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The Scholar's Spelling Assistant; Wherein the Words Are Arranged on an Improved Plan, According to Their Respective Principles of Accentuation. In a Manner Calculated to Familiarize the Art of Spelling and Pronunciation, to Remove Difficulties, and to Facilitate General Improvement Intended for the Use of Schools and Private Tuition:
Electronic Edition.

Carpenter, Thomas, Master of the Academy, Barking, Essex.

Funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services supported the electronic publication of this title.

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First edition, 2001
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University Library, UNC-Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

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(title page) The Scholar's Spelling Assistant; Wherein the Words Are Arranged on an Improved Plan, According to Their Respective Principles of Accentuation. In a Manner Calculated to Familiarize the Art of Spelling and Pronunciation, to Remove Difficulties, and to Facilitate General Improvement Intended for the Use of Schools and Private Tuition
Thomas Carpenter Master of the Academy, Ilford Esssex
Thirtieth Edition, corrected, and the Appendix enlarged and improved.
154 p.
Charleston, S. C.
Published by McCarter & Dawson,

Call number 4037 Conf. (Rare Book Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-Chapel Hill digitization project, Documenting the American South.
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        Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. Encountered typographical errors have been preserved, and appear in red type.
        All footnotes are inserted at the point of reference within paragraphs.
        Any hyphens occurring in line breaks have been removed, and the trailing part of a word has been joined to the preceding line.
        All quotation marks, em dashes and ampersand have been transcribed as entity references.
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        All single right and left quotation marks are encoded as ' and ' respectively.
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[Title Page Image]




Thirtieth Edition, corrected, and the Appendix enlarged and improved.

Charleston, S. C.

Page iii

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1835,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of
South Carolina.


        THE first and second American Editions of "The Scholar's Spelling Assistant" having been more generally adopted by Seminaries of Learning, than was originally anticipated, has induced the publisher to offer a Seventh Edition, Revised.

        In the Appendix to this, English derivation is extensively considered. The prepositive and terminational particles are critically explained and illustrated. It is hoped, that the view of the Greek and Latin prepositions may prove useful to all classes of learners in determining, in many cases, independent of usage, the English prepositions which ought to follow particular words.

        As an inducement to the study of derivation, it may in general be said that many words are derivatives of but a single root, and may therefore be defined by joining the meaning of the root with those of the modifying particles. Ignorance of derivation and its converse operation is undoubtedly a principal reason that children never have a stock of words commensurate with their combination of ideas. Hence they can hardly commence this study too early. They should in deed be put to it as soon as they can read and have learned to distinguish nouns adjectives, verbs, and participles; and be exercised in reducing words to their primitives; in defining them by joining the meanings of the modifying particles first to the primitives, and then to the meanings of the primitives; and finally, in the converse operation, that of determining the words from their definitions. It is by this last exercise chiefly that they can increase their stock of words, and be prepared for the important study of the synonymes and general usage of words.

        The body of the work is still printed page for page with the former Editions, and the corrections made so as not to prevent the different impressions being used in the same class.

Page v


        THE design of the following work is to furnish young persons with an easy guide to Spelling, and to combine utility with cheapness. In treating the subject, the Author has not only been attentive to the usual classification of words according to alphabetical order and their number of syllables; but he has likewise taken care to arrange the words in separate divisions, according to their respective modes of accentuation, which he considers as an additional, and very material improvement; as the uncertainty of placing the accent, which appears to be the most general difficulty to the young scholar in pronouncing his language, is successfully obviated by this method of arrangement.

        As an additional help to ascertain the proper pronunciation of particular words, the equivocal sounds of the letters c, s, and g, are carefully distinguished in an easy and compendious method. Thus the learner will observe that the letter ç with this mark annexed to it, always bears a soft sound like the letter s, as in cell (sell;) and if marked thus [Tc] it is sounded like ts, as in [Tc]haff (tshaff:) [zs] denotes the sound of z as in wi[zs]e (wize:) [jg] represents the sound of j, as in [jg]em (jem;) and G with the cedille affixed, has a similar sound. When such marks are not affixed to these letters, they must be understood to retain their natural and more general sound, as in the words call, house, get. It must be observed likewise that in words where h is printed in the Italic character, it is not aspirated; and wherever any other letter occurs in that character, its sound is dropped. A circumflex over a vowel denotes a long sound, as in bôlt. Where difficulties or irregularities arise, which cannot be thus easily obviated, the scholar is referred to the bottom of the page for a correct pronunciation. The plan itself is doubtless extremely simple. But when the circumstances of those for whom it is professedly designed are considered, this simplicity itself will probably be esteemed a recommendation.

        The Author regards the rapid circulation of the preceding editions of this little work as bearing testimony of an extensive approbation

Page vi

among the educators of youth; and he flatters himself that this approbation is founded on a general experience of the utility for the purposes which it professes to serve.

        The authorities here principally followed, with regard to orthography, accentuation, and the occasional documents of pronunciation, are the dictionaries of Johnson, Walker, Sheridan, and Bailey. As to the explanatory matter, that of Bailey, with some exceptions, has been selected. But where a concise or satisfactory exposition of a word could not be obtained, the Author has introduced one of his own.

        To the spelling lessons he has added a few particulars necessary for the learner to be acquainted with; such as a table of Grammatical Terms, with their Marks and Explanations; another Table of the Contractions of Abbreviations commonly used in print or in writing.

        He has likewise subjoined a catalogue of words apparently synonymous; but which are distinguished on a closer view, sometimes by minute, and sometimes by very striking shades of difference. It is not pretended that the distinct significations of these apparent synonymes are ascertained in every instance with etymological propriety or critical exactness. They are frequently exhibited merely according to their popular acceptation, and in a manner which, it is hoped, is accommodated to the ideas and capacities of those persons for whose use the book is particularly intended.

        And to render it more unexceptionable to youth of both sexes, the greatest care has been taken to omit words of an impure and immoral tendency; as the minds of youth cannot be too circumspectly guarded against the admission of improper ideas.

        On the whole, therefore, it has been his ardent endeavour or render the Scholar's Spelling Assistant as extensively useful as the prescribed limits of the undertaking would permit; and no less acceptable to teachers, than to those for whom it is peculiarly appropriated[.]

Page 7


        a. for Adjective; s. for Substantive; v. for Verb; part. for participle pro. for Pronoun; ad. for Adverb; prep. for Preposition; conj. for Conjunction; intj. for Interjection; pr. for Pronounced.


Parts of Speech.

Words of similar Sound, but different in Spelling and Sense

Parts of Speech,


Parts of Speech.

Page 51


Parts of Speech.


Parts of Speech.


Parts of Speech.


Parts of Speech.


Parts of Speech.

Page 116

Words spelt alike, but which, in different Parts of Speech, change their pronunciations; being accented on the first Syllable when Nouns, and the last when Verbs.

NOUNS. Accented on the first. VERBS. Accented on the last.
A'bsent, not present To Abse'nt, to keep away
An Abstract, an abridgment To Abstract, to shorten
A Collect, a short prayer To Collect, to gather together
A Compound, a mixture To Compound, to mingle
A Contest, a quarrel To Contest, to dispute
A Contract, a deed To Contract, to bargain
Converse, conversation To Converse, to discourse
A Convert, a reformed person To Convert, to change
A Convict, a criminal To Convict, to prove guilty
A Convoy, a guard To Convoy, to protect
A Desert, a wilderness To Desert, to forsake
An Extract, a quotation To Extract, to select
A Ferment, a tumult To Ferment, to work like beer
Frequent, occurring often To Frequent, to resort to
Import, meaning To Import, to bring from abroad
An Insult, an affront To Insult, to ill use
An Object, any thing presented to our senses To Object, to oppose
A Present, a gift To Present, to give
Produce, the thing produced To Produce, to bring forth
A Project, a scheme or design To Project, to contrive
A Rebel, a traitor To Rebel, to revolt
A Record, a public register To Record, to enrol
Refuse, waste To Refuse, to deny
A Subject, he who owes obedience To Subject, to subdue
A Torment, a great pain To Torment, to torture

Grammatical Terms, with their respective Marks or Notes and Explanation.

