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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998
The author of this little work, having found most of the juvenile books too complex for young minds, has for some time intended making an effort to simplify the science of Geography. If she shall succeed in bringing this beautiful and useful study within the grasp of the little folks, and making it both interesting and pleasant, her purpose will be fully accomplished.
The first part of this work is intended to be used as a reader. The second is to be studied as usual. The object of this arrangement is to make the child familiar with geographical terms before he begins to study Geography. As a pupil, the author well remembers her difficulties at this point; and as a teacher, she has been led to enquire, "Is there no easier path for the tender feet of the little ones?"
Let the pupil read over and over again, the first part, and then the second will be simply a review.
1. In this book I propose to tell you about Geography. I wish you to pay good attention, and if I use a word you do not understand, you must ask your teacher to explain it to you.
2. Some people travel over the world and see nearly every country on the globe; but as every one can not do this, it is best for every boy and girl to study Geography. Then when they wish to travel, after they are grown up, they will know which countries are most interesting. But very few will leave their own country, and thus if they do not read books and learn these things, they must always appear ignorant.
3. Then to study Geography means to learn about the surface of the earth. The surface is the outside part, on which we live. Part of this surface is land, and part is water. There are about three times more water than land.
4. The earth is round like a ball, and turns over once in a day and night. When the side on which we live is turned towards the sun, we have day, and the people on the other side have night.
5. The reason we do not fall off, is, that the earth draws us to it. We call this drawing towards the earth, attraction. Were it not for this we should all fall off, like the water falls from a grindstone, or a water wheel, when turned rapidly.
6. The earth is one of the planets. A planet is a body which moves around the sun. The earth moves around the sun once in a year; and keeps rolling over all the time. God made the earth and put it in motion, and it will move until he commands it to stop. Should we not love him for making us such a beautiful home?
1. As the earth moves around the sun, sometimes the sun shines straight down upon us, and we then have summer. Then the trees blossom and bear fruit, the birds sing and build nests; and men plow and raise wheat, corn, cotton, rice and. tobacco.
2. When the sun first begins to shine warm, and the birds begin to swell and the flowers to bloom, we call it Spring. When the sun gets high in the heavens, we call it Summer. When the sun begins to sink back into the south, and the corn and fruit
get ripe, we call it Autumn or Fall. The sun now shines very obliquely by or slanting, and all nature becomes cold and bleak. The snow flakes too descend, and robe the earth in a mantle of white: this we call winter.
3. These changes are called change of seasons; and are necessary to the comfort and happiness of mankind.
1. On the surface of the earth we find some large portions of land, containing many countries: these are called continents. They are surrounded by water and are many thousand miles in extent.
2. We find smaller portions of land surrounded by water which are called islands. Some of these are far out in the ocean, so the people can not get away except on board a ship.
3. Then there are narrow strips of land connecting two larger pieces together; these are called isthmuses. North and South America are joined together by the isthmus of Darien.
4. Sometimes a portion of land is nearly surrounded by water, but one side is joined to a larger piece: this is called a peninsula. Florida is a peninsula.
5. When a point of lands runs out in to the water we call it a cape. Some capes are very high and rocky: these are called promontories.
6. A portion of land raised up to a great height is called a mountain. A smaller height is called a hill. Some mountains have fire inside of them, and send out smoke, hot stones and melted lava; which somesimes covers up whole villages: these are called volcanoes.
7. A plain is a portion of level land. A plain covered with sand is called a desert; and one covered with grass is called a prairie. A low portion of land between two hills or mountains, is called a valley. A valley generally has a brook or river running through it; and produces fine crops.
1. A large portion of the surface of the earth is covered with water. The largest bodies of water, are called oceans: the Atlantic, Pacific, Northern, Southern and Indian. The Atlantic is the largest and is obout three thousand miles wide.
2. Smaller bodies of water are called seas. A sea is nearly surrounded by land. The water of both a sea and an ocean is salt. You could not drink sea water without making yourself sick.
3. An arm of the sea running out into the land is called a bay or gulf. Some of these are very large, as the gulf of Mexico. That potion of a sea or gulf which is so shallow that its depths may be measured with a line, is called a sound.
4. A large collection of waters entirely surrounded by land is called a lake. Some lakes are salt but most of them have fresh water like a river. Lake Superior is the largest in the world.
5. A stream of water running over the land, is called a river. The place where it starts is called its source or head, the place where it runs, its bed or channel, and the place where it empties into the ocean, its mouth. Rivers are very useful to man. They turn mills and other machinery and carry boats upon their surface. Besides the finest farms are found along the river. The Mississippi is the largest river in the world. It is about four thousand miles long.
6. Water is so useful, that man could not exist without it. He catches fish from it, for food; it bears his ships from one country to another, it turns his machinery, it waters his crops; and the best of all, forms the best drink in the world.
1. If you take an apple and cut in two pieces, you call them a half apple. If you take a ball or sphere and saw it in two parts, you have half a sphere. Now the word hemisphere means half, and the earth is round like a sphere, so when the earth is divided in two parts, we call one a hemisphere.
2. If we draw a line around the earth from north to south, we have the eastern and western hemispheres. If the line is drawn from east to west, we have the northern and southern hemispheres. We say we live in the northern hemisphere, because we are north of the equator.
1. You have often heard of the mariner's compass, and some of you have seen one; but as all have not, I will tell you about it. There is a certain star, called the North Polar Star, which you can always see of a clear night. There is a kind of stone, called load stone, which, if a long piece fixed on a pivot, will always point towards the North Polar Star. You may take your finger and turn it will move back north again as soon as you let it alone.
2. Now if you stand with your face the direction the needle points, to your right hand will be east, your left west, and your back south. Your must get your teacher to show you the Polar Star, and then you will always be able to tell what direction you are traveling of a clear night.
3. When you look on a map the top is generally north , the right hand east, the bottom south, and the left hand west.
4. There is one spot of the earth which is always turned towards the Polar Star: this is called the North Pole. The just opposite is called the South Pole. These points are called poles because of their relation to the Polar Star.
1. A canal is a ditch dug by men, wide enough for vessels to sail along on the water with which it is filled. Some countries have no large rivers on which to boat their produce to market, and these canals are dug to answer in the place of rivers.
2. When you grow up and travel, you will sometimes go upon the highway, sometimes upon the turnpike, and sometimes upon the railroad. This last is made by digging down the hills and filling up the hollows, and laying down iron bars for the wheels to run upon. Then the cars are drawn by steam, and move very fast. Some go at the rate of twenty miles an hour, and some thirty or forty. This was a great invention. Fifty years ago people could not travel faster than horses could draw them, which was forty or fifty miles per day.
3. Canals, railroads and bridges and all things that men make, are called the works of art. Mountains, hills, rivers, oceans, seas, &c., are called the works of nature; because God made them. The works of nature far surpass the works of art; which shows how much wiser God is, than the wisest men.
1. When lines are drawn around the earth from east to west, the same distance apart, we reckon distance from one to another, and this is called latitude. Latitude means width, and is applied to the earth in measuring from north to south, because it is considered not so long that way as from east to west. The lines which mark latitude are called parallels.
2. If you look on the map you will observe there are other lines drawn from top to bottom. These are called meridians, and are used to reckon distances from east to west. This being the longer way of measuring the earth, it is called longitude which means length. But you must not
think the earth is much shorter from north to south, than from east to west. It is only flat at the poles like an apple at the stem and blossom ends.
