A Tar Heel Confederate Soldier
Stone Publishing Company
Charlotte, N. C.
by L. LEON
This diary was commenced for the fun of writing
down my experience as a soldier from the Old North
State. I never thought for a moment that I would put it
in print; but now that I am getting old and have read so
many histories written by our officers, but have never
seen in print a history written by a private.
I know that my diary is truly the life of the man
behind the gun, therefore I make bold to publish it. I
am sure my experience was that of other privates, and
a true history of my companies and regiments, as well
as the Brigade, Division, and even Corp that I
belonged to. I am certain that the men of '61 to '65 who
read this will recall most vividly the camping,
marching, fighting and suffering they endured in those
never-to-be-forgotten days of long ago. And to the
younger generation of Southern-born it will show how
we endured and suffered, but still fought on for the
cause we know was right.
April 25, 1861 - I belong to the Charlotte Grays,
Company C, First North Carolina Regiment. We left
home for Raleigh. Our company is commanded by
Capt. Egbert Ross. We are all boys between the ages
of eighteen and twenty-one. We offered our services
to Governor Ellis, but were afraid he would not take
us, as we are so young; but before we were called out
our company was ordered to go to the United States
Mint in our town and take same. We marched down to
it, and it was surrendered to us. We guarded it several
days, when we were ordered to Raleigh, and left on
the above date.
Our trip was full of joy and pleasure, for at every
station where our train stopped the ladies showered us
with flowers and Godspeed. We marched to the Fair
Grounds. The streets were lined with people, cheering
us. When we got there our company was given
quarters, and, lo and behold! horse stables with straw
for bedding is what we got. I know we all thought it a
disgrace for us to sleep in such places with our fine
uniforms - not even a washstand, or any place to
hang our clothes on. They didn't even give us a
Our company was put in the First North Carolina
Regiment, commanded by Col. D. H. Hill, Lieut.-Col.
C. C. Lee, and Maj. James H. Lane.
We enlisted for six months. Our State went out of
the Union on May 20th, and we were sent to
Richmond, Va., on the 21st. Stayed there several days,
when we were ordered to Yorktown, Va. Here they
gave us tents to sleep in. This looked more like
soldering, but we would have liked to have had
of that straw in Raleigh.
The day after we got here our company was sent
out with spades and shovels to make breastworks -
and to think of the indignity! We were expected to do
the digging! Why, of course, I never thought that this
was work for soldiers to do, but we had to do it. Gee!
What hands I had after a few days' work. I know I
never had a pick or a shovel in my hand to work with
in my life.
A few days after that a squad of us were sent out to
cut down trees, and, by George! they gave me an axe
and told me to go to work. Well, I cut all over my tree
until the lieutenant commanding, seeing how nice I was
marking it, asked me what I had done before I became
a soldier. I told him I was a clerk in a dry-goods store.
He said he thought so from the way I was cutting
timber. He relieved me - but what insults are put on
us who came to fight the Yankees! Why, he gave me
two buckets and told me to carry water to the men
that could cut.
We changed camp several times, until about the
3d of June, when we marched fifteen miles and halted
at Bethel Church, and again commenced making
breastworks. Our rations did not suit us. We wanted a
change of diet, but there were strict orders from Col.
D. H. Hill that we should not go out foraging. Well, Bill
Stone, Alie Todd and myself put on our knapsacks and
went to the creek to wash our clothes, but when we
got there we forgot to wash. We took a good long
walk away from the camp, and saw several shoats.
We ran one down, held it so it could not squeal,
then killed it, cut it in small pieces, put it in our
knapsacks, returned to the creek, and from there to
camp, where we shared it with the boys. It tasted
Our comrade Ernheart did not fare so well. He went to
a place where he knew he could get some honey. He
got it all right, but he got the bees, also. His face and
hands were a sight when he got the beehive to camp.
June 10 - At three o'clock this morning the long roll
woke us up. We fell in line, marched about five miles,
then counter-marched, as the Yankees were
advancing on us. We got to our breastworks a short
time before the Yankees came, and firing
commenced. We gave them a good reception with
shot and shell. The fight lasted about four hours. Our
company was behind the works that held the line
where the major of the Yankee regiment, Winthrop,
was killed. After he fell our company was ordered to
the church, but was soon sent back to its former position.
This is the first land battle of the war, and we certainly
gave them a good beating, but we lost one of our
regiment, Henry Wyatt, who was killed while gallantly
doing a volunteer duty. Seven of our men were
wounded. The Yankees must have lost at least two
hundred men in killed and wounded. It was their
boast that they could whip us with corn-stalks,
but to their sorrow they found that we could do some
fighting, too. After the fight some of the boys and
myself went over the battlefield, and we saw several
of the Yankee dead - the first I had ever seen, and it
made me shudder. I am now in a school where sights
like this should not worry me long.
Our commander in this fight was Col. Bankhead
Magruder. The Yankee commander was Gen. B. F.
From now on I will never again grumble about
digging breastworks. If it had not been for them many
of us would not be here now. We returned the same
night to Yorktown, full of glory.
On July 18 we heard that our boys had again
whipped the Yankees at Bull Run.
Also, on July 21, again at Manassas.
We changed camp a number of times, made
fortifications all around Yorktown, and when our six
months were over we were disbanded, and returned
home. So my experience as a soldier was over.
I stayed home five months, when I again took arms
for the Old North State, and joined a company raised
by Capt. Harvey White, of Charlotte, and left our
home on April 23, 1862, at 6.30 P.M. I stayed in
Salisbury until next night, when I, with several others,
took the train for Raleigh, where our company was.
We went to the insane asylum to see Langfreid, who
wanted to go home by telegraph to see his cotton and
tobacco. After spending most of our day in town we
went to camp four miles from Raleigh. We stopped a
carriage, and the driver said he would take us to camp
for three dollars. We halved it with him and he drove
us there. We reported to Captain White, and he
showed us to our hut. We were surprised to find it
without a floor, roof half off and "holey" all over. We
commenced repairing, and went to the woods to chop a
pole for a part of the bedstead. We walked about a
mile before we found one to suit us. It was a hard job
to get it to our hut. We put it up and put boards across
and then put our bedding on it, which consisted of
leaves we gathered in the woods. And now it is a bed
fit for a king or a Confederate soldier.
It commenced raining at dark, which compelled us
to cover with our oilcloth coats. We did not get wet,
but passed a bad night, as I had gotten used to a
civilian's life again.
May 31 - Up to date nothing transpired worth
relating, but this morning got orders to leave. Left at 6
A.M. Our company got passenger cars, and the
balance of our regiment had to take box cars.
June 1 - Arrived at Weldon, North Carolina, at 7
o'clock. We set up our tents at Gerresburg, a short
march from Weldon. Our company is close to the
railroad track. We collected broom straw and made a
bed of down of it.
June 2 - We received some visitors from home.
June 3 - Raining all day, but have a good time with
the ladies in this neighborhood. They treated my
comrade and myself only as Southern ladies know
how to treat their soldiers - with respect and
something good to eat.
June 4 - Still raining, and the roads are very
June 5 - We were marched to town and received
our arms - Springfield muskets. Next day went off
June 7 - At 11 o'clock to-night we were roused out of
our sleep and marched to Weldon Bridge, as the river
was so swift that it was thought the bridge would wash
away. We went there to knock the sides off, so that
the water could run over it, but we got there without
tools. When they came the water was receding, so we
returned to camp.
June 8 - I am very tired from our first night's
June 20 - Up until this date there has been nothing
worth recording, but to-day got orders to fall in line
with two days' rations cooked. Left at 12 M. in box
cars. We knocked holes in them to get fresh air. We
laid over six hours eight miles from Gerresburg in
order to let the passenger cars pass us. Several of our
company left the train in quest of supper. We
found a house where a lady promised to give us
supper for fifty cents each. As we were doing full
justice to her supper the train started, we left in a
hurry, and did not have time to pay for our meal. I
don't suppose she gave us her blessing.
June 21 - We reached Petersburg, Va., this
morning at half-past two, and had barely laid down
with a brick wall for my pillow when breakfast was
announced in the shape of Mack Sample, who told us
where we could get it. I ran the blockade with Katz,
and went to see Mike Etlinger. He was not at home.
Afterward we met Wortheim, and we all went again
and got something good to eat. We then returned to
our regiment, which is the 53d North Carolina
Regiment, infantry, Col. William Owens, commander.
We are enlisted for three years, or the war. We fell in
line and marched to our camp, which is on Dunn's Hill,
just outside of the city.
June 22 - Nothing new.
June 23 - Moved our camp two miles up the road
toward Richmond. It is a very bad camp - low
ground and muddy. But there is a factory here, and
plenty of girls to make up for the damp ground.
June 24 - We had a drill to-day, and went to town
to see some friends.
June 25 - Reported fighting near Richmond.
June 26 - We received marching orders this
morning. The long roll beat at one in the night. We
marched four miles on to Richmond, where we met
some wounded of our army that had been injured at
the Point of Rocks. We got to this place after
marching all night, too late for the Yanks - they had
gone. We stayed here until the 28th, then marched to
Drewry's Bluff, twenty miles from Petersburg.
June 29 - Arrived at Drewry's Bluff this morning.
Here we met our brigade, commanded by General
Daniels. The brigade has five regiments, all North
Carolina troops, composed of the 43d, 53d, 32d, 45th
and the 2d North Carolina battalions. When we got to
our brigade we were left at Drewry's Bluff and the
brigade marched on to Richmond, and we stayed here
until the 30th.
June 30 - Heard firing at Richmond. We are eight
miles from there, and in reserve.
July 1 - There is nothing new, only we can see the
lines of battle over the river. They are still fighting
July 4 - This is the day the Yankee general,
McClellan, promised to eat dinner in our capitol. He
did not, but numbers of his command did - that is, in
our prisons. But they did not get any turkey.
July 6 - We got orders to march this morning. Left
here with two days' rations of corn meal and bacon in
our haversacks. We got to Petersburg in the evening -
fifteen miles - after a hard march. It is very warm,
and we did not rest on the way, as it was a forced
march. We camped on Dunn's Hill.
July 7 - We return to our factory girls again - all
O. K., you bet.
July 27 - Had a few friends visit us from home,
moved camp twice. To-night we were ordered to fall
in line. Went to Petersburg, and there took the cars for
Weldon. On the road a dreadful accident occurred. On
the flat car that we were on, a captain of the navy
with us had his leg cut off by a sheet of iron flying off
the flat. Lieutenant McMatthews, Henry Wortheim
and myself were knocked down, but not badly hurt.
The captain died two days after.
July 31 - Up to this time there is nothing new. We
are camped at Weldon.
August 1 - From date to the 4th - nothing. We have a
August 5 - We received marching orders to-day.
We embarked on the train at Weldon, went down the
Seaboard road a distance of twenty-five miles, and
marched from there to Roberts' Chapel. Our
company and Company D were the only ones that
went. We got there at 10 o'clock at night and laid in the
woods until morning.
August 6 - We fell in line and returned. We
marched to Boykins and took the cars to our regiment
again. This expedition was to capture Yankees that
are stealing negroes. When we got there they had left.
Up to August 19 - Nothing new. We have a very
good time here by ourselves - get plenty to eat from
the ladies and visit them whenever we can get out of
August 20 - Left here at 6 P.M. and arrived at
Petersburg at 3 o'clock in the morning. Took the
same bed that I had the last time - the sidewalk -
and the wall for my pillow. Katz, Hugh Sample, "Bat"
Harry, Lieutenant Belk and some others were left
August 21 - Left at 4 A.M. and arrived in Richmond at
6 P.M. Marched to Camp Lee, two miles from the
city, and put up any tent we could get hold of, as it
was raining very hard and too dark to see. We are all
O. K. now.
August 22 - Sam Oppenheim, of the 44th North
Carolina Regiment, an old comrade of the 1st North
Carolina Regiment, came to see me. He is stationed
on the other side of the city.
August 23 - Went uptown to see my brother, Morris, of
the 44th Georgia Regiment; but his regiment had
already gone to Gordonsville, so I returned to camp.
August 26 - Up to date did not get half enough to
August 27 - Three of our companies got Enfield rifles
August 28 - Ordered to Drewry's Bluff. We left
Richmond at 8 P.M. and got there at 2 A.M. We are
camping on the old oat patch, near our former camp.
August 29 - Lieutenant Belk, whom we left at Weldon,
sick, returned to us to-day.
August 30 - Our company went to work to-day
throwing up breastworks.
August 31 - Still digging dirt.
September 1 - Wortheim and myself went to Half-way
Station, to get a box that was sent to us from
home, but it did not come.
September 9 - Up to to-day nothing new. Our
regiment was paid off to-day, we receiving one
month's wages - eleven dollars for a private, which I
have the honor to be.
September 18 - Nothing new, only plenty of bad
weather and hard work. We received marching orders
at 9 A.M. We arrived in Petersburg at 5 P.M. Saw
several friends there. Left Petersburg at 8 o'clock that
night in cars for Wakefield. Arrived there at 11 A.M.
September 19 - Left Wakefield at 9 P.M. and marched
twenty miles - laid in the woods without shelter and it
raining very hard. Therefore did not need to wash
myself in the morning.
September 20 - Resumed our march at 6 o'clock this
morning. Arrived at Blacks Church after three hours'
march, then turned about and tramped nine miles and
camped for the night at Joyner's Church.
