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The Standard Speller; Containing Exercises for Oral Spelling; also,
Sentences for Silent Spelling by Writing from Dictation.
In Which the Representative Words and the Anomalous Words of the English Language
are so Classified as to Indicate Their Pronunciation,
and to be Fixed in the Memory by Association:

Electronic Edition.

Sargent, Epes, 1813-1880.

Funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services
supported the electronic publication of this title.

Text transcribed by Apex Data Services, Inc.
Images scanned by Joshua G. McKim
Text encoded by Joshua G. McKim and Natalia Smith
First edition, 2001
ca. 525K
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

Source Description:
(title page) The Standard Speller; Containing Exercises for Oral Spelling; also, Sentences for Silent Spelling by Writing from Dictation. In Which the Representative Words and the Anomalous Words of the English Language are so Classified as to Indicate Their Pronunciation, and to be Fixed in the Memory by Association.
(cover) The Standard Speller; Containing Exercises for Oral Spelling; also, Sentences for Silent Spelling by Writing from Dictation.
Epes Sargent
Macon, Ga.:
J. W. Burke.

Call number 4080conf (Rare Book Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South.
        This electronic edition has been created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). OCR-ed text has been compared against the original document and corrected. The text has been encoded using the recommendations for Level 4 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines.
        Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. Encountered typographical errors have been preserved, and appear in red type.
        All footnotes are inserted at the point of reference within paragraphs.
        Any hyphens occurring in line breaks have been removed, and the trailing part of a word has been joined to the preceding line.
        All quotation marks, em dashes and ampersand have been transcribed as entity references.
        All double right and left quotation marks are encoded as " and " respectively.
        All single right and left quotation marks are encoded as ' and ' respectively.
        All em dashes are encoded as --
        Indentation in lines has not been preserved.
        Running titles have not been preserved.
        Spell-check and verification made against printed text using Author/Editor (SoftQuad) and Microsoft Word spell check programs.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

Languages Used:

LC Subject Headings:

Revision History:











Page verso

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-six, by EPES SARGENT, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the District of Massachusetts.

Page iii


        SINCE we learn the orthography of words mainly in order to be able to write them correctly, it is matter for surprise that the practice of silent spelling by writing words from dictation is not resorted to more generally in instruction. Experienced teachers are well aware that many learners will spell a word orally with accuracy, who, if they had been made to write it, would have blundered. In England, as we learn from Mr. G. F Graham, author of an improved manual of English Spelling, "the old practice of making pupils repeat words arranged in columns is now nearly superseded by the far preferable plan of Dictation Exercises." Mr. Smart, the eminent lexicographer remarks, that "the ordinary, and perhaps the shortest way of learning spelling is by the eye, in the same manner that we learn pronunciation by the ear." The testimony of many eminent American teachers in support of these conclusions might be quoted.

        The present volume has been prepared with the view of combining the advantages of oral spelling with silent spelling, by writing. Some simple introductory exercises are first given, followed by sentences for writing, some of which are in script type, that may be transcribed by pupils requiring the practice.

        In Part Second, words for oral spelling are classified according to their prominent elementary vowel sounds. Following these are classes of words illustrating the vowel sounds in unaccented syllables, penultimate and final, and the difficult consonant sounds and substitutes. These are followed by exercises on words containing silent letters; on homophonous words; Rules for Spelling; words alike in form, but differing in accent; Prefixes and Affixes; the contractions in common use; the singular and plural forms of the possessive case, &c.

        For convenience of reference, the words for spelling, presented in large type, are in alphabetical order; and the teacher will not use

Page iv

the book long before he will find the great advantages of this in enabling him to turn readily to a given word. In copying the dictation exercises, the pupil can always satisfy himself in regard to the pronunciation or syllabication of an exemplifying word, by referring to it in the paragraph of a corresponding number in large type. Orthoëpy and orthography are thus simultaneously taught, as they should be, and this without resort to arbitrary marks and figures, which are either not heeded at all, or are a stumbling-block and a mystification to the young. A few italicized letters are all that are used to indicate one of the dual sounds of g, n, s, and th, or the presence, in a few instances, of a silent letter.

        It has been objected by some one to the system of classification that it makes spelling "too easy and mechanical a process;" that the learner having a formula for an entire class of words, or for the most difficult portions of them, may trust too much to the key thus supplied to his memory, and not give sufficient attention to the spelling of each particular word. Abundant experience has proved that the objection is imaginary and fallacious. Any system by which we render a difficult task less difficult must, in the nature of things, be an advantage. By classification we fix an object in the memory, by making it one of a group, instead of an isolated anomaly. In using the present work, the skillful teacher will, moreover, by frequent reviews, and by skipping from one class of words to another, make the exercises as miscellaneous as can be desired, after the way has been smoothed by classification.

        In instances where authorities differ in regard to the spelling of words, we have generally presented both Webster's and Walker's orthography; giving precedence to that of the former, as more sanctioned by usage in the United States. It is obvious that the fact of the existing variance ought to be made familiar to the young; but the teacher is left at liberty to enjoin upon his pupils whichever mode he may prefer.

        The plan adopted in some spelling-books, of arranging columns of words of cognate signification as synonyms, has not, for good reasons, been followed. In nine cases out of ten the words presented as such are not strictly synonymous; and the young learner, from being taught so to regard them, acquires a habit of confounding shades of difference, fatal to precision in the use of language.

        In the syllabication of words, we have aimed at exhibiting their roots, prefixes, and affixes, as far as this can be done, without misleading the learner as to the pronunciation. In effecting this desirable

Page v

compromise, perfect consistency, as all lexicographers admit, cannot be attained.

        Different modes of using the exercises have been employed with success. The teacher may give out an entire sentence from the dictation exercises, and require pupils to spell every word orally; or he may require them to copy the sentential exercises several times on a slate, and then to write them down from dictation. If the learner is sufficiently advanced, he may be directed to form sentences himself, containing the words presented in large type. The black-board may be used with good effect in drilling a class. Words may be written, divided by hyphens, the accented syllables marked, and a line drawn through the silent letters, should there be any. A pupil may be called upon to do this; and should he make an error, other members of the class may indicate it in any manner the teacher may prefer. It may be well to vary the mode of instruction, in order to keep the attention awake, and give the attraction of variety to lessons.

        The mere reading of the sentential exercises, in accustoming the eye to the form and length of words, will be found a most important aid in fixing the orthography in the memory; and if these exercises were used in no other way, they would still be valuable adjunts to the spelling-book.

        Homophonous words present some of the greatest difficulties to young learners; and the list of such words, with exercises upon them, will be found unusually complete in this work. Their meaning is generally sufficiently indicated in the sentences in which they are introduced.

        The power of the accentual mark, of the hyphen, &c., should be thoroughly explained to the learner before he enters upon words of more than one syllable. It will be seen that where the accent is used the hyphen is omitted as superfluous; the accentual mark indicating not only the accent, but the syllabic division. In words where the accent falls on the last syllable, the accentual mark is generally omitted, as its omission after the preceding syllable or syllables sufficiently shows that the accent must necessarily fall on the last syllable

Page 6


Page vii


        ORTHOGRAPHY treats of letters and syllables.

        The English alphabet consists of twenty-six letters.

        Letters are divided into vowels and consonants.

        A vowel is a letter which makes by itself a distinct sound.

        A consonant is a letter which cannot be distinctly sounded without a vowel.

        A, e, i, o, u, are vowels. W and y are vowels when they do not begin a word or a syllable The remaining nineteen letters are consonants.

        W and y are consonants when they begin a word or a syllable.

        The letters c, q, and x, do not appear in the preceding Table of Sounds, because as representatives of sound they are not wanted. C is equivalent to s or k; q, to kw; x, to eks. For instance, the words city and can are respectively pronounced sity and kan; and the words queen and box are respectively pronounced kween and boks.

        Of the compound sounds, i long is composed of the first and fifth elementary sounds (the a in father and the e in me), rapidly combined in the pronunciation; u long, of the seventh and eleventh (the i in fit and the oo in fool); oi, of the fourth and fifth (the a in fall and the e in me). Ch is the sound of tsh; j, of dzh (the twenty-eighth and thirty-fourth elementary sounds).

        The union of two vowels in one sound is called a diphthong. When both vowels are heard it is called a proper diphthong; as oy, in boy. When only one of the vowels is heard it is called an improper diphthong; as oa in coat. The union of three vowels in one sound is called a triphthong; as iew in view. The diphthongs oe and oe, pronounced like e long, are used sometimes in words derived from the Latin; but a simple e is now generally used for them in English.

        A digraph is a union of two vowels, or of two consonants, in one sound.

        A syllable is a single sound represented by one or more letters; as a, an, and. In every syllable there must be at least one vowel sound.

        A word of one syllable is called a monosyllable, as just; a word of two syllables, a dissyllable, as just'ice; a word of three syllables, a trisyllable, as just'i-fy; a word of more than three syllables, a polysyllable, as just-ca'tion.

        An elementary sound is one which is not produced by the union of any two or more sounds.

        A cognate sound is one related to another.

        An aspirate sound is a whispering or hissing sound, in which the breath is chiefly exercised. A vocal sound is one which is produced more by the pure, natural tone of the voice.

        A substitute is a letter, or combination of letters, representing the appropriate sound of another letter

Page viii

        By an obscure vowel sound we mean one in which the absence of accent makes the sound less exact. The second a in madman has an obscure sound of short a.

        A simple word is one that is not compounded; as boy, book.

        A compound word is one composed of two or more simple words; as salt-cellar, wood-shed.

        A primitive word is one not derived from another, but constituting a radical stock, from which others are derived; as hope, grace, earth.

        A derivative word is one formed from a primitive, with the addition of some prefix or affix; as hope'ful, grace'less, earth'en, dis-grace'.

        Spelling is the art of writing with the proper letters, or of reading by naming letters singly.

        Accent is a stress of voice upon a syllable of a word. In the word dis'tant, there is an emphasis or stress on the first syllable; in the word suc-cess', on the second. Every word of more than one syllable has one of its syllables accented. (See page 135.)

        The proper division of words into syllables is called syllabication.

        Words so arranged as to have a meaning form a sentence; that is, every sentence tells something. But we must mention what that subject is, before there can be a speech about it. Having done this, the speech about it naturally comes next.

        Every sentence, therefore, must contain, at the least, two things: 1st. That which is mentioned. 2ndly. The speech about it. "That which is mentioned' is called the subject. "The speech about the subject" is called the predicate, or speech; that is, what is predicated or spoken of the subject.

        There cannot, therefore, be less than two words in a sentence; because nothing can be mentioned in less than one word, and no speech can take place about it in less than one word. For instance, "man walks" is as short a sentence as can be framed; the subject "man" being one word, and the predicate or speech-clause "walks" being one word.

        The question, "Who or what is mentioned?" will always return the subject as its answer. And, "What is said of the subject?" will return the predicate or speech-clause.

        It is evident that no mention can be made of anything unless it is named. In Grammar, everything that is named in one word is called a noun. Nouns, or things named in one word, form a distinct class of words. Every distinct class of words is called a Part of Speech.

        No sentence can be without a noun, or something representing a noun, as its subject. But something more than a subject is wanted for a sentence; there must be a predicate; that is, something must be said of the subject.

        If this is done by one word, that word is called a verb. Verbs, therefore are words which tell or speak of something. In the simplest form of sentence therefore, the subject is a noun, and the predicate a verb.

Page ix


        WORDS are so classified in this work, that few arbitrary marks are required as a guide to the proper sound of letters.

        Before a, o, u, l, r, t, C has the sound of k; it has the sound of s before y; also before e and i, except where a different sound is specially indicated by its classification.

        The digraph ch occurring in words in this volume has always its pure English sound of tsh (as in child, much, &c.), except where a different sound is specially indicated in the classification.

        G has its hard sound, as in bag, except where it is italicized, or where the classification renders this unnecessary. G is hard (as in gave) before a, e, and u; before e, i, and y, it generally has the soft sound of j; but there are many exceptions to this.

        S has its aspirate sound, as in sin, except where it is italicized, and then it has the vocal sound of z in zeal.

        Th italicized, and not classified, has its vocal sound, as in thine; not italicized, it has its aspirate sound, as in think.

        N italicized has the sound of ng, as in an'ger, van'quish. N preceding the sound of k in the same syllable has a close sound of ng, as in thank.

        The italicizing of any other letters, whether vowels or consonants, is to indicate that they are silent, or unsounded.

        R is rough or trilled when it begins a word or syllable with or without a consonant element; as ray, tray. Otherwise situated, it has a smooth or untrilled sound, as in hare, carve, abhor. The habit of rolling or trilling final r in such words as butter, matter, &c., should be carefully corrected.

        Words of more than one syllable may be divided by the hyphen (-), and the accentual mark ('). In dissyllables and trisyllables, where the accent is on the last syllable, it is sufficiently indicated in the absence of the accentual mark, showing that the accent is on no preceding syllable. The hyphen is sometimes used to separate the parts of a compound word; as milk-maid.

        The mark of the makron (as over the a in f[small a, breve]te) is to indicate the long sound of a vowel; the mark of the breve (as in f[small a, breve]t, f[small i, breve]t) is to indicate the short sound. When u has the mark of the makron over it, it has its long y sound, as in m[small u, macron]te. When u forms a syllable by itself, it generally has this sound.

        The dioeresis is sometimes placed over a vowel, as in Creätor, to indicate that it forms a distinct syllable, and is not merged in the sound of the preceding vowel.

        The significance of the mark of accent and the hyphen should be distinctly explained to learners before they enter upon the study of words of more than one syllable.

        The teacher will sometimes put words promiscuously, without regard to their classification; skipping, for instance, from a word in which e has its short sound, to one in which ea is its equivalent.

Page x




a A
b B
c C
d D
e E
f F
g G
h H
i I
j J
k K
l L
m M
n N
o O
p P
q Q
r R
s S
[t] T
u U
v V
w W
x X
y Y
z Z


a A
b B
c C
d D
e E
f F
g G
h H
i I
j J
k K
l L
m M
n N
o O
p P
q Q
r R
s S
t T
u U
v V
w W
x X
y Y
z Z


a A
b B
c C
d D
e E
f F
g G
h H
i I
j J
k K
l L
m M
n N
o O
p P
q Q
r R
s S
t T
u U
v V
w W
x X
y Y
z Z



Æ (A E)
oe (O E)
æ (a e)
oe (o e)

Page 11



        1. AM, an, as, at, ax, be, by, do, go, he, ho, if, in, is, it, lo, me, my, no, of, on, or, ox, she, so, to, up, us, we, ye.

