Reformer of great zeal; for we are told that he published a liturgy in German that contained a form of baptism for infants, and according to good authority he never abandoned the practice of baptizing infants. In fact, Keller, in his work on the Reformation, says: "That Cornelius

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has shown that in the chief points Munzer was opposed to the Baptists."

        As Ray states, volumes might be filled with the details of the sufferings of the German and Dutch Baptists, as they were the objects of persecution by all the leading Protestant Reformers; but there is splendid glory in the tribute paid them by Vedder--that they, with their Swiss contemporaries, were the only men of their time who had grasped the principle of civil and religious liberty.

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        The Beginning of Baptist History in England

        The persecution of the Baptists in the Netherlands caused many of that sect to flee to England for refuge. We are indebted to Cramp for the information that "At London, on the third of April, 1575, a small congregation of Dutch Baptists convened in a private house outside the city gate, was interrupted while at worship by a constable and twenty-five persons were taken before a magistrate, who committed them to prison. When brought to trial they were urged to recant, and after enduring much torture, five of them consented. Later on fifteen of the rest were sent out of the country; of the remaining five, one died under the rigors of his imprisonment, two were burned at the stake and the other two were finally released. Thus begins the history of Baptists and their persecutions in England. But prior to this time, about 1618, an English Baptist church

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had been organized in Holland by John Smyth, who died soon after this time. This church was composed of 38 members, and had been scattered before the death of Smyth, but sometime about 1611, Thomas Helwys, who had been a prominent member thereof, returned to England when he established the first Baptist church on English soil. Within the next thirty years forty-four Baptist churches had been formed in England. These churches were solid in principle and polity and were objects of great persecution. In proof of such claim we cite the following from the confession of 1644:

        English Baptists for liberty of conscience

        "The Supreme Magistracy of this Kingdom we acknowledge to be King and Parliament and concerning the worship of God, there is but one lawgiver which is Jesus Christ. So it is the magistrate's duty to tender the liberty of men's conscience, (which is the tenderest thing unto all conscientious men, and most dear unto them, and without which all other liberties will not be worth the naming, much less the enjoying), and to protect all under them from all wrong, injury, oppression and molestation. And we cannot do anything contrary to our understandings and consciences, so neither can we forbear the doing of that which our

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understandings and consciences bind us to do. And if the magistrates should require us to do otherwise, we are to yield our persons in a passive way to their power, as the saints of old have done."

        But these were sentiments and convictions that brought down upon them the heavy hand of Charles I. Indeed Baptists suffered to the greatest degree until the Long Parliament, from which time they had a measure of peace, not that they had their civil rights, but conditions made a semi-toleration the best policy. A better condition prevailed during the Protectorate. We quote from Vedder's Short History: "During the Protectorate a fair measure of religious liberty prevailed. Cromwell himself came nearer than any public man of his time to adopting the Baptist doctrine of equal liberty of conscience for all men. He came, at least, to hold that a toleration of all religious views--such as existed among Protestants, that is to say--was both right and expedient."

        When in the year 1660 Charles Stuart came to the throne of his fathers, and when the Fifth Monarchists made an insurrection Baptists were wrongfully accused of being in the conspiracy, and as a result became again subjects of bitter persecution. Among

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those to suffer imprisonment was the great Baptist preacher, John Bunyan, the writer of Pilgrim's Progress and The Holy War.

        The Act of Toleration slow growth Wm.Carey

        The passage of the Act of Toleration about 1689, brought with it a measure of pardon which was new to English Baptists, but for many years their growth was by no means commensurable with their opportunity--yea, for fifty years they seemed not to have increased to any appreciable degree. This is partially explained by the general antipathy to religion that prevailed in England during this period. The following from Vedder's short history tells of the revival which followed: "In the year of 1738 at the meeting of a Society in London, John Wesley, felt, as he tells us, for the first time, 'I'd trust in Christ, Christ alone for salvation; and assurance was given me that he had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death. Soon England was shaken by the preaching of immediate justification by faith, and the second Reformation had begun and Baptists participated in the general awakening. Then began a new era in their history, an era of growth, of zeal, of missionary activity that has continued to the present, and has given them a leading

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place among the non-conformists of England." Thus the opportunity for service, and how marvellously did God manifest himself among the people in the work of Wm. Carey, who in his great sermon at the Nothingham Association in 1792. "Expect great things from God; and attempt great things for God," was the sentiment with which he inspired the English Baptists to the organization of "The English Baptist Missionary Society" which, after much prayer and effort, sent him a missionary to India. Here God used him to the glory of his cause, and he became the "father of modern missions."

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        The first Baptist church in America

        Authorities differ very much as to the beginning of Baptist History in America. By some good authorities it has been maintained that the first Baptist church in America was organized by Roger Williams at Providence, R. I., in the year 1639. Other historians, who are just as reliable, dispute this claim. According to Vedder, "Sometime about March, 1639, therefore, Williams baptized Ezekiel Holliman, who had been a member of his church at Salem; and thereupon Holliman baptized Williams. Eleven others obeyed their Lord in this way, and the first Baptist church on American soil was formed." Williams had been banished from Salem, Massachusetts Colony, where he was pastor, because of his teachings with regard to the religious liberty and the separation of church and state had come to what is now Providence and founded a settlement based upon the above named ideas, thus giving to the world

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"its first government" whose corner-stone was "absolute religious liberty."

        But Jarrell maintains, in his Baptist Church Perpetuity, that Hansard Knollys, who had come to America among the Puritan immigrants, was the pastor of Baptist church which had been organized at Newport by John Clark in 1638, the year before Roger Williams organized the Providence Church. Ray supports Jarrell's claim in the following statement: "We consider it a point now fully made out, that the Newport, and not the Providence Church is the oldest Baptist church in America." On the other hand, Cramp puts the organization of the Newport Church by Dr. John Clark as late as 1644. Thus goes the argument, but we are inclined toward the conclusion that the church at Providence, founded by Roger Williams, has the best of the argument. But soon afterwards, Baptist churches sprang up in all of the colonies with varying degrees of success and persecution attending them. The first Baptist church in Delaware originated in 1770 from an immigrant Baptist church from Wales.

        Colonial church organizations

        In Massachusetts we find the organization of a Baptist church at Rehoboth in 1662, which moved bodily to Swansea in 1667, the first in the colony and which has had continued

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existence to this day. This was followed by the organization of a church in Boston in 1665. These Baptists worshipped God under the fearful pressure, but they triumphed. Cramp tells us that "A church was formed at Kittery, Maine, in 1682, but it died in its infancy." In 1683 a church was formed at Charleston, S. C. There were two churches in Pennsylvania--Cold Springs, founded in 1684; Pennepek, in 1688. In the same year a church was established at Middletown, N. J. In 1688, the Baptist denomination in America comprised thirteen churches only--seven in Rhode Island, two in Massachusetts, one in South Carolina, two in Pennsylvania and one in New Jersey.

        Great growth as shown by latest statistics

        How the seed has multiplied and brought forth is shown in these statistics taken from "Bulletin 103," Census of "Religious Bodies 1906," published by the United States government in 1909: "Communicants" of members, 1906. (Regular white Baptists), Northern Baptist Convention--Number of organizations, 8272; number of members, 1,052,105; church edifices, 7,729; with seating capacity, 2,584,801; value of church property, $74,620,025; number of

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Sunday-schools, 8,220, with 102,506 officers and teachers and 851,169 scholars.

        Southern Baptist Convention--Number of organizations, 21,104; number of members, 2,009,471; church edifices, 18,537, with seating capacity of 6,044,633; value of church property, $34,723,882; number of Sunday-schools, 15,035, with 106,017 officers and teachers and 1,014,690 scholars.

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        Up to the year 1844 there was no line dividing the white Baptists into Northern and Southern Baptists, but at that time the anti-slavery question became so pronounced that it was impossible for the church to keep a neutral position, and the result was two organizations.

        The heart of Christianity in the North, influenced by the growth of the anti-slavery sentiment, began about 1820 to be aroused against the cruel and blasting institution--human slavery. For a decade the fires of opposition to it smouldered, and then fanned by the winds of agitation of the immortal Wm. Lloyd Garrison, with his paper, "The Liberator," they burst into flames that could not be quenched. Every effort was made by both the Northern and Southern churchmen to prevent division. In the General Convention the following resolution was unanimously adopted:

        "Resolved, That in-co-operating together as

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members in the convention work of foreign missions, we disclaim all sanctions, either expressed or implied, whether of slavery or anti-slavery; but as individuals we are free to express and to promote elsewhere our views on this subject in a Christian manner and spirit."

        But a righteous sentiment is never content with neutral opposition; it contends for utterance and is aggressive.

        The dividing wedge

        Southern Baptist Convention organized

        Questions of policy with reference to missions finally proved to be the rock upon which hopes of unity were wrecked. Notwithstanding the fact that the Convention positively urged the Executive Board to maintain a neutral position at all hazards, very soon afterwards, in the latter part of 1844, the Board felt it their duty to take a firm stand. In reply to a question addressed to it by a Southern organization with reference to the appointment of missionaries, the Board reported in substance that it would not appoint any person as a missionary who owned slaves. That there could no longer be any question as to the Board's attitude this extract from their report shows: "One thing is certain, we can never be a party to an arrangement which would imply approbation of slavery." The

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following year (1845) the American Baptist Home Mission Society found itself involved in the anti-slavery crusade, defined its position as follows: "We declare it expedient that members now forming the Society shall hereafter act in separate organizations, at the South and at the North, in promoting the objects which were originally contemplated by the Society." The next month, May, 1845, several hundred Southern delegates met in Augusta, Ga., and organized the Southern Baptist Convention. Thus is the awfulness of the curse of slavery emphasized. We are indebted to Vedder's Short History of the Baptists for the main facts on this subject of separation.

        Baptist educational institutions in the U. S.

        The most prominent educational institutions conducted by the white Baptists of the United States are here given with location and date when founded: Brown University (the oldest Baptist university in the United States), Providence, R. I., founded 1764; Newton Theological Institute, Newton Center, Mass., founded 1826; Colby University, Waterville, Me., founded 1820; Madison University, now Colgate, Hamilton, N. Y., founded 1814;

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Rochester Theological Seminary, Rochester, N. Y., founded 1850; Chicago University, Chicago, Ill., founded 1890; Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Ky., founded 1858; Richmond College, Richmond, Va., founded 1832; Vassar College (for young women) Poughkeepsie, N. Y., founded 1861; Denison University, Granville, Ohio, founded 1832; Baylor University, Waco, Texas, founded 1861.

        Baptist journals

        Among the most influential Baptist papers are The Standard, Chicago, Ill.; The Baptist and Reflector, Nashville, Tenn.; the Western Recorder, Louisville, Ky; The Baptist Argus, Journal and Messenger, Granville, Ohio; The Standard, Dallas, Tex.

        In the foregoing we have referred only to the regular Missionary Baptists in America. We shall now call attention to others known as "irregular" and "anti-missionary" Baptists. While they are so designated, they are recognized as Baptists on the ground as given by Vedder, that "Any Christian body that practices believers' baptism--meaning 'baptism' immersion, and by 'believer' one who gives credible evidence of regeneration--is fundamentally a Baptist, by whatever name he may be called, or whatever may be his oddities of doctrine

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or practice in other respects." We give a brief sketch of the most prominent organizations.

        Six Principle Baptists

        The Six Principle Baptists had their origin in the seventeenth century (about 1639. They are a small body represented only in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. Their creed is derived from Heb. 6:1, 2, and contains the six doctrines stated in that passage--hence, their name. They have two yearly conferences, one in Massachusetts and the other in Pennsylvania. The former held in 1670 was the second organization of its kind to be formed.

        Freewill Baptists

        The Freewill Baptists in North America had their first church organization in 1780, at New Durham, New Hampshire. They differ from Regular Baptists in that they respect the Calvanistic doctrine of predestination, and consequently hold that the regenerate may "fall from grace." They also practice "open communion." The fact that they were strongly in favor of the abolition of slavery confined their following almost exclusively to the Northern States.

        Primitive Baptists

        Primitive Baptists are known as old school and anti-mission Baptists. The principal difference between

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them and Regular Baptists is that they reject the agencies of Sunday-schools and missionary, educational and Bible societies. They declare themselves as opposed to all of these "contrivances which seem to make the salvation of men depend on human effort."

        Seventh Day Adventists

        The Seventh Day Adventists were known in England as early as the sixteenth century. In the United States they seem to have had an origin independent of the English body of the same name, their first church being founded in Newport, R. I., in 1671. Their distinctive doctrine is the observance of the Sabbath day, and on that account, prior to 1818, were called Sabbatarian Baptists. They are not restricted to any section of the country, but have their largest following in the State of New York.

        Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Baptists

        Old Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists derive their name from the doctrine that there are two seeds, one of evil, and one of good. They owe their origin to Elder Daniel Parker, a Baptist minister who taught that a part of Eve's offspring were the seed of God and elect to eternal life, and that the other part were the seed of Satan and

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foreordained to the kingdom of eternal darkness. Many of them reject a paid ministry and agree with Primitive Baptists in their attitude toward missionary, evangelistic and educational agencies.

        Church of Christ

        Baptist Church of Christ, originating in Tennessee in 1808, being confined to the South, it holds to a general atonement and a mild Calvinism. They also hold firmly to the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints, and practice feet-washing.

        The government statistics published in 1909, give the following figures of these organizations: Six Principle Baptists, 16 organizations, 685 members, 8 ministers and 14 church edifices; Freewill Baptists, 608 organizations; 40,280 members, 600 ministers, 556 church edifices; Primitive Baptists--2,922 organizations, 102,311 members, 1,500 ministers, 2,003 church edifices; Colored Primitive Baptists--797 organizations, 35,076 members, 1,480 ministers, 501 church edifices; Seventh Day Adventists--77 organizations, 8,381 members, 90 ministers, 71 church edifices; two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists--55 organizations, 781 members, 35 ministers, 38 church edifices; Baptist Church of

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Christ--93 organizations, 6,416 members, 99 ministers, 86 church edifices.

        In both sections of the country Baptists have well-established agencies for doing Christian work to which we call brief attention.

        The American Baptist Missionary Union, organized in Philadelphia in 1814 for the purpose of sending the gospel to foreign countries. Its success has been marked.

        The American Baptist Publication Society, an outgrowth of the Baptist Tract Society, organized in Washington, D. C., in 1824. For all these years this society has been furnishing Baptist Sunday-school and church literature. It now owns splendid property and a publishing plant in Philadelphia.

        The American Baptist Home Mission Society organized in 1802 in Boston as the Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Society, with executive offices located in New York City, has been a great power for good. It is now engaged in missionary work proper, planting and sustaining churches, building chapels and church-houses, and the support of schools among the colored people of the South, Indians, Chinese and Mexicans. The fact that a large per cent of the educated colored Baptist preachers and teachers

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are the products of academies and colleges organized and conducted by this society is proof of its usefulness.

        The Southern Baptist Convention was organized in Augusta, Ga., in 1845. Under its guidance all of the general Baptist work of the South has been carried on. It has a Foreign Mission Board with location in Richmond, Va., a Home Mission Board, with headquarters in Atlanta, Ga., and a Sunday School Board, located in Nashville, Tenn.

        The Baptist Young People's Union of America was organized in 1891. Its headquarters were at first located in Chicago. Its work is now operated in connection with the American Baptist Publication Society at Philadelphia and is doing much to develop the young Baptists in religious knowledge and Christian culture.

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        Interesting and strange appears the record of the rise and progress of Negro Baptists in America. Interesting, because it is a record of the struggles of a people who had their rise amidst fiery trials and afflictions as slaves, and strange because they have made their progress as a separate part of the general Baptist family, and yet believe and practice all that it believes and practices. The American Negroes, with their emotional and religious natures, were brought to these shores as slaves early in the life of the American colonies, from the jungle and devil-bush of Africa. With these characteristics inborn it is easy for us to understand how they soon sought to get a hold of the ideas of their white masters' religion. Highly curious and imitative it is but natural that they were attracted to its ceremonies and worship, and that, in time, the white man's God and theology should become theirs. While we are greatly tempted to do so, we cannot take the space in

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this brief history to recount their religious experiences through that dark period of American slavery. It is simply our purpose to tell in this connection of the beginning and progress of Negro Baptists in this country.

        The origin of "before day Prayer-meetings"

        As a general thing Negro slaves were not permitted to have their own churches, pastors, or preachers. It was the common practice throughout the slave territory to permit them to attend preaching services in the white churches at the time designated under conditions prescribed by their masters. But this custom only whetted the appetites of these simple-minded, religious folk and they consequently stole off to the woods, canebrakes and remote cabins to have preaching and prayer-meetings of their own; and many are the stories they tell of being apprehended by their masters and overseers, and of being unmercifully flogged. From Thompson's "History of Negro Baptists of Mississippi," we quote the following: "The early sunrise prayer-meeting" was one in which they spent their happiest moments, no white person being present to molest or to make them afraid. It is a queer coincidence that gave rise to these "prayer-meetings"

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so prevalent even in these times, but few know their origin. The patrols would be on duty all night to see that no Negroes walked or assembled themselves together without written consent from their masters. Early in the mornings the patrols would retire from duty and sleep during the day. On Sunday mornings the colored people would gather at the church and other places of worship and have these early prayer-meetings in their own way while their mistresses and masters and the ever-dreaded patrols were asleep.

        That these precautions were fully warranted may be seen from the following extract of the "Revised Code of 1857, (Miss.) page 247, article 51" cited by the same author: "Meetings or assemblies of slaves, or free Negroes, or mulattoes mixing or associating with such slaves, above the number of five, including such free Negroes and mulattoes at any place of public resort, at any meeting-house or houses in the night, or at any school for the purpose of teaching them reading or writing, either in the daytime or at night, under whatever pretext, shall be deemed an unlawful assembly. And any justice of the peace of the county, or mayor or chief magistrate of any incorporated town, whenever such assemblage

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shall be held either from his own knowledge or on the information of others, may issue his warrant, etc.; ......and all slaves offending herein shall be tried in the manner hereinafter provided for the trial of slaves, and on conviction, shall be punished, not more than 39 lashes on the bare back." It is but fair to state that this article did not prevent masters or employers from giving slaves permission to gather for religious worship, provided a "regular ordained minister (white) or at least two discreet and respectable white persons, appointed for that purpose by some regular church or religious society," attended. Another article provided that, "Free Negreos or mulattoes for exercising the functions of a minister of the gospel, on conviction, may be punished by any number of lashes, not exceeding 39, on the bare back, and shall pay the cost."

