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Diary of William King;
Cobb County, Georgia,

Electronic Edition.

William King, fl. 1864-1879

Funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services
supported the electronic publication of this title.

Text scanned (OCR) by Melissa M. Edwards
Text encoded by Patricia L. Walker and Natalia Smith
First edition, 1999
ca. 200K
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

Call number 2985-Z (Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South.
        Transcript of the manuscript. Original in the Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

LC Subject Headings:

Cobb County

Copied from original given by
Miss Anna Clark
210 1/2 West 35th. Street
Savannah, Georgia
for permanent preservation in the
University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Page 1

2d. July, 1864. Saturday afternoon.

        During the day general apprehension existed of the falling back of Johnson's Army, occasioning great anxiety--the wagons were moving toward the rear, about an hour before sunset, the artillery were moving--being confident this day was my last date to write Home, I wrote to my wife & sent the letter by Maj. Gen. Martin (who had been spending some days with me sick) to place in the Atlanta P. O.--all my company sick and well left me during the afternoon, and I with depressed spirits partook of my lonely supper, all alone and knowing in a few hours I was to be shut off from intercourse with my family and left among strangers. We continued routine preparations to get the last of the wagons and horses and servants in readiness to leave. About 8 o'clock a Captain Lee of our army stopped at the house and asked for me. He kindly stated in passing by with the artillery, he noticing the house open and everything seemed quiet with the servants about, he felt apprehensive that I was not aware of the fact that the Army was falling back that night, not knowing the painful anxiety that engrossed my mind from that knowledge; I thanked him for his kindness, and informed him that I was aware of it, and intended to remain at home. At 10 o'clock Rev. Mr. Porter and some other friends stopped to see me, taking a cup of tea and remaining about an hour with me during which time I wrote my last letter to my wife, and at 11 o'clock the wagons with Crawford, Josh and Tom passed and Tom left me for Atlanta in charge of Mr. Porter. I then retired to bed but not to sleep, sleeping but two hours during the night with my

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depressed spirits and the constant noise but little sleep could be enjoyed, Hardee's Corps passing through the yard committing many depredations and pretty much destroying all the Poultry.

3 July. Sunday. 1864.

        I arose early and took my breakfast, our infantry still passing through and gathering up the remaining chickens. About 6 o'clock the last of our infantry had passed, and our Cavalry skirmishers were collecting in the yard, they informed me that a detachment of our Cavalry had formed in an open field a few hundred yards south, to check the advance of the Federal Cavalry. The firing soon commenced. I placed the servants and children for safety in the stone wood cellar, where I remained with them the most of the time, the firing continued about half an hour while the Federal Cavalry were advancing from the Powder Springs Road to our house. Many of them were killed or wounded--near the house, our Cavalry fell back near 1 o'clock, some passing over the Railroad embankment, and others over the Atlanta Road, and for some time kept up a fire on each other with small arms, the balls falling about the yard. After 7 o'clock all was quiet again on the premises, and we in possession of the Federal Army. The advance Cavalry was a detachment under command of Lieut. Harvey of 15 Ill. Reg. of Gen'l Hooker's escort, his behavior was very gentlemanly, he asked me if I had any Rebel soldiers. I told him but one, who was sick, and him I delivered

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up. A Major and Col. soon after made their appearances, all with the men conducting themselves very properly. I was asked what supplies I had and arms, which I informed them, Lieut. Harvey took the 3 Pistols and a Hammock leaving the double barrel gun. The Pistol and Hammock he stated should be returned to me. The corn and fodder were all wanted for the horses and mules which were greatly in need of provender. I remonstrated about the taking of all the corn as I needed a part for food for myself and servants. They offered to supply us with wheat flour, but upon my urging our preference for corn, they asked how much would be needed by us for food, I replied 20 bushels, they kindly left me 30 bushels, taking 100 for which the Q. M. (Capt. Geo. R. Cadwallader, 1 Br: 1 Div: 20 A. C.) gave me his certificate for payment, including 1000 fodder. Nothing else on the premises was disturbed by them. Lieut. Harvey left me 2 guards to remain with me until the next morning. Many officers called on me during the morning, all of whom I found to be very gentlemanly men particularly so with Gen'l Elliot Chief of the Cavalry, who remained with me about half an hour, with whose visit I was greatly gratified as a man of education, polish and laudable sentiments, and have seldom met a more agreeable companion. He promised me another visit. As my guards were to leave me the next morning, about 3 1/2 o'clock, I went to town to procure other guards for the next morning, which Col. Stone (acting Comm't) promised to send to me in the morning. On returning home about 5 o'clock, Sharp met me at the cemetery nearly out of breath, informing

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me that men had broken into the House and were committing great robberies. I asked after the guards, he stated they had left, soon after I had gone to town. I immediately returned to Col. Stone, informing him of the circumstances, and asked him for a guard at once. He stated he had not a solitary man to spare me then, but he very kindly promised to ride out himself in a few minutes, which he did before I got home, and advised me as I went out, to stop at Gen. Thomas' Hqs. and procure a guard [torn], and a guard [torn] with whom I returned home after an absence of about 2 hours, when I found Col. Stone and a guard which had been placed on the premises by Gen. Whipple during my absence in town. My short absence had afforded ample time for the robbers to commit the most thorough depredations, one of the guards left with me by Gen. Hooker's escort, was the first to commence the robbing, he broke in the first door soon after I left, multitudes followed him, every room, closet, wardrobe, and trunk was forced open, nothing escaped their examination, and almost everything of value which they could remove was taken, and what remained was strewn about the room, but few books were taken, but nearly all the clothing for persons and beds and provisions were appropriated freely and extensively. Much was however saved by the fortunate arrival of Gen. Thomas at the House, who had much returned, and 6 or 7 of the Robbers (a chaplin among the number) were arrested, and requested Gen. Whipple to leave a guard on the premises. The 2 guards left by Gen. Hooker's escort had left before the arrival of Gen.

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Thomas. Gen. Thomas very kindly sent me a message by his Ass't A. G. (Maj'r Hoffman) that the severest penalty of the army regulations should be enforced on the robbers; many other officers called on me during the afternoon and evening expressing their sympathy and condemnation of the outrages which had been committed. The loss of so many articles of provisions, all sugar, syrup, coffee & tea, &c. and soap and most of my clothing and money will subject me and the servants to much inconvenience, but nothing connected with the loss occasioned as much grief as the entire loss of the clothing of Mr. MacLeod, the Robbers knew nothing of the sacred value placed upon those relics, but had they, it would have availed nothing towards saving them. So closed this painful Sabbath day, and leaving me a restless night to follow.

4 July. 1864.

        Monday morning, bright and clear in nature, but my spirits much depressed I went to town. Every thing looked changed, all strange faces, but few acquaintances to be found. I visited a few friends and then returned to my lonely Home, feeling solitary and deserted, cut off even from correspondence with my family and friends, and feeling as I was entirely among strangers, gave me another dull night for rest, and compelled me to indulge many painful reflections upon the sad consequences of war, and particularly this war, for which I was in no way culpable and had exerted all my powers to prevent--and from which I so sadly suffered.

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5 July. 1864.

        As the preceeding day, I went to town, saw a few friends, enquired into their suffering; nearly all of whom in common with myself, had suffered more or less from the robbers on Sunday & Monday. Some had lost everything The negroes had fared no better, old Mamie, the servant of Mrs. Duncan, who staid in her yard, was in great distress and [torn] sadly, she informed me that the Robbers had broken open her Mistress' house and destroyed everything left and had robbed her of all of her provisions and her clothing, even her needles & thread, leaving her nothing but the clothing she had on, she asked them to have mercy an a poor negro, they cursed her and said if she did not close her mouth they would kill her. Into what demons does War transform men. During the day a Reg't of Cavalry under Col. -- an intelligent & gentlemanly officer, encamped on the premises to remain until the next day, but during the afternoon he rec'd orders to proceed toward Power's Ferry. He informed me the paper mill had been burnt. I visited some of my neighbors.

6 July. 1864.

        I felt dull today, too much so to go to town. I visited some of the neighbors, heard their complaints and indulged in sad reflections on the consequences of this sad war, and thanked God that I had no agency in involving our happy country in it. How desolate do I feel in witnessing and hearing of so much distress & heartlessness for the safety of my two sons in the Armies of Va. and Geo. and my wife and

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other members of my family, so separated from me that I can neither hear of them nor partake of their counsel nor sympathy. How cheering is the hope of Heaven under such circumstances and the knowledge that God overrules all things. During the day the supply train of 1st. div. Cav. Corps of Dept. Cumberland encamped on the premises under Maj'r Flag, Capt. Rankin Garfield, the train consisted of about 100 wagons, 1000 mules and horses and 400 men, the intelligent and gentlemanly deportment of the officers & men relieved me a little from depression of spirits, and rendered the evening less sad than the morning.

July 7. 1864.

        I went to town and saw a few friends, heard added statements of depredations and believe but few in the town and county had escaped the visits and terrors of the Robbers. I returned home to suffer from my own reflections upon the sufferings of all and the debasing effects of war and to enjoy some relief from my own thoughts in the society of the pleasant strangers who were encamped about me.

July 8. 1864.

        Another day has dawned upon my dreary life. I went to town for a short time and returned home, this day in common with the preceeding, I have had visits from many officers, some spending the nights with me, all pleasant men, and each man [torn] sympathetic spirits. I [torn] Federal Army [torn] Nothing has yet occurred to change my opinion of them--as men of good character and reprobations the many depredations

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which are being committed by the stragglers of the Army.

9 July. 1864.

        Saturday has pretty much passed away, as the preceeding days, with a few visits among friends in and out of town, trying to cheer and comfort them as cheerless and comfortless as I felt myself-- this afternoon Capt. Rankin informed me (rumor of which I heard yesterday) that all of the Roswell factories had been burnt by order of Gen. Sherman, the causes which prompted the order he did not know; he stated that he had conversed with many of the operatives who had been brought into Marietta, to be sent North; he stated that they all spoke in very bitter terms of my brother (B) and of some other officer there--he thought his name was Camp, they seemed to hate them both with a bitter hatred; he asked them if they knew me, they said yes and spoke in the kindest terms of me.

10 July. Sunday. 1864.

        I went to town but was informed that there would be no Church service. I saw Col. Gleason (Com't of Post) and asked if he would allow Mr. Benedict (the only remaining minister) to have services in his Church he said no, as he would not pray for to Pres't of the U. S. I suggested that he would omit that part of the service, he said no, Mr. B. was too unsound, that he was the most ultra Secessionist he had met. I afterwards learnt that Mr. B. for some days had not been permitted to go beyond the limits of his lot. While in town I

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met Mr. Eldridge and Mr. Bonfoir (the Sup't Of the Roswell Cotton and Wool factories), they inform me of the sad condition of things at Roswell, that the factories had been utterly destroyed and they and all the operatives, men and women, had been arrested and were in Marietta on their way to the North, that with the exception of Brother Pratt's house, every one of the houses of the resp. settlers of Roswell had been broken open and plundered and everything of value had either been taken away or destroyed and done almost entirely by the operatives, that the soldiers had committed but few depredations. What a comment upon the human character. They stated that Brother P. & Cate were both well, but very anxious and wanted to see me; and although I no less anxious to see them, I could not prudently leave here even for a day, with such a multitude of depredators roving over the county. I returned how with many sad feelings. What a world of sin we live in. I would not live always. The greater part of the day I remained at Home, in the afternoon I had much and pleasant company, some performing well on the Piano, others good singers, they refreshed me by playing and singing much pleasant sacred music. I told than not to sing Home, Sweet Home, that I did not want to hear it until I and my wife were within the same lines. Today closes one week since I have been under Yankee [torn]. I thank God that my experiences far exceeded my most sanguine anticipations. I have suffered but little annoyance, exclusive of the robbing by the stragglers last Sabbath. I have suffered no more from the soldiers of the Federal Army than from those of our own Army. I have mingled and conversed freely

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with officers and privates. I have not met a single individual whose department and language has not been gentlemanly, nor a word nor opinion has been expressed to me in the least discourteous manner. Although in many cases our opinions materially differed, we pleasantly discussed them. And greatly to my surprise, even among the common soldiers with whom I have also conversed freely, I have seen exhibited no exultant spirit nor expression at our army having so constantly fallen back; but more a spirit of sympathy for us, and simply a desire to avoid any expression which might be painful to me. All which I have seen compels me to admire the men--they do not seem to feel any hatred toward us, but speak favorably of our army and our people, they say we are one people, the same language, habits and religion, and ought to be one people, they have a higher opinion of the people of the South than before the war; and I am sure even an ultra So. Carolinian can never again say that 1 So. Ca'n can whip 5 Yankees, to have effected such a change of sentiment North and South toward the people of both sections, has been one of the favorable results of this sad war.

11 July. 1864.

        This morning a Brigade of Cavalry under Gen. McCook, Com'd, with a supply train encamped here, past from the front towards Lost Mountain. Yesterday afternoon 2 of the men with the supply train had broken into one of the servant's rooms and was committing depredations, one of the servants (Tabby) came into the House and informed

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me, I stated the fact to Capt. Rankin, who was writing in the house at the time, he immediately jumped up and went to the servant's house. The men had left. He ordered a Possy of men to pursue and take them, in less than 1/4 of an hour then were taken, identified and secured; this morning their case was represented to Gen. McCook, he ordered that they should be placed in irons and sent to the front for trial and punishment. I went to town in the morning, visited some friends and found all things going on quietly. I asked Col. Gleason if there was any objection to my visiting the Rev. Mr. Benedict, as I understood he was confined to his lot, he said I could visit him whenever I desired, I spent 1/2 hour with him and Mrs. B.--these trying times make us all feel a warm sympathy for each other. Nothing of importance has occurred today.

12 July. 1864.

        I visited town as usual this morning and was informed James King had been taken prisoner on Saturday and was then in town to be sent North. I tried to find him among the prisoners and learnt that he had already been sent off which I greatly regretted, not being able to see him and knowing the great anxiety of his family and friends. What sufferings have been occasioned by this sad, useless war--how much happier would we all be had not the political demagogues North and South been permitted to force this war upon a happy, prosperous people. Mr. Goodman this morning informed of a pleasant incident of which he was a witness on Sabbath last, he with a few others had

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attended the burial in the graveyard of a child of a poor woman who was a refugee from the county, she was greatly afflicted, at the grave he met a Federal officer (Capt'n) who had prepared the grave and who he then learnt had assisted in attending the sick child, procured the coffin and prepared the grave, he stood by the poor mother, comforting her, while the Federal soldiers were filling up the grave, and when done the poor mother overcome with grief, threw herself on the grave, the Federal officer knelt by her side speaking comforting words, some higher spots still left in the Human heart, not all godforsaken. We had some rain last night to lay the dust. The flies have been more numerous and annoying for a month past than I have ever known before. Mr. Bonfoir just from Roswell delivered me a message from Sister Cate and Bro. P. to go to see them, as they were anxious to consult with me about their exposed situation and the propriety of their moving into the Southern lines. I feel greatly for them, but I cannot prudently leave home, I will write to them by the first opportunity to remove all of their supplies here and to come and stay with me, we may be able to mittigate each other's anxieties and trials. Their situation I know is much exposed to the multitude of Robbers.

13 July. 1864.

        I made a few visits in and about town this morning. Large Federal forces have been passing since yesterday, all night and this morning, from the front towards Roswell it is supposed, as it is

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surmised Johnson is massing a large force there. May God protect Bro. P. and Sister Cate from being in the vicinity of a battle. Our good and gentlemanly Com't (Col. Gleason) has today been ordered with his brigade to the front, his successor is Col. Ross; during the short interval of the change of Comm'ts many depredations have been committed, and all [torn] recalled, good new ones had not been placed by Col. Ross, [torn] Fitch and myself immediately called on Col. Ross at the Military Institute, and represented Mr. Benedict's case, he at once provided a guard for his protection. I found my neighbor, Mrs. McClatchy, in great distress, her guard having been withdrawn, and the Robbers about her House awaiting their favorable opportunity. I called on Col. Ross who had removed his Head Quarters into town and he provided a guard for her, who I took out with me, and thus had the gratification of cheering her up as I had done many times before; the assistance I have been able to render her and others has greatly compensated me for the deprivations I have been called to endure in my separation from my own Home. Col. Flag today informed me that his cook was such a poor one he would like to join his mess and his Brother-in-law's (Cambell) with me, which was gratifying to me, to afford me company, and our united supplies would afford better provisions for the servants and myself. In the afternoon my good young Guard (Wm. Vickers 35 Ohio) had to leave me & join his Reg' t in front, he is the 5th. Guard I have had, and has been with me for near a week, he was such a fine fellow, I formed quite a strong attachment for him-- being now well protected by the officers around me, I can safely do

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without a guard so long as they remain. This afternoon Rev'd Wm. Holsinger (Chaplain of 1st. Tenn. Cav.) stopped with us & will probably remain some days, he is a Cumberland Presbyterian from Ea: Tenn. How often do I wish I could write home to my wife & hear from her, this interruption of intercourse is now one of my greatest trials, being kept in perfect ignorance of their condition & anxious about her, if I could only inform her how comfortable I was situated, it would diminish my anxieties, & this painful state of anxious feelings may exist for months--cut off from all whom I love & for whose happiness & comfort I chiefly desire to live. In God I must place my trust & abide His time.

14 July, 1864.

        I remained at Home this morning, & have heard nothing to excite nor depress me, this day as for days past has been dry & hot, during the morning a part of Gen'l McCook's cavalry passed through ret'ing from Lost Mountain. Col. Brownlow informed me they had taken upon many men, soldiers & Citizens for misdemeanors. In the afternoon I went to town to make a few visits, the Rain interrupting me in part. I saw several of the Roswell factory operatives. Mr. Wood among the number on their war to the North, having a Letter to send to my Sister (Mrs. P.) & hearing that Mrs. Gossett was going to Roswell today, I went to see her & gave her the Letter, as it was raining heavily, I remained some time with her in her Room which was very poorly furnished. I noticed a very rich Mahogany Beaureau, with a large glass on Marble

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slab, a piece of furniture which was probably worth $75. a marked contrast with the rest of her plain & scanty furniture, it occasioned some painful suspicions of the manner in which she became possessed of it. I heard the Report in town of a large portion of Wheeler's Cavalry being on this side of the river again--this sad war, how many anxious feelings does it occasion. Will not God soon bring it to a close!