8. A knowledge of latitude and longitude is of very great service to persons sailing over the ocean. When they have sailed so many degrees east, the sun rises an hour sooner or if sailing west it rises an hour later. Thus they know how far they are away from home.
1. The climate on the earth is not alike all over it. Around the middle, between the poles, the sun shines straight down, so you would make no shadow there at noon. This you know makes the climate very warm. They have no winter there at all. The trees are always covered with leaves, flowers and fruits. The trees are very tall, and the flowers large and showy--some of them larger than a man can carry.
2. The animals are large and ferocious. There are many huge serpents, crocodiles, &c. Also venomous spiders and other insects. The people are tall, dark complected, indolent and warlike. As a matter of course with lazy people, they are very ignorant. This is called the Torrid Zone.
3. Around each of the poles, the sun shines so obliquely that the people just see it making a small circle above the trees, during a short day of eight or nine hours. It is so cold there that the people and the trees are very short; not taller than a common man's shoulders; and they look stunted and dwarfish. They cannot raise grain, and consequently have to subsist upon flesh. They live mostly on fish. The raindeer and the dog are the only domestic animals they have. The dog lives on flesh, and the raindeer, lives on a kind of long moss. These animals draw the people on sledges, and can travel as fast as a fleet horse. There is no fruit there, except a few small berries.
4. These are called Frigid Zones. The one around the north pole, the North Frigid, and the one around the south pole, the South Frigid. I know you think you would not like to live there; but those people are as contented and happy as you are; and are very industrious and peacable. They also have some education.
5. Between the Torid and the Frigid zones, there lie two other zones, called Temperate. In these, the trees grow of medium height, but do not have leaves all the year. They bear fruit during the Summer and Autumn, and then cast their leaves away. The fruit and flowers are not so large as in the Torrid Zone. The animals are common size and are mostly of the domestic kind. The people are mostly white, of common stature and of milder dispositions than those of a hotter climate; but much more warlike than those of the Frigid Zones. They are generally industrious and intelligent. I mean by this that
they have good schools, and all who labor can get a good education. But sad to say, there are some lazy people in every zone, and some idle children in every school. I hope my little readers will not be idle.
The men who inhabit the globe, are not all alike. Those in Europe and America are mostly white and are called the Caucasian race. This race is civilized, and is far above the others. They have schools and churches and live in fine style. They also generally have wise and good men for rulers, and a regular form of government. The women are treated with respect and tenderness, and in many cases their wish is law among their male friends.
2. There is a class of people who inhabit most of Asia which is of a yellow color. They are a quiet, plodding race, but when educated are sensible and shrewd. They have some books, and a regular form of government, but they are heathen; I mean by this that they worship images made of wood and stone. They do not know about Jesus. And yet they pray to those idols much oftener than we christians do to our Savior. This race is called the Mongolion. Missionaries have been sent to teach them about Jesus. When they every become converted, they hold fast their profession, and are not fickle like some races.
3. When the white people came to this country, they found a red or copper colored race. This people they named Indians, because they thought they had sailed west until they had come to India in Asia. They were tall, with long black hair, and high cheekbones. They went nearly naked, and were cruel, and warlike. They were good friends, but terrible enemies. They were governed by Chiefs, and had not books. The women performed most of the labor, and were called Squaws. This is called the American race. They now have books, schools and churches, and many of them learn about Jesus.
4. The African or negro race is found in Africa. They are slothful and vicious, but possess little cunning. They are very cruel to each other, and when they have want they sell their prisoners to the white people for slaves. They know nothing of Jesus, and the climate in Africa is so unhealthy that white men can scarcely go there to preach to them. The slaves who are found in America are in much better condition. They are better fed, better clothed, and better instructed than in their native country.
5. These people who are descendants of Ham the son of Noah; who was cursed because he did not treat his father with respect.--It was told him he should serve his brethren forever. That would seem a hard sentence but, it was probably done to show other children how wicked it was to treat their parents so. We can not tell how they
came to be black, and have wool on their heads.
6. There is still another race called the Malay. They are black and have wool on their heads, but not like the African. They are very fierce and will die rather than be made slaves. They are also cunning and treacherous, and will have little dealings with white men. They eat the flesh of their enemies, and are called cannibals. They have killed several preachers who went away there to preach: but some of them have become christians.
7. Now, dear children, you have heard how miserable many of the human family are. If they knew about Jesus, they would be happy as you are. There are good men who are willing to go and teach them, but but they lack money to bear their expenses. Can not each of you give something to help send the gospel to the heathen.
1. A great many years ago the people thought the earth was flat and surrounded by the ocean. Europe, Asia, and Africa, with some islands around the coast, were all the land then known. The people had ships and sailed along the coast, but never ventured out on the ocean.
2. At length some wise men began to conclude that the earth was round like a ball; and that possibly they could sail west across the ocean until they came to the East Indies. This would be so much less labor than traveling across Europe and a great part of Asia to bring the sweet spices and fruits from than plesant climate. So Christopher Columbus asked the king of Portugal to give his ships and men to make the voyage. But the king and his counsellors thought Columbus was beside himself.
3. Columbus then went to Spain to ask king Ferdinand and queen Isabela to fit him out. After much entreaty, they consented, and the queen sold some of her jewels to obtain money for the purpose. At length he set sail with three small ships and ninety men. He sailed due west for three months without finding land. His men now became alarmed, thinking he would never find the way back home. So they thought they would throw him overboard and return. Columbus agreed to to return, if in three days land was not found. Just before the time expired, a man on deck cried out Land! Land! And sure enough there was land. This was an island on the coast of America, and it looked so much like the East Indies, that this group was called West Indies because they found it by failing west.
4. Columbus returned to Spain and told the glorious news. Then many ships came over, and soon the country was settled. But the early settlers suffered much from hardships, and from the hostility of the indians.
When the white men first came the savages treated them kindly; but soon some wicked men began to cheat and take advantage of the indians. The indians in return took revenge by burning whole villages, and killing the inhabitants in their beds or as they ran half naked through the snow. But the white people increased, and made war and drove back the indians into the wilderness, until they are now nearly all beyond the Mississippi River. How much better it would have been if all had acted fairly, and lived together in peace!
5. These indians were very ignorant. They dressed in skins, lived on the flesh of animals which they killed with their bows and arrows. They had no guns, no houses, no tools to work with, no fields, no horses nor cows, nor hogs, nor sheep, as we have. They built little huts of sticks which they called wigwams, and covered them with skins. They used bits of sharp rock and shell to skin animals and cut up the flesh. They had never heard of Jesus, but thought when they did wrong, the Great Spirit was angry with them. They prayed to this Great Spirit, somewhat like we pray to God.
6. The continent of America is divided in two parts, North and South America. They are joined together by a narrow strip of land called the isthmus of Darien. The New World, as it was long called, is noted for its great rivers, large lakes, tall mountains, &c.
7. This New World should have been called Columbia after the great man who discovered it; but one Americus Vespucius made a voyage to the New World, and published a book about it, before Columbus got his out. Thus the world began to call the new land America, in honor of Americus.
1. The northern part of North America is a cold desolate region. In the extreme North west, lies Russian America. This is governed by the Emperor of Russia. The people live mostly by hunting and fishing. The snow is very deep there, and covers the ground nearly all the year. All the wild animals have fur and are hunted for their skins as well as for food.