        Churches of mixed membership a fact

        With these facts before us it would seem difficult for one to believe that there were churches in Mississippi at the very time these laws and conditions prevailed--with white and black members. But such was a fact, for we are told by those who know the facts that in 1846 the church at Natchez had 442

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members, 380 of whom were colored, and in 1845, the church at Columbus had 399 members, about four-fifths of whom were colored. Of course, as we are told, these colored members had no voice in church affairs, except to vote on the reception and disciplining of colored members.

        Thus it was that in many sections of the South there was a class of Christians in the white Baptist churches that insisted that the blacks, though slaves they were, should hear the gospel preached somehow, and be converted, baptized and given membership. In other sections it was a custom to hold special revivals for the slaves.

        Separate churches an exception

        But there were districts in some of the Slaves States where the conditions described did not obtain, but where the colored slaves were given more favorable reins. An instant is given in Floyd's "Life of Chas. T. Walker" as follows: "Richmond County, one of the largest 'Black Belt' counties of Georgia, which had then, and which has to this day, a larger black than white population, was in no respect different in its slave customs and regulations from other slave communities, excepting possibly, the religious privileges enjoyed by the slaves. They had their own churches and enjoyed for

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the most part the ministrations of colored preachers, such as they were. They had their own houses of worship, their own church officials, and held regular and stated religious meetings. This was true in only a very limited number of places in the South during the slave period."

        Writing recently on this phase of our subject Rev. Dr. R. H. Boyd said, "They (the slaves) accepted this condition more than 100 years ago and as opportunities have presented themselves they have continued to cultivate this fellowship and union (among themselves), being isolated from their brethren. Negro Baptists, wherever they were allowed, formed churches of their own. However they were landmark, Simon-pure, regular Baptists."

        Great and gifted characters and the impressions they made

        At first the separate Negro churches were under white ministers but gradually as certain men among these members developed lives of great piety, and manifested the gift of exhorting and preaching they were allowed to hold meetings, to preach and finally to pastor. A striking example of this kind is found in Whitted's History of Negro Baptists in North Carolina." It is as follows: "There were but few Negro

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Baptist preachers before the war. The first we have any knowledge of was 'Uncle Harry Cowan,' as he was known at that time. He was the servant of Thos. L. Cowan. His master being present at a funeral was so struck with his gift to preach God's word that he granted him 'privilege papers' to preach anywhere on his four plantations. His papers were fixed up by a lawyer and read thus: 'This is to certify that whosoever is interested about my man Harry he has the privilege to preach, and may also baptize anyone who makes a profession of faith.' His success was so wonderful and so much of the confidence of his master was imposed in him his privileges were soon extended, and he was not only allowed to preach on his master's 'plantation,' but wherever he was promised 'protection.'......During the struggle in arms between the North and South he was the body-servant of Gen. Joseph Johnston, and preached every night during the struggle except the night when Gen. Stonewall Jackson fell in battle." Thus it was that God started a race of ignorant, cruelly-oppressed slaves toward a higher Christian civilization.

        Negro Baptist history fragmentary and why?

        That this history of the beginning of Negro Baptists is but fragmentary is due to the conditions described in the foregoing.

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First, the fact that generally gatherings among them for religious purposes were "unlawful," made it highly essential that everything should be done in secret and that no records be kept. Secondly, where meetings were allowed as a rule, they were under the direction of the whites, and then no records would appear, except when they marked some remarkable incident or character. Thirdly, in the limited number of districts, where Negro churches with Negro pastors were allowed, except in the rarest cases, there was no one prepared to make the records; hence, a history of these churches is almost always tradition.

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        We come now to tell of the first Negro Baptist churches, and of those who laid the foundations. For the third reason given in closing the preceding chapter, we do not find it possible to write as fully as we desire on this chapter. We are indebted to Dr. W. Bishop Johnson, of Washington, D. C., for authentic information. The following is quoted from "The story of Negro Baptists" written by him for the "National Baptist Union" of January 30, 1909.

        Pioneer organizations still thriving

        "The earliest church organization among them (colored Baptists) was the First African Baptist Church of Savannah, Ga., instituted January 20, 1788, at Brampton's barn, three miles west of Savannah, by Abraham Marshall (white) and Jesse Peter (colored). Its first pastor was George Lisle, who was liberated by Mr. Henry Sharp, of Burke County, Ga., and afterwards became pastor at Kingston, Jamaica. The first fruit of this beginning was Andrew

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and Hannah, Bryan and Hagar. The four constituted the nucleus of colored Baptists in America. The First African Church multiplied until 1802, when on the 26th of December the Second Baptist Church (colored) was organized with two hundred members and January 2, 1803, another church was organized called the Ogeechee Colored Baptist Church, with 250 members. These organizations are still in existence with large and progressive memberships. In 1805 the Joy Baptist Church, Boston, Mass., was constituted; in 1808, the Abyssinian Baptist Church of New York City, and in 1809, the First African Baptist Church, of Philadelphia, was organized, making the first churches in the North. The Nineteenth Street Baptist Church organized in 1839, was the first colored Baptist church in the District of Columbia, and it has a large, influential and progressive membership at this time.

        A slave preacher of heroic mold

        The First African Baptist Church, Philadelphia, Penn., was organized in June, 1809, with fifteen members. These being set apart as an independent church by the Old First Baptist Church (white). In an account of its recent centennial anniversary

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we find the following information: "During these one hundred years she (the First African Church) has had but seven pastors, all of whom have been men of exceptional ability. The first of these was Rev. Cunningham of Eastern Shore, Va., who, though a slave, pastored a band of faithful worshippers. His members asked his master to allow him to go North and raise money to purchase his freedom. This was refused unless he could furnish security. He was unable to do this, but two of his members, who were free-born, bound themselves into servitude in his stead that their pastor might come to the North and raise the necessary money.

        "After Rev. Cunningham had succeeded in raising the money he so informed his bondsmen, and expressed his willingness to return; but they said, 'No! send us the money and we will satisfy the bond.' The money was sent, the bond satisfied, and the two bondsmen, with their families together with the family of Rev. Cunningham, left Eastern Shore and joined their pastor in Philadelphia. These three families formed the nucleus of the First African Baptist Church."

        In Mississippi, the history of the first organizations

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is indeed singular. According to Thompson's History, the Rose Hill Baptist Church, Natchez, Miss., is a direct outgrowth from a church of a mixed membership, a majority of the members of which were colored. So numerous became the Negro portion of the congregation that they outnumbered the white membership, according to reliable information. It was necessary, therefore, to give them a more commodious house of worship and place of meeting. A Mr. Helms then gave to them a lot for a church site and they proceeded with the assistance of Mr. Helms and other sympathetic whites to build a church building which, out of their feeling of appreciation, they named Mt. Helm Baptist Church. Rev. Marion Dunbar was the pioneer pastor.

        The first Negro Baptist Church in Tennessee was the Mt. Lebanon Baptist Church, organized at Columbia, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1843. Seven members were in the organization, among whom were Rev. Richard R. Sanderson, who died recently at the age of 83 years, and Brother Dyer Johnson, the father of Prof. John Johnson, A. M., President of Roger Williams University, Nashville. Rev. Edmund Kelly was the pastor of this pioneer institution, which is to-day a progressive

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church with property valued at $15,000 and a membership of almost 200. Ten years later, 1853, Spruce Street Baptist Church of Nashville, was organized with Rev. Nelson G. Merry as pastor. Under the guiding hand of Rev. Merry it had a splendid rise and its members speak to-day with pride of its early history. This church has now a membership of 965, and property valued at $60,000.

        Crude churches and rapid growth

        While we know that any statistics relative to the Negro Baptists at the close of the war are necessarily inaccurate, we have been informed that there were at that time 400,000 Negroes of that faith in the United States. Whatever the number, tradition and history tell us that as soon as the Emancipation Proclamation became effective these zealous Baptists soon formed themselves into crude churches. But what they had assimilated of doctrine and polity when with and under the ministration of the whites before the war, and the assistance they received from sympathetic whites then made rapid progress possible. Relieved of the retrictions which had been thrown around them, they gave God the glory and made the churches their rallying places, and poured out their souls in praise

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and thanksgiving. Hence, the early churches grew mightily in numbers and power, and no sacrifice was too great for them to make to build houses of worship--which they joyously called "Our own vine and fig-tree."

        General organizations demanded

        Like their white brethren these conscientious and loyal Negro Baptists found it necessary that their churches should affiliate and co-operate for the edification of all and for the spread of the gospel throughout the land. Consequently general organizations were soon organized. On this point we quote the following from an article by Dr. R. H. Boyd on "What are the Negro Baptists?" "When the Civil War gave the Negroes their liberty there was a spirit among a few eastern Baptists to allow them full privileges in missionary and educational organizations, but eventually these too, like their Southern brethren, felt that the Negro by environment, opportunity, association and affiliation was inferior and hence should take a secondary or inferior place. The leading Negro Baptists, imbued with the spirit of freedom and religious liberty, and accepting the situation thrust upon them, began to form district associations, state organizations,

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and finally felt the need of national organized movements for the purpose of forming acquaintances, better understanding church polity, gathering statistics, doing missionary, educational and publication work."

        The first state bodies

        We give here a few brief facts concerning the first associations and state conventions in several states to give some idea of the rapid development of the denomination. Dr. W. Bishop Johnson in the article before referred to gives the following information in this connection: "Perhaps the oldest organization among colored Baptists is the Wood River, of Illinois, organized in 1838. The first association in Louisiana was organized in 1865. The first state convention was organized in North Carolina in 1866; the second, in Alabama, and the third in Virginia in 1867; the fourth, in Arkansas in 1868; the fifth in Kentucky in 1869; the sixth was organized in Mississippi in 1869. The Missionary Baptist Convention, of Georgia, was organized May 13, 1870, at Central Baptist Church, Augusta, Ga. Eighty-six delegates were present and Rev. Frank Quarles, of Atlanta, was elected president.

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        The first association held in Mississippi was, according to Thompson's History, the Jackson Baptist Association, which was organized in the Mt. Helm Baptist Church, Jackson, Miss., about July 1868. Rev. Marion Dunbar was Moderator and Henry Mason, Clerk. From the authority just given we have the following statistics of this association: "In 1868 this body was organized with 400 members. During the seventies it had a representation of 125 churches, with a total membership of 8,576. During the eighties it had 101 churches, with a total membership of 6,435. During the nineties it had 71 churches, with a membership of 5,000. Money raised for all purposes since its organization, $6,180."

        The Pioneers appreciate the needs

        Other associations followed closely upon the Jackson meeting, and it is interesting to note how quickly these pioneer Negro Baptists grasped the situation and needs. In the proceedings of the First Baptist Antioch Association which met in December, 1868, we find the appointment of a Missionary Board, which was empowered to appoint missionaries and fix their salaries. Thus showing that they realized their responsibility in helping to carry out the great

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commission. The following resolution also appears in the record, showing that they were fully alive to the importance of the development of the young men, who aspired to preach the gospel: "Resolved, That we recommend to the pastors and elders of this association to pay more attention to their young preachers, by way of encouraging and instructing them in the teaching of divinity, and assisting them to understand both the literal and spiritual meaning of the Holy Scriptures."

        On July 12, 1869, one year after the organization of the first associational gathering "The Baptist Missionary Convention," now known as "The General Baptist Missionary Convention of Mississippi," held its first session at Port Gibson. Revs. R. Pollard and H. P. Jacobs were elected temporary and permanent presidents, respectively. An account of this gathering appears in Thompson's History and shows prominent Baptist preachers from Missouri and Louisiana were visitors. The amount of money collected at the meetings was $308.64.

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        First national organizations

        So rapid was the development of Negro Baptists in America, and so rapidly did the district, state and sectional organizations multiply, that the leaders in these various states and sections were led to see the great power that would be derived from the general affiliation and co-operation of these bodies for the purpose of meeting the missionary and educational demands of the denomination. The first organization broader than an association or state convention was The American Baptist Missionary Convention, organized by the Colored Baptists of the New England and Middle States in 1840. In response to the great cry that came from the African mission fields for means and missionaries, and because of a disagreement between the colored and white missionaries with reference to the treatment of natives, the Foreign Mission Convention was organized at Montgomery.

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Ala., in 1880. Six years later, (1886) responding to the call of the lamented Dr. Wm. J. Simmons, of Kentucky, who was foremost in the work of the denomination and in the hearts of the Baptist brother-hood, representatives from various states met in St. Louis, and organized The American Baptist National Convention. In 1888 The National Educational Society was organized by a large body of Baptists who were interested in the development of religious education and in Negro Baptist educational institutions. Drs. W. B. Johnson, of Washington, D. C., and P. F. Morris, of Virginia, were largely responsible for the organization of the society. As a matter of convenience and economy the three organizations named decided to meet at the same time and place. Soon afterwards the Baptists of the West decided to have a convention of their own, and the Western States and Territorial Convention, semi-national, became a fact.

        In 1895 at Atlanta, Ga., The Foreign Mission Convention, The National Educational Society and The American National Convention consolidated with Dr. E. C. Morris, of Helena, Ark., president, and Wm. H. Stewart, secretary, under one constitution, the preamble of which is as follows:

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        The National Baptist Convention formed

        "Whereas, It is the sense of the colored Baptists of the United States of America, convened in the city of Atlanta, Ga., September 28, 1895, in the several organizations known as "The Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, of the United States of America," hitherto engaged in mission work on the West Coast of Africa; "The National Baptist Educational Convention," which has been engaged in mission work in the United States of America; and "The National Baptist Educational Convention," which has sought to look after the educational interest, that the interest of the kingdom of God requires that the several bodies above named should unite in one body."

        The name of the new organization is given as "The National Baptist Convention of the United States of America."

        Article II. gives the object as follows:

        "The object of this convention shall be to do mission work in the United States, in Africa and elsewhere abroad, to foster the cause of education and to promote the publication and circulation of religious literature."

        The management of the Boards

        The constitution further provides that, "The Convention shall elect at each annual

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meeting a Foreign Mission, a Home Mission, an Educational, a B. Y. P. U., a Publishing and other Boards, as may be deemed necessary from time to time." In 1896, at the St. Louis meeting of the Convention, a publishing house was projected and was soon in operation with Dr. R. H. Boyd at the head. This necessitated the institution of The National Baptist Publishing Board. In 1903 "The National Baptist Benefit Association Board" was added to the list. All of the work fostered by the Convention is under the management of these various Boards, which consist of one member from each State or Territorial Convention representing. The Corresponding Secretary of each Board has the general management of the work of the Board, subject to regulations of his Board, which reports annually to the Convention of all work done by it during the year.

        The National Baptist Foreign Mission Board was organized in 1895 and located at Louisville, Ky., with Rev. John H. Frank, D. D., Chairman, and Rev. L. M. Luke, D. D., Corresponding Secretary. Rev. C. H. Parrish, A. M., D. D., of Louisville, President of Eckstein Norton University, Cane

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Springs, Ky., Dr. Jordan and the veteran Dr. D. A. Gaddie of Louisville, and now Chairman, Corresponding Secretary and Recording Secretary respectively. The Board has for its objects the sending of missionaries to foreign fields and the employment of natives as fast as they can be developed for the work. Its report for the conventional year ending September 1, 1909, shows $23,471.25 collected, and expended $15,575.93 for missions, missionaries' salaries and traveling, with eight field missionaries. This Board is the custodian of considerable property in mission fields in Africa, South America and the West Indies. Dr. Jordan, who has seved as Corresponding Secretary since 1896, is a specialist on missionary methods. He has been invaluable to the denomination as a gatherer and disseminator of missionary information.

        The Home Board and its field work

        The Home Mission Board was located at Little Rock, Arkansas, with Rev. G. W. D. Gaines, Chairman, and Prof. Joseph A. Booker, A. M., Corresponding Secretary. Drs. J. P. Robinson, of Little Rock, Arkansas, and R. H. Boyd, are now chairman and Secretary, respectively. Rev. Wm. Beckham, S. T. D., has for several years been a splendid success as Field

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Secretary. This Board has in its co-operative missionary work about 65 missionaries, who work in co-operation with State Conventions and with the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention (white). These missionaries are doing missionary and colporteur work jointly. The report for the conventional year ending September 1, 1909, shows that these missionaries delivered 10,229 sermons and addresses, visited 5,853 homes for Bible reading and prayer, visited 3,221 churches, assisted in organizing 38 churches and 42 Sunday-schools. It also shows that the sum of $44,295.94 was received and expended by the Board for Home Missions, missionaries salaries and expenses. The Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention donated $7,262.50 on salaries of missionaries.

        The Publishing Board a great success

        The Publishing Board was organized in 1898 and located at Nashville, Tennessee, with Rev. C. H. Clark, D. D., Chairman and Dr. R. H. Boyd, General Secretary, both of whom still hold these positions respectively, with Rev. W. S. Ellington, D. D., as Editorial Secretary. It operates here the largest Negro publishing concern in the world. Organized thirteen years ago, it has been a marvelous success from the beginning, and it is

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generally conceded that Secretary Boyd has no superior in the management of publishing concerns. The Publishing Board has exclusive right of publishing all church and Sunday-school literature for the National Baptist Convention.

        It has property, machinery and stock estimated at $350,000, and employs about 150 clerks, stenographers and skilled workmen. As evidence that its success is marked, we note the fact that the Board has just (1909) installed a Scott's all-size "Rotary Book Printing Press" (the first of its kind south of the Ohio River) at a cost of $18,000. It published for the year September 1, 1908 to August 31, 1909, 11,717,876 copies of Sunday-school periodicals, besides its song books, Bibles, etc., and raised and expended $159,652.27, and reported a balance in hand of $3,088.92.

        Two new features of this Board's work are the manufacturing of church and school furniture, begun in 1908, and the National Baptist Teacher-Training Service, inaugurated September 1, 1909, with the writer of this volume as Superintendent.

        Under the direction of the scholarly mind and careful eye of Dr. W. S. Ellington, Editorial Secretary, the following periodicals are being published: The Teacher

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(monthly), the Senior Quarterly, the Advanced Quarterly, the Intermediate Quarterly and the Primary Quarterly. With reference to this Board's work we quote the following from an address by President Morris: "The publishing interests of the convention have been directed by a master mind and a steady hand and need no special comment to convince the public that it is one of the greatest enterprises now operated by our people. It has afforded opportunities that no other department can give. Many persons who never had a thought of preparing sacred literature to be read by the coming generations have held positions in the editorial staff and are developing into first-class expositors; and others who are well prepared for such a work have found it an opportunity."