September 21 - Left here at 6 P.M., marched nine miles,
and halted for dinner. Our company being rear guard
of the brigade, we had a hard time of it, as the roads
are very muddy and we had to keep up all the
stragglers. We reached Wakefield at 5 A.M., and laid
in the woods and mud for the night.
September 22 - We laid here all day. Cars came for us
from Petersburg to-night and took us back. Got there
at 12 at night, marched one mile and camped for the
September 23 - Left here this morning at 10 o'clock and
got to our old camp at 4 o'clock this evening. This
expedition was to strengthen Longstreet's forces near
Suffolk. We got there after he was relieved and the
siege of Suffolk abandoned.
September 27 - Up to to-day nothing new, only
today is my New Year (the Jewish New Year).
October - This month passed off with nothing
new, except Katz returned on the 7th, and Donau was
discharged. We are still on our old camp.
November 5 - There is nothing for me to write.
To-day Wortheim and myself went to Petersburg to get a
box that was sent from home, and while there we had
a very good time.
November 6 - We commenced to put up winter
quarters to-day. It is very cold and sleeting.
November 7 - It commenced to snow this morning
at 6 o'clock, and continued until one in the afternoon. It
is three inches deep. We got some whiskey into camp,
which tasted very good and made us forget the cold.
The balance of this month passed off very quietly. We
are hard at work on our winter huts.
December 1 and 2 - We moved into our winter
quarters. They are very good and strong. There are
ten men in each hut.
December 3 - Katz and myself went to Petersburg
to-day. We met with friends, and the consequence you
can imagine. The headache we had next day was
caused by too much whiskey.
December 8 - My birthday to-day. I am a man
twenty-one years old, but I must say that I have been
doing a man's duty before I was twenty-one, providing
a soldier's duty is a man's. I spent to-day in bringing
mud to our palace for a fireplace.
December 13 - There was nothing to record up to the
13th, but to-day had division review from 9 A.M. until
December 14 - Rumored that we will leave Virginia for
December 15 - Sure enough. Got orders to cook five
days' rations. We started at 2 A.M. and got to
Petersburg at 8 o'clock that night. I ran the blockade,
and went uptown and stayed all night and had a very
December 16 - I returned this morning and was not
missed. We left here with the cars at 8 A.M., and got
to Weldon at 3 P.M. on the 17th.
December 17 - Laid in an old field until 8 P.M., and
suffered a great deal from cold. We left here on flat
cars and rode all night on them. We arrived at
Goldsboro at 10 A.M. on the 18th. The ladies on the
road, especially those at Wilson, were very kind to us.
They gave us plenty to eat, which we were very much
in need of.
December 18 - We marched through town and lay
all night in an open field without tents. It is certainly
bitter cold. The only fires we could make were from
the fence rails, as the woods were too far for us to get
December 19 - We got away from the open field
12 M., and went two miles out of town, and camped in
the woods. We met the Bethel regiment to-day. I met
quite a number of old friends and comrades of my old
company. We compared notes on soldiering. We came
to the conclusion that at Yorktown we were playing
soldier, but now there is no play in it. We are
expecting a fight every hour.
December 20 - Went uptown to-day on French
leave, and when I returned was put on guard duty for
December 21 - I went to the creek to wash my
clothing and myself, and when I got back the water
had frozen on my head so that I was obliged to hold
my head by the fire so as to thaw it out. Wortheim's
eyes are so bad that he can hardly see. Sam Wilson
broke his shoulder blade.
December 25. - There is nothing new up to to-day,
Christmas. We moved our camp a little piece.
Eigenbrun came to see us to-day from home, and
brought me a splendid cake from Miss Clara Phile.
This is certainly a hard Christmas for us - bitter cold,
raining and snowing all the time, and we have no tents.
The only shelter we have is a blanket spread over a
few poles, and gather leaves and put them in that
shelter for a bed.
December 26 - I got vaccinated to-day by Capt.
Harvey White. It was raining very hard, and we all
are as wet as dish rags.
December 31 - All is quiet up to to-day, the last of the
year. It is still very cold.
THE YEAR 1863
January 1 - This month we have done nothing but
move our camp once, and drill. Had to send all our
baggage away. Hereafter nothing more will be hauled
for us in wagons. There are rumors flying about that
we will soon leave here.
February 1 and 2 - There is nothing new, but cold,
February 4 - This morning, at 4 o'clock, we were
waked up by the pleasant sound of long roll. We were
ordered to get ready to march. It is very cold, snow
nine inches deep. We laid in Goldsboro until noon,
expecting to get cars to take us away, but were then
told we would have to march to Kinston. We took up
our line of march at 3 in the evening and halted at dark.
It is truly awful. The snow is very deep and as cold as
thunder. We marched eight miles without resting. We
then fixed our bed in the snow and stole fodder for a
bed and rails to make fire. We took snow, put it in our
kettles, and made coffee. When I say coffee, I mean
Confederate coffee - parched corn - that is our
coffee. Ate our corn bread and bacon and retired to
our couches and slept as good if not better than Abe
February 5 - Resumed our promenade at 7 this
morning, and for a change it is raining hard. Therefore
the snow is melting. Consequently, the roads are nice
and soft. Halted at 3 this evening - still raining. We
made ourselves as comfortable as possible - made a
good fire to dry ourselves by, but the worst of it is we
have no rations, and the wagons are behind. We went
to sleep in our wet clothing, with a cup of coffee as
our supper. It rained and snowed all night.
February 6 - Nothing to eat yet. Wortheim, W.
Eagle and myself went out foraging, to buy something
to eat. We got to one house and there was no one at
home, but in the yard there were two chickens, which
we captured, for we were afraid they would bite us.
We went to the next house and ate our breakfast. One
of the ladies asked us where we got those chickens. I
told her that we bought them at the house before we
got there. She told us she lived there and that there
was nobody at home. I then told her the truth, paid her
for them and left. The next house we got to we bought
a ham, a peck of meal, a peck of sweet potatoes and
some turnips. We took dinner in this house. We then
returned to camp. We had a good reception from our
mess, as they had still nothing to eat.
February 7 - We could not march yesterday, as the
streams were too high from the recent rains and
snow. We left to-day at 12 M., and got one day's
rations, hard enough to fell a bull. Marched on the
railroad track all the afternoon. The main road was
impassable. We got to Kinston at 4 in the afternoon, and
made camp in a swamp, two and a half miles out of
town. We had nothing to eat, but slept good for all
February 8 - Wortheim and myself went uptown to get
something to eat. We got corn bread and bacon. On
our road back to camp we bought four more dodgers
of corn bread and gave it to our mess companions who
did not go uptown. Our regiment moved on the other
side of town in an old pine thicket.
February 9 - We established a regular camp here.
This last march has been a very hard one, and only a
distance of thirty miles. But it took us from
Wednesday to Saturday, through snow, rain and mud
ankle-deep and without rations. Kinston is a perfect
ruin, as the Yankees have destroyed everything they
could barely touch, but it must at one time have been a
very pretty town - but now nothing scarcely but
chimneys are left to show how the Yankees are trying
to reconstruct the Union.
February 13 - Nothing new. We have been fixing our
camps. Our company has built log huts, from two to
three feet high, and then put our tents over them -
building a chimney to each hut or tent, and we are
very comfortable. We got orders to cook two days'
rations, and be ready to march in two hours, but did
not have to go - in fact, nothing new until the 25th.
February 25 - Henry Wortheim was sent home on
a sick furlough, as he is very bad off.
February 26 - Two men out of our regiment were
whipped for desertion. They were undressed all but pants
and shoes, tied to a post, and each given thirty-nine lashes
on their bare backs. The balance of this month nothing new,
only very cold.
March 5 - Up to to-day there is nothing worth recording,
although we are getting black as negroes on account of our
burning green pine.
March 6 - Several of us out of our company went to
Kinston and the battlefield. The Yankees are very poorly
buried, as we saw several heads, hands and feet sticking
out of the ground, where the rain had washed the dirt off of
March 12 - We have had orders several times for the last
six days to march, and a part of our brigade has had a fight.
But this morning we took up our march at 5 o'clock. I saw
Gen. D. H. Hill on the road and spoke to him, as well as his
adjutant. They are friends from home and comrades of our
first North Carolina regiment. We marched twenty miles
and halted for the night - laid in line of battle all night with
arms by our side.
March 13 - Resumed our march at 8 this morning, got eight
miles, when we got to our extreme picket posts. They told us
the Yankees were one mile and a quarter from us. Then we
marched half a mile further, when our artillery commenced
the fight. It kept on all day, but very light. We drove in their
pickets and advanced our line until dark. We are eight miles
from Newbern - marched eleven miles.
March 14 - This morning, at daybreak, cannonading was
heard by us from General Pettigrew's line, which is on our
left flank. We immediately fell into line of battle, our artillery
opened fire, then we infantry advanced our line on the
Yankees. We halted in an old field and had for a breastwork
a rail fence. We fought for four hours - hot at times. We
had a number killed and wounded. The enemy fell back on
their stronghold - Newbern. This battle is called the Battle
of Deep Gully, as it was fought on that stream. We then took
up our march again for Kinston. We got eleven miles and
halted for the night. Our company was the rear guard of the
March 15 - Laid here all day, with two crackers for our
rations, and these we got at night.
March 16 - A picket came in this morning and reported
the enemy advancing. We were put in line of battle to
receive them, and after marching one mile up the road to get
to our brigade we were put at the extreme left of our line, and
made breastworks out of rotten logs. Stayed here one hour,
when another picket came and reported them ten miles away.
So we resumed our march for camp and got there at 7 o'clock
- twenty-one miles to-day. Tom Notter, Aaron Katz and
myself pressed into service to-day a donkey and a cart with
a negro, who took us to Kinston. Each of us drove at times,
and I was fortunate enough to stall in a mudhole. We had to
get out and lift the cart and donkey to dry ground again.
Thus ends the march and fight at Deep Gully.
March 20 - Katz went home to-day on a furlough.
Nothing new up to the 23d.
March 23 - We had a man whipped to-day in our
regiment for desertion.
March 24 - Commenced marching this morning,
got seventeen miles and halted. Laid here in the woods
until the 27th. Went to several houses and had a good
time with ladies and eatables up to the 29th.
March 29 - Here still, but positively don't know
where we are.
March 30 - Left this morning at 5 o'clock, marched
fifteen miles. Waded clay-bottom swamps three-quarters
of a mile long. This is in Pitt County, North
Carolina. We then camped in the woods and made
fires to dry ourselves with.
March 31 - Left at 7 this morning, marched six
miles, waded several creeks, and arrived at Swift
Creek at 11. This is a small village. We camp here for
April 1 - Left here on the Little Washington dirt road
at 7 this morning. Marched seventeen miles and halted
three miles from Washington. This is a Yankee post.
Heard firing all day, and we are ordered to keep our
cartridge boxes on us and our guns by our sides, as we
may move any moment.
April 2 - Our regiment was sent on picket this
morning at daylight - one mile from camp and two
miles from the enemy. Companies B and G are on the
left, A and D on the right, F and I in the center. We
are within hailing distance of the Yankee line of
pickets. There is not much firing. Tom Tiotter and I
are on the color guard. We have nothing to do if we
don't want to, except stay with the colors. So this
evening at 4 o'clock we went as near the Yankees as
we dared, to see the town of Washington. Saw the
place, their breastworks and their camps very plainly.
We then returned and slept on our arms all night -
that is, we tried to sleep, but could not for the infernal
noise from the owls that are in the swamps around
April 3 - Little Washington is on Tar River, and as
one of the Yankee gunboats was trying to get in, one
of our cannon gave them a ball, which caused heavy
firing all day, and, in fact, the shells came very close to
our flag, which made us dodge pretty smart. We have
Washington besieged. At 8 o'clock to-night Colonel
Owens called for volunteers to go as near the Yankees
as they could, to see what they were doing. Tom
Tiotter and myself went. We got to within two hundred
yards of Washington, when we were compelled to halt,
as we were near the bridge, where we could hear the
Yankee sentinels walking their beats very plainly - so
we returned to camp and reported.
April 4 - Firing at intervals all day. The reserve
was sent to the river to support our artillery. The
colors went with them. It is raining hard. We laid in
line two and a half hours in an old field. It is very cold.
The Yankees are firing all the time. Then the 43d
Regiment came and relieved us. Katz came
in to-day and reported Henry Wortheim dead - he
died Monday, March 30.
April 5 - Everything is quiet on our line to-day.
April 6 - A little firing to-day. Went to the river to
throw up breastworks. Worked all night. We put up
one piece of cannon right on the river bank, but had to
work all night in the swamp to do so. We carried
sandbags for breastworks to protect the artillerymen.
April 7 - To-day the firing was very heavy. We hit
the Yankee gunboat again to-day, and made the dust
fly out of their breastworks.
April 8 - This morning Tom Tiotter, Katz and
myself went with Captain White to meet three
Yankees with a flag of truce; but they would not come
half way, so Colonel Owens ordered us back. We
then - we three - went to our siege-gun and saw the
town very plainly. They fired at us while we were
there. The fire was returned, and we could see the
April 9 - We were relieved this morning by the 32d
Regiment, and marched to Bellevue, where the
balance of our brigade is. At 11 o'clock to-night we
were ordered to march. We went fifteen miles. There
was a fight there to-day. Marched all night without
April 10 - Got to our line at 6 this morning. The
Yankees had fallen back. They had nineteen regiments
and twenty-one pieces of artillery. They left
in a hurry. One of their colonels was killed and I don't
know how many men. We left Blount Creek Bridge at
4 this evening, marched nine miles on our way back to
Bellevue. We met the Bethel regiment, and I met
several friends of my old company.