2. On the northeast we find an island called Greenland, or Danish America. This belongs to the king of Denmark. The country is cold and bleak. The people are a hardy race, of low stature, quiet and industrious. During the long winter nights the parents teach the children to read. They are called Esquimaux, and are as much attached to their cold, barren country as we can possibly be to ours.
1. This division lies between Greenland and Russian America. It is governed by the Queen of England. The southern portion is not so cold and bleak as the polar
regions. In the Canadas, the people raise grain and have some fruits.
2. There are not many mountains but many large lakes and rivers. The St. Lawrence between the United States and British America is a grade river, on which are some great water falls. Niagara falls in the finest in the world. This river drains the great lakes. The largest of these, Lake Superior, is nearly five hundred miles in length. They are also deep enough for the largest ships to sail upon. Sometimes these great lakes are all frozen over so the people can travel on the ice.
1. This was once the most prosperous country in the world. Nearly a hundred years ago it belonged to England: but the English made such hard laws that the people said they would not obey them. After a long, bloody war of seven years, they gained their independence; and for many years were prosperous and happy.
2. In the mean time both English and American ships went to Africa and brought away many of those poor heathen negroes, and sold them for slaves. Some people said it was wrong and asked the King of England to stop it. He replied that "he knew it was wrong; but that slave trade brought much money into his treasury, and it should continue." But both countries afterwards did pass laws to stop this trade. In a few years, the Northern States finding their climate too cold for the negro to be profitable,sold them to the people living farther South. Then the Northern States passed laws to forbid any person owning slaves in their borders.
3. Then the northern people began to preach, to lecture, and to write about the sin of slavery. The money for which they sold their slaves, was now partly spend in trying to persuade the Southern States to send their slaves back to Africa. And when the territories were settled they were not willing for any of them to become slaveholding. This would soon have made the North much stronger than the South; and many of the men said they would vote for a law to free all the negroes in the country. The Southern men tried to show them how unfair this would be, but still they kept on.
4. In the year 1860 the Ablitionists became strong enough to elect one of their men for President. Abraham Lincoln was a weak man, and the South believed he would allow laws to be made, which would deprive them of their rights. So the Southern States seceded, and elected Jefferson Davis for their president. This so enraged President Lincoln that he declared war, and has exhausted nearly all the strength of the nation, in a vain attempt to whip the South back into the Union. Thousands of lives have been lost, and the earth has been drenched with blood; but still Abraham is unable to conquer the "Rebels" as he calls the South. The South only asked to be let alone, and to divide the public
property equally. It would have been wise in the North to have said to her Southern sisters, "If you are not content to dwell with us longer, depart in peace. We will divide the inheritance with you, and may you be a great nation."
5. This country possesses many ships, has fine cities and towns, many railroads, steamboats, canals, manufactures, &c. The people are ingenious, and enterprising, and are noted for their tact in "driving a bargain." They are refined, and intelligent on all subjects but that of negro slavery, on this they are mad.
6. The large lakes, the long rivers, the tall mountains, with the beautiful farms and pretty towns and villages, make this a very interesting country to travelers.
1. These states lie south of the United States, and possess a warmer climate.--The latter are mostly suited to raising grain and cattle, while the former grow more cotton, rice, tobacco, and sugar cane, with some cattle and much grain. A large portion of the country lies on the sea coast, and is level and sandy. The interior portions are hilly and mountainous.
2. This country is well watered by large rivers, and has many fine harbors. On some of these harbors, are large cities; but the Confederate States possess few ships and her cities do not grow so fast as if there was more commerce. But we have reason to hope that in a few years we shall not fall behind any nation in point of commerce, or ships to carry it on.
3. This is a great country! The Yankees thought to starve us out when they sent their ships to guard our seaport towns. But we have learned to make many things; to do without many others; and above all to trust in the smiles of the God of battles. We had few guns, little ammunition, and not much of anything but food, cotton and tobacco; but the people helped themselves and God helped the people. We were considered an indolent, weak people, but our enemies have found us strong, because we had justice on one side.
4. The Southern people are noted for being high minded and courteous. A stranger seldom lacks friends in this country. Much of the field work is done by slaves. These are generally well used and often have as much pocket money as their mistresses. They are contented and happy, and many of them are christians. The sin of the South lies not in holding slaves, but they are sometimes mistreated. Let all the little boys and girls remember that slaves are human, and that God will hold them to account for treating them with injustice.
5. The Southern Confederacy is at present a sad county; but Preident Davis is a good and wise man, and many of the generals and other officers in the army, are pious. Then there are many good praying people in the land; so we may hope that our cause will prosper. "When the righteous are in authority, the nation rejoiceth;
but when the wicked bear rule the nation mourneth." Then remember, little boys, when you are men, never to vote for a bad man to govern the country.
1. This country was found to be more advanced than any of the nations inhabiting North America. The Indians were quiet and industrious, and had right good houses, and cities, and temples. They also had some clothes, and vessels of gold and silver. They had no books but made pictures to remember things that happened.
2. But the Spaniards came and killed the people, and took their gold and silver and lands. The Spaniards then settled the country, but they have never prospered. The country is still in a torn up condition, and they have war nearly all the time. The curse of heaven seems to rest upon them, for treating the poor Indians so cruelly.
3. The climate is very mild and produces all the fine fruits and many rare flowers. There is a range of mountains through the country, some of which are volcanic.
1. This country occupies the most southern part of North America. The climate is hot and unhealthy. The country has not been so rapidly settled as most others.--There are some portions of stone buildings to be found, which seem to have been built before the white people came, but the natives do not know anything about them. Some day, this will become a fine country.
1. In the northern part of South America we find New Grenada, Venezuela, and Ecuador. The first is a broken country consisting of the highest mountains, the lowest valleys, and most abrupt hills. The rivers rush down the mountain sides, and form many pretty cascades of water falls. Part of this country is pleasant and healthy, but the low parts are very sickly. The people have some towns and schools and churches, but are very ignorant. The religion is Roman Catholic.
1. This country forms the finest table land in America. It lies between two ranges of the Andes, and is about thirty miles wide. It is always spring there. On the same three you will find large and small leaves, flowers and fruit. In one field you see the reapers, and in the next the plowman scattering seed. Then turning your eye upward; you behold the lofty tops of the Andes, covered with snow. Should you climb one of these mountains, long before you reached the top, you would become very cold, your breath get short, and the blood gush from your nose and lips. No man
yet has been able to reach the top of the tallest of these mountains.
2. The inhabitants are lively and gay, and live mostly on flesh and fruits. They of late years are beginning to raise grain. If you should go there to dine, you would see ants running all over the table, and sometimes when a tart was cut, you would find nothing but ant inside. In fact, insects are so plenty that the people can scarcely live for them. Near the rivers, there are large serpents, alligators, caymans, &c., which annoy the people very much.
1. This division consists mostly of vast plains, covered with grass. On these are thousands of cattle, horses, and other animals. Some men own a thousand head of cattle; others hunt wild ones, and sell the hides and tallow. The people raise fine tobacco and some grain.
1. This is the most noted country in South America. The people were more civil, and lived more like white people, than any other tribe. The King or Inca ruled gently, and was obeyed as children love and obey a father. The people said a long time there came a man and his wife from heaven, who lived with them, and learned them to spin cloth and to worship the sun. When these people died, their children became rulers of the country.
2. When the Spaniards went to Peru, they took the gold and silver from the natives, killed their Inca, and took possession of the country. But it has never flourished since. These cruel Spaniards have never prospered in any country, as much as some nations. Judgments will always follow wickedness.