Used in Writing. Used in Priting.
Apostrophe . . . . . ' Single Accent . . . . . '
Brace . . . . . } Double Accent . . . . . "
Asterisk . . . . . *

Page 117

[Used in Writing.] [Used in Priting.]
Caret . . . . . ^ Index . . . . . [Illustration]
Ellipsis . . . . . ---- Obelisk . . . . . †
Hyphen . . . . . – Paragraph . . . . . ¶
Parenthesis . . . . . ( ) Parallel . . . . . | |
Quotation . . . . . " " Section . . . . . §
Crotchet . . . . . [ ]  

        A Comma , a Semicolon ; a Colon : a Period or Full Stop . a Note of Interrogation ? a Note of Admiration !

        An Apostrophe is used to shorten a word: as I'll, for I will.

        A Brace is used to couple Lines together, whether in poetry or prose; as,
Religion only can our wants restrain,}
The mind support beneath corporeal pain,
Make life more sweet, and death eternal gain.
To a year's Rent from Christmas, 1809,}
to Christmas, 1810.

        A Caret is placed where a word is left out in writing; as, Live in ^mutual love.

        An Ellipsis supplies the place of a letter or letters in a word, when the writer does not choose to write the word at length; as J--s T--ms--n, James Thomson.

        Asterisks, *** are sometimes used for the same purpose.

        The Hyphen is used to part syllables; as, Ab-ba.

        A Parenthesis serves to include a sentence in the body of another; as, This act of cruelty (for such it certainly was) is almost the only stain in the character of, &c.

        A Quotation "signifies that the words so marked are transcribed from the writings of another in his own words. The end of a Quotation is marked thus," and shows that the passage quoted is finished.

        Single accent denotes the stress to be laid upon a particular syllable in a word.

        Double Accent serves to mark a short sound in a syllable.

        Crotchets enclose short sentences or references, that have no connexion with the subject treated of.

An Asterisk, Are all used as references to the bottom of the page or margin of a book. Figures, also, as 1, 2, 3, &c. are used in like manner, and have, in general, the same signification.
An Index,
An Obelisk, and
A Parallel

        N. B. A Paragraph ¶ and Section * are not always used like the other marks, as references to the margin or bottom of a page. They are chiefly used to mark the divisions and separate heads of a discourse. The former character is to be met with in many parts of the Old and New Testament; and in Locke's Essay this mark [see image above] is prefixed to the Sections of the discourse.

Page 118

        Contractions used in Writing and Print; (but it is to be remembered that except in Addresses and Accompts, such Contractions in the body of a letter are improper.)

Page 120


        Viz. Such as agree in the general sense, but differ in the applica

Page 131


LIST of FRENCH and other FOREIGN WORDS and PHRASES in common
Use, with their Pronunciation and Explanation.

among English Authors.

        N. B. The pronunciation is the same as if the words were English; but divided into distinct syllables, and accented as below.--In all these words, a ending a syllable, has the sound of a as in father--t before i and another vowel, and after the accent, is, as in English, pronounced like c soft, or like sh.--æ and oe are pronounce like e long.


        As a great number of Latin, Greek, and French verbs, verbalized nouns, or adjectives, are adopted into our language, composed of verbs, verbalized nouns, or adjectives, and prepositions, retaining in English the compound senses, or those analogous to them, which they have in those languages; and as many of the prepositions are often combined with words purely English, it was thought important to prepare for the use of English scholars the following lists of Greek, Latin, and French prepositions with their meanings in composition. A simple root, in many instances, (so numerous indeed as to make at least a fifth part of our language,) is found combined with most of the prepositions: so, that with a knowledge of the various meanings of the prepositions and terminations, a scholar may learn the orthography and precise meanings of the fifth part of his language, by simply learning those of the roots, which it is probable do not constitute one-twentith part even of these. A collection of roots, with their meanings, follows the exercises on the Tables of Terminations: And directions for using them may be found in the Exercises,--Quest. 22, &c.

        The following general observations on the nature of compound verbs seem to be worthy of notice:--

Latin Prepositions.

        a, ab, abs.--1. from, away, off; 2. imperfection; 3. intension; 4. difference; 5. taking from the substance of; 6. privation, or contrariety; as, 1. avert, turn from or away, ab-solve, loose from, ab-scission, cutting off; 2. ab-ortion, imperfect birth; 3. ab-negation, positive denying; 4. ab-sonant, sounding harshly; 5 abuse, wear away by using, treat ill; 6. ab-lactate, take from milk, wean.

        Note.--a is used before m, v; ab before d, h, j, [unclear] , n, r, s; abs before c, t. These prepositions denote the point where motion begins, and are opposed to ad which denotes where it must end.

        ad, (ac, af, ag, al, am, an, ap, ar, as, at.)--1. to; 2. towards; 3. together; 4. agreeably to; 5. hostilely to; 6. against; 7. next to, or by; 8. at; 9 at the end, or after; 10. upwards; 11. intension: as, 1. ad-ject, cast to; 2. ad-vesperate, draw towards evening; 3. at-trition, rubbing together; 4. as-sent, assonant, think, sounding, agreeably to; 5. af-front, displease to the face intentionally; 6. af-flict, dash against; 7. ad-jacent, lying next to; 8. ad-mire, wonder at; 9. af-fix, put after; 10. ac-clivity, slope upwards; 11. ad-ult, quite grown

        Note.--d in ad, becomes c, f, g, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, before these letters, and is omitted before sp. st.

        am.--Round: as, am-b-ient, extending round; am-b-ition, (going round;) electioneering, desire of office, or power.

        ante.--Before: as, ante-cedent, going before; ante-past, fore-taste; ante diluvian, before the flood; anti-cipate, take before.

        Note.--Ante sometimes becomes an as, ancestors for antecessors. It is opposed to post.--See pre.)

Page 139

        circum.--1. round, or about; 2. expletive: as, 1. circum volve, roll round; 2. cir cum-ambient, surrounding.

        Note.--Circum is a separable, and am an inseparable preposition. Remark--As inter requires more than one governed object, so circum implies more than one correlative object.

        con, co, (col, com, cor.)--1. with, together; 2. within or back; 3. for contra, against; 4. exchange; 5. round, (ends together:) as, 1. co-equal, equal with; co-exist, exist with; 2. co-erce, keep within or back, curb; 3. con tend, stretch or struggle with; 4. commute, change one (punishment) for another; 5. compass, surround, distance round.

        Note.--Co is used before vowels, h silent, and English words generally; con before l, m, r, changes n into these letters: becomes com before b, p, and even cog before n in cognomination, cognation, with cognition and words of the same root.

        contra.--1. against; in the opposite part; or by opposite quality: as 1. contradict, say the contrary; 2. contra-fissure, fissure in the opposite part; 3. contra-distinguish by opposite qualities.

        Note.--The meanings of contra are but figures of those of con, its root.

        de.--1. from out of; 2. simply from, down; 3. forth; 4. for; 5. against; 6. privation; 7. decrease; 8. intension; 9 contrariety; 10. expletive: as, 1. de-duct, draw out; 2 de-spise, look from (with dislike;) de-pend, hung from or down; deject, cast down; 3. de-ambulate, walk abroad; 4. de-plore, weep for; 5. de-precate, pray (to be delivered) from; 6. de-capitate, behead; 7. de-fame, de-tract from the fame of; 8. claim, cry out vehemently; 9. de-tect, uncover; de-scend, come down; de-merit, ill-deserving; de-decorous, disgraceful, 10. de-clare, make clear; de-albate, whiten; de-nude, strip; de-prave, make vicious.