April 13 - Up to date they are firing at Fort Hill
and Washington all the time.
April 14 - Nothing.
April 15 - Raining very hard. We have a blanket
spread over poles to keep us dry. We got orders to
march this evening. Went five miles through mud and
water, and it raining like fury. I shall long remember
this march, as well as a few others of my company.
We fell in the mud several times, and were certainly
beautiful objects to look at with our suits of mud, for
we were completely covered with it.
April 16 - At 7 this morning we resumed our march.
Went two miles, halted a half hour, then turned about
and went to our old camp, but again were ordered
back at 2 P.M. to our picket posts, one mile from
Washington. As we got there the Yankees gave us a
good reception in shot, shell and musketry, but all the
damage they did was to rail fences and perhaps a few
owls that are plentiful in the swamps. Our line is on the
edge of the swamp. They shelled heavy all night, but
no lives were lost on our side. At 8 P.M. our pickets
fired on them, but they did not respond. We laid here
until 2 at night, when we went to Bellevue under fire
from the enemy. We stayed here the balance of the
April 17 - At daylight this morning our company
was ordered to go on picket at Shingle Landing, five
miles from Bellevue. I asked Colonel Morehead to let
me go with them, but he refused, and said I should
stay with the colors, but I went without his permission.
In a march of five miles we waded through three miles
of swamp, knee-deep. We are in a devil of a position.
The enemy can cut us off from our command easily,
as we cannot return, except through the swamp, which
of course would be very slow progress. At 4 this
evening we were recalled, and met our regiment on
the march and fell in. Colonel Morehead did not miss
me from the colors. We marched seven miles and
halted for the night.
April 18 - Left at 9 this morning, and got to Greenville
at 5 o'clock - eleven miles. This is a fine country,
but hilly and hard marching. This is the end of the
siege of Washington. We were there sixteen days, but
could not draw the enemy out of their works.
April 19 - Nothing to-day but rest, which we needed
April 20 - Went on picket this morning to the south
side of the town, across the river, but did not go on
picket. Our company and Company G supported two
pieces of artillery. I was again refused permission by
Morehead to go with my company, but I went all the
April 21 - Nothing doing.
April 22 - Ordered to our brigade at 12 M.
April 23 - Raining hard all day and night. No
shelter. We got as wet as drowned cats.
April 24 - This morning I was detailed by Colonel
Owens to go to Wilson, N. C., to get the baggage for
our officers. Left at 3 A.M., got to Tarboro at 7 P.M.
This is a very pretty town. Stayed here until 3 and took
the cars to Rocky Mount. Got there at 5, left at 7, and
got to Wilson at 8 on the morning of the 25th. Got my
baggage and left at 3 P.M. Arrived at Rocky Mount at
4. Saw some fun with a girl and an old woman. The
young one had stole a petticoat from the old one, and
was compelled to take it off and return it in the
presence of at least fifty men. Left at 8, got to Tarboro
at a quarter after nine.
April 26 - Left here this morning and took the
same route that I came by. Our boat got to Greenville
at 10 A.M. My regiment in my absence has gone
twelve miles across the river to a place called
Pacatolus. I followed them in a buggy, and got there at
April 27 - Left here at 3 this morning. Got to
Greenville at 6 A.M., stayed a quarter of an hour, and
marched to the crossroads, nine miles from town; got
there at 6 P.M.
April 28 - Turned about this morning at 7, got to
Greenville at 10, and went to our former camp. Then
got orders to return to Pacatolus in the morning.
April 29 - We left this morning. The regiment
was two miles on the road when we got orders to
return. But Tom Tiotter and myself marched ahead of
the regiment, and had got four miles before we had
found out that the regiment was not in our rear. When
we got back we were laughed at for our smartness.
April 30 - Laid in camp and rested.
May 1 - We left here this morning at thirty minutes
after 4 for Kinston. Marched eleven miles without
May 2 - Resumed our march at 6 A.M., and
reached Kinston at 8 P.M. - twenty-four miles to-day.
May 3 - We camped one mile from town. We left
here on the 25th day of March, and returned May 2.
Went through a campaign of twenty-seven days. In
that time we had Washington besieged sixteen days.
The balance of the time we were marching and
counter-marching in all kinds of weather, and very
often without anything to eat.
May 4 and 5 - Nothing.
May 6 - Left here at 12 M. for Core Creek,
marched nine miles and halted. Raining hard, and we
got well soaked. The rain ran down our faces all night,
so we did not have to wash our faces on the morning
of the 7th.
May 7 - Resumed our march at 8 A.M., got ten
miles, and halted within one mile of the creek. We
waded Gum Swamp, stayed there three hours, and
turned about - marched nine miles to-night. This
expedition was to tear up the Newbern and Kinston
and also bring some ladies and old men out of the
Yankee lines, for they had been driven out of
Newbern. There were about seventy in all. They
were, of course, Southern people who would not take
the oath of allegiance to the United States
Government, and therefore were driven out of their
May 8 - We left here at 8 A.M., to return to
Kinston, and got there at 3 P.M. - ten miles - awful
road. Waded through mud, water and sand the whole
way. My feet are cut up pretty badly.
May 9 and 10 - Resting.
May 11 - We moved our camp to the north side of
town. Then we were marched to an open field this
afternoon, and drawn up in line to see two men shot
for desertion. After they were shot, we marched by
them and saw one was hit six times and the other
four. Their coffins were by their sides, right close to
their graves, so that they could see it all.
May 17 - Up to to-day nothing. But this morning at
4 we were ordered to cook up all our rations, and be
ready to march in one hour. We left Kinston by rail at
12 M. Got to Goldsboro at 3, went through to Weldon,
left here at 5 P.M., and got to Petersburg, Va., on the
morning of the 18th; left there at 6 P.M. Katz and
myself went uptown - ate two suppers. Had a very
good time while in town. We camped all night on
May 19 - Left here at 5 this morning, got to Richmond
at 8, and are stationed at Camp Lee. We will have to
march to Fredericksburg. Our brigade is
transferred to the Army of Northern Virginia. William
Cochran, myself and several of our company ran the
blockade to-night, went uptown to a theatre, and got
back to camp at 2 o'clock. We had a fine time while
May 21 - Left this morning, marched twenty-
one miles, halted at 5.30. It is a very hilly country,
warm and dusty.
May 22 - Marched twenty miles to-day, and
halted at 6 P.M.
May 23 - Marched fifteen miles and halted. On
our to-day's march we saw any amount of dead
horses, which did not smell altogether like cologne.
May 24 - Laid here all day, it being Sunday.
May 25 - Resumed our march this morning at 6.
Got six miles and halted. We pitched our camp here on
a hill two miles from Fredericksburg.
May 26 and 27 - Rested. I went to see my brother
Morris, who belongs to Dowles' Brigade, 44th Georgia
Regiment. Did not see him, as he was on picket.
May 28 - Morris came to see me to-day. We are
both in the same division and corps. Our corps is
commanded by General Ewell.
May 29 - Had a general review to-day. General
Rodes is our division commander. He and General Lee
reviewed us. I see a great change in the appearance
of General Lee. He looks so much older than when I
saw him at Yorktown. Then his hair was black. Now
he is a gray-headed old man. We have five brigades in
our division. The commander of
my brigade is General Daniels, of North Carolina. One
brigade of Georgians is commanded by General
Dowles. Iverson, of North Carolina, has another
brigade; also General Ramseur, of North Carolina, has
a brigade; and General Battle, of Alabama, has a
brigade. Our corps is composed of three divisions, ours
by General Rodes, one by General Early, and the other
by Gen. A. Johnson.
May 30 - We see the Yankees in balloons every
day, reconnoitering our lines.
June 1 and 2 - Nothing new.
June 3 - Saw my brother Morris several times.
June 4 - Got orders to cook three days' rations
immediately. We left our camp at 3 this morning,
marched fourteen miles and halted. We march one
hour and rest ten minutes.
June 5 - Marched until 4 o'clock this evening -
twenty miles to-day.
June 6 - Marched five miles and halted for the day.
June 7 - Left at 5 A.M., got to Culpepper Court
House 3 P.M., and marched four miles on the east
side of town. Twenty miles to-day. We waded
Rapidan River, which is forty yards wide, two feet
deep and very swift.
June 8 - Stayed here all day.
June 9 - We were ordered to Beverly Ford, to
support Gen. Jeb Stewart, who is engaging the
Yankees, and they are having a very hard cavalry
fight. Got here in a roundabout way, and formed in
battle, with two lines of skirmishers in front. When we
got to the Army of Northern Virginia we were told that
each company must furnish one skirmisher out of
every six men, and there was a call for volunteers for
that service. So I left the colors and went as a
skirmisher, whose duty it is in time of battle to go in
front of the line and reconnoitre and engage the enemy
until a general engagement, then we fall in line with
balance of the army. As soon as the enemy saw that
the cavalry were reinforced by infantry, they fell back.
This was altogether a cavalry fight. We took quite a
number of prisoners, and camped two miles from the
battlefield. We marched twelve miles to-day.
June 10 - Left here at 2 P.M., marched until 8 o'clock
to-night - twelve miles.
June 11 - Resumed our march at 5 A.M., passed
over three creeks that formed the Rappahannock
River, passed through a town called Flint Hill, and
camped one mile on the north side of the town.
Marched sixteen miles to-day.
June 12 - Left at 5 A.M., marched over part of the
Blue Ridge, and crossed the head of the
Rappahannock River - eighteen miles to-day. We
marched through Front Royal, where the ladies treated
us very good. Camped one mile north side of town,
and waded the Shaninoar, both prongs.
June 13 - Marched to Berryville, a Yankee post. Heard
firing before we got there. We took the left
flank a half mile this side of town, and marched to
the Winchester Turnpike. We then formed in line of
battle with sharpshooters in front. We gave the Rebel
yell and charged. But when we got to their
breastworks the birds had flown. They did not take
their nests with them. Their camp, with all their
cooking utensils, quartermaster and commissary stores,
were all left in our hands. They were evidently cooking
a meal, for plenty of pots full of eatables were still on
the fire when we got into their camp. We ate up all we
could, and filled our haversacks and pushed on four
miles further, and halted for the night. It is raining very
hard, and there is, of course, no shelter for us.
June 14 - Left at 7 A.M., passed through Smithfield
and Bunker Hill. The Yankees are still retreating in
our front, on their way to Martinsburg, our own
destination. We got there about 9 o'clock at night and
drove them through the town, and, in fact, we felt like
driving the devil out of his stronghold, as this was a
very warm day. We had to march in quick time all
day, a distance of twenty-five miles. Therefore we
were not in the best of humor. This is a good sized
June 15 - Left here at 11 A.M., and got to the Potomac
river at dusk, a distance of twelve miles. We have as
yet been very fortunate. Have driven the enemy from
the Rapidan to the Potomac, captured prisoners, arms,
camps, quartermaster and commissary stores, and the
Yankees were any moment as
strong in numbers as we, with the advantage of having
breastworks to fight behind. Still they always ran at
June 16 - Resting to-day.
June 17 - We crossed the Potomac River to-day at 1
P.M., and camped in Williamsport, Maryland, on the
banks of the Potomac. Two miles to-day. The river is
June 18 - The people are mixed in their sympathies,
some Confederates and some Yankees.
June 19 - Left at 8 A.M., and seven miles took
us to Hagerstown, Md. Here the men greeted us very
shabby, but the ladies quite the reverse. This town has
5,000 inhabitants, and is a very pretty town. We
camped on the Antietam.
June 20 and 21 - Raining hard.
June 22 - Left this morning at 8 o'clock, got to
Middleburg, Pa., at 11, passed through it, and got to
Green Castle at half past one. Eleven miles to-day.
The people seemed downhearted, and showed their
hatred to us by their glum looks and silence, and I am
willing to swear that no prayers will be offered in this
town for us poor, ragged rebels.
June 23 - Here all day. Tom Tiotter and myself
went out to buy something to eat, but when we came
to a house, they would close their doors in our faces,
or let us knock and not open. We got the ear of one or
two ladies, and after proving to them that we were not
wild animals nor thieves, they gave us what we
wanted, but would not take pay for anything.
June 24 - Left here this morning, got to
Chambersburg at 12 M. Went three miles on the north
side of town on picket - 14 miles to-day. We passed
through Marion, a small village. Chambersburg is a
very fine place, 10,000 inhabitants, but nary a smile
greeted us as we marched through town. There are a
plenty of men here - a pity they are not rebels, and in
our ranks. This city is in Franklin County, Cumberland
Valley. We were woke up in the middle of the night
and marched off; waded a river which was so cold
that it woke us up. Passed through Greenville to-day at
dawn. This town has, I should judge, about 5,000
inhabitants. Nine miles to-day.
June 25 - Marched on, passed through Leesburg,
Canada, Hockinsville, and Centerville, all small
villages. We got to Carlisle, Pa., at sundown. Marched
21 miles to-day. This city is certainly a beautiful place.
It has 8,000 inhabitants, and we were treated very
good by the ladies. They thought we would do as their
soldiers do, burn every place we passed through, but
when we told them the strict orders of General Lee
they were rejoiced. Our regiment was provost guard in
the city, but were relieved by the 21st Georgia
Regiment, and we went to camp at the U. S. barracks.