3. The surface is hilly and mountainous, and the climate is delightful. There are rich mines of gold and silver there.
1. This was once a part of Peru. Its mountains are very high. Sorato is the highest mountain in the New World. The table lands between some of these mountains are so high that the clouds never reach them. The sun always rises and shines all day long there. Would you not like to live in one of those cities above the clouds, where it never rains nor storms? And strange to say, there are fine fields of wheat, rye, corn, &c., on these high table lands. The land is watered from rivers which run down the sides of the mountains.
2. The city of Cusco is found here. This was the residence of Peruvian Incas, and is a fine city still. Some of their temples are yet to be seen.
1. This is a narrow strip of land, lying between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. It is called the "garden of America,["] because it is such a fruitful country. But the people do not build fine houses and cities, for
the reason that there are so many earthquakes. I am sure you would not like to live where there are earthquakes every few years. Sometimes a whole city sinks; and sometimes a city is raised up higher. But the people there are cheerful and do not seem to fear danger more than we do.
2. The Indians in this section are very warlike and cruel; and disturb the white people very much. Chili once belonged to Spain, but after a bloody war they became free.
1. This is a cold region occupying the southern point of South America. The country is barren, and the savages so cruel that few white people go there. A large island near by contains many volcanoes, and is called Terra Del Fuego, or the land of fire.
1. This country lies east of Chili. Its name denotes silver, and is so called, because so much silver was found there. The climate is pleasant, the country level, and the soil good. Some of the vast plains are covered with thistle and clover, some with tall grass, and some with trees. There are many wild horses and cattle in these plains, and sometimes when the dry grass and thistle stalks get on fire, hundreds of them are burned to death.
2. There the traveler finds many singular plants and trees. A pine with cones as large as a child's head, the seeds of which are good to eat; reeds as tall as our trees, and as large as a common apple tree, cactus twenty feet high, &c. He also learns to drink Paraguay tea, which is quite pleasant, but it is difficult to leave off the use of it after drinking it awhile.
3. Gum Elastic or India Rubber is made from a tree growing in this country. A hole is made in a limb, and the sap drips upon a piece of leather. When this dries it is fit for use.
4. There are many horses in this country, and the people seldom walk. Even the beggar begs on horseback. The people live in low mud houses which are so full of vermin that they often wrap up in skins and sleep out doors, when the weather is warm.
1. This division occupies about half of South America. Its mountains are not so high as some, but the rivers are very large. The Amazon is the largest in the world. It is one hundred and seventy-five miles wide at its mouth. The land near the large rivers is very rich, but the climate is unhealthy, and few people live there. But people are settling there, and soon this will be a delightful country.
2. This is perhaps the most beautiful part of South America. Many pretty plants which we cultivate with so much care are there growing wild. There are orange groves bearing both fruit and blossoms at the same time, gay flowers, graceful creeping plants, and trees ten times as large as any we have.
3. As the traveler walks, the earth seems to be alive with insects, while birds of beautiful plumage, make the forest ring, with their cheerful songs. There are many cattle in the country, but they are generally raised for beef. You will be surprised to hear that they obtain milk from a tree called the cow tree. They make holes in these trees, and go early in the morning with jugs to get milk for the family. It looks and tasts much like cow milk, and when it stands awhile, a yellow substance rises to the top like cream. The milk also becomes tough after standing in the air, and the people then call it cheese.
4. There are many large animals and huge serpents, and frogs as large as a child's head. The inhabitants are ignorant. There are many negro slaves, who are often cruelly treated, and whose masters are but little better off than the slaves. Many of these slaves are kept hunting for diamonds and gold dust. The people are too indolent to make good farmers. They plant grain almost in the woods, and cultivate it but little. But in a few years this will become one of the finest farming countries in the world. Several missionaries have gone there to preach to the people.
1. This large State lies in the north eastern part of the Southern Confederacy. It is frequently called the "Old Dominion." The western part is mountainous, the middle hilly and the eastern level. The soil is mostly good and you will find large plantations, bearing fine crops, numbers of the finest stock. Western Virginia is one of the finest grazing sections in the South. All persons who are fond of good beef, milk, butter and cheese would do well to settle there.
2. The higher class of society is noted for hospitality and for high living. Some of these claim to be descendants of Pocahontas, which they consider a great honor. You know Pocahontas was the Indian girl who saved the life of Captain John Smith, during the early settlement of Virginia. The people used to have many wars with the Indians, and then they bore their part in the Revolution and in the war of 1812.
3. In the war for independence, this State has suffered almost as much as any. Hundreds of families were run from their homes, and lost all they had except their clothes, or a little money. Many houses and farms were destroyed, and the country laid waste. Such are the effects of war.
4. This State has many fine rivers: the Potomac and the James are the largest. There are several rail roads, and canals, and one of the finest harbors in the world. Norfolk was the main sea-port town and contained a fine navy yard; but the enemy has spoiled it very much.
[5. ]Richmond city is the capital of the State and also the Confederacy. This is a
goodly sized city on James river. President Davis resides there and Congress meets there to make laws. Many of the large buildings are used for hospitals, and there are thousands of sick and wounded soldiers constantly there. There is said to be much wickedness in the city.
6. There are a good many manufactories in this State, and almost all kinds of articles in this State, and almost all kinds of articles are made. But the country produces corn, wheat, tobacco, &c., in great abundance. There are many planters who own large numbers of slaves. These are generally well treated, and are as happy a people as any under the sun. If they are sick master sends for the doctor, if the crop is short, they are sure of enough to save life; if they are growing old, they know they will be provided for; and in time of war, they generally remain quietly at home, while the master goes and spills his blood for his country.
1. South of Virginia, we find another large State, called North Carolina. Like the former, the western portion is mountainous, the middle hilly, and eastern level. But there are not so many high mountains in this State as in the other, not is the middle part so hilly.
2. Wheat, oats, rye, corn, and tobacco, are raised in the north-western portion; and corn and cotton mostly in the eastern and southern. The soil of about half the State is good, but much of the other is so thin that those who live on it are very poor. The swamp lands in the east are very fertile. The west is suited to grazing--we mean by this, grass grows well, and cattle are easily raised.
3. There are many large rivers in this State, and the low grounds along them are very fertile. Some of the principal are Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Yadkin, Dan, French Broad, &c. Steam boats ply on the eastern rivers. There are some canals in the east. There are also several railroads in the eastern and middle parts of the State.
4. Beaufort and Morehead City are seaport towns. Wilmington is a large commercial town near the mouth of Cape Fear River. This is noted for its trade in tar, pitch and turpentine, which are produced abundantly in the eastern part of the State. Newbern was a pleasant town, but the enemy have spoiled it and driven away the people. Fayetteville on the Cape Fear, in Cumberland county, is a large town. The State Arsenal is located here, and many guns are made. The guns and gun machinery, were moved from Harper's Ferry to this place, since the war began. The city of Raleigh near the middle of the State, is the capital, This is often called the "City of Oaks." Greensboro, Salisbury, Charlotte, and Statesville are fine towns on the railroads. Salem is noted as
a German settlement, and for its celebrated schools for young ladies.
5. The people of this State are noted for their honesty, and for being "slow but sure." No braver men fought in the war for independence than those from North Carolina. While some few cowards refused to fight for their country, it is a notable fact, that nearly all of them, were of ignorant class, and many of them did not know what patriotism was. We should feel as much pity for them as contempt, because they had not been properly taught.