        Educational Board Theological Seminary

        The Educational Board, organized in 1895, was located at Washington, D. C., with Rev. P. F. Morris, D. D., Chairman, and Dr. W. Bishop Johnson, Corresponding Secretary. Its headquarters are now in Nashville, Tenn., and Rev. T. J. Searcy, D. D., is Chairman, and Rev. A. N. McEwen, D. D., who, having served less than one year as Corresponding Secretary, has just

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died. The main features of these Boards' work are the federation of all Negro Baptist schools in the United States, except the eight owned by the American Baptist Home Mission Society (white), and to establish and operate a National Theological Seminary, at Nashville, Tenn. The plan of federation will effect twenty-three schools owned by Negro Baptists, but contributed to by the A. B. Home Mission Society and the twenty-six schools owned, controlled and supported by Negro Baptists. The Board is now planning to erect a $50,000 building for the Theological Seminary. Rev. Sutton E. Griggs, B. D., has been elected to the position of Corresponding Secretary of this Board.

        Operation of the B.Y.P.U. Board

        The National B. Y. P. U. Board was organized in 1899, with Rev. N. H. Pius, Chairman, and Rev. E. W. D. Isaac, D. D., the gifted writer and splendid orator, Secretary, and is located at Nashville, Tenn. Rev. P. James Bryant, D. D., is now Chairman. Its tenth annual report (1909) shows that it holds in trust for the Convention "eight hundred dollars worth of office furniture, fixtures, plates, etc., at 409 Gay Street." Under its plans and direction,

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during these ten years have organized 7,600 local B. Y. P. U. Societies and thirty-eight state and three hundred and twenty district B. Y. P. U. Conventions. This report which is for the conventional year closing Aug. 31, 1909 shows the following as received and expended: general fund, $2,485.13; B. Y. P. U. Missions, $4,211; Foreign Missions, $17.23; Christian Education, $3,975.50. The total amount handled by this Board for this year $12,553.58.

        National Benefit Association

        The National Baptist Benefit Association Board was organized in 1903 and located at Helena, Arkansas, with Rev. C. B. Brown its Chairman, and Rev. W. A. Holmes, Corresponding Secretary. On the death of Rev. Holmes, Rev. A. A. Cosey, D. D., became Corresponding Secretary, which position he still holds. This Board pays "death claims" to Baptist ministers and laymen who become members of the Association. It costs $2.50 to become a member, and $1.00 once a quarter, or $4.00 a year keeps up the membership. The Board purposes to establish a home for aged and decrepit ministers as soon as possible. The report for the year ending September, 1909, gives the following facts:

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"stock on hand, books, safe, fixtures, etc., $200; membership fees, $348; quarterly dues, $2,740; collections or donations, $379; death claims paid $2,116; paid to indigent ministers, $113.

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        Development of Negro Baptist leaders

        Character of Negro Baptists

        The question that naturally arises in the mind of one not acquainted with racial conditions in America is, "What is the difference between the white and colored Baptists?" Yet, there really is no fundamental difference. Why should there be? The first colored Baptist preachers and laymen were either members of white churches or they were under the ministration of white Baptists. From them they received instructions in doctrine and polity, and they proved apt students. They were "well-grounded in the faith" as Baptists believe it. A large per cent of the leading preachers and teachers among them to-day are graduates from colleges and theological seminaries that are conducted by the American Baptist Home Mission Society. These schools are intensely denominational, the presidents and faculties having been chosen from strong white Baptist

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churches and colleges. It has been the purpose of the Society to prepare preachers, teachers and other Christian workers for our Baptist churches and schools. If it is still "like priest, like people," it would be almost miraculous if these schools produced other than Baptists after their own kind. The leaders of the coming generation of Baptists are now being trained in these same institutions and in Negro Baptist colleges and academies the faculties of which are largely the products of the Society's schools. Hence, they are being formed in the same old mold. Therefore the separation between white and colored Baptists and between their organizations is not at all based on differences of doctrine or polity, but upon race discrimination which is peculiar to American institutions.

        National Baptist Convention statistics; government

        As to the character of Negro Baptists, Dr. W. Bishop Johnson, who was for many years officially connected with the National Baptist Convention, has written as follows: "Colored Baptists are Calvanistic in doctrine, but they hold the Scriptures as the Supreme Authority on all questions of faith and polity." The supreme standard by which all human conduct, creeds and opinions should

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be tried. They recognize no creed or confession of faith, but insist upon a personal faith in a personal Savior, followed by immersion in water of such believers in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit as a prerequisite to church membership. They insist that the minister of the Gospel shall be regenerated and called of God to his high and holy office: that he shall be qualified educationally to teach the people and that his piety as well as learning shall be of such a high type as to commend him to his special work. They hold Christian fellowship with those whose religious belief differs from them, but in the exercise of church fellowship they have no relation whatever. Their polity is democratic. The churches are independent bodies, answerable alone to Christ, who is the great Head of the Church."

        "Where difficulties are to be adjusted, ecclesiastical councils are called, consisting of delegates from each church in the community, and the troubles are submitted to them for settlement, but their findings are only advisory--each church being a sovereign body, cannot be forced beyond its own judgment." To this we add that they recognize only

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two ordinances--Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and two classes of Scriptural officers--Pastors and Deacons. In nearly all of the states trustees are elected to meet the requirements of the state laws in order that they may legally hold property, etc."

        Religious and educational development

        The progress of Negro Baptists and the development of their religious and educational organizations have been remarkable as the following statistics show: "Bulletin 103, United States Religious Census, 1906," published in 1909, gives the following statistics of the National Baptist Convention: total number of organizations, 18,534; total number of members, 2,261,607; number of church edifices, 17,832 with seating capacity of 5,610,301, and valued at $24,437,272; number of Sunday-schools, 17,478, with 100,069 officers and teachers and 924,665 scholars.

        The National Baptist Year Book for 1909, published by Rev. Samuel W. Bacote, D. D., official statistician of the National Baptist Convention, gives the following: state conventions (several states have more than one convention), 94; associations, 659; number of churches, 18,485; ordained ministers, 17,297; total membership, 2,350,639; value of church property, $19,115,057; number of

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Sunday-schools, 17,395, with 829,461 scholars; amount expended for state and home missions, $28,745.58; for foreign missions, $4,253.35; Secretary Jordan, of the Foreign Mission Board, reports $10,915.27 paid to missions and missionaries; for education $47,073.92. The total, $582,231.33.

        The Year Book also shows 91 religious universities, colleges and secondary schools operated for and by Negro Baptists in the United States with the following figures: instructors, 760; normal students, 12,664; college students, 703; theological students, 544; enrollment in all departments, 21,116; valuation of grounds and buildings, $2,386,413.34.

        Home Mission Society schools

        Negro Baptists have made remarkable progress in the development of educational institutions. In the matter of education they have splendid opportunities. Credit is here given the American Baptist Home Mission Society for the very excellent system of schools it has founded and operated for the Negro Baptists of the United States. The name, location and date of founding of these schools follow: Atlanta Baptist College, Atlanta, Ga., founded 1867 Benedict College, Columbia, S. C.; Bishop College, Marshall, Texas, founded 1881; Shaw University,

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Raleigh, North Carolina, founded 1865; Spelman Seminary (for girls only), Atlanta, Ga., founded 1881; Virginia Union University, Richmond, Va., founded 1864; Jackson College, Jackson, Miss.; Hartshorn Memorial College (for girls), Richmond, Va., founded 1883; Roger Williams University, Nashville, Tenn., founded 1864, burned Jan. 25, 1905, and reorganized under the control of the Negro Baptists of Tennessee; Leland University, New Orleans, La., founded in 1869 by the philanthropists, Deacon Chamberlain and wife (white).

        Colleges founded and controlled by Negro Baptists

        The following is a list of some of the most prominent Negro Baptist universities, colleges and seminaries (space not permitting all of them): Selma University, Selma, Ala., founded 1878; Arkansas Baptist College Little Rock, Ark., founded 1884; Cadiz Normal and Theological College, Cadiz, Kentucky, founded 1884; Central City College, Macon, Ga., founded 1889; State University. Louisville, Ky., founded 1879; Ekstein Norton University, Cane Springs, Ky., founded 1890; Guadalupe College, Seguin, Texas, founded 1885; Houston Baptist College, Houston, Tex., founded 1885; Virginia Theological Seminary and College, Lynchburg,

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Virginia, founded 1884; Western College, Macon, Mo., founded 1890; Friendship College, Rock Hill, S. C., founded 1891; Conroe College, Conroe, Texas, founded soon after Gaudalupe College; Central Texas College, Waco, Texas, founded 1901; Woman's National Training School, Washington, D. C., founded 1909.

        In connection with these higher institutions, Negro Baptists own and operate about 40 normal schools and academies throughout the United States.

        Negro Baptist Press

        The Negro Baptist Press has done much toward the development of Baptist institutions and enterprises. While all the papers cannot be named we note the following with their editors: The National Baptist Union-Review (organ of National Baptist Convention), Nashville, Tennessee, J. D. Crenshaw; The Mission Herald, Louisville, Ky., L. G. Jordan, D. D., The American Baptist (the oldest), Louisville, Ky., Wm. H. Steward; Baptist Watchman, Mobile, Ala., A. N. McEwen, D. D.;* The Pilot, Winton, N. C., C. S. Brown, D. D.; Christian Banner, Philadelphia, Pa., C. L. Taliaferro, D. D., Georgia Baptist, Augusta, Ga., W. F.

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White, D. D.; Baptist Vanguard, Little Rock, Ark., Jos. A. Booker, A. M.; Western Sta, Houston, Texas, James Codwell; The Herald, Austin, Tex., L. L. Campbell, D. D.; Western Messenger, Jefferson City, Mo., J. Goins, D. D.; The Clarion, Nashville, Tenn., J. Thos Turner; The Signal-Index, Memphis, Tenn., T. O. Fuller, Ph. D.

        * Deceased.

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        The Woman's National Convention, Auxiliary to the National Baptist Convention, was organized in September, 1900, at Richmond, Va., with the following officers: Mrs. S. W. Layton, President, Pennsylvania; Mrs. P. J. Bryant, Vice-President, Atlanta, Ga.; Miss N. H. Burroughs, A. M., Corresponding Secretary, Washington, D. C., Mrs. V. W. Broughton, A. B., Memphis, Tenn.; Miss S. C. V. Foster, Treasurer, Montgomery, Ala. With the exception of Miss Foster, the same officers are serving in the several capacities, Mrs. C. H. Parrish, of Louisville, Ky., is now Treasurer, Mrs. M. E. Goins, of Jefferson City, Mo., is Assistant Secretary, and Mrs. E. A. Wilson, Kansas City, Kans., is Statistician.

        The Preamble of the Constitution is as follows: "We, the women of the churches connected with the National Baptist Convention, desirous of stimulating and transmitting a missionary spirit and grace of giving among

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the women and children of the churches and aiding in collecting funds for missions to be disbursed as ordered by the Convention, organize and adopt the following constitution."

        Management of Women's Convention

        "The object of the Convention is to organize the women and children for the purpose of collecting and raising money for education and missions at home and abroad." The work of the Convention is directed by an Executive Committee of twelve members. As in the men's Convention, the Corresponding Secretary is the representative of the Executive Committee in carrying out the plans. The woman's Board has its headquarters at Louisville, Ky. Miss Nannie H. Burroughs, A. M. is a woman of splendid ability and an untiring worker. It is due largely to her wisdom, energy and ability as a public speaker, with the splendid support given her by President Layton, that the Convention has had such a great success. In 1901 Miss Burroughs recommended the establishment of the Woman's Training School, which recommendation the Convention adopted. In October, 1909, the school was opened in Washington, D. C., with Miss Burroughs as president. The object of the institution is given as follows:

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        Woman's Training School

        First--"To train women to do mission work in this and other lands."

        Second--"To prepare women as teachers of the word of God in our Sunday-schools."

        Third--"To train women to give better domestic service."

        The school is located in the suburbs of Washington, on a "six-acre tract of land, with buildings and equipment to the value of $13,000."

        Result of the Auxiliary's activities

        The Convention employs three field and two district missionaries, who reported for the year closing September, 1909, 2,209 homes visited, 454 churches and associations visited and $2,758.79 collected. A glance at the "general summary" for the year shows $6,742.95, general receipts; $3,627.32 for the Training School; $1,145.50 raised for Foreign Missions and education. Thus are the Negro Baptist women of America, like the little band of faithful women on Calvary, "standing by the Cross."

        In 1896, at St. Louis, Mo., The Western States and Territorial Convention, which had grown to be a strong organization in the West, represented in, and became an

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auxiliary of the National Baptist Convention.

        The New England Convention

        The following year (1897) in Boston, The New England Convention, the first of its character organized, became an auxiliary to the National Baptist Convention and therefore, adding to the great strength, influence and usefulness of the National organization. Rev. Wm. A. Creditt, D. D., of Philadelphia, a former Chairman of the Educational Board of the National Convention, is now the honored president of the New England Convention.

        The Lott-Carey Convention

        The same year, 1897, at Washington, D. C., the Lott Carey Convention was organized with Rev. Dr. C. S. Brown, president, by strong men who had been leaders in the old Foreign Mission Convention, for the purpose of doing mission work in Africa, independent of all other existing organizations. In 1905, at Chicago, it became an auxiliary to the National Baptist Convention. For a long period this organization has supported missionaries on the African field. It is doing much toward the diffusion of missionary information, and is therefore helping to create among Negro Baptists a strong, healthy missionary sentiment.

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        The World's Baptist Alliance

        The World's Baptist Alliance, which convened for the first time in the great city of London, England, July 10-20, 1905, was of great significance to the Negro Baptists of the United States. This great gathering of Baptists from every part of the globe was in the interest of Baptist Home and Foreign Mission agencies in all countries. When this all-important meeting was planned the Old World did not know that the more than two million Negro Baptists in the United States composed a separate and distinct organization. Therefore, they were given no place on the program by the committee. But this mistake was readily rectified when the 35 or more representatives of the National Baptist Convention of America, headed by its distinguished President, Dr. E. C. Morris, appeared with their credentials. Several of these representatives were heard

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and made a splendid impression, if we are to judge by the comments of the foreign papers. Those who spoke were President Morris, Secretary L. G. Jordan, D. D., Secretary R. H. Boyd, D. D., LL. D., Secretary Nannie H. Burroughs, A. M., Rev. George W. Lee, D. D., LL. D., Rev. J. J. Blackshear, D. D., Rev. C. H. Parrish, A. M., D. D., Rev. C. T. Walker, D. D., LL. D., Dr. W. T. Thompson and Mrs. J. E. Gibbons. Prof. H. B. Britt sang on more than one occasion to the great delight of all.

        With reference to these delegates and addresses, we quote the following from "The Baptist Times and Freeman, of London:"

        The influence of Negro Baptists

        "The presence of the representatives of the Negro Baptists of the United States has certainly added to the picturesqueness of the meetings of the week. But the importance of this delegation cannot be easily exaggerated. In meeting Dr. E. C. Morris, of Helena, Ark., the President of the National Baptist Convention of the colored Baptists of the United States, I was prepared for large figures, but I am free to confess his statement surprised me."

        "There are ten millions of Negroes in the United States," he said, "and of these the Baptists number 2,110,000. We have 17,000

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organized Baptist churches, and 16,000 ordained ministers. Our churches are grouped into 564 associations. Some of our individual churches number 4,000 or 5,000 members." "Here is one pastor," said Dr. Morris, pointing to the genial and rotund figure of Dr. Lee, who sat listening to the conversation, "who has charge of 3,500 members. In two states the colored Baptists have more members than the whole united kingdom."

        "What about the training of the colored ministers, Dr. Morris?" I said,

        "About a thousand of them have received a really adequate college training, extending sometimes over a period as long as seven years. Many others have been trained in the various theological seminaries of the country. We have, I suspect, about eighty colleges, academies and high schools supported by the white Baptists of America.

        "We are what you call close communionists; that we restrict communion to those who are obedient to our church ordinance. In church polity we are strictly congregational, no outside body has any authority whatever over the individual churches."

        Of the speakers the same journal had the following to say: "A colored delegate, Rev. C. H. Parrish, who has worked for twenty

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years amongst the denominational schools of the South, confessed that he supposed that he was called to the platform to give 'color to the occasion.' (Laughter.) They had a saying in the South: 'The proof of the pudding is the taste thereof.' Forty years ago he was a slave, and since he had become a teacher of Greek."

        "Dr. Boyd, who represented the largest publication department of any colored church in the world, bore his testimony to the value of missionary literature. This he illustrated by the value of a tract which reached him as a boy on the cotton farm. If it had not been for that little tract he would still have been on the cotton farm. (Applause.) They could not tell the value of a little tract, he remarked, as he eulogized the work in that connection of Morehouse, Rowland and Gray. As the result of the circulation of those tracts there was scarcely a member of their churches who did not appreciate the fact of a regenerated membership in the church, and now, he said, at least nine-tenths of their Christians believed in baptism by immersion." (Applause.)

        "Mrs. J. E. Gibbons, a colored lady, spoke strongly in support of higher education among the native Christians. As an example of such teaching, she illustrated Mr.

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Britt, who had sung so sweetly to the Congress, on Tuesday evening. Through Dr. Morehouse's institution, Mr. Britt had been trained in the manner they had seen, and as a result he was acceptable wherever he went." (Applause.)

        "Dr. J. J. Blackshear, of Texas, a colored brother, made a strong plea on behalf of his own countrymen in Africa. 'Owe no man anything,' he said, and his point was that the white man had benefited by the riches he had obtained from that country, so that it was their duty to send the Gospel to Africa. It was more important to pay a debt than to make new conquests. 'You owe a great debt to that nation,' he urged in a strong voice, 'Pay your debt.' " (Laughter and applause.)

        "As a practical exemplication of the value of missionary work, we next had the glowing speech of Miss Nannie H. Burroughs, a colored lady of Louisville, Kentucky, who simply enthused her audience by her knowledge and zeal for the missionary cause. Her speech was refined, with just a soupcon of twang, and a delightful touch of humor. One especially eloquent passage concerning women's missionary work may here be quoted: "In the galaxy with Livingston, Crowther, Morrison, Hudson,

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Taylor, McAll, the two Careys, white and black, David George and Judson, I will place the names of Ann Hazeltine Judson, Harriett Attwood Howell, Eliza Agnew and Hannah Catherine Mullens, that matchless, ingenious little soul, who opened the zenanas of India at the point of an embroidery needle, and thus opened a gate to the millions of women who had never seen the faintest ray of the light of God's Gospel." (Much applause.)