So far we have lived very good in the enemy's
country. We stayed here until the 30th, when we took
the Baltimore pike road, crossed South Mountain at
Holly Gap, passed through Papertown and Petersburg.
We then left the Pike and took the Gettysburg road -
17 miles to-day. This has been a
hard day for us, as we were the rear guard of the division,
and it was very hot, close and very dusty, and a terrible job
to keep the stragglers up.
July 1 - We left camp at 6 A.M., passed through
Heidelsburg and Middleton. At the latter place we heard
firing in the direction of Gettysburg. We were pushed
forward after letting the wagon trains get in our rear. We got
to Gettysburg at 1 P.M., 15 miles. We were drawn up in line of
battle about one mile south of town, and a little to the left of
the Lutheran Seminary. We then advanced to the enemy's
line of battle in double quick time. We had not gotten more
than 50 paces when Norman of our company fell dead by my
side. Katz was going to pick him up. I stopped him, as it is
strictly forbidden for anyone to help take the dead or
wounded off the field except the ambulance corps. We then
crossed over a rail fence, where our Lieutenant McMatthews
and Lieutenant Alexander were both wounded. That left us
with a captain and one lieutenant. After this we got into
battle in earnest, and lost in our company very heavily, both
killed and wounded. This fight lasted four hours and a half,
when at last we drove them clear out of town, and took at
least 3,000 prisoners. They also lost very heavily in killed
and wounded, which all fell into our hands. After the fight
our company was ordered to pick up all straggling Yankees
in town, and bring them together to be brought to the rear as
prisoners. One fellow I took up could not speak one word of
English, and the first thing he asked me in German
was "Will I get my pay in prison?" After we had them all put
up in a pen we went to our regiment and rested. Major
Iredell, of our regiment, came to me and shook my hand, and
also complimented me for action in the fight. At dusk I was
about going to hunt up my brother Morris, when he came to
me. Thank God, we are both safe as yet. We laid all night
among the dead Yankees, but they did not disturb our
July 2 - Our division was in reserve until dark, but our
regiment was supporting a battery all day. We lost several
killed and wounded, although we had no chance to fire -
only lay by a battery of artillery and be shot at. The caisson
of the battery we were supporting was blown up and we got
a big good sprinkling of the wood from it. Just at dark we
were sent to the front under terrible cannonading. Still, it
was certainly a beautiful sight. It being dark, we could see
the cannon vomit forth fire. Our company had to cross a rail
fence. It gave way and several of our boys were hurt by
others walking over them. We laid down here a short time, in
fact no longer than 10 minutes, when I positively fell asleep.
The cannonading did not disturb me. One of the boys
shook me and told me Katz was wounded by a piece of a
shell striking him on the side, and he was sent to the rear.
We went on to the Baltimore Turnpike until 3 in the morning
of the 3d.
July 3 - When under a very heavy fire, we were ordered
on Culps Hill, to the support of Gen. A.
Johnson. Here we stayed all day - no, here, I may
say, we melted away. We were on the brow of one
hill, the enemy on the brow of another. We
charged on them several times, but of course, running
down our hill, and then to get to them was impossible,
and every time we attempted it we came back leaving
some of our comrades behind. Here our
Lieutenant Belt lost his arm. We have now in our
company a captain. All of our lieutenants are
wounded. We fought here until 7 P.M., when what
was left of us was withdrawn and taken to the first
day's battlefield. At the commencement of this fight
our Brigade was the strongest in our division, but she is
not now. We lost the most men, for we were in the
fight all the time, and I have it from Colonel Owens
that our regiment lost the most in the Brigade. I know
that our company went in the fight with 60 men. When
we left Culps Hill there were 16 of us that answered to
the roll call. The balance were all killed and wounded.
There were 12 sharpshooters in our company and now
John Cochran and myself are the only ones that are
left. This day none will forget, that participated in the
fight. It was truly awful how fast, how very fast, did
our poor boys fall by our sides - almost as fast as the
leaves that fell as cannon and musket balls hit them, as
they flew on their deadly errand. You could see one
with his head shot off, others cut in two, then one with
his brain oozing out, one with his leg off, others shot
through the heart. Then you would hear some poor
friend or foe crying for water, or for "God's sake"
to kill him. You would see some of your comrades,
shot through the leg, lying between the lines, asking his
friends to take him out, but no one could get to his
relief, and you would have to leave him there, perhaps
to die, or, at best, to become a prisoner. Our brigade
was the only one that was sent to Culps Hill to support
General Johnson. In our rapid firing today my gun
became so hot that the ramrod would not come out, so
I shot it at the Yankees, and picked up a gun from the
ground, a gun that some poor comrade dropped after
being shot. I wonder if it hit a Yankee; if so, I pity him.
Our regiment was in a very exposed position at one
time to-day, and our General Daniels ordered a courier
of his to bring us from the hill. He was killed before he
got to us. The General sent another. He was also
killed before he reached us. Then General Daniels
would not order any one, but called for volunteers.
Capt. Ed. Stitt, of Charlotte, one of his aides,
responded, and he took us out of the exposed position.
July 4 - We laid on the battlefield of the first day,
this the fourth day of July. No fighting to-day, but we
are burying the dead. They have been lying on the field
in the sun since the first day's fight; it being dusty and
hot, the dead smell terribly. The funny part of it is, the
Yankees have all turned black. Several of our
company, wounded, have died. Katz is getting along all
right. The battle is over, and although we did not
succeed in pushing the enemy out of their strong
position, I am sure they have not anything
to boast about. They have lost at least as many in
killed and wounded as we have. We have taken more
prisoners from them than they have from us. If that is not
the case, why did they lay still all today and see our army
going to the rear? An army that has gained a great victory
follows it up while its enemy is badly crippled; but Meade,
their commander, knows he has had as much as he gave, at
least, if not more. As yet I have not heard a word from my
brother Morris since the first day's fight.
July 5 - Left this morning at 5 o'clock. Only marched
ten miles to-day. The enemy being in our rear, and
skirmishing very strong.
July 6 - Our company was ordered out as skirmishers to-day,
as our regular skirmish corps was broken up during the
fight. We were the rear of the army, and therefore had a very
hard job before us. Fighting all day in falling back we
certainly had fun. We were close enough to the enemy to
hear their commands. We would hold them in check and
give them a few rounds, then fall back again. They would
then advance until we would make a stand, fight again, and
so it was until we reached Fairfield, six miles from
Gettysburg. I don't think there were many lost on either side
in this skirmish. We crossed South Mountain at Monteray
Gap. When we came to the above town I pressed into
service a citizen's coat, in this way: We were ordered to rest,
and, as usual, we would sit on fences and lay about the
road. Some of the boys jumped on an old hog pen. It broke
through. They fell in, and, lo and behold, there were boxes
of clothing, dresses, shawls, blankets, and, in fact,
everything in the line of wearing apparel. I, being a little
fellow, crawled through some of the boys' legs and captured
the coat. If the fool citizen would have left his things in his
house they would have been safe, but to put it in our way
was too much for us to leave behind. We also passed
through Waterboro, and Waynesboro, Pa., where the
Maryland line commences. We then passed through
Latisburg, and halted in Hagerstown, Md., on the evening of
the 7th. We marched yesterday and all night up to 11
o'clock - twenty-four miles.
July 8 - We are resting, and, goodness knows, we need
it very much. I sold my coat for twenty dollars and a gray
jacket. We lost in the last fight in our company eleven killed
and twenty-six wounded; three of the latter will not live, and
nine of our number became prisoners, besides the wounded.
Our three lieutenants are all wounded and prisoners. Katz is
also a prisoner. Nothing further up to the 10th.
July 10 - Moved four and a half miles on the other side of
town. We have fortified ourselves here.
July 11 - Orders read out to-day from our father, R. E. Lee,
that we would fight the enemy once more on their own soil,
as they were now in our front. That order got to them, and
fulfilled its mission, as we were then on our way to the
Potomac. They still thinking we could not cross the river,
because the river was very high from the recent rains, and
had but one pontoon bridge. At 10 in the night we
formed in line of battle, got to our position, when our
regiment was ordered to support a battery. Laid on
our arms all night.
July 12 - Went back to our brigade this morning.
Skirmishing very heavy on the left and center.
July 13 - News came to us to-day that Vicksburg had
fallen on the 4th. Heavy skirmishing, fighting all day.
Our brigade again acted as the rear of our corps, our
regiment being its rear. We started our retreat at dark
and marched to Williamsport, six miles, through mud
and slush ankle-deep, and raining very hard. We
marched one mile to the right of and crossed the
Potomac at midnight, after wading through the canal,
which we destroyed. The river was up to my chin, and
very swift. We crossed in fours, for protection, as
otherwise we could not have crossed. Our cartridge
boxes we carried around our necks to keep the powder
dry. On the south bank tar was poured so that we
would not slip back in the river, as the mud was very
slick. J. Engle, of our company, was stuck in until some
of the boys pulled him out. We went six miles further,
and I honestly believe more of us were asleep on our
night's march than awake. But, still, all kept up, for the
rear was prison. We then halted, made fire to dry
ourselves, just as day was breaking on the morning of
July 14 - The roads are so bad that it is hard work to
trudge along. I stuck in the mud several times, and lost
one shoe in a mud hole, but of course took
it out again. One consolation we have got, it is raining
so hard that the mud is washed off our clothing,
therefore they were not soiled too bad. But the devil of
it is there is no blacking to shine our shoes with.
Marched sixteen miles and halted. We are now, thank
God, on Confederate soil, but oh, how many of our
dear comrades have we left behind. We can never
forget this campaign. We had hard marching, hard
fighting, suffered hunger and privation, but our general
officers were always with us, to help the weary soldier
carry his gun, or let him ride. In a fight they were with us
to encourage. Many a general have I seen walk and a
poor sick private riding his horse, and our father, Lee,
was scarcely ever out of sight when there was danger.
We could not feel gloomy when we saw his old gray
head uncovered as he would pass us on the march, or
be with us in a fight. I care not how weary or
hungry we were, when we saw him we gave that
Rebel yell, and hunger and wounds would be forgotten.
July 15 - We marched five miles to-day, and were
compelled to halt, as our wagon trains had to get in our
front. I and two of our mess killed three turkeys, took
them with us to one mile from Martinsburg, Va.,
where we camped, and the bones of those turkeys
were left behind.
July 16 - Left this morning at 7; marched to
Darkesville, eight miles.
July 17 - Raining very hard to-day, and we are resting.
July 20 - Went on picket to-day, stayed there one
hour, and was ordered back. Got to camp, and found
our brigade gone. We marched to Martinsburg, halted
at 10 at night, two miles from town - ten miles to-day.
July 21 - Went through town at 5 this morning, to the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, with Johnson's division
and part of Hampton's Legion, to tear up the railroad.
We destroyed six miles of it and returned to our camp
at Darkesville - fifteen miles to-day.
July 22 - Left this morning at 5, marched through
Winchester three miles, and halted.
July 23 - Left at 5 this morning, went through Front
Royal - seventeen miles to-day. Waded the south and
north prongs of the Shenandoah River. We then took
the road to Mananas Gap, marched three miles, when
we met the enemy and had brisk firing until dark. Their
line is very strong. They advanced in two lines in very
fine order. When they got within range of our guns we
opened on them, and they scattered like bluebirds. We
had a beautiful view of this fight, as we are on the
mountain. Neither of the armies can move without
being seen by the other. Our corps of sharpshooters
has been formed again since a few days ago. We
were sent to the support of the other corps. We were
within twenty yards of the enemy's line until midnight,
when we fell back in good order.
July 24 - Marched two miles up Chester Gap,
when we were about faced and marched through
Royal again. We here took the Strasburg road at
daylight. We resumed our march, and halted at 3 in the
evening. We have been on a forced march three days
and nights, waded rivers, fought skirmishes, and
marched in that time forty-five miles. We are camped
in an apple orchard in a village called Milford.
July 25 - Left this morning at 7 o'clock, halted at 3
in the afternoon - sixteen miles.
July 26 - Rested to-day. William Eagle and myself
went up the Blue Ridge to gather berries, and were
lost in the woods for one hour.
July 27 - Left this morning at 5, crossed the Blue
Ridge at Thornton Gap. We camped one mile from
Sparrowsville. Marched thirteen miles to-day.
July 28 - Left at 6 this morning, marched ten miles
and halted on the mountain.
July 29 - Left at 7, marched until 3, camped one
mile from Madison Court House. Marched ten miles
July 30 - Still in camp. Hugh Sample and myself were
out on a forage and milked a cow in his hat, the only
thing we had.
July 31 - We left here to-night, marched seven miles,
August 1 - Resumed our march at 4 this morning, and
got to Orange Court House, fourteen miles. It is a very
hot day, and there were several men fell dead on the
road from sunstroke. We rested here until the 4th.
August 4 - Left our camp, marched three miles,
one mile on the south side of town.
August 11 - Nothing up to to-day. This, I suppose, is
to be our regular camp, as we have commenced to
August 12 - We had a very severe storm to-day, which
killed two men and hurt several of our brigade. It tore
up trees and played smash in general.
August 23 - They have commenced to give
furloughs, one to every two companies.
August 24 - Was on guard this morning, but
Sergeant Hugh Reid sent for me, and detailed me, with
some men out of every regiment in our brigade, to hunt
deserters. Si Wolf and myself, out of our company.