6. Education was much neglected in the Old North State, until within a few years past. She now has as many good schools and colleges as any sister State. Good people are now building up schools to educate the children of poor soldiers who are killed in this war. Nearly every child can get an education here if he will be industrious. Who will be ignorant?
1. This is a small State lying south of North Carolina. It is washed on the south and east, by the Atlantic Ocean. It is often called the "Palmetto State." This was the first to secede. Many persons blamed the South Carolinians for leaving the Union too soon; but it may have been best; it is impossible for us to decide. The war would have come, sooner or later. God usually punishes wicked nations by war. I mean by this that when people become too wicked, he gives them over to a hardness of heart to work out their own punishment and sometimes destruction. How much better for all to be good.
2. This State is mostly level and sandy. The climate is very mild, and suited to raising vegetables and fine fruits. There are not so many apples, peaches, pears, grapes, &c., raised here as in North Carolina; but figs and oranges can be grown; and before the gardens of Virginia are planted, the peas and snaps of Charleston are blooming. Corn, cotton, and rice are principal products of the soil.
3. In this State, as well as in North Carolina, there are many cotton mills and woolen factories, which produce excellent domestics and jeans, besides spinning much cotton yarn for the mothers and sisters to weave up. In some of these factories, negro slaves perform the work.
4. The people of this State are noted for their chivalry. You do not understand this? Well, when any one imposes upon them their motto is to fight. Also if they see a person badly treated, they feel bound to help him. Their leading men have some times been called "hot headed," because they are so quick to resent an injury.
5. The upper classes are educated and refined, but the poor are generally ignorant. Most of the labor is performed by slaves. These are hardly so well treated as in North Carolina and Virginia; but they have the
gospel preached to them, and are generally contented and happy.
6. Charleston is the main city, and is a seaport town with a fine harbor. Columbia is the capital of the State. This has a fine location, and is noted for its fine groves and neat appearance. It is situated near the centre of the State. There are several railroads, and other marks of art, which make this an interesting State.
6. There are large pine forests, from which the people make tar, pitch and turpentine: these are shipped and sold in other countries. But during the war the ports were so blockaded that these articles were not shipped.
7. On the coast lie a chain of beautiful islands, which are covered with live oak, laurel with blossoms as large as your hat, and the finest fields of sea island cotton. But the enemy have spoiled most of these, and stolen many of the negroes who tilled the land. They told the slaves they were free, and even formed regiments of them to fight against their masters. But the negro is too cowardly for a soldier, and so he is but little service to his Northern friends.
1. This is almost as large a State as Virginia. The climate is pleasant. The surface is varied. The sea coast is level for some distance inland. This is covered with fine forests of pine and oak, with swamps interspersed. Then come a section of higher land of about sixty miles, then another as wide reaching to the foot of the hilly regions: these two belts are sandy, and are covered with long leaf pines. Then we find a hilly region of good land well watered with spring branches and rivers. In the northern part are the Blue Ridge and some other mountains.
2. The principal rivers are the Savannah, Chattahoochee, and Altamaha. The first is navigable 250 miles, large ships ascend it to the city of Savannah. Many of the others are navigable for some distance. Thus the products of the country are easily carried to market. Cotton and rice are the principal productions, but much lumber, tar, pitch and turpentine are also exported. There are some minerals in the State; gold is the most abundant.
3. The city of Savannah stands on the river of the same name, 50 feet above the water. It is one of the finest cities of the South, and is noted as the chief commercial city near the coast. Farther up the Savannah river, we find the city of Augusta. It is an important city, and is handsomely built. The streets are said to be shaded by the pride of India. There is much cotton shipped from this place; and the people of this section are very enterprising in all kinds of business. Milledgeville is the capital of the State and is a pleasant place.
4. The Cherokee Indians occupied part
of this State, and had learned to live much like the white people. They had fine farms with slaves to work them, good houses, much cattle, sheep, hogs and horses. They also had a newspaper, and sent their children to good schools. But in the year 1836 the white people made a treaty with them, to pay them 5,000,000 dollars to remove to Indian Territory, where they were to have seven millions acres of new land. So most of them went away, and now live in the west, where there are more hunting grounds, and where the white people will not molest them. This tribe and others take sides with the South in the great struggle for independence.
1. This is a peninsula lying between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. The extreme point is very low, and often mostly covered with water. The middle portion is level and sandy, covered with pine forests. But there are a few spots of good soil which make fine farms. The country is well watered with rivers, many of which are navigable some distance. The climate is very mild. Oranges, figs, pomegranates, &c., grow there in abundance, with many beautiful flowers.
2. Cotton is the staple production. Sugar cane is raised to a great extent. Indigo was formerly raised here. The live oak grows here in abundance. The timber of this tree is used for ship building, and is in great demand. It is the most durable of timbers for building ships. Cedar logs and staves are also exported. But Florida is best suited for a grazing country, because of its fine pastures.
3. Florida first belonged to Spain, then to Great Britain, then to Spain again, and afterwards to the Untied States. It is now one of the Southern Confederacy. It is said to be called Florida from bearing so many flowers.
4. St. Augustine is the oldest town in our country. It is now partly in ruins. Tallahassee is the capital. The coast is shallow, and Florida possesses few good harbors.
5. The Indians in this State did not wish to remove west: and, though they agreed to go, yet their able chief, Oseola, declared war and gave the United States much trouble. This brave chief was at length killed, and his people submitted to the whites.
6. I must not omit to tell you of the turtles found on the coast of Florida. There are four sorts--the Green, so esteemed for soup; the Hawkbilled, whose shell makes such pretty combs; the Trunk turtle, and the Loggerhead. When about to lay her eggs, the turtle digs a hole in the sand with her hind flappers about eighteen inches deep; then deposits her eggs in nice layers and covers them up with sand. The turtle then goes back into the water and leaves the sun to hatch the eggs. Men hunt these
eggs and sell them. They find from 150 to 200 in a nest, and they are considered very fine for eating. As soon as the young turtles hatch, they scratch out of the sand and betake themselves to the water.
1. This State lies west of Georgia and north of Florida. The Blue Ridge extends into the Northern part, the middle is a vast plain, and the Southern consists of a dead level, but little above the surface of the sea. This is covered with pine barrens and prairies. The cane lakes, when cleared off afford the best cotton lands. Sugar cane and rice also grow finely in this region.
2. This State affords coal, iron, gold, and marble but the mines have not been extensively worked. There is not much manufacturing, nor a great deal of commerce. The people are mostly planters, and own many slaves. These are generally well treated, and have the gospel preached to them.
3. Mobile, at the mouth of the Mobile River is the principal city. Montgomery is the capital of the State, and is situated on the Alabama River. The Mobile River is formed by the junction of the Alabama and the Tombigby. Steamboats run on both these rivers, and ships ascend the Mobile some distance.
1. West of Alabama, we find the State of Mississippi. This is mostly level, interspersed with hills. These hills often have one side steep, and one called bluffs. The western border along the Mississippi consists of swamps. Between the Yazoo and Mississippi Rivers, there are 7000 square miles of this swamp land, which are overflowed nearly every year. The banks of the rivers there are very low, and when the snow melts up north, some two or three thousand miles, and all accumulates in the Father of Waters, as the Mississippi is called, his banks are unable to contain the mighty torrent.
2. The people have built high walls of dirt along the banks of these rivers to prevent the high water from overflowing the lands. These are called levees. During the war, the enemy have broken down the levees on the western side of the Mississippi, and caused thousands of acres to be overflowed.