        2. And, arm, art, are, ape, ask, all, bad, bag, bar, bat, bed, beg, bet, bid, big, bit, bob, bog, boy, bud, bug, bun, but, cab, cap, can, cat, car.

        3. Cod, con, cot, cow, cry, cub, cup, cut, cur, den, did, dig, dim, din, dip, dog, dot, dry, dug, dun, eat, egg, end, fan, far, fat, fed.

        4. Fen, fib, fig, fin, fit, fix, fly, fog, fop, for, fox, fry, fun, gag, gap, gas, gem, get, gig, gin, got, gum, gun, had, hag, ham, hat, hem.

        5. Hen, her, hid, him, hip, his, hat, hod, hog, hop, hot, how, hub, hug, hum, hut, ice, ink, its, jag, jet, jib, jig, job, jog, jot, jug, jut, keg.

        6. Kid, kin, kit, lag, lad, lap, leg, let, lid, lip, lit, log, lop, lot, lug, mad, man, map, mat, may, met, mid, mix, mob, mop, mud, mug.

        7. Nag, nap, net, nib, nip, not, nut, off, one,

Page 12

our, out, pad, pan, pat, peg, pen, pet, pig, pin pit, pod, pop, pot, pry, pun, put.

        8. Rag, ram, ran, rat, red, rib, rid, rig, rim, rip, rob, rod, rot, rub, rug, rub, rum, rut, sad, sag, sap, saw, sat, sea, see, set, ship, shy, sin, sip, sit, sky, sly, sob, sod, sop, sot, sum, sun, sup.

        9. Tan, tap, ten, the, thy, tin, tip, too, top, try, tub, tug, twig, two, van, vat, wag, was, wax, way, web, wed, wen, wet, were, who, wig, win, with, yam, yes, yet, yon, you.


        1. I am by. Is she in? If he can go, so can we. Ye may sit by us. A big ox. Let the ax be. He is sad. Dot the i. See my cap. A cat on top of the cab. He or I can go.

        2. He has a bat. Ask us all to go. An ape sat on the rug. Put up the bar. Go to bed. A boy fed his dog. Was it a bad egg? Yes, it was. He did not eat it. One and one are two. Then do not go.

        3. The kit is in her lap. Do not let the cub dip his leg in the cup. She is in the car. The cur bit the hog. Get a fan for the fat man. My mug is on the ice. Fix the wax in the gap. Who is she?

        4. I saw a fox. Do not put ink on the map. A rat got in the keg. A gem for the jet pin. Gin is bad for you. Get rid of the jug. Put the pot on the mat. Do not jut out thy lip. A tin box.

        5. The nag is off. See the mud fly. See the jib on the ship, out at sea. Do not lag so. Let in the lad with the kid. It is dim in the fog. A red fox. A dun cow. The end of all. The rim of the sun.

        6. Our pet pig is shy and sly too. Who hit the hen with the gun? Lop off the twig. Nib the two pens. The pad ran with the gig. Did you see the jig? Up on the top of the hut. Jog on. The rim of the sun.

        7. The wig of the wag. A bit of yam. Mix it in. See you sky. Ten men were in a van. The vat was wet. Tip up the tub. Tap the sap. He has a bad wen on his arm. Run in the rut.

        8. She ran at the mob with her mop. How far? It is a sin to sip rum. Do thy sum. Do not let the bed sag so. A big fin. A sad pun. One of my kin. A gag and a rod for the sot.

        9. He had him on the hip. She dug a pit for the ram. The lid of the jar. Mid way in the bog. Do not pry. The men rig the ship. Try to rub it out. Can she win? Let her con it. The hub is in the mud of the pen. He had a bad fit.

Page 13

        10. Bid, bide; bit, bite; can, cane; cap, cape; con, cone; din, dine; dot, dote; fan, fane; fat fate; fin, fine; hat, hate; hid, hide; hop, hope kit, kite; lad, lade.

        11. Mad, made; man, mane; mat, mate; mop, mope; not, note; pan, pane; pin, pine; rat, rate; rid, ride; rip, ripe; rob, robe; rod, rode; rot, rote; van, vane; win, wine.

        12. Babe, bake, cake, came, date, face, fade, gale, gave, gaze, lake, lame, late, make, name, page, race, rage, rake, safe, same, take, wage.

        13. Act, apt, ash, band, bang, blab, camp, chat, clam, dash, fact, flag, gash, hand, hang, land, lamp lash, pang, plan, plat, sand, scan.

        14. Arch, barn, card, char, charm, dark, farm, garb, hard, hark, harm, harp, lark, march, marsh, part, scar, scarf, shark.

        15. Belt, bend, dent, desk, fell, felt, flesh, held, help, lest, pelt, rend, send, shed, sled, step, tell, vest, vex, well, went, wept, west, yelp, zest.

        16. Bring, brim, chin, chip, cling, dish, fish, fist, fling, flint, grim, grist, limp, lint, milk, pick, quit, rich, risk, sift, silk, sing, six, thing.

        17. Bind, blind, bribe, child, crime, drive, fire, glide, hind, ire, life, mild, mind, price, quite, shine, slide, smile, spire, twice, wild.

        18. Chop, crop, drop, fond, frog, from, frost, shop, trot.--Bold, broke, fold, froze, gold, old, post, scold, shore, slope, smoke, sold, stove.

        19. Brush, crust, drum, duck, flush, gulf, gush,

Page 14

hunt, much, scum, such.--Born, cork, corn, form, horn, orb, scorch, short, stork, thorn.

        20. Couch, count, crouch, crowd, crown, down, loud, now, proud, round.--Boil, broil, choice, coin, join, joy, moist, toil, voice.


        10. Bid him bide with us and dine. Bits a bit. The rat ran at a fine rate. Do not hope to hop. She did not note the time. We can hide his cane. Wine made the man mad, and he did not win. A vane on the van. She rode a rod. O! we will hide.

        11. The mate has a mat. Do not rob her of her old robe. The fate of the fat man. He got the line by rote. She broke a pane with the pan. A pine pin for the shed. She has a mop. Why then mope? The fane fell. What is a cone? Why dote on her?

        12. Take the cake from the babe. A gale on the lake. The date and the name. They came late for the race. I gave the lame man a rake. Why this rage? Name the page. I wage no war. Gaze on her face. It will fade Make a note of it. Fan her.

        13. An apt act. The camp was by an

Page 15

ash[.] Hang out the flag. Hand me the lamp A fact for all. A plat of land. Scan it well. The lash gave a pang. They chat and play. A clam in the sand.

        14. A lark in a dark barn. Part thy scarf. Hark! They had to march through a marsh. See her garb. The shark did no harm The charm of the harp. X, Y, Z.

        15. A dent in my desk. A scar on his flesh. I held her belt. My sled is in the shed. I will help you with a zest. She wept to take that step. Dogs yelp. Why pelt them? The sun is in the west.

        16. Bring the dish of fish. Rich milk. Lint for my hand. Fling down the flint. Grist for the mill. Lift it. Do not run the risk. Quit it. A grim fist. Pick up the chip. I limp and sing. See her chin. Fill to the brim. Make a big E, K, U, V.

        17. Twice in my life. A wild slide. A blind child in the fire. You quite make me smile. What is the price? Mind the hind ox. A fit of ire. I take no bribe. Drive her not to crime. See the spire shine[.] Glide on. She will char her hand

Page 16

        18 An old post. Chop it up in the shop. An old frog fond of a drop. A bold scold. Smoke her out. They broke from the fold. I sold my crop for gold. He froze on the shore. Trot off with the stove.

        19. Such a duck as we saw in the gulf. Bush the rust from my lap. Hark to the dum and the horn! They hunt a stork. A short thorn. Sum on the top. When was the born? You scorch your cap.

        20. Count the crowd now. Proud am I of my choice. Boil it and broil it. Join me in my joy. Moist with toil. Her voice is loud. Crouch on the couch. The hit him on the crown. An orb is round. Much coin, much care. Send me my vest.

        21. A'bly, af'ter, ba'by, bas'ket, big'ger, bod'y, bo'ny, but'ter, can'dy, ca'per, clo'ver, clus'ter, cor'ner, cra'zy, cri'er, dar'ling, di'al, do'zy, ed'it, en'ter, ev er, fe'ver, fi'fer, fif'ty.

        22. Fine'ly, for'ty, fu'ry, gra'vy, gru'el, hor'net, i'vy, la'dy, la'zy, lap'dog, late'ly, let'ter, like'ly, lim'ber, lin'en, li'on, lum'ber, ma'ker, man'ly, mas'ter, mere'ly, mim'ic, na'ked.

        23. Nap'kin, nev'er, nine'ty, no'bly, num'ber, nut'meg, or'der, o'ver, pa'per, pan'cake, par'ty,

Page 17

pen'cil, po'ker, po'ny, pu'ny, pu'pil, qui'et, ra'cer, rap'id, re'al, ri'der, riv'er, rob'in.

        24. Ru'in, sig'nal, slip'per, slum'ber, so'ber, sol'id, spi'der, sto'ry, sum'mer, sun'set, ta'per, tav'ern, tem'per, tim'ber, tip'sy, to'tal, tri'al, tru'ly, ug'ly, un'der, use'ful, va'ry, ver'y, wa'fer, wa'ry, wi'ly, wo'ful, win'ter.

        25. A-bed', a-bode, a-far, a-go, a-jar, a-like, a-live, a-loft, a-lone, a-long, a-maze, a-men, a-mend, a-mid, a-new, a-part, a-side, as-sist, at-tend, a-wake, a-way, a-woke, ad-mit, ap-ply, be-fore, be-gin, be-gun, be-have, be-hind, be-hold, be-side, cre-ate, de-lay, de-ny, dis-like.

        26. E-lect, en-tire, for-bid, for-get, for-got, here-at, here-by, here-in, here-of, here-on, ho-tel, hu-mane, in-vite, jap-an, lap-el, mis-hap, mis-take, o-mit, per-haps, per-mit, po-lite.

        27. Re-buke, re-cite, re-lax, re-late, re-ly, re-tire, se-lect, se-rene, se-vere, sub-mit, un-did, un-do, un-fed, un-fit, un-just, un-lace, un-less, u-nite, un-kind, un-like, un-pin, un-ripe, un-til, up-hold, up-held, up-lift, up-on, up-set.


        21. Put the butter in the basket. The darling baby. A stick of candy. A cat in the corner. The cows are in the clover. A cluster of grapes. The old fifer is crazy. A dial in the sun. Wake from being dozy! He cut a caper. This fish is bony. Fifty ripe plums. My body is bigger than his. Enter the house after me. You did it ably. The town crier has a fever.

        22. A nest of hornets. The fury of the lion. The lady has a lapdog. A likely story. A manly youth. Never mimic thy master. A letter came lately. Taste the gruel. Take away the gravy. A limber cane. The Maker of us all. Clean linen. The day has begun finely. Clothe the

Page 18

naked. The ivy green. Wood is lumber. Who can count to forty? A lazy cat.

        23. Use thy napkin Ninety nutmegs. A number of pencils. Put down the poker. Be quiet. The pony ran. A party on the river. The robin sang. The rider fell. A rapid racer. Is the watch of real gold? Eat the pancake. A paper cap. A puny child. Heed my order.

        24. A summer sunset. The taper burns. The time for slumber. A solid timber. A signal for the ship. A shady place. An ugly temper. A red wafer. He spoke truly. A blue slipper. The spider will not harm you. Do not be tardy. A very useful box. A total loss. The old tavern. A wily fox. Our notions vary. Be wary: do not go on the ice.

        25. Let the door be ajar. Begin well. Behold the sun. Assist them Attend to what I say. She began to cry. He is still abed. His abode is not far. A long time ago. You amaze me. Amend your way of life. Step aside. Go away. I can stand alone. Try to behave better. I awoke at six o'clock. Admit the bearer. Behind a fence.

        26. The new hotel. I made a mistake. Be polite. Permit me to go. I had a mishap. Delay not. I deny thee not. Omit that page. The lapel of a coat. Will they elect him? Hereby you shall find out. I love the humane. Perhaps he will invite you. Why dislike her? An entire day. Do not forget. My sister has some japan work.

        27. A serene day. A severe storm. Rebuke the bad. Recite thy lesson. Relate the story. Rely on me. You may retire. Select a pen. Submit with a good grace. The cart was upset. Uphold the weak. Uplift the lowly. Unless you are unkind, you will do it. Unite with the good. Shun the unjust. Unlace my dress. The dog is unfed. An unripe plum. She stood upon a post. I will wait until you come.

Ace add chest bride brick grope
bathe black dent dike drill poke
brave brag dregs dime drip rode
case fang fret mice clinch strode
crane smack glen mile cling bond
flake snap helve mine flinch clog
lace stab lend pride frill mock
shade stag melt slice skin pond
space strand neck slime spin luck
tape tact sell swine sprig muff

Page 19



I. The Sound of A in Far.*

        * TO THE TEACHER.--It is recommended that the more difficult of the classified exercises be skipped by the learner, in first going through the Speller He may pass from the monosyllables under the sound of a in far, to those under the other vowel sounds; and, when he is sufficiently familiar with them, he can turn back to the more difficult words under each division, going regularly through the exercises in their order. The advantage of not interrupting the classification will, in the end, more than counterbalance any little inconvenience that may result, at first, from adhering to system.

        *** Remember that where g is italicized in words in this book, it has the sound of j; s italicized has the sound of z in gaze; th italicised has its vocal sound, as in thine.

        1. ARCH, are, barb, bard, bark, barge, bath, carp, cart, carve, charge, chart, darn, dart, farce, gape, harsh, larch, lard, large, mar, marl, mart.

        2. Par, parch, park, parse, path, shard, sharp, smart, snarl, spar, spark, sparse, star, stanch, stark, start, starve, tar, tart, yard, yarn.

        3. Arch'er, barb'er, bar'ter, car'm[small i, macron]ne, charg'er, char'ter, cart'ridge, fa'ther, gar'net, harts'horn, har'vest, jan'ty, lar'board, mar'gin, mar'ket, pars'nip, part'ner, part'ridge, r[small a, breve]m'part, scar'let, star'board, starve'ling, tar'tar, var'let.