        Note.--De unites the powers of a and e; and denotes the separation of one body from another, to which it had been contiguous, by which it had been contained, or of which it had formed a part. It is opposed to ad and in, and differs from a in that the correlative object of a is extraneous to its governed object; while that of de may be contained in its governed object. Hence the separation suggested by de is held more difficult than that suggested by a, as either a barrier, or the coherence of a mass, is to be overcome.

        di dis.--1. asunder, apart; 2. aside; 3. abroad; 4. difference; 5. contrariety: as, 1. di-lacerate, tear apart; 2. di-vert, turn aside; 3. dif-fuse, pour, scatter abroad, disseminate; 4. dis-sent, think differently; 5. dis-junct, dis-joined, diffident, distrusting.

        Note.--Di seems to be but a variation of de, as its meanings show; s in dis being assumed for euphony.--Di is used before d, g, l, m, n, v; dis before c, l, p, g, t. Before r, j, either di or, ais is used: before sp, st, only di. F. is doubled after di; and di before a vowel inserts r, as diremption.

        , ex.--1. out of, forth; throughout, thoroughly: 3. privation; 4. intensive or expletive: 5. out of office: as, 1[.] e-ject, cast-out; exclaim, cry out; expel, drive out; 2. elaborate, thoroughly laboured; 3. ex-animate, deprived of life, ex-uccous, deprived of juice; 4. ex-asperate, irritate greatly; 5. ex-minister, former minister; ex-president.

Page 140

        Note.--e is used before b, d, g, l, m, n, r, j, v; ex before vowels and h, p, q, t, s Before f, r becomes f; and s disappears sometimes after ex: as, exist for ex-sist.

        extra.--1. without, or not within; 2. outwards; 3. beyond; 4. for ex, out of: as, 1. extra-provincial, without the province; 2. extra-mission, sending out or onwards; 3. extra-ordinary, beyond ordinary; 4. extra-vagant, wandering beyond just limits.

        Note.--Extra differs from ex, its root, in that its correlative object may, or may not, be con tained in its governed object: while ex supposes its correlative to be contained in its governed.

        in, (ig, il, im, ir)--1. in or within; 2. into; 3. inwards; 4. towards; 5. against; 6. over; 7. upon; 8. intension; 9. privation; 10. negation: as, 1. in-habit, dwell in; in-hibit, hold in, curb; 2. in-duct, lead in; 3. in-flect, bend inwards; 4. in-cline, lean towards; 5. infict, dash upon or against; 6. im-pend, hang over; 7. insist, stand on; 8 in-durate, harden in or thoroughly; 9. in-capacitate, deprive of capacity; 10. im-pure, not pure; ignorant, not knowing; ir-rational, not rational.

        Note.--n. before b, m, p, becomes m; and s, l, r, before these letters, and even g before n in ignoble, ignominy, ignorance, ignoscible. (See note under con.)

        intro.--1. inwards; 2. into: as, 1. intro-spect, look inwards; 2. intro-duce, bring into company or acquaintance.

        inter.--1. between, among; 2. on the way between; 3. together; 4. reciprocation: as, 1. inter-vene, come between; 2. inter-vert, turn on the way between; 3. inter-mingle, mingle together; 4. inter-change, change reciprocally; inter-marry, to marry some of one family with some of another.

        Note.--Inter differs from its root in, in that its governed objects are separated by its correlative object, while in denotes that the correlative is enclosed by the parts of the governed.

        juxta.--Nigh, or besides: as, juxta-position, placing by.

        Note.--Though juxta is from jungere, to join, it does not imply actual contact.

        ab, (oc, of, op.)--1. in the way of; 2. against; 3. to; 4. towards; 5. over; 6. about; 7. inversion: as, 1. ob-ject, throw in the way; ob-trude, thrust in the way; oblate, extended in the way of the motion; 2. ob-loquy, speaking against; ob-durate, hardened against; 3. of-fer, bring in the way, present to; 4. ob-vert, turn towards; 5. ob-duce, draw or spread over; 6. ob-ambulation, walking about; 7. ob-cordate, obovate.

        Note.--Ob differs from ad in that ad denotes the point at which motion end: while ob denotes the object which must obstruct it. B in ob becomes c, f, p, before these letters, s in ostentation; and is sometimes omitted, as in the word o-mit.

        per.--1. through; 2. thoroughly, throughout: 3. intension; as, 1. per-form, form, through, finish; 2. per-fect, make thoroughly complete; 3. per-durable, very durable.

        Note.--Per denotes the relation which a moving body bears to the surface which supports [unclear] to the mediu through which it passes, and to the obstacle it overcomes. Per sometimes hangesr to l, as in pel-lucid.

Page 141

        post.--1. behind; 2. after: as, post-diluvian, after the flood; post-meridian, after noon; post-humous, after burial; post-script, written at the end or after.

        pre.--1. before; 2. beforehand; 3. superiority: as, 1. pre-fix, fix before; pre-cursor, forerunner; present, being before; pre-mature, before ripe, ripe before the time; 2. pre-dict, foretell; 3. pre-pollency, superior power; pre-ponderate, outweigh; preside, to be set over; pre-centor, head or leading singer.

        Note.--Pre differs from pro its root, in necessarily implying motion in its two objects, and denotes the relation which animated objects have to others following in the same path.

        preter.--1. across the direction of, against; 2. by or past; as, 1[.] preter-natural, not according to the course of nature; 2. preter-it, gone by; preter-mit, put or pass by.

        Note.--Preter differs from pre its root, in supposing that its object may or may not move, and that the correlative moves in a line across its path, or the line of its aspect, if it is at rest.

        pro.--1. before; 2. beforehand; 3. forward; 4. for; 5. from; 6. openly; 7. instead of: as, 1. pro-tect, cover before, shield; 2. pro-vide, look for beforehand; 3 pro-ceed, go forward; pro-late, extended forward; 4. pro-pugn, fight for, before in defence of; 5. pro-hibit, hold before, keep from; 6. pro-claim, speak forward, openly; 7. pro-consul, substitute for a consul, vice-consul.

        Note.--Pro and ante are thus distinguished. Ante is more general than pro, applying to persons as well as to things. The two objects of ante define each other mutually; but though the governed object of pro necessarily defines the correlative, the latter has no reciprocal influence; that is, it is not considered that the governed object is before the correlative. (See note under re[.])

        re.--1. again; 2. back, or contrariety; perhaps, for retro-; 4. intension, as if again and again: as, 1. re-assert, assert again; 2. re-cant, say back, unsay; retection, uncovering, bringing again to view; 3. re-linquish, leave behind; 4. remote, moved afar off.

        Note.--A, re, pro, se, insert sometimes d and pre, s, before a vowel; as, a-d-emption, re-d-eem, re-d-undance, pro-d-ition, se-d-ition, pre-s-ent.

        retro.--Backwards or behind: as, retro-spect, looking behind or backwards.

        se.--Aside, apart: as, se-clude, shut apart; se-duce, lead aside; se-lect, choose out (See note under re.)

        sine.--Without, (opposed to with:) as, sine-cure, office (with revenue, but) without care or employment.

        sub, (suc, suf, sug, sum, sup, sur, sus.)--1. under, beneath; 2. for super, over; 3. down, under; 4. privacy, underhand, unawares; 5. in place of, or substitute - 6. diminution, or lower degree; 7. below, after; 8. one part of; 9. root: as, 1[.] sub-ject, cast or put under; 2[.] suffuse, flow over; 3. sub-side, settle down under, 4. sub-orn, instruct privately; subreption, creeping slily upon; surprise, take by stealth; 5. sub-stitute, put in place of or for; sub-dean, vice dean; 6. sub-acid, acid in a low degree; sub-divide, divide into less parts; 7 sub-sequent, following after or under; 8. sub-duple, sub-triple, &c., one part o two three &c.; 9. sub-duplicate, sub-triplicate, &c., square, cube, root, &c.

Page 142

        Note.--Before c, f, g, m, p, t, b becomes the same, and sometimes s before c. It loses b before sp, st.

        subter.--Beneath, under: as, subter-fluent, flowing under; subter-fuge, plea to escape under, evasion.