3. This State is well watered by many fine streams. Several of these are navigable. The Mississippi is 4,100 miles long, and is said to be the longest river in the world. The Amazon is South America is larger, but is not quite so long. No river is Europe or Asia can compare with these. Jackson is the capital of the State. Natchez, 225 miles above New Orleans, is a beautiful city, but it subject to the yellow fever occasionally. Large ships come up to this
place, and some years there are about fifty thousand bales of cotton shipped from its port.
4. Here was formerly the residence of the great sun, the chief of that powerful tribe of Indians called the Natchez. They were more polished than their savage neighbors and had regular laws, and an established worship. They had an altar sacred to the sun, and kept a constant burning thereon in honor of the Great Spirit. When the French went there, the natives received them kindly, but soon they disagreed, and the Indians killed the whole settlement. The French then sent a great force into the country, and killed many, and made slaves of nearly all the rest of the tribe.
5. This section once belonged to the French, then to Great Britain, then was claimed by Spain; and finally ceded to the United States. At the beginning of the war for Independence, this State seceded and has nobly done her part in the great struggle.
1. Louisiana presents a broad front to the sea of about three hundred miles. The surface of this State is low and level, with some little hilly ranges, and many basins or low spots. A good portion of the State is lower than the bed of the Mississippi, and consequently, when the floods come every season, a large tract of country is inundated.
2. The Mississippi River forms the boundary line between the State and Mississippi, until a short way from its mouth. This great river throws off branches which run across the country and enter into the gulf. These are called bayous. They are sluggish, stagnant streams, except during the floods, at which times they become wide-spreading. The Mississippi has several mouths as these bayous are called, and the land between them is called the Delta of the river.
2. New Orleans stands on the Mississippi and is the largest commercial city in the Southern Confederacy. It stands on a dead level, and at high water, the river would overflow it, but for the levees, or embankments of earth, which are thrown up to prevent this. Some times those levees break, and considerable damage is done. The traveler is struck with the narrow streets, and old fashioned houses. But the newer portions of the city are built in good style. The river here is half a mile wide, and from one hundred to one hundred and sixty feet deep, and it continues about the same width and depth down to the sea. Large ships lie close up to the levees, and hundreds of them may be seen lying upon the water like a forest of tall trees.
4. The inhabitants of this city drink water from the river. This is always muddy, and has to be filtered or allowed to settle; and in warm weather, the people buy ice to cool it. This ice is shipped around from
New York, and is a profitable business. The city is very subject to yellow fever.
5. The Red River is the largest eastern branch of the Mississippi. It rises in the Rocky mountains, and after a course of two thousand miles, enters into the Father of the Waters in this State. About five hundred miles up this river was found a raft extending one hundred and sixty miles. This was formed by trees falling in the river, and had to be cleared out before vessels could ascend.
6. Louisiana was first occupied by the French. It was afterwards ceded to Spain, then to France again, and finally to the United States. This was one of the early States to secede when the revolution broke out; and nobly has she done her part. This State produced the gallant Beauregard, the general whose name is familiar in every household.
7. The French language is much spoken in this State, and the Roman Catholic is perhaps the prevailing religion; though there are many of other sects at the present time. The State has suffered greatly during the war. The people have been robbed and sent from their homes in many cases, and the towns and cities pillaged and burned.
8. The soil is adapted to the culture of cotton and sugar, and is mostly good. Some of it is black as ink. Baton Rouge is the capital.
1. This country once formed a part of Mexico; but the people rebelled, and after a short war, became independent. It was afterwards annexed to the United States, but now forms a part of the Southern Confederacy.
2. The State was long noted for the refuge of bad men who ran away to prevent being punished; but of late years it has become a thriving State. It is a fine country for grazing, and much stock is raised. The climate is mild; but somewhat unpleasant. You may ride out of a pleasant evening, and before you return the wind will blow up so cool that you return to take up your blankets for sleeping. These are called Northers, and blow up very suddenly. The nights are cool all the time in this section. No matter how oppressive the heat may be by day, you are always sure of a cool night.
3. This State has several fine rivers emptying into the sea. Galveston is the principal seaport town. Austin is the capital. This State has not suffered much from war.
1. This is one of the new States. It lies between Louisiana and Missouri; with Mississippi
and Tennessee on the east, and Indian Territory on the west. The surface is broken and hilly, with some mountains. The eastern part of the State next the Mississippi is level and swampy. But much of this is now drained off and under cultivation.
2. Arkansas is well supplied with navigable streams. The Arkansas, the Red, the White and the Washita, are noble rivers. The soil is generally good, and the products generally are corn and cotton. This State abounds in minerals of various kinds. There are also mineral spings of great variety, and some hot springs, hot enough to boil an egg.
3. This State has no large cities. Little Rock is the capital. The State has been mostly settled by emigrants from the other States. They elect their governor for a term of four years, and all white men who have lived there six months, are allowed to vote if 21 years of age. The sale of lottery tickets is prohibited by law, and there are no lotteries in the State.
4. This State has suffered terribly during the war. The enemy have ravaged nearly the whole of it, and the wrongs of the people are heart-rendering. But there is a God of vengeance and ere long these sufferers will be avenged.
1. Missouri is the second State is size, in the Confederacy. On the east the Mississippi separates it from Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; on the west we find Indian Territory, north Wisconsin, and south Arkansas. Part of the country is hilly and mountainous, but other portions are very low and marshy.
2. The State is well watered, the Mississippi on the east, the Missouri through the centre, the Kansas, Big Black, Osage and others, all contribute to make this a rich section. Some of the hills are ragged and barren, but for the most part the country is well timbered with pine, sycamore, hackbery, cotton wood, sugar-maple, etc. It is an excellent farming section.
3. The minerals of Missouri are varied and valuable. Lead, iron, zink, plumbago, arsenic, &c., are found. Shot factories are located on the high bluffs of the Mississippi. Here they melt lead and pour it through sieves; when in falling some distance the shot are formed, and drop on the sand below.
4. This is a great grazing country, and vast herds of swine, cattle and horses are raised. The owners have little to do besides to mark and turn their stock out, and drive them in when they are far. Much of this live stock is placed on large flat boats and conveyed on the rivers to the towns and cities for sale. Corn, wheat, cotton, tobacco, and other products are raised. The American Fur Company consists of a good many men who sell furs, and buy wool, mules, &c. In the city of St. Louis
they have a large house containing thousands of skins and dried buffalo tongues.
5. Jefferson City is the capital. St. Louis is the principal city of Missouri, and contains many fine churches and other public buildings. It stands on the west bank of the Mississippi, and steamboats ply between it and many other important points. Thus you observe it is quite a commercial city.
6. New Madrid is a small village situated on a high alluvial bank of the Mississippi. Alluvial means loose earth which has been marshed or thrown there since he creation of the earth. Every year the river carries away a portion of this bank, and in time it will all be taken off.
7. About fifty years ago, there was a terrible earthquake in this section. It was felt at New Orleans, and even in South Carolina and Georgia. But in this valley, the earth opened in wide chasms, and sent forth columns of sand and water. Some hills sank down and left lakes in their places. Some lakes were raised up so the water ran out and left dry land. The beds of rivers were changed, and even the Mississippi was turned back in its course for whole hour, till the weight of the water broke over and formed a new channel. Boats were dashed against the banks, or left in the dry channel; while the lightning flashed, and the earth rumbled louder than any thunder. Some slight shocks have been felt since, but there have nearly ceased now.