        4. A-larm', ba-zar, ci-gar, de-part, dis-arm,

Page 20

dis-card, dis-charge, em-bark, pe-tard, pla-card, re-gard, re-mark, re-tard, un-bar. Bar'ber-ry, car'pen-ter, mar'ma-l[small a, macron]de, mar'tin-g[small a, breve]l.

Words in which au, ea, e, and ua, have the sound of a in Far.

In laugh, draught, and some other words, gh has the sound of f.

        5. Aunt, craunch, daunt, draught, flaunt, gaunt, haunch, haunt, jaunt, laugh, launch, staunch, taunt, vaunt. Daunt'less, jaun'dice, laun'dress, saun'ter, Taunt'on. Heart, heart'less, hearth. Heark'en, heart'y. Ser'geant. Guard.


        1. The blind bard. The bark of the larch. The chart is in the barge. We fish for carp. Do not carp at my farce. A cart in the park. Darn my sock. Do not gape. A harsh smart. The barb of the hook. Tar is on the spar. A pot of lard. The star shines.

        2. A large farm. Marl is a kind of clay. The yarn is in a snarl. The stocks are at par. Starch my scarf. Carve with a sharp knife. Start not. Parse that line. You shall not starve. Hear my charge. A wide path. A hot bath. Stanch the wound.

        3. Our barber is an archer. He mounts his charger. A cartridge box. A fat partridge. Market is the place for barter. My father knows a carpenter. He had a janty manner. Carmine is crimson. I can go no farther Garnet is a gem. The time of harvest. The margin of the lake. A big parsnip. My partner in trade. Smell of the hartshorn. Starboard is the right-hand side of a ship; larboard, the left.

        4. A scarlet dress. A starveling dog. Tartar is sour. The varlet had a cigar. Alarm the city. Unbar the door. Let him depart. Do not debar his coming. Disarm him. Let us embark. Discharge the prisoner. It will retard my going. What did you remark? Discard evil. A barberry bush. Quince marmalade. A martingal for the horse.

        5. My dauntless aunt took a jaunt to see a launch. Do not taunt her. A gaunt form. Guard the haunch. A haunt for robbers. They run the gauntlet. A staunch friend. The sergeant is hearty. Where is Taunton? Sit on the hearth, and hearken. Yellow with the jaundice. She flaunts in a gay dress. Let us saunter along. To vaunt is to brag. Avaunt ye triflers! Dogs craunch bones. Go to the laundry.

Page 21

II. Short A, as in Hat.

        1. Alp, bade, badge, bans, bland, blank, bran, brand, cash, catch, champ, chap, clad, clamp, clan, clank, cramp, crank, damp, drab, drank, flag, flange, gang, gland, hank, hath, have, lapse, latch, mall, manse, match.

        2. Patch, plank, quack, quaff, rant, sash, scalp, scamp, scan, scant, scrap, scratch, shad, shall, shalt, sham, shrank, snag, snatch, splash, sprang, stamp, strap, talc, thank, thatch, thrash, tract, twang.

        3. Ac'rid, ar'rant, ar'ras, ar'id, as'pect, as'pen, bal'lad, bal'lot, ban'nock, bar'rack, bar'rel, bran'dy, cab'in, car'ol, cas'sock, catch'up, clam'ber, clar'et, clas'sic, dan'druff, fran'chi[small i, breve]se, gal'lop, gam'ut, gas'tric, gath'er.

        4. Had'dock, ham'mock, hand'cuff, hav'oc, jack'et, jal'ap, jave'lin, lath'er, mam'moth, mat'in, mat'tock, max'im, par'ish, par'rot, pat'ent, plan'et, rad'ish, ran'sack, rath'er, sal'ad, sal'ver, scaf'fold, shal'lop, shan'ty, tar'iff, tar'ry, tas'sel, tran'script.

        5. A-bash', a-dapt, at-tach, at-tack, ca-bal, ca-lash, ca-nal, cra-vat, de-camp, de-cant, de-tach, dis-patch, dis-tract, en-act, ex-pand, ex-panse fi[small i, breve]-nance, in-fract, mis-hap, mo-rass, r[small a, breve]-tan, re-fract, re-lapse, re-lax, ro-mance.

        6. Ad'a-mant, ap'ri-co[small o, breve]t, ar'a-ble, as'ter-isk, bar'ri-er, car'a-van, cat'a-ract, clar'i-fy, clar'i-net, cran'ber-ry, ep'i-gram, far'ri-er, gal'ax-y, gas'e-ous, mag'ni-fy, man'u-script, mar'i-gold, mar'-i-ti[small i, breve]me, pal'li-[small a, breve]te, par'a-pet, par'al-le[small e, breve]l, par'o-dy, sac'ra-ment,

Page 22

sanc'ti-fy, sanc'ti-ty, sal'i-vate, sas'sa-fras, tap'es-try vag'a-bo[small o, breve]nd.

        7. A-quat'ic, as-sas'sin, de-f[small a, breve]l'ca[small a, macron]te, dis-as'trous, e-las'tic, er-rat'ic, fa-nat'ic, fan-tas'tic, gri-mal'kin, i-tal'ic, sar-cas'tic.

Ai has the sound of short a in plaid and rail'ler-y.head


        1. The lofty Alps. He bade me wear a badge. A bland smile. A blank book. The bran of wheat. Brand the scamp. Strike a match. I forb[small a, breve]de the bans. Latch the door. Pay cash. The colt champs the bit. An iron clamp. Clank the chain. A crank ship. The flange of a wheel. The lapse of time. He hath a hank of drab thread. A manse near the mall.

        2. A plank road. A quack doctor. An Indian scalp. A scant scrap. A big patch. Shall we catch shad? Thatch the roof. A snag in the river. A postage-stamp. A tract of land. Thrash the grain. Twang went the bow! Talc is a kind of earth. Cats scratch.

        3. An acrid taste. An arrant fib. Behind the arras. Arid ground. The aspen-leaf. The vote by ballot. A barrel of brandy in the cabin. An oat-meal bannock. Birds carol. Mushroom catchup. A patent right. The gastric juice. A matin song. Throw this javelin. Tarry not. The tassel of a cap. The elective franchise. A radish for the salad. The scaffold fell. Lather his chin. I would rather gather apples.

        4. Poll parrot. Claret wine. Cod and haddock. He slept in a hammock. Hear this maxim. A transcript of the news. A shallop on the water. Cry havoc! A silver salver. Hard to clamber. A classic writer. The bones of a mammoth. The priest's cassock. See him gallop. The scale of the gamut.

        5. The attack was with a ratan. The Erie canal. Decant the wine. A mishap in the morass. You can not abash him. Come, dispatch! You distract me. What part do you enact? A sad romance. Never infract a promise. Tie your cravat. A cabal against me. The expanse of waters. I fear a relapse. Relax your hold. The minister of finance. The enemy decamp. Refract the rays. Detach the vine from the tree.

        6. Arable land. Make an asterisk. Pick a cranberry. The galaxy or milky way. A caravan of animals. Clarify the oil. A gaseous smell. A foaming cataract. A fabulous tale. A ripe apricot. Sassafras root. Faded tapestry. She stood on the parapet. Read my manuscript. The yellow marigold. You magnify his merits. Hard as adamant. A plaid vest. Do not heed her raillery.

Page 23

III. Long A, as in Fate.

        1. Age, ate, baste, brace, cage, chafe, change, chaste, crape, crate, crave, flame, frame, grace, grade, grange, grape, graze, lathe, mace, nape, paste, quake, range, scale, scrape, shame, shape, shave, skate, slake, slate, snake, spade, stage, state, strange, swathe, vase, wade.

        2. An'gel, a'pex, ba'ker, cam'bric, cham'ber, change'ling, dan'ger, fa'mous, game'ster, grate'ful, ha'tred, la'bel, man'ger, ma'tron, pas'try, pa'tron, ra'dix, sa'cred, scra'per, state'ly, str[small a, breve]n'ger, tra'der, wa'ger. -- Cog'nate, frus'trate, in'grate, in'mate, land'scape, mem'brane, mun'dane, or'nate, pros'trate, stag'nate, va'cate.

        3. Ar-range', bro-cade, cas-cade, de-prave, derange, es-trange, e-rase, es-cape, for-sake, gri[small i, breve]-mace, im-pale, in-ane, in-flame, in-flate, in-hale, in-nate, in-sane, pa-rade, se-date.

        4. As'pi-rate, can'di-date, cel'e-brate, con'ju-gate, del'e-gate, des'ig-nate, det'o-nate, dis'si-pate, em'i-grate, ex'ca-vate, h[small u, breve]r'ri-cane, im'i-tate, is'o-late, im'mi-grate, in'sti-gate, mas'ti-cate, nav'i-gate, ob'vi-ate, pen'e-trate, rep'ro-bate, sep'a-rate, ven'er-ate, ven'ti-late.

        5. De-mon'strate, in-cul'cate, re-mon'strate. -- Am-bus-cade', b[small a, breve]r-ri-cade, bal-us-trade, col-on-nade, es-pla-nade, lem-on-ade, pal-i-sade.

        6. Dis-sem'i-nate, e-rad'i-cate, in-car'cer-ate, in-ter'po-late, in-tim'i-date, in-tox'i-cate, in-ves'ti-gate, pre-dom'i-nate, pre-v[small a, breve]r'i-cate, re-tal'i-ate.

Page 24

Words in which ai, ea, and au, have the sound of long a.

        7. Aid, braid, brain, chain, fail, faith, flail, frail, jail, maid, maim, paid, paint, praise, quail, quaint, raise, saint, snail, sprain, stain, taint, trail, train, trait, twain. Break, great, steak. Gauge.

        8. Chil'blain, cai'tiff, dai'ly, dain'ty, dai'ry, dai'sy, en'trails, bai'liff, gai'ters, plain'tiff, rai'ment, rain'y, sail'or, trai'tor.

        9. Ab-stain', ac-quaint, a-fraid, ap-praise, a-vail, a-wait, be-wail, con-straint, de-claim, de-tail, dis-dain, ex-plain, main-tain, ob-tain, pre-vail, re-frain, up-braid.

        10. Ap-prais'er, as-sail'ant, at-tain'der, complain'ant, re-main'der.--Ap-per-tain', as-cer-tain.

Words in which ay has the sound of long a.

        11. Aye, bray, clay, day, dray, fray, gay, gray, jay, pay, play, pray, ray, say, slay, spray, stay, stray, sway, tray, way.

        12. Cray'on, dray'man, gay'ly, lay'man, may'or, way'ward.--Af-fray', as-say, de-lay, way-lay.--Gay'e-ty.

Words in which e, ei, eig, eigh, and ey, have the sound of long a.*

        * Other words of this class will be found under "Words sounded alike."

        13. Deign, eight, eighth, freight, neigh, prey, reign, rein, skein (or skain), sleigh, they, weigh, weight, whey.--Ey'ry, hei'nous, neigh'bor, weigh'er, weight'y.--Con-vey', in-veigh, o-bey, pur-vey.

Page 25


        1[.] A strange change. Baste the hem. Cows graze. Boys skate and wade. Do not scrape the slate. Slake thy thirst. Grace is in all her steps. A turning-lathe. A chaste style. I crave pardon. You are a craven. Hit the snake with the spade. Chafe the nape of his neck. Make a cage. A grange is a farm-house. A range of hills. Sour grapes. She quakes with fear. Brace the drum. Scale the hills. He ate a cake. The grade of the street.

        2. The stranger is a trader. The dog in the manger. A famous patron. The matron has a cambric robe. Put a label on the paper. The angel Gabriel. The apex of the hill. Pastry makes me ill. A poor changeling. Give not way to hatred. A scraper for the feet. Wafer the letter. Shun the gamester. The sacred book. Frustrate his plans. By cognate we mean akin. The inmate of the hut is an ingrate. A fine landscape. An ornate style. Vacate my room. This mundane home. Do not strike the prostrate A radix is a root.

        3. Forsake evil. Escape danger. A brocade dress. Do not estrange us Erase my name. We inhale air. Impale not the butterfly. The cascade falls. Arrange her dress. A sedate mood. What a grimace! Do not derange my books. You inflame her temper.

        4. Conjugate the verb. Aspirate the wh in what, when, &c. Celebrate the day. The delegate is a candidate. Separate the boys. Designate the reprobate. Ventilate the school-room. To emigrate is to go from a land to immigrate is to go into it. Excavate the hill. Masticate thy food. Navigate the ship.

        5. Inculcate good thoughts. To demonstrate is to prove. Remonstrate with her. Sip the lemonade. The men set up a barricade. Cling to the balustrade. I stood on the esplanade. Mary had a serenade. Beware the ambuscade. Form a palisade. The pillars of the colonnade.

        6. Never prevaricate. I penetrate his plan. Wine intoxicates. Do not retaliate. It blew a hurricane. Investigate the case. Incarcerate the culprit. You cannot intimidate me. I will interpolate a sentence.

        7. Aid the maid to braid the chain. Never break faith. The snail leaves a trail. A quaint sketch. A tender steak. Fail not to gauge the cask. A bad sprain. Free from taint. A train of cars. Frail as glass. In jail. We are twain. They gave him great praise. Take out the stain. He hit me with a flail.

        8. The caitiff wore gaiters. The sailor was no traitor. My raiment for a rainy day. Milk from the dairy. The bailiff is with the plaintiff. Our daily bread. The daisy has its name from day's eye.

        9. Abstain while you can. He is afraid to declaim. I am under constraint. I refrain. I disdain to beg. I maintain it. We bewail her fate.

Page 26

        10. The appraiser is the complainant. Ascertain who was the assailant. His estate is under attainder. The remainder appertains to me.

        11. Do not stray out of the way to-day. Pay as you go. For ever and aye. We make bricks of clay. A blue jay on the spray. Gray hair. Hurt in a fray. Pray stay. He holds sway.

        12. We gayly play. They went to waylay the mayor. A layman spoke. Assay the gold. Delay your gayety. Here is an affray. A wayward temper A crayon likeness.

        13. Eight skeins of silk. Weigh them. A heinous crime. A weigher and gauger. Why inveigh against him? A heavy freight. Weighty cause. The eighth day. Will you deign to obey me? Wine whey. Eagles convey their prey to their eyry. Horses neigh. Rein them in. Truth must prevail. A neighbor of mine. The sleigh was upset. The queen's reign. Upbraid the wicked.