        Note.--Subter differs from sub its root, in supposing that no contiguity takes place between the inferior and superior body.

        super.--1[.] above; 2. upon; 3. over; 4. excess; 5. besides; 6. after: as, 1. super-natural, above nature; 2. super-crescence, growing on; 3. super-visor, overseer, 4. super-abundance, excessive abundance; 5. super-add, add beside; 6. super-conception, after conception.

        supra.--1. 2. 3. 4. of super; as, 1. 2. or 3. supra-position, placing above, upon, over; 4. supra-lapsary, before the fall.

        Note.--Supra originally bore the same relation, it is likely, to super, that subter does to suo, meaning above, whether objects intervened or not; as subter means beneath, in the same respect.

        trans.--1. from one side to the other, over or through; 2. from one to another; 3. across; 4. beyond; 5. interchange: as, 1. trans-pierce, pierce through; 2. tran-substantiation, changing one substance into another; 3. trans-verse, turned across; 4. trans-atlantic, beyond the atlantic; 5. trans-location, making two things change places.

        Note.--Trans, primarily respects interval between the two points at which the motion of a body begins and ends.

        ultra.--1. beyond; 2. excess: as, ultra-montane, beyond the mountain; ultra-marine, beyond the sea; 2. ultra-royal, excessively attached to the king.

        Note.--Ultra is opposed to cis or citra. It is opposed to trans in being applied in its simple state to time, number, and measure, and to objects not in motion. In English words, cis and trans are opposed; as, trans-alpine, cis-alpine, on the other side, on this side, the Alps

Greek Prepositions.

        a.--Negation: as, a-methodical, not methodical[;] a-pathy, without feeling; an[-]onymous, without name; a-theism, disbelief in a God.

        Note.--A is a negative particle. It inserts n before a vowel.

        ana.--1. re- or back; 2. backwards; 3. upwards: as, 1. ana-camptic, bending back, re-flecting; ana-strophe, turning backwards, postponing words that usually precede; ana-diplosis, reduplication; ana-elatics, doctrine of refracted light; ana-lyze, resolve into first principles; ana-cathartic, cleansing upwards.

        Note.--The original meaning was the line of director, of any thing traced backwards becomes am before b, p.

        amphi.--1. on both sides; 2. from one side to the other; 3. on either side, 4. on all sides or round: as, 1. amphi-brach, a foot having a short syllable on both

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sides of a long; 2. amphi-bolus, tossed from one to another; 3. amphi-bious, living in either element, (air or water;) 4 amphi-theatre, a round theatre. anti, (ant, anth.)--1. against; 2. reverse; 3. instead of; 4. interchange; 5. alternation; 6. counterpart: as, 1. anti-monarchical, against monarchy; 2. anti-climax, reversed climax; anti-pope, one holding the place of the true pope; 4. anti-ptosis, putting one case for another; 5. anthem (for ant-) a hymn sung in alternate parts; 6. anti-type, thing represented by the type.

        Note.--The primary meaning is facing, fronting, set opposite to.

        apo, (ap, aph)--1. from; 2. forth; 3. out; 4. contrariety; [5.] farthest point from: as, 1. apo-strophe, turning from; aph-oeresis, taking from (the beginning of a word; apo-cope, cutting from (the end of a word;) 2. apo-stle, one sent forth; 3. apo-physis, a growing prominent; 4. apo-calypse, revelation; 5. apo-gee, farthest point from the earth; aph-elion, farthest point from the sun.

        Note.--The Latin ab is derived from ap by changing p into its cognate b.

        cata, (cat, cath.)--1. against; 2. over: as, 1. cata-chresis, misuse of a trope; 2. cata-clysm, a washing over, inundation, deluge.

        Note.--The primary meaning was, the line of direction along which a thing tends or is situated.

        dia, (di.)--1. through; 2. distinction: as, 1. dia-meter, measure through; dia-gonal, line through the coners; 2. dia-gnostic, symptoms by which a disease is distinguished.

        Note.--Dia must not be confounded with dis signifying the same as the Latin bis twice, in di-æresis dialogue, &c.

        en, (el, em.)--1. in; 2. among: as, 1. en-cysted, in a vesicle; emblem, inlay, enamel; 2. en-demial, among the people.

        epi, (eph)--1. upon; 2. over; 3. outer: as, 1. epidemic, upon the people; 2. epi-scopate, overseership, bishoprick; 3. epi-dermis, scarfskin.

        ec, ex.--1. from; 2. out: as, 1. ec-centric, deviating from the centre; 2. el-lipsis, a leaving out; ec-ephonesis, a crying out.

        Note.--Ec before consonants, ex before vowels.

        hyper.--1. above, over; 2[.] excess: as, 1. hyper-bole, above the truth; hyper-bola, line thrown or passing right over a cone; 2. hyper-critical, over critical.

        Note.--The primary meaning was higher. It corresponds to the Latin super or supra.

        hypo, (hyp)--1. under; 2. disguise; 3. interchange: as, 1. hypo-thesis, supposition or placing under; 2. hypo-crisy, simulation, disguise of the real character; 3. hyp-allage, interchange of cases.

        Note.--The primary meaning was high relatively to another object, which therefore must be ow or under in respect to the other. It corresponds to sub.

        meta, (met, meth.)--1. trans, or change; 2. after, beyond: as, 1. meta-morphose, to change the form; meta-phor, transferring a name to another object;

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met-onymy, change of names; 2. meta-physics, science beyond sics.

        Note.--The original meaning was with, in its various senses. It is thus contrasted with syn. The latter was applied to objects concurring to produce one action or event, meta to objects simply accompanying one another, though not so concurring.

        para, (par)--1. beside, from beside or not coincident with; 2. at the side: as, 1. para-centric, not coincident with the centre; para-dox, assertion not agreeing with appearances, or deviating from received opinion; 2. par-helion, a false sun aside of the true; parallel, one at the side of the other.

        peri.--1. around; 2. nearest point to; as, 1. peri-meter, measure round; periphrasis, circumlocution; peri-phery, circumference or line round; pericardium, membrane round the heart; 2. perigee, peri-helion, nearest point to the earth, and sun.

        pro.--Before: as, pro-gnosticate, perceive beforehand, foretell; pro-lepsis, anticipation, pro-phesy, foretell.

        syn, (syl, sym, sys, syr.)--1. with, or together; 2. coincidence: as, 1. syn-thesis, placing together; sym-pathy, feeling with; syl-lable, letters taken together in one sound; sym-phony, sounds together; syn-agogue, congregation; syn-opsis, view together; syn-tax, placing together, construction; 2. syn-chronism, concurrence of times.

        General Remark.--There are other Greek and Latin Prepositions, but they very rarely enter into the composition of English words.

French and English Prefixes.

        a.--1. at; 2, on or in; 3. to or for; 4. article a or one; 5. -ing, -or, -ed; 6. in verbs from nouns, means bring or give to; from adjectives to make; 7 with adjectives making adverbs, means -ly, manner, or state; 8. with some words expletive: as, 1. a-work; 2. a-shore, a-bed; 3. a-field, a-vouch, vouch to or for, a-wait, a-vow; 4. a-piece, a or one piece; 5. a-float, floating; a-drift, a-live, a-broach, broached, a-sunder; 6[.] a-maze, a-muse, a-feared, put in amaze, muse, fear; ac-company, bear company; ap-praise, set a price on; af-forest, to reduce to a forest; as-sort, reduce to sorts; ad-just, make right; ag-grandize, make great; 7. a-new, newly; a-lone, in a lone state; a-right, a-fresh; 8. a-wake, wake; a-rise, a-rouse, a-ware, ware, or wary.

        be.--1. be or by; 2. to be; 3. at or for; 4[.] to; 5[.] in verbs derived from adjectives, to make; from nouns, to act like, by or upon; 6. intensive or expletive; 7. privative: as, 1. be-cause, be or by the cause; be-side, by the side; be-ware, be-wary; be-fore, by the fore place; be-hind, by the hind place, below; 2. become, come to be; 3. be-wail, wail at or for; be-speak, be-weep, be-moan; 4. be-take, to take to; be-fall, be chance; 5. be-dim, make dim; benumb, be-friend, act the friend by; be-witch, act the witch upon; besot, to make a fool of; be-dew, wet with dew; be-grime; 6. be-spatter, spatter, or spatter much; be-sprinkle; 7. be-head, deprive of the head.