15 July. 1864.

        It rained and blew heavily last evening, this morning pleasant and the dust well laid. I did not go to town, but remained at Home to write letters, hoping that I may be able to get one to my wife via N. Y. I sent one to her in the same way about a week ago, I do not know when that letter will reach her if ever--if I could only communicate to her that I was getting on comfortably and all well, I would be relieved from much anxiety. Heavy firing has been heard this morning towards the South between 9 and 10 o'clock, about a regiment of the Fed. Inf. on foot passed on the R.R. track from front to the rear--but few cars have passed for some days past. I understand that the traveling on the Road above this has been greatly disturbed and endangered by parties of Bushwhackers firing into them as they pass. I have today written my 2nd. letter to my wife via New York. In the afternoon I went into town, heard nothing new, interesting. The Comm't (Col. Ross) was ordered to the front with his Reg't, his successor as Commandant of the Post was Col. Bishop. The change of Commandants

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rendered necessary a change of guards. I found Mrs. McClatchy again in much distress at being without a guard, I endeavored while in town to procure another guard for her without success, I could only get the promise of probably one for her tomorrow--she being very uneasy I got two of the young men about us to sleep in her House tonight. I called to see Col. Howell's family, and found he was that afternoon the father of his 8th. child about two hours old, being my first to him he seemed much gratified to see me as he seldom went out of his house. I have not seen him in town since the arrival of the Federal Army, he informed me that he was getting on well and had had but little annoyance, one of his servant women had left him the day before, but had returned to him again this morning. Our servants are all getting on well, I having but little for them to do, they are enabled to make money by washing and mending for the soldiers. I today heard of the sad condition of Mr. and Mrs. Greenlee Butler, they had remained within the Lines of Judge Irvine's place, he was very feeble, and they in common with all their neighbors had been robbed of all their provisions and nearly everything else. [torn] to go into our Lines the sufferings from the depredations of the robbers is very great. Many who were well supplied for months and some for a year, have been compelled to come to town and perform day work for a living, the man making $30. & $35. per month and the woman 5 cents or 10 cents a piece for washing. Large numbers of families are quitting the county, and going to the North to seek a support for themselves and families--such are the

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consequences of a needless war on domestic comfort and the prosperity of a county.

16 July. 1864.

        This morning dry and pleasant, dust well laid, I went to town, endeavored to get a guard for Mrs. McClatchey and could get the partial promise of one for her this afternoon--nothing new in town, Rev'd Mr. Fitch informed me Mrs. Sex Morris was anxious to see me to advise her in making some arrangements for passing within our Lines. I sent a message to her, that I would try to see her on Monday, but told her that I did not think she would be able to get through the Lines for some time yet, her family had all gone, she and one of her children had been accidentally left. Rev'd Mr. Holsinger left us this morning to preach to his Reg't tomorrow, promising to return on Monday, he is a good companion. I saw several country people today who told me they had been stript of everything they had by the robbers, one told me he had a little left and was dividing with his more needy neighbors, Mr. and Mrs. Butler among the number. I saw a number of Pat Anderson's negroes on the Road to town, women and children, they said they had lost all their provisions, and had to come to town to try and make something to live on, poor creatures they will find it a hard task to take care of so many children, a Master's head and care would now be of much value to them, but the Master was gone and they left to think for themselves. Very few cars running on the Road. I feel quite lonely and dull this evening a country man (Hutchins) who has moved

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with his family into Mr. Russel's house informed me that he and his family (wife and seven children) living about 13 miles from town on the Powder Spring Road, had a good crop and an abundance of provisions, horses, hogs, & cattle, but had been robbed of everything, excepting 2 days' supply of cornmeal by about 50 Federal stragglers, who came to his House at one time, and he was compelled to move to town to find work to support them--and that most of his neighbors had suffered the same fate, and many must starve unless some provision was speedily made for their support. Those of us who have been more favored can do something but not much, the Federal Authorities provide rations in urgent cases--it is appalling to think of the sufferings which await the poor of this county, this present summer many will be compelled to move to [torn]

17th. July. 1864.

        Sabbath again but few Sabbath privileges to be enjoyed. I went to town this morning, and learnt that our Commandant (Col. Bishop) had been withdrawn and his predecessor Col. Ross had been replaced; my letters which had been left with him for examination (one of them to my wife) were given to me to be forwarded, which I placed in the P. O. in making the change the young man handed me a 50 cents change bill, which he very honestly informed me was a counterfeit Postage currency bill. I said Well what could I do with it, and Oh he said they pass as currently as the genuine there are so many of them, and that he would take it from me at any time. I told him that would suit me then,

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and I will reserve it for the P. O. It seemed to me a new way of doing Business. I wrote to my Sister Cate a few days ago, urging them all to move here and stay with me, today I rec'd a reply from Bro. P. stating that they were now getting on very comfortably, since the factory women had all been sent off, and he thought they could safely remain at home as long as the Federal Army remained, when they left they might find it unsafe to remain at Roswell, if so, they move here and stay with me, it would be a comfort for us all to be together, in these sad days. How little could our disunion friends have conceived of the trials and troubles their acts were to bring upon a happy and prosperous people--most of them fleeing away from their Homes. Col. Bishop informed me this morning that there would be preaching in the Presbyterian Church by a member of the Christian Association, I told him I would attend but feeling a little unwell and not liking to be too long away from Home on Sunday, I returned without attending Church, this making 6 Sabbaths since I have attended Church; God grant that peace may soon be restored to our afflicted country. After dinner 3 officers from Gen. Thomas' army, called on me on the way to the front; they were intelligent and gentlemanly men, and promised to make me a longer visit another time. Cannonading was heard this morning toward the S. E. I called to see Mrs. McClatchey this morning, she felt cheerful in having a guard provided for her. I have been trying to get one for her for 2 days, I feel very independent without a guard. I saw Mr. Fitch this morning, he said Mrs.

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Morris was very anxious to see me, I will try & see her tomorrow. Mrs. Goodman informed me that a servant man of General Hindman, who had been attending on him called to see her thismorning, and informed her that in passing over the Chattahoochee he and a number of the soldiers in Gen. H. Division were taken prisoners, that he had been desired to go into the Federal Army, but he stated he could not take arms against his own people and was anxious to return home, which he hoped to be able to do soon.

18th. July. 1864.

        I went to town this morning, and learnt from the Picket Guards that they had new orders today not to let any citizens go into nor to come out of town even with a pass, but he kindly consented to my going in. I saw Col. Ross, the Commandant who [torn] these positive orders from Gen'l Sherman leaving him no discretion. I told him how lonely I was at Home and told him that there were many families of females in town after whose comfort I had to see, he promised to come to see me now and then and said he wanted to try and arrange this matter now and then to give me a special pass to come in and go out of town, and said I must try and bear it patiently for a while. I could not complain having already experienced so much kindness from him and this rigid order seems to have been provoked by the bad conduct of citizens about, chiefly above this, in Bushwhacking and interrupting the cars, a wicked course of conduct on the part of private citizens probably more prompted by the desire of plunder and ravage than any other feeling--the whole

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country in a lawless condition, citizens and soldiers of both armies all alike availing themselves of the distracted state of the country, committing all depredations of plundering and murdering--these are the unavoidable results of war, and which I had foreseen and foretold before this sad and needless war was commenced by Politicians. I saw Mrs. Morris, she was in much distress, and anxious to get within our Lines, I told her it could not be effected just now, but I thought she might be able to get a pass in a few weeks, she begged me to assist her to do so as soon as possible. I told her I would do all I could for her, so soon as I thought Gen. Sherman would grant permission. I saw Mr. and Mrs. Wayland, they were in great distress, having suffered great loss and annoyance. He was very sick and almost lost his mind, both wept bitterly. I could afford them but little comfort, but promised to call and see them again soon. What trials and sufferings many are called to endure. A country and people once so happy now so afflicted, the innocent suffering equally with the guilty--the distress throughout this county is general and severe, few if any have escaped, not from the evil days of the Federal army, but from the army of Robbers which follow in its wake and from the corrupt people living among us. Laws are suspended and the evil passions let loose. I saw Bro. Barrington's 2 men Brunswick and William today, they told me they had been left at Home with their families to take care of things with provisions enough, but all had been taken from them, and having no means of support, they all came over here with the hope of getting work enough to support them, but already found it would be hard for

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them to make a living for themselves and families, and asked if I could not allow them all to come stay with me. I told them I had nothing even for own servants to do here, but told them however if they should be in want to let me know and I would try to assist them, they told me that they could get $20. per mo. but as everything was very high, that amt. would not support them and their families. Today Mrs. McClatchy sent me her milk cow, stating that she could not take care of it, and feared she would lose it. It will be nearly as much exposed with me, but [torn] it for the milk. While in town today, I was informed that our vault in the grave yard had been opened, in returning home I examined it, and found only a part of the Bricks from the opening had been removed, sufficient to enable the heartless Robbers to see that nothing, which they coveted, was concealed therein. I determined that it was better to leave it as it was for the present, as to close it just now with fresh mason work, would only tempt a new band of Robbers to open it a gain. The coffins were all untouched, remaining in their proper places, quiet and unmoved were the remains of the old gentleman and Fanny in the tomb, while so many of their living friends and family were disturbed and almost heartbroken by the sad troubles in the living world above. I could not but feel grateful to God for his mercy in having removed the old gentleman beyond the scene of the sad trials through which we are now passing, as were he now alive, the painful circumstances by which he would have been surrounded, would soon have hastened him to the grave, and he probably not have died the quiet and happy death which he did. How many of

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God's seeming afflictions prove to have been blessings--had he been alive and driven to the Low Country how great and many would have been his anxious cares, had he remained here and witnessed what I now do and have done for near 2 months, the wanton destruction of property on his own premises, and those of his neighbors, the heartless cruelty of some and the severe suffering of others, growing out of this cruel and needless war, in what sorrow would it have brought his gray hairs to the grave. I thank God that he was not compelled to pass through so sad an ordeal--and how cheering a thought it is that the pains and sorrows arising from the wickedness of man, are not to last always, to us who now live they will soon pass away--with the hope of the peace and bliss of Heaven in prospect resignation and even cheerfulness becomes us when we remember that the wickedness of the wicked will soon come to an end and must tend to convince us of the vanity of the hope of perfect happiness in this Life--this wicked war may prove to be one of God's blessings to his people.

19th. July. 1864.

        This morning I have remained at Home, reading and enjoying for a short time the company I had around me, who are very pleasant and intelligent men, with such a good library, had I my wife with me I could be comfortable enough even with the exclusion from town, to which I am now subjected--but knowing as I do how many families there are in town who need sympathy and advice, I must got a special permit (which has been kindly promised to me by the Com't) now and then to go

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and see them; I am not excluded from visiting any [torn] around in the country, having the liberty of the county, but there is no society near me. I must however endure for a time the privation as best I can.--but how long I can be content to remain here without my family or any other company I do not know, were it not for the charge of the servants, I would quit at once and return Home or go to the North, but I cannot well leave them and the property here-- to remain here under existing circumstances may subject me to even a greater annoyance than that of being excluded from town--if the rumors be true that many of our cavalry are in this vicinity, their doings in addition to the many evil disposed persons about, may subject us all to suspicion, and involve us in the consequences of their actions. I think I must so arrange matters as may allow me properly either to go to the North or South for a while, until affairs in this section become more settled, if that happy day can be again before the return of peace, which I fear cannot be, how sorely the fountains of happiness have been broken up by this war. I have not been away from Home today. In the afternoon Mr. Shepard made me a visit, he like myself being excluded from town. This afternoon I was pained to learn that the large cavalry encampment around me (under Capt. Rankin) had received orders to advance nearer the front about Vining Station, and that they would all leave tomorrow, this will prove an additional curtailment of my few enjoyments, they have now been with me 2 weeks, and although many minor depredations have been

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committed by some of the men, all the officers and most of the men are intelligent gentlemen many of whom will be remembered with many pleasant feelings and hopes of a future meeting of them.

20th. July. 1864.

        I called to see Mrs. McClatchy this morning, found her son better and all in more cheerful spirits. I heard nothing new but the rumor that some of our Cavalry in small bodies were about east and west of us, and some apprehension of their making raids upon the town, for the interruption of which trees had been cut and thrown across the Road near Col. Brumby's House. At 11 o'clock today the whole wagon train and horses left us, leaving the desolating marks of an army encampment behind them, fences pretty generally destroyed and the improvement of the place greatly marred, what a devastator is war. Not a chicken nor a pig left on the place; and when about leaving Sharpe informed me they were about taking off our lame mule which by the by I thought had been taken long before. The mule was too lame for much service, still they found she might be made of some service to them, and they needed her, as she would probably be soon stolen from me when well. I agreed with the Capt. (Rankin) if she proved fit for service, he would give me a voucher of value for payment--after all had left I found some one had taken off Old Gentleman's fishing buggy; we have however fared much better than we expected & much better than many others. Among the officers and men encamped about me, who have afforded me much agreeable society, are Maj. Flagg of Rogersville, Tenn.--Capt. Wm. A. Rankin of Lawrence,

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Kansas, Kansas, A Q M 1 Cav. Div.--Capt. C. S. Garfield of Newburgh, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, W.H. Daniell, Pottsville and Mahoney City, Schuylkill Co. Penn. and W. L. G. Soule, Lawrence, Kansas. I separated with them all with much regret. Maj. Flagg being in ill health and sympathizing with me in my lonely condition, has consented to remain with me a few days longer, greatly relieving me from my anticipated loneliness. Capt. Rankin advises me to bring the Ladies up, and the servants wish me also to do so, but all things look so dreary and lonely and we having neither poultry nor garden and none to be had in the neighborhood, they had better remain where they are now for a while longer, here for a while they would almost feel like prisoners, for almost such do I feel myself to be, so much so in addition to the danger of being innocently implicated in depredations which may be committed by Bushwhackers and Raiders, that I think I had better go to the North for 1 or 2 months, hoping that a more settled state of things may pass over our afflicted country within that time, than now exists. Capt. Rankin (who seems to be a rough, and quiet but good officer) before leaving today, informed me, that at his home in Lawrence, Kansas my People had turned his wife and family out of doors and destroyed his House and all its contents, and that he had sworn, that the first good Library and Piano he found among the Rebels he meant to take them to replace his which had been burnt, and that ours seemed exactly to meet the case, but that he could not think of disturbing anything I had, and we cordially bade each

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other goodbye. Capt. Garfield the Commissary, informs me that he has been often robbed by their own men, and that they 2 nights ago had robbed him largely of Hams and other provisions, 1 of the wagoners was suspected and arrested; the Robbers steal from the Rebels, negroes and their own people alike; stealing and not patriotism moves them, the thieves infest both armies, but the Federal Army is more largely attended. I discover they have either destroyed or stolen the Ploughs and most of the Spades and Hoes, but few things with us seem to have been wantonly destroyed, at other places I notice much has been destroyed from mischief and badness, such as the breaking of windows, glasses, and defacing walls, etc.--general lawlessness pervades the whole country.

21 July. 1864.

        Last night we were disturbed by Robbers, between 10 and 11 o'clock, in a bright moonlight, two men on horseback came in the yard, and stopped under the trees near the well. I asked what they wanted, they replied that they were in search of the train encampment of the 2 div. Cavalry. I informed them that the 1st. Cavalry Div. train had been encamped here but had left during the day, but could give them no information of the 2nd. They rode off toward the western side of the house, where Maj'r Flagg for safety had placed his two horses, under the house, hearing the Maj. and his man in motion below, I gave the men no further attention, as I had a bad cold I returned to Bed, for some time I heard the Maj. and his man, this morning he

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informed me, that he soon discovered the rascals had stolen one of his Horses, he pursued them to their encampment nearby, as he had taken a near road, he got there ahead of them, saw the Capt. and had the men arrested when they came up, on suspicion, but as they had no Horse with them, & as his Horse he found at the gate on his return without the Halter, he presumes he broke loose from them. Tonight I will put them in the cellar for safety. The Maj'r says about 2 o'clock he was disturbed again by the sound of the Piano, he went to see who was there, and found that the Piano had been carelessly left open, and a rat was running over the keys. He lost so much sleep that he is this morning making up the loss, and Mr. Fletcher called to see me this morning he in common with the rest of us out and in town are prohibited from passing the Lines, he says while going into town a few days ago in his wagon with a load of wood at noon, a band of thieves met him on the road and took away one of his Horses, there is but little safety in moving about now, the strict orders prohibiting going in or out of town just now, I think, is attributable to the apprehension of a raid on Marietta, where the government has a large am't of stores, it is reported that for some days past Conf. Scouts have been seen about at no great distance from the town. The cars are now running more numerously toward the river. Excluded as we are in the country we can gather but little news--I am provided with no guard yet. Long wagon trains are constantly passing up and down the Road. The flies exceed in number and annoyance anything of the kind I have ever known, leaving no comfort for man or beast.

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22 July. 1864.

        Not feeling very well last night from a cold and some feverish feeling, I went to bed early, but had rather a restless night; this morning I feel pretty well again, my cold has pretty much passed off. May God in his goodness deliver me from sickness this summer, to be even unwell with my wife away from me and I so lonely would be sad suffering to me, but I must put my trust in God and be resigned. Major Flagg and his man left me this morning to go to the River, he will probably return tonight--with no other white person in the house but myself, I cannot prudently leave it even for a few minutes at a time, there are so many robbers prowling about in the day as well as night, they have no regard to the negroes. I have written another letter to my wife hoping I may have an opportunity of getting it off. I will continue to write regularly to her, although I fear but few of my letters will ever reach her--it is painful to be so separated without the means of communicating with each other how much more happiness were we permitted to enjoy, before this cruel, stupid politicians' war was inaugurated!

        Large droves of Beef cattle are this morning being driven to the front; the Beef which accompany the Federal Army are very fine, being large and fat, I learn they are mostly from Ohio--the multitude of dead horses and mules about is a great nuisance, about a dozen have been recently burnt within a few hundred yards of the House, and 5 more remaining to be done something with--war is a calamity to beast as well as Man; yet ambition and bad men will often involve a happy

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country in war with but little provocation. So God deals with his creatures for the sins of a few. Maj. Flagg and his man returned home this afternoon, but to leave me for good tomorrow. I heard this evening that Gen'l Rousseau had a cavalry raid as far as Montgomery and had burnt a part of the town, and that he had burnt the R.R. bridge at West Point, I asked if there had been any fighting there, yes, but not much, that Gen'l R. had 12 men killed, but no information could be given me of the loss on our side; how this intelligence overwhelmed me with anxiety knowing that our dear boy was stationed there with Gen'l. Capers to aid in protecting that bridge, knowing nothing of his fate, nor could I learn for a long time. How many fearful forebodings of evil will force themselves on my depressed heart, in God will I place my trust, he is wise and good, he will overrule all things well, whatever man in his wickedness and weakness may try to do, God will overrule all for the good of His children, could we only feel with true confidence that we were of the Household of faith how cheerfully resigned would we be to the many trials of life and be ready to depart and be at peace in Heaven, how blessed are the dead, who have died in the Lord--this sad, cruel war, upon whom rest the great sin of having involved this happy, peaceful prosperous country in it? May God deal with his accustomed mercy in punishing His weak and sinful creatures.