IV. The Sound of A in Fall.

        1. All, bald, call, false, gall, hall, halt, malt, salt, scald, small, squall, stall, wall, waltz, want. Dwarf, quart, sward, swarm, swart, thwart, war, ward, warm, warmth, warn, warp, wart, wharf.

        2. All'spice, al'der, al'm[small o, macron]st, al'so, al'ter, al'ways, bald'rick, bal'sam, cal'dron, co'balt, fal'ter, hal'ter, jack'al, pal'ter, pal'sy, pal'try. Sa'co, thral'dom, wa'ter. Quar'ter, swar'thy, war'ble, war'den, war'fare, war'rant, ward'r[small o, macron]be.

        3. Ap-pall', ba-salt, be-fall, ex-alt, in-stall, re-call, with-al. A-thwart, a-ward, re-ward.--Al'der-man, al'ma-n[small a, breve]c, fal'si-fy.--Sub-al'tern.

The l in the following words is not sounded.

        Calk, chalk, stalk, talk, walk.--Calk'er, fal'con, talk'er, fal'con-er.

Words in which au, augh, and aw, have the sound of a in fall.

        4. Awl, brawl, brawn, caw, claw, crawl, dawn, draw, drawl, drawn, fawn, flaw, hawk, jaw, law,

Page 27

lawn, maw, paw, pawn, raw, saw, scrawl, shawl, spawn, sprawl, squaw, straw, thaw, yawl, yawn. Cause, clause, daub, fault, fraud, gauze, haul, laud, maul, paunch, pause, sauce, vault. Aught, caught, fraught, naught, taught.

        5. Au'burn, auc'tion, au'dit, Au'gust, au'thor, cau'cus, caus'tic, cause'way, cen'taur, fau'cet, gau'dy, maud'lin, pau'per, plau'dit, sau'cer, sau'cy, saus'age, vault'er. Awk'ward, baw'ble, draw'er, haw'thorn, law'yer, mawk'ish, saw'yer, taw'dry. Daugh'ter, haugh'ty, naugh'ty, slaugh'ter. Dis-traught'.

        6. Ap-plaud', ap-plause, as-sault, be-cause, de-bauch, de-fault, de-fraud, ex-haust. Ba-shaw, ma-caw, with-draw.--Au'di-bly, cau'li-flow-er, au'gu-ry, au'to-crat, laud'a-num, straw'ber-ry, nau'ti-cal, pau'ci-ty, plaus'i-ble, tom'-a-hawk, au'di-ence.--De-fault'er, hy-draul'ic, ma-raud'er, tar-pau'lin.--A'er-o-naut. In-au'g[small u, macron]-ral.

Words in which o, oa, and ough, have the sound of a in fall.

        7. Born, fork, gorge, gorse, horse, lord, morn north, scorn, snort, sort, storm, torch, gone. Broad Bought, brought, cough,*

        * Gh here has the sound of f.

fought, ought, sought, thought, trough. *

        * Gh here has the sound of f.

        8. Bor'der, con cord, cord'age, cor'net, cor'sair, corse'let, cor'tex, dis'cord, dor'mant, flor'id, for'ceps, form'al, form'er, fort'night, for'tress, for'ward, horn'et, horn'pipe, mor'bid, morn'ing, mor'tar

Page 28

normal, or'bit, por'poise,*

        * Pronounced por'p[small u, breve]s.

por'ridge, scorn'ful, scorn'er, short'er, sor'did, storm'y, thorn'y, tor'pid, vor'tex.

        9. Ab-sorb', ab-hor, ac-cord, a-dorn, as-sort, con-form, de-form, dis-tort, en-dorse, ex-hort, ex-tort, for-lorn, in-form, per-form, re-form, re-morse, re-sort, re-tort, sub-orn, trans-form.

        10. Cor'pu-lent, ex'or-c[small i, macron]se, hor'ta-tive, or'di-nal, north'er-ly, or'tho-dox, por'ce-lain, por'c[small u, macron]-p[small i, macron]ne, por'rin-ger, scor'pi-on, sor'cer-er, tort'[small u, macron]-ous. -- A-bor'tive, dis-or'der, im-mor'tal, im-por'tant, ca-lor'ic, in-form'al, re-cord'er, re-form'er. -- Me-te-or'ic.


        1. I want a quart of warm water. A small, bald dwarf. All waltz at the ball in the hall. A horse in the stall. A swarm of bees. The green sward. A ward of the city. The covers warp. A wart on my hand. A squall of wind. A swart face. Bitter as gall. Thwart the false boy. Salt hay. Malt liquor. Halt there! Scald the pan. A ship at the wharf.

        2. An alder tree. Hear me also. Always busy. Birds warble. A halter for the palfrey. A paltry wardrobe. With cobalt we color glass. Stop your warfare. A swarthy skin. Smell of the balsam. A big quarto. Held in thraldom. Never palter. She shakes with the palsy. A warden is a keeper. The jackal ran. I warrant the watch.

        3. A just award. Exalt the lowly. A pillar of basalt. Athwart my path. Recall thy words. Install him into office. Her song inthralls me. You are wise withal. The alderman has an almanac. -- A subaltern in the army. The city of Chicago. -- Let us talk as we walk. He is a calker. The falconer made the falcon fly. A bit of chalk.

        4. Pause on the lawn to see the fawn. A gauze shawl. The yawl sank. A fat paunch. Shun a brawl. He fed on brawn. He caught a hawk by the claw. Rooks caw. A clause in a will. Do not drawl. A cold vault. The spawn of fish. An Indian squaw. Who taught you to sprawl? Sauce for the goose. Raw meat. Laud the good. A heap of straw. The ice

Page 29

thaws. Fraught with danger. Whose fault? A flaw in the gem. Do not maul the lad. He goes to pawn his law-books.

        5. Auburn hair. Goods at auction. The month of August. A faucet for the cask. Be not haughty, my daughter. The hawthorn bush. Audit my account. An awkward author. A caustic remark. He spoke at a caucus. The pauper had a sausage. Cross the causeway. A laurel tree. A mawkish style. Naughty boys. Do not falter. Who ever saw a centaur? An awful slaughter. Hear the plaudits! A sawyer in the river. A saucy girl. She broke a saucer. Put it in the drawer. My drawers are torn. I am distraught with woe.

        6. The bashaw has a macaw. To debauch is to corrupt. Never defraud. A wicked assault. He was audible to the audience. A good augury. A nautical song. A paucity of good fruit. Laudanum is made from opium A plausible story. Cauliflower for dinner. The marauders stole a sheep An Indian tomahawk. Shun the defaulter. A hydraulic ram. Nail down the tarpaulin. -- The aëronaut is to go up in a balloon.

        7. He brought me a fork. I thought him a lord. He is gone north. A broad plank. He lit a torch. An acorn fell. A snow-storm. I bought a book. Pigs snort. Morn and eve. The dogs fought Scorn a lie. A narrow gorge. Gorse grows there. A bad cough.

        8. A border of box. Live in concord. Cordage for the ship. Sound the cornet. The sergeant wore a corselet. His wife wore corsets. Snakes lie dormant and torpid in winter. A formal demand. Two weeks are a fortnight. I took out the thorn with a pair of forceps. A peach orchard. A strong fortress. Move forward. A normal school. Bricks and mortar. A morsel of cake. A sad discord. Sip the porridge. The porpoise is a clumsy fish. A hornet stung her. Lost in a vortex.

        9. A forlorn hope. He will endorse the note. Assort the beads. Extort his consent. I besought him to reform. He felt no remorse. I exhort you to resort there no more. A sponge absorbs water. Abhor evil. Conform to the good. The bad glass distorts. They tried to suborn the witness. What did he retort?

        10. A corpulent man. A scorpion stung. A porcupine quill. A tortuous road. A porcelain cup. The wind is northerly. A hortative remark. The orthodox faith. A porringer of milk. Exorcise the evil spirit. He would be a sorcerer. An abortive task. Caloric is heat. The immortal soul. What is her disorder? Important news. Meteoric flashes.

        TO THE TEACHER. -- In dictating the Exercises, much time, usually occupied in correcting, may be saved, by requiring the pupils to spell aloud the exemplifying words they write down, as the lesson proceeds.

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V. The Sound of long A in Care.

        1[.] Bare, blare, dare, fare, flare, glare, rare, scarce, scare, share, snare, spare, square. -- Dar'ing, care'ful, par'ent, wel'fare. -- A-ware', be-ware, com-pare, de-clare, fare-well, in-snare, pre-pare. -- Par'en-tage, scar'-ci-ty. Ap-par'ent, trans-par'ent.

Words in which ai, ay, e, ea, and ei, have the sound of a in care.

        2. Air, chair, fair, hair, lair, pair, stair. Bear, pear, swear, tear, wear. There, where. -- Cor'sair, fair'y, gair'ish, pray'er, where'fore. -- Af-fair', de-spair, for-bear, for-swear, im-pair, mo-hair, par-terre, re-pair, Their.


        1. A square box. The glare of the sun. A blare is a noise. Good pens are scarce. Spare the birds. Scare them not. A rare fish. Give him his share. The candle flares. -- A daring parent. Beware the snare. Compare notes. Prepare to go. I hope for your welfare. Then farewell! -- A scarcity of corn. I know not her parentage. A transparent door. An apparent crime.

        2. Swear not at all. Where*

        * Heed the aspirate in such words as where, which, when, whey, &c., in which the h is sounded before w, though written after it. They should be audibly distinguished from wear, witch, wen, way, &c. As words beginning with wh will not unfrequently occur, the teacher's attention is particularly invited to the correct enunciation of this combination, the aspirate in which is too orten omitted altogether.

did she wear that dress? A tiger's lair. A mohair chair. A fairy story. Wherefore read it? The corsair fled. A bad affair. Repair the cart. She is in despair. Forbear to strike. Flowers in the parterre. Do not impair your health. A pair of shoes. A pear to eat. Tear the paper. They took their wives there.

VI. The Sound of A in Ask.

        According to Walker, and other orthoëpists, the a in this class of words has the sound of short a in hat; according to Webster and others, it has the sound of a in far. An easy sound, not so close as the one, nor so broad as the other, is now preferred.

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        1. Asp, bask, blast, branch, cask, cast, chaff, chance, chant, clasp, class, craft, dance, fast, flask, gasp, glance, glass, graft, grant, grass, haft, hasp, lance, last, mask, mass, mast, pant, pass, past, prance, quaff, rasp, shaft, slant, staff, task, trance, vast, waft.

        2. Cas'ket, chan'dler, jas'per, mas'tiff, pas'sive, pass'p[small o, macron]rt, plas'ter, raft'er, sam'ple, slan'der. -- Ad-vance', a-mass, as-kance, en-chant, en-hance, re-past. -- Ad-van'tage, dis-as'ter, sal'a-man-der, ex-am'ple, mo-las'ses, pi-las'ter. -- Al'a-bas-ter.


        1. An asp bit her arm. A glance in the glass. Quaff from the cask. I set the lass a task. She was lying in a trance. The haft has a clasp. Rasp the slate. By chance I hit her with a lance. The branch fell on the grass. The chaff flew before the blast. Slant the shaft more. Put down the flask May fair winds waft on the ship! See the horse prance.

        2. Plaster fell from the rafter. A ship chandler. My repast is in a basket. A jasper ring in a casket. The mastiff bites. Answer his slander. A passive verb. She looked askance at me. He will enhance his price. An alabaster vase. A salamander safe. The advantage of a good example. Why amass more? Music enchants me. The pilaster fell. A hogshead of molasses.

VII. The Sound of long E, as in Be, &c.

        1. Breve, cede, eke, glebe, mere, mete, scene, sere, theme, these. -- Ath'lete, con'crete, de'cent, de'mon, e'dict, fre'quent, le'g[small e, breve]nd, le'ver, pe'n[small u, breve]lt, pe'tr[small e, breve]l, pre'c[small e, breve]pt, pre'cinct, re'fl[small u, breve]x, se'cret.

        2. Ac-cede', ad-here, aus-tere, co-here, complete, con-cede, con-vene, ef-fete, ex-treme, im-pede, o-bese, pre-cede, re-cede, re-plete, re-vere, se-cede, se-crete, sin-cere, su-preme. -- Ob'so-lete, pe'ri-od,

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ste've-d[small o, macron]re.--An-te-cede', con-tra-vene, in-ter-cede in-ter-fere, in-ter-vene, per-se-vere, su-per-sede, su-per-vene.--He'l[small i, breve]-o-tr[small o, macron]pe.

Words in which ea has the sound of long e.

        3. Bead, beak, beam, bean, beard, beast, bleach, bleak, blear, bleat, breach, breathe, cease, cheap, cheat, clean, cleave, cleat, cream, crease, deal, dream, each, ear, east, eaves, fear, fleam, freak, gleam, glean, heal, heat, lead, leaf, leap, lease, leash, least, leave, meal, neap, neat, pea, peak, peach, peat, plea, plead, please, preach.

        4. Reach, read, ream, reap, screak, scream, seat, sheaf, shears, sheath, sheathe, sheaves, smear, sneak, speak, squeak, squeal, streak, stream, tea, teach, teak, teal, team, tears, tease, treat, tweak, veal, weal, wean, weave, wheat, yea (also pronounced y[small a, macron]), yeast, zeal.

        5. Bea'con, beak'er, bea'ver, dea'con, drear'y, ea'ger, ea'gle, ea'sel, ea'sy, grea'sy, mea'ger, mea'sles, pea'cock, rea'son, seam'stress, slea'zy, squeam'ish, trea'cle, treat'[small i, breve]se, treat'y, wea'ry, year'ling.

        6. An-neal', ap-peal, ap-pear, ap-pease, ar-rear, be-neath, be-queath, be-speak, be-reave, bo-hea, con-ceal, con-geal, de-cease, de-feat, de-mean, dis-ease, dis-please, en-dear, en-treat, im-peach, mal-treat, mis-lead, re-lease, re-peal, re-peat, re-treat, re-veal. -- Feas'i-ble. In-de-feas'i-ble.

Words in which ee has the sound of long e.