        "Dr. Morris followed, and said that in view of Christ's command to go and preach the Gospel among all nations, he believed an indifferent church might be keeping the Lord out of the world by refusing to fulfill those conditions that would permit Him to come back again. The church was weakest in that part which might be called the commissariat department, though Christ's commission had been entrusted to the richest nations in the world. To-day He was looking down upon His church, and realizing her wealth and her power. He was saying to her as Christ said to His disciples, 'Lovest thou me?' 'Lord, thou knowest all things: thou knowest that I love thee,' was the answer of the disciples. And Christ was saying again now as He said at that time, 'Then the test is, feed my sheep.' "

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        "Another colored delegate, Dr. W. T. Thompson, of Virginia, of the Lott-Carey Convention, dealt with the difficulty of creating missionary interest in the home churches. He confessed that he had learned much of methods that morning, and intended to go back to put into practical use some of the good he had stored from that meeting. But the best of his speech was his story, but unfortunately space forbids its recital."

        One of the most enjoyable addresses during the week was that of Dr. George W. Lee, delivered at a reception tendered Dr. Alexander McLauren, President of the Alliance, at Region Park. His flow of wit and wisdom won for him a high place among the leaders of thought in the Baptist world. The Times and Freeman said of him, "By common consent he is an orator, a man of soul and mind and humor. Upon this occasion he convulsed his audience by pleasantries which were as keen with serious meaning as they were bright with flashing humor--sword play in the sunshine."

        A feature of the Alliance gathering that drew out a great deal of harsh and unchristian criticism from some of the white delegates from the southern part of the United States was the entertaining of the Negro delegates at luncheon by the Russian delegates

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led by Baron Wixkull. But this proved to be a very profitable as well as a very pleasant affair, as Secretary Jordan and his Board, in response to a touching appeal from the poor and persecuted Baptists there are now helping to sustain a mission station in Russia.

        National Baptist delegates

        The next meeting of the Alliance will be held in Philadelphia in 1911, and the National Convention has a committee of one hundred who will help to extend the proper courtesies to the foreign delegates. The following is the list of the National Convention representatives in the London meeting: Dr. E. C. Morris, President of the Convention, Helena, Ark.; Rev. C. H. Parrish, A. M., D. D., and Rev. L. G. Jordan, D. D., Chairman and Secretary of the Foreign Mission Board, Louisville, Ky.; Rev. R. H. Boyd, D. D., LL. D., Corresponding Secretary of the Home Mission and Publishing Boards, Nashville, Tenn.; Miss Nannie H. Burroughs, A. M., Corresponding Secretary of the Woman's Auxiliary, Louisville, Ky.; Rev. C. B. Brown, Chairman National Benefit Board, Marianna, Ark.; Rev. C. S. Brown, D. D., President of Lott-Carey Convention, Winton, N. C.; Rev. E. R. Carter, D. D., Atlanta, Georgia; Rev. A.

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N. McEwen, D. D., Mobile, Alabama; Prof. Gregory W. Hayes, A. M., Lynchburg, Va.; Rev. W. F. Graham, D. D., Richmond, Va.; Rev. George W. Lee, D. D., LL. D., Washington, D. C.; Rev. John H. Frank, D. D., Louisville, Ky.; Rev. W. H. Hunt, D. D., New York; Rev. A. R. Griggs, D. D., Dallas, Texas; Rev. Jas. A. Booker, A. B., D. D., Little Rock, Ark.; Mrs. E. E. Whitfield, Cuero, Texas; Rev. C. S. Morris, D. D., New York; Rev. C. T. Walker, D. D., LL. D., Augusta, Georgia; Rev. E. C. Cole, D. D., St. Louis, Mo.; Prof. Wm. H. Steward, Louisville, Ky.; Rev. M. W. Gilbert, A. M., D. D. New York; Rev. A. W. Moss, Tyler, Tex.; Rev. J. Francis Robinson, S. T. D., Norwich, Conn.; Prof. H. B. Britt, Louisville, Ky.; Rev. W. Bishop Johnson, D. D., LL. D., Washington, D. C.; Mrs. J. E. Gibbons, Rev. Isaac Toliver, D. D., Washington, D. C.; Rev. F. L. Lights, D. D., Houston, Texas; Rev. Alexander Wilbanks, D. D., Washington, D. C.; Rev. E. H. McDonald, Providence, R. I.; Rev. A. C. Chandler, A. B., Detroit, Mich.; Rev. A. H. Miller, Helena, Ark.; Rev. E. W. Johnson, D. D., Philadelphia, Pa.; Rev. J. Anderson Taylor, D. D., Washington, D. C.; Rev. W. L. Taylor, D. D., Richmond, Va., and others whose names we have not been able to get.

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        General Baptist Convention of North America

        The General Baptist Convention of North America, organized in St. Louis, Mo., in May, 1905, is another meeting of great importance. Bringing together as it does the Baptists of all races from Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central and South America, it is the first great step toward uniting the efforts of the great Baptist family on this side of the ocean, factions of which were separated by the slavery question more than sixty years ago. The objects of this convention are given as follows: "The objects of this convention shall be to promote closer fellowship among American Baptists, their increased efficiency and spirituality and the evangelistic spirit in our churches; to consider subjects having a bearing upon the missionary, educational and philanthropic enterprises of the denomination and upon the moral and spiritual welfare of society."

        Disposing of the race question

        With reference to this organization, knowing as they did how the race question has projected itself into all the institutions of this character in the United States, it was but natural that the colored Baptists should have had questions and doubts to arise. But these doubts were soon dispelled, as they have been received with full and equal privileges,

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Dr. E. C. Morris being made a member of the Executive Committee. Speaking as the representative of the National Baptist Convention, in the second meeting of the General Convention, at Jamestown, Va., May 22 and 23, 1907, he said, "I beg to say also by way of explanation (and which will doubtless be a relief to those who may not fully have understood the Negro people, and especially the Negro Baptists, upon the questions which have so greatly disturbed some of our great and good men) that our presence here does not mean to us that social lines have been broken down and that there is to be a general intermingling of the races in a social way, but that we are here only to take part in this great convention as brethren of a common faith. There has been a great change wrought in the minds of the Negro Baptist people since the organization of the General Convention. Their spirit of fraternity has been broadened and they see their white brethren in a different light from that in which many had hitherto viewed them; they have seen that the great and good men among their white brethren bear in their breasts a warm brotherly spirit toward them, and that in their efforts to help themselves they

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will have the sympathy and co-operation of their stronger brother."

        Representatives at the International S. S. Convention

        The International Sunday-School Association (United States and Canada), as the name implies, has for its purpose the development of the Sunday-schools and Sunday-school workers in all denominations in these countries. It meets triannually, bringing together the Sunday-school specialists from various denominations. It appoints from this class a Lesson Committee of 15, who prepare a six-year course of uniform lessons. These lessons are furnished to each denominational publishing house to be prepared for their Sunday-schools by their expert writers. Negro Baptists were represented in this Association in its meeting held at Denver, Col., in 1902, by Dr. R. H. Boyd, Secretary of the National Baptist Publishing Board, and thus began a new epoch in Negro Baptist Sunday-school history. Drs. C. H. Clark and W. S. Ellington, Chairman and Editorial Secretary, respectively, of the Publishing Board, were the Negro Baptist representatives at the Eleventh Triennial meeting of the Association held in Toronto, Canada, June 23, 1905.

        The World's Sunday-School Convention is

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triennial and includes all the Protestant world. Dr. C. H. Parrish, of Louisville, Ky., was a most eminent representative of the Negro Baptist family at the Jerusalem meeting of this great orld's gathering in 1904. There were three distinguished representatives in the meeting at Rome, Italy, in 1907. viz.: Dr. John E. Ford, of Denver, Colorado; Mrs. Virginia Broughton, of Nashville, Tenn., Secretary of the Woman's National Baptist Auxiliary, and Miss V. B. Miller, Galveston, Texas. Thus the development and progress of Negro Baptists are marked.

        Negro Baptists in the Holy Land

        Another historic fact that should be of great interest to young Negro Baptists is that a few of their leaders have made special trips to and through the Holy Lands, and have therefore become authority on "Bible Lands and Customs." Drs. C. T. Walker, of Augusta, Ga., and E. R. Carter, of Atlanta, Ga., were the first of our American Negro Baptist preachers to enjoy this distinction. This journey was made in the spring of 1891 and lasted three months. Since that time Dr. C. H. Parrish and Dr. A. J. Stokes, of Montgomery, Ala.; W. G. Parks, D. D., Philadelphia, Pa.; P. James Bryant, D. D., Atlanta, Ga.; A. S. Jackson. D. D., Dallas, Tex.; R. D. Phillips, D. D.,

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and Rev. G. W. Wyatt, Cincinnati, O., have had the same inspiring and profitable experience.

        National Baptist administration 1909

        Each successive year since the organization of the National Baptist Convention, Rev. E. C. Morris, D. D., has been unanimously elected its president. To no one more than to him is credit due for the great progress that has been made for the high position the Convention holds among the great religious bodies of the world. The following splendid tribute is an extract from an official address of Dr. R. H. Boyd: "It would be impossible to give here just and due credit to the wise leadership and profound statesmanship of our President, Rev. E. C. Morris, D. D. While his acts have been severely criticised, his motives questioned, and his leadership attacked, he has proven to be among the most able counsellors, statesmen and leaders." His corps of official helpers for the current year (1909) are as follows: Prof. R. B. Hudson, A. M., Selma, Ala. Secretary; Revs. T. O. Fuller, A. M., Ph. D., Memphis, Tenn.; E. H. McDonald, D. D., St. Paul, Minn.; E. Arlington Wilson, Ph. B., D. D., Kansas City, Kansas, and J. H. A. Cyrus, D. D., Port Royal, Va., Assistant

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Secretaries; Rev. A. J. Stokes, D. D., Montgomery, Ala., Treasurer; Rev. S. W. Bacote, A. M., D. D., Kansas City, Mo., Statistician; Rev. Robert Mitchell, D. D., Bowling Green, Ky., Auditor. The Chairmen and Corresponding Secretaries of the respective Boards are: Foreign Mission Board, Rev. C. H. Parrish, D. D., Louisville, Ky., and Dr. L. G. Jordan, Louisville; Home Mission Board, Dr. J. P. Robinson, Little Rock, Ark., and Dr. R. H. Boyd, Nashville, Tenn.; Publishing Board, Dr. C. H. Clark and Dr. R. H. Boyd, Nashville, Tenn.; Educational Board Dr. T. J. Searcy, Memphis, Tenn., and Dr. A. N. McEwen,* Mobile, Ala., succeeded by Rev. S. E. Griggs, B. D., Nashville, Tenn.; B. Y. P. U. Board, Dr. P. J. Bryant, Atlanta, Ga., and Dr. E. W. D. Isaac, Nashville, Tenn.; National Benefit Association Board, Rev. C. B. Brown, Marianna, Ark., and Rev. A. A. Cosey, D. D., Mound Bayou, Miss.

        * Deceased.

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        Dr. Wm. J. Simmons, D.D., LL.D., Kentucky

        Prominent among those who made possible the achievements herein chronicled are the following who played their parts like heroes and have gone to their reward: Rev. Wm. J. Simmons, D. D., LL. D., of Kentucky, was one of the noblest spirits that has been given to the Baptist family. For several years the representative of the American Baptist Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa., he was brought to see the needs of his brethren as it was given but to few others to see them. Seeking to meet the demands of his denomination, he was indefatigable in his efforts to organize them and to develop its resources. It was through his influence that the American National Convention was organized in 1886. To him Kentucky Baptists owe much, for it was he who founded her Baptist educational institutions and organized her forces, inspiring her Frank, Parrish, Steward and others now prominent in her religious and educational

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affairs. Dr. Simmons died in 1890, leaving a bereaved denomination.

        Rev. L. M. Luke, D.D., Texas

        Rev. L. M. Luke, D. D., of Texas, held various positions among Baptists in that state. The most effective work done there, however, was in the educational field as financial agent of Bishop College, Marshall, Texas. He was later called as Missionary Secretary of the National Foreign Mission Convention, and on its being merged with other bodies into the National Baptist Convention, he was elected to the same position in the consolidated body. Only a few weeks afterward, in the latter part of 1895, he passed from labor to reward.

        Rev. E. K. Love, D.D., Georgia

        Rev. E. K. Love, D. D., of Georgia, was one of the most active and prominent preachers among the Baptists of the country. For many years he was hailed by Baptists everywhere as the leader of Georgia Baptists. As a former President of the American National Convention, President of the Missionary Baptist Convention of Georgia and pastor of the First African Baptist Church, Savannah, Georgia, the oldest, and at that time, the largest Negro Baptist church in the world, he held a commanding position. He died April 12,

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1900, leaving a splendid record. President Morris in an eloquent tribute to his memory said, "His devotion to the principles of this organization (the National Convention) was so strong that nothing but death could separate him from the work undertaken by it. If I am correctly informed he was standing at his post when the fatal arrow of death struck him down. 'A veteran sleeping on his arms, beneath the red cross shield.' "

        Rev. R. DeBaptist, D.D., statistician and counsellor

        Rev. R. DeBaptist, D. D., of Illinois, was a potent factor in the development of the work among Negro Baptists. He was one of the best-known and beloved preachers in the United States. A deep thinker and a splendid systematizer, he was invaluable to the denomination in the gathering and reporting of Baptist statistics. The Baptists of the West especially looked to him as a wise counsellor and leader, and no honor was too great for them to bestow upon him. Honored and revered by the brotherhood in general, he passed to his reward.

        Rev. W. H. McAlpine, D.D., organizer

        Rev. W. H. McAlpine, D. D., of Alabama, was indeed a pioneer organizer among Negro Baptists. For more than thirty years he was a prominent leader in the denomination's activities. As the first president of

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the National Foreign Mission Convention, which was organized in 1880, he was intensely interested in the development of the missionary spirit among Baptists, and did much to make possible the great success that has come to the National Baptist Convention in the mission fields of Africa. His ability and efforts in the interest of Christian education were recognized by the Baptist brotherhood in Alabama and they honored him with the presidency of Selma University, Selma, Ala. He was one of the very few organizers of the old Foreign Mission Convention left, who were honored veterans at the Quarto-Centennial Jubilee of the Convention in Chicago, September, 1905. His death only a very few days later was a severe shock to the great Baptist family.

        Prof. G. Hayes, educator and orator

        Prof. Gregory Hayes, A. M., was a man of great intellectual and oratorical ability Referring to his death in annual address in 1907, President Morris said. "So much has been written and said about his great worth to the race and denomination that it would be only a repetition to speak of it here, and yet the very fact that

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he was a member and strong supporter of the principles and policies of the National Baptist Convention, makes it necessary that we make mention of him in this address." Prof. Hayes was at one time Chairman of the National Educational Board, and rendered excellent service. In the upbuilding of Lynchburg Theological Seminary and College, Lynchburg, Va., to which he dedicated his life, and of which he was the distinguished president, he built a monument to his great powers and life. On December 22, 1906, he was called from the arduous but honorable labors of earth to higher and nobler service in heaven.

        Dr. Carr, national evangelist

        Rev. J. W. Carr, D. D., came into prominence as a "National Baptist Evangelist." But as pastor of the large and prominent Second Baptist Church, of Indianapolis, Ind., and as an acknowledged leader among Indiana Baptists, he was honored with great influence which brought him into the front ranks in the National Foreign Mission Convention and later in the National Baptist Convention. At the death of Dr. E. K. Love, he was called to the pastorate of the historic First African Baptist Church, at Savannah, Ga., which position he held at the

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time of his death, the last week in August 1907.

        Prof. Wm. Cansler prominent layman

        Prof. William L. Cansler, A. M., of Nashville, Tennessee, was one of the most faithful and prominent laymen of the denomination. A teacher in one of the public schools of Nashville, a member of the Trustee Board of Roger Williams University and Secretary of the Tennessee Baptist State Convention for nearly twenty years. He held a high place among his people as an educator and churchman. Having resigned his position as a teacher in 1898, he accepted the position of chief clerk in the mailing department of the National Baptist Publishing House, and was soon afterwards appointed Auditor of the Publishing Board. In 1899 he was elected Secretary of the National Baptist Convention, succeeding Wm. H. Steward, who resigned after having served in that capacity since the first session of the Convention. Still honored with these positions, and leaving a splendid record, he died August 13, 1907.

        Dr. S. E. Smith, organizer and counsellor

        Rev. S. E. Smith, D. D., was one of Kentucky's splendid sons, who gained a high

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place in the councils of the denomination, and in the affections of the brotherhood throughout the country. In him the National Convention had a devoted adherent and a gallant defender. It has been well said of him, "He was always ready to serve in any capacity that his brethren placed him." As an organizer and church builder he had few superiors. He had just accepted a call to the splendid Second Baptist Church, Columbus, Ohio, when on August 5, 1907, he was stricken by the hand of death.

        Prof. Wm. Rosborough, pioneer musician

        Prof. Wm. Rosborough was a native of Texas and a product of Bishop College, Marshall, Texas. He was a natural and talented musician, and his thorough knowledge of theory and harmony enabled him to rise rapidly as a composer and director. Rev. Dr. I. Toliver, of national reputation as an evangelist, induced him to become his associate in evangelistic meetings throughout the country. He then composed "Celestial Showers," that splendid collection of gospel songs, for use in these meetings. Later he was called by the National Baptist Publishing Board to the position of its Musical Editor and Manager of its musical department. Here he made a splendid record. His "National Baptist

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Anthems" are of great merit and are rendered in all of the large Negro Baptist gatherings held in this country. A pioneer in his line among Negroes, his untimely death, December 3, 1903, was a great loss to the denomination.

        Dr. Blackshear, preacher and orator

        Rev. J. J. Blackshear, A. B., D. D., of Roger Williams University, was one of the most brilliant young men who has entered the Negro Baptist ministry. As a preacher and orator he was captivating. His splendid ability made him a figure of national prominence. He was intensely interested in and identified with all missionary movements of the denomination. In the educational field he rendered valuable service, having been a teacher in Houston Baptist Academy, Houston, Texas, and Dean of the Theological Department of Guadalupe College, Seguin, Texas. He had served as pastor of prominent churches in Indiana and Texas and had just begun his pastorate of the influential Second Baptist Church, Columbus, Ohio, when he met a sudden death in a gas explosion April 6, 1907.

        Dr. Vann, a national Baptist officer and preacher

        Rev. M. Vann, D. D., a graduate of Roger Williams University and a conspicuous figure in all great gatherings among Negro Baptists,

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was indeed the pride of Tennessee Baptists. As Superintendent of Missions in Tennessee he was both powerful and influential, and gave great prominence to Baptist work in the state. In connection with the late Rev. R. N. Countee, the founder of the Bible and Normal Institute, Memphis, Tenn., he rendered invaluable service in the establishment of that institution, first as an instructor and later as a member of the Board of Trustees. In the year 1892 he was elected President of the American National Convention which place he filled with distinction for two years. As a leader in the councils of the denomination he was positive, aggressive and yet, tender and sympathetic. He fought for principles and policies with a determination that challenged the admiration of all, but none were more ready to shelter and defend the weak. Loved and honored by his brethren he died at his post as pastor of the First Baptist Church, Chattanooga, Tenn., July, 1897, one week after his election to the presidency of the Tennessee Baptist State Convention.