23d. July. 1864.

        I feel pretty well again this morning, my cold having pretty

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nearly passed off. I went to see Mrs. McClatchy yesterday afternoon, she kindly requested me to come and stay with them if I got sick, I could not bear to be sick alone at Home. I now suffer more in spirits than in body, I hope after a few days we may be allowed the privilege of going into town again. The greater part of this morning we have heard heavy firing of cannon toward the S.E. I learnt last evening that the Federal forces had gone into Atlanta the previous afternoon, but have heard none of the particulars. I hope the citizens did not abandon their homes as they did here, as painful as it is to be restricted as we are here, it is a duty to remain at home and give personal attention to one's interests, the path of duty is the path of safety, running away from Home even before an enemy is cowardice and weakness--my stay here though subjecting me to many inconveniences, has been and still is a source of much gratification in affording me an opportunity of knowing the character of the Federal Army, and understanding their feelings and plans and so far none, even among privates in their intercourse with me have manifested any other feelings than those which are kind and gentlemanly. I have had nothing to pain me in my free intercourse with them, but everything has tended to allay any unkind feelings which I may have previously entertained and I truly wish all our ultra disunion men of the South could have enjoyed the same privilege I have for the past 3 weeks-- both in sorrows and in joys. I had a number of visitors last night who spent the night with me and left early in the morning. Maj. H.C.

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Flagg left me after an early dinner today for his command in front, much to my sorrow, he has been with me over two weeks having been quite unwell. I formed a strong attachment for him, although an ultra union man, he is a man of generous and warm sympathies, fine talent, and well educated, a native of Virginia near Martinsburg, a lawyer residing at Rogersville, Ea. Ten. about 30 years old with a wife & 2 children; his sufferings and losses he says have been great by the destruction of his property in Rogersville. He often said to me he thoroughly condemned the robberies and destruction of property which was so often done by soldiers, but that if I knew as well as he did, how many of them had suffered severely in the same way and among their friends at their Homes, I would understand what demon passions had been roused, and how difficult a duty it was for the officers to keep their men in check--the brute passions had been aroused, and it seemed nothing short of brute gratification could appease it. I had a short visit this afternoon from 3 young men connected with the Commissary department in town, they asked me visit them when I went to town. Gen'l Rousseau came to town last evening with his command. They are encamped at the Military Hill. I was gratified to hear this afternoon that he had not made an attack on the West Point Bridge, it being too strongly guarded, thus relieving me from much of my anxiety about the safety of our dear little boy--nor had he gone to Montgomery. Mr. Shepard and young McClatchy called to see me today, an old man and wife who live near Ruff's Station, also made me a visit,

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they say they have been pretty much robbed of everything and they had been trying to get to town to get something to live on, but they would not be allowed to go in; that they had some corn but there was no mill to grind, that some of the soldiers told them that we had a handmill here, and asked me if we would allow them to grind on it. I told them that they or any of their neighbors could do so, he said they have been pounding their corn in a mortar, they said they would come on Monday with corn to grind. How great and many are the sufferings of the poor.

        Mrs. McClatchy informed me that when Gen'l Rousseau's Cavalry passed the House yesterday afternoon she noticed one of their soldiers lashed down on his horse, his head tied down on the neck, she inquired the cause, and was informed that he had been caught stealing a chicken on the road, and he had been tied all day in that manner for punishment. The heavy firing has continued all day and still continues at dark.

24 July. 1864.

        Sabbath but no Sabbath variations for me, all the days of the week seem alike to me and the servants, no Church and no privilege to visit town, I have to remain at our lonely House, even the poor servants seem depressed in spirits at the disjointed state of affairs, the only cheering thought to me is, time is passing away, and if our lives are spared, within a few months I and my family will probably

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be at our quiet happy Home again, when there will again be some motive to live--the servants seem dull at the very monotony of life, what an affliction idleness is--not even a garden, chickens, nor pigs to afford us employment, I can vary the scene and enjoy myself by reading, but the servants are deprived of even this lonely enjoyment of life. I feel very lonely this pleasant, bright, cool day, no company--and hearing constantly this morning the heavy cannonading at the S.E. which I am informed was kept up the most of last night - man killing his brother man, like beast of prey, without even the excuse of hunger or passion towards each other--and I am in ignorance if one ofmy poor children may not be among the slain; this sad war, this war brought on by the corruption of politicians-- how often are my feelings painfully excited toward that class of human demons, for whose corrupt occupation I have all my life felt the bitterest contempt, the most of them would willingly despoil Heaven for an office. In my dull spirits I made neighbor Sheppard a visit of 2 hours this morning, but there learnt nothing to cheer me, although all their family were together, they were about as dull as I am all alone--nothing without to cheer me, I must place my trust more in God relying on his goodness, wisdom and power. I hear many of our poor fellows have been brought up prisoners within a few days past, I could see none of them, being excluded from town. What a life to live, were it not for the buoyant hopes of the future to cheer.

        This afternoon I visited Mrs. Brown and Mrs. Brewer[?]. Mrs. Brown

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has lost nearly all of the little she had, and continued to be pilfered all the time--living on the high pathway to Atlanta, constantly travelled by wagons, horsemen and footmen--the old woman is all alone, excepting a little daughter of Mrs. Brown's she had with her. Mrs. Brewer [?]says she has had but little stolen from her, excepting her cow and calf which had been taken. I could not but think the cause of her exemption indoors was either she had nothing to steal, or the want of cleanliness may have disarmed the Robber's voraciousness. Mrs. Brown says 2 soldiers stopped at her House and asked what kind of man I was, she said a good one. They inquired if I was a Union Man, she said the people called me so, they said how could he be a Union man and had so many d--m negroes about me, she says she heard some of them say, and I have heard the same remark the soldiers, that they hated the Negro race, and they would as quickly shoot a negro as a dog--one said to me and he was a western man, that such was his hatred to the negro that rather the negroes should be sent among them, or even kept in this country, he was willing the war should continue for 7 years longer if only to kill the Negroes off. What is to become of this poor race after this War God only knows, we can only hope and trust that he will so overrule all things, as to result in the advancement of their happiness and usefulness--during my absence from Home, Maria said I had missed much good company, that many gentlemen had called to see me, and some had waited a long time for my return, they did not leave their names, some she said were "big officers." Towards evening, I went over to

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Mrs. McClatchy and made them a short visit, and found her like myself very anxious about her sons in the Cadet Batt'n. I told her we must try and place our trust in a merciful God, but my own heart was very, very full with anxiety about my children so exposed to danger in this sad war, a war towards which I have always been exposed, and after supper I returned to my solitary room, read until Bedtime, and was soon released from my anxious cares by sleep, but I am now too anxious about my family to sleep as soundly as usual.

25 July. 1864.

        Another day of trial and anxiety has come, all nature seems cheerful, the skies bright and clear and the weather very cool for the season, and after Breakfast as I could not go to town I walked to the Picket station near the Graveyard, gave one of them a letter to take to the P.O. for me and asked him to inquire for letters there for me, I sat there some time with them and on my return made Mr. Marks (at Col. Brumby's House) family a long visit where I met two Federal officers, there I learnt that the report of the Federal Army having entered Atlanta some days ago was untrue, and that they were still out of it up to yesterday evening, that the fighting on Thursday and Saturday was very severe and the loss large on both sides, that on Thursday Gen'l McPherson (one of the best of the Fed. Gen'ls) was killed and Gen'l Hardee was killed on Saturday and a large number of other officers on both sides, and the sacrifice of men great on both sides, how this needless war is spreading mourning and distress throughout our once prosperous and almost perfectly happy county--if the

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politicians were out of the way, how soon could the afflicted people reconcile their differences, and terminate this appalling and wicked sacrifice of Life and happiness. One of the officers (Capt. Krif) who I met at Mr. Marks' seeing my great anxiety about our dear little boy, very kindly offered to examine among the prisoners whenever they come up, to learn if he should be among them, should he ever be one I will follow him and share his fate wherever he go, for this purpose he wrote down his mane and command, I still hope however, that the Cadets may be stationed at the West Point Bridge. It is reported that 1100 Conf. Prisoners came up today. Some difficulties seem to be apprehended above that Gen'l Rosseau's Cavalry which had just reached here from Ala. and expected to remain here at rest for 2 or 3 weeks was hurried off on Saturday evening and a large Cavalry force passed up on the Atlanta road on Saturday evening. We are kept in perfect ignorance of the causes of these moves--an old man (Hendricks) and his two little boys came some miles today with corn on their backs to grind on our mill. I gave them about 1 peck of Rough Rice. Mr. Sheppard made me a visit this afternoon and so did Mrs. Brown, but neither had any news worth recording. Mrs. Brown related her troubles and losses but all did not amount to much excepting her cow, and knives and forks--her condition now is nearly Robberproof, excepting her little garden, which she says has been spared. In the evening I went to the Picket Line to inquire if they had any letter for me, but they had inquired and found none. I returned to my solitary home for the night.

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26th. July. 1864.

        The weather cold and pleasant but very smoky--Mr. Sheppard sent over his son this morning for a Horse, as I had informed him that I had on the premises many rejected Horses, which could be made serviceable after a while, one I intended to take care of to plough up a spot of ground for Turnips, although we are taking care of him with the full conviction that he will be stolen from us, so soon as he can be made of any service. We must plant some Turnips and Cabbages for a winter garden, thinking it very probable that the Ladies may have to spend the winter, as the condition of our Home in the Low Country a few months hence is very uncertain. I have not gone from home this morning, during the morning Capt. Krif called to see me and spent about 2 hours with me, he informed me that he had enquired among the prisoners about our little son, but hear nothing of the Batt. of Cadets, so I hope they are still at West Point. The Capt. very kindly promised to continue his enquiries after our boy, & that as I was so lonely, he would come to see me every day or two. [torn] a Capt. stopped with took dinner & spent a few [torn] left for Marietta, he this morning left the neyhbour of Atlanta, he said the Federal Army was within 2 or 3 miles of the City, but had not got there yet, that the fighting on Thursday and Saturday was very severe, & the loss in killed & wounded on both sides was heavy, theirs particularly so on Saturday, that our loss in prisoners was large, but he did not know what number of Prisoners they had lost. We hear some cannonading

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today but not much. I made Mrs. McClatchy a short visit this afternoon & then returned to my lonely home.

27th. July. 1864.

        2 gentlemen from Capt. Rankin's train stopped about 8 o'clock & spent the night with me, after breakfast they left for Marietta. About 7 o'clock a Company of Cavalry under Capt. Shultz connected with Gen. Gerard's Division came up & encamped under the Trees, they were just from Roswell and now passing around to the West. One of the officers told me he saw & spoke to Bro. Pratt yesterday, that they were well, & seemed to be getting on comfortably, that a Regiment of Inf'y had been sent to Roswell to remain on duty there, which would afford them protection. So soon as the men had got their Horses fixed, they commenced prowling about for plunder no doubt, I had to keep a close watch on them. Some had got into the kitchen and were taking off things, I made them replace them & leave, others had forced the cellar door and were overhauling, I made them quit & again fastened the door. Nothing outside of the doors was safe without close watching, but as I had weeks ago had every thing of much value, even the unshucked corn, placed within the House, there was very little to watch out of it, & the House & all within I could very easy protect even without a guard; I notice a number of men closely looking into the Box bushes in the circular garden, so thoroughly searching it excited my own curiosity. I said to them you can find nothing there, they said O Yes, we found some apples hid--their predecessors, I

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presume had hid them. After they had made a general search all over the premises, they seemed to come to the conclusion, either I had nothing to steal, or that I had placed all beyond their reach, and became quieted --during the day a number of wagons have camped about, and they think it probable they may have to be stationed here for some days. Also a Cavalry Co. under Com'd of Capt. Irwin, with a Captain Scott, a young & intelligent Irishman, and one with very just & liberal in his sentiments, all of them are agreeable companions apparently. Mr. Shepard came to see me this afternoon in much distress; he wanted a guard, the soldiers have been committing depredations, & so many stragling about him, he felt apprehension of further annoyances. One of the soldiers about me got drunk this afternoon, and became very unruly, all the officers being absent, the men could not control him, he broke into Sharper's House & run him, he ran to me for protection in the House. I went out to see after one of his officers, but none were there. I got the other men to keep him from disturbing the negroes & to keep him away from their Houses, he is the first unruly & bad one I have yet come accross, but he was crazy from drinking, and I expect naturally bad,--he cursed the "damned Nigger" and said he would like to kill the whole race. He has greatly alarmed the servants. What a sad fate awaits the poor Negro race--the drunken soldier cursed them & said they were the cause of this war, the prevailing feeling of this army as far as I have been able to notice, is bitter hatred towards the poor negroes, and the officers having employed so many of

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them as servants about them, tends greatly to increase the hatred of the soldiers. Large trains of Wagons have been passing nearly all the afternoon towards Marietta & many encamping all around us, these with the many Cavalry command all about, require great watchfulness to guard against depredations. I get along with them very well, by mixing & talking freely with them, watching them, & keeping every thing out of reach, keeping nearly every thing in the House, & the doors always locked--to leave any thing exposed for a few minutes, is certain loss, such is War among civilized & enlightened men, and the men of our own army, from my own experience, are but little if any better. We feel a pitiable contempt for the natives of the Pacific Islands for their aptness & habit of stealing, they cannot well surpass the soldiers in the Army. Most of them to feel as if robbing their friends & enemies alike is a part of their duty as soldiers, & I think it probable many of them enter the Army chiefly for the purpose of Robbing. I truly wish all the advocates of this sad war could partake of my painful experiences for the past 2 months, to convince them of the Evils of War, & of my wisdom in having been so opposed to this War. They would be more reluctant in future to involving a happy & prosperous country in such a War as we now have upon us, but many of them will never have much personal experience of its evils & calamities, to understand fully its terrors.

28th. July. 1864.

        I had a quiet night last night & slept well, the passing away of each day adds to the cheering feeling, the knowledge that my sad

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separation from my family & friends has been reduced one day; but how many days more remain for this painful separation, & how many of us will be, at its termination, permitted to meet each other on earth God alone knows. Soon after Breakfast this morning, Capt. Irwin having left for town, some of his men commenced annoying the servants, & were in Sharper's House taking their things, as he had no officers at hand I had to act the part by making them put back his property & shut up his House, so soon as I left they renewed their depredations. I was about going for [torn] when fortunately Col. Egleston leading the whole Reg't [torn] to the House with the Balance of his Command, the disturbers immediately became as quiet as Lambs. The Col. & his Regiment will probably remain with us for some time, I hope so, as all the officers I have seen are gentlemanly pleasant men, and will afford me agreeable company & afford me the opportunity of visiting about a little more, feeling confident all things at Home will be kept safe & in good order while I am away. Yesterday I was compelled to remain at Home the whole day to protect the negroes. I have made the servants move all their property into the H ouse, where I may protect them from the thieves. Young McClatchy came to me this morning before Col. Egleston came, saying that the Robbers had been annoying & stealing from them, & they wanted a guard. I sent him to Maj'r Rider who was about 1/4 mile off, who I felt confident would provide him with a guard. I will go over this afternoon and see how they are getting on. I have felt much sympathy for them. I was informed this morning that

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an extensive raid under Gen'l Stoneman (15,000 Cavalry) had left a few days ago for the South, probably to release the prisoners at Andersonville. My anxiety has been greatly excited by information today, that an expedition was probably on foot of a large force under Gen'l Banks, being sent from New Orleans to attack Savannah soon. If such be the case, what is my wife, Mother and Aunt to do? Could I be there to advise them, I would urge them to leave & come up to Marietta. I know they could get permission to pass through the Lines, and here we could endure our trials and troubles and enjoy our pleasures together. I truly fear the great anxieties of this Summer & the warm climate of Sav'h will wear out my wife and the old ladies. I often wish I could be with them to extend my sympathy and advice. I think I ought to get permission to pass the Lines and bring them all home. I am at a loss to determine what to do. What an amount of sad anxiety this terrible War occasions to us, who have had no agency in bringing it on. We can only confide in God's wisdom and goodness & do whatever we may deem to be our duty, and leave the results to Him. I this afternoon rec'd a Letter from Brother Ralph dated Saratoga Springs 19th July in reply to my Letter to him of the 7th. inst. urging me to make them a visit, which I would gladly do, if I can so arrange affairs as to prudently leave the servants, but fear for their protection I will have to remain at my present lonely home. O for one half hours talk and conference with my wife, Mother and Aunt, as this privilege I cannot have, I must pray to God to guide us all in the discharge of our duty. I made a short visit this

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afternoon to Mrs. McClatchy, she had got a guard, and was getting on very comfortably, but felt some anxiety in consequence of one of the pickets about 200 yds. from her house had been fired at about 1 o'clock, causing an apprehension that Bushwhackers were near her. Having much company now Home is not so lonely.

29 July. 1864.

        I had a comfortable nights rest last night & no noise about. Col. E. had appointed guards [torn] of the House, with the officers with me, everything is orderly & quiet; without them I have to act officer myself. I made Mr. Shepard a visit this morning, all getting on well, but he getting very anxious to make such a disposition of his 37 Bales Cotton as to enable him & his family to leave for the North, he like myself getting very anxious to get to town, but we still are excluded and this Bushwacky excitement will keep us the longer out. Some of the soldiers told me this morning that it was reported that some of our Guerillas had been seen in the neybourhood. The provost Marshall from town was here yesterday, I asked what probability there was us country people being allowed to go to town, he said it was very uncertain. I asked if they would give me permission to go to the North, he said they would any time I may desire to go, if I am to be excluded from town long, I will either go North or South, provided I can get some good family to take care of the House & servants during my absence, for I cannot leave without some careful person in charge, without every thing would soon be destroyed or

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stolen, & the servants driven to find some thing to eat. As anxious as I am to be away from this solitary Home, I cannot leave as things are. Messrs. Shepard & Goodman are much disappointed and annoyed at the delay in arranging for their cotton to enable them to leave here for the North. The Government will not yet consent to cotton being sold or shipped to the North, which compells them to remain. I heard this afternoon that there had been some fighting the day before yesterday to the West of Atlanta near G. but have not heard the result. We heard the heavy cannonading, every severe fight increases my anxiety about our little boy.