8. This State has suffered dreadfully during the war. The people were much divided, and did not secede with that unanimity which most of the other States did. The enemy has devastated much of the State; but the brave spirits there will yet conquer, and this will be one of the finest States in the Confederacy. The Indians from Indian Territory have joined the Southern army, and made themselves useful to our cause.
1. The State of Kentucky is separated on the north from the United States, by the Ohio River. Virginia bounds it on the east, Tennessee on the south and the Mississippi River on the west. The Cumberland Mountains occupy that part of the State next to Virginia. Then the Ohio Hills lie along a few miles from the Ohio River. Besides these the country is partly hilly, and partly level; the low portions lying near the rivers. These river valleys are very fertile; and much of the hill country produces finely.
2. Their State is nobly watered. The beautiful Ohio on the north, the Mississippi on the west, the Tennessee and Cumberland in the south-west; and the Green, Kentucky, Licking and Sandy, crossing the State north-ward and emptying into the Ohio. The region watered by the Kentucky, the Licking and Salt Rivers, is described
as the garden of the State. Most of these rivers are navigable, some fifty, some one hundred, and one, the Tennessee, three hundred miles.
3. This is a limestone region and abounds in caverns, sinks and subterraneous streams. This last means rivers running under ground. Sometimes they burst out of the earth and form a river large enough to turn a mill. Mammoth Cave extends about two miles and a half under the ground, and its rooms are large and beautiful. But when you visit it, you must take lamps or torches, for it is all dark as night in there.
4. The mineral productions are iron, coal, salt, and saltpetre. Salt is obtained from salt springs. These springs were called licks, by the early settlers, because cattle were fond of licking around them. Indian corn, hemp, wheat, and tobacco, are the staples. Some cotton is raised. This is a fine section for stock raising. The horses of Kentucky are considered very excellent; and large numbers of hogs are driven every year to other States.
5. This State formed a part of Virginia, and was first explored by hunters from that State and North Carolina. Of these Col. Boone was one of the leaders. He was a brave man and had many fights with the Indians. Sometimes whole families were murdered, and others went back to their native places, but still population increased and it soon became a flourishing State.
6. This State like Missouri was much divided in sentiment when the war broke out, and has suffered much; but it is believed that when the matter is left to the people to decide, they will declare themselves Southerners. Many of her gallant sons are fighting for "Southern rights."
7. Frankfort is the capital. It is a flourishing city on the Kentucky River. Louisville is the principal commercial city. It stands on the Ohio, and steamboats can reach it at all seasons. It has much trade and is the seat of much manufacturing.
1. Tennessee has Kentucky and Virginia on the north, North Carolina on the east, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi on the south; and Missouri and Arkansas on the west. The eastern part is mountainous, the middle hilly and the western level. These sections are spoken of as East, Middle, and West Tennessee. The Alleghany and Cumberland mountains extend from Virginia and Kentucky southward through this State.
2. We find here many noble rivers and fine pure streams. The Mississippi washes the western border for 160 miles. It is traversed by the Cumberland, Tennessee, Clinch, Holsten, Elk, Duck, Obion, Forked Deer and Hatchee; which are all navigable streams.
3. Iron, gold, coal, and salt are the principal minerals. A large portion of the soil is production, and agriculture is the chief occupation of the inhabitants. Indian corn and cotton are the chief productions; but wheat, hemp and tobacco, are much grown. Grazing is much attended to in the eastern part, and many fine stock are raised and driven eastward to market. The pine forests of this section also afford tar, pitch and turpentine. Several railroads have been recently built, and canals dug, so the people have good means of sending their produce to market.
4. This State once formed a part of North Carolina, and like Kentucky, the first hunters who settled there were much annoyed by the Indians who met there to shoot Buffalo and Elk. But emigrants flocked in and soon this beautiful section became a State.
5. The Legislature of Tennessee has made provisions for educating the children and besides, there are several fine Colleges and Seminaries; so no one has an excuse for being ignorant. There were some excellent papers and periodicals published in this State before the war, but most of them are suspended.
6. Nashville is the capital of the State. It stands on the Cumberland River, and is a nice city. The enemy took this place the first year of the war, and have not yet been driven from it; but they will be ere long. The Methodist Church have a publishing house here, and many good books are made for the whole Confederacy. Memphis is the principal city in West Tennessee. It stands on a high bluff on the Mississippi, 30 feet above the highest floods.
7. Many hard battles have been fought here during the war for Independence. But though she is oppressed now, and suffers much, no one fears for Tennessee. She is nobly doing her part, and when the war is ended, she will be one of our best States.
Many pure spirits are praying for peace, and if we all humble ourselves as we should, we shall soon be blessed with the glorious news Peace! Peace!! Peace!!! O who will not appreciate Peace when it comes
Q. What have you been reading about?
Q. What does it tell you about?
A. The earth.
Q. What is the earth?
A. The planet on which we live.
Q. What is the shape of the earth?
A. Round like a ball.
Q. Does it stand still?
A. No; it turns over.
Q. How often does it turn?
A. Once in a day and night.
Q. Why do we not fall off?
A. The earth draws us to it.
Q. Does it have any other motion?
A. It moves around the sun.
Q. How often?
A. Once in a year.
Q. What does the daily motion of the earth give us?
A. Day and night.
Q. When our side of the earth is turned towards the sun what do we have?
Q. What it on the other side?
Q. As the earth moves around the sun, sometimes the sun shines straight down upon us; do we then have warm or cold weather?