        7. Beef, beeves, bleed, breed, breeze, cheek,

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cheer, cheese, creed, creep, deed, deem, deep, eel, fee, feel, fleece, fleet, free, glee, green, greet, jeer, keel, keen, keep, leer, lees, meek, peep, queer, reef reek, reel, screech, screen, seed, seek, seethe, sheen, sheep, sheet, sleek, sleep, sleet, sleeve, sneer, sneeze, speech, speed, spleen, squeeze, steed, steep, steer, teeth, three, veer, weed, weep, wheeze.

        8. Bee'tle, fee'ble, flee'cy, free'man, greed'y, keep'sake, lin'seed, meet'ing, nee'dle, pee'vish, stee'ple, twee'zers. -- A-gree, a-greed, a-sleep, be-seech, be-tween, can-teen, ca-reen, ca-reer, com-peer, de-cree, de-gree, dis-creet, es-teem, ex-ceed, fore-see, fu-see, gen-teel, gran-dee, grant-ee, in-deed, les-see, mo-reen, pro-ceed, ra-zee, re-deem, set-tee, suc-ceed, trust-ee, tu-reen, un-seen, ve-neer.

        9. Ap'o-gee, ch[small a, breve]nt'i-cleer, fil'a-gree, ju'bi-lee, ped'i-gree, p[small e, breve]r'i-gee. -- Ab-sent-ee', auc'tion-eer, dev-o-tee, dom-i-neer, en-gi-neer, fric-as-see, gaz-et-teer, leg-a-tee, mu-le-teer, mu-ti-neer, nom-i-nee, o-ver-seer, pat-ent-ee, pi-o-neer, pri-va-teer, ref-er-ee, ref-u-gee, rep-ar-tee, vol-un-teer.

Words in which ei has the sound of long e.

        As a general rule, the 31st elementary sound (that of s in so) takes ei after it, instead of ie; as in seize, ceil'ing, &c. The exceptions are, siege, fi-nan-cier', and cui-rass-ier' (pronounced kw[small e, macron]-ras-seer').

        10. Seize, weird. -- Ceil'ing, ei'ther, leis'ure, neither, seiz'ure. -- Con-ceit', con-ceive, de-ceit, de-ceive, per-ceive, re-ceipt, re-ceive. -- In-vei'gle, o-bei'sance.

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Words in which ie and eo have the sound of long e.

        11. Brief, chief, fief, field, fiend, fierce, grief, grieve, liege, niece, piece, pierce, priest, shield, shriek,*

        * Give heed to the proper enunciation of sh in words beginning with the combination shr. Do not say sriek, sred, srub, srug, srill, instead of shriek, shred, shrub, shrug, shrill.

siege, thief, thieve, tierce, wield, yield. -- Pr[small a, macron]i'rie, se'ries. -- Peo'ple.

        12. A-chieve', ag-grieve, be-lief, be-lieve, be-siege, cash-ier, front-ier, re-lieve, re-prieve, re-lief, re-trieve, sor-tie. -- Brig-a-dier', cav-a-lier, cap-a-pie, fi-nan-cier, gren-a-dier.

Words in which i has the sound of long e.

        13. Ca-price', ma-rine, pe-lisse, po-lice, r[small a, breve]-vine va-lise. -- Am'ber-gris, ver'di-gris. -- Bom-ba-sin', mag-a-zine, man-da-rin, quar-an-tine, tam-bour-ine


        1. Cede the glebe to him. We can eke out a meal. A breve is a note in music. Here is my theme. A sere leaf. Mere nonsense. -- A concrete mass. Lift the lever. Smell the ether. The petrel flies. The king's edict. Obese is fat. The temper of a demon. Keep my secret. The college precincts.

        2. An austere reproof. The parts cohere. Be sincere. Extreme cold. Dogs secrete food. A complete suit. Accede to my request. Adhere to the good. The penult is the last syllable but one. Precede us. Convene the scholars. You impede the road. The supreme good. Replete with joy. -- An obsolete custom. A period, or full stop. The stevedore loads the ship. -- Persevere in well-doing. Intercede to make peace. Contravene his attempt. The new book will supersede the old. Here the noun antecedes the verb. Plant the heliotrope.

        3. Glass beads. A bird's beak. Bleach the cloth. A crease in my vest. The eaves of the house. A bleak wind. A cheap peach. A long beard. Blear-eyed. Lambs bleat. They cease to breathe. A deal of cream. A neap tide. A fleam is for bleeding beasts. He nailed on a cleat. Each ear.

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Lead us on. Leap year. Heal the sick. A high peak. Shell the peas. Cleave the wood. Put in a plea for me.

        4. Reach me the shears. A sheaf of wheat. Sheathe the blade. The sheath is old Yeast for the cake. A ream of paper. Read the book. Smear the tree. Speak louder. A veal pie. Pigs squeal. A streak in the east. The common weal. Wean the babe. He is no sneak. Take your seat. The stream flows. What is teak? teal?

        5. The beacon light. The beaver dam. Deacon Smith. A dreary road. Eager to play. An easy chair. Her hands are greasy. The seamstress is weary. She is meager, too. A treatise on corns. Treacle is sweet. A yearling is one a year old.

        6. Beneath a tree. Anneal the glass. Appeal to him. Appease his rage. You bereave me of hope. Bohea tea. When did his decease take place? What was his disease? Water congeals. Impeach the witness. It is not feasible. His claim is indefeasible. Repeal the act. The foe retreat. Release the captive. His account is in arrear.

        7. Roast beef. A sweet cheese. A breed of sheep. What cheer? The breeze veers. Steer the ship far from the reef. A fleet steed. Sweep the street. Squeeze him and he will screech. A queer sleeve. Slow of speech. The vessel's keel. A sleek fleece. Feed the eel. The angler's reel. Pull up the weed. A green tree. A wet sheet. The earth reeks. Screen him from sight. The lees of wine.

        8. Linseed oil. The steeple was blown over. A fleecy lamb. A peevish girl. Tweezers to pull out a thorn. A keepsake for you. Thread the needle. Do not tread on the beetle. A greedy child. -- It is agreed between us. A tureen of soup. Be discreet. A full canteen. Careen the boat. The career of the lessee was short. A genteel dress. We sat on the settee. Veneer the box. He steps like a grandee. Moreen curtains. Razee the ship. Light the fusee. One of the trustees of the school.

        9. We call our rooster Chanticleer. A day of jubilee. Filagree work. A colt's pedigree. -- An absentee from home. An auctioneer's sale. The engineer tries to domineer. Is the name of our town in the gazetteer? A muleteer drives a mule. A western pioneer. The overseer of an estate. A smart repartee. The mutineer was shot. A Polish refugee. A volunteer in the army. A fricassee of chicken. The people fled.

        10. Seize the weird woman. He can touch the ceiling. Either you try to deceive, or do not perceive the truth. A seizure of rum. A moment of leisure. I owe you no obeisance. Receipt my bill. Your conceit makes me smile. They could not inveigle him to do wrong.

        11. A brief ride. The chief is in the field. Raise the siege. We made the thief yield. He had the look of a fiend. My little niece. Shield her from harm. A fierce strife. His land is held in fief. A tierce of beef Pierce the bag. My liege, I cannot. A series of losses. A prairie on fire

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        12. The cashier of a bank. Indians on the frontier. Do you believe he will have a reprieve? He will yet retrieve his fame, and achieve great things. the enemy made a sortie. A brigadier general. He was armed cap-a-pie. Our cavalier is no financier. The grenadier wore a cap.

        13. My pelisse was in the valise. Report your loss to the police. A deep ravine. I am weary of her caprice. -- Ambergris has the smell of wax. Verdigris is green. She had a bombasin dress. A powder magazine. A ship in quarantine. A Chinese mandarin. She plays on the tambourine.

VIII. The Sound of Short E in Met.

        1. Beck, bench, blench, blend, bless, check, chess, cleft, clench, crept, crest, deck, dell, delve, dense, depth, dredge, drench, dwell, ebb, edge, elk, ell, else, etch, fence, fend, fledge, fresh, hedge, hemp, hence, kelp, kept, ledge, lens, mend, mesh, next, pence, pledge.

        2. Quell, quench, quest, reck, sect, self, sense, sex, shelf, shell, sketch, sledge, smell smelt, speck, spell, spend, stress, stretch, swell, swept, tense, tenth, text, theft, thence, thresh, trench, twelve, vend, wedge, weld, when, whet, yell.

        3. Bel'fry, cher'ub, des'p[small o, breve]t, er'rand, er'rant, er'ring, fet'id, fet'l[small o, breve]ck, ger'[small u, breve]nd, hel'met, hem'l[small o, breve]ck, in'quest, ket'tle, lev'ee, mer'ry, mess'mate, meth'od, neth'er, pel'let, pest'er, preb'end, rel'ic, rel'ict, selv'edge, sec'ond, sher'iff, skep'tic, ten'et, tep'id, vel'vet, ver'y.

        4. A-bet', ac-cess, a-depth, ad-dress, al-lege, an-nex, as-cend, as-sess, as-sets, at-tempt, a-venge, be-hest, be-quest, ca-det, ca-ress, com-mence, con-dense, con-fess, con-nect, con-sent, con-tempt, con-tent, de-fense,*

        * Defense, offense, pretense, are so spelt by Webster; but Walker spells them thus; defence, offence, pretsuce.

de-fect, de-press.

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        5. De-tect, de-test, dis-pense, dis-sect, dis-sent, di-vest, ef-fect, e-lect, e-rect, ex-cel, ex-cept, ex-empt, ex-pect, ex-pel, ex-pense, ex-press, ex-tent, f[small i, breve]-nesse, fo-ment, ga-zette, him-self, im-pel, im-mense, in-flect, in-ject, in-spect, in-tense, in-tent, in-trench, in-vent, mo-lest, of-fense, op-press, neg-lect, per-plex, pos-sess, pre-pense, pre-tense, pre-text, pre-vent, pro-fess, pro-pel.

        6. Pro-tect, re-dress, re-flect, re-fresh, re-gret, re-lent, re-pel, re-pent, re-press, re-quest, re-sent, re-spect, re-trench, re-venge, se-lect, suc-cess, sug-gest,*

        * According to Walker, and some other orthoëpists, the first g of this word ought to be sounded hard, as in hug; but, as we gain in ease and rapidity of enunciation by merging it in the sound of j, custom has sanctioned this departure from rule. Pronounce the word, sud-jest'.

sus-pect, sus-pense, tran-scend, trans gress, un-less, por-tent.

        7. Ecs'ta-sy, her'e-tic, mem'o-ry, mes'sen-ger, mez'zo-tint, quer'[small u, macron]-lous, rec'om-pense, ret'ro-gr[small a, macron]ade, ret'ro-spect, splen'e-tic, ter'ri-er. -- Au-then'tic, con-tem'ner, de-vel'op, ge-ner'ic, ma-jes'tic, pre-cep'tress. -- Cir-cum-vent', in-ter-cept, rec-ol-lect, rep-re-sent.

Words in which a, ai, and ay, have the sound of e in met.

        8. Said, saith, says. -- A'ny, ma'ny. -- Waist'coat, wain'scot. A-gain', a-gainst.

Words in which ea has the sound of e in met.

        9. Bread, breadth, breast, breath, cleanse, dead, deaf, dealt, death, dread, dreamt, head, health,

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meant, read, realm, spread, stead, stealth, sweat, thread, threat, tread, wealth.

        10. Break'fast, clean'ly, dead'ly, feath'er, health'y, heath'er, heav'en, heav'y, jeal'ous, lead'en, leath'er, leav'en, mead'ow, meas'ure, peas'ant, pleas'ant, read'y, stead'fast, stead'y, threat'en, treas'ure, weap'on, weath'er, zeal'ot, zeal'ous. -- In-stead'. -- Clean'li-ness, pleas'ant-ry, treach'er-y, treas'u-ry --. Al-read'y, en-deav'or.

Words in which æ, ei, eo, ie, u, and ue, have the sound of short e

        11. Feoff, friend, guess, gust.--Bur'y, friend'ly, friend'ship, heif'er, jeop'ard, leop'ard. -- Bur'i-al, jeop'ard-y. Æs-thet'ic. Non-pa-reil'. Di-ær'e-sis, et-cæt'e-ra.


        1. Sit on the bench. He came at my beck. To blench is to shrink. The game of chess. The wood was cleft. A dense smoke. Dredge the meat He can etch on copper. I see no one else. Fend off the attack. A ledge of rocks. Kelp is from sea-weed. Go hence! Look trough the lens.

        2. Quench the fire. Go in quest of the elk. The smelt swims. A wedge of gold. A sledge hammer. He dug a trench. Weld the pieces. To vend is to sell. The tenth hour. What was the text? Twelve shells. The stress of the voice. I reck not what they say. She swept the carpet. Stretch the rope.

        3. My merry messmate was fond in the belfry. He had a kettle on for a helmet. Tepid water. A fetid smell. I sent her on an errand. Trim the fetlock A velvet dress. The selvedge of the cloth. A relic of the lost one. Mrs. B., the relict or widow of Mr. B. The prince is a despot. Send for the sheriff. The skeptic does not believe. Hemlock is poison. They hold an inquest. My nether garment. A strange tenet.

        4. Attempt not to avenge thyself. Condense your remarks. Caress the child. You allege what is not correct. The cadet has a bequest. What are his assets? do not abet the bad. An adept in crime. What is your address?

        5. Try to excel. An immense fire. The gazette was sent by express. It seems to me like finesse. What can you expect? Exempt from blame

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Dissect the duck. Inspect the ship. You depress her by your talk. Why oppress the poor? My pain is intense. A defect in his title. Do not foment discord. The member elect. Erect the tent.

        6. You perplex me by your pretext. Do not resent it. I wish you success. I possess all I want. Neglect her not. You profess too much. Refresh yourself. Protect the weak. Seek not revenge. I relent. Propel the car. Malice prepense. You transcend my hopes. Let me suggest that you keep him in suspense.

        7. The terrier barks. A retrograde movement. A querulous voice. My memory fails. Call him not a heretic. A fit of ecstasy. A mezzotint print. Recompense the messenger. A splenetic temper. The retrospect of my deeds. -- An authentic account. A contemner of things good. Int[small e, breve]rrogate the preceptress. A generic name. Recollect my charge. Intercept the thief.

        8, 9. He says he has not any waistcoat. Many are as badly off. She hit her head against the wainscot. She read in his stead. I dreamt a dream. She dealt out bread to the hungry. The sweat of thy brow. He meant well. The realm of death. Cleanse thy breast. Too deaf to hear. In good health.