We left camp at 3 this evening, marched two miles up
the railroad, and took the cars to Gordonsville. Got
there at 4. It is a small place, but one of importance, as
all our supplies for the army from Richmond come
from this station.
August 25 - Took the cars at 5 A.M. and got to
Keswick, a depot on the Stanton road. We left here
after staying one hour, and took our posts in the
woods. As we are about twenty men, with one
lieutenant in command, we made no camp, but stayed
about here and reported every time there was any
news about deserters. Wolf and myself went out in the
country to houses that we were told harbored
deserters. We passed ourselves off as such, and
were well received, and got some valuable
information. They told us that the deserters were in
We then returned to our companions, and got well
soaked, as it was raining very hard. Stayed in a barn
August 26 - We stayed in the woods all day, but at
night went out scouting for deserters, but did not find
August 27 - Returned at 7 this morning, went out
again at dark, went through four houses of bad repute,
but found not one deserter. Went twelve miles this
August 28 - We moved this evening, and I stayed
in a gentleman's house all night with Wolf.
August 29 - Returned to our companions this
morning at 10 o'clock.
August 30 - Left at 5 in the morning. We hunted
through the cliffs for several hours and caught one
deserter. Several of our men and myself dined in a
widow lady's house. There were quite a number of
ladies there, and we had a very pleasant time. Then
we went to Mr. Bell's and had supper there. From
there we went to Mr. Wheeler's and stayed all night.
August 31 - Went to Mr. Watkin's, took dinner
there, and stayed all day. Had a very pleasant time
with his daughter, Miss Annie.
September 1 - To-day we went on a general hunt in
full force. We went into a house where we suspected
there was a deserter. We hunted through all the
out-houses, then went to the house, and the lady
strongly denied there being any one there, but would
not give us permission to look. We then searched the
house, but found no one. I then proposed that we go in
the loft. She objected again. But of course we were
determined. It was pitch-dark in the loft. We called in,
but no answer came. I then proposed, in a loud voice,
so that if any one was there they could hear me, that
we fix bayonets and stick around and satisfy
ourselves that no one was there. Still no answer. I
then got in the loft, took my gun and commenced
sticking around. At last an answer came from the far
corner that he would surrender. The way I got into the
loft was, I being a little fellow, and Si Wolf a tall man,
they put me on his shoulder, and in that way I crawled
in. We then left for camp, passed a church, and was in
time to see a wedding. We drilled for the ladies, and
had a good time.
September 2 - On a hunt to-day several of my comrades
with myself came to a house, and the first thing we
heard was, "Is there a Jew in your detachment that
caught a deserter yesterday?" They would like to see
him, etc. At last one of the boys told them that I was
the Jew. After that I had a very good time there, and
in fact wherever I went I was received very kindly,
and was very sorry to see on the 4th that orders came
for us to return to our brigade.
September 4 - Marched to Keswick, and found
that we would have to march to Gordonsville. Got
there that night. Fifteen miles to-day.
September 5 - Left here at 7, got to brigade at 10 in
the morning, and from the 24th of last month up
to date I certainly have seen the best time since the
September 6 - Our captain, Harvey White,
returned to camp yesterday from a furlough.
September 8 - We are getting ready for a corps
review for to-morrow.
September 9 - To-day we had a review. Present:
General Lee, General Ewell, General Early, General
Johnson and General Rodes, of our corps, and General
Hill, Gen. J. E. B. Stewart, and smaller fry of our
army. It was certainly a grand scene. Nothing more up
to the 14th.
September 14 - Left camp this morning at 7,
marched twelve miles and halted. Hear firing in front
on the Rapidan, at Summerville Ford. Here all night.
September 15 - Still some firing in front. We are in
reserve. I went to see the fight. I saw the enemy very
plainly, and thus I spent my New Year's Day.
September 16 - To-day there was a man shot for
desertion. Eight balls passed through him. The way
this is conducted is: the brigade that he belongs to, or
sometimes even the division, is drawn up in full sight of
the doomed man. He is tied to a stake in front of his
grave, which is already dug, and his coffin at his side.
There is a squad of twelve men and one officer
detailed to do the shooting. Eleven of the guns are
loaded. The guns are given to them by the officer, so
that no man knows which gun is loaded. The order is
then given to fire. Thus ends
the deserter's life. The brigade, or division, then
marches around him, so that every man can see
his, the deserter's, end.
September 17 - Very little firing to-day.
September 18 - Raining hard all day, and no tents. Left
camp at 2 in the afternoon, marched six miles, halted
at the river, and our regiment went on picket. It is still
raining very hard, and we are as wet as drowned
cats, and cold, too, for we cannot make a fire in
front of the enemy. If we did they would have a
good mark to shoot at.
September 19 - We are at Moulton's Ford.
September 20 - In speaking distance of the
September 21 - Our regiment was relieved to-day by
the 3d Alabama, of Battle's Brigade.
September 22 - I spoke and exchanged papers
with a Yankee of the 7th Ohio Regiment.
September 23 - Day of Atonement to-day.
Nothing more up to the 26th.
September 26 - We have built ourselves cabins in
our camps. This evening we went on picket.
September 27 - The Yankees are very active today.
Something is up.
September 28 - Our regiment is on picket; will be
September 29 - All quiet to-day. Brother Morris
returned from Richmond yesterday, where he has
been for ten days on a furlough. Before our Jewish
Year there was an order read out from General Lee
granting a furlough to each Israelite to go to Richmond
for the holidays if he so desired. I did not care to go.
September 30 - We are shooting at the Yankees to-day
for fun, as they are trying to steal sheep from the
houses that are between our lines.
October 1 - Went on picket at 4 this afternoon, and
was roused up in the night to intercept a spy who is in
our lines, and is expecting to cross, but we did not see
him, for it was so dark we could see nothing.
October 2 - Relieved to-day. Very wet and
disagreeable weather. Nothing new up to the 9th.
October 9 - Left camp at 4 this evening and halted
on the morning of the 10th at 1 o clock, when we caught
up with our brigade. Marched twelve miles on very
muddy road, and fell into several holes. We left again
very early this morning and marched twenty miles. We
waded the Rapidan to-day at Liberty Mills.
October 11 - We forded Roberson River, and
marched up and down hollows without singing or
making any noise, so that the enemy could not see or
hear us. We heard firing on our left. We are eight
miles from Culpepper Court House.
October 12 - Started at daylight, marched twenty-five
miles, waded the Hazel River at 10 this morning. Had
to take off our shoes and pants, according to orders. It
was very cold. We got within a quarter of a mile of
Jefferson town, when the fight commenced.
We drove the Yankees through town double quick.
We halted one mile on the other side of the town, then
formed in line of battle once more and went forward. We
drove the enemy over the Rappahannock and through
Warrington Springs; took 300 prisoners and halted at 9 in
October 13 - Left here at daylight, marched through
Warrington, a very handsome place, went two miles further
and camped for the night - seven miles.
October 14 - My corps of sharpshooters marched in front
of the line. Left camp at 4 this morning, and at daylight, as
General Ewell and staff rode up to us, there was a volley
shot at us. We immediately deployed and after the enemy.
We fought on a run for six hours, all the time the enemy
falling back. They at one time raised a white flag and
surrendered. We then stopped firing, and as we got within
one hundred feet they opened on us again, for they saw we
were only a line of sharpshooters. We then resumed firing at
them. I captured a mail-bag in the fight, and in several letters
I found some money. We halted, and the enemy kept on
running like wild ducks. This is the battle of Bristow Station.
We took many prisoners. As we got through fighting we
heard firing on our right. We marched to their support, but
when we got there the firing had ceased. Twenty-five miles
to-day. We camped on Manassas Plain. Raining hard all
October 15 - Here all day, and talking with our prisoners.
October 16 - Left this morning at 4, marched five miles,
and halted on the Orange and Alexander Railroad, tore it up
one and a quarter miles, and camped.
October 17 - Marched four miles to-day and tore and burned
up the same amount of railroad.
October 18 - Started at 4 this morning and marched ten
miles toward Culpepper Court House. We tore up the
railroad from Manassas to the Rappahannock River. The
way we tear up railroads is this: we take the cross-ties and
make a square of them as high as your head. We place the
rails on the cross-ties, then set it afire and the rails bend
October 19 - Left at 4 this morning, crossed the river on
pontoon bridges. It commenced to hail and rain very hard,
and kept it up for two hours. We got very wet. Halted at
Cedar Run, marched ten miles, and stayed here until the
October 21 - We were sent to Kelly's Ford on picket.
October 22 - Relieved to-day. It was bitter cold.
October 23 - We commenced putting up winter quarters,
and were hard at work up till the last of this month.
November 1 - Moved into our shanties to-day. There are
five of us in mine. They are ten feet square.
November 3 - Went on picket on the Rappahannock at
Norman's Ford, six miles from camp.
November 6 - Were relieved to-day.
November 7 - To-day, as several of us went to get
some straw near Kelly's Ford, we heard firing, and the
long roll beat. Looking up we saw the Yankees
crossing the river. We double-quicked to camp and got
there just in time to fall in with our regiment, to
intercept the enemy, but they had already crossed the
river before we got there. We maneuvered about until
dark, when my corps of sharpshooters was ordered
out. We were within one hundred yards of the
Yankees, and saw them around their fires very plainly.
On the morning of the 8th we retreated in very good
order. I certainly was glad of it, as we were in a very
bad fix. We marched until sun-up and halted on Stone
Mountain, passed through Stevensburg. Stayed here all
night, and resumed our march and halted on the
morning of the 9th. We then crossed the Rapidan at
the Raccoon Ford, and are now camped at our old
camp at Moulton Ford. We marched, since leaving
Kelly's Ford, forty miles. The distance is only
seventeen miles. We were certainly surprised for the
first time since the war. We did not dream the enemy
was on us before the firing commenced. Our brigade
was cut off from the army twice, but our General
Daniels got us through safe. Nothing new up to the
November 26 - When we had marched seven
miles we heard cannonading. The enemy is trying to
cross the river at Jacob's Ford, but our boys kept them
back. We laid in breastworks of our own make until
November 27 - This morning we marched seven
miles, halted a short time, and resumed our march. Got
three miles further, and firing commenced in our front.
We then counter-marched and formed in line of battle,
in the edge of the woods. One corps of sharpshooters
was sent out to find the enemy. Fought the enemy one-half
hour and were forced back. My corps then went
out as reinforcement. We fought then for four hours,
and were called back to our command. I, at one time
in this fight, was in a close place. Being in front, I did
not hear the order to fall back, and being by myself
was left a target for a dozen Yankees, but my Captain
White saw what a fix I was in and sent a squad of our
company to my relief, so I fell back with them. We
then, that night, went to Mine Run and formed our line
of battle there.
November 28 - To-day the whole army is throwing
up breastworks. The sharpshooters are out in front, my
corps out to-day. We made ourselves small pits to lay
in as a protection from the Yankee bullets. These pits
are just about large enough to hold two or three men.
Pinkney King, Sam Wilson and myself are in one. We
are shooting at the enemy all day. They are returning
the compliment. Late this evening we saw some of
them opposite our pits, trying to get into a house. We
jumped out of our pits and fired at them several times,
when poor King was shot and died in a few minutes.
Another man was sent to relieve in his place, and we
held our position. The other corps of sharpshooters
fought all day.
November 29 - Ours again to-day, but not as hard
as before, but heavy enough. The cannonading is
December 1 - The other corps is out to-day. The
Yankees, as well as ourselves, are well fortified, and
we are confronting one another.
December 2 - This morning at 3 we moved to the
right until daylight, when our corps was again sent to
the front. We advanced toward the enemy's works.
We moved, of course, very carefully, as we saw their
breastworks, and in front of us two cannon. When we
got in shooting range, the order was given to "Charge!"
We did so with a rebel yell, and as we got upon their
breastworks, lo and behold, there were no Yankees,
and the cannons we saw were nothing but logs. We
followed them to the river, but their whole army had
crossed. We, of course, captured a great many of their
sick and stragglers.
December 3 - Marched back to our camp at
Moulton's Ford, and our regiment was sent on picket at
Mitchell's Ford, seven miles from camp. This has been
a very severe seven-days' campaign, as we fought
mostly all the time. Cold, sleety, disagreeable weather,
and we dare not make large fires, as that would be a
sure target for the Yankees. Mine Run is a small
stream on the Orange and Fredericksburg turnpike.
Nothing more worth recording up to the 8th, my
birthday, and spent it as dull as could be. Have been on
picket, and relieved on Dole's Georgia Brigade. Up to
the 27th nothing doing.
December 27 - We moved our camps from our
picket posts seven miles from Orange Court House.
On the turnpike from there to Fredericksburg, and
commenced putting up winter quarters. On the 31st
moved into them, and for the first time in a year or two
we have with our rations some coffee, sugar and dried
THE YEAR 1864
January 8 - It has been snowing, and is very cold.
Some of the boys have formed a dramatic company,
and I went to see them play "Toodles." There were
two men shot in our brigade for desertion to-day.
Nothing of interest until 11th.
January 11 - Left our camp at sun-up, got five
miles and halted in the woods. We have been
detailed to run two sawmills, and we are now putting
up winter quarters there.
January 16 - Nothing more until to-day. W. R.