Q. When it shines slanting upon us, what do we then have?
A. Cold weather.
Q. What do we call these changes?
A. Changes of season.
Q. When you toast a piece of bread before the fire do you set it straight up, or lean it back?
A. I set it up.
A. Because it browns faster.
Q. But what of the other side?
A. It is cold.
Q. Then when we have summer here, what do the people have on the opposite side of the earth?
A. They have winter.
Q. When we have winter, what do they have?
Q. At the Equator, the sun shines straight down all the year; what do the people there have.
A. All Summer.
Q. At the poles, the sun shines very slanting all the time; what do they have there?
A. All winter.
Q. Is not that a sad cold place?
A. It is.
Q. What is the surface of the earth?
A. The outside.
Q. How is it divided?
A. Into land and water.
Q. How much is water?
A. Three parts of it.
Q. How much is land?
A. One part, or one fourth.
Q. What do we call a very large portion of land?
A. A Continent.
Q. How many Continents are there?
Q. What are they called?
A. Eastern and Western.
Q. How is he eastern continent divided?
A. Into Europe, Asia and Africa.
Q. How is the western continent divided?
A. Into North and South America
Q. On which continent do you live?
A. On the western.
Q. In what division of the western continent do you live?
A. In the Southern Confederacy.
Q. In what State do you live?
A. In ----
Q. In what county?
A. In ----
Q. In what town?
A. In ----
Q. What do you call a portion of land surrounded by water?
A. An island.
Q. What do you call a point of land extending into the water?
A. A cape.
Q. What do you call a narrow strip of land connecting tow other pieces of land?
A. An isthmus.
Q. What do you call a low piece of land?
A. A valley.
Q. What do you call a level piece of land?
A. A plain.
Q. If it is covered with sand?
A. A desert.
Q. If it is covered with grass?
A. A prairie.
Q. What do you call a portion of land raised very high?
A. A mountain.
Q. A portion not so high as a mountain?
A. A hill.
Q. What do you call a mountain which has fire inside of it?
A. A volcano?
Q. What do volcanoes throw out?
A. Fire, smoke, hot ashes and lava.
Q. What is lava?
A. Melted stones.
Q. Are there volcanoes in your country?
A. I never heard of any.
Q. What is a very large body of salt water called?
A. An ocean.
Q. How many oceans are there?
Q. What are they called?
A. Atlantic, Pacific, Northern, Southern, and Indian.
Q. Which is largest?
A. The Pacific.
Q. Which is smallest?
A. The Indian.
Q. How wide is the Pacific?
A. Three thousand miles.
Q. What do you call a smaller body of salt water?
A. A sea.
Q. When a portion of water runs up into the land, what is it called?
A. A bay or gulf.
Q. When a portion of water is entirely surrounded by land what do we call it?
A. A lake.
Q. Do lakes have salt or fresh water?
A. Some are salt, and some are fresh.
Q. What do you call a stream of water running over the land?
A. A river.
Q. What is a small stream called?
A. A brook or creek,
Q. What makes a creek or brook?
A. Rills and branches running together.
Q. Where do the rills come from?
A. From the springs.
Q. And where do the springs originate?
A. The rain falls, and soaks into the earth, where it runs along until it finds an opening; this is a spring.
Q. When the sun shines on the oceans and rivers, what issues?
Q. What is vapor?
A. Fine drops of water.
Q. Where does it go?
A. It goes into the clouds.
Q. When it falls, what do you call it?
Q. What is a sphere?
A. A glove or ball.
Q. What is a hemisphere?
A. A half a globe.
Q. If I make a line all around the earth from north to south what will you call one half of it?
A. A hemisphere.
Q. Then you have two hemispheres; what do you call them?
A. Eastern and Western.
Q. Suppose I draw the line around the earth, from east to west we have two hemispheres also; what do you call them?
A. Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Q. Which hemisphere do we live it?
A. The northern.
Q. How do you know?
A. Because I live north of the equator.
Q. What is the equator?
A. The line which runs around the earth half way between north and south.
Q. Which do we live in, the eastern or the western?
A. The western.
A. Because we live west of Greenwich.
Q. What sails on the water?
A. Ships and boats.
Q. What do they carry from one country to another?
A. Goods, spices, sugar, coffee, gold, silver, &c.
Q. What moves the ships upon the ocean?
A. Some are driven by steam and some by wind.
Q. What lives in the water?
A. Great whales, sharks and fish of all sizes
Q. For what were these made?
A. Some for food for man, and some for animals to live upon.
Q. Who made them all?
Q. What is a zone?
A. A belt or girdle.
Q. How many zones are there?
Q. What is that called which lies around the North Pole.
A. The north frigid.
Q. That around the south pole?
A. South frigid.
Q. What does frigid mean?
A. Cold and frozen.
Q. Then what is the climate in the frigid zone?
A. Very cold indeed.
Q. What kind of people and animals live there?
A. A few short, hardy people and some animals with tough skin covered with fur.
Q. What of the trees?
A. They are not taller than a man and bear no fruit.
Q. What is the character of the people?
A. They are industrious and good natured; and seldom go to war.
Q. What zone do we find on the equator?
A. The torrid.
Q. What does torrid mean?
A. Hot, parched up.
Q. Then what is the climate there?
A. Very warm--always summer.
Q. What kind of trees will you find there?
A. Very tall, with large leaves and fruit and blossoms all the year.
Q. How large are some of the leaves?
A. Large enough to carpet a common sized room.
Q. Do the trees bear large fruit?
A. Some of them bear fruit larger than I could carry.
Q. What of the people there?
A. They are tall, of dark complection very indolent and warlike.
Q. What of the animals?
A. They are very large and ferocious.
Q. What of the reptiles and insects?
A. There are large crocodiles, and huge serpents, many feel long, and many venomous insects.
Q. Is this a healthy zone?
A. It is very unhealthy.
Q. What zones lie between the torrid and the frigid?
A. The temperate.
Q. What do you call the one next to the north frigid zone?
A. The north temperate.
Q. What do you call the one next the south frigid?
A. The south temperate.
Q. In which zone do you live?
A. The north temperate.
Q. What kind of animals are common there?
A. Mostly domestic.
Q. What are domestic animals?
A. Horses, cows, sheep, &c.
Q. What do you call bears, panthers, wildcats, buffaloes, &c.?
A. Wild animals.
Q. What of the people there?
A. They are industrious, patient and intelligent.
Q. What does intelligent mean?
A. That they read books, and learn many things to talk about.
Q. Are all the people in this zone educated?
A. They are not, but most of them can be if they will strive.
Q. Should not every boy and girl make efforts to get an education?
A. They should.
Q. How many races of men are there?
Q. What color is the Caucasian?
Q. What color is the Indian?
A. Red, or copper colored.
Q. What color is the Mongolian?
Q. The African?
Q. The Malay?
A. Nearly black.
Q. Which race is most civilized.
A. The Caucasian.
Q. Which are the most ferocious and savage?
A. The Indian, Mongolian, Maylay and African.
Q. Is the African savage in this country?
A. No; they are docile and religious here.
Q. How are they in Africa where they first come from?
A. They are very ignorant, cruel and wretched[.]
Q. How do the Indians live?
A. By hunting and fishing.
Q. Where did they once live?
A. In all America.
Q. What has become of them?
A. The white people drove them away and took their lands.
Q. Are they all gone?
A. A few of them live in some places but do not seem much happy.
Q. Was it not wrong to drive them away and take their lands?
A. It was, and God will judge the white man for it.
Q. May not some of the wars we have had, have been such judgments?
A. Very likely.
Q. When one man rules a country what is the government called?
A. A monarchy.
Q. If he has other men to help him govern; what is it called?
A. A limited monarchy.
Q. If his will is law, so he can take lives or property at his pleasure what do we term it?
A. Absolute monarchy.
Q. What are such rulers called?
A. Kings and emperors.
Q. How are kings appointed?
A. The oldest son of the king becomes king on his father's death.
Q. Suppose he is a wicked or bad man must he still govern the people?
A. He must.
Q. Would not the people be very wretched under such a ruler?
A. They would.
Q. How can they help themselves?
A. They generally have to bear it until their king dies.
Q. When people elect a man by voting, to rule over them, what is he called?
A. A president.
Q. For what length of time are presidents elected?
A. In the Southern Confederacy they serve six years; but in the United States only four.
Q. If the people elect a bad president, what is done at the close of his term?
A. Another man is elected.
Q. What is our government called?
A. A democracy.
Q. What is a democracy?
A. When the people elect their own rulers.
Q. What kind of me should we elect to govern our country?
A. Good and wise men.
A. "When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice, but when the wicked beareth rule the people mourn."
Q. Where do you learn this?
A. From the Bible.
Q. Will God curse a nation because of wicked rulers?
A. He says he will.
Q. Then when you little boys grow up to be men, will you remember this?
A. We will try.
Q. If the people of the United States had always elected good men for rulers what would have been the result?
A. We should have had no war.
A. Because every man would have been willing to treat others justly, and there would have been no cause for war.
Q. Are these judgments for our sin alone?
A. They are partly for our sins, and partly for the sins of our forefathers.
Q. Then how shall we expect peace, since sin has brought war?
A. We must repent of our sins, and ask God to bless our efforts to defend our country.
Q Why so?
A. Because, "If God be for us who shall be against us[?]"
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