        Dr. Purce, prominent college president

        Rev. Chas. L. Purce, D. D., was one of the denomination's strongest educators. He was greatly beloved by the entire denomination,

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but was especially dear to the hearts of the brethren in Alabama and Kentucky. As president of Selma University, Selma, Ala., he did much to raise the standard of the Baptist ministry and to develop a strong and useful young manhood and womanhood among the younger Baptist Christians of that state. For eleven years he administered the affairs of the State University, Kentucky. A brilliant set of young ministers in various sections of our country attest to his ability as a theologian and instructor. No greater eulogy could be given one than that paid Dr. Purce in these few words by the editor of the American Baptist. "He was an earnest, faithful and untiring worker, and his judgment was clear and discerning," and these by the editor of the National Baptist Union, "Dr. Purce was an amiable character, a strong, brave, manly hero, a man who honored God and served his people loyally and faithfully to the end." In him the National Convention had a loyal advocate. Stricken with paralysis, he died August 17, 1905, leaving the presidency of State University, to reign with Christ above.

        "These all died in the faith," and left enduring records, and in dying they left a great and glorious work for the Baptist

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family to carry to its fullest fruition. With Cramp we may feel assured that "A great work is before us, both at home and abroad, demanding ardent love, enterprising boldness and indomitable perseverance."

        A pioneer and wise counsellor

        Rev. W. T. Dixon, of Brooklyn, N. Y., was indeed one of the "Fathers in Israel." Dignified in bearing, mild in disposition and a wise counsellor; all who knew him believed in him as their friend. It is a splendid proof of his greatness that he was the beloved and honored pastor of the large and influential Concord Baptist Church, of Brooklyn, for nearly 50 years. Though he lived for all these years in the far North, away from the great mass of his people, he espoused their cause throughout the country. As president of the New England Convention, for years his influence and power were widespread. He was a supporter of the National Baptist Convention. He was unusually fond of the association of the young ministers and was a great inspiration to them. On Tuesday, June 22, 1909, after a long and useful life of service in the denomination he went to his reward.

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Office Secretary Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention.

        The Negro's early moral and civil training

        No tabulated statement can be prepared which would give an adequate idea of the benefits conferred upon the Negro by the white Baptists of the South. Indeed, it may be safely said that the greatest benefits which have come to the Negro as a result of his providential advent into America have emanated from that constant concern for his welfare by the white people of the South, which developed in acts of personal and individual kindness of which no records have ever been kept. In the earlier days his moral and civil training was largely in the hands of the wives and daughters of those in whose homes he was a servant. His religious instruction was much the same as that which was ministered to the white people. He was received into the churches and it was usual before the

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Civil War for Baptist churches in the South to be composed of white and Negro members jointly. In many instances the Negro membership was larger than the white. The old historic church at Beaufort, S. C., where W. B. Johnson and Richard Fuller, two distinguished former presidents of the Southern Baptist Convention, were baptized, was an instance. Before the war the largest white membership of that church was 180, while the colored membership was 3,557. In other instances distinguished preachers pastored Negro churches. A notable example of this character was the First African Baptist Church at Richmond, Virginia, of which the distinguished Dr. Robert Ryland, for many years president of Richmond College, was pastor during a term of twenty-five years. During that time Dr. Ryland baptized into the fellowship of this church many hundreds of Negro members. It is likewise true that there is scarcely a Negro church within the bounds of the Southern Baptist Convention to the building of which white Baptists have not contributed generously. It is a usual custom among the Negroes for their membership to make personal solicitations, with mite cards for small contributions until there are very few of their white friends who have not had

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an opportunity of making a contribution to every worthy enterprise undertaken by the Negro. (Solicitations of this character are made not only in behalf of the churches, orphans' homes and other benevolent institutions among the Negroes, but also for aid in caring for the sick and burying their dead.) To these appeals it has been the pleasure of the white people of the South to respond generously, and of this character of help no record has been kept.

        Policy of the Southern Baptist Convention

        In the organized efforts to aid the Negro along religious lines it has not been the policy of Southern Baptists to expend their energies in school work, mainly on account of three reasons:

        First--The civil authorities of the Southern States have cared, by taxation, for the primary education of the Negro. In the report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1908, Vol. 2, page 941, it is stated that since 1870 $165,000,000 have been expended in the Southern States for the maintenance of common schools for the Negroes. Mr. Richard Edmonds, Editor Manufacturers' Board of Baltimore, who is a recognized authority, has stated in a recent publication that: "In the sixteen former slave states and the District of Columbia

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since 1871, at least $175,000,000 have been spent upon common schools for Negroes."

        The South and religious training

        Second--The higher education of the Negro has been generously cared for by the philanthropy of our Northern white brethren, whose field in the work of education among the Negroes has been gratefully recognized by the Southern Baptist Convention. Also the Negroes themselves are doing a splendid work by the maintenance of excellent institutions of learning in some of the Southern States.

        The Negro and higher education of the Negro

        Third--It has been deemed wise by Southern Baptists, both white and colored, that the efforts of our people in behalf of the Negro should be directed along lines of religious training; more particularly of pastors, deacons and Christian workers than otherwise, believing that greater good would be accomplished by efforts of this character than by expending our resources in any other direction.

        In any estimate of work done by Southern white Baptists for the Negro consideration should not be limited to the organic efforts of the Southern Baptist Convention. Each of the different states within the territory of the Southern Baptist Convention has a

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mission board through which more or less aid is extended to the Negroes in the respective states. A reference to this character of work is had in a letter recently written by Rev. William Alexander, D. D., pastor of Sharon Baptist Church, Baltimore, Md. He says: "To the Southern Baptist Convention indirectly and directly is largely due credit for the organization and growth of our colored Baptist churches in Maryland. For more than a quarter of a century the Maryland Baptist Union Association, which is a part of the Southern Baptist Convention, contributed liberally to establish churches in Baltimore City and in all parts of the state and to assist churches in supporting their pastors..........when the Association began its work of evangelization among the colored people, 200 colored Baptists could not be found in Maryland. When the Association turned the work over to our colored State Convention, about ten years ago, we had more than 50 churches and about 6,000 members. The church I am now serving was constituted by me and eight other persons while I was serving as General Missionary of the Maryland Baptist Union. It was constituted February 5, 1885. The present membership is 1,100 and the Sunday-school is

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one of the largest colored schools in Baltimore."

        The trend and interest toward the Negro continuous

        It should be added that the Maryland Union Association is still giving moral and financial aid to the Negroes in their religious work, and similar facts may be disclosed in connection with the work of their states.

        A review of the attitude of the work of the Southern Baptist Convention for the Negro, as shown in the records of the Home Mission Board and of the Convention itself, would furnish interesting facts for consideration. It is not practicable in a presentation of this character to make extensive quotations from such records. A few, however, may be given as indicating the general trend and interest which Southern White Baptists have maintained toward the Negro During all these years.

        A retrospective thought is embodied in the following language, which is quoted from the last annual report of the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention: "It would be interesting to restate something of the history of the Negro in America and the universal concern for his religious welfare cherished by Southern Christian people through all the trying vicissitudes of three

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hundred years. Especially would it be of interest to review the emphasis Southern Baptists have placed upon giving the gospel to the Negro, and the unfailing loyalty with which they have incorporated this character of work into all their missionary plans and efforts from the organization of the Southern Baptist Convention in 1845 to the present time. Within the scope of this report we cannot, however, undertake any comprehensive review of facts in connection with the work as they have developed from year to year. Suffice it to say that during all these years there has never been a time when Southern Baptists raised a question about their Christian obligation to the Negro or abated their interest in his behalf in any measure below that of their opportunity and ability. The work of seeking to help the Negro has been earnestly pressed forward under varying conditions and by different plans, the methods adopted being always determined by the view of securing the best possible results."

        Determined to give the Negroes the gospel

        As soon as the Convention was organized at Augusta, in 1845, and Southern Baptists were free to prosecute their work according to their convictions, they put ringing emphasis upon giving the gospel

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to the colored population. While the old Triennial Convention had done something in this direction, the new Southern Baptist Convention sought to do more. From that time until the present the work has been prosecuted under instructions from the Convention as regularly as any other department of our general mission work.

        The whites recognize their moral obligation to the Negro

        The first annual report of the Home Mission Board, submitted to the Convention at Richmond in 1846, contained the following: "Add to this matter the wants of our colored population. Although vast numbers of them enjoy religious advantages far superior to multitudes of our poor white citizens, yet greater numbers are in condition to require the special attention of this body. It is gratifying to see the increased interest on this subject in our churches."

        In connection with this report, which was approved by the Convention in session, the Convention declared that "masters are as much the moral guardians of their servants as of their children."

        At the second annual meeting of the Board the following resolution was adopted:

        "Resolved, That in consideration of the

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Providential manner in which the colored population of our country have been gathered from a region of idolatrous darkness into one blessed by Christian privileges, and in view of the facility with which they can be reached and the gladness with which they receive the gospel, and intimate relations which exist between us and them, we regard them as presenting a field of missionary effort second in importance to none other, and one which should be occupied as speedily as possible."

        Slaves responded to the missionary efforts of the master

        The fact that as early as 1849 there had been received into the fellowship of Baptist churches in the South 330,000 Negro communicants is a testimony of the Christian fidelity of those by whom they were instructed, and to the religious zeal and comprehension of a race of people so lately from a land of idolatry, which should challenge the gratitude of both races.

        In its report for 1851 the Board says: "This department of our labor is increasing in interest every year. Missionaries of the Board hold separate services for the special benefit of the slaves; and all bear favorable testimony to the happy influence of the gospel upon the hearts and lives of that people."

        Thus the records run each year and the

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work continued with unabated interest until interrupted by the Civil War. Notwithstanding all that our people had suffered, in that trying day, the South still loved the Negro and the Negro still loved the South, and when the work of the Convention was resumed this was one of the first departments taken up by the Home Mission Board. The report of the Board for 1866 contains the following reference: "A large number of intelligent and pious missionaries have been employed to preach to freedmen of the South. The colored prefer white missionaries to those of their own color. This is owing, in no small degree, to the fact that white ministers are better qualified to instruct them, and this is what they need--good, sound, theological instruction. These people are greatly improved and show signs of advancement."

        The report of the Board in 1868, on this same subject, contains the following: "A large amount of earnest and faithful labor has been spent upon these missions during the year. No class of people seem more anxious for the Bread of Life than the freedmen of the South. Thirty churches have been constituted by our missionaries, twenty-four meeting houses commenced, eleven finished and mostly for the benefit of these

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people. 611 have been baptized and many converted through the labors of missionaries, but baptized by others whom they were assisting."

        These extracts containing the best thought and pulsing with the heart-throbs of Fuller, and Broadus, and Jeter, and Boyce, and Manly, and Tichenor and other like giants of those early days, are a heritage that Southern Baptists cannot and will not ignore.

        During more recent years the Board has annually urged upon the Convention the great importance of this work and has reported good results accomplished, and the Convention has as frequently approved the work of the Board and its recommendations looking to still larger things.

        The Convention help graciously received

        In 1883 the Board reports as follows: "No part of our work requires greater wisdom or larger liberality than the work among the colored people. In conjunction with the State Board of Georgia we have appointed Bro. W. H. McIntosh to labor in that state among that class of population as theological instructor. Though he has been in the field only about three months he has found abundant reason for encouragement. More than one hundred preachers and deacons have attended his lectures and

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given unmistakable evidence of their interest in his work and their appreciation of it. Overtures for similar arrangements with other State Boards have been made and we hope during the next year greatly to increase this department of our work. We are most deeply impressed with the importance of this field and we are rejoiced to see the difficulties, which have surrounded it on every side, giving way. Many of our most thoughtful people are feeling that we have too long neglected our full duty to a race whose claims upon us we cannot ignore. The $15,000 the Board asks for this work is far too small to meet all its needs; we have reduced our request to this insufficient sum only because we fear the liberality of our churches is not prepared to go beyond it."

        The earnestness and interest of the convention

        This above item of $15,000 may at this time seem to be an appropriation of ordinary proportion. But it is lifted into prominent significance by the fact of the impoverished condition of Southern Baptists at that time, and from the further comparative fact that it was an amount equal to one-half of the entire amount of contributions made by all the Southern States for the support of the whole mission work of the Home Mission Board during that

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year. This report was carefully considered by a committee of the Convention of which Dr. William E. Hatcher was Chairman, and heartily approved by the Convention in the adoption of the committee's report which contained the following language: "We cheerfully approve the plans of the Home Mission Board in the prosecution of their labors among the colored people, and most heartily recommend that the amount asked for in their report be granted."

        Gratifying reports received

        The report of the Home Mission Board for the year 1886 contains the following interesting record (attention is directed to the mile-posts of progress indicated by these various reports, the one now about to be quoted marks an important epoch in the process of development):

        "For the first time in the history of this Convention more than twenty colored preachers are enrolled among its missionaries." This the Convention cheerfully and heartily approved. This character of quotation and citation, showing the purpose of Southern Baptists to prosecute the work of evangelizing and elevating the Negroes among them might be continued indefinitely. It may be sufficient, however, to say that

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from the beginning the work has been prosecuted under instructions from the Convention as regularly as any other department of mission work.

        In the earnestness of our people to help the Negro in the most practical way, methods of work have been varied from time to time to suit conditions and circumstances. It will be recalled that during the year 1894 the lamented Dr. T. T. Eaton of Kentucky, introduced a resolution at the meeting of the Southern Baptist Convention, at Dallas, Texas, calling for the appointment of a committee to confer with the American Baptist Home Mission Society for the purpose of formulating some co-operative plans for enlarged missionary operations among the Negroes. As a result of the conference thus brought about, the co-operative work under what was known as the New Era Plan was inaugurated and for a number of years was conducted with varying degrees of success. This work was conducted in six of the different states; but for one reason or another it failed to meet with sufficient encouragement to become permanent. The Home Mission Board is still

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aiding in this character of work in Virginia and to a limited extent in Missouri.

        Co-operation best obtained through the Nat'l Baptist Convention

        It having been the policy of the Home Mission Board to help the Negro along lines that would enable him to help himself to become an independent, manly Christian forces, the way seemed to open in the development of the National Baptist Convention for the better accomplishment of this policy by co-operating with the Home Mission Board of that Convention.

        The present plan of co-operation in our mission work is the outgrowth of a conference of representatives of the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention and the Home Mission Board of the National Baptist Convention held in Chattanooga, Tenn., November 28th, 1900. This conference was favored with the presence and counsel of Dr. J. M. Frost, Corresponding Secretary of the Sunday-School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, who had proven his concern for and confidence in the work of the National Baptist Convention in a very helpful manner. The conference in question was called by the honored and lamented Dr. F. H. Kerfoot, at that time Corresponding Secretary of the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention.

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While attending a meeting of the National Baptist Convention in Nashville, Dr. Kerfoot had been impressed with the outlook of greater things for Negro Baptists through the establishment of a general convention patterned largely after the Southern Baptist Convention. His prophetic vision discerned a new and helpful avenue for organic co-operation in mission work among the Negroes. Dr. Kerfoot has passed to his reward, but there remains those among both races who took part in the inauguration of this plan of work who now rejoice with grateful hearts for the divine blessing which attends it.

        The result of Co-operation a splendid success

        The result of the work under the plan, which has been in successful operation for a number of years, has been pleasing to the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, and the Secretary, Dr. R. H. Boyd, of the Home Mission Board of the National Baptist Convention, has stated publicly that among the greatest benefits derived from this assistance has been the unification of Negro Baptists into one solid working organization. This plan contemplates the appointment of capable, consecrated Christian Negro men, who are chosen with great

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care as joint missionaries in the various states, and who devote themselves largely to holding Bible conferences where ministers, deacons and other Christian workers receive proper religious training. These conferences have the sympathy and co-operation of the white Baptists of the respective states in which the work is conducted. Indeed, the work is conducted on the same principle, with some added care in the selection of missionaries, as that in which the American Baptist Home Mission Society participates in the State of Virginia at present and did participate formerly in other states under what was known as the New Era or Fortress Monroe Plan.

        Number of workers and service rendered under co-operation

        In cooperation with the National Baptist Convention the number of missionaries employed last year (1908) was 33. They preached 9,739 sermons; reported 2,270 baptisms, with 2,045 additions by letter, making a total of 4,315 additions to the membership to churches during the year. They held 374 Bible conferences with an aggregate attendance of 29,887 preachers and others who enjoyed the benefit of their instruction.

        A remarkable record of Christian advancement

        The above co-operative work between the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist

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Convention (white), and the Home Mission Board of the National Baptist Convention (colored), is still operative and is being prosecuted in fourteen states of the Union in this the year of 1909. A general fact that when the Southern Baptist Convention was organized in 1845 there were 2,800,000 Negroes in the South, 125,000 of them were Baptists. At present there are 10,000,000 of whom over 2,300,000 are Baptists. One person in five among the Negroes of the South is a Baptist. While the race has increased something less than four-fold, the number of Baptists among them has increased more than sixteen-fold. Surely this splendid record of Christian advancement among a people so recently from an uncivilized country is a marvelous development, and is a tribute to the fidelity of those from whom the Negro has received his moral impressions and religious training, as well as to the intelligent comprehension of, and fidelity to the Word of God by Negro preachers and Christian workers.

        A remarkable record of Christian advancement

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        The first service rendered by the American Baptist Publication Society to the Negro people was when the race was still in slavery and unable to help itself. It is a fact that needs no long argument to prove that the Southern white people were, in thousands of cases, very kind and considerate of their slaves, and taught our people their first lessons in Christianity, in many instances gathering them into Sunday-schools, and encouraging them to connect themselves with churches. The result was that at emancipation there were hundreds of churches among the colored people, while still others worshipped with the white people. The Baptist Publication Society was an important factor among the white Baptists in those early days, for it must be remembered that the Society was organized on Southern soil, and Southern Baptists had no other publishing house

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for years but the Society. It is safe to say that the Society with its tracts and broadening literature, must have contributed very largely to the triumph of spirit over flesh in the master, thus leading him to treat his slaves with kindness, and finally to teach them to know Jesus. In those days noble Southern white people by the hundreds had such interest in their former slaves as to labor to their utmost to save them.