30 July. 1864.

        I went to see our neighbour Mr. Marks (at Col. Brumby's) this morning, I found the old man quite unwell & has been so for some time, they are getting on pretty well, they like myself feel much anxiety about their son in Johnson's Army--how many poor hearts are burdened & breaking by this needless war. What a joyful day will it be to me when peace returns. God grant that it may not be far distant; all the Federal soldiers I converse with seem as anxious as I am for peace, that they may be allowed to their families & domestic enjoyments at Home--all the feelings they express seem kind & sympathizing with us. My intercourse with them has greatly elevated my opinion of the character & feelings of the Federal Army. I have but little bitterness expressed except towards the poor negro, they all seem to hate those poor creatures. Mr. Shepard called to see me

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this morning while I was absent from Home. I made Mrs. McClatchy a short visit [torn] all pretty well & comfortable. I learnt that the firing at the Picket a few [torn] only a little mischief of some of his comrades, as he was a new soldier, they only wanted to frighten him a little, they shot above his Head. I was gratified to learn from Col. E. this evening that it was rumored, & which I hope may prove true, that Gen'l Johnson had again assumed command of our Army, as Hood would soon kill off all our poor men in fighting, an act which the nobleness of Gen. J's heart will not allow him to do, for the cause of humanity I sincerely hope that Gen'l J. has again assumed the command. I saw a poor woman yesterday evening with her little son on Horseback, going into town to seek protection, from the Federal Army, she informed me that the Bushwhackers & Guerillas had been to her house in the morning, and had threatened to kill her husband who was sick in bed, & to destroy every thing she had. She had fortunately got her husband off for town in a wagon before she left, & desired help to move her little property to town. She lives near Powder Springs; as bad as it is to be in the wake of an Army, it in much worse to be on the Wings, where you are constantly exposed to the danger of inroads from the stragglers & scouts from both Armies. What terrors & cruelties accompany Wars.

31 July. 1864.

        Another Sabbath has come, without its accompanying enjoyments, all bustle & noise, with the regular performance of secular duties.

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I asked Col. E. why he had no Chaplain to his Reg't, he said they had one at first, but though he was a good & learned Man, he finding he could do no good, resigned & they have had none since. I am almost tempted to offer him my services while he remains here, but do not know how acceptable it would be. I think I will delay it for another Sabbath, should they remain here so long, he says many of his men are religious men, and hold prayer meetings regularly. I must form the acquaintance of some of them, as I am not allowed to go to town to attend Church, nor do I know if there are any Church services there. None of us county people are allowed to go to town nor the town people to come in the county--a great privation to me. Mr. Shepard with his 2 little daughters made me a visit this morning. Capt. Scott has been sick with fever for 2 days in the House, he is better today. We had a good dinner today, Col. E. having sent me a fine piece of Beef for roasting, regular genuine Yankee Beef. Maria cooked it in fine style & I had Col. E. & 2 of his officers to dine. We all acted well our part, I praising the Beef which was very fine, much better than any of Shugirts, & they praising the cooking. We have had a rainy day today. Rain much needed. I have written a Letter to my Wife to go by New York. How I wish I could see them all, the hope in the future is all which cheers. Col. E. informs me this evening that he has orders to leave with his Reg't at 5 o'clock in the morning to protect the Wagon train to Buckhead near Atlanta, how lonely again will it leave me to leave such pleasant company as he & his officers have been; they have added greatly to my comfort, I went to bed early this evening as I intended to be up early in the morning, knowing that stragglers would remain behind.

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1st. Aug't. 1864.

         It cheers me to know that a new month has commenced--how very anxious am I that this anxious & melancholy summer should pass away; and God only knows what better awaits us in the winter. I heard yesterday that the Pickets had shot a Bushwhacker near Kennesaw Mountain, they are getting uncomfortably near about, the whole county is becoming lawless, and will be moreso as the Army is farther removed from Marietta, their force afford us much protection. These Lawless Men, from all I can learn, consists of citizens, and Federal & Conf't stragglers & deserters, they will attack any one, their object seems to be robbery. A soldier with his face badly cut up informed me today that while coming out of town at 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon, he was attacked near the grave yard by 2 of his fellow soldiers, beaten & robbed of about $18. which he had with him. Col. B. B. Eggleston left this morning with his Reg't at 5 o'clock, he is a very good, sensible man about 50 years old, a farmer near Chillicothe Ohio, but his family just now being at Huntsburg, Geauga County, Ohio, to educate the children; he has a wife & 5 children, the oldest a boy of 18 years. I hope to see him again, his officers were all pleasant men. After the Reg't had left one of the stragglers remained behind for robbing, he was a little intoxicated, and seemed determined to get in the House and desired me to open the door after he had looked all around & found he could not get in, I told him no, he replyed if I did not he would break in. I told him he would find

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that a dangerous business, in the mean time I had sent to Majr Riter for a guard. I kept him out of the House for some time being outside with him, finally I presume he thought there might be some danger, he quit. The guard (Cummings) come up soon after, the other stragglers about then left. It is over 2 weeks that I have now done without a guard, not feeling much apprehension of danger, but the stragglers becoming more numerous & daring, I think I will retain a guard with me; it will allow me to go more frequently from the House, without a guard I have to remain at Home nearly all the time. The servants will not consent to [torn] them to go to the North. It rained heavily this morning, the afternoon [torn] cool, but very dull & lonely-- during the morning Maj'r Riter, N.Y. & Lt. Osborne of Ohio called to see me & remained about an hour, both intelligent & pleasant men, & invited me to make them a visit at their encampment. This afternoon I learnt that a small division (1600) men of Federal Cavalry with which was Col. Brannahan, had been defeated on the West Point R.R. and most of them captured. Col. B. & some of the men who escaped arrived here last evening; I also learnt that my friend Col. Eggleston & Regiment whose return I expected tomorrow, had been sent on a Raiding expedition; by these raiding parties all the growing crops in the up country will be destroyed--the heartlessness of War--

2d. August. 1864.

        The morning has been clear, cool and pleasant , with constant moving of Wagons & Cavalry, every thing seems animated with the spirit

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of War. My friend Maj'r Flag made me visit today & took dinner with me, he is still quite unwell & thinks he will return Home, he like myself thinks there is no place like Home. When he left me about 10 days ago, I jocularly said to him, as he was going then to join his Reg't in front for a raid, that should he be taken prisoner, be sure and write to my Wife, giving him her address, which he promised to do, but being too unwell he did not accompany the Reg't, nearly the whole of his Reg't (Brannahan's) has been taken prisoner, had he been with the Reg't my wife would probably have heard from me. I regret now I did not make the same request of Col. Eggleston, who has gone on a Raid. In the afternoon Mrs. McClatchy wrote me a note expressing great anxiety, as her guard was about to leave her, & desired me to try and get another for her. I went to encampments at the Tan Yard & Mr. Barkers, but there they could spare no guard. I went to see Mrs. McC. & found her so very anxious, that I determined to procure a guard for her if possible. I soon after learn that a Michican Reg't of Cav'y had just arrived guarding a train of 400 Wagons from Kentucky, & were encamped near Col. Brumby's. I called to see the officer in command, the Col. was not there, but the Maj'r a very gentlemanly man, informed me that they had just arrived, & did not expect to remain here longer than 1 day, still that the Lady should not be distressed for want of a guard while they remained, and that he would provide her with one, & kindly went to see her & told her that she should be protected. I witness a constant exhibition of such kind feeling. I ret'd to my lonely Home for the Night.

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3 Aug't. 1864.

        After breakfast this morning I made Mr. Shepard a visit, found him busy repacking 1 Bale of his Cotton, which had been cut open & the Bagging stolen, then I met a Capt Watson, A. Q. M. he informed me that he was a nephew of Rev'd Joel R. Graves, & had [torn] years in Thomasville, Geo.& Monticella, florida, and knew many of my acquaintances and friends, he had returned from Geo. [torn] state about 10 years ago, his father and mother were still living at Quitman & he had a Brother in the Conf. Service. Soon after I returned Home a Capt'n with a A. Q. M. from Gen'l Thomas' Army called to see me on the way from Marietta to the front, whence they left yesterday morning. They informed me that their entrenchments around Atlanta on the North were about 2 1/2 Miles from the Depot & on the east side 1 1/2, that they fire now & then into the city, but not frequently, being unwilling needlessly to damage the place--during the morning the Maj'r who so kindly furnished Mrs. McC. with a guard and one of his officers called to see me. Just before dinner 2 poor Women who live on the Powder Springs Road with 2 little girls stopped at the House. 1 of the Women I had seen before, as they could not get into town, they had been to the Hospital at the Mil. Ins. to exchange Blackberries for provisions, they come about twice a week to effect such exchanges for Provisions, they live 7 miles off & their Horse having been stolen, they have to walk in & out with their small supplies. Many of these poor robbed people, having nothing at Home to live on, and sustaining themselves by gathering Blackberries &

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exchanging them for food, when the blackberries are gone, which are now nearly over, they must suffer; the whole county in the wake of the 2 Armies has been robbed of every thing, growing crops, gardens, Provisions, Poultry, Hogs, Cows, Horses, nearly every thing, in many cases their clothing & furniture either taken or destroyed by the soldiers of both armies, & often by the people of the County. All the wicked passions of the people seem to be left without restrain-- such are some of the fruits of war. How often have I wished that I had with me all the warm advocates of this War to witness with me from day to day the sad effects of war, sufferings enough to melt the Heart. These poor women told me that all their neyhbours were about in the same condition as themselves, many in actual suffering from want. The men are all gone & none left but women, children & old & sick men. They came to see me to get advice what they should do, as they are now, many must starve ere long. We having only enough left to supply ourselves until next Winter, we cannot give much. I have aided them a little, but the wants of myself & the servants must be cared for. Nothing can be bought to eat, no one is allowed by the regulations of the Federal Army to sell food or clothing to the citizens. I do not understand the phylosophy of it, but so it is. I promised these poor Women to see the Comm't of the Post & represent their cases of suffering to him, & endeavor to do something for their relief. I have several times already represented the destitute to the Comm't, their reply has always been, they are forbidden to give or sell, but they

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can exchange provisions for labor, and [torn] or send the poor off to the North. The women & children took dinner with me, of which they eat heartily, and then left for their Homes. How trying & painful my circumstances are, and yet how such greater are the sufferers from actual want of the multitude by whom I am surrounded. So far from complaining, how grateful ought I to feel. May God sustain me with patience & with sympathy for the sufferers around me. During the afternoon I went to the Mil'y Hill Hospital to make a visit to Dr. Miller (chief Surgeon) & Capt. Skrif, the Dr. & his Ass'nts were very busy amputating Legs & Arms, 250 new patients having been brought in from the front during the day & 200 more expected tomorrow. They now have at that Hospital 850 patients. I walked much among them, & saw enough, as I had often done before, to convince me that good & Christian men should always exert their influence to oppose Wars. A large number of the wounded were laying uncovered in the Yard, when a sudden & heavy storm of Rain & Wind came up. When it was over, near dark, I returned Home, & found an officer here to see me, their encampment was near the Rail Road by the front gate--he informed me that their Col'l (W. Ward, 37 Ind. Reg't) was quite unwell & wanted to know if I would permit him to sleep in the House tonight. I told him certainly, he returned to the Camp & soon brought him over. I found him a very pleasant gentleman, & with whom I had much interesting conversation before bed time, he said on the 20th. Sept. he will have been in service 3 years & then intended to return Home to his wife & 4 little children. With what hopes of happiness all good men look forward to their return Home. He greatly deplored this War with all its sufferings, but said it could not stop until we are one people.

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4th. Aug't. 1864.

        Col. Ward left me at 5 o'clock this morning, he said as his Reg't would probably for some time be engaged in guarding the Wagon trains to the Front, he would often be camped near me for the night, & if agreeable to me he would often spend the nights with me. I told him I should be pleased to have him with me any night. Mr. Shepard called early this morning to get one of the Servants to go over to his House to wash for one day. I told him I had no objections, provided he would protect her from the soldiers while going & returning, he promised to do so, and Tabby went with him. I keep the servants on the premises nearly all the time, they seldom go off, soldiers & vagabonds too numerous for them to move about safely. We have had a clear & cool day, reminding me of the approach of fall, but still 2 1/2 months more to pass away before I can expect to return Home. My former complaint of weakness of my Legs & prickly sensation has troubled me much this Summer, more so than any time for the past 2 years; I do not know how to account for its return [torn] then my constant nervous excitement & anxiety since I have [torn] & not having regularly taken my accustomed exercise, having had to remain at Home so much of the time to take care of every thing, and having been compelled to witness so much suffering and distress--how I hope to enjoy Life again when I am permitted to return to my family--but what satisfactory arrangements for safety to property can I make to justify my leaving here in the fall?

        I went to see Mrs. McClatchy this afternoon, all well. I met

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an Ox Wagon load of Women & children with 3 men going to town from the powder Springs Road, to look for work & something to eat, as they had been stripped of everything. The 2 younger men told me they had deserted from our Army as it fell back & exposed their Homes & families, and that they have been compelled to conceal themselves the greater part of the time to avoid our scouts, that while on the Road today about 7 miles below town, they were overhauled by some of our scouts, who seemed determined to shoot them as deserters, but told them on a/c of the women & children with them they would spare them. What a time of care & watchfulness we in this county are passing through, the danger to life & property demands vigilance on the part of every one. War reduces even civilized men to a state of barbarism. The men from Stoneman & McCook's Cavalry Raids are coming into Marietta every day although this Raid did much damage to the West Point & Macon R. Road, they have from all I can hear been defeated in their main designs & scattered; and were coming in in straggling parties, many without Shoes & Hats. We are still kept out of town & will probably be until Atlanta is occupied by the Federal Army. The close exclusion in & from town deprives me of much social enjoyment.

5th. Aug't. 1864.

        Long trains of Wagons passing today and as usual well guarded with Cavalry, during the morning a portion of the Kentucky Reg't of Cav'y with large strings of pack mules encamped on the premises, they informed me that they were on the Raid by Gen'l Stoneman, and had just

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returned, that they had reached within a few miles of Macon, and after much skirmishing, had a severe engagement with Wheeler's Cavalry, near Clinton about 12 miles from Macon, that they were defeated and scattered, with a heavy loss in killed, wounded, prisoners. Among the prisoners lost was Gen. Stoneman himself, their loss not yet ascertained as their men are coming in all the while. About noon a large body of Cavalry, mostly dismounted men, came to encamp on the premises, they are of the 6th. Reg't Ind'a Cavalry, and had been with Gen'l Stoneman on his Raid, and one of the escaped who are coming in the Col. & Lt. Col. (Butler & Biddle) were taken prisoners, & the command now under Maj'r Carter. Having so many soldiers encamped about me, it is quite a relief to know that we have nothing out of doors to lose, Hogs, poultry & gardens all gone-- nothing to lose but 1 old Sow, 1 Hen with 6 chickens, & about 20 Pigeons, so far they have managed well to take care of themselves by taking to the Woods, whenever large Bodies of soldiers encamp here [torn] so soon as the encampments leave.

        This afternoon a Lut. who had been on Stoneman Raid & had just come in, informed me of their adventures & route, they went by the way of Covington & M to Macon, with about 2500 Cavalry, at Macon about 3 miles east of it, they were met by the militia & there had a hard fight & were repulsed; and hearing that Wheeler was nearby in pursuit of them, they retreated towards Clinton, a few miles beyond it they were overtaken by Wheeler's forces, & had a hard fight & were

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defeated, Gen'l Stoneman surrendered with the larger portion of his force, a large body however made their escape & retreated by the way of Eatonton, Madison, Watkinsville within 4 miles of Athens & Hog Mountain, & passed the Chattahoochee about 2 miles above McAffer's Bridge by a ford, to Roswell. A portion of Wheeler's command in close pursuit of them all the way until they passed the Chatt'e River, now & then attacking their rear. I asked the Lut. if they did not travel faster ret'g than going, he said much, taking only 4 hours sleep out of the 24, and had no time to cook, but had to take cooked provisions wherever they could find any. All of them were much pleased with the county & people through which they passed; they found them pleasant & intelligent, and treated them with much kindness, at the same time told them that they were determined enemies.

6th. Aug't. 1864.

        Last night we had encamped about us over 800 men, under t he trees, with about 100 Camp fires burning, with varieties of singing, sacred & mirthful, the Scene was truly a wild one, & while sitting on the Piazza with some of the officers after supper, I could but feel and remark to them what a contrass to former summers, when I and my family & friends were in the habit of sitting on the same Piazza, gently & peacefully enjoying the pleasant evening breezes, & now to be surrounded by the wild scenes of War, although I had so much company, the thoughts soon brought on a fit of the Blues, & I retired early to bed, and soon drowned my dull thoughts in sleep. This morning all is

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life & bustle again, all preparing for their breakfast. I have had much conversation with the men as well as the officers, all exhibiting good feelings, & anxious for this sad war to close, and deploring the necessity of 2 people so much alike in feeling & character fighting against each other; but that they cannot stop short of reestablishment of the Union. I this morning became acquainted with the Chaplain of this Reg't (Rev'd Mr. Griffith) a Welch man but for a long time living in Indiana, he is a minister of the Presb. Church about 50 or 60 years of age. A sensible, pleasant & intelligent man, he tells me he will probably have services here tomorrow, much to my gratification, as I have not heard a sermon for about 2 months. I asked him to take a Room in the House with me, but he, like the officers generally, declined, saying it is better for them to share the accommodations as the privates, & refrain from the enjoyments of Luxuries & comforts, but that he will spend much of his time with me while they are encamped here. I suspected last night while we were all talking on the Piazza, from his manner & conversation, that he was a Chaplain. Mr. Shepard called to see me this morning, they are all well, he had no news to comm'e, but misery likes company, & situated as we all are, we make the most of each others company--he very anxious to get away, but cannot until he can make arrangements to get rid of his cotton, the same is Mr. Goodman's case.

        Tabby has been working at Mr. S. for 3 days past, it has been raining hard all the afternoon; soldiers busy fixing up the tents to

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keep out of the Rain; the soldiers from Stoneman & McCook's Army continue to be coming in, many have lost everything but a part of the clothes on them. It continued to Rain until bed time--heavy cannonading all the afternoon.

7th. Aug't. 1864.

        Sabbath again, every thing noisy & bustling about. Clear, bright& cool this morning. I went over to Mr. Shepard, heard no news, there I met Capt. Wilson a Chaplain (Rev'd Mr. McFarland) from Ohio, he was unwell& taking rest at Mr. S. for a few weeks.