Berryhill has got the smallpox. Quite a number of us
were in the same quarters with him, but none of us
caught the disease. I was detailed to work at the mills,
and therefore I am learning a new trade. Live and
January 20 - Hard work until to-day, when we
were sent out to lay a plank road. While at work
General Lee and his daughter rode by us, and soon
after a courier came from his headquarters and gave
us some woolen socks and gloves - sent to us from
his daughter. Nothing more worth recording this
February 2 - While hard at work in the woods,
hauling stocks for the mill, my furlough came, for
eighteen days. So I was relieved. On the 3d I left
camp and got home on the morning of the 6th. It took
me several days to get accustomed to living as a
civilian, as I have been in camp for two years at a
stretch. I had a very good time, and will always be
grateful for the kindness shown me by every one while
February 23 - Reached camp to-day, and found
that my regiment had marched once since I left. This
was the first I missed since my regiment was formed.
Nothing more this month.
March 1 - Raining hard. Left camp at 9 this
morning, halted at dark nine miles from Madison Court
House. Snowing to-night. We had a hard road to
travel, and when we got to our destination the enemy
March 2 - Started back to camp. The weather
was clear and cold. Got there at 7 in the evening,
and I stiff from walking. We marched eighteen miles
March 3 - Left camp at 8 this morning to intercept
General Kilpatrick, who is scouting in our lines. We
formed in line of battle, had all the roads guarded,
when we found out that he was already on his way to
the peninsula, so we returned to camp. Twenty miles
March 4 - I am as stiff as an old man this morning
from yesterday's march on the plank road.
March 5 - We left the mills this morning and
returned to our brigade, a distance of five miles.
Nothing more up to the 17th.
March 17 - An order was read out at dress parade
that all troops in the army would be held until the end
of the war. This was nothing of importance to us, as
we enlisted for that time. It is raining and snowing
very hard, and almost every day. Our regiment is not
in winter quarters, for we expect to move when the
bad weather stops. We had a snowball fight - our
regiment with the 43d North Carolina. Then our
brigade with Battle's Brigade. It was lots of fun.
Nothing more until the 26th.
March 26 - We were visited to-day by our
Governor, Zeb Vance, who made us a speech of two
and a half hour's duration. With him on the platform
was General Lee, General Ewell and several others.
March 28 - We were reviewed to-day by our
Governor. When I say reviewed, I mean all the North
Carolina troops in our corps. After the review we
went to Ramseur's Brigade, where he spoke again. So
did Generals Early, Rodes and Stewart. That is all that
is worth recording this month.
April 1 - Left camp at 8 this morning to go on picket
twelve miles from our camp. Our brigade went on
picket at Raccoon Ford, and picketed up to Moulton's
Ford. Raining hard to-day, also on the 2d. The river is
ten feet above common watermark.
April 3 - As I have not heard from my parents
since the war, they living in New York, I thought I
would send a personal advertisement to a New York
paper to let them know that my brother and myself are
well, and for them to send an answer through the
Richmond paper. I gave this to a Yankee picket, who
promised me he would send it to New York.
Nothing more up to the 7th.
April 7 - This is a day of fasting and prayer, set apart
by President Davis.
April 9 - Were relieved to-day by Doles' Georgia
Brigade. Got to camp at 1 in the evening, raining very
hard all day. Nothing more up to the 14th.
April 14 - I went to A. P. Hill's corps to visit my
friend, Lieutenant Rusler, and returned to camp on the
April 15 - Nothing more up to the 18th.
April 18 - Our corps of sharpshooters went out
today target practising. We shoot a distance of 500
yards offhand. Some very good shooting was done.
April 20 - I hit the bull's-eye to-day. We are
practising every day up to the 23d.
April 23 - Went to Moulton's Ford, met Stonewall
Brigade on our way, and had some lively talk with
them, all in fun, of course. Stayed on picket until 30th,
then we were relieved at 11 in the morning, and
reached camp at 2.
May 1 - Rumors are flying that we will soon get hard
fighting. Nothing more up to the 4th.
May 4 - This morning we got orders to be ready at
a moment's notice. Broke camp at noon, marched to
our old breastworks at Mine Run, seven miles from
camp. Rested two hours, and moved forward toward
the river three miles further and halted.
May 5 - Moved this morning, feeling for the enemy,
and came up to them at noon, five miles from the Run,
in the Wilderness. It certainly is a wilderness; it is
almost impossible for a man to walk, as the woods are
thick with an underbrush growth and all kinds of
shrubbery, old logs, grapevines, and goodness knows
what. My corps of sharpshooters was ordered to the
front. We formed in line and advanced to the enemy.
We fought them very hard for three hours, they falling
back all the time. Our sharpshooters' line got mixed up
with Gordon's Brigade, and fought with them. In one
charge we got to the most elevated place in the
Wilderness. We looked back for our brigade, but saw
it not. Just then a Yankee officer came up and we
took him prisoner. Some of Gordon's men took him to
the rear. Six of our regiment, sharpshooters, myself
included, went to the right to join our regiment, but
were picked up by the Yankees and made prisoners.
We were run back in their line on the double quick.
When we got to their rear we found about 300 of our
men were already prisoners. The Yankees lost very
heavily in this fight, more than we did. Although we
lost heavy enough, but, my Heavens! what an army
they have got. It seems to me that there is ten of them
to one of us. It looks strange that we could deliver
such fearful blows when, in fact, if numbers counted,
they should have
killed us two years ago. In going to their rear we
passed through four lines of battle and reinforcements
still coming up, while we are satisfied with, or at least
have no more than one line of battle.
May 6 - Fighting commenced at daylight, and
lasted all day. So did it last with their everlasting
reinforcements. If General Lee only had half their
men, and those men were rebels, we would go to
Washington in two weeks. When he has fought such
an army for four years it certainly shows we have the
generals and the fighting-stock on our side, and they
have the hirelings. Look at our army, and you will see
them in rags and barefooted. But among the Yankees I
see nothing but an abundance of everything. Still, they
haven't whipped the rebels. Several of our boys came
in as prisoners to-day, with them Engle of our
company. They think I was killed, so does my brother,
but as yet the bullet has not done its last work for your
May 7 - We are still penned up as prisoners in
the rear of the army, close by General Grant's
headquarters. A great many prisoners came in to-day.
From some of them I heard that my brother was well.
May 8 - We left this place at dark last night, but
only got a distance of two miles, and it took us until 9
in the morning of the 9th.
May 9 - Started again this morning, and passed
over the Chancellorsville battlefield. Marched twelve
miles to-day. We passed a brigade of negro troops.
They gave us a terrible cursing, and hollered "Fort
Pillow" at us. I am only sorry that this brigade of negroes
was not there, then they certainly would not curse us
now. We halted at dark on the plank road seven miles
May 10 - Fighting to-day at Spottsylvania Court
House. Prisoners still coming in, two more from my
May 11 - This morning about 800 more prisoners
came in. Most of them were from my brigade, as well
as from Dole's Georgians. I was surprised to see my
brother with them. He was taken yesterday, but
before he surrendered he sent two of the enemy to
their long home with his bayonet.
May 12 - Raining hard all day, and fighting all last
night. About 2 o'clock this afternoon about 2,000
prisoners came in, with them Major-General Johnson
and Brigadier-General Stewart. We have moved four
miles nearer to Fredericksburg. I suppose they think
we are too close to our own lines, and they are afraid
we will be recaptured, as it was a few days ago. We
heard our boys', or, as the Yankees call it, the Rebel
yell. We prisoners also gave the Rebel yell. A few
minutes after that they brought cannon to bear on us,
and we were told to stop, or they would open on us.
May 13 - Left here this morning and passed through
Fredericksburg. Crossed the Rappahannock on
pontoon bridges, and got to Belle Plain on the Potomac
at 3 o'clock - nineteen miles to-day. It rained all day,
and it is very muddy.
May 14 - We are still camped here. Have been
prisoners since the 5th of this month, and have drawn
three and a half days' rations. On that kind of a diet I
am not getting very fat. We certainly would have
suffered a great deal, but our Yankee guard gave us
quite a lot of their own rations.
May 15 - Still here. They are fighting very hard on
May 16 - Left this morning at 11 in a tugboat, and
from here packed into the Steamer S. R. Spaulding.
We are now on our way to a regular prison. We got
there at 8 o'clock to-night, and found it to be Point
Lookout, Md., fifty miles from Belle Plain. It is in St.
Mary's County. We were drawn up in line, searched
for valuables, and they taken from us, and marched to
prison, one mile from the landing. There are sixteen
men in each tent.
May 17 - Saw Mack Sample, Will Stone and several
of our company to-day that have been prisoners since
the battle of Gettysburg. We get two meals a day.
May 18 - We are divided in divisions and companies.
There is a thousand in each division and one hundred
in each company. A sergeant commands each
company. We get light bread one day and crackers the
May 19 - Saw Darnell, of my company, to-day. He
was just from the front. He brings us very bad news.
Our General Daniels was killed, which is certainly a
great loss to us, for he was a good and brave
man, also our major of the 53d, Iredell, and my captain,
White, all killed. Colonel Owens, my colonel, was mortally
wounded, and quite a number of my company were killed
and wounded. He says there is only seven of our company
left, and that our Lieutenant-Colonel Morehead is
commanding Daniels' Brigade.
May 20 - Three years ago to-day the Old North State left
the Union, and we went to the front full of hopes to speedily
show the Yankee Government that the South had a right to
leave the Union; but to-day, how dark it looks!
May 21 - I heard to-day that my brother Morris was a
prisoner at Fort Delaware, Pa. I asked for a parole to-day to
go and see my parents in New York, but they could not see
May 22 - Nothing new from the front.
May 23 - We are guarded by negro troops, who are as
mean as hell. At each meal there is a guard placed over 500
prisoners, who go to their meals in ranks of four. We are not
allowed to cross a certain line, called the "Dead Line," but
as 500 men go at one time to meals, of course near the door
there is always a rush. To-day one of our men accidentally
crossed the line. He was pushed over by the crowd, when a
black devil shot and killed him, and wounded two others.
May 24 - One of yesterday's wounded died to-day. This
negro company was taken away to-day, as there
is no telling what even men without arms will do to such
devils, although they have got guns.
May 25 - Engle received a letter from his father today,
who told him they had seen my parents, and I would hear
from them soon. This is the first time that I have heard about
my parents since the commencement of the war. Thank God,
my parents, as well as my sisters and brothers, are well.
May 26 - Received two letters to-day, one from home
and one from my brother Pincus, who went to Washington
on his way to visit Morris and myself, as he has to get a
pass from headquarters before he can see us. He was
refused and returned home. Our daily labor as prisoners is
that at 5 in the morning we have roll call; 6, breakfast, 500 at
a time, as one lot gets through another takes its place, until
four lots have eaten; we then stroll about the prison until 1
o'clock, when we eat dinner in the same style as breakfast,
then loaf about again until sundown. Roll is called again,
thus ending the day. We get for breakfast five crackers with
worms in them; as a substitute for butter, a small piece of
pork, and a tin cup full of coffee; dinner, four of the above
crackers, a quarter of a pound mule meat and a cup of bean
soup, and every fourth day an eight-ounce loaf of white
bread. Nothing more this month.
June 8 - There is nothing new up to to-day, when I
received a box of eatables, one or two shirts, and one pair of
pants from home. The only way we can pass our time off is
playing cards and chess. Six hundred
prisoners came in to-day, with them a lady, who is an
artillery sergeant. Being questioned by the provost
marshal, she said she could straddle a horse, jump a
fence and kill a Yankee as well as any rebel. As time
in prison is very dull and always the same thing as the
day preceding, I shall not mention each day, but only
those days upon which something happened.
June 11 - Five hundred more prisoners came in to-day.
June 12 - To-day, as the negro guard was relieved,
two of them commenced playing with their guns and
bayonets, sticking at one another. Fortunately one of
their guns, by accident, went off and made a hole in
the other one's body, which killed him instantly. The
other one kicked at him several times, telling him to get
up as the rebels were laughing at him, but in a very
short time he found out that he had killed his comrade
and that we were laughing sure enough.
June 27 - Received money to-day from home, but
they gave me sutler's checks for it, as we were not
allowed any money, for fear we would bribe the
sentinels and make our escape.
July 4 - Four hundred prisoners left here for some
other prison, as there were too many here.
July 8 - Engle, Riter and myself received boxes
from New York to-day, but as Riter has gone to the
other prison with the 400 we have made away with his
July 23 - Three hundred more were sent from here
to the new prison, which is in Elmira, N. Y., myself
July 25 - Left Point Lookout at 8 o'clock this
evening in the frigate Victor for New York. There are
700 prisoners on board.
July 26 - To-day on the ocean a great many of our
boys were seasick, but not I. I was promised a guard
to take me to see my parents in New York for thirty
July 27 - We see the Jersey shore this morning.
Our vessel was racing with another. We had too much
steam up; the consequence was a fire on board, but
we soon had it out. We landed at Jersey City at 12 M.,
and were immediately put in cars, and the officer that
promised to send me to my parents refused to do so.
We left here at 1, got to Elmira at 8 in the evening.
July 28 - We were treated very good on the road,
and especially at Goshen, N. Y. The ladies gave us
eatables and the men gave us tobacco.
July 29 - There are at present some 3,000
prisoners here. I like this place better than Point
Lookout. We are fenced in by a high fence, in, I judge,
a 200-acre lot. There is an observatory outside, and
some Yankee is making money, as he charges ten
cents for every one that wishes to see the rebels.