        When the race was in slavery the Society was not the strong organization that it is today, but it made the largest use of its limited resources. As soon as the slaves were liberated their condition was so deplorable as to secure for them the sympathies of the Northern people, and the officers of the Society began to see as never before the service God would have them render. At that time Dr. Benjamin Griffith was the General Secretary, and a more sincere and helpful friend the colored people never had. He saw the colored race as the most needful and at the same time the most promising mission field in America. His convictions were so strong that he succeeded in interesting others, using his personal friendships and family relations to make friends for the race and thus secure means to carry out his program of help. The Crozers and Bucknells came to

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his assistance and by their princely donations, and by the gifts of many others, the Society was for the first time placed upon a permanent and safe basis for the great work it has accomplished since that time. It is exceedingly probable that the Society would never have been the power it is today, unless God had moved upon the hearts of Dr. Griffith and a few others in the North to build up great resources and strength in order that the Society might render the necessary help to the Colored people, and also the white people in the impoverished Southland. Strictly speaking, the great work of the Society began after the slaves were set free. Thus the immense resources of the Society tell the story of the great interest of the Society in the freedmen, and of the great work undertaken in their behalf.

        If success ever crowned the efforts of any agency at work among the Colored people it crowned those of the Baptist Publication Society. As to how helpful it has proven to the race, and just the part it has taken in bringing about the unprecedented progress of the race, the persons most competent to bear witness are the leaders of the Negro race.

        In bearing the greetings of the Negro Baptists to the American Baptist Publication

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Society in its annual session at Dayton, O., 1906, Dr. E. W. D. Isaac, one of the most distinguished and experienced leaders of the Negro race made use of these words: "It is difficult to find a Negro Baptist preacher who has not been helped in some way by this Society, and who does not stand ready and willing to acknowledge the good it has done to him." It is a strong statement, but wholly endorsed by all Negro Baptist preachers North and South. If this is so, it tells a great tale in a few words, for the Negro preachers have ever been the leaders among the people, and to help them was the surest and best way to help the people. Since Dr. Griffith made the start of helping Negro preachers with gifts of books suitable to prepare them to discharge their duties more faithfully and intelligently, more than a half million dollars have been expended in gifts to the poor, especially the poor preachers of the Negro race, for this work started with our freedom. Over ten thousand preachers have been thus helped with libraries worth $20 each upon an average. These books went into the hands of men in charge of churches and who had great influence over the people. They shaped their preaching, and helped the people to better living in their homes.

        It is a notorious fact that but few of the

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preachers forty years ago had any training in school to speak of, and thousands owe nearly all their stock of knowledge to the work of the Society.

        The Sunday-school missionary work of the Society started in 1867, and since that time nearly fifteen thousand schools have been organized, and these were largely among the Colored people. The result is that the Negro race is better provided with Sunday-schools than any race in America. This fact shows how thoroughly and wisely the Society did its work. This work of organizing fell into the hands of able Negro leaders appointed by the Society to prosecute it, and they succeeded most handsomely in their work. They succeeded the more because of the thirst of the Negro race for light and knowledge, and the Sunday-school offered them the best chance to learn. As a general thing these schools did the work of the day school. Thousands learned how to read and write in them, and many of these men became preachers and are among the leaders of the people. The Sunday-schools have contributed largely toward the general intelligence of the race, and the Society took care of this work almost alone for years and years, and is even now supporting it and rendering invaluable aid in this direction.

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        The work of the Society has been among the people, the masses and the leaders. It has gone to the people, and has not waited for the people to come to the Society, nor even to the church and Sunday-school. It has gone into their homes and around the fireside, and by its excellent publications, and by its colporteurs and through its missionaries, it has instructed and inspired the people.

        The Publication Society has taken an important part in the organization of nearly all kinds of Negro Baptist bodies. It started with Sunday-schools. These afterwards grew into Baptist churches. These churches banded themselves together into associations, later on into State Conventions, and finally into National Conventions. The very first State Convention was organized through the efforts of the Sunday-school missionary of the Society in North Carolina, whose name was Rev. Edward Eagles. The State Convention in South Carolina was planned and organized by Dr. E. M. Brawley who was the Society's missionary at the time. Even in cases where the actual missionaries of the Society did not organize the convention, they either took important part, or others were inspired through their efforts to do so.

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        The organization of state Sunday-school conventions and county and district Sunday-school bodies as a general things represents the direct work of the Society. In North Carolina, Dr. A. Shepard, the Society's missionary effected the organization. In Virginia, Dr. Walter H. Brooks took the lead in doing the same work while in the service of the Society. In Georgia, Dr. W. J. White at one time, and Dr. E. K. Love at another looked after church and Sunday-school work. In Alabama, Dr. C. O. Boothe, later Dr. R. T. Pollard and others; in Texas Dr. E. W. D. Isaac and others; in Louisiana by Dr. W. H. Brooks and Dr. S. T. Clanton; in Kentucky Wm. H. Steward. We might go on and name some of the most distinguished men in the race that were in the service of the Society, men of ability, who gave a good account of themselves, the Society being the power behind them. Finally when the National Convention was organized the representative of the Society, Dr. E. M. Brawley, rendered great help to Dr. Simmons in organizing the body and this was later on rewarded by his election as the second president of the body.

        The Baptist Publication Society has all the time believed in organizing the Negro Baptists for work. It realized that eventually

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they would have to take care of their own mission and educational work, and it has tried to help the race to help itself, not help the race to work apart from the Society but in cooperation with it, as long as possible. To show how wise it was in this plan, one single preacher in North Carolina is said to have been so inspired by the organization of the state work that in his life time he is credited with having organized some three hundred or more churches and Sunday-schools. Much of this indirect work was done by the Society, perhaps the largest part of its service after all was the inspiring others to take up the work.

        After these bodies had been organized, they very naturally drifted into educational rather than Sunday-school missionary organizations, by reason of the fact that the public schools of the South did not meet the educational needs of the race. But though Negro Baptists ought by now to be able to take over their own Sunday-school missionary work and bear all the expenses of the same, there is hardly a convention in the country that is fully meeting this need, and if these conventions were the only dependence for carrying forward aggressive Sunday-school mission work, the cause would greatly suffer. The fact is that nearly every convention

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is engaged in raising money to establish and support some institution of learning, these conventions are doing great good in this way, but are not doing as much as they ought to do for Sunday-school work. The Publication Society had noted this condition, and realizing the need of both Sunday-school and regular school work, it is helping in both as best it can, by providing missionarise to do the Sunday-school work while the conventions devote their money to school work. Thus the Society deserves much credit for the educational work that has sprung up among us in almost every county in the South. These schools may not do much but they are a hopeful sign. The Society still works through the Sunday-school as the hope of the race. It is in fact a great university with millions of Negro children as scholars in every part of the country. It sees such great possibilities yet for the race that it is still working to organize every inch of territory. Fifty-two Sundays in the year represent fifty-two days in school, the best school on earth. The average school for Negroes is not as long as this, and after all it is a question as to whether the Society is not doing more to educate the masses of the Negro children than the public schools. Certainly

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it is doing far more to teach right ideas of character and life.

        When the work first started among the colored people, reliance had to be placed upon preachers chiefly to reach the people, and the children had to be taught in the Sunday-school. Now the general intelligence of the race has increased to such an extent that there are thousands who are greatly influenced by literature, good or bad, and the grown people of today also supply many such readers. The older people are passing away. A new generation is upon the stage, and the Sunday-school offers a means of reaching this "New Negro" even better than the pulpit.

        It has come to pass therefore that in addition to its colporteur, tract and publishing work, the Society is especially addressing itself to save the young Negro, and is using the Sunday-school, the Sunday-School and Bible institute and Correspondence Training School to help to that end. It employs a superintendent of field work among the colored people, who, in cooperation with the Sunday-school missionaries of the Society in the different States, and also in cooperation with workers from other bodies in all the states, is devoting his entire time to improving the condition of the schools already established,

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inspiring the teachers and workers and all other Christians who attend Bible institutes held in every part of the country to study the Bible more thoroughly. The method employed is to gather the people into institutes to hear normal lectures on the Bible which, while given in the simplest possible way, illustrate and enforce at the same time methods of study and teaching, and also impart a knowledge of the Bible. This is a kind of work that the Negro people are not able to carry on for themselves, and the Society is rendering an invaluable aid to the race by supporting these workers on the field.

        Dr. A. J. Rowland is the General Secretary of the Society, and the Missionary and Bible Secretary is Dr. Robert G. Seymour. Both of these men have a noble record of interest and helpfulness to the Negro race, Dr. Seymour being perhaps the first Northern man to begin a school for Negroes in Louisiana after Emancipation. Dr. Rowland has manifested the keenest interest in all that concerned the race, and is such a sincere friend of the race that he takes the risk of being misunderstood by the few, knowing that time will bring them around to his way of thinking. He has ever stood for self-help on the part of the race, but he believes this can be

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wisely done without pursuing a course that would alienate the friends of the race either in the North or the South.

        Space will not allow a full account of the work of this great society for the Negro race, but everything possible has been done, and much has been possible. It is almost, if not quiet true, that the Society has done a better work for the Negro people than for the white people. If it could only have impressed itself and its work upon the white races in this country as it has upon the Colored people, the outlook would be a thousand times better today. But what does this fact mean to us? It means that we should ever love and support this great institution, and teach our children to love and help it help others, for perhaps there is not another body in the world that has done as much to help the whole race rise to our present position of progress and hope.

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        The American Baptist Home Mission Society was organized in New York City in 1832, shortly after the last northern State had passed an act abolishing slavery within its borders. In 1833 the anti-slavery Association was organized for the purpose of ridding the land of slavery by constitutional enactments of the general government. Discussion on the subject waxed warm and broke out in meetings of the Society. The climax came in the meeting at Philadelphia in 1844 when Dr. Bartholomew T. Welch, of New York, answered the question by Dr. Richard Fuller, of Baltimore, "What would you do if you had the power?" The reply which electrified the great audience was this: "Do? Do? Proclaim liberty throughout all the land, to all the inhabitants thereof. That is what I would do." The next year the Southern

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Baptists withdrew from the Society, as also from the Baptist Missionary Union, and organized the Southern Baptist Convention--naturally, from that date until the war, for about twenty years the Southern States were closed against the Society. "When the Almighty opened the doors of access to the freedmen, the Society was swift to enter and for almost fifty years has maintained its distinctive work on their behalf. Before the war, its announced policy was that its missionaries should "deliver their message to every creature within their reach,--the rich and the poor, the bond and the free."

        The Society hears the call to Christianize the slaves

        During the war, from 1861-1865, the Society took high grounds concerning the significance of the great struggle, declaring their conviction "that Divine Providence is about to break the chains of the enslaved millions in our land," and that "the Divine Hand most distinctly and most imperatively is beckoning us to the occupancy of a field, broader, more important, more promising than has ever yet invited our toils." This was early in the great struggle. In 1862, when the Society directed its Executive Board "to supply with Christian instruction, by means of missionaries and

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teachers, the emancipated slaves,--whether in the District of Columbia or in other places held by our forces."

        The Society loyal to the government during the war

        On January 30, 1862, the Board had taken the initiative in a preliminary inquiry into the condition of the Negro refugees within the Union lines. During the next three years, its missionaries and teachers were sent to various points occupied by the Union forces in the District of Columbia, in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi and Louisiana. In the darkest hours of the conflict, in 1864, the Society adopted a series of resolutions expressing its unshaken faith in the triumph of the government and pledging its loyalty to the great President, Abraham Lincoln, to whom a special committee of prominent men was sent with its message of cheer and hope and to whom he made a noble reply. During this period, of course, the work of missionaries and teachers was of the simplest sort. The spelling book and the Bible were the principal text-books. Missionaries were teachers and teachers were missionaries.

        A definite policy as to work among freedmen

        Immediately after the war, when emancipation

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had become an accomplished fact, a more definite policy was adopted by the Society to which Baptists of the North had committed this work for freedom. It expressly declared that its workers in the South must be men "emphatically loyal to good government and to God and who feel the strongest and tenderest sympathy with downtrodden humanity." Its plans were the appointment of general missionaries to win men to Christ and to gather them into churches; to impart education to all in order that they might read and understand the Scriptures; and to instruct ministers through classes organized at central points.

        Noble men and women give themselves to the work

        The Northern Baptists were profoundly moved to do their part in the uplift of the newly-emancipated race. Some of the best men and women of their churches gave themselves heroically to the task, leaving homes and good positions there for life and toil among the lowly. Among these were Rev. Henry Martyn Tupper, D. D., founder of Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C., Rev. Chas. H. Corey, D. D., of Richmond, Virginia Theological Seminary; Rev. G. M. P. King, D. D., of Wayland Seminary, D. C.;

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Rev. D. W. Phillips, D. D., of Roger Williams University, Nashville, Tenn.; Rev. Lyman B. Tefft, D. D., of Hartshorn Memorial College, Richmond, Va.; Miss Sophia B. Packard and Miss H. E. Giles and Miss Lucy H. Upton, of Spelman Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., and many others of like spirit. Dr. Nathan Bishop, for a while Corresponding Secretary of the Home Mission Society, when criticised for his deep interest and liberal gifts to this work, made this noble reply: "I expect to stand side by side with these colored men on the Day of Judgment. Their Lord is my Lord, they and I are brethren; and I am determined to be prepared for that meeting."

        The preparation of Christian leaders emphasized

        The dominant theory of the Society in this work, from the outset, has been that emphasis must be laid upon the training of competent, consecrated Christian leaders for the uplift of the race; and that Christian culture and character are fundamental thereto.

        Hence, its efforts have been concentrated chiefly on Christian education for this purpose. At the same time, all through these years, many missionaries to the Negroes have been in the Society's service, mostly

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Negroes themselves, in the Northern and Western States, as well as in the South.

        School established for the training of Negro leaders

        Helping the Negro to help himself

        Schools, most of which have become strong institutions, were established under the Society's auspices, as follows: Maryland Seminary, Washington, D. C., 1864 (now consolidated with the University at Richmond, Virginia); Richmond Institute, Virginia, 1865, which developed into Virginia Union University in 1896; Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C., 1865; Roger Williams University, Nashville, Tenn., 1865; Leland University, New Orleans, La., 1865; Augusta Institute, Georgia, which was started in 1867, transferred to Atlanta, 1879, and now called Atlanta Baptist College; Benedict College, Columbia, S. C., 1870; Natchez Seminary, Mississippi, 1877, transferred in 1882 to Jackson and now known as Jackson College; Bishop College, Marshall, Texas, 1881; Spelman Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., 1882. Besides these schools, there are a number of others that were started by Negro Baptists that for many years have had the benefit of generous aid from the Society, both in the support of teachers and in their building enterprises, as

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Alabama Baptist University, Selma, Ala.; State University, Louisville, Ky.; Arkansas Baptist College, Little Rock, Ark.; Western College, Macon, Mo.; Howe Normal and Bible Institute, Memphis, Tenn.; Waters Normal Institute, Winton, N. C.; Thompson Institute, Lumberton, N. C.; Walker Institute, Augusta, Ga.; Jeruel Academy, Athens, Ga.; Americus Institute, Americus, Ga.; Florida Baptist Academy, Jacksonville, and Live Oak Institute, Live Oak, Fla.; Houston Academy, Texas. Several other minor institutions have also received help. The Mather School at Beaufort, S. C., has been maintained mainly by the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society, which also has given largely for the maintenance of Spelman Seminary and has supported teachers in other schools. The Society has extended its aid to these schools, mostly of a secondary character, in order to develop the spirit of self-help and administrative ability on the part of the Negro Baptists, and has been gratified at the results attained. About sixty Negro instructors are annually under appointment by the Society and one of the foremost of the Society's schools has a Negro president.

        The influence of the schools upon the race

        It has been greatly to the advantage of

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the Negro in the South to have been brought in contact with a large number of devoted Christian teachers from the North, deeply imbued with the missionary spirit, with high ideals of character and service. Many of these have made a profound impression upon their pupils, about 80,000 of whom have been enrolled in the institutions aided by the Society. Their ever-widening influence is incalculable in the transformation of conditions in homes, in social circles, in churches and Sunday-schools, in public schools, in religious work and moral reforms, in missionary enterprises and in many other respects. Many of the foremost preachers of the Gospel and others prominent in the denominational activities of the Negro Baptists, received their training in these Christian institutions.

        The principle upon which the society has worked

        The Society has proceeded upon the theory that the black man has essentially the same nature and endowment as those of the white man, though in many respects the higher qualities have been undeveloped; and that is the duty of the race that has attained to the highest degree of civilization to

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help its unfortunate brother onward and upward. Results have fully justified its faith and its works. Emphasis has been laid on the making of character rather than on making better servants for the white race. The educational work has been mostly of an academic grade, though a goodly number of students have pursued successfully the college course. Theological instruction has been given in the higher institutions, usually in connection with intellectual training in the academic work; a two years' course in English being provided for those desiring to take it. The one higher theological school is Richmond Theological Seminary, a department of Virginia Union University, whose course of study corresponds in its general features to that of Theological Seminaries at the North. The Leonard Medical School, of Shaw University, at Raleigh, N. C., has a superior faculty, a four years' course of study and has made a creditable record. About $25,000 is to be expended soon by the Society in providing better equipment, which will give it a front rank in institutions of this sort in the South. At Spelman Seminary there is a Nurse Training School in connection with the McVicar Hospital Building. There also is an excellent Normal Teachers' Training Department.

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At several other schools special attention is given to the training of Christian teachers for the nearly two million of Negro children in the South, who must be taught chiefly by those of their own race. Industrial instruction has long been given in several schools to a considerable extent for both sexes. The missionary spirit has been stimulated, pupils being impressed with the idea that education is not merely an accomplishment for personal advancement, but the means whereby its possessor may become more useful to the world and can better serve his Maker.

        In 1895, as a result of a conference at Fortress Monroe, between representatives of the American Baptist Home Mission Society and upon the initiative of the latter body, a plan for holding institutes for Negro Baptist ministers was worked out and put into effect in several Southern States, with great benefit. Besides these two organizations, the co-operation of the white and of the Negro Baptists Conventions in each state was secured; thus bringing them into closer Christian relationships. The general direction of the work was in the hands of the Negro Baptist Conventions and the missionaries representing them. Through the disinclination of some of the white organizations

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to continue appropriations for this work, it has been discontinued in several states. The Home Mission Society is now, 1910, contemplating another method with the same end in view, namely, the establishment of summer schools for several weeks directly after the close of the regular work of the year, when Negro preachers can occupy vacated rooms in the school buildings and at small expenses receive helpful instruction.

        Splendid buildings of the institution

        Very substantial and commodious are most of the school buildings erected by the Society. At Virginia Union University there are six imposing stone structures; at Shaw University seven of brick; at Benedict College five brick and three frame buildings; at Atlanta Baptist College, three of brick and a fourth in process of erection; at Spelman Seminary, eight of brick; at Jackson College, four of brick and one frame; at Bishop College, five of brick and two frame. When the buildings of Roger Williams University at Nashville, Tenn., were destroyed by fire in 1905-6 it was decided best to dispose of the site, which had become quite valuable, and to apply part of the proceeds for the re-establishment of the school in another location

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and under the immediate auspices of the Negro Baptists of the State.