        Soon after returned Home, the Chaplain commenced his services, under the trees in the Yard. I sat in the Room Window and attended his services, not 1/3 of the men attended & but few of the officers; those who attended were very attentive; the services were short, the whole occupying less time than an hour. The sermon was from 1 Rom: Verse, a plain good discourse, but not exhibited the spiritual unction I had expected. A number of the men from Stoneman's Raid are coming in today, many without shoes, Hats & coats, and almost all on foot & well worn out, these Cavalry Raids must be very uncomfortable undertakings. In the afternoon the Chaplain had other services, I did not attend but went to visit some of the neighbours, his services at night I attended, he had a larger audience, but much noise & disturbance around. The officers do not seem to feel much interest in the services, neither attending themselves nor using their influence to preserve order. During the afternoon I visited Mrs. McClatchy & Mr. Marks, all half sick at Mrs. McC. caused I think more by cares & anxieties

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than anything else. I saw many officers & men while out & was generally pleased with them & their conversation, but the unanimous feelings all seem to express, although opposed to the War & anxious for peace, are that they cannot stop short of a restoration of the Union & the abolition of slavery, they generally hate the negroes, & believe they are better off as they are than to be freed, but they say slavery is the cause of the War, and that there can be no permanent peace between the 2 sections, if slavery is allowed to remain, & to continue it would be to retain the causes for future disturbances.

        On my return home I found my young friend and former guard (W. Vickers) who had come all the way from the vicinity of Atlanta to make me a visit & to remain with me until tomorrow morning, and then to return to his command near Atlanta, his term of service expires within 2 weeks when he returns to his Home in Ohio, he is a fine & sensible young fellow, a Harness Maker by trade. While out this afternoon I learnt that Rev'd Mr. Benedict had been guilty of some imprudencies a few days ago (the nature of which I could not learn) and that he was closely confined to his House under a guard--being deprived still of the privilege of holding intercourse with the town people & they with us in the country, we know but little of what is going on there; they say the restriction will be removed in a few days, but such has been the promise for some time pass. I suspect it will continue until the Federal Army occupies Atlanta. I have seen no Negro Troops in this Army, nor can I hear of any being with it, there are more or less Negroes in every regiment, but all employed as servants, cooks, and in performance of the low & menial duties, the soldiers general hate them.

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8 Aug't. 1864.

        After Breakfast my young friend Vickers left me to return to his command. Mr. Shepard called to see me this morning but I was out taking a short walk & did not see him. One of the officers [torn] Raid, gave an interesting account this morning of his adventures & escape. The last attack the straggling party had was 4 miles west of Guy Tavern, about 25 miles east of Roswell, they were overtaken & surprised & each one had to make the best way for themselves, only 2 of them were together, they abandoned their Horses & took to the woods, it was just before daylight. They consealed themselves in a thicket for some hours & slept, and being very hungry, they met a negro man working in a field, who went up to the House & provided some Bread and milk for them, and wanted to accompany them, but they told him he was better off where he was. While they were eating, a Negro woman came to them in the woods and told them scouts were at the House hunting for them, they being near the River (Chatt'e) ran down to the River & swam across & went on to Roswell; he informed me that our scouts often came within 2 miles of Roswell; this officer is well worn out, & his feet so sore he cannot put on shoes; a few more of them have come into Camp this morning. This afternoon I learnt that 3 Spies had been taken during the day in & about Marietta, 1 of them dressed in a Major's uniform of the Federal Army, another in Sergeant's uniform & the 3d. in Ladies' dress. I could learn none of the particulars. The scouts from our Army are often seen about.

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Mrs. McClatchy having lost her guard I provided another for her & took him over to her House this afternoon, all well but her son. I made but a short visit, it being late and rainy, her situation excites much sympathy. The appearance of these spies in the community I apprehend will continue for a much longer time our exclusion from town, as I presume we are all justly or unjustly looked upon with suspicion, being a stranger to all I cannot feel much hurt at such suspicion, were I better known there would probably be less suspicion.

9 Aug't. 1864.

        We had quite an excitement last night, about 10 o'clock I was awoke by the noise & stir about, I looked out and saw every thing in a bustle. I dressed and went down, when I learnt from the Maj'r Commanding the Reg't camped around me that he had rec'd orders to get every thing in readiness to move at a moment's notice, & await farther orders; after a little conversation I suspected it was only a prudential order under the apprehension of a Raid, and returned to my Bed, but did not undress, asking the Maj'r to give me notice if he should receive orders to move, & slept quietly until day Light, and found all still quiet about. The command having rec'd no further orders, they have again put up their tents & unsaddled & unharnessed their Horses & Mules, the Mules were kept in the Waggons all night, ready to move off any moment. Lieut. Osborne called to see me this morning & spent some time with me, he is a very intelligent & agreeable young man--the old Chaplain (Mr. Griffith) spent about 2 hours

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with me, affording me very pleasant company. He gave me a description of Col. W.H. Stiles' House near Cartersville, he says it was not burnt as it was reported, but was much damaged by the soldiers & Robbers, the owner not being there to take care of it, much of the furniture was damaged & so was the Library, the bedding was thrown out of the doors by the soldiers to sleep on, & then left, he advised the servant who was there to replace them all in the House, as they were about the last Reg't to pass, they would not probably be disturbed again, but the great enemy are the stragglers & Robbers & they come at all times & places where there was anything to steal, he said his piano had not been injured. What a sad demoralizer is War! During the afternoon an old gentleman called to know if he could stay with me for a few days, that his name was Taff, & was Chaplain of the 11th. Ken'y Reg't Cav'y that he was too unwell to continue in active duties and desired to take a little rest, he is a Campbellite Minister, & seems to be a very good man. I told him I should be much pleased to have him with me, as long as he could stay, being greatly in need of company. I made Mrs. McClatchy a short visit. During the afternoon I had some conversation with Maj'r Carter, being the first of any length I have had with him, there seemed to be so little congeniality between him & myself either in mind or spirits, that I have had but little intercourse with him, contrary to my course with all the other officers who have been here-- in this interview I found him to be a fair set off against our fire

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eating disunion men at the South. With him as with them, governed by passion and not by reason; he considered all the Citizens at the South rebels, and as such had forfeited all their rights to life, liberty and property, and not only had the government a right to do with them as it pleased, but the individual soldiers had also the right to appropriate to their own use all they could find of Rebel property which would contribute to their comfort & gratification, the depredations comm'd by his Reg't exhibits some of the fruits of his opinions & feelings. It affords me much gratification however to record the fact, that this case of Major Carters is the first instance I have yet found of such opinions & feelings in officer or private, after a free and extensive intercourse with the Federal Army for more than 6 weeks, and this single exception can have but little influence in affecting my very favorable opinion I have had occasion to form of the sound sense, good feelings & good conduct of the officers & privates of the Federal Army, so far as my favorable opportunities of determining has enabled me to do--it has as greatly amazed as it has gratified me to find no other exception to this noble feeling in the Federal Army--even with my previous favorable opinions of the North, I had anticipated many exceptions.

10 Aug't. 1864.

        Last night I was informed by Major Carter that as I was a man of great intelligence & observation, he thought it imprudent for me to have the liberty of going where I listed, and that for the present I must not leave the House without his consent, so I have been a

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prisoner at home since 8 o'clock last night--so [torn] punishment for being 'intelligent & observing.' It however changes my habits [torn] as for weeks past I have been but seldom out of the House [torn] affords me more attraction at Home. So if ignorance is freedom, it is folly to be wise. Maj'r Carter further enjoined upon me that I must not hold intercourse with his men, but could with his officers. This restriction I regret more than the curtailment of my personal liberty, as naturally and from habit, I am more fond of conversing with the poor and ignorant than with the Rich & intelligent--however for a while an extensive and varied library will afford me a good substitute for the company of either, being so happily constituted, I can easily accommodate myself to circumstances.

        Mr. Shepard made me a visit this afternoon, & was detained by a heavy Rain, he informs me that Dillard Young had passed through the Lines & returned to Marietta & he heard had been asking particularly after me there. I should like to see him to learn something of my friends, but as neither of us can go in nor out of town now, we cannot have the interview for a while, he had left his family here. An officer told me today that some time ago he had read in one of our papers, he thinks a Sav'h Paper, a terrible account of the doings of the Federal Army in & about Marietta, and a most slanderous one of the insults and indignities to Women, some stript of their clothing and turned into the streets. I was in Marietta nearly every day the first 3 weeks of their arrival here & mingled a great deal with the

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inhabitants, and have never heard of a single case of insult or indignity to any female, had such a case occurred there or in the vicinity I know I should have heard it. Robberies were the chief depredations done, and much of that, as in the case of Mr. Page & other stores, was done by our own Army when retreating the night before, Saturday. I have heard of but little wanton damage done, & such cases mostly to houses left deserted; every effort as far as my experience extends, has been made to protect property by the Fed'l Army. I learnt a few days ago, that when Gen'l Thomas had the Thieves arrested at our House on the first day, he also had a Captain arrested, who was only a quiet spectator out of doors, for neglect of his duty in not having stopped the Robbers, and that he was to be Court Marshalled for his neglect of duty. I hear orders have been sent to burn the Bridge at Roswell, which had been rebuilt by the Federal Army, as they needed the Bridge no longer. I fear their forces are to be withdrawn from Roswell, and that Brother Pratt & family will be exposed to the ravages of the bands of Robbers pouring over the country. Lawlessness pervades the Land. O this War!

11th. Aug't. 1864.

        Cool & pleasant this morning, how cheering it would be if I were in Savannah to take a ride with my wife out to the Bridge for the day, instead of being as I am today confined at Home, away from all who render life dear to me, but the varieties of Life are beneficial, & therefore out to be cheerfully submitted to. Mr. Shepard made me a visit this morning, nothing new. I had an interesting visit this

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morning [torn] in a Kentucky regiment who has been with the Stoneman Raid [torn] Reg't under Col. Adams, his narrative of their retreat was very exciting, & retreating, he states that when they had reached 4 miles North of Clinton Jones Co. they met Wheeler's force entrenched accross the Road, & while contending with them a force of Infantry came up in the rear & they were entirely surrounded and after fighting for hours, Gen'l Stoneman finding nothing could be done, determined on surrendering. Col. Adams stated that his men would not surrender, that their time of service was nearly out, & they meant to fight their way out. Gen'l S. magnanimously said they would fight on longer to afford them a better opportunity of making their escape on another Road, which they did making quite a circuit around, but were pursued by our Cavalry nearly the whole way to the Chattahoochie River, which they had to fight many times, that they were treated with much kindness by the people, that they were only fired on once by a Bushwhacker & that was by an old gentleman riding in a Buggy, they shot him breaking his arm which they dressed & then let him go. They escaped with the greater portion of their men, they also picked up & brought in with them many of the straggling men of 2 Ill's Reg'ts under command of Col. Caperton, which Reg'ts had been sadly cut up. Whenever they could pick up a Horse they took it, & dropped one of their worn out Horses, they had very little sleep while on the Raid.

         I had a long and interesting conversation today with my friend & companion, the Campbellite Chaplain, he says he is a Lawyer by profession as well as preacher. Mrs. McClatchy's guard came to see me

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today, he says she is much distress of mind. I regret I cannot go to see her this afternoon, her son continues quite sick--the guard is anxious to return to me. This evening another sick officer asked if I could not allow him to occupy one of the Rooms, he was so comfortless in his Tent, I gave him a Room.

12th. Aug't. 1864.

        Early this morning while dressing, hearing some one walking in the passage, I looked out & saw a soldier going down the steps with something like Blankets, not knowing but that they were his own, I requested the servants to look among the things upstairs, & notice if anything was missing. Eliza said 2 of her Blankets were gone, I reported the case to a Lieut. who was upstairs & described the man to him, he immediately identified a man who had been in his Room, & sent to him to bring the Blankets back at once if he desired to avoid trouble. They were immediately returned, he came to me to apologize, saying he did not mean to keep them but a few days until he could be supplied, as he had just returned from the Stoneman Raid & had lost every thing. I told him he ought to have asked for the use of them, as Eliza consented I told him to retain them for a few days, taking his name, Comp'y, Reg't and requested the Lieut. not to report him. My guard (Caldwell) whom I had a few days ago transferred to Mrs. McClatchy [torn] called as usual this morning to see me & asked me to provide another guard [torn] & let him return back to me as he much preferred being with me [torn] so I am getting popular. I told him

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to wait until tomorrow. This afternoon Mr. Shepard & his 2 little daughters made me a visit, it was cheering even to have a sight of children--so lonely exceedingly lonely am I, with little other company than books, that visits of any kind are very acceptable-- time is however passing away so very rapidly, that dull cares are often driven away. When I remember how rapidly the winter is approaching, when I may hope to return to my family if I can then make any arrangements for taking care of the servants & House during my absence. This War is a sad destroyer of comforts.

        Tabby's child has been sick for 3 days past, better today. Tabby has been remaining at Home for 2 days to attend to it. This afternoon is cool, clear& pleasant, every thing looks so bright & green & peaceful, with the marks of War all around me, in Wagons, Tents & Soldiers; Soldiers all cheerful & merry, with nothing to do but amuse themselves; a band of Music performing nearly every evening on the premises. This afternoon one of the servants say a soldier coming in from the shed window up stairs with an arm full of clothing, which had been washed and put out on the shed to dry. She told him if he did not put it down at once she would call out for me, who at the time was in the front room reading, he immediately replaced them & went out. She then pointed out the young fellow to me, but I do wish to report him to his Commander. Large force of Cavalry passed up the Road this morning towards Marietta. Nothing new to day.

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13th. Aug't. 1864.

        Pleasant day today. My guard called again today, anxious to return to me, & as I need his services I have sent him with a note to his command to ask him to furnish Mrs. McClatchy with another guard. I do not know what can attract the young man so warmly to me. Situated as I am, lonely & cheerless, with but little to make him comfortable; and I give him many a sobersided talk, he is a fine young Scotchman about 21 years old. Soldiers just riding up with their Horses loaded with bundles of corn Stalks all in tassels, a daily sight, and a sad one to see the corn crops almost ripe cut down and destroyed, to leave the poor farmers in want another year, but the Horses must have provender. Our Army did the same in cutting the Oat, Wheat & Corn crops--Famine or Want the attendant of an Army

        My guard returned to me this afternoon, he adds a little to my company. I had a long visit this afternoon from a pretty regular visitor for some time, P'y Serg. D.W. Evans from Hillsboro Ohio connected with 1st Reg Ohio Cavalry (Col. Eggleston's) he is a young man of good sense & fine spirits, he has relieved me much and often of my loneliness--it has been [torn] of much gratification & gratitude to me to experience the enjoyment& [torn] from my free intercourse with the officers & privates of the Federal [torn] of some of the command now encamped around me (6th. Ind'a Cav'y) and only a few of them; all others in their free intercourse with me, have exhibited the conduct of kind delicate and courteous gentleman; a fact which

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would have been incredible to me, had I not personally experience it. My friend the Campbellite Chaplain makes visits to town every afternoon, and gives me all the news he can learn, which is very little however; he enquired for letters for me, but I can get none; I perform my part in writing often, but I fear my wife finds it quite as difficult to get letters from me. After supper my young friend Evans called and spent about 1 1/2 hours with me.

14 Aug't. 1864.

        Another Sabbath has come, how rapidly time is passing away & now how it rejoices my often depressed spirits to know that if we all live & I get permission, after 9 more Sabbaths shall have been numbered with the past, I will be in the enjoyment of the society of my family & friends, God grant that I may then find them all alive & well and if we can only then be in the enjoyment of the Blessings of Peace in our afflicted country.

        The day is very pleasant, but still I have to remain at Home. This morning my young friend Evans again called & spent an hour with me. At 10 o'clock the Chaplain Mr. Griffith had services, his congregation did not exceed 150 attending--his services were short not even an hour--his sermon a good one on the necessity of the Reformation of our natural lives & dependence for the atonement of Christ for Salvation. I was surprized to see the small number attending the services, the most of the men on the outskirts--how little do men think of their duties to God and of the condition of their souls

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on the final day of accountability. Death & the great exposure to death, tend it seems to render men more thoughtless. This afternoon the restrictions of my liberty to the limits of the House were removed, and I free again, some explanation of the cause was given, that of the spies who was reported to have been taken up some days prior 1 stated that he was well known to me, & in addition to that, that 3 men known (to the observer) officers had called to see me on the Sunday afternoon preceeding and who were suspected to be the same spies. I was at the time absent from Home, the 3 officers who called on me then, I learnt on my return Home, were 3 Fed. Officers on duty in town & not spies. From all I have been able to ascertain that no spies have been taken, & that the suspected persons proved their innocence. This circumstances however occasions me much anxiety, & leads me to belief that it is better for me to leave here & go either Home or to the North. Being so well known to the members of our Cavalry companies, some of the scouts from [torn] be induced during the which often extends within [torn] to call on me & I may thus become innocently involved in difficulty; being a stranger to the Federal Army and a Southern man, may be suspected of designing mischief. Were I so well known as I am at Home, I would never be suspected of plotting mischief against any people among whom I may be sojourning. Whatever I do I hope to do frankly & above board & not clandestinely. Last evening I heard another good sermon from Mr. Griffith, under the Trees just South of the House, he had an audience of about 300 & the services were very pleasant, evincing much good Christian spirit. While enjoying the services, it was

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painful to think how many ardent followers of the Prince of Peace on both sides to be engaged in so deadly a War against each other.

15th. Aug't. 1864.

        Prospects of a dry warm day, Lieut. Osborne, a native of Louisville but later from Cincinnatti spent 2 or 3 hours with me this morning, he is a young man of fine mind & spirit, we had a long and pleasant intercourse relative to the sad condition of the country; the prevailing feeling of the Army now seems to be not only a reconstruction of the Union, but the abolition of slavery , not that they feel any interest in the poor Negro, but believing slavery to have been the cause of this sad War, they believe it necessary for future peace, that the Negro question must be settled now, by getting rid of the slave. The general feeling of the Army seems to be to favor Mr. Lincoln's election, not that he is their choice, but for the same cause which induced so large a vote for Gov. Brown, that it is better to leave the reins of Government undisturbed in his Hands during the War. I learnt today that there has been frequent injuries lately done to the Road above, causing damage to the Trains, one above Big Shanty last Friday, from the slight injuries done to the Road at different places, I apprehend they are done by persons living in the vicinity. I hear a Report today that a Conf. force has made a demonstration on Dalton. Maj'r Carter has a serenade this evening & made a speech to his men.

16th. Aug't. 1864.