        10. Breakfast is ready. The peasant stood on the heather. A feather for your cap. Pleasant weather. Leaven for the bread. A zealous will. Hope in heaven. Measure the weapon. Endeavor to be cleanly. Hate all treachery. Gold in the treasury. A belt of leather. The grass of the meadow.

        11. Guess who is my guest. We will not jeopard our friendship. The leopard has spots. The miser means to bury his gold. Nonpareil type. To feoff is to invest with the fee of land. An æsthetic taste. The heifer lows. Et coetera are two Latin words, meaning and so forth. We sometimes use this mark &c. in place of them. A diæresis is a mark used to show the separation of syllables, as in Zoë.

IX. The Sound of E in Her.

        1. Clerk, err, erst, fern, germ, nerb, herd, jerk, merge, nerve, perch, pert, serge, serve, sperm, stern, swerve, term, terse, verb, verge, verse, were, wert.

        2. Ad'verb, ad'verse, bit'tern, cav'ern, cis'tern, cler'gy, com'merce, di'vers, di'verse, fer'ment, fer'vid, fil'bert, gov'ern, hal'berd, herds'man, her'mit, ice'berg, lan'tern, mer'cer, mer'chant, mer'cy, mer'maid, mod'ern, nerv'ous, north'ern, o'vert, p[small a, breve]s'tern, per'fect,

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per'jure, per'son, p[small o, macron]s'tern, pot'sherd, prov'erb, sher'bet, slat'tern, serv'ant, shep'herd, ster'ling, there'f[small o, macron]re, trav'erse, ver'dict, ver'tex.

        3. Ad-vert', a-lert, a-merce, as-perse, a-ver, a-verse, co-erce, con-cern, con-verge, con-verse, de-fer, de-serve, dis-perse, di-verge, di-vert, e-merge, ex-pert, in-ert, in-fer, in-sert, in-ter, in-verse, in-vert, ob-serve, per-verse, pre-fer, pre-serve, re-fer, re-serve, re-verse, re-vert, sub-merge, sub-vert, su-perb, trans-verse.

        4. Con'tro-vert, fer'til-[small i, macron]ze, mer'ci-ful, mer'cu-ry, per'fi-dy, per'fo-r[small a, macron]te, per'ju-ry, per'se-cute, per'-son-al, per'ti-nent, ser'pen-t[small i, macron]ne, ter'ma-gant, u'ni-verse, ver'te-bral, ver'ti-cal.--E-nerv'ate, in-fer'nal, im-mer'sion, im-per'fect, in-ter'nal, in-ter'pret, ma-ter'nal, pa-ter'nal, pre-serv'er, re-vers'al, su-per'-nal.--Dis-con-cert', in-ter-sperse.--Ad-ver'si-ty, re-ver'ber-[small a, macron]te.--An-i-mad-vert'.

Words in which ea has the sound of e in her.

        5. Dearth, earl, earn, earth, heard, hearse, learn, pearl, search, yearn.--Ear'ly, earn'est, earth'en, earth'y, learn'ing, pearl'y.--Re-hearse', re-search. Re-hears'al.

Words in which i has the sound of e in her.

        6. Birch, chirp, dirge, dirk, dirt, firm, first, flirt, mirth, quirk, shirt, skirt, sir, smirch, smirk, spirt, squirt, stir, third, thirst, twirl, whirl.--Cir'cle, fir'kin, irk'some, na'dir, skir'mish, squir'rel, stir'rup, thir'ty, vir'gin.--Hir-s[small u, macron]te', in-firm.--Cir'cu-lar.

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Words in which o and ou have the sound of e in her.

        7. Scourge, word, work, world, worm, worse, wort, worth.--Jour'nal, jour'ney, so'journ, work'man, world'ly, wor'ship, wor'thy. Ad-journ'. Court'e-sy. At-tor'ney.

Words in which u, ue, and y, have the sound of e in her.

        8. Blur, burn, burst, church, churl, churn, cur, curb, curd, curl, curse, curve, durst, furl, hurl, hurt, lurk, myrrh, nurse, purr, purge, purse, scurf, slur, spur, spurn, surd, surf, surge, turf, turn, urge.

        9. Bur'den, bur'dock, burg'lar, bur'ly, cur'few, fur'long, fur'nish, fur'ry, fur'ther, guer'don, gur'net, mar'tyr, mur'der, murk'y, mur'mur, myr'tle, nurs'ling, pur'p[small o, macron]rt, pur'pose, purs'er, Sat'urn, sa'tyr, s[small u, breve]b'urbs, sur'name, Thurs'day, tur'key, turn'key, tur'nip. Sur'cin-gle.

        10. Ab-surd', con-cur, de-mur, dis-burse, dis turb, in-cur, in-urn, oc-cur, re-cur, re-turn, un-furl u-surp.--Sur'ger-y, lit'ur-gy, tur'pen-tine, tur'bu lent.--De-mur'rer, di-urn'al, dis-cur'sive, in-sur' gent, noc-tur'nal, pre-cur'sor, sub-ur'ban, un-bur'den u-surp'er.--Re-im-burse'.--Ap-pur'te-nant.


        1. They were on the verge of ruin. Does not the clerk err? Sperm oil Which is the verb? If thou wert port, say so. Thou wast stern. I was erst expert in writing terse verse. Taste of the perch. Serge is a thin woolen stuff. The herbs of the field. I love the smell of fern. Swerve not to the right or left. The germ sprouts.

        2. A deep cistern. They hid in a cavern. An overt act. A person adverse to my views. The modern clergy. The shepherd stood at the postern.

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The iceberg melts. Divers merchants went diverse ways. A bitern has long legs. The mercer's shop. The hermit had a lantern. Crack the filbert. The pastern of a horse. A halberd is a kind of spear. Pounds sterling. They rendered a verdict of guilty! Therefore let us go. Who ever saw a mermaid?

        3. Invert the glass. A superb vase. You deserve a chiding. Disperse the crowd. I prefer to preserve this flower. You cannot coerce me. Submerge the raft. Our roads diverge. Emerge from the water. Observe that bird. Reserve your fire.

        4. A pertinent remark. Rains fertilize the ground. Controvert what he says The termagant has no mercy. A serpentine walk. Perforate the bladder. The sun is now vertical. You enervate yourself by inertness. My immersion was imperfect, but I was well wet. Interpret this riddle My maternal aunt. The interment of the dead. The days of my adversity Hear the sound reverberate. I shall animadvert on her conduct.

        5. A dearth of news. I heard that the earl lost a pearl. Search for it on the earth. I yearn to go home. The black hearse. I was early fond of learning. Be in earnest. Rehearse your part. A man of research.

        6. Birds chirp. A birch tree. A dirge for the departed. First, throw away the dirk. A quirk of the law. The skirt is too long. A whirl of dust. Do not stir, sir. The flirt smirks. The coal will smirch thy hand.- A firkin of butter. An irksome skirmish. Hold the stirrup. The squirrel, has a nut. Thirty virgins. A circular to the trade. From the zenith to the nadir. A hirsute chin.

        7. Step aside from the worm. A scourge for the liar! What is his word worth? What can be worse? A tiresome journey. Our sojourn in the world. A worthy workman. Family worship. An attorney at law. Adjourn the case. Cultivate courtesy. Make a courtesy.*

        * When this word means an act of respect made by a woman, it is pronounced kurt'sy, in two syllables.

Let us keep a journal.

        8. The cur barks. Myrrh is bitter. The churl durst not hurt me. Churn the cream. The nurse has gone to church. The surge rises. See the white surf. Surd is deaf. The bubble burst. My purse is empty. Do not slur over your lesson.

        9. Turn aside for the man with the burden. A burly burglar broke into our house. I can go no further. A purser in the navy. The curfew tolls. Pull up the burdock. A surname is a family name. The suburbs of the city. We had turnips on Thursday. The martyr was burnt. A murky sky. A surcingle for the horse. The myrtle grows. The planet Saturn. We fish for gurnet. The guerdon of all my toil. The Satyr of the fable What is your purpose?

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        10. I concur in your views. I demur to your demand. Unfurl the sail Disburse the money. Read the liturgy. Put turpentine on the sore. I am past surgery. The turbulent boys disturb me. A suburban cottage. Diurnal is daily. The emperor is a usurper.*

        * Not "an usurper." Where initial u has its y sound, we use a, as before a consonant, and not an, as before a vowel.

Reimburse the servant. This shed is appurtenant to my house.

X. The Sound of short I, as in Fit.

        1. Bill, bilge, bridge, brig, brim, bring, chill, chink, chintz, cliff, crib, crimp, cringe, crisp, didst, disk, ditch, fifth, filch, film, filth, fist, fix, flitch fringe, frisk, give, glimpse, hitch, inch, kick, lisp, live, midge, midst, milch, mill, mince, minx, miss, mix, niche, pinch, pitch, pith, plinth, prince.

        2. Quick, quill, quilt, quince, rick, rinse, sick, sill, since, skiff, skill, skim, slim, springe, squib, squint, stick, stilt, stitch, strict, strip, swift, swill, swim, switch, thick, thill, thrift, thrill, trick, twinge, twist, twit, whiff, whim, whist, whit, wick, width, wind, wish, wisp, with, withe,*

        * Heed the difference between aspirate and vocal th in with and withe. Where th vocal (as in thine) occurs in this volume, it is italicized, except where the classification renders this unnecessary.

witch, zinc.

        3. Big'ot, bish'op, blis'ter, civ'ic, crit'ic, dis'taff, dis'trict, frig'id, gip'sy, im'p[small u, breve]lse, in'd[small e, breve]x, in'fl[small u, breve]x, in'jure, in'sect, in'stinct, kid'n[small a, breve]p, lim'it, lim'ner, linch'pin, live'long, mid'riff, min'im, mir'ror, mis's[small i, breve]ve, pig'my, pil'grim, pip'pin, pis'tol, pitch'er, piv'ot, ring'let, sand'wich, scrive'ner, sir'rah, sir'up, spig'ot, spir'it, splin'ter, thith'er, tim'ber, tim'id, tin'y (or ti'ny), vic'ar, vic'tim, vine'yard, vis'or, viv'id, wit'ness.

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        4. A-bridge', ac-quit, ad-mit, af-flict, con-sist con-vince, de-pict, de-sist, dis-miss, dis-tinct, e-clipse, el-lipse, e-quip, e-vince, ex-ist, ex tinct, for-bid, for-give, im-pinge, in-flict, in-fringe, in sist, me-thinks, o-mit, pre-dict, pro-lix, re-scind, re-sist, re-strict, sub-mit, with-in.

        5. Chas'tise-ment, dif'fi-cult, div'i-d[small e, breve]nd, im'age-ry, in'dus-try, in'fi-n[small i, breve]te, in'tel-lect, in'ter-im, ir'ri-tate, mil'li-ner, min'is-ter, mir'a-cle, priv'i-lege, rick'et-y, tam'a-r[small i, breve]nd, vir'u-lent, vit'ri-ol. -- Con-sid'-er, de-liv'er, e-lix'ir, em-pir'ic, in-sip'id, sa-tir'ic, sta-tis'tics, sub-mis'sive. Vi-o-lin'.

Words in which ai and ia have the sound of short i.

        6. Cap'tain, cer'tain, chap'lain, chief'tain, cur'tain, fount'ain, mount'ain, plant'ain, vil'lain. -- C[small a, breve]r'riage, m[small a, breve]r'riage. -- Min'ia-ture, par'lia-ment.

Words in which e, ee, ei, ie, and o, have the sound of short i.

        7. Been. Sieve. Eng'land, pret'ty. Breech'es. For'feit, mul'lein (or mul'len), sur'feit. Ker'chief, mar'ried, mis'chief. Wom'en. Mis'chiev-ous.

Words in which oi, u, ui, and y, have the sound of short i.

        8. Build, guilt. Crypt, myth. Bis'cuit, cir'cuit, con'duit, guin'ea. Bus'y, f[small e, breve]r'ule, let-tuce, min'ute.*

        * So pronounced as a noun. As an adjective, it is pronounced mi-n[small u, macron]ts'.

Tor'toise. Ca'lyx, crys'tal, cyn'ic, gym'nast, gyp'sum, hys'sop, lyr'ic, mys'tic, myth'ic, styp'tic, syl'van, syn'od, syn'tax, syr'inge, sys'tem. Gui-tar'.

        9. Am'e-thyst, cyl'in-der, hyp'o-cr[small i, breve]te, myr'i-ad,

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mys'ter-y, ox'y-gen, pyr'a-mid, syl'la-bub, syl'la-ble, syc'a-more, sym'me-try, sym'pa-thy, syn'o-nym, typi-cal, tyr'an-ny. -- Dys'en-ter-y. Dys-pep'sy, gym-nas'tic, hys-t[small e, breve]r'ic. Po-lyg'a-my. Pan-e-gyr'ic Id-i-o-syn'cra-sy.


        1. Bilge water has a bad smell. The bridge was swept away. A chintz cover. Crimp my ruff. Cringe to no one. Didst thou fall into the ditch? The disk of the sun. A film over his eye. A flitch of bacon. A glimpse of sunshine. A milch cow. A niche for the vase. The plinth of a pillar. Mince pie. In the midst of the crowd.

        2. Rinse the cup. A rick of hay. The skiff skims the lake. A stitch in time. A springe is a snare. The thill of a wagon. A whiff of smoke. The wick of the candle. The width of the street. A wisp of straw. I felt a twinge. He hit him with a withe. He is not a whit too good. Our sink is lined with zinc. The witch ran. Which witch? There is no such thing.

        3. Our bishop is no bigot. The district school. Do not injure the insect. The linch-pin broke. A ripe pippin. I ate a sandwich. The scrivener writes. Show some spirit, sirrah! The witness wore a visor. He found the victim in a vineyard. They went thither. A tiny pitcher, full of sirup. A spigot in a cask. A timid vicar. The livelong day. The limner draws. The index turns on a pivot.

        4. Abridge your visit. Will they acquit him? Desist from strife. Forget and forgive. The moon's eclipse. The form of an ellipse. To impinge is to fall against. Do not infringe the law. I predict a storm. The prince will rescind the decree. You gave me cause for chagrin.