        The value of school property and cost of maintenance

        The annual cost to the Society for the maintenance of this educational work is about $140,000; the value of school properties which it has been instrumental in securing is nearly or quite one million dollars and its total expenditures for the uplift of the American Negro, since emancipation have been in round numbers four and a half million dollars. These large figures, however, represent but part of the investment given by the administrative officers of the Society and by Presidents of Institutions and their associates, in the aggregate hundreds of years of thought, and talent and energy and the best that could be laid upon the altar for Christ in connection with this service.

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1940 1941
Of The
National Baptist Convention
of America

September, 1941 Historian C. CHARLES TAYLOR New Orleans, Louisiana

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        "Look into Life rather than at Life."

        It has been said by Paul M. Tharp that "Attitude is the first step in the ladder of attainment." Whether one looks into life or at life is the result of or is determined by his attitude towards life.

        Individuals who recognize life as a march of which they are a definite part usually see life as a great human and spiritual conquest of perpetual motion.

        There are those too who describe life as another parade where their responsibility is not needed. They are the spectators and witnesses of the procession.

        It is the hope of the writer to set forth a declaration of the achievement of great religionists who have climbed the ladder of achievement and invested their "time, talents, training, and treasure" in payment of an honestly incurred obligation to the Fatherhood of God, masterhood of Jesus, and the brotherhood of man.


        "The greatest happiness for the greatest number"

        Doctor Newman very logically and systematically points out that, "Church History

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is the narration of all that is known of the founding and the development of the kingdom of Christ on earth." The embodiment of Church History is not only a mere record of organizations which represent the Christian life, but the record of the Christian religion itself from its point of commencement to any present era. Recognizing, as one might, the unfaltering fact that anthropological studies prove that religion whether Buddhism, Confucianism, or Christianity, plays a rather significant role in influencing the thought and life of any people. So, we assert that Christianity as organized life and organized religion has exerted untold influence on the economic, ethical, legal, social, aesthetic and moral life of its constituents.

        Comprehensively, an account of the historiographical development of the National Baptist Convention of America is only a small part of the history of the Church of which Jesus Christ is the Invisible Head, however, its principles, tenets, doctrines and polities are predicated upon what Jesus taught and lived. It is to be acknowledged that the Church of this era is the fruit and product of projective, preservative, and progressive unfolding, for, the Church has come to us through impediments, retardations,

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handicaps, and misrepresentations on the part of external forces.

        The term "Church" was adopted during a very early period of the Christian Body. The term had been used to designate all of the people of Israel as a divinely called congregation which was a very fitting title to be employed by the Christians, the real people of God or true Israel.

        It is very interesting to note the organization of the Church at Jerusalem. Leadership of the Church rested upon Peter and John. It is questionable as to whether or not the action of the appointment of seven was the birth of the diaconate or a temporal device to meet and satisfy emergent needs. It is true, however, that the duties exercised by the group later resembled the discharge of duties by deacons in the Gentile Churches. Later "elders" were brought to the fore who might have been the older members of the Church or officers of the Church.

        The Jerusalem church and the Palestinian communities affiliated therewith were significant in Church history because they were the channel through which Christianity first flowed.

        Atheism and anarchy were the two outstanding charges brought against early Christians. The failure of the Christians to

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worship idol gods was termed an atheistic practice, and their rejection of emperor-worship seemed treasonable. Governmental mob attacks during this period, 250 A. D., were frequent.

        Not a few literary defenders were born during the persecution period who have been termed Apologists. For the first term in Church history it is evident that Christianity is being definitely felt among the intellectual elements of society. Quadratus of Athens (125 A. D.) is suggested as among the first Apologists.

        Many of the Apologists were from the hall of philosophers whose interpretations were quite philosophical which aided in the development of a theological system. The attentions of many of these men were directed to Hebrew prophets, "men more ancient than all those who are esteemed philosophers." It is said of the prophet that "They glorified the Creator, the God and Father of all things, and proclaimed His Son, the Christ."

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        "Go forth--Show yourselves"

        During the Reformation Period Europe became the land of religious revival. A large proportion of the German, Swiss, Dutch, Dane, Swede, Norwegian, English, Welsh, Scotch, Italian, and French populations of religion expressed disapproval of the Popery.

        Martin Luther called men to arms when he blew the bugle call for religious liberation and emancipation. Baptists, who heretofore had hid themselves by silence and covered themselves with quietness, came from their hiding-places and uncovered their practices of Christianity. They looked now for enlistment, enlightenment, and enlargement. They expected to share with the Reformers what they had in order that a perfect restoration of apostolic Christianity be ascertained. Instead, they met severe disappointments. The Reformers did not agree with their principles of Christianity. They were burned, drowned, or buried alive. Papists and Protestants, Episcopalians and Presbyterians alike suppressed their endeavors.

        Because of the incontestable fact that persecution was being centered upon these

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Baptists, they were shy to formulate creeds, therefore, they were minus of uniformed opinions concerning their beliefs. However, it is not to be ignored that their theologies concerning major doctrines were synonymous with those of their opposers and suppressors of the Reformation.

        Some points of Baptist theology:

        Because society during the 16th century was resting upon anti-Christian principles, Baptists sought to revolutionize, humanize, socialize and spiritualize society. As a result they were talked against and written about. Latimer called their opinions "pernicious" and "devilish." Hooper painted their concepts as "damnable." Bacon named them "wicked", "apish Anabaptists", "foxish hypocrites", "bloody murderers both of soul and body" whose religious system is a "petiferous plague." Astonishingly enough, they spread, and spread, and spread.

        Without the walls of Wittenberg the decretals, Pope's bull, and other Papal documents against Luther were burned by him

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on December 10, 1520. The concourse of Baptists acclaimed this attitude of Luther in discontinuing his relationship with the Church at Rome. They proclaimed freedom from Luther, and all other human authority and called upon fellow-laborers everywhere to demand their religious rights.

        In 1524 Hans Koch and Leonard Meyster were put to death at Augsburg which meant that the first witnesses for God in Germany were Baptists. It was Sebastian Franck who said, "the more severely they (Baptists) were punished, the more they multiplied."

        Notwithstanding the fact that Baptists were "plundered, thrust into dungeons, banished, numbers of them beheaded or burned alive" they continued to spread everywhere. Italy housed some Baptists during this period also. Hans George was thrown overboard in 1566 while returning from Germany to Italy.

        Zwingli, the Swiss Reformer, was on the eve of becoming a Baptist himself. However, he resisted the principles of Baptist polity. He argued against the idea of a spiritual church calling it a "sheer impossibility."

        Baptists first appeared in Switzerland in 1523.

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        In 1525 three disputations were held at Zurich. The magistracy issued an edict which prohibited the baptism of believers, and enjoined the baptism of children. Baptists were banished and imprisoned, yet they persevered. At Basle, where the Baptists abounded, they were made to suffer greatly. Erasmus bore the following testimony: "The Anabaptists, although they everywhere abound in great numbers, have nowhere obtained the churches for their use. They are to be commended above all others for the innocence of their lives, but are oppressed by other sects, as well as by the orthodox" (Catholics).

        The Netherlands became places of refuge for Baptists who sought to serve God in quietness during 1525. Had they refrained from the preaching of the glorious gospel of Christ and forborne to propagate their uniquely distinct doctrines, they might have met a fulfillment of their search. Of course, they, like Paul, were "set for the defense of the gospel" and preached it uncompromisingly. According to executive orders from Charles V, then Emperor of the dominions, Baptists were "singled out for special manifestations of vengeance." Weynken Claes' daughter was strangled at the stake; thus, becoming the first martyr.

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        Like a pebble when thrown into a pond of water causing ripples to spread, so it was with the Reformation. It spread extensively, and wherever it settled Baptists settled with it.

        Baptists were in England in 1534 when Henry VIII assumed leadership of the government. He proclaimed two proclamations that destined to defeat the objectives of Baptists: (1) that which had to do with individuals who disputed about baptism and the Lord's Supper, (2) referred to persons who were baptized in infancy and had renounced that baptism by being rebaptized.

        Dutchmen flocked into England. Their hands were occupied with manufacturing and their heads and hearts contemplated kernels of theology. Their notions were crude, they were not intellectual enough to manage them and they were too independent to seek the advice of others, consequently, they were branded as Anabaptists because they wasted time in speculations that were unnecessary.

        While men of ill-repute were made beneficiaries of the king's general acts of pardon in 1538, 1540, and 1550 Baptists were denied these immunities because they believed and preached that "infants ought not to be baptized."

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        It was Bishop Bonner, who in his "Articles of Visitation", proposed a plan whereby information could be ascertained relative to persons who were again reiterating baptism, or restricting themselves to the views of Anabaptists. He said that England was "grievously vexed" and "sore infested" with "sundry sorts of sects of heresies" mentioning "Anabaptists."

        Bishop Jewel writing to Peter Martyr said: "We found at the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth a large and inauspicious corps of Arians, Anabaptists, and other pests, which I know not how, but as mushrooms spring up in the night and in darkness, so these sprang up in that darkness and unhappy night of the Marian Times. These, I am informed, and I hope it is the fact, have retreated before the light of purer doctrine, like owls at the sight of the sun, and are now nowhere to be found, or, at least, if anywhere, they are no longer troublesome to our churches." This however, was a dreadful misconception of the bishop, for, Baptists were only quiet so as to elude the proclamation.

        Baptists were the "sect everywhere spoken against" not only by the Papists, from whom it was expected, but by England's Presbyterians and Episcopalians, Germany's

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Lutherans, and Switzerland's Reformed as well. It is no strange thing to conceive that because of certain divergences of opinions brothers were estranged from each other because they were either Calvinistic, Swinglianistic, Lutheranistic, etc.


        It was as early as 1614 that Leonard Busher published a tract entitled "Religion's Peace, or, a Plea for Liberty of Con-science." The tract was directed to the king and parliament asking for pardon, and "certain reasons against persecution."

        The following passages from "Religion's Peace" will prove the boldness of Baptists during this era and attest to their power to think during the seventeenth century.

        "Christ's kingdom is not of this world, therefore it may not be purchased nor defended with the weapons of this world, but by His Word and Spirit. No other weapons hath He given to His church, which is His Spiritual kingdom. Therefore, Christ saith, 'He that will not hear the church, let him be to thee as a heathen and a publican.'

        "It is not only unmerciful, but unnatural and abominable yea, monstrous, for one Christian to vex and destroy another for difference and questions of religion.

        "It is not the gallows, nor the prison, nor

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burning, nor banishing that can defend the apostolic faith. Indeed, the king and state may defend religious peace (that is, protect all parties in the exercise of religion) by their sword and civil power, but not the faith, otherwise than by the Word and Spirit of God.

        "They cannot be Christ's bishops and preachers that persuade princes and people to such anti-Christian tyranny and cruelty; and it is very evident that those bishops and ministers which give over men and women to the magistrate to be persuaded by persecution, do show clearly that their doctrine is not good, and that they want the Word and Spirit of God, and therefore, flee to the magistrate's sword for the forcing of them to their faith and discipline.

        "I do verily believe that if free liberty of conscience be granted that the spiritual kingdom of these idol-bishops will in time fall to the ground of itself, as the idol Dagon fell before the ark."

        Baptists were in New England's incipiency; they were among the first emigrants. They worshipped, however, with other religious groups because their number was too small to set up separate worships. Cotton Mather said, "Some few of these people have been among the planters of New England

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from the beginning, and have been welcome to the communion of our churches, which they enjoyed, reserving their particular opinions unto themselves."

        Even before Roger Williams professed Baptist sentiments, his preaching had become distasteful to his hearers and he was branded of having inculcated principles "tending to Anabaptism." He taught the individuality of religion, personal piety as essentially a prerequisite to church membership. These views were inconsistent with the Paedobaptist theory.

        It was not long after Roger Williams settled in Providence that baptism was fully discussed. As a result twelve men openly declared themselves Baptists.

        Thomas Holliman was selected to baptize Mr. Williams who later baptized the other professed believers. In March, 1639 the first Baptist Church in the United States was organized of which Roger Williams was the first pastor. For some undetermined reason Mr. Williams shortly resigned the pastorate and Chad Brown was selected to succeed him. Astonishing enough, Roger Williams refrained from fellowship with the church upon his return from England. However, the church adopted the following covenant:

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        "We, whose names are hereunder written, being desirous to inhabit in the town of Providence, do promise to submit ourselves, in active or passive obedience, to all such orders or agreements, as shall be made for public good of the body, in an orderly way, by the major consent of the present inhabitants, masters of families, incorporated together into a township, and such others as they shall admit into the same, only in civil things."

        Dr. John Clark organized the second Baptist Church in 1644 at Newport, Rhode Island, with eleven members.

        The following list suggests the spread of Baptist principles in America:

        "Like the waters cover the sea" so Baptists began to cover New England. Massachusetts soon became the scene of expression of baptistic polity. Notwithstanding, persecution followed these religionists in every section. Truly, this period can be labeled "The Troublous Period."

        "Bonds and imprisonment" were words and actions of welcome accorded all Baptists who came to New England. Their congregating for public worship was occasional and infrequent. But, when the privileged came they derided infant baptism.

        The spread of Baptist church organizations is continued in the following citation:

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        In the year of our Lord 1688, there were only thirteen churches in the United States, representative of the thirteen colonies which are designated in "Old Glory."

        Baptists, in general, are classified under one of two divisions; namely, General and Particular, the former being influenced by Arminianism and the latter by Calvinism.


        Dr Newman in his "Manual of Church History" volume I gives the following summation of strict Arian views:


        "A History of the Christian Church" by Walker summarizes Calvin's Theology in the following manner:

        "Man's highest knowledge, Calvin taught, is that of God and of himself. Enough comes by nature to leave man without excuse, but adequate knowledge is given only in the Scriptures, which the witness of the spirit in the heart of the believing reader attests as the very voice of God. These Scriptures teach that God is good, and the source of all goodness everywhere. Obedience to God's will is man's primal duty. As originally created, man was good and capable of obeying God's Will but he lost goodness and power alike in Adam's fall and is now, of himself, absolutely incapable of goodness. Hence no work of man can have any merit; and all men are in a state of

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ruin meriting only damnation. From this helpless and hopeless condition some men are undeservedly rescued through the work of Christ. He paid the penalty due for the sins of those in whose behalf He died; yet, the offer and reception of this ransom was a free act on God's part so that its cause is God's love.

        "All that Christ has wrought is without avail unless it becomes a man's personal possession. This possession is effected by the Holy Spirit, who works, when, how and where He will, creating repentance; and faith which as with Luther, is a vital union between the believer and Christ. This new life of faith is salvation, but it is salvation unto righteousness. That the believer now does works pleasing to God is proof that he has entered into a vital union with Christ. 'We are justified, not without, and yet not by works.' Calvin thus left room for the conception of 'works' as strenuous as any claimed by the Roman Church, though very different in relation to the accomplishment of salvation. The standard set before the Christian is the law of God, as contained in the Scriptures, not as a test of his salvation, but as an expression of that will of God which as an already saved man he will strive to fulfill. This emphasis on the law

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as the guide of Christian life was peculiarly Calvin's own. It has made Calvinism always insistent on the character, though in Calvin's conception man is saved to Character rather than by Character. A prime nourishment of the Christian's life is by prayer.

        "Since all good is of God, and man is unable to initiate or resist his conversion, it follows that the reason some are saved and others are lost is the divine choice, election, and reprobation. For a reason for that choice beyond the will of God it is absurd to inquire, since God's Will is an ultimate fact. Yet to Calvin, election was always primarily a doctrine of Christian comfort. That God had a plan of salvation for man, individually, was an unshakable rock of confidence, not only for one convinced of his unworthiness, but for one surrounded by opposing forces even if they were those of priests and Kings. It made man a fellow laborer with God in the accomplishment of God's Will.

        "Three institutions have been divinely established by which the Christian life is maintained--the Church, the sacraments, and civil government. In the last analysis the church consists of 'all elect of God'; but it also properly denotes 'the whole body of

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mankind'--who profess to worship one God and Christ. Yet there is no true church where lying and falsehood have usurped the ascendency. The New Testament shows as church officers, pastors, teachers, elders, deacons, who enter on their charges with the assent of the congregation that they serve. Their 'call' is twofold: the secret inclination from God and the 'approbation of the people.' Calvin thus gave to the congregation a voice in the choice of its officers not accorded by any other Reformation party except that of the Anabaptists, though circumstances at Geneva were to compel him to regard that voice there as expressed by the city government. Similarly, Calvin claimed for the church full and independent jurisdiction in discipline up to the point of excommunication. Further it could not go; but it was a retention of a freedom which all other leaders of the Reformation had abandoned to state supervision. Civil government has, however, the divinely appointed task of fostering the church, protecting it from false doctrine, and punishing offenders for whose crime excommunication is insufficient. It was essentially the mediaeval theory of the relations of church and state.

        "Calvin recognized only two sacraments:

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Baptism and the Lord's Supper. Regarding the burning question of Christ's presence in the Supper he stood, like Butzer, part way between Luther and Zwingli; nearer the Swiss reformer in form, and nearer the German in spirit. With Zwingli he denied any physical presence of Christ; yet he asserts in the clearest terms a real, though spiritual presence received by faith. Christ, out of the substance of His flesh, breathes life into our souls, nay, diffuses His own life into us, though the real flesh of Christ does not enter."


        "He Who Transplanted Still Sustains"

        At the beginning of the "Quiet Period" Baptist Churches numbered thirteen while in 1740 marked progress was exhibited, for there were thirty-seven churches of this faith with some 3,000 constituents; 872 churches and 64,975 members were a remarkable credit to Baptist development in 1790. It was during this period that "Calvinistic views began to predominate, and the bitter opposition to the Baptists disappeared."

        Baptists were forced to pay taxes for the upkeep of Congregationalism, the "Standing

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Order" in the New England States. The refusal of payment on the part of our predecessors very frequently led to imprisonment, and their movable and immovable properties were distrained from them.

        The most pernicious practice ever to be enjoined upon Baptist progress was the deliberate admission of individuals into the church without any evidence of personal religion which was occasioned by introduction of the "half-way covenant"--that "persons who had been baptized in infancy, and were not scandalous in life, were admitted to membership."