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        counter.--1. (The French contre, Latin contra) against; 2. contrariety; 3. reciprocal; 4. correspondent: 5. equal opposition: as, 1. counter-act; 2. countermand , retract a command; counter-evidence, counter-march, back; 3. counterchange; 4 counter-part; 5. counter-vail, avail equally in opposition; counter-balance, exactly balance.

        de.--1. from; 2 decrease; 3. contrariety; 4. intensive or expletive: as, 1. debar; 2. de-face, de-fame, detract from the appearance, reputation; de-grade, lower in grade; de-base, lower; de-compound, to compound still lower; 3. debark, disembark; de-compose, dissolve; de-camp, disencamp; decipher, unravel the meaning of ciphers; 4. de-paint, de-pasture, despoil, devoid.

        dis.--1. contrariety; 2. privation; 3. apart, diversily; 4. expletively; as, 1. dis-honest, not honest; dis-incline, dis-inter, unbury; dis[-]join, separate; 2. dis-arm, deprive of arms; dis-spirit, dis-passion, dis-honour; dis[-]credit; 3. spread, dis-spread diversely; dis-part, part asunder; 4. dis-annul.

        en, (em.)--1. with nouns, put in or into, make into, give to; 2. with adjectives, to make; 3. with verbs in, intensive or expletive; as, 1. em-bark, go into a ship; en-circle, put in a circle; en-camp, en-cage, em-power, give power to[,] en-courage, en-force, put in force; 2. en-dear, make dear; en-noble, enlarge en-marble, make into marble; en-slave, make a slave of; 3. en-wrap, en-chafe, en-grave, en-gender, en-glut, make to chafe, to grave, &c.

        for.--1. forth, from, out, or away; as, 1. for-swear, for-bid, for-get, for-sake, for-bear, for-give.

        fore.--1. before; 2. beforehand; 3. forth or from; 4. forepart of; 5. forward: as, 1. foregoing; 2. fore-see; 3. fore-close; 4. fore-head; 5. fore-land.

        gain.--against; as, gainsay.

        in, (il, im, in.--1. all the meanings of en; 2. negation; 3. contrariety, rarely; as, 1[.] im-body, put into a body; im-bosom, im-bower, im-brute, make into a brute; in-spirit, give spirit to; in-law, restore to the rights of law, opposed to out-law; im-brown, in-graft, in-weave, im-plant, in-born, in-bred, in-wrought, in-sight, make brown, graft in, weave in, &c.; 2. in-com-plete, il-legal, im-pure, ir-rational, not complete, &c.; in-capacity, il-legality, ir-religion, want of capacity, &c.; 3. in-dispose, disincline.

        Note.--Both en and in being used to verbalize, are commonly joined with nouns, rarely with adjectives, and more rarely with verbs; in which last, as they are not wanted, they may be expletive, unless they make a neuter verb active.

        male.--Ill; as, male-administration, male-content.

        mis.--1. wrong; 2. ill: as, 1. mis-con-ceive; 2. mis-trust.

        non.--1. French or Latin for not, sign of negation; 2. privation; as, 1. non-juring, not swearing; non-existence, want of existence; non-age; 2. non-plus, deprived of the power of saying more; non-suit.

        over.--1. over; beyond; 3. too much; 4. down; 5. more than; 6. to outdo by; 7. at too high a price: as, 1. over-arch; 2. over-go; 3. over-load; 4. over-throw; 5. over-balance; 6. over-power; 7. over-buy.

        out.--1. out; 2. outside; 3. abroad; 4. beyond, in distance, time, size, and number, weight, price, &c.; 5. to excel in acting the part of; 6. privitive; 7. intensive, or out of bounds: as, 1. out-bar; 2. out-line; 3. out-born; 4. out-go, out-live, out-grow, out-number, cut-weigh, out-sell, out-bid; 5. out-knave; 6. out-law; 7. out-rage.

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un,--1. undoes; 2. deprives; 3. negative; 4. expletive: as, 1. un-do, un-bury; [2.] un-man; 3. un-able, unbelief; 4. un-loose.

        Note.--Un and dis may be thus distinguished; un generally takes away a positive quality, dis reverses it. Thus, unbelief is simply a want of belief, and may be predicated even of those who are ignorant of its object; but disbelief is believing to be false, and can only be predicated of those who know the object of belief. Un sometimes occasi as ambiguity: thus undeceivable, undeceiving, undeceived, are either derivatives of the negative verb undeceive, or negatives of the simple word deceive. Un is prefixed to all words originally English, and to all participles made privitive adjectives, as, unfeeling; and to most substantives having an English termination, as, unfertileness; which, if they have a borrowed termination, take in, as, infertility. If we borrow adjectives we retain the prefix im, as, impolite; but if we borrow and form, we use un, as, unpolite.

        up.--1. up; 2. high; 3. over: as, 1. up-hold, up-lift; 2. up-land; 3. up-set.



1. Diminutive and Augmentative Nouns.

        ack, ard, et or let, el or le, ing or ling, kin, y, eon, ion, oon; rarely, lla, lle, llo, tta, tte, tto, ot, in, oid, age, ace, aster, ow, ern, and the sole ah; which denote a diminishing of the size, age, goodness, or dignity, as, hillock, a little hill; bullock, a young bull; park paddock; staggard, slow or sluggard; tower turret; ant emmet; crown coronet; eyelet, rivulet; home hamlet; nozle, sack satchel, particle; globule, yacht yawl, sanding, whiting; gosling, lordling; lambkin, (man or) monkey, baby; rascallion, lump luncheon, noon muncheon; ball ballot balloon; galley galleot galleon, gallon; spike spiggot; viol violin violin-cello; fortin; spadille, Drusus Drusilla, Priscilla; lunette, brown brunette, palmetto; Charlotte, Henrietta, Harriet (for Harriette;) sylphid, Nereus nereid; spheroid; fortilage; populace; poetaster; shadow, hollow; cavern; postern; sirrah.

        Note--Some nouns are diminished by abbreviation; as, in history story, rivulet rill, citizen cit, mistress miss, mobility mob, brigantine brig.

        Note 2.--Names of persons are variously diminished by abbreviation and otherwise; as, Francis Frank, Henry Harry Hal, Walter Wat Watty, Alexander Allack or Sander, whence Sawney, Sanderson Sanders, Peter Perkins, Thomas Tom, (Tomkinson) Tomkins, (Tomling) Tomlinson, Elizabeth Eliza Betsey, Sarah Sally, Esther Hester Hetty, Jane Jenny, Catharine Kitty, Margaret Peggy, &c.

        Note 3.--Let is a contraction of little, kin of kind, a child; and means genius or natural disposition; ling, little or little one. All words in ling seem to be participles of frequentative verbs in le or el. Oid implies rather imperfection than diminution, signifying resemblance or tendency to the form of.

        Note 4.--Some of these terminations, especially y, in proper names, besides diminishing, denote sometimes endearment, and sometimes contempt.