        5. Chastisement for the guilty. I commend your industry. The milliner waits. In the interim I will see the minister. A rickety chair. A virulent poison. The imagery of the poem is fine. An insipid elixir. He is an empiric, but no quack. Statistics of the census. Touch the violin.

        6, 7. The captain and the chaplain came in a carriage to the marriage Draw the curtain. Sit by the fountain. The villain ran. A miniature likeness. Parliament sits in England. A mullein leaf. Pretty women. A mischievous boy in breeches A sieve for the meal. You shall forfeit your kerchief.

        8. They build a house. A crypt is a sort of cave. A myth is a fable. The calyx of a flower. Be busy. A conduit for water. Put down the ferule. A head of lettuce. Syringe the plants. Wait a minute. Tune the guitar. Tortoise shell. I gave the poor man a guinea. A bunch of hyssop. A lyric poem.

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        9. An amethyst cup. A stove-pipe is in the form of a cylinder. We inhale oxygen. A sycamore tree. The pyramids of Egypt. Tell me what you mean by a syllable. Never play the hypocrite. A synonym is a word having the same meaning as another word. An attack of dysentery. She has the dyspepsy. She must try gymnastic exercise. On me when dunces are satiric, I take it for a panegyric. Polygamy was common in Utah. An idiosyncrasy or peculiarity, of her constitution.

XI. The Sound of I in Fine.

        1. Bide, blithe, chide, chime, chine, dire, fife, gibe, gripe, hire, hive, kine, mire, prime, prize, rice, rind, rise, rive, scribe, shire, shrive, sire, size, smite, snipe, spice, spike, spile, spine, splice, squire, stride, strike, strife, stripe, thine, thrice, thrive, tithe, tire, tribe, tripe, trite, while, whilst, whine, wind, wire, wise.

        In the words of the following paragraph gh is unsounded.

        2. Blight, bright, fight, flight, fright, high, light, might, nigh, night, plight, right, sigh, thigh, tight, wight. -- Af-fright', a-light, de-light.

        3. Bi'ped, bi'v[small a, breve]lve, bri'ny, ci'der, cli'max, con'trite, di'et, di'ver, dri'ver, ex'ile, fe'line, fi'at, fi'n[small i, macron]te, gen'tile, grind'stone, hind'most, ire'ful, like wise, li'lac, mi'ser, pli'ant, ri'ot, ri'val, sat'ire, siren, spi'cy, spi'nal, spi'ral, sti'pend, vi'ands, vi'nous, vi'tal, whi'lom, wood'bine.

        4. A-bide', ac-quire, ad-mire, ad-vise, as-cribe, as-pire, as-size, at-tire, bap-tize, be-tide, ca-nine, com-bine, con-cise, con-spire, con-trive, de-cide, de-file, de-fine, de-prive, de-ride, de-rive, de scribe, de-spite, en-tice, es-quire, ex-pire, ig-nite, im-bibe, in-cite, in-cline, in-spire, o-blige, o-pine,

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per-spire pre-cise, pre-mise, pre-side, re-cline, re-fine, re-quite, re-vile, re-vive, sa-line, sub scribe, sub-lime, sub-side, suf-fice (pronounced suffize'), su-pine, sur-prise, sur-vive, trans-pire.

        5. Al'[small i, breve]-bi, al'ka-li, di'a-gr[small a, breve]m, di'a-lect, di'amond, di'a-ry, di'o-c[small e, macron]se, i'ron-y, mi'cro-sc[small o, macron]pe, sci'olist, si'ne-cure, vi'a-duct, vi'o-let. -- Ac'o-nite, an'thra-cite, croc'o-dile, [small e, breve]r'[small u, macron]-dite, ex'pe-dite, hom'[small i, breve]-cide, ma'tri-cide, pan'to-mime, p[small a, breve]r'a-dise, p[small a, breve]r'a-site, p[small a, breve]r'ri-cide, rec'on-cile, rec'on-dite, sac'r[small i, breve]-fice (pronounced sac'ri-fize), sat'el-lite, tur'pen-tine. -- El-e-gi'ac. Sta-lac'tite.

        6. Ag'gran-dize, au'thor-ize, can'on-ize, civ'ilize, col'o-nize, crys'tal-lize, dog'ma-tize, dram'atize, e'qual-ize, gal'van-ize, gor'man-dize, har'mo nize, le'gal-ize, mag'net-ize, mor'al-ize, or'gan-ize, pat'ron-ize, pul'ver-ize, re'al-ize, rec'og-nize, sat'ir ize, scan'dal-ize, scru'ti-nize, sig'nal-ize, sol'em-nize, stig'ma-tize, sym'bol-ize, sub'si-dize, tan'ta lize, tem'po-rize, the'o-rize, tran'quil-ize. E-lec'-trize.

        7. Ad'ver-tise, com'pro-mise, crit'i-cise, en'terprise, ex'er-cise, mer'chan-dise. -- A-nat'o-mize, a-pol'o-gize, e-con'o-mize, e-pit'o-mize, im-mor'talize, i-tal'i-cize, mo-nop'o-lize, so-lil'o-quize.

        8. Ad-mir'er, af-fi'ance, al-li'ance, ar-ri'val, as-pir'ant, com-pi'ler, com-pli'ance, con-ni'vance, de-fi'ance, de-fi'ner, de-ni'al, en-vi'ron, ho-ri'zon, in-qui'ry, re-ci'tal, re-li'ance, re-pri'sal, re-qui'tal, re-vi'val, sub-si'dence, sur-vi'val. -- Co-in-cide',

Page 48

-u-per-fine, su-per-vise. -- E-bri'e-ty, sa-ti'e-ty. so-ci'e-ty, va-ri'e-ty.

Words in which ei and ie have the sound of i in fine.

        9. Cries, die, dries, fie, hie, pie, pied, plies, pries, tie, tries, vie. -- Height (or hight), sleight. -- Ei'der, mag'pie.

Words in which ui, uy, y, ye, and eye, have the sound of i in fine.

        10. Cry, fly, pyre, scythe, shy, sky, sly, spry, sty, style, type. -- Dy'er, cy'cle, cy'press, hy'son, ty'rant. -- Al-ly', a-wry, re-ly. -- Guide, guile, guise. -- Eye. Rye. Buy'er. Dis-guise'.

        11. An'a-lyze, an'o-dyne, hy'a-cinth, hy'dro-gen, p[small a, breve]r'a-lyze, pro'to-type, pros'e-lyte. St[small e, breve]r'e-o-type.

        The final y of numerous verbs has the sound of long i; as cru'-ci-fy, mul'ti-ply, oc'cu-py, r[small a, breve]r'e-fy, rat'i-fy, rec'ti-fy, &c. See page 139.


        1, 2. A gibe is a taunt. The snipe flew. A trite saying. The rind of a melon. The squire is the chief man of the shire. You rive my heart. Let me splice it. A tithe is a tenth. Whilst the sun shines the birds are blithe. Might does not make right. The wight was in a sad plight. A blight is on the rose. Sight not. They took to flight in affright. Drive a spile into the cask

        3. A biped has two feet. A bivalve has two valves. A feline tread. A contrite spirit. Such is the fiat of the king. Turn the grindstone (also pronounced gr[small i, breve]nd'stone). The Jew and the Gentile. A lilac bush. A spiral wire. A spinal complaint. Byron wrote a satire. Taste the viands The cider has a vinous flavor.

        4. He will baptize the child. The coal will not ignite. Describe the scene. To opine is to think. Canine madness. Saline springs. You will survive your surprise. Let that suffice. I do not oblige you to subscribe. He lay supine. Let her lie down, she will revive. Let her lie there a while. How long did she lie there? She lay there an hour. A pillow was laid under her head

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        5. Alibi is elsewhere. To prove an alibi, is to prove that you were not in a certain place. Draw a diagram. Look through the microscope. A sinecure is an office without care. Aconite is poison. O! the sweet Spring violets! Anthracite coal. Alas! the parricide! A pantomime is mute mimicry. Put turpentine on the sore. A heavy sacrifice. An elegiac poem. Stalactites hung from the cavern.

        6. To dogmatize is to assert confidently. Do not gormandize. Tranquilize your fears. Scrutinize his conduct. Harmonize our plans. Pulverize the stone. Moralize on life. I cannot realize that you are married. The drops will crystallize. He tries to aggrandize his family. I did not recognize him. Let death solemnize our thoughts. You tantalize me. Will you authorize me to try it? They will canonize the saint.

        7. Advertise your loss. Compromise the matter. Criticise my style. A bold enterprise. A room full of merchandise. -- You must apologize. Hear Hamlet soliloquize. Italicize the word. Do not monopolize the food. She means to be electrized.

        8. The subsidence of the waters. The arrival of the cars. An aspirant to office. One of your admirers. He seeks an alliance. What shall be his requital? Good society. A variety of things. Do you coincide with me? Environ him with friends. The environs of the city. Below the horizon.

        9, 10. The height of the tree. Sleight of hand. The eider duck. He plies his trade. I was the buyer of that scythe. A funeral pyre. A cypress tree. Go to the dyer for my dress. A blind guide. He is free from guile. My right eye. He wore a disguise. The ally of France.

        11. Hyson tea. Hydrogen gas. An anodyne soothes pain. Analyze the powder. Do not look awry. A prototype or model. They go to occupy the land. He will ratify the bargain. Ay, meaning yes, rhymes nearly with my; but aye, meaning always, rhymes with day.

XII. The Sound of long O, as in Go.

        1. Bolt, bone, borne, both, choke, chose, clothe, clothes, clove, code, coke, core, cove, dolt, dome, dose, doze, droll, drone, force, ford, forge, fort, forth, globe, gore, gross, joke, jolt, knoll, loth, mole, most, node.

        2. Porch, port, pose, probe, prone, prose, quote, quoth, scope, score, scroll, shorn, sloth, snore, spoke, stole, stone, stroll, sword (also pronounced s[small o, macron]rd), throne, torn, troll, whole, yoke, yolk, zone.

Page 50

        3. Al'cove, bol'ster, bo'rax, bro'ker, c[small o, breve]m'post, cro'ny, dole'ful, do'tard, dro'ver, fore'man, fore'most, fro'ward,*

        * In the adjectives to'ward and fro'ward, the w is sounded; but when tow'ard or owards is a preposition, the w is not sounded, and the ow may be regarded as digraph having the sound of long o, and then the word should be divided thus: tow'ard or tow'ards, rhyming nearly with board or boards.

glo'ry, gro'cer, hol'ster, home'ly, lo'cal, im'post, jo'ker, lo'cust, mo'pish, molt'en, no'mad, on'ly, o'nyx, o'pal, o'ral, o'val, o'vert, port'ly, post'script, pro'file, pro'gr[small a, breve]mme, ro'ver, smo'ker, sole'ly, sto'ny, tho'rax, to'p[small a, breve]z, to'ward,*

        * In the adjectives to'ward and fro'ward, the w is sounded; but when tow'ard or owards is a preposition, the w is not sounded, and the ow may be regarded as digraph having the sound of long o, and then the word should be divided thus: tow'ard or tow'ards, rhyming nearly with board or boards.

tr[small o, breve]m'bone, tro'ver, vo'cal, vo'ter, wo'ful.

        4. A-dore', a-lone, a-rose, a-tone, be-fore, be-hold, ca-jole, c[small o, breve]m-port, con-dole, con-sole, con-trol, con-voke, de-note, de-plore, de-vote, dis-close, d[small i, breve]-vorce, e-lope, en-gross, ex-plore, ex-port, ex-pose, fore-bode, fore-go, ig-nore, in-voke, jo-cose, mo-rose, pa-role, pa-trol, por-tray, post pone, pro-mote, pro-pose, pro-voke, re-pose, sup-port, sup-pose, un-roll, ver-bose, with-hold.

        5. An'ec-dote, an'te-lope, an'ti-dote, co'pi-ous, c[small o, breve]r'ri-dor, droll'er-y, ep'i-sode, hel'le-bore, h[small o, breve]r'-o-scope, mis'an-thrope, o'ri-ole, p[small o, macron]r'ti-co, sto'i-cal, tel'e-scope, vo'ta-ry, zo'di-ac.

        6. A-dor'er, ab-do'men, con-do'lence, cor-ro'sive, de-co'rous, en-rol'ment, he-ro'ic, more-o'ver, Oc-to'ber, op-po'nent, pro-por'tion, pro-po'sal. Am-mo'ni-ac, de-mo'ni-ac. Lo-co-mo'tive.

Words in which oa has the sound of o in go.

        7. Bloat, boast, boat, broach, cloak, coach, coal,

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coast, coat, coax, croak, float, foal, foam, goad, goal, goat, groan, hoar, hoard, hoarse, hoax, load, loaf, loam, loathe, moan, oaf, oak, oar, oath, oats, poach, roach, road, roam, shoal, soak, soap, throat, toad, toast, woad.

        8. Boat'swain (familiarly pronounced b[small o, macron]'sn), co'coa, hoar'y, load'star, load'stone, rail'road, up'roar. -- A-float', ap-proach, be-moan, en-croach, re-proach, un-load.

Words in which eo, oe, oo, and ou, have the sound of o in go.

        9. Bourn, course, court, four, gourd, mould (or mold), moult, mourn, pour, soul, source. Doe, foe, hoe, roe, throe, toe, woe. Door, floor. Al'oes.

        10. Con'course, coul'ter (or col'ter), foe'man, mould'er, mould'y, poul'tice, poul'try, shoul'der, smoul'der, yeo'man. -- Dis-course', re-course, re-source. -- In'ter-course.

Words in which ew, oo, and ow, have the sound of o in go.

        11. Blow, blown, bowl, crow, flow, flown, glow, grown, growth, low, mow, own, row, show, slow, snow, sown, stow, throw, trow. Sew, strew. Brooch. Bowl'der, bow'sprit, el'bow, min'now, low'er, own'er, rain'bow, win'now.

        The ow in the final syllable of the following words should have the distinct sound of long o in go. They are here grouped together because of their liability to perversion.

        12. Ar'row, bel'low, bil'low, bor'row, b[small u, breve]r'row, cal'low, fal'low, fel'low, fol'low, f[small u, breve]r'row, hal'low,

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h[small a, breve]r'row, hol'low, m[small a, breve]r'row, mel'low, mor'row, n[small a, breve]r'row, pil'low, sal'low, shad'ow, shal'low, sor'row, sp[small a, breve]r'row, tal'low, whit'low, wid'ow, wil'low, y[small e, breve]l'low.*

        * To this list some authorities add bellows and gallows; but the ow in these words generally has an easy sound of short u, and the final s has the sound of z. The plural of gallows is gallowses; but bellows is both a singular and plural noun

        In dough and though, ough has the sound of long o. In beau, bu'reau, and other words from the French, eau has the sound.