        I am nearly broke up this morning. My young guard--Rich'd

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Caldwell, Loveland, Warren Co. Ohio--command 1st. Ohio Cav'y is ordered in front and he has left me, the poor young fellow shook hands with me on leaving with tears in his eyes. Soon after called Or'y Serg't Evans & Lieut T.W. Osborn to take leave of me, they have contributed greatly to my enjoyment & comfort for some weeks past, now they are ordered in front to take part in the struggle of War, they seemed to feel the separation as keenly as I did. I gave each of them a small piece of paper with my wife's address, as I had often done to others before, that if either of them should be taken prisoner they could write to her about my comfortable condition. It has been an occasion of much surprize to me the uninterrupted experience of kindness & sympathy I have experienced from the officers & privates of the Federal Army. Could I be anxious to separate our political connection with such a people? What folly on the part of our politicians, to have involved this once happy country in such a War for such a purpose! May God ordain good results out of such a sad calamity. Often have officers station in town and about, when suddenly ordered off, rode out only to shake hands with me & say goodbye, and then passing near afterwards stopped to make me a short visit--how grateful must I feel for the many manifestations of kind and sympathetic feelings which I have experienced.

        This afternoon I heard that Wheeler [torn] Raid on Tunnel Hill & had blown up and destroyed the Tunnel, & which would probably stop [torn] for 10 days, that he was subsequently attacked by a Cavalry

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force & defeated losing about [torn] afternoon a Mr. E.H. Clarke of Charlston Coles County Ill: and who has [torn] department, & term of service being out called on me, stating that he being unwell, wanted to lay over a few days, before he proceeded on his journey Home, and said he was advised to stay with me, if agreeable, I told him I would be pleased to have him do so, so I shall have a little more regular company for a few days.

17 Aug't. 1864.

        This morning my old friend Rev'd Mr. Taffe has left me for his Home, if an old bachelor can be said to have any home; I shall miss him much, he has been an agreeable companion for me for many days past, & such pleasant companionship I greatly need in my present lonely condition. God will however provide some other. I have much company about & in the House from the 5th. & 6th. Ind'a Cavalry encamped about me, but I have very little to do with them, finding but little in them congenial to me either in mind or spirits--

        Some days ago I had a fine Cat sent to me by Mrs. McClatchy, she is very active in keeping the Rats in subjection; they have been very noisy and turbulent all summer. How anxious am I to hear something from my family & friends, but not a word have I heard from Home for near 2 months & may not be able to hear anything before I return to them, for which I am now becoming very anxious. Could I make some satisfactory arrangements to have the servants & property taken care of here; I would try to get permission to leave at once to go to my

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friends, as I am becoming very anxious to be with my family, not being able to know anything of them. I sent a Note this afternoon by Mr. Clarke to Mr. Goodman, which he delivered to him, and was to bring his reply, but Mr. G informed him that the Regulations of the Pro. Marshall prohibited all communications, even by Letters between Citizens in & out of town, so great is the precaution to guard against the dangers of spies and unfriendly Citizens, that we are suspected & rigidly watched. Feeling so much more confidence in my own honor & so much more valued where I am known than here where I am unknown, increases my anxiety to get among my friends-- it is painful to remain where I am so suspected, and yet military precaution seems to render it necessary. I learnt this afternoon that 6 Wagons had been captured by a party of our scouts between Marietta & Roswell.

18 Aug't. 1864.

        It is very warm this morning--for 3 days past the days & nights have been very warm. Tabby's child continues very sick, the Surgeon of the Reg't here is attending to it. Sharper informed me this morning that Brother Barringon's man William had left with his family & gone up the Road, that Brunswick & family were still in town. I find Mrs. Brown, our neighbor, is getting quite in want, I told Sharper to pound & give her a little Rice. Maria says do give Mrs. Brown some clothes also, that there is some here which the Ladies won't never use again. I and the Chaplain (Griffith) made Mr. Shepard

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a long visit this afternoon, heard no news, only someone had managed to get into his Bed Room during the day, & stolen his Razors--it requires very close watching to guard against robberies these days. Soldiers straggling, scouts, & bad citizens about roam over the Country committing depredations.

19 Aug' t. 1864.

        I heard yesterday that from some cause Mr. Benedict has been sent from the place with his family over the Lines, I have not been able to learn the cause. This morning a foraging train of a few Wagons from the encampment about me, has been sent out, with an escort of about 100 Cavalry. I made Mrs. McClatchy a visit this morning, found her son better, on my walk there at the Picket station, I found 4 Wagons from the country, some having come 15 miles with vegetables, fruit & chickens, which they had brought in to exchange for Bread & Meat, but they had been stopped there by the pickets, saying they had positive orders to allow no one to go farther into town, and the soldiers were around them to buy, but as they had nothing but money, while they wanted provisions in exchange; they intended to return home with their little supplies. I advised them to wait a while, as I understoon Dr. Miller (the Chief Phy. at the Military Inst.) had sent to town to get permission for them to pass to the Hospital, it is an unwise arrangement, as it will discourage the country people from bringing in their little supplies, so much needed by the town people and Hospitals. In the afternoon my friend the Chaplain (Griffin) took

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a long & pleasant walk of about 2 miles off for exercise, he is a very agreeable companion of much good sense & piety. I will miss him much when he leaves. I learn the difficulty of Mr. Benedict was he was detected in trying to send Letters through the [torn] some person who told him he was going to pass South without permission [torn] have thought Mr. B. would have better understood duties of a good [torn] as we all are, to have done so.

20th. Aug't. 1864.

        The foraging Wagons returned last night safe, but with little forage, I think, all the country in this vicinity being pretty much stript of every thing. I took a short walk on the Powder Springs Road this morning, found no wagons from the country today. I stopped and had a long talk with the pickets today, men of good sense and spirits, and anxious for peace, but say there can be no peace until the government is restored, and the slave question disposed of. How this war is to be brought to a close God only knows. For 2 days past laborers have been hard at work putting in order the R. Road in fron of the House. I hear Gen'l Kilpatrick has gone on a Raid into the State. I hear that some of our Cavalry have been taking and killing some Federal prisoners near Gainesville, after they had surrendered, I am sure it cannot be true. A young soldier who had returned from the Stoneman Raid, told me that while on it, he had with him a Melodeon, & being in his way, he went up to a House & presented

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it to a young Lady at the door, she thanked him: the old Lady said it was more than they expected as she thought the Yankee soldiers kept their gifts for the Negro Women.I hear a foraging train had been taken near the town yesterday. I hear that about 180 deserters from our Army were brought into Marietta yesterday. Mr. Griffith and myself had a pleasant walk after supper this evening. How anxious am becoming to see my family at Home or even to hear from them. 1st. Oct. is too far off to wait.

21st. Aug't 1864.

        Sabbath again. A Rainy, dirty day. This morning the encampment of the 5th. & 6th. Ind. Cavalry under Maj'r Carter removed encampment to the North of town, near Mrs. Wilkins--it is the first time I can say I feel rejoiced at the removal of soldiers from me, until this command they have always contributed greatly to my enjoyment and comfort, nearly all of the officers being intelligent & gentlemanly in their deportment. I told the Chaplain that I should miss him, & a few of the officers & most of the privates greatly, but that I must candidly tell him that I was rejoiced that the Regiment was leaving me. Most of the officers were either drinking, ungentlemanly & bad principled men--I had very little to do with them & rejoiced at their departure, they afforded very little company for me, & very destructive to everything about, have done more damage to Fences & Trees than all who had preceeded them combined of the Federal & Conf't Armies, occasioning me much annoyance, & yet I did not feel inclined

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to complain to the Commandant of the Post of their conduct. When they were about leaving Dr. Miller of the Hospital at the Mil. Inst. sent me a guard to protect against any depredations, I had to make them take out of the Wagons some chairs & other things they were about taking, with all my watchfulness of them they took off our last Water Bucket & I think some of our books are missing. Last night 2 of the officers got drunk as a closing scene. The conduct of the men was much better than the officers, I never saw one of the them under the influence of Liquor, nor any quarrelling & disorder among them.

        These Reg'ts have destroyed all the fencing, they did but little injury to the Buildings. The wide Boards on the Smoke House, Corn House, Stable, 2 Barns & one of the Servants Houses unoccupied had been taken off by Dr. Miller for the large number of Wounded at his Hospital. I am glad that the 5th. & 6th. Ind. Reg'ts are going, joy go with them, but I pity Mrs. Wilkie or wherever Maj'r Carter's Command may camp near--whoever it may be will remember Maj'r Carter. Men like him (which are scarce, I think) will never do much to bring this sad war to a close, either in fighting it's battles, or soothing the irritated feelings of the Country. This afternoon my young friend O'y S't Evans on his return to the front called to see me & spent an hour, he says he has not yet had an opportunity to send my message to my Wife; but will try to send it through our lines, he with his men are guarding the R.R. Bridge at the Chattahoochee, he informs me that one of their men was taken prisoner a few days ago, within

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their Picket lines. We have had heavy rain today--Our men seem to be all over the Country, whenever an encampment breaks up [torn] to see the multitude of harpies of all sizes & colors, prowling over the [torn] what they can pick up. Mrs. Brown & her 2 little girls made me a visit [torn] she says the soldiers have been taking some of her Corn, she [torn] that is her sole dependence, her Cow having been taken some time ago, her husband too sick to do anything for their help. I do not know what is to become of them, in common with the other poor in this country; she generally begs the soldiers to have mercy on them, most do, but others do not; we help them a little from time to time, I told Sharper he must not let them starve when I am gone. The sufferings of the poor here must be very great, the approaching winter, how sorely they are made to feel the horrors of this War. It surprizes me every day the bitter hatred the Northern men seem to feel towards the poor Negro. What is to become of the poor race among us--this sad war I apprehend is to end in their destruction like the Indians.

22d. Aug't. 1864.

        Last evening 3 soldiers rode up to get shelter from the very heavy Rain, & remained with me until 10 o'clock before they could leave, they would have remained all night, but feared their Horses would be stolen, which I told them I thought was probable, they were very sensible men, they were very sensible men, & very anxious for this War to close, & asked if there was no way of closing it, but by

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but by wantonly killing off each otherwhen there was so little ill feelings between the soldiers & private citizens, they like all others hated the poor negro & said for their good they could never be placed in a more favorable condition than we now have them, but like all others they said the whole country would go to ruin if the Union was not restored. Mr. Fletcher called to see me this morning & spent about 2 hours giving me all the town news, as he has free access to & out of town, at all times, a privilege denied to me for about 4 weeks past. I have the range of the country but no access to town. He informs me that Sharper was misinformed about Mr. Benedict having been sent to the front, but that he was confined with Rev'd Mr. Hunt for some time in the Marietta Hotel under a guard, then they were both transferred and confined at Mr. Hunt's House, under a guard, but recently Mr. Benedict has been allowed to return to his own House. While confined at the Hotel they were not even allowed to have intercourse even with their families--they offence was an effort to transmit Letters beyond the Lines by some one (he thinks Mr. Adams of Roswell) who intended to pass without permission. I am surprized that Mr. Benedict should have known that such an effort was in violation of Military Regulations. Mr. Benedict from some cause has rendered himself very obnoxious to the Federal authorities. Mr. Fletcher informed me that he learnt from D. Young, that the Federal Army had come upon Dr. McAffee, Sex Morris, Barrett, and many others near Decatur, and had taken from them nearly all they had, Horses,

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Mules, Wagons & provisions, running off did them so good. He could give me (through D. Young) no information of Bro. B. nor any of my other friends. Mr. Y. had stopped at Bro. Pratt's at Roswell, & said all were well. Mr. F. says he thinks the Federal troops had abandoned Roswell, & that it was now in possession of the Conf'ts, & that the Federal Army was concentrating more to the right of Atlanta &advancing Southward. While Mr. F. was with me, a Federal Captain called in for a few minutes, he said the venom of the who army seemed to be concentrated on So. Ca., & if the army ever got there, he did not think they would be able to control their men, but they would indiscriminately destroy all property, public and private. I have observed their hatred towards that little state is very intense. So far So. Ca. has been more exempted from the sufferings of this War than any other State. My friend Mr. Clarke brought out for me 3 Letters from town, quiet a joy to me in my loneliness, one from W.H. McLeod & his daughter Julia on the same sheet, I will again write to them in a day or two. In the afternoon we made Mrs. McClatchy a visit, (Mr. Clarke & myself) and found her quite sick, & so was her son, & Miss McCullough not well, & not a servant nor any one else to assist them; their condition has often excited in me much sympathy--how sad it is that Mr. McC. should have left them here, I advised them to quit & go to Mr. McC. I think their sickness arises chiefly from care & anxiety. I understand that some of our scouts have been seen within 2 miles of her House, & this morning 1 was seen in the woods within 1/4

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of Mile. I have today sent a Letter for my Wife to Gen'l Thomas, & at the same time made application to Gen'l Thomas for a passport to return Home [torn] get one short of 2 months, I will apply for one to go to the North. My [torn] an anxious one for me to remain.

23 Aug't. 1864.

        For 2 days past the [torn] quite cool, fall like. I went this morning to see my old neighbor Mr. Hutchins, who lives in Wm. Russell's House, he has been sick for over a week, having a family of 6 children, mostly little ones, to provide for by his day labor for Gov't, having had nothing left him by the Robbers while in the country. I think he has been made sick by over hard work on the R.R. I found there quite an intelligent & interesting soldier--Ives--a brother in Law of Gen'l Bates, he is a native of N.Y. but removed to Ill. many years ago. Tabby's child is better & she went back to Mr. Shepard's yesterday. Mam Maria has a bad cold & sick, she has complained much all the summer, & has lost much in weight. I tell her that anxiety & plain living do not agree with her. She is very anxious for me to leave here, her kind feelings controling her, she does not think as well of the Federal soldiers as I do; she says there are too many bad men among them, & she fears I may innocently get into some difficulty--one of them told her the other day that one of the Tel. post near the House had been cut down some night lately, & people believed I did it, it alarmed the old Lady much,

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she told him I would never do such a thing, and that I never went out of the House at night.

        Dr. Miller is having all the waste planks from the last encampment on the premises collected up, for the use of his Hospital; there is much of it here, and as it was useless for us to try to save it, I sent a message to Dr. M. that he had better take it all.

        Mr. Clarke & myself made Mr. Shepard a visit this afternoon & found another Bale of his Cotton had been cut open & the Bagging stolen, he has no guard. On our return Home, I found my guard had hurried run off, having become alarmed, their pickets having been fired on during our absence, about 1/2 Mile from the House, near Mrs. McC. and had been drawn in, he became apprehensive that the Johneys (Scouts) might come up to the House & take him. We went to Bed without seeing our guard tonight. Fine, pleasant weather.

24 Aug't. 1864.

        Mosquitoes were very troublesome last night, I have never known them so bad here before, as they have been this summer, the Yankee blood draws them. My guard came back early this morning, after laughing at him well about his fears, I asked what was the matter? He said he did not want to go to Dixie yet, and after assigning the cause stated for hurriedly leaving, which I told him was quite satisfactory. He told me that he heard that 70 or 80 of our men had fired on the pickets, & they had been driven in. I went over to Mrs. McC. & found them all better, & learnt from her & the pickets that only 4 of our men were seen who fired on the Pickets, & that a detatchment

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of 15 Cavalry had been sent in pursuit of them, but none could be found. The frequent appearance of scouts here will tend to restrict our liberties the more; and we are so suspected already, that I am inclined to get away as soon as possible, that I may get to a community where I am better known & where I can enjoy a greater amount of Liberty. I am still at liberty to go all over the country, but not to go into town, while the town is the only place about here I wish to visit.

        Mrs. McC is well again but in much distress of mind. While out this morning among the Pickets I found a young Fed'l Sergeant named Green, who told me that he had worked 1 1/2 years at the Roswell factory, 2 years in Atlanta, & had been 2 years in his Uncle's (A. Green's) store in Marietta, & knew me, that he had removed back to the North about 5 years ago, he seemed to be a sensible young man & promised to come & see me, while his picket station was so near to me. Little Milton has been quite sick for 2 days past with bad cold.

        My friend Mr. Elijah H. Clarke of Charleston, Coles Co. Ill. left me this afternoon to return to the front, his health not being good, he will quit the Q. M. department & return Home in ten days, he promises to stop with me on his return, he is an agreeable companion & I will miss him. This afternoon an old Lady (Mrs. Haney) from near Roswell, with her Wagon & 2 little boys called on me, I gave them Salt, & a Letter for Brother Pratt, which she promised to send to him at once, I asked Bro. Pratt if the changes of War should put him within the Southern Lines again, to write to my wife, informing her that we were all well & doing well. I paid 75 cts. today for a quire of Letter paper& 25 c for 13 Envelopes [torn] the poor people

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have been over the Camping ground on the premises, picking up old Clothes, [torn] the poor will suffer much this season--2 days ago I wrote to Julia W. H. M [torn] today I wrote to Mr. J. S. Wood, Riceville, Crawford Co. Penn:--a [torn] left me.

25 Aug't 1864.

        Last evening after supper [torn] guard left me to go [torn] for his Rations, & to return in 1/2 hour, but as he was not back at 9 o'clock I closed up & went to bed, feeling some anxiety about him, this morning he returned, saying as it was so late before he could get off, he concluded I would not care for his absence & remained in Camp. I told him my suspicion was, he was affraid the Gray Jackets would come here at night & take him prisoner; his friend who was with him said that was the true cause, as our House was out of the Lines, he thought he was exposed at Night, he does not want to go to Dixie, as his term of service will be out within 4 months. He went to town this morning & brought a Letter from Bro. Ralph urging me to make them a visit. I went to see old Mr. Hutchins this morning, he was better, & then went to the Picket Station to hear the News & see if the Country Wagons could succeed in bartering their little supplies for provisions, the soldiers were annoying them much, having nothing but money to buy with, while the country people only wanted provisions in exchange, & the soldiers were troubling them much, before I left them however, guards had been sent to protect them, & Dr. Miller's Ambulance had come up to barter with them. I left them trading after

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having spent near an hour with them. When I came home I found 2 little boys (Delks) who had come 7 Miles on the Roswell Road to exchange fruits and vegetables for food, waiting for me. I sent them over to Dr. Miller's trading Wagon & told them to come back & let me know how they succeeded. A Col'n'l called to see me this morning on his way to the front & spent 1/2 an hour with me, being an intelligent & pleasant man, this visit afforded me a very pleasant 1/2 hour. The two little boys returned from their trading, with Sugar, Coffee & Bacon & ham, returned home saying they will be back tomorrow or the next day. I have been able to help the poor greatly in their efforts to barter off their little supplies for provisions, without some such facilities the poor must suffer from want greatly this fall & winter having had nearly all their provisions stolen from them by the 2 armies; when the vegetable & fruit crops are over, and their small stock of chickens are gone, they will be forced to live on charity.