August - Nothing worth recording this month,
except that the fare is the same as at Point Lookout.
September - It is very cold, worse than I have
seen it in the South in the dead of winter.
October - We have got the smallpox in prison, and
from six to twelve are taken out dead daily. We can
buy from prisoners rats, 25 cents each, killed and
dressed. Quite a number of our boys have gone into
the rat business. On the 11th of this month there were
800 sick prisoners sent South on parole.
November and December - Nothing, only bitter
cold. We dance every night at some of our quarters.
Some of the men put a white handkerchief around one
of their arms, and these act as the ladies. We have a
jolly good time.
THE YEAR 1865
January - Nothing, only that I fear that our cause
is lost, as we are losing heavily, and have no more
men at home to come to the army. Our resources in
everything are at an end, while the enemy are
seemingly stronger than ever. All the prisoners in
Northern prisons, it seems, will have to stay until the
end of the war, as Grant would rather feed than fight
February - The smallpox is frightful. There is not a
day that at least twenty men are taken out dead. Cold
is no name for the weather now. They have given
most of us Yankee overcoats, but have cut the skirts
off. The reason of this is that the skirts are long and if
they left them on we might pass out as Yankee
March - Nothing new. It is the same gloomy and
discouraging news from the South, and gloomy and
discouraging in prison.
April - I suppose the end is near, for there is no
more hope for the South to gain her independence. On
the 10th of this month we were told by an officer
that all those who wished to get out of prison by taking
the oath of allegiance to the United States could do so
in a very few days. There was quite a consultation
among the prisoners. On the morning of the 12th we
heard that Lee had surrendered on the 9th, and about
400, myself with them, took the cursed oath and were
given transportation to wherever we wanted to go. I
took mine to New York City to my parents, whom I
have not seen since 1858. Our cause is lost; our
comrades who have given their lives for the
independence of the South have died in vain; that is,
the cause for which they gave their lives is lost, but
they positively did not give their lives in vain. They
gave it for a most righteous cause, even if the Cause
was lost. Those that remain to see the end for which
they fought - what have we left? Our sufferings and
privations would be nothing had the end been
otherwise, for we have suffered hunger, been without
sufficient clothing, barefooted, lousy, and have suffered
more than any one can believe, except soldiers of the
Southern Confederacy. And the end of all is a
desolated home to go to. When I commenced this diary
of my life as a Confederate soldier I was full of hope
for the speedy termination of the war, and our
independence. I was not quite nineteen years old. I am
now twenty-three. The four years that I have given to
my country I do not regret, nor am I sorry for one day
that I have given - my only regret is that we have lost
that for which we fought. Nor do I for one moment
think that we lost it by any other way than
by being outnumbered at least five if not ten to one.
The world was open to the enemy, but shut out to us. I
shall now close this diary in sorrow, but to the last I
will say that, although but a private, I still say our
Cause was just, nor do I regret one thing that I have
done to cripple the North.
The following sketch is taken from Clark's
"History of the War," written by my Colonel
Morehead. This gives the endurance of my
company, regiment and brigade after I was
HISTORY OF THE FIFTY-THIRD REGIMENT FROM
MAY 5, 1864
(Taken from Col. James T. Morehead's History of
On the 5th or 6th of May, 1864, the sharpshooters of
this regiment were much annoyed by one of the
Federal sharpshooters, who had a long-range rifle and
who had climbed up a tall tree from which he could
pick off our men, though sheltered by stump and
stones, himself out of range of our guns. Private Leon,
of Company B (Mecklenburg), concluded that this
thing would have to stop, and taking advantage of
every knoll, hollow, and stump, he crawled near enough
for his rifle to reach, took a pop at this disturber of
the peace, and he came tumbling down. Upon running
up to his victim, Leon discovered him to be a Canadian
Indian, and clutching his scalp-lock, dragged him to our
line of sharpshooters.
The regiment was at Lynchburg when the pursuit
of Hunter began. Marching with General Early to
Washington, D. C., was one of the regiments left to
support the picket line under the walls of Washington,
while the rest of the corps made good its retreat to
the valley - the Nineteenth and Sixth Corps of the
Federal army having been poured into the city for its
defense. While supporting the pickets, this regiment
became involved in one of the hottest conflicts in its
experience, but succeeded in holding its position,
repulsing and driving the enemy back to the
earthworks which defended the city. At midnight it
received orders to retire in perfect silence, and to the
surprise of all, when we reached the position on the
hills near the city, where we had left the corps, it was
ascertained that the corps had left the night before,
twenty-four hours - and we marched the whole night
and the greater part of the next day before we caught
up with the rear guards. Early's ruse, as usual, had
succeeded in deceiving the enemy.
This regiment participated in all the battles in the
Valley in 1864, and in numerous combats and
skirmishes. In this Valley campaign the regiment lost
its gallant Colonel Owens, who died at Snicker's Ford,
near Snicker's Gap, in August, 1864. He had been
absent since the 10th of May, disabled by wounds at
Spottsylvania Court House; had returned just as the
regiment was eating dinner, and almost while we were
congratulating him on his safe return we received
notice that the enemy had crossed the river at
Snicker's Ford. The order to "fall in" was given, we
marched to the river, and drove the enemy across,
after a short but severe conflict. The firing had
ceased, excepting now and then a dropping shot,
Owens was killed by one of these stray shots. He
was a good officer, brave, humane, social, popular
with both men and officers. He was succeeded by
the writer as Colonel. At Winchester, on 19th
September, 1864, Adjutant Osborne was killed. Two
years ago, Color Sergeant Taylor, of Company E, Surry
County, who had resided in Utah since 1866, visited
me. He received a ball in his hip, from which wound he
still limps, and in talking about his own wound, he told
me as we were charging the third Federal line at
Winchester, having broken the first two, and when near
the temporary breastwork of the enemy he received
the shot which disabled him for life, and that, as he fell,
young Osborne picked up the flag, and waving it, ran
forward, cheering on the men, and was killed within
twenty feet of the color sergeant. He was an efficient
officer and daring soldier, I suppose not older than
twenty years. Lieut. W. R. Murray, of Company A,
than whom there was not a better officer or braver
soldier in the "Old Guard" of Napoleon, acted as
adjutant after the death of Osborne till the surrender of
As stated before, Major Iredell, a true gentleman
and brave soldier, was killed at Spottsylvania Court
House. Capt. John W. Rierson succeeded him. At
Winchester, finding that there was a gap of two or
three hundred yards between my left and the troops on
the left, and that the enemy had discovered and were
preparing to take advantage of it, I directed Major
Rierson to find General Grimes on the right of
the division (General Rodes had been killed in the
beginning of the action), and apprise him of the
situation. After some time he returned, saluted, and
reported, the fighting being very heavy all the time,
when I discovered that Major Rierson was shot
through the neck, which wound was received before
he found General Grimes, but he nevertheless
performed the duty, returned, and reported, and did not
then go to the rear until I directed him to do so. This
gallant officer was killed when the enemy broke over
our lines at Petersburg, a few days before
Appomattox. He was entitled to his commission as
lieutenant-colonel from the date of the battle of
Snicker's Ford, but I do not know that he received it.
This was a volunteer regiment, enlisted in the latter
part of the winter and first part of the spring of 1862,
and was organized at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh,
the first week in May, 1862, and assigned to Daniels'
Brigade (Rodes' Division). William A. Owens, of
Mecklenburg County, was elected colonel; James T.
Morehead, of Guilford County, lieutenant- colonel, and
James Johnson Iredell, of Wake County, major.
Colonel Owens had already been in service more
than one year, having served as captain in the First
(Bethel) Regiment, and at the time of his election was
lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh Regiment.
Lieutenant-Colonel Morehead had also been in the
service the year before, having entered the same in
April, 1861, as lieutenant of the "Guilford Grays"
(afterward Company B of the Twenty-seventh Regiment),
and at the time of his election was a captain in the
William B. Osborne, of Mecklenburg County, was
appointed captain and assistant quartermaster. He resigned
in the fall of 1862, and was succeeded by Capt. John B.
Burwell. J. F. Long was appointed surgeon; Lauriston H.
Hill, of Stokes County, assistant surgeon, and promoted
surgeon in 1863. William Hill, of Mecklenburg, was appointed
Captain A. C. S. In 1863, Charles Gresham, of Virginia, was
assigned to duty with this regiment as assistant surgeon.
James H. Colton, of Randolph County, was appointed
chaplain; J. H. Owens, sergeant-major (promoted second
lieutenant of Company I and killed); R. B. Burwell,
quartermaster-sergeant; J. C. Palmer, commissary
sergeant; R. S. Barnett, ordinance sergeant. Upon the
promotion of J. H. Owens, Aaron Katz, of Company B,
succeeded him as sergeant-major, and upon his being
captured, Robert A. Fleming, of Company A, was
Company A was from Guilford County. A. P. McDaniel
was its first captain, commissioned February 25, 1862, and
upon his retirement in 1863, Lieut. J. M. Sutton was
promoted captain and wounted at Bethesda Church,
September 21, 1864, in the Valley, and captured at Petersburg;
P. W. Haterick (killed at Gettysburg), first lieutenant; J. M.
Sutton, second lieutenant; W. L. Flemming, promoted from
sergeant to second lieutenant in 1863; J. W. Scott,
promoted second lieutenant from sergeant (chief of
regimental corps of sharpshooters ).
Company B was from Mecklenburg County, and its first
captain was J. Harvey White, commissioned March 1, 1862,
killed at Spottsylvania Court House in May, 1864. Samuel E.
Belk, first lieutenant; John M. Springs, second lieutenant,
promoted assistant quartermaster; William M. Matthews,
second lieutenant, promoted from first sergeant; M. E.
Alexander, promoted second lieutenant from second
sergeant. Lieutenants Belk, Matthews and Alexander were
wounded at Gettysburg.
Company C was from Johnston, Chatham, and Wake,
mostly from Johnston. Its first captain was John Leach,
commissioned February 28, 1862; was succeeded as captain
by J. C. Richardson (wounded at Petersburg), commissioned
April 27, 1863, both from Johnston County; George T. Leach,
of Chatham, commissioned first lieutenant March 7, 1862;
John H. Tomlinson, of Johnston County, commissioned
second lieutenant July 21, 1862.
Company D was from Guilford, Cumberland, Forsyth,
Stokes, Bladen, and Surry. David Scott, Jr., of Guilford
County, was commissioned captain March 1, 1862, resigned,
and was succeeded May 15, 1863, by Alexander Ray, of
Cumberland County, promoted from first lieutenant and
killed at Petersburg, April, 1865. Alexander Ray was
commissioned first lieutenant March 1, 1862; Madison L.
Efland, of Guilford County, commissioned second lieutenant
1, 1862, promoted first lieutenant May 15, 1863, and
wounded; A. H. Westmoreland, Stokes County, was
promoted from the ranks to second lieutenant in 1863.
Company E was from Surry County. J. C. Norman was
commissioned captain on March 8, 1862, resigned the
following December, and was succeeded by First Lieut.
Rogert A. Hill, killed in 1864, succeeded in turn as
captain by First Lieut. B. W. Minter; Samuel Walker was
commissioned second lieutenant March 8, 1862,
promoted to first lieutenant December, 1862, and
resigned; B. W. Minter, second lieutenant, promoted first
lieutenant and captain; Henry Hines, second lieutenant, in
1862; Logan Bemer, promoted from corporal to second
lieutenant, wounded and captured, in 1864; James A. Hill,
second lieutenant, captured in 1864.
Company F was from Alamance and Chatham. G. M. G.
Albright was commissioned captain May 5, 1862, killed
July, 1863, at Gettysburg, and succeeded by A. G.
Albright, promoted from first lieutenant (wounded at
Fisher's Hill, 1864); Jesse M. Holt, first lieutenant, July
16, 1863, promoted from second lieutenant (killed at
Winchester, 1864); Branson Lambe, commissioned in
1864, promoted from second lieutenant; John J. Webster,
commissioned second lieutenant May, 1862, and resigned;
S. J. Albright, commissioned second lieutenant in 1862,
and killed at Spottsylvania Court House in 1864.
Company G was from Stokes County. Capt. Spottswood
B. Taylor was commissioned captain on
March 20, 1862, and resigned May, 1862; was
succeeded by John W. Rierson, promoted from second
lieutenant, and who was, in 1863, promoted to major,
wounded at Winchester, and killed at Petersburg, April,
1865. He was in time succeeded as captain by H. H.
Campbell, promoted from first lieutenant, and killed at
Winchester. G. B. Moore was commissioned first lieutenant
in March, 1862, and resigned in June; John W. Rierson
commissioned second lieutenant March, 1862; W. H.
McKinney was promoted from the ranks in May, 1862, to
second lieutenant, and wounded at Winchester; C. F. Hall,
promoted from the ranks to second lieutenant, mortally
wounded at Gettysburg; W. F. Campbell, promoted first
lieutenant, and wounded at Washington, D. C.
Company H was from Stokes County. Capt. Spottswood
B. Taylor was commissioned on March 20, 1862, and
resigned on account of ill-health, November, 1863, and
was succeeded by John E. Miller, promoted from second
lieutenant, who was wounded at Snicker's Ford and
captured, 1864; Thomas S. Burnett, commissioned first
lieutenant March 20, 1862, and killed in 1863; Charles
A. McGehee, first lieutenant, 1862, wounded at
Gettysburg, July, 1863, and captured; Alexander M. King,
second lieutenant, March, 1862; J. Henry Owens,
promoted second lieutenant from sergeant-major, December,
1862, and killed; Alexander Boyles, promoted first
Company I was from Union County. E. A. Jerome was
commissioned captain March 20, 1862, and resigned
in June following, and was succeeded by Thomas E.