2. Terminations of Agents, joined with verbs, nouns, and adjectives.

        ar, or, ant, ist, ent, ary; (rarely ast, iff, lain, tain, ion, on, ot, ard, zen, ness;) the adjective and participial terminations ate, tory, ac or ic, al, ar, ain,, (for ane;

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frequently ean, ian, ene, inc, ese[,] ite; and in the plural ch, ish, denoting 1. the occasional actor, and 2. the habitual and professional actor; 3. maker; 4. worker; 5. dealer; 6. keeper; 7. driver; 8. governor; 9. professor; 10. adherent; 11. inhabitant or native; 12. descendant; 13. one armed with; 14. possessor of a thing or quality; 15. user; 16. one charged with; 17. one of; 18. expletive, &c. But ier or yer, generally denotes dealer; ian, professor; ite, descendant; an, with the last six, inhabitant or native: as, 1. 2. acter, he that acts occasionally; actor, he that acts professionally; saver saviour, begger beggar, catechiser catechist, paraphraser paraphrast, informer informant, assister assistant, presider president, doter dotard, glutton, witness, spinner spinster; 3. hatter, sonnetteer, clothier, punster, dialist, economist, statuary, historian; 4. tinner, glazier, gardener, collier; 5. grocer, hosier, malster, tobacconist; (5. 4.) lapidist, lapidary; 6. jailer, cashier, chamberlain, librarian, publican, wharfinger, castellain; 7. drover, charioteer, muleteer; 8. shire sheriff, bailiff, brigadier; 9. necromancer, lawyer, warrior, methodist, artisan, musician, puritan; 10. sectary, partisan, (deism) deist, Calvinist, Christian; 11. villager, Londoner, carmelite, bedlamite, courtier, mountaineer, stagirite, citizen, Norwegian, American, Tarentine, Nazarene, Chinese; (plural) French, (Dane) Danish; 12. Levite; 13. musketeer, grenadier; 14. annuitant, captain, chieftain, holder of the head, chief place; chaplain, favourite, zealot, maniac, demoniac; barbarian, barbarous person; youngster, potentate, (rough) ruffian, drunkard, (wise) wizard; 15. sworder, sawyer, drummer; 16. officer, messenger, almoner, cellarist, tapster, criminal, centurion, decurion; 17. chorister, trooper, scholar; 18. sophister.

        To these add some irregularly derived agents, instruments, &c., work wright, tribe tribune, smite smith, pinch pinchers pincers, hand hammer, hale or haul halter, tie tether, sauce saucer, plate platter, fry fritter, bough bower, sun summer, wind winter window, garb garment, array raiment, hold hilt, gird girth girdle, shoot shutile, horn hornet, &c.

        Note.--Dealers, insert y after w, and i after l, r, th, s; age runs into enger in passage, mes sage, wharfage; er becomes eer diminutive in several, as, sonnetteer, &c., st is sometimes inserted before er, as, songster; and i before st in chorister, barrister; or follows s or t in all verbal agents except governor, conqueror, sailor; verbs in double ss have agents in or, except engross, discuss. Agents in ator are 150, while those in ater are but relater, idolater, slater, prater, conservator, exasperater, regrater. Agents in ctor are 36, those in cter are detracter, protracter, exacter, perfecter, neglecter, expecter, directer, detecter, contradicter, afflicter, indicter, obstructer. Agents derived from nouns without change, take er, except escheator, aenator, suitor, preceptor: and some contrasted words; as, debtor, creditor, grantor, &c.

3. Receivers of the act of the verb, or of a thing.

        ee, t, te; as, enoorsee, mortgagee, assignee, referee, legatee, patentee, licentiate-receiver of an endorsement, mortgage, assignment, &c., obligee, grandee, relict, bankrupt, saint, adult, graduate, delegate, person obliged, made great, left, convicted, with bank broken, made holy, grown up, graduated, delegated. To these add end, and, andum, denoting that which ought or is to receive the act of the verb; as, reverend, multiplicand, subtrahend, minuend, dividend, memorandum, that which ought or is to be revered, multiplied, divided, subtracted, diminished, remembered.

        Note--Ee is varied from é the termination of French perfect participles; t, te, from the Latin[.]

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4. Official Terminations.

        ship, dom, age, hood, atc, alty, ure, ery, cy, signifying with official persons; 1. office; 2. jurisdiction, or that over which they preside; 3. title of respect; 4[.] (with other persons) character, quality; 5. state or condition; 6. duration of the state; 7. art, trade, wares, place: as, 1. stewardship, kingdom, captaincy, agency, (bishop), episcopate, consulate, baronage, prelacy, mayoralty, priesthood, prelature; 2. tetrarchate, marquisate, electorate, bishoprick, bailiwick, deanery, county, dutchy; 3. lordship; 4. friendship, soldiership, infancy, idiocy, folly, sophistry, bigotry, surgery, prudery, mocker mockery; 5. noviciate, pupillage; 6. apprenticeship; 7. carpentry, surgery, housewifery, archery, pedlery.

5. Collective Terminations.

        ry; very rarely y, ity, alty, age, ate, ing, hood, red; to be rendered by the of the nouns collected: as, yeomanry, imagery, spicery, finery, drapery, clergy, ancestry, nobility, commonalty, herbage, foliage, triumvirate, shipping, clothing, sisterhood, kindred.

6. Terminations of Abstract Qualities joined with Adjectives

        ness, ity, tude, nce, ncy, ty, sy, ism, ion, ure, th, ht, men[,] dom; to be rendered quality or state: as, goodness, quietude, excellence, decency, silence, safety, solidity, sobriety, gravity, courtesy, bondage, parallelism, imperfection, contrition, temperature, truth, breadth, length, (whole heal hale) health, slow sloth, dearth, young youth, merry mirth, foul filth, height, sly slight, acute acumen, wise wisdom, freedom; with hot heat, proud, pride, sorry, sorrow, &c.

        Note.--Age, ism, ion, ure, though properly verbal terminations denoting action or its effects, are classed here, because the words to which they are joined are used no longer as verbs, but participles or adjectives. Ness and ity, are the most frequent, there being about 1350 nouns in ness, and 600 in ity. The rest are very uncommon.

7. Terminations of actions, or verbal and participial Nouns.

        ing, ion, ment, ure[,] nce, age, l; and very rarely ade, ism, se, ss, x, al, th, ht, ice, y, ery, or, our, ter, der, ship, ledge, red, ison; denoting, 1. the act of the verb; 2. its effect or the thing produced by that act; 3. actor; 4. faculty of acting; as, 1. a producing, coercion, cohesion, redemption, confirmation; amendment: defiance, abhorrence; repulse, applause; (1. 2.) lapse, concourse; offence; egress; contempt, complaint, conquest, assault, desert; flow, flux; trial, burial; inquiry, mockery, bribery; evangelism; (1. 3.) stoppage; death, growth; flight; notice; behaviour; laughter, slaughter; attainder; blockade; courtship, (analogically courtiership;) knowledge; hatred, comparison, disinherison; enthusiasm, acting like an enthusiast; 2. an offering, thing offered; horror, error; provision, thing provided; ornament; creature; freightage, draught, weight, gift, feint, blossom, from blow; 4. understanding; imagination; judgment; intellect. Other verbals are formed by a change of the final consonants into their

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cognates and otherwise, or without any change; as, life, belief, batch, breach, speech, expense, loss, choice, race, practice, prophecy, gap, tale, sale, loan, bliss, song, wreath, food, gait, deed, &c.

        Note.--Verbs in de, nd, nt, rt, rge, rse, change se, d, t, ge, se, into sion, except in- con-, at tend; sert, -tort, which have tion, while tend, ob-, pre-, in-, por-, ex-tend, and the simple -tort have sion; -pel, -vel, become pul, vul-sion, mane, mansion; cline, clension; fuse, fusion; cede, cession; mit, cide, mission, cession; and cur ends the list of those which take sion. Stringe takes striction; join, junction; stinguish, stinction; punge, punction; duce, duction; tain, tention; vene, vention; monish, monition; minish, minution; quire, (y) quisition; pone, pose, position; ceive, ception; move, motion; scribe, scription, sume, sumption; reedeem, redemption; sorb, sorption; solve, volve, solution, volution. Verbals in cion are coercion suspicion, internecion. Of 1650 in tion, 1200 ends in ation Of 240 in ure 260 in each of ance, ence, or ncy and age, 30, in ure, 120 in ance, 130 in ence, (of which 30 are inceptives in scence,) and but 8 or 10 in age are strictly verbal. Nineteen verbs in fy (mostly in efy, from Latin verbs in eo) change fy into faction, factive, factory About 50 others (which end in efu) change fy into fication, ficative, ficatory.

8. Local Terminations.

        ton, (town,) ham, wick or wich, (village,) ness, (promontory,) bury, (borough,) &c. the collective ry, ery; the adjective and participial ary, ory: as, Charleston, Charles' town; Peacham; Berwick, Norwich; Sheerness; Newbury, Newburgh, Petersborough; heronry, coalery, collier colliery, ropery, foundry, fishery, aviary, dispensary, armory, observatory.