        The following chart is an account of Baptist propagation from 1703 to 1812:

State City Year
Delaware Welsh Tract 1703
Connecticut Groton 1705
Virginia Burleigh 1714
New York   1714
North Carolina Perquimans 1727
Maryland Chestnut Ridge 1742
New Hampshire Newtown 1755
Vermont Shaftesbury 1768
Georgia Kiokee 1772
Tennessee Buffalo Ridge 1780
Kentucky Nolinn 1781
Ohio Miami 1790
Illinois New Design 1796
Louisiana Calvary 1812

        The onward march of the Baptist denomination demanded that the churches organize themselves into associations, which

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type of organizations has proved itself to be very vital to the success and prosperity of Baptists. Early in the history of associations the "fathers" carefully guarded against the assumption of ecclesiastical authority, and avoided entanglement and interference with the affairs of individual churches. Personal edification was advanced; Christian fellowship inspired; and questions of theoretical and practical aspects were posed.

        In 1707 the first associational organization was formed and called the Philadelphia Association.

        At the close of the eighteenth century, according to Dr. Cramp, the following statistics of Baptists throughout the world were evident:

  Churches Members
United States 13,355 1,109,926
Great Britain and Ireland 2,411 280,000
British North America 567 41,000
West Indies 205 36,000
Burma, Assam, Siam 375 17,000
Continent of Europe 292 23,494
India 70 3,000
Total 17,275 1,500,420


        Having a spiritual zeal for the propagation of Christ and the spreading of Baptist views, Baptists of England formed a missionary

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society to send a missionary, William Carey, to India. Baptist Churches of the United States expressed their interest in this activity by contributing to the cause. In 1814 the General Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States of America for Foreign Missions was organized.

        A tract society was brought into being in 1824. In 1840 it was renamed the American Baptist Publication Society.

        During this period slavery in the United States was slowly but surely destroying the social, political, and religious morale of the people. Many Baptists considered slavery repugnant, inconsistent, and antagonistic. Consequently, the matter was brought to the attention of the Triennial Convention as to whether or not a person who owned slaves would be appointed a missionary. Northern Baptists were generally antislavery and Southern Baptists were as a rule pro-slavery. The question involved was rendered a negative response. Southern Baptists named the decision a denial of constitutional rights, therefore, they withdrew in 1845. The result was three conventions--Northern, Southern, and National Baptist Conventions

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        "Nothing Without God"

        It is with humility of heart, unreservedness of soul, and determination of mind that the task of writing on Negro Baptists: their beginning, growth, and Present Status is assumed. Humility of heart because our age has not produced the type of growth that the "fathers" beginning anticipated; unreservedness of soul because the relinquishment of a privilege so renown is expedient; and determination of mind because both the subjective and objective elements of historical analysis must be employed.

        The rise and progress of "Negro Baptists" is a monument of dedication to the courage, simplicity and prayer of the pioneers.

        The period involving 1619 to 1773 has very logically been described as "The Day of Darkness." A span of 154 years expired from the landing of the first twenty African slaves at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619, when a Dutch ship passing by stopped to buy provisions sold these Negroes to the colonists because they were needed to work in the tobacco fields, before an account of the first Negro Baptist Church is given.

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This has been very largely attributed to the fact that the purchasers of these slaves considered themselves superintendents of the slaves, consequently, the slave who became Christians were added to white churches.

        The first Negro Baptist Church whose nature or tendency excluded other race groups from religious participation or social relation, according to record, was founded at Silverbluff, Aiken County, South Carolina, about 1773. It was organized in a community on the Savannah River near Augusta, Georgia, with an original membership of eight (8) slaves. From all indications David George was the first pastor.

        In 1778 Savannah was captured by the British which ultimately demoralized the First African Baptist Church; nevertheless, it was reorganized in 1788. At one time the Reverend George Lisle, ordained May 20, 1775, as the first ordained Negro Baptist preacher in North America, served as pastor.

        The following chart represents Baptist Church organizations up to 1880:

Name Year Place
  1773 Silverbluff, S. C.
First African Baptist Church   Savannah, Ga.
First Baptist Church 1780 Richmond, Va.

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First Baptist Church 1785 Williamsb'g, Va.
First Baptist Church 1790 Lexington, Ky.
Springfield Baptist Church 1793 Augusta, Ga.
Second Baptist Church 1802  
Ogeechee Baptist Church 1803  
Joy Street Baptist Church 1805 Boston, Mass.
Stone Street Baptist Church 1806 Mobile, Ala.
Abyssinia Baptist Church 1808 New York
First African Baptist Church 1809 Philadelphia, Pa.
Calvary Baptist Church 1812 Louisiana
First Baptist Church 1812 Trenton, N. J.
First Baptist Church 1823 St. Louis, Mo.
First African Baptist Church 1826 New Orleans, La.
Union Baptist Church 1827 Cincinnati, O.
Fifth St. Baptist Church 1829 Louisville, Ky.
Union Baptist Church 1832 Philadelphia, Pa.
19th St. Baptist Church 1833 Wash'ton, D. C.
First Baptist Church 1836 Baltimore, Md.
First Baptist Church 1838 Jack'nville, Fla.
Mt. Lebanon Baptist Church 1843 Columbia, Tenn.
Spruce St. Baptist Church 1853 Nashville, Tenn.


        Before the smoke of countless Civil War battlefields had cleared the ethereal sky, white men and women sympathizers were sent to four million, five hundred thousand freedmen in all sections of the war-torn, battered and shattered south-land to preach to them the gospel of the Lowly Nazarene. It was anticipated that full and complete privileges in missionary and educational endeavors would be accorded the Negro by his white brethren, but, instead he was looked upon as one possessing an inferior personality. Consequently, in order that the

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Baptist Cause would be generated, regenerated, and perpetuated, loyal, enthusiastic, and energetic Negro Baptists deemed it fitting and proper, necessary and expedient to expand their denominational activity from the local church situation to state organization. Hence, in 1836 the Providence Missionary Baptist District Association was formed, thus becoming, perhaps, the oldest self-supporting and self-sustaining Negro Baptist Organization.

        The following is a chart of early State Baptist Organizations:

Name Year State
Wood River Association 1838 Illinois
Mississippi River Asso'tion 1865 Louisiana
State Convention 1866 North Carolina
State Convention   Alabama
State Convention 1867 Virginia
State Convention 1868 Arkansas
State Convention 1869 Kentucky
State Convention 1869 Mississippi
Missionary Baptist Conv. 1870 Georgia


        Slower in the developmental process than White Baptists due to certain inconsistencies, impediments, and retardations, National Baptist Conventions among Negroes did not begin evolutional excrescency before 1880.

        While England faced a spirit of reform

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which brought her face to face with many problems resulting from unrest in many lands of her dominion, such as: (1) the problem of labor which made the laborer more secure by acts which were passed by Parliament; (2) through a Minister of the Crown provisions for compulsory attendance at elementary schools were strengthened; and (3) even cobwebs were whisked away from the military system, the most costly, least efficient, and most minute from a point of enlightenment of all the activities of the British government, the Holy Spirit moved within the heart of the Reverend W. W. Colly of Virginia, who had rendered service as a missionary in Africa, supervised by the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, to actuate the Negro Baptist brethren to organize the churches into a National Convention.

        While the Boers of South Africa were at the point of insurrection because of their treatment by England, and while during the same period the conflict between England and the Boers was accelerated as the Boers vainly sought complete autonomy, the Negro Baptist Brotherhood grasped with elation and the spirit of prayer the actuation at the hand of Reverend Mr. Colly.

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While in Ireland there still existed a serious agrarian problem due to the fact that by age-long tradition the Irish tenant believed himself to have customary rights in the land which he rented, however, the landlords who lived in England raised the rent of these Irish tenants unfairly which brought about unpleasant and untold reactions from the Irish people which ended in evictions on the one hand and ceaseless agitation and outbreaks of lawlessness on the other hand, the Negro Baptist Brotherhood assembled in Montgomery, Alabama, on Wednesday, November 24, 1880 with 151 delegates, representing 11 states, answering roll call.

        In reality the assembly was confronted with cries from the African Mission fields for means and missionaries, also with casual disagreements between colored and white brethren which had to do with the manner in which the natives were treated by white missionaries, consequently, the assembly named itself the Foreign Mission Baptist Convention of the United States of America with Dr. W. H. McAlpine of Alabama as the first president, and Reverends J. M. Armstead of Tennessee and G. H. Dwelle of Georgia as secretaries.

        The first National Baptist Convention

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having been organized at Montgomery, Alabama, where aristocracy was at its height, which more nearly approached its counterpart in England than anything else in America; where class distinctions were rigidly maintained and the dimensions of the southern plantation were as spacious as its life was dignified and zestful: where the city was named in memory of a relation of Major Montgomery who fell in Quebec, Richard Montgomery, which city was founded in 1817 by Andrew Dexter and became the capital on January 22, 1846; the capitol being occupied in 1847; burned in 1849; and replaced by the present in 1851; the capitol stands on an eminence at the head of the main business street, which, according to tradition, was reserved for the purpose from 1819; where the commercial emporium of the Alabama Cotton Belt soon established itself in what might be considered the "cradle of the Confederacy," the seat of the Confederate military factories; but in 1886, the Foreign Missionary Baptist Convention learned that the American National Convention was organized in St. Louis, Missouri, with Reverend W. J. Simmons of Kentucky as president; this new organization attempted to serve independent of the first organization. Two years later

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(1888) a third National Convention was brought to the fore by a group of Baptists who were intensely and deeply interested in the development of Christian education and the growth of Negro Baptist educational institutions. The name given this convention, of which Doctors W. B. Johnson of Washington, D. C., and F. F. Morris of Virginia were chief exponents, was the Baptist National Educational Convention.

        Apparently, neither one of the three conventions was doing its best to promote and further the cause it represented. They had reached their Jordan and were not able to cross their Red Sea; their lowest residuum had been met, and, therefore, Dr. Pegues of North Carolina offered the following resolution in 1894:

        Whereas the interests and purposes of the three national bodies; namely, The Foreign Mission, National, and Educational Conventions can be conserved and fostered under the auspices of one body; and

        Whereas the consolidation of the above named bodies will economize both time and money, therefore,

        Resolved, that the Foreign Mission Convention appoint a committee of nine, who shall enter immediately into consultation with the Executive Boards of the National

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and Educational Conventions for the purposes of effecting a consolidation of the three bodies upon the following plan:

        The Committee on Resolutions was as follows:

        Reverends W. H. McALPINE, Alabama
J. E. JONES, Virginia
A. W. PEGUES, North Carolina
A. S. JACKSON, Louisiana
J. H. FRANK, Kentucky
A. HUBBS, Texas
J. R. BENNETT, Arkansas
W. G. PARKS, Tennessee
A. J. STOKES, Alabama

        In 1895 at Atlanta, Georgia, the Foreign Missionary Baptist Convention of the United States of America, the American National Convention, and the Baptist National

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Educational Convention coagulated under the following banner taken from the Constitution:

        "Whereas, It is the sense of the Colored Baptists of the United States of America, convened in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, Sept. 28, 1895, in the several organizations known as "The Baptist Foreign Mission Convention of the United States of America," hitherto engaged in mission work on the West Coast of Africa; "The American National Baptist Convention," which has been engaged in mission work in the United States of America; and "The National Baptist Educational Convention," which has sought to look after the educational interest, that the interest of the kingdom of God requires that the several bodies above named should and do now unite in one body."

        The name of the new organization is given as "The National Baptist Convention of the United States of America."

        Article II gives the object as follows:

        "The object of this convention shall be to do mission work in the United States, in Africa and elsewhere abroad, to foster the cause of education and to promote the publication and circulation of religious literature."

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        The following is a list of the first officers of the consolidated convention:

Reverend E. C. MORRIS, D. D. Arkansas
Reverend J. L. BARKSDALE Virginia
Reverend A. D. HURT Tennessee
Reverend R. W. BAYLOR South Carolina
Reverend R. MITCHELL Kentucky
Reverend G. B. HOWARD West Virginia
Reverend J. P. ROBINSON Arkansas
Reverend C. T. WALKER Georgia
Reverend H. WATTS Texas
Reverend W. M. MASSEY Texas
Reverend G. L. P. TALIAFERRO Pennsylvania
Reverend H. W. BOWEN Mississppi
Reverend L. N. ROBINSON Florida
Reverend G. W. LEE District of Columbia
Reverend A. S. JACKSON Louisiana
Reverend C. JOHNSON North Carolina
Reverend W. C. BRADFORD Alabama
Reverend J. W. CARR Indiana

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Recording Secretary  
Reverend W. H. STEWARD Kentucky
Assistant Secretary  
Reverend S. T. CLANTON, D. D. Louisiana
Reverend E. J. FISHER Georgia
Statistical Secretary  
Reverend S. N. VASS North Carolina
Foreign Mission Board  
Louisville, Kentucky  
Reverend JOHN H. FRANK Chairman
Brother WILLIAM H. STEWARD Recording Secretary
Brother DOCTOR LUKE Corresponding Secretary
Brother DANIEL A. GADDIE Treasurer
Home Mission Board  
Little Rock Arkansas  
Reverend G. W. D. GAINS Chairman
Reverend J. A. BOOKER Recording Secretary
Reverend R. H. BOYD Corresponding Secretary
Educational Board  
Washington, D. C.  
Reverend A. WILBANKS Chairman
Reverend W. BISHOP JOHNSON, Corresponding Secretary

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        It is to be remembered and acknowledged with graceful hearts that the American Baptist Publication Society furnished all Baptist Sunday Schools with Sunday School literature and did invite such scholars as Doctors W. J. Simmons, E. M. Brawley, E. K. Love, W. H. Brooks, and C. H. Parish to write for certain periodicals. As strange as it seems in a country aimed at the christianization of peoples, the Southern Baptist brethren denounced, with hatred and prejudice, the invitation extended black men by the American Baptist Publication Society. The strength and courage with which the Publication Society extended the invitation to black authors later became weakness and cowardice following the protest of southern white brethren, thereby resulting in a withdrawal of the invitation which created disappointment in the minds and hearts of Negro Baptists everywhere. Who knew the exact reason why such disappointment and discouragement had been brought to the fore at such a time as this? Plans were being discussed throughout the country relative to the establishment of a Negro Baptist Publishing Plant.

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        In 1894 Doctor R. H. Boyd of San Antonio, Texas, raised the question concerning the publication of Sunday School lessons from the pen of Negro Baptist authors. Considerable controversy resulted and nothing further was done in that year.

        In 1895 Doctor R. H. Boyd, Superintendent of Missions for the General Baptist Convention of Texas, held a conference with the Sunday School Executive Committee of the Central Baptist Association at Navasota, Texas. At this conference it was unanimously agreed that the Sunday Schools of said Association would forward their orders for literature to Doctor R. H. Boyd at San Antonio, Texas. The first order for Sunday School supplies represented thirty Sunday Schools and a personal check for $53.00. In 1896, third quarter, Doctor Boyd realized that the gross income from this proposition was at the rate of more than $2,000 a year, which information graced him with economic insight of what could be accomplished in the publication business.

        In July of the same year, Doctor Boyd consulted with Doctor E. C. Morris, then

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president of the National Baptist Convention, concerning the plausibility and possibility of carrying on such enterprise. However, Doctor Boyd did not meet the kind of response he anticipated from the President. Moreover, in September of the same year in the First Colored Baptist Church of St. Louis, Missouri, Reverend R. H. Boyd offered a resolution suggesting the operation of a publishing house. The resolution, like the interview with the President, did not receive applause, but the entire matter was submitted to the Home Mission Board and considered as a phase of it work. At a meeting of the Board, Doctor Boyd was elected Corresponding Secretary.

        Doctors J. P. Robinson C. H. Clark, T. P. Bell, J. M. Frost, J. M. Moore, E. R. Carter, M. Vann, and C. S. Smith (Secretary of the A. M. E. Sunday School Union) gave untold assistance in every way to Doctor Boyd.

        At the first meeting of the printing committee, Doctor C. H. Clark was elected chairman and Doctor R. H. Boyd, secretary-treasurer. Reverend E. C. Morris was elected editor-in-chief. The mailing name given the printing committee was the National Baptist Publishing Board of the National Baptist Convention of America with headquarters

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to be located at Nashville, Tennessee.

        Very shortly a rather meager and ill-prepared office was opened with prayer in the city of Nashville. The first editorial staff as appointed by Editor Morris was comprised of the following individuals:

        Doctors J. T. Brown, W. M. Brawley, C. H. Parish, W. A. Creditt, C. O. Booth, J. A. Booker, E. R. Carter, W. H. Brooks, W. F. Graham, J. L. Cohron, J. B. Bennett, Mesdames Lucy Cole, M. C. Kenney, E. M. Abner and Miss M. V. Cook.

        The total number of periodicals circulated for the first quarter was 190,500.

        Total receipts $1,774.06.

        Total expenditures $1,518.77.

        The National Baptist Publishing Board was incorporated in 1898.


        The National Baptist Publishing Board succeeded in every way until certain inconsistencies evolved which involved the National Baptist Convention proper causing a division of the convention at Chicago in September, 1915. The two divisions were designated as The National Baptist Conventions,

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Incorporated, and The National Baptist Convention, Unincorporated, Doctor E. P. Jones of Mississippi serving as president of the latter. The National Baptist Convention of America (the unincorporated convention) celebrates its sixty-first annual session this year at Shreveport, Louisiana, with untold reminiscences of the past. It is to be remembered that the late Doctor J. E. Woods succeeded Doctor Jones as president; the late Doctor John W. Hurse succeeded Doctor Woods and Doctor Green L. Prince, President incumbent, succeeded Doctor Hurse. Doctor Prince, having placed the convention on a very ethical scale of business procedure, differentiates the National Baptist Convention of America from the National Baptist Convention of the United States of America thus:

        He points out that the difference is not denominational or doctrinal, but conventional, that is, the difference lies simply in "an attitude of faith in the capability of the race to build and manage racial institutions. "The National Baptist Convention of America has faith in the Negro's ability to do for himself anything necessary for his racial welfare without depending on any other racial group.

        "The National Baptist Convention of

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the United States of America by its actions in depending upon others does not accept this principle of action without reservation."

        It is the view the Historian of the National Baptist Convention of America that, since the brotherhood is energized by a feeling of divinity, that we should advocate and reassert Christian Liberty, Denominational Consciousness, and Religion of a Doctrinal, Experimental, and Practical nature.

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        A History of the Christian Church, Walker; 1918.

        An Outline of Baptist History. Pius; 1910

        A Manuel of Church History, Newman; Vol. 1, 1933.

        A Short History of the English People, J. R. Green; Vol. II.

        A Story of the National Baptist Publishing Board, Boyd, Clark, Over.

        Baptist History, Cramp.

        History of the Church, Wickersham; 1900.

        Lincoln Library of Essential Information.

        Negro Baptist History, Jordan; 1930.