Ashcraft, promoted from first lieutenant; John D.
Cuthbertson, commissioned second lieutenant March 20,
1862, promoted first lieutenant; Joshua Lee, commissioned
second lieutenant March 20, 1862; James E. Green, promoted
from the ranks, second lieutenant, June 24, 1862; A. T. Marsh,
promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant May 19, 1864.
Company K was from Wilkes County. William J. Miller
was commissioned captain March 20, 1862, killed at
Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, and was succeeded by Jesse F. Eller,
promoted from second lieutenant; Thomas C. Miller,
promoted from second lieutenant to first lieutenant, July 1,
1863; Thomas C. Miller, commissioned to second lieutenant
in August, 1862.
This regiment lost in killed its first colonel, who was twice
wounded; both of its majors, one of them, Rierson, several
times wounded, and its adjutant. Its surviving colonel was
wounded three times - at Gettysburg, Fisher's Hill, and in
the assault upon the Federal lines at Hare's Hill on March 25,
1865, in which last engagement he was captured within the
As it is, I have only the approximately correct report of
the losses of one of the companies of the regiment, and that
only in one battle, but I think the losses of the other
companies may be fairly estimated from the losses of this
Company B lost at Gettysburg, out of sixty-five
men, eight killed and twenty-two wounded, and of the four
officers, three were wounded.
I meet many of these scarred and now grizzly veterans of
the companies from Alamance, Guilford, Stokes, and Surry
at my courts in these counties, and hear, sometimes from
those from the other counties, and with very few exceptions,
they have shown themselves to be as good citizens as they
were gallant soldiers. They illustrate that "peace hath her
victories no less renowned than war."
The regiment, reduced to a handful of men, shared the
fortunes of the historic retreat, and surrendered at
Appomattox, being then commanded by Capt. Thomas E.
Ashcraft, the brigade being commanded by Col. David G.
Cowand. General Grimes having been made a major-general,
commanded the division.
I cannot close this sketch without acknowledging my
indebtedness to Captain Sutton and Private J. Montgomery,
of Company A; L. Leon, of Company B, who kindly
furnished me with copy of a diary kept by him from the
organization of the regiment up to May, 1864, when he was
captured; Captain Albright, of Company F; Capt. S. B.
Taylor, of Company H, and Lieut. W. F. Campbell, of
Company G, for valuable information; and the hope that the
publication of the sketches of the North Carolina regiments
will excite interest enough among the old soldiers to give us
further dates and incidents. I wish I could write a history of
my regiment which would do the officers and men full credit
for their patriotism and services.
The patriotism and heroism of these soldiers were
illustrated by the patient and uncomplaining endurance
of the forced march, the short rations, the hardships of
winter camps and campaigns as much as by their
fighting qualities. Posterity will hesitate to decide
which is most worthy of admiration.
JAMES T. MOREHEAD.
Greensboro, N. C.,
April 9, 1901.
FIRST NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENT
ROSTER OF COMPANIES
- Co. A. Edgecombe Guards. Capt. John L. Bridgers.
- Co. B. Hornet's Nest Riflemen. Capt. L. S. Williams.
- Co. C. Charlotte Grays. Capt. E. A. Ross.
- Co. D. Orange Light Infantry. Capt. R. J. Ashe.
- Co. E. Buncombe Riflemen. Capt. W. W. McDowell.
- Co. F. Lafayette Light Infantry. Capt. J. B. Starr.
- Co. G. Burke Rifles. Capt. C. N. Avery.
- Co. H. Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry. Capt. W.Huske.
- Co. I. Enfield Blues. Capt. D. B. Bell.
- Co. K. Southern Stars. Capt. W. J. Hoke.
ROLL OF CHARLOTTE GRAYS. COMPANY C,
FIRST N. C. BETHEL REGIMENT
ENLISTED APRIL, 1861.
- E. A. Ross, Capt.,
P. Maj. of 11th N. C.
- E. B. Cohen, 1st lieut.
- T. B. Trotter, 2nd lieut.
- C. W. Alexander, 2nd lieut.
- C. R. Staley, orderly sergeant.
- J. P. Elms, 2nd sergeant, P. lieut., 37th N. C.
- J. G. McCorkle, 3rd lieut.
- W. G. Berryhill, 4th lieut.
- D. L. Bringle, 5th or Ensign.
- W. D. Elms, 1st corporal, P. Capt., 37th N. C.
- W. B. Taylor, 2nd corporal, P. 2nd liet., Co. A, 11th N. C.
- Henry Terris, 3rd corporal.
- George Wolfe, 4th corporal.
- Dr. J. B. Boyd, surgeon.
- M. R. Alexander.
- T. A. Alexander.
- Lindsey Adams.
- J. P. Andrey, P. Capt., 49th N. C.
- W. E. Andrey, P. Capt., 30th N. C.
- A. H. Brown.
- Wm. Brown.
- Wm. J. Brown.
- Ed. F. Britton.
- L. Behrends.
- Wm. Calder.
- J. W. Cathey.
- S. P. Caldwell.
- J. F. Crawson.
- T. B. Cowan.
- T. J. Campbell.
- J. W. Clendennen.
- J. F. Collins.
- T. G. Davis.
- J. T. Downs, P. Lieut., 30th N. C.
- L. W. Downs.
- J. P. A. Davidson.
- J. R. Dunn.
- J. Engel.
- J. M. Earnheanut.
- M. F. Ezzell.
- J. A. Ezzell.
- S. H. Elliott.
- J. A. Elliott.
- R. H. Flow.
- James Flore.
- I. S. A. Frazier.
- R. H. Grier, P. Lieut., 49th N. C.
- J. C. Grier, P. Capt., 49th N. C.
- J. M. Grier.
- J. A. Gibson.
- D. P. Glenn.
- J R. Gribble.
- N. Gray.
- R. L. Gillespie.
- D. W. Hall.
- J. C. Hill.
- W. J. Hill.
- H. H. Hill.
- W. Lee Harrel, P. Capt., A 11th N. C.
- Robt. H. Hand, P. Lieut., A 11th N. C.
- R. H. Howard.
- Thomas Howard.
- Jas. M. Hutchison.
- Cynes N. Hutchison.
- Tom F. Hoton.
- Tom H. Harkey.
- S. Hymans.
- Harper C. Houston.
- T. Lindsey Holms.
- Jas. T. Haskell.
- W. T. Hanser.
- George T. Herron.
- Geo. W. Howey.
- Jacob Harkey.
- L. P. Henderson.
- Jack R. Isreal.
- Wm. S. Icehower.
- E. P. Ingold.
- Robt. W. Johnston.
- Jacob Katz.
- Wm. H. Kistler.
- Jack A. Kinsey.
- J. H. Knox.
- Robt. Keenan.
- Louis Leon.
- J. C. Levi.
- Jacob Leopold.
- Henry Moyle.
- Tom F. McGinn.
- John McKinley.
- Wm. McKeever.
- D. Watt McDonald.
- John H. McDonald.
- Robt. J. Monteith.
- Moses O. Monteith.
- Sam'l J. McElroy.
- Jack Norment.
- Isaac Norment.
- Wm. B. Neal.
- L. M. Neal.
- S. R. Neal.
- P. A. Neal.
- Thos. W. Neely.
- S. Oppenheim.
- J. T. Orr.
- John L. Osborne.
- J. E. Orman.
- Mack Pettus.
- S. A. Phillips.
- W. R. Carter.
- R. A. Carter.
- John G. Cotts, P. Lieut., 49th Rgt.
- Wm. M. Patts.
- Lawson A. Cotts, P. Capt., 37th N. C.
- Calvin M. Queny.
- Theo. C. Ruddock.
- J. R. Rea.
- D. B. Rea.
- Wm. D. Stone.
- W. Steele.
- Jim W. Stowe.
- Wm. E. Sizer.
- J. Monroe Sims, Q. M. Sergt., 11th N. C.
- Richard A. Springs.
- C. Ed. Smith.
- S. B. Smith.
- M. H. Smith.
- W. J. B. Smith.
- W. H. Saville.
- John W. Sample.
- David I. Sample.
- James M. Saville.
- Robt. Frank Simpson.
- S. E. Todd.
- Wm. Todd.
- John W. Treloan.
- Hugh A. Tate.
- Charles B. Watt.
- B. Frank Watt.
- C. C. Wingate.
- T. D. Wolfe.
- T. J. Wolfe.
- John Wiley.
BY W. B. TAYLOR.
Total, 143 officers and men.
FIFTY-THIRD NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENT
ROSTER OF COMPANIES
- Co. A. Guilford. Capt. A. P. McDaniel.
- Co. B. Mecklenberg. Capt. J. H. White.
- Co. C. Johnson; Chatham; Wake. Capt. John Leach.
- Co. D. Guilford; Cumberland; Forsythe; Stokes; Bladen;
Surry. Capt. David Scott.
- Co. E. Surry. Capt. J. C. Norman.
- Co. F. Alamance; Chatham. Capt. G. M. G. Albright.
- Co. G. Stokes. Capt. G. W. Clark.
- Co. H. Stokes. Capt. S. B. Taylor.
- Co. I. Union. Capt. Thomas E. Ashcraft.
- Co. K. Wilkes. Capt. W. J. Miller.
COMPANY B, 53RD REGIMENT, N. C. T., C. S. A.
- J. H. White, captain, k.
- S. E. Belk, captain, k.
- J. M. Springs, lieut.
- W. M. Matthews, lieut.
- M. E. Alexander, lieut.
- R. J. Patterson, w.
- S. M. Blair.
- R. A. Davis.
- A. N. Gray.
- W. R. Baily.
- R. H. Todd, k.
- Alexander, W. H., k.
- Alexander, J. W., d.
- Alexander, Benj. P., d.
- Alexander, Benj. C.
- Anderson, Wm., d.
- Atchison, Wm., c. and w.
- Armstrong, Leroy, c.
- Barnett, W. A., k.
- Barnett, R. S.
- Barnett E. L. S.
- Berryhill, W. A., c.
- Berryhill, Andrew, w.
- Berryhill, Alex.
- Barnes, S. S., d.
- Bruce, G. W.
- Burwell, J. B.
- Benton, Sam'l, w.
- Cochran, J. M.
- Cochran, Wm. R.
- Cochran, R. C.
- Catchcoat, J. H., w.
- Capps, John, d.
- Caton, Elijah, w. and c.
- Caton, Sylv., c. and d.
- Clark, W. H.
- Clark, W. C.
- Clark, A. W.
- Collins, John, k.
- Campbell, J. P.
- Davis, W. A., d.
- Demon, Jacob.
- Donnell, W. T., w. and c.
- Engenburn, John, w.
- Eagle, W. H.
- Epps, W. D., k.
- Engel, Jonas.
- Frazier, J. L.
- Fincher, Asa.
- Farrices, Z. W.
- Frazier, J. C. R.
- Grier, J. G., w.
- Giles, M. O.
- Giles, S. H.
- Howie, J. M.
- Howie, Sam'l M., w.
- Howie, F. M., w.
- Hall, H. L., w.
- Hood, R. L., c.
- Harry, W. B., w.
- Hoover, F. M.
- Katz, Aaron.
- King, P. A., k.
- Kirkpatrick, T. A.
- Knox, J. S.
- Leon, Louis.
- Love, D.L.
- Marks, S. S., c.
- Marks, J. G., w.
- Marks, T. E., k.
- Marks, W. S.
- McGinn, Thos.
- McElroy, Jas. W., k.
- Mitchell, C. J.
- McKinney, Wm.
- McKinney, T. A., c.
- Merritt, Wm. N., k.
- McCrary, Jordan.
- Morrison, J. M.
- McCombs, A. H., w. and c.
- Maxwell, P. P., w.
- McCrum, H. A., k.
- Norment, A. A., k.
- Otters, Cooney, c. and d.
- Owens, J. Henry, k.
- Oates, Jas.
- Potts, Jas. H.
- Patterson, S. L.
- Parks, Miah, c.
- Reid, H. K.
- Reid, J. F., k.
- Robinson, Thomp.
- Russell, H. T., c.
- Rodden, N. B., w.
- Rodden, W. R., k.
- Robinson, J. P.
- Smith, Lemuel.
- Sweat, J. M.
- Sample, H. B., c.
- Sample, David.
- Sample, J. W.
- Sample, J. M., c.
- Springs, R. A.
- Stone, W. D., w. and c.
- Sulivan, W. L.
- Stewart, W. S., d.
- Taylor, J. W., w.
- Todd, S. E.
- Thomas, Henry.
- Trotter, A. G.
- Trotter, Thos., d.
- Vickers, E. N.
- Worthern, Henry, d.
- Wilkenson, Neil, k.
- Wolfe, C. H.
- Winders, P. S., c.
- Wilson, L. R., c.
- Wilson, J. H., k.
- Wilson, S. W., w. and c.
- Wilson, J. M.
- Wilkinson, R. L.
- Williams, Hugh.
- Williams, J. W.
- Williams, A. L.
- Williamson, A. L., c.
- Williamson, J. M., c.
- White, J. T.
Total, 110; killed, 16;
wounded 21; died, 12; captured, 20.