        1.--ish.--Tendency: as, foolish, churlish, girlish, swinish, apt to be like a fool, &c.; feverish, brinish, tending to fever, &c.; freakish, bookish, whitish, reddish, inclined to freaks, books, to be white, &c.; snappish, apt to snap, ticklish, easy to be tickled.

Note.--This termination has nearly the effect of esco of Latin inceptive verbs.

        2.--some.--Tendency: as, quarrelsome, inclined or apt to quarrel, &c.; toothsome, handsome, fit or agreeable to the tooth, &c.; gamesome, wholesome, loathsome, tending to make game, &c.; blithesome, dark-, lightsome, tending or apt to be blithe, &c.

        3.Of Plenty--y, ful, ous, ose, acious.--To be rendered, full of, or filled with, or the like: as, gritty, healthy, wealthy, stony; fearful, peaceful, vicious, hazardous, dangerous; operose, crinose, tumulose, verbose, full of, or filled with health, &c.; labour, hair, hills, words; bibacious, pugnacious, apt to drink, fight; minacious, loquacious, full of threats, talk.

Note.--Y is derived from e, the termination of the French participle perfect, and ous and ose form that of the Latin. Therefore adjectives with these terminations may be translated by participles of English verbalized nouns, with little or no variation of meaning; as, knotty knotted, cloudy clouded, veiny veined, sandy sanded, rugose wrinkled, &c. With containers, ful makes nouns and means the quantity they will hold as, handful, spoonful, what the hand will hold, &c.

        4.--Of Want.--less.--to be rendered without, or not to be: as, heartless, staunchless, resistless, exhaustless, trustless, not to be quenched, &c.; which are scarcely used but in poetry.

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        5. Matter or Substance.--en, and perhaps eous.--To be rendered made or consisting of: as, golden, brazen, woollen, silken, leathern, made of gold, brass, &c.; vitreous, ligneous, ferreous, made or consisting of glass, wood, iron.

Note.--Adjectives of the termination en, seem to be the participles of nouns verbalized; as of golded, brazed, &c., made gold, &c.

        6.--Of Property or Likeness.--ly, ic or ical, al, an, ar, ary, ne, ous, se, ac or acal, ese, isch, ch, ite; to be rendered like, belonging, having, &c.: as, manly, heroic, heroical, national, presbyterian, American, Herculean, consular, customary, mundane (the world,) terrene (the earth,) serpentine, Alexandrine, Nicene, wit wise, fail false, globose, prosodial, prosodiacal, Chinese, French, Romish, Swedish, Muscovite, Israelitish; lenten.

        7.--Multiplicatives.--fold, ple.--To be rendered, together, &c.; as, twofold, three-fold, &c., double, (from duple,) triple, quadruple, &c.

        8.--Direction.--ward.--which means looking; as, toward, froward, forward, looking to, from, before.

        9.--Order.--th.--fourth, fifth, &c.

        10.--Participial Active.--ing, ant, ent, sory, tory, id, und, bund: as, lasting, pleasant, different, promissory, prohibitory, excusatory, that which lasts; pleasing, differing, &c.; vagrant, indignant, existent, illusory, wandering, disdaining, &c.; lucid, valid, liquid, fluid, shining, availing, melting, flowing, jocund, joking, vagabond, wandering.

Note.--Ate, ation, atory, ative, ary, able, ant, ance, are kindred terminations; also, ion, sion, tion, to [omitted] y, sory, ible, ent, ence.

        11.--Potential Active.--ive, ic.--provocative, palliative[,] motive, analytic, caustic that which may (or does) provoke, palliate, move, analyze, burn.

        12.--Potential Passive.--ile, ible, able.--as, productile, producible, facile, docile, provocable, that which may be produced, done, taught, provoked.

Note.--English derivatives have able; except descend, extend, vend, elude, discern, press, fuse, contract, effect, collect, divert, revert, manifest, digest, resist, exhaust, solve; and the doubtful, commit, praise, infer, reverse, which have ible.

        12.--Participial Passive.--ed, en, ate, ete, ite, ote, ute, t, se, ss, x: as, fledged, feathered, drunken made drunk, inviolate not violated, prolate extended forward (along the axis,) oblate extended in the way of the motion (across the axis,) complete filled up in all the parts, definite bounded, remote removed, resolute resolved, exact performed, perfect done throughout, strict bound, exempt bought off, adverse turned towards (against,) recluse shut back, apart, remiss, remitted, complex woven together, convex raised; sainted made a saint, winged, forked, furnished with wings, forks; chalybeate, impregnated with iron, vitriolate; passionate guided by passion, laureate crowned with laurel, complicate complicated, reprobate reprobated.

3. Terminations of Verbs.

        1.--Inceptive.--en, ise or ize, fy, ate, er.--denoting a beginning and growing action, gradually communicating or acquiring a quality, thing, or person;

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        Any word or phrase may become a verb by prefixing to as hand to hand, long to long, thee and thou to thee and thou

and may be rendered to make, become, grow, give, receive, &c.: as shorten, weaken, lengthen, strengthen, heighten, frighten, Christ christen, chaste chasten, chastise, civilize, humanize, criticise, apostatize, philosophize, methodize, to turn critic, apostate, philosopher, or to turn dealer in criticism, apostacy, philosophy, method or methodism; vilify, amplify, stupid stupify, falsify, grateful gratify, petrify (stone),) ossify (bone,) brute or brutal brutify, sanguify (blood,) ramify (branches,) certain certify, testify (witness,) deify (God;) sublime sublimate, validate, compassionate, capacitate; birth burthen burden; food fodder, (dominus, a master,) domineer.

        Other verbs of the same kind are formed by changing consonants into their cognates lengthening the vowel, &c.; as, glass glaze, bath bathe, breath breathe, cloth clothe, grief grieve, half halve, shelf shelve, loth lothe loath, wry writhe, ten tithe, secret secrete, holy hollow, wind winnow, gold gild, part parse, dry drain.

        2.--Frequentative, or diminutive.--le, rarely el, l, er, or r.--denoting frequency and consequently diminution of action; as, talk tattle, wade waddle, drip dribble drivel, shove shuffle, crack crackle, draw drawl, grose grovel, chat chatter, spit spatter sputter, gild glitter, smile simper, sing simmer, mould moulder, climb clamber, sleep slumber, wave waver, low lower lour, out utter, fail falter, hiss whiz whisper, whine whimper, stand stammer, stick stutter.

        3.--Intensive or augmentative verbs, are variously formed without rule; as, snore snort, yell yelp, wave waft, twine twist, break burst, clean cleanse, bound bounce, crack crash crush, lick lash, gnaw gnash, gape gasp, gripe grasp, chime chink, sit set, full fill, swell swill, lie lay, rise raise, prize praise, &c.

4. Other Terminations and peculiar meanings of the foregoing

        ly.--Adverbial.--To be rendered manner; as, wisely, in a wise manner.

        tad.--Fate of; as, Iliad, Columbiad, Dunciad, fate of Ilion, Columbia, Dunces.

        age.--tax, allowance, dwelling room; as, wharfage, leakage, personage, stowage.

        ism.--worship, doctrine or creed, and idiom; as, paganism, Calvanism, Grecism

        ing.--district; as, a riding of Yorkshire, a tithing; &c.

        y.--country; as, Germany, Gascony, Italy.

        th.--period; as, moon month.

        ic.--is sometimes a contraction of the participial icate, and sometimes denotes art; as, fabric from fabricate, i. e. fabricated; rhetoric, logic.

Exercises explaining the use of the foregoing Tables.

        1.--Read Art. 1. Table 6. with the notes 1. 2. explaining each word as it occurs: thus, hillock, a little hill; bullock, a young bull, &c. Try to mention other words of similar terminations.

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        2.--Reverse this exercise: thus, What word signifies a little hill, a young bull, &c., a short or a false history? Address Francis familiarly, endearingly, contemptuously, or with vulgar familiarity, &c.