        A long & heavy loaded train of soldiers passed to the front today, nearly every day large forces pass in the Cars towards the front, & nearly as many returning, their term of service having expired. We have been living mostly on roast Pigs lately, the best we can save them is to eat them up, there is no protecting such things from the Robbers, they are all over the Country. The Col'n'l who called to see me this morning told me that the Thieves had stolen his Horse last night. They steal from friend or foe, rich or poor, white or black, they steal whatever they can get hold of, such is the demoralization of War.

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        Long trains of Wagons have been passing up & down the Road for days past.

        I made a short visit to Mrs. McClatchy this afternoon, & met 2 poor women coming in to trade their little supplies. I advised them to go back a mile or 2 and return in the morning to trade & a Capt. who was there with me gave the same advice, they went back--to have stopped so near town, they would be robbed of their goods, Wagon & Horse.

26 Aug't. 1864.

        Dr. Miller's guard was affraid to remain with me last night, went back to his Camp & returned early this morning, they all seem very uneasy about the Scouts about, every few days some of these straggling men are picked up & many horses & Mules; even the men with [torn] trains coming daily to our Spring for water for the Hospital, are getting [torn] coming here for water. I went to see old Mr. Hutchins this morning [torn] better, I then went to the Picket Station & remained there about 1 1/2 [torn] The 2 little Delk boys had come in again with Peaches & apples to get flour, sugar & coffee, while some thief took from my Pocket the last Handkerchief I had. I gathered no news-- Some of the women told me many of their neighbors are getting about as bad as the soldiers, & were stealing from each other. What a crop of thieves this war has produced. An old man told me that Greenlee Butler was very low & that he had come in to try & get a Physician to go & see him, I told him I did not think he would find one who would be willing to venture it, from the danger of being taken by our

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Scouts. The soldiers state that they we all getting on short rations, & that they can only buy with money. Mr. Patillo called to see me this morning and remained over an hour, having heard that I intended returning home, he stated that he also wanted to go in our Lines, that as he in common with others had been robbed of all his provisions, and as he was not allowed to buy anything nor to make anything at his trade (tailor) he would be compelled to leave here, that some persons from Chattanooga had informed him that even there nothing was allowed to be sold to citizens without a permit; & that he thought it was the intention of the Federal government to force all the people to remove from this country, & I cannot understand the cause for such stringent restriction, after they have been robbed of everything, not to be allowed to purchase even the necessities of Life; some of the soldiers say it is to prevent the people from feeding the Conf. Scouts & Bushwhackers--by such a course they will drive out good, as well as bad citizens. Mr. Patillo says if I will go out by Roswell & Lawrenceville, he would like to accompany me. I told him I thought of doing so & going to Athens, to avoid the cannonading of the Cars while passing out of Atlanta; but my mode will be greatly influenced by the terms of my Passport when I get it. I advised him also to apply for a passport & not to try to go without one, that I could not go with him unless he had a passport. It has been very warm today, although the night was very cool, but Musquitoes very bad.

        Mrs. Brown made me a long visit this afternoon, giving me all

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the news she had heard true & false & telling of all the suffers of others & her own particularly, she is so accustomed to poverty however, it will be no new thing; she brought me a pair of Socks for which I gave her 1/2 Bus Meal, they having nothing to eat. I had previously this morning bought a pair of socks from a little girl at 50 cts. Mrs. Brown said she heard that old Mr. Barber & other Refugees had been overtaken on the South side of the Chatta'e and robbed of every thing they had--and that some poor woman on this side of the River at home, had been badly abused by the soldiers lately. I made Mrs. McClatchy a short visit this afternoon, all well, but bad spirits. Mrs. Downy (Mr. Green's daughter) & Daughter came out from town this afternoon, to see if I could sell or loan them some plates & cups & saucers, as they wanted to take a few Boarders, the Robbers had left us so few I could not spare them any.

        After sun down one of guards (Vickers) who had been front, stopped to make me a short visit, he says he was passing up in the Cars on his way home in Ohio, his time of service being out, & as the Cars were to delay 2 or 3 hours in town, he could not pass me by without stopping to tell me goodbye, so he jumped out of the Cars opposite the House, & spent an hour with me. Such exhibitions of very kind feelings I have often experienced from the Federal soldiers and officers.

27th. Aug't. 1864.

        Mr. Fletcher made me a visit this morning & so did Rev'd Mr. Griffith, Chaplain 6th. Ind. Cav. merely [torn] as their Reg't was to

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leave today for Nashville--He informs [torn] Carter ( is from Bowlingreen, Clay Co. [torn] more of him.

        Mr. G. informed me (by my request) he made Mrs. Miller 2 visits this week, saw her yesterday, that she was quite well and getting on very comfortably. I regret I am deprived of the priviledge of making her a visit. I will try to see her before I leave. We have missed one of Sows with pigs. Sharper says he heard that the soldiers had shot them all yesterday; there is no protecting anything out of doors from the Thieves, and I fear after I leave there will be but little safety for the food for the servants left within the House. The whole country is overrun with Robbers, blue coats, gray coats, citizen's coats & no coats, blessed are the poor who have nothing to lose. Mrs. Haynes & the 2 Delk boys came again to trade with Dr. Miller's Wagon, which they have done and returned Home, they gave so little provisions in exchange, that they do not think they will come back. I hear Gen'l Kilpatrick had returned from his first raid unsuccessful, having lost heavily, that he had started yesterday towards the eastward Atlanta on a 2d. Raid with 6000 Cavalry. I made Mrs. McClatchy a short visit this afternoon, all well. While there, Sharper sent over to me to say that 3 men were taking off our large pot, when I got home, they had gone off with it. The whole country is filled with thieves, the servants say they cannot stay here without me, that everything will be stolen from them before I am gone a week. I am at a loss what to do, I cannot remain much

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longer, and to leave the House unprotected will secure its destruction. I had hoped to get Mr. Rowland & family from Roswell to occupy it, they are anxious to do so, but as his work is in town, the prohibition of passing in & out of town renders it impossible to do so, and no suitable person can be got unless we will feed them, as they can get no work out of town. O these times of trouble, it is making the gray hairs gather fast upon me. I wish I had a good family in charge of the House and I with all the servants safe at Home, in the land of plenty and freedom. Mr. Fletcher while in town this morning with Col. Howell, tried to get a permit for me to go into town on Monday next to attend to important Business preparatory to my leaving here, but the Commandant replied that he could not just now grant a pass to any one to go in or out of town. Mr. F says he saw Mrs. Wilson this morning, she told him to say to me that a soldier told her a few days before, that he had been at our House and one of the servant Women told him, that if he had only been there a few moments sooner he would have seen at the House 3 Rebel soldiers. I asked each one of the women, they said they had never said so to any one, nor had they seen a Rebel soldier since the Yankee Army came. Being without company, I am getting the more anxious to leave here.

28th. Aug't. 1864.

        Sabbath again, a most delightful day, bright, clear & cool, everything quiet and calm, scarcely a thing moving about, not even on the Roads. We have this morning traced the stolen pot, it was carried

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over to a Hospital at Mr. Baker's place to wash with, they promising to return it today we left it with them, in use. The mosquitoes were very bad last night, as bad as I have ever known them in Sav'h, even keeping me awake. I have written to my wife today to be sent via N.Y.

        I made visits this afternoon to old Mrs. Brown & Mr. Patillo, old Mrs. B. in great trouble, she says here she must soon starve, & she cannot get to her children, from whom she might get assistance. Mr. P. says if I return Home via Roswell & Lawrenceville he wants to accompany me that far, to see if he cannot make some arrangement for removing his family, where provisions can be had, as here he can buy nothing. I told him I will go so soon as I can get my passport, & he must provide himself [torn] also, or we cannot go together. I will not leave without a pass. [torn] violate any regulations of the Military, although some of them seem [torn] but were I away the Turks while I was with [torn] not violating my conscience.

29 Aug't. 1864.

        Cool, clear pleasant day again. I walked out to the Powder Spring Road to learn what was going on in the big World. I saw an old Woman who had just moved into the Johnson Brick House (without doors or Window shutters) with her sick Husband & 8 children, she had come from Campbell County, to see if they could get some work to make a living, she thought they might be able to get washing & sewing enough to supply them with provisions to sustain life, the Husband she says was very sickly, & could do nothing to help. I will go & see him

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during the day or tomorrow. The poor are gathering thick in and about town. May God provide for them during the coming winter, trust in man is poor.

        I heard that the pickets on the Dallas Road near town were shot at yesterday by Scouts, & a rumor that Wheeler's Cavalry was uncomfortably near town. The 2 Delk boys came over this morning to barter apples, they got but little in exchange, & will not come again. I gave them some salt. They brought me a letter from my sister Cate Pratt, saying they were all well. I wrote to her by them. Mr. & Mrs. Fletcher called to see me this morning, she asked why I did not make them a visit, I told her I would like to do so, but prudents warned me not to go too far from House, for fear I might some of our Scouting parties, & although I could not in honor give them any information, still I might be unjustly suspected, & subject me to some annoyance, while I am here--and from the same reason I cannot make Greenlee Butler a visit, who is very low, and cannot last much longer. Mrs. Butler has sent today to ask me to make him a visit, but I do not go a greater distance than 1/2 mile from the House. I am not restricted in my movements about the country, but at liberty to go wherever I please, still I deem it best to remain near & about Home so long as I remain here. I like all the citizens here are strangers to the Federal Authorities & may all be suspected. Our Hogs are all gone I am affraid, nothing has been seen of any of them, for several days past, nothing eatable

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is safe out of doors, and our 2 last chickens have been missing for 2 days. A soldier remarked that often when their officers send them out on foraging expeditions for the Horses, they say do not take any thing more than you can bring off, by which the soldiers understand they are allowed to take everything they find, and can get, if they can only bring it off. The general & wholesale robberies which have been committed wherever the Federal Army passes, & which the officers so severely denounce by the officers is an enigma to me. I apprehend there are in the Army many Major Carters, who said to me that the soldiers should be allowed to appropriate any & every thing they may find in the enemies' country, which would contribute to their comfort & enjoyment; & which Maj'r C. would no doubt allow & practice if he dared to do so, he expressed the sentiment while he was under the influence of Liquor, & probably then exhibited his honest convictions--he however, is the only case of such baseness I have yet found.

30 Aug't. 1864.

        I wrote to Mrs. Jerrie Clements yesterday. Having seen a copy of the U.S. Oath of Alleg'e this morning I give a copy viz--"I . . . of Co. of. . . State of. . . do solemnly swear in the presence of Al: God, that I will hereafter faithfully support, protect & defend the Cons'n of the U.S. & the Union of States thereunder, & that I will in like manner abide by & faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the existing rebellion with reference

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to Slaves, so long & so far as not yet repealed, modified or held void by Congress or by decision of the Sup. Court, & that I will in like manner abide by & faithfully support all proclamations of the Pres't made during the existing Rebellion having reference to [torn] so far as not modified or declared void by decision of the Sup. Court [torn] me God" with a description of the person signing, age omitted. [torn] Hutchins a visit this morning, found him better, the poor large family at [torn] removed to town as paupers to support. Some Wagons with [torn] station trading, some have come 15 or 20 miles with their little supplies to exchange for something to eat, they get very little in return. One old Woman told me that the Yankees had taken all the Horses & Mules in the neighborhood, they afterwards picked up some old, rejected Horses, after getting them in a condition to work, the Rebels came & took them; leaving in the neighborhood only 1 steer (which she had in the Wagon) to go to Mill & do all the work for the neighbors--the old lady was quite out of temper & out of humor with every body; she must have felt more embittered after she finished her trading this morning, as I noticed the soldiers had determined to steal all they could from her & pay but little for the balance. I saw a soldier this morning who said that Gen'l McCook had had a hard time on his recent raid, that he lost heavily & had determ to surrender, but was overruled when Brandon said he could not surrender himself, and they then determined to cut their way out. I hear that Mr. Winters has returned to Marietta from within our Lines, he left here the last day. I suppose he thought it better to be here than

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to meet the Conscript officer in Dixie. Mr. Shepard made me a short visit yesterday; he is getting more & more anxious about his cotton, our Scouts are getting too thick about. I heard this morning that Greenlee Butler was dead, died on Sunday. The Hospital 2 Wagons come regularly to our Spring, with Barrels for Water, but they seem to come with fear & trembling, some days they are so anxious, they come but a few times, from the apprehension that the Scouts may come upon them at the Spring, their 8 Mules would be quite a temptation. I made Mrs. McC. a short visit this afternoon. It is reported that Wheeler is near the town on the N.E. with 2 Brig's Cavalry & an Infantry force, & that 8 or 10 Reg'ts of Federal Inf'y force had just arrived at Marietta, and a fight anticipated. My guard absent tonight, he seldom spends the Night with me, feeling so uneasy about being captured.

31st. Aug't. 1864.

        All quiet this morning, no fighting last night, I understand the provisions at Marietta are being rapidly removed to the front, fearing some attack on the place. The Cars always pass with large guards, the town said to be well fortified, with cannons in position. I went to the picket station this morning to see the Country People & Soldiers trading, not much doing, only one Wagon in, they come a long way with but little to exchange, & get less, but provisions must be had. I told the Soldiers if they did not trade more liberally the Country People would not bring in their little supplies. Preparatory to my anticipated visit to Roswell on my way Home, I am trying to select &

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pick up a Horse out of the many abandoned ones which are all over the fields & woods. I want one strong enough to carry me, but it must not be too good, to prevent its being taken from me on the Road. [torn] now even under lock & keys.

        A poor family Mrs. Rogers &c. [torn] about 7 miles from here and about 7 miles West of Vinings Station [torn] she gave me a terrible account of the sufferings of the families in her neighborhood from the Federal Foraging parties who are constantly coming among them, taking every little thing could find, and very often what was not wanted by them would be destroyed, that the day before yesterday a party of 7 were in the neighborhood but not more than 2 miles to her House, insulting the Women & taking & destroying every thing they could find, tearing up Bed & family Clothing, throughing away provisions & Butter Milk which they could not take away. Soon after a party of our men came upon them & took the whole party & took them off, & she heard from their neighbors that as our men were seen afterwards with the horses & no prisoners they thought the 7 poor wretches had been killed. She told me that the Yankees has burnt her Uncles (D. Daniels) dwelling House. These foraging parties commit many wanton & cruel depredations, keeping alive those bad feelings which will perpetuate this sad war.

        I went to Mrs. McC's this afternoon, there I saw a soldier who told me that one of their soldiers had been taken during the day about 5 Miles on the Powder Spring Road. Gen'l McArthur sent me a

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pass to come & see him in town, he is Comman't of the district. I had made application to him for a passport to go into the Southern Lines. I will see him tomorrow.

1st. Sept'r. 1864.

        Another month has gone, one more month & I may hope to be on my way Home. The rapid flight of time keeps my spirits up; I am so wearied of the long separation from my family, without being able to hear a word from any of them--if I only felt certain that I shall then be able to get a passport, I should feel comparative contentment in remaining here for a Month longer, but the uncertainty depresses me.

        Soon after Breakfast this morning I made my call on Gen'l McArthur in town, the first I have met. I found him a very pleasant man, a Scotchman, about 40 years old. I spent over an hour very agreeably with him, but was disappointed in my hopes for Passport, he told me could not just now grant me a passport to pass the lines, that none could be granted now that their Army had occupied Atlanta, so I must be patient, but that he would give me one to go to the North any time I desired it. My disappointment was great, relieved however, by his kindly giving me a pass to go in & out of town whenever I desired, which will be every day I know, so I am now a free man again. My loneliness here was too great for me to quietly to remain, but town Society, as small as it is, will be almost a world to me; the Gen'l says to diminish my loneliness he will also come & see me now & then.

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I only made one visit in town, to Mr. Goodman, I found [torn] seeing nothing but blue sights ahead. I staid about [torn] him up, he walked part of the way Home [torn] he thinks I am a lucky Man in getting my Passport [torn] one else could get one; I have cause to feel truly grateful to Gen'l McArthur for his kindness, as I now be able to make free visits in town; a privilege which has been denied me in common with all others since the 18th. July. The regulations in town are very stringent & rigidly enforced, no citizen allowed to sell nor buy anything without a permit, & that difficult to get. Mrs. Cassels the Milliner near the Methodist Church was confined for near a month for having sold a dress. I heard in town that Smith, one of the Ros'l factory Wagoners, had been hung by our Scouts at Roswell for becoming a Union man, I cannot however believe the report, if he is hung at all I am sure it must be from additional cause, probably desertion. What a terrible sacrifice of freedom in our War for freedom-- God only knows how this sad War is to terminate, & what is to be the state of the country when it shall have closed. I learn that it is too unsafe for any one to try to go over to Roswell, even with a government pass, from the Scouts, deserters & Bushwhackers on the Way. A man was robbed a few miles out of town a few days ago on that Road by some of the straggling Federal soldiers. What a state of Society to live in. I saw today several of the Ros'l fact'y People in town today working there. When going into town I stopped at the Grave yard to examine our Vault, as I had heard some time ago that it had been

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opened again, & the coffins also opened. I noticed that only the Boxes in which the Coffins were placed had been opened. What will some men not do to get money. I was informed that the vaults had also been opened in the Episcopal Grave Yard.

        Rev. Mr. Benedict with his family were sent off to the North today.

2 Sept. 1864.

        In going to town this morning, I met at the Picket Station some country women, some wanted to get Letters from the P.O. & 1 anxious to see her father & family who were in town to leave for Ind'a. I promised to hunt him & deliver the message, after an hours hunt I ascertained that he had gone the preceding, I found no Letters for the others, they remained until I returned at 12 o'clock, when I made my report & they left. I made many visit in town, Mr. Goodman in rather better spirits, but still blue. Old Mr. Simpson in a very bad humor, he says he stays in his house all the time, that he has nothing to say to any of the people, & does not want to see one of them--the old gentleman is fretting away all his comfort. I hear some of our wounded prisoners are suffering much for want of Tobacco, unfortunately I had neither money nor tobacco to give them, but must try to make some arrangements to assist them. I went to see Mrs. Campbell & Mrs. Brown about the prisoners wants, they were giving me an account of their own tryals & annoyances--their servants had been enticed away from them, & they left alone together. [torn] to be very popular

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with the Federal officers & soldiers, many came [torn] know you she said & talk of you with the greatest respect, as [torn] world& all of you--D. Young seems much worsted by his [torn] to the place, taking a long route around by Warsaw ferry to get here.

        Yesterday afternoon I had very pleasant visit from Capt. a Q. M. from St. Louis, a Fremont man & abolitionist, a man of much good sense, a German. At Mr. Goodman's I met a Mr. Johnson, who stays with him, he is connected with the P. O. department, a man of much good feelings, he told me of a number of suffering families about, & his efforts to try to partial supply their pressing wants, Mr. G. said he had relieved a great many, & that he keeps actively engaged at it, going much around in the neighborhood.

        A country woman told me today that a Wagon from Harralson Co. in returning Home, had stopped at Col. Lester's House, & taken with them a load of furniture. Stealing & killing seems to be the great Business of the day. I went to McC. this afternoon & heard that several Wagon & men had this afternoon near town on the Roswell Road.

        2 young men from town called to see me this afternoon & spent about an hour, one a sergent from Ohio about 20 yrs. I found a very intelligent & pleasant young man, he said when he came into the Army his feelings against the South was very bitter, & he thought he would willingly & cheerfully destroy any Rebel property, but after being among the people, and having intercourse with them, his feelings had undergone great change, and he now thought it too sad a War, to increase its terrors more than can possibly be avoided, & efforts aut

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to be made to bring it to a close. Mrs. Miller & Dr. made me a visit this afternoon & a very agreeable one, they staid some time with me, I promised to dine with her tomorrow, she wants to return Home in October & wants me to wait for her, I told her it was probable I would have to wait until then, but I do hope I may be able to get off before. I met Mrs. Hunt is town this morning, she told me that Mr. Hunt was still confined at home under guard, that he was ignorant of the cause of his arrest. I must get permission from Gen'l McArthur to go & see him, & if possible to try & get him relieved, he is one of the last men of whom I would suspect wrong doing.

3d. Sept. 1864.

        I went to town this morning, & learnt that Hood had evacuated Atlanta the night before last & it was occ'd by the Federal Army, the notice posted in the street was "Atlanta is ours--Glory to God"-- I heard there had been heavy fighting on the Macon Road, particulars I could not learn. How anxious do I feel about my little Boy, if I could only hear that he was safe & well, how grateful would I feel. What sad anguish & anxiety does this needless political war occasion. What a curse to a Nation are these professional Politicians. I made a visit to Mrs. Harrison & Mrs. Earle this morning, found them all well, & met there Capt. & Capt. Campbell from Kentucky. I find him a very pleasant & intelligent young man, he surprized me much to see what bitter sentiments he indulged to the South and Southern men, but I soon discovered he was jesting, & his views were intelligent,

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he promised to make me a visit soon, & that we would settle the affairs of the nation.

        The very heavy Rain prevented my going to Mrs. Wilson's to dinner & detained me in town, I took dinner with Mr. Goodman, Mrs. G. has been quite unwell for some days, Mr. G. in rather better spirits, but still in much trouble for the future. He says where can a safe Home be found for his family? it is not here nor in Georgia, & at the North he fears worse in the coming Presidential election. When the Fed. Army leaves here for Atlanta we will all be exposed to much annoyance from the wicked marauders running over the Land, stealing & destroying every thing. Wherever the 2 Armies pass & in that vicinity the foundations of civilized society seem broken up. I learn that a number of the Marietta people [torn] Home under a guard, the liberties of many have been greatly restricted [torn] the causes, I have been greatly favored & treated with the [torn] for which I cannot but feel very grateful; for my wife [torn] I have done so freely here, giving free utterance to all I felt & thought, [torn] of my Heart to citizens, officers & privates & then [torn] my intercourse with the Federal army has [torn] all,with the exception of Major Carter's case, has been very gratifying. When we differed we discussed our differences freely & fully, but agreeably & always gentlemanly, the results have been to impress me very favorable towards the general opinions, feelings & conduct of the Federal Army; & from all I hear, my course of unrestrained intercourse, has

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impressed them no less favorably towards me. I shall always feel grateful for the many kind visits & other acts of kindness towards me during my sad loneliness here. I cannot think the course of Mr. S. . . . in adopting a bitter exclusion from them has been a wise or just one, bitter feelings give life to this sad War, by allaying such bitterness & correcting wrong impressions the War might soon be taken out of the hands of politicians & brought an honorable termination. It is 2 months today since I have been within the Federal Lines, & I can say with greatest truthfulness, that with the exception of the Robbings of the first day, during my absence in town, the conduct & opinions of Mj'r W. W. Carter, and of our drunken soldier of Col. Eggleston's command, nothing has occurred nor opinion expressed during the past 2 months to myself, which could occasion any unkind feelings towards, nor unfavorable opinion of, the Federal Army; it has been a source of great amazement to me, that in mixing freely with such a multitude of men, many of whom must be very bad, to watch the remarkable delicacy with which all seem to avoid even alluding to any subject which might be painful to my feelings--the case of the John Brown song a marked one-- inducing me to believe that in most cases where others have treated with unkindness, or with harshness, the suffering parties were probably much in fault.

4 Sept. 1864.

        Sabbath again--another week gone, & I one week nearer Home; & Atlanta being occupied by the Federals, I may soon be able to get a

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passport to return Home--& what anxiety must I feel until I can hear from Home, not knowing what sad changes may have taken place during the long, anxious period since I have last heard from them. After the hard Rains yesterday, we have today a bright, clear & cool Sabbath. I have not left the House, not being able to hear of any Church services in town. I may walk into town this afternoon for exercise. Dr. Miller (Chief Surgeon at Military Ins: Hosp:) made me a pleasant of over 2 hours this morning, he is a very intelligent & pleasant man from Iowa. He told me he would like to move to this country after the war was over, & we united, but he apprehended the feelings would be too much opposed to all Northerners. I told him I did not think it would be so towards him, he has been so very kind to Mrs. McC. & others. We had a long & pleasant discussion about the waging of this War & the prospects of its termination. I told him if the North was contending for the Union & the Constitution as they professed, an early reunion may take place, but if they intended to act in violation of the Constitution, on the subject of Slavery or in any other way, they had to subjugate the South & force it back & keep it in by many Bayonets, which would violate all principles of a free government, to effect this purpose it would require years of bloody War. He said it was a sad state, but the North was so convinced that we could not live together in harmony with slavery, that it became necessary to if possible to get rid of the [torn] still he admitted that the North could not determine on any feasible [torn]

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of the Negro, to place them in a condition of happiness & usefulness [torn] slavery--he admitted that the difficulties were very great in [torn] but thought that without a reunion with the South, [torn] up into fragments & go to ruins, in which I agreed with [torn] but as perfect equals [torn]

        Could hear of no Church service but among the [torn] a visit to Dr. Lowry's family, where we heard that King [torn] having left Atlanta on the day it was evacuated [torn] the wives & children. Reid was kept in custody yesterday [torn] I presume [torn] relieved today. Mrs. Lowry informed me that one of Bro. B's servant [torn] with 4 or 5 children had come to her begging her to take them to work for her that she would be a faithful servant to her during the War, if she would take care & provide for them, that they could not provide for their wants. She at first refused, having but little work for them, but afterwards took them. They have now been with her about 2 Weeks & doing very well. The Woman having gone to Church I did not see her, I will call to see her.

        Large parties of Federals & Negroes I understand went down to Atlanta yesterday. On my return Home I made Mrs. McC. a short visit. I heard that last night the Pickets at the Johnson's House had been fired on. On my way to town I saw one of the Guards seated down alone reading, I took my seat along side of him & found he was attentively reading the new testament, he was a young man about 21 years old, he told me that he was not a member of the Church, but that his parents were, that he found no greater comfort when alone

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than to read his testament & to think of his spiritual interest. I had a pleasant conversation. I heard that Col. Caprone, a Marylander, who had been on the Stoneman Raid, on his return had passed through Athens, but in a great hurry, but had remained long enough to do the Citizens much damage by Robberies, & after this (near Jug town) that he was overtaken by Wheeler's cavalry & so terribly cut up & scattered, & that he had escaped by going down the Chattahoochee to Roswell in a small canoe on a dark, stormy night. I did not know him myself, but a friend who had had several conversations with him said he was a very bad, wicked man, & disposed to do all the damage & injury to the country & people he could, he seemed to think nothing too bad could be done to [torn]--he complained that our people had wantonly killed his men, & seem disposed to give no quarters--he was asked if his men had not acted in such a manner as to have provoke such feelings, he admitted that they had generally been very rough, & in one case a soldier (who had arrested) had threatened a Lady with his pistol at her head, to make give up her watch. I wonder if it was our daughter Gus! The same Col. Caprone, who camped mear Mr. Wilder, expressed surprize that Mrs. W. property was allowed to be protected and so great a Rebel, & wanted to take her property to make his men & himself comfortable, but he was not allowed to do so--this Col. C. seems to be another Maj'r Carter only a little worse--making one more bad case.

5th. Sept. 1864.

        While in town this morning I visited Col. Howell, & Mrs. Hansels

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they were all well. Mrs. H. had just rec'd a Letter from Gen'l H. dated 15 Aug. over which she was crying when we went in, he was at Macon & very anxious about them, as he had not heard a word from them since he left, feeling the same suffering I do about my Wife & children. I met Mrs. Morris & Mrs. Tucker in the street, Mrs. M. very anxious to get to her family, but cannot go yet. Mrs. Goodman better, Mr. G. still with the blues, it requires much nerve to keep up spirits in these days. I heard that Mr. and Mrs. Wayland had been robbed [torn] Saturday night of nearly all their provisions that had left. I heard a rumor that Bro. B. had died suddenly, but I corrected it as I had heard [torn] he & sister C. were in Sav'h on their way to Virginia. Mr. Tollison [torn] Mrs. Hansel informs me that one of her servant [torn] behaved so badly, being imprudent & would do nothing for [torn] that she had to get the Pro. Marshall to move her off, which [torn] are ignorant of the fact that they are separating [torn] women & children will have to suffer much [torn] made a short visit to Gen'l McArthur this morning [torn] to go to Church in town, the Gen'l promises[torn] Sundays. I learnt from Gen'l McA. that Hood's [torn] others say his army has been scattered & that [torn] hear that 2000 of our prisoners are expected up, how anxious am I about our little boy, & have begged friends in town to keep a look for him, if he is a prisoner & sent to the North I must go with him. This sad War, the innocent have to suffer with the guilty. What a curse the professional politicians have proved to be to us. What misery their

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lust for party power has brought upon a happy people.

        My guard has been trying to get some Birds for us to day with the Shot Gun, but no luck. I hear the travelling up the Road has been interrupted for some days past, & no mails rec'd. We have had heavy Rains again this afternoon. I met Mr. Shepard in town this morning, he has a pass for 10 days. How anxious do I feel this dull afternoon to be at Home with my family, or even to hear from them. I do not think I can patiently wait for Mr. Wilson until the 1st. Oct. the delay & anxiety are too trying to my feelings. May God soon give us rest--Dr. Miller & I made old Mr. Hutchins a visit.

6th. Sept. 1864.

        Nothing new in town this morning, I visitted Mrs. Postell, D. Young & Mr. Goodman, Mr. G. had been out to his place, the first time for about 6 weeks, says Mrs. Brown is taking good care of every thing, thinks he will move there in a month, where he can get wood in the winter. I called on Col. Ross (the com't) for permission to visit Mr. Hunt in his confinement at Home, he gave his consent to my doing so [torn] when I called at the House the guard told me he had positive orders to permit no one to visit him without a written order, so I have to delay my visit to him until I am provided with a written order which I will try to get in a few days, they were all well. The poor good man must be very lonely without any of the society of his old acquaintances. I deeply sympathize with him--the good & the Wicked suffer together in this world. Mrs. Postell has her 2 children with

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her, she tells me she has been getting on very well, having had some of the Federal officers boarding with her all the time. The last of them left her yesterday; I advised her to get some more to come & stay with her, her children have not been well & she looks thin; she says her servants have remained faithfully with them; while many others have deserted their best friends, to enjoy the poor Negroes idea of freedom, that is perfect idleness, not knowing that God meant all his creatures to work, the poor must work, the rich ought to. The streets in M'a are all barricaded, the Episcopal, Presbyterian & Baptist Churches are used as Hospitals. The Methodist Church, I understand, is open, but occ'd by the Negroes for their services. Preaching by the Christian Commission is conducted on Sundays & prayer meetings in the week held at Mr. A. Green' s Store. I will try to attend next Sabbath. Mrs. Brown made me a visit this afternoon, she talks very dull, she does not know how they are to live the coming winter. I look forward with sad anticipation [torn] for the poor people of this country the coming winter; the [torn] God will provide for them, they have generally lost [torn] & are not allowed to buy any thing, even if [torn] What an accumulation of sufferings have been [torn] instigators of this sad & criminal War. [torn] so miserably by the [torn] What an affliction to any people [torn] who would cause to others any suffering [torn] our ambitious views. I truly hope our [torn] may warn the people in future to place [torn] wisdom or honesty of professed politicians. I [torn]

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most of them, the worst & most dangerous[torn] & so little has my confidence been in them from my boyhood, that I have never voted a Democratic nor Whig ticket, never having identified myself with either party; but always been at war with both, for their intolerable corruption. Rain again this afternoon, it rained heavily & constantly last night. Mrs. Brown tells me that old Mrs. Brewer got off on Sunday to go to her son's near Canton, where there is less probability of her starving. My guard (Cox) has been amusing himself for the past 2 days hunting for game with the Shot Gun, to provide for our table use, but without success. I tell him if we depend on his luck we would starve; this afternoon he brought in a pig which he had shot, but I not think it is one of ours, but in these War times he & Sharper says property has no particular owner, such seems to be the practical opinion of most people. War is a great demoralizer. Raining this afternoon.

7th. Sept. 1864.

        Cloudy & chilly this morning--I will remain at Home. My guard had quite a fright last night & run away from me--last night about 7 1/2 o'clock we heard some persons talking to the servants, after we had lissened a while, he said he would go out & reconnoiter, I saw no more of him. After waiting about an hour for him, I went to bed, he was back early this morning, but reports that while looking around in the dark, he heard the movement of Horses, & as he did not like to be taken by the Johnnys, he concluded that he had better return

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to his encampment within the picket Lines, & did so, alarming the Pickets at the same time by telling them he had run from the Rebs. Sharper says 2 men stopped at the House & remained about an hour, 1 was in Blue clothes & the other in Gray, the one in Blue says he was connected with Capt. Rankin's Wagon Train, & had encamped here & seem to know all about the place & spoke very favorably of me, the Gray coat man said very little. The Pickets shot several times during the Night, early this morning they say they chased 2 men accross the R. Road--It is reported that Hood's Army has been routed & scattered, & a large number of Prisoners taken, how anxious do I feel about our little boy. A Train heavily loaded with soldiers passed down this morning--how painful to the feelings to witness such constant demonstrations for the destruction of human life & happiness; how sadly corrupt is the Human family, can there be any hope of ever attaining a high standard of character & Christianity?--or in Man even with the Bible in hand always to remain in subjugation to his Brute passions, delighting to kill each other & to destroy happiness?--I went to town this afternoon, heard nothing more. About 400 prisoners went up in the Train this morning. Gen'l McArthur went to Atlanta this morning to see Gen'l Sherman, I hope he may learn something about passports for those desiring to go South. The cool weather makes me more anxious.

8th. Sept. 1864.

        Another cool raw day today--true September weather. I went to town this morning, heard nothing new, some anxiety felt there about a

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rumor of the authorities listing who are for & against the North & sending off those opposed, only a rumor however. [torn] sold at 8 1/2 c per lb. in Specie for which 18 c in green backs asked. [torn] Mrs. Duncan, she wants to go to Sav'h with me. Met in [torn] Federal service, a native of Marietta, his father kept [torn] Met a member of the Christian Ass'n [torn] afternoon at 3 o'clock. Sat during prayer meeting [torn] I promised to attend sometimes. [torn] I heard this [torn] short distance out of town [torn] sent to Chattanooga to collect a [torn] and that an efficient force was [torn] the Robberies & depredations from this [torn] may be successful-- nothing shows [torn] than the numerous bodies of Robbers [torn] and despoiling every person & every thing in this already sorely [torn] where neither life nor property is safe--if the [torn] of the Land could witness the sufferings I have consequent [torn] they would now feel & think as I did when they were actively engaged in inflaming the passions of the people to produce the present catastrophe, but these miserable party politicians care but little who suffers so [torn] their selfish& corrupt ambition in obtaining offices can be gratified, generally are careful to place themselves out of the way of danger. [torn] another pleasant visit this afternoon from Capt. Earthman (the German) [torn] me again tonight, he does not like to hazard the nights here. He [torn] for a guard in dangers. Weather cool & raw all day--a lonely evening.

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9th. Sept. 1864.

        Clear & pleasant this morning. Made Mrs. McC & loaned her 3 [torn]& then went to town. I heard that a large force of Confederates were about [torn] that Gen'l Sherman had been defeated at Jonesboro, and was falling back to Atlanta, that Forest & Wheeler had been near Nashville with a large force, & that they [torn] been driven off & the R. Roads again clear. Much excitement in town about [torn] hear that the inhabitants of Atlanta have been ordered to leave the place in a few days, either to go North or South, and the same order is apprehended will be issued here; unless the order in Atlanta arises, as is surmized by some in consequence of so many citizens having remained there, as not to afford unoccupied houses enough for Hospitals & officers uses. I cannot well credit the rumor, as the Federal Army has expressed surprize at the folly of the people in abandoning their Homes as their Army approaches; if such be their feelings they cannot be willing to force off those who do remain; & yet the course they are pursuing of refusing to sell provisions & clothing to those who remain & who have been robbed of everything, tends to the same result. War seems to be like party politics, a complete game of lieing, deception is strategy. Honesty in War & Politics is deemed and treated as poor Policy. Many of the Ladies in Marietta are making arrangements to quit & go South, some went out into the country yesterday to engage Wagons to remove them towards the eastward; A large drove of Beef cattle came up from the front today--what can be the cause? On my return from town I heard my

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Guard had left in a hurry, saying that 2 men had met him near the old stable & Barn while he was out Bird hunting & had taken his Gun & Jacket from him, had they been Conf. Scouts they would have taken him also. I have not seem him since, there is some mystery about it. The servants seem to think it is a trick of the Guard, I think it more probable, that some of [torn] men, knowing him to be timid & in the habit of going [torn] would scare & rob him. Whatever be the cause, [torn] will allow him to stay with me much [torn] it was only a trick of the guard to steal the Gun; some of [torn] opinion--very probably it is so as stealing seems to be [torn] man has been with me

[Remainder of page in fragments, and impossible to copy.]

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        This manuscript has been copied with faithful effort to reproduce it, preserving as far as possible the original spelling, punctuation, etc. The copy has been verified with the original and necessary corrections made. Where there is grave doubt as to a word or name, this is indicated by a question mark.