        3.--What terminations denote diminution or augmentation?

        4.--What is the meaning of each in note 3?

        5.--Mention all the terms in aid; in aster; in ard.

        6.--Read Art. 2. explaining each word as it occurs: thus, acter, one who occasionally acts; actor, one who acts professionally or habitually; hatter, a maker of hats, &c.

        7.--Reverse this exercise: thus, What word signifies one who occasionally acts &c. &c.?

        8.--Recite the terminations of agents.

        9.--What termination denotes dealer?

        10.--What words insert i and y before er to form them? See Note.

        Note.--In hearing the daily spelling or parsing lessons, cause the classes to derive the words, &c. as directed in the Advertisement.

        11.--What terminations denote professor, descendant, inhabitant, or native?

        12.--What are the meanings of ier, yer, ian, ite?

        13.--What agents end in or, in ater, in er? What letter does or follow, with the exceptions?

        14.--Perform similar exercises on articles 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

        15.--Recite the rules and observations in note under 7.

        16.--Illustrate the remaining articles in the same manner.

        17.--What are the first meanings of a, ab, abs, ad, am, &c., through the Latin, Greek, French, and English prefixes?

        18.--To which is each opposed?

        19.--What is the difference of ab, ex, de; of ante, pre, and pro; contra, ob, and preter; of di and se; of trans and ultra?

        20.--What are the rules for repeating the prepositions after words compounded with them?

        21.--What are the signs of contrariety? of intension?

        22.--Form and explain the derivatives of cumb, to lie; turb, to confound, &c.&c.

        23.--Reverse this exercise, i. e., what word signifies to lie at, to lie under, lying back, &c. &c.

  • cumb, to lie, to brood.
  • cubate, to lie, to brood.
  • iurb, confound like a crowd.
  • epi-, demic, the people.
  • en-, demic, the people.
  • fic, fical, making, causing, producing.
  • lucid, receiving light.
  • lucent, giving light.
  • luminous, light.
  • lumine-ate, to give light.
  • scend to climb.
  • fend, to strike.
  • prehend, to hold, seize.
  • pend, to hang, to weigh.
  • send, to stretch.
  • scind, to cut, tear.
  • spond, to promise.
  • ound, to rise in waves, boil, flow.
  • found, to pour.
  • fuse, to pour.
  • tund, to smite.
  • cord, heart, or chord.
  • plaud, to clap.
  • srcibe, to write.
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  • [unclear] written.
  • prove, to make good.
  • place, to put.
  • balance, to poise.
  • vince, to conquer
  • vict to conquer
  • nounce, to tell.
  • duce, to lead, draw
  • duct, to lead, draw
  • rade, to rub.
  • grade, to step, degree
  • gress, to step.
  • vade, to march, go.
  • suade, to advise
  • cede, to depart, resign.
  • sede, to sit.
  • side, to settle.
  • cide, to cut, slay, killing, killer.
  • cide, to fall, or happen.
  • fide, to trust.
  • lide to strike.
  • ride, to laugh.
  • vide, to see.
  • vise, to see.
  • rode, to gnaw, eat.
  • clude, to shut.
  • close, to shut.
  • clause, to shut, closed.
  • cluse, to shut, closed.
  • lude, to play.
  • trude, to thrust, push.
  • sude, to sweat, ooze.
  • quiet, rest, repose.
  • quiescent, resting, tending to rest.
  • gage, pledge.
  • judge, to declare the law.
  • cour-age, heart-iness.
  • lect, to choose, gather.
  • legate, to despatch.
  • lige, to bind.
  • change, to alter.
  • fringe, to break.
  • stringe, to grasp, bind.
  • strict, to grasp, bind.
  • charge, to load, enjoin.
  • merge, to sink.
  • merse, to sink.
  • sperge, to scatter.
  • sparse, to scatter.
  • terge, to cleanse.
  • terse, to cleanse.
  • verge, to bend, incline.
  • fuge, to fly
  • fugacious, apt to fly.
  • gorge, the throat.
  • apo,-strophe, turning.
  • ana,-strophe, turning.
  • cata,-strophe, turning.
  • be, -take
  • re, -take
  • par, -take
  • under, -take
  • over, -take
  • mis- -take
  • voke, to call.
  • vocale, to call.
  • ex, -hale, to breathe.
  • in, -hale, to breathe.
  • sume, to take.
  • mundane, of the world.
  • fine, end, bound, limit.
  • finite, bounded.
  • finish, to end.
  • termine, -ate, to limit.
  • vene, to come.
  • vent, to come.
  • a re, -venue.
  • venture, to be about to come.
  • cline, to bend, incline.
  • marine, of the sea.
  • pone, to place, put.
  • pose, to place, put.
  • posite, to place, put.
  • position.
  • de, throne.
  • en, throne.
  • in, throne.
  • un, throne.
  • ad, -here, to stick.
  • in, -here, to stick.
  • co, -here, to stick.
  • spire, to breathe.
  • quire, to seek.
  • quest, to seek.
  • quisite, to seek.
  • plore, to wail, weep.
  • centre, (middle,) point.
  • ec,-centric.
  • para,-centric.
  • figure, fashion, shape, form.
  • jure, to swear.
  • mure, a wall.
  • base, foot (of a column.)
  • crease, to grow.
  • crescive, growing.
  • crescent, crescence, tending to grow
  • crement, growth.
  • crete, grown.
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  • phrase, speech.
  • phrasis, speech.
  • preciate, to put a price.
  • praise, to put a price.
  • prise, to take.
  • lapse, to slip.
  • burse, a purse.
  • ab, -use,
  • dis, -use,
  • ac, ex, -cuse, a trial.
  • bate, to beat.
  • locate, to place.
  • date, to mark the time.
  • add, give to.
  • create, to make, produce.
  • gregate, to flock.
  • navigate, to sail a ship.
  • naval, of a ship.
  • navy, collection of ships.
  • fable, may be spoken, or told.
  • jugate, to yoke
  • sociate, to couple.
  • mediate, to come in the middle.
  • radiate, to throw rays.
  • foliate, to leaf.
  • viate, way.
  • colate, to drip.
  • ambulate, to walk.
  • animate, life.
  • nominate, to name.
  • umbrate, to shadow.
  • literate, lettered.
  • migrate, to remove.
  • monstrate, to show.
  • state, to stand, place.
  • stant, standing.
  • substantiate, give substance to.
  • sist, to stand.
  • stitute, to put, place.
  • tenuate, to make slender.
  • novate, to make new.
  • novel, new.
  • novice, -ate,
  • plete, to fill, filled.
  • cite, to move, stir, call.
  • tribute, to give, grant, bestow.
  • secute, to follow.
  • mute, to change.
  • pule, to reckon, cut.
  • rogate, to ask, beg, demand.
  • ceive, to take hold.
  • cept, to take hold.
  • cipient, holding.
  • vive, to live.
  • solve, to loose.
  • volve, to roll.
  • move,
  • serve, to keep.
  • strue, to build.
  • struct, to build.
  • story, to build.
  • tach, to touch.
  • stinguish, to put out, [unclear] .
  • stinct, to put out, [unclear] .
  • anti, [unclear] , shadows.
  • amphi, [unclear] , shadows.
  • pel, to drive.
  • sail, to leap.
  • sult, to leap.
  • vail, to be strong
  • stil, to drop.
  • dia,-gram, writing.
  • ana,-gram, writing.
  • epi-gram, writing.
  • claim, to cry, call.
  • firm.
  • form.
  • ante,-meridian, mid-day
  • post,-meridian, mid-day
  • sign, to mark.
  • pugn, to fight
  • tain, to hold, to keep.
  • join.
  • locate, to place.
  • peal, to call.
  • pellation.
  • agon, angle.
  • cern, to see
  • crete, seen.
  • creet, seen.
  • orn, deck.
  • journ, a day
  • similar, like
  • lunar, y, of the moon.
  • fer, to bring, bear.
  • late, borne, extended.
  • dia,-meter, measurer
  • peri,-meter, measurer
  • hyper,-meter, measurer

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