Words ending with o long.

For the mode of forming the plural of these words, see page 144.

        13. Bra'vo, can'to, car'go, cen'to, dit'to, fres'co, grot'to, gua'no, gus'to, ha'lo, he'ro, jun'to, las'so, lim'bo, lin'go, man'go, mot'to, ne'gro, pres'to, quar'to, sa'go, sal'vo, so'lo, stuc'co, ty'ro, ve'to, ze'ro.

        14. Buf'fa-lo, cal'i-co, cam'e-o, dom'i-no, em' bry-o, in'di-go, nun'ci-o, o'li-o, stu'di-o, ver'ti-go.

        15. Al-le'gro, bra-va'do, em-bar'go, far-ra'go, fla-min'go, lum-ba'go, mar-tel'lo, me-ri'no (pronounced me-r[small e, macron]'no), mo-roc'co, mu-lat'to, oc-ta'vo, pal-met'to, pi-men'to, plum-ba'go, po-ta'to, pro-vi'so, re-liev'o, si-roc'co, sti-let'to, to-bac'co, to-ma'to, tor-na'do, tor-pe'do, vi-ra'go, vol-ca'no.

        16. Bas-ti-na'do, cu-ri-o'so, des-pe-ra'do, in-u-en'do, man-i-fes'to, mus-co-va'do, pec-ca-dil'lo, vir-tu-o'so. -- Cur-cu'li-o, in-cog'ni-to, punc-til'i-o.


        1, 2. Force the bolt. A bone for the dog. A torn flag was borne to the fort. The yolk of an egg. A shorn lamb. Unroll the scroll. The dolt trolls a song. I am loth to use the sword. The whole knoll is sold. He quotes prose. He can pose them both. Forge the steel. Put on thy clothes No more sloth. The joke was gross, not droll.

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        3. I sat in an alcove. A bolster for the bed. Compost for the plants A homely profile. Molten gold. The dotard is froward. An overt act. Our grocer plays on the trombone. An onyx ring. A fine opal. Read the programme. Only a locust. Oral advice. Add a postscript.

        4. Postpone your jocose remarks. Control your morose temper. You cannot cajole me. Condole with the sad. Support the weak. To ignore a thing is to declare ignorance of it. A verbose report. The patrol were out all night. The prisoner is out on parole. Do not engross all the room Portray the scene.

        5, 6. From the portico I went to the corridor. My bane and antidote. A misanthrope is a man-hater. He told an anecdote. It was an episode in his speech. The antelope ran. The oriole flew. A decorous proposal. A visit of condolence. A heroic opponent. The locomotive is off the track Gum ammoniac.

        7, 8. Give to oa the full sound of long o in roam, boat, cloak, coat, goat, road, toad, and throat. Broach the subject. The boys coast down hill Soak the oats. Woad is a plant. Shoal water. The goal of my hopes. Poach the egg. A boatswain hoary with age. Taste of the cocoa. An uproar on the railroad. The boat is afloat. Do not encroach on my land.

        9, 10. A bourn is a bound. The gourd grows. A mould for a bullet. Birds moult their feathers. A throe of pain. War brings woe. The door fell on the floor. Aloes are bitter. A concourse of people. Poultry is dear The yeoman shot the foeman. A poultice for his shoulder. Our intercourse was brief. The colter or fore-iron of a plow.

        11. A slow growth, I trow. Mow the grass. Row the boat. Strew flowers. Sew the shirt. A brooch of gold. A bowlder is a round mass of stone. A ship has a bowsprit. Lo! the rainbow! Winnow the corn. The minnow swims.

        12. The arrow fell wide of the mark. The shadow of the willow. A shallow furrow. Tell the fellow to follow. A widow sallow with sorrow. The field lies fallow. A callow bird. Hallow the day. Harrow the land. A narrow plank. A pillow for the head. A whitlow on her finger. Six pairs of bellows. The gallows stands. The gallowses will be thrown down.

        13, 14. The beau struts. Put the dough in the oven. My bureau drawer. A quarto volume. Do. stands for ditto. A cargo of guano (pronounced gwah'no). A halo round the moon. The bravo escaped. The President's veto. She sang a solo. He paints in fresco. He caught a horse with a lasso. Calico gowns. Cameo pins. Blue as indigo. Enter my studio. She was seized with a vertigo.

        15, 16. What a farrago! Keep this as a memento. Merino sheep. A morocco box. An embargo on commerce. A ripe tomato. A tornado swept over the town. She is a virago. Give the desperado the bastinado. Hear the rebel's manifesto. The curculio has hurt our trees. Muscovado sugar

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XIII. The Sound of O in Not.

        1. Block, blotch, bronze, chops, clock, copse, crock, dodge, doll, dross, flock, floss, font, fosse, frock, froth, gloss, grog, grot, lock, lodge, loft, loll, loss, moss, moth, notch, odd, plod, plot, pomp, prong, romp, scoff, scot, shock, shot, soft, solve, spot, stock, strong, thong, throb, throng, tongs, trod, troth.

        2. Bon'fire, bon'net, both'er, clos'et, cob'bler, cob'web, cof'fee, col'ic, col'lege, com'bat (also pronounced cum'bat), com'et, com'ic, com'pend, com'plex, com'r[small a, macron]de, con'gress, con'flict, con'ic, con'script, con'sul, con'tract, cop'y, flor'id, for'age, fore'head (pronounced f[small o, breve]r'red), for'est, frol'ic, gos'pel, gos'sip, hol'ly, hop'per, hov'el, joc'und, lob'ster, loz'enge, mod'est, mon'ad, mon'ster, mor'al, ob'ject, on'ward, os'trich, pa'thos, pock'et, pol'ish, pon'tiff, poth'er, prod'uct, prog'ress, prop'er, pros'pect, prov'ince, rob'ber, sol'ace, sol'der, son'net, sor'rel, ton'ic, trop'ic, vol'ley, vom'it, yon'der.

        3. Ab-scond', ab-solve, ac-cost, a-cross, a-dopt, al-lot, a-loft, a-non, be-long, be-troth, be-yond, de-coct, de-spond, de-volve, em-boss, en-sconce, e-volve, ex-tol, for-got, pro-long, in-volve, re-spond, re-sponse, re-volve, re-volt.

        4. Al'ba-tross, al'co-hol, al'i-quot, am'a-zon, ap'ri-cot, bod'i-ly, col'lo-quy, col'o-ny, com'a-t[small o, macron]se, com'mo-d[small o, macron]re, cor'o-ner, doc'tri-nal, dol'o-rous, e'qu[small i, breve]-nox, front'is-piece, hol'i-day, hol'ly-hock, lot'ter-y, mas'to-don, mon'o-t[small o, macron]ne, nom'i-nal, non'de-script

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ob'e-lisk, p[small a, breve]r'a-sol, pen'te-cost, pol'i-cy, pol'y glot, pr[small o, macron]'to-col, prov'en-der.

Words in which a has the sound of o in not.

        5. Chaps, quash, squab, squad, squash, squat, swab, swamp, swan, swap, swath, wad, wan, wand, was, wast, wash, wasp, watch, what, yacht (pronounced y[small o, breve]t).

        6. Quad'rant, quad'rate, quar'rel, quat'rain, quar'ry, scal'lop, squab'ble, squad'ron, squal'id, squan'der, swal'low, waf'fle, wal'let, wal'lop, wal'low, wal'rus, wan'ton, wan'der, war'rant, was'sail.

        7. Hal'i-but, quad'ran-gle, quad'ra-ture, quad'ru-ped, quad'ru-ple, qual'i-ty, quan'da-ry, quan'ti-ty.

        In knowl'edge, ow has the sound of o in not.


        1. A bronze lamp. Floss silk. A fosse or ditch. A copse or wood of small trees. Mutton chops for dinner. A pair of tongs. A strong thong They throng to the spot. The dross of metals. A lodge in the wood. A moth in the candle. Notch the shingle. She is no romp. Scoff not.

        2. They bother the cobbler. Grind the coffee. A cobweb in the closet. A sorrel horse. There is crock on her forehead. In my progress I came in contact with a robber. Congress sits. Solder the pan. A proper object. My comrade wrote a sonnet. A doubtful combat: He put the lobster in his pocket. A frolic in the hovel yonder.

        3. He hoped to abscond. Accost him. Anon, I will. Emboss the shield. I forgot to extol his conduct. To whom will they betroth her? Go across the street. I revolt at the thought. Revolve it in your mind. Your labor devolves on me.

        4. He shot an albatross. A ripe apricot. A comatose state. The day of Pentecost. A green parasol. A dolorous ditty. Commodore Hull. A hollyhock in bloom. A nondescript flower. The bones of a mastodon. The frontispiece to a book. He spoke in a monotone. An aliquot part.

        5. Watch the yacht. A swan in the swamp. The chaps of a beast. They seem chapfallen. A swath in the grass. A big squash. Thou wast present if thou wert not, say so. Beware of the wasp.

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        6, 7. The squadron sailed. A warrant for your arrest. Do not wallow in the dirt. Wanton mischief. A swallow's nest. A squalid aspect. The wassail cup. Fresh halibut. Knowledge may be had at college. Quadruple the amount. The quadrature of the circle. How many feet has a quadruped?

XIV. The Sound of OO in Book.

        1. Book, brook, cook, crook, foot, good, hood, nook, look, shook, stood, took, wood, wool. -- Wool'en, wool'ly.

In the following, u, o, and oul, have the sound.

        2. Bull, bush, full, pull, push, puss, put. Wolf, could, should, would. Am'bush, bul'let, bull'ion, bull'ock, bul'ly, bul'r[small u, breve]sh, bul'wark, bush'el, butch'er, cuck'oo, cush'ion, pud'ding, pull'et, pull'ey, pul'pit, wom'an. -- Bull'e-tin.


        1. By hook or by crook. He stood by the brook and shook a stick at me. Woolen (also spelt woollen) cloth. A woolly sheep. You could not if you would, and should not if you could. Drive away the wolf.

        2. The bully lay in ambush to attack the butcher. Hark to the cuckoo! A woman in the pulpit. Bullion is gold or silver before it is made into money. A bird on the bulrush. Put a cushion under my head. The emperor issued a bulletin. A bushel of meal. A pullet's egg.

XV. The Sound of OO in Cool.

        1. Bloom, boom, boon, boor, boot, booth, brood, broom, choose, coo, cool, coop, coot, doom, droop, food, fool, gloom, goose, groom, groove, hoof, hoot, loom, loon, loop, loose, mood, moon, moor, moose, moot, noon, noose, ooze, pool, poor, proof, rood, roof, rook, room, roost, root, scoop, shoot, sloop, soon, soot, sooth, soothe, smooth, spool, spoon,

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stool, stoop, swoon, swoop, too, tool, tooth, troop, woo, woof.

        2. Boo'by, boor'ish, boot'y, coop'er, gloom'y, mood'y. -- A-loof, bab-oon, bal-loon, bam-boo, bas-soon, be-hoof, be-hoove, buf-foon, ca-boose, car-toon, co-coon, dr[small a, breve]-goon, fes-toon, har-poon, lam-poon, mon-soon, pl[small a, breve]-toon, pol-troon, pon-toon, rac-coon, re-proof, sa-loon, shal-loon, t[small a, breve]-boo, un-moor. -- Kan-ga-roo', mac-a-roon, pan-ta-loon, pic-a-roon.

Words in which u has the sound of oo in cool.

        The sound of long u after l in the same syllable is represented by Smart thus, 'oo; a mark intended to indicate a slight modification of the sound, in producing which the lips are contracted as if for whistling. Owing to the trilled quality of the liquids l and r, long u after them in the same syllable does not take its full diphthongal y sound (as in cube), but more nearly that of long oo, with the modification, in the case of l, to which we have alluded.

        3. Brute, cruse, prude, prune, rude, rule, spruce, truce, truth. Fluke, flume, flute, plume. Bru'in, bru'tal, cru'el, cru'et, dru'id, fru'gal, pru'dent, pru'dish, ru'by, ru'ler, ru'mor, ru'ral, ruth'less, scru'ple, tru'ant. Blu'ish, flu'ent, flu'id, lu'cid, lu'rid, lu'nar, plu'ral. Ab-struse', bru-nette, cru-sade, in-trude, pe-ruke, pe-ruse. In-clude', sa-lute, se-clude.

        4. Cru'ci-ble, cru'ci-fix, in'stru-ment, pru'der-y, pru'ri-ent, ru'bi-c[small u, breve]nd, ru'di-ment, ru'in-ous, ru'mi nate, scru'p[small u, macron]-lous, scru'ti-ny, tru'c[small u, macron]-lent. Flu'en cy, glu'ti-nous, in'flu-ence, lu'di-crous, lu'mi-nous, lu'na-tic.

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Words in which o, oe, ou, have the sound of oo in cool.

        The w in two, who, whose, &c., is unsounded, as is the gh in through. The ou in route and wound is by some authorities pronounced as in sound. The i in rou-tine' has the sound of e in me.

        5. Do, lose, move, prove, two, who, whose. -- Croup, group, route, through, tour, wound, you, youth. Shoe. Bo'som, los'er. A-do', ap-prove, im-prove, re-move, re-prove. Con-tour', sur-tout, un couth. Rou-tine. Ca-noe.

Words in which ew, eu, ieu, ue, and ui, have this sound.

        6. Brew, crew, drew, shrew, shrewd. Clew, flew. Brew'er, clew'line. Brew'er-y. Pleu'ri-sy, rheu'ma-tism. Lieu. Blue, glue, flue, rue, true. Con'strue. Ac-crue'. Bruise, bruit, cruise, fruit, sluice. Re-cruit'.


        1. Hear the wind boom. I have a boon to ask. The boor sat in a booth. Choose a broom. Shoot a coot. A groove for the wheel. Throw a noose over the moose. We will moot that question. A rood is the fourth part of an acre. A bag of soot. In sooth I could not soothe her. Hens roost.

        2. The booby ran off with the booty. I stood aloof while the balloon rose. The buffoon wrote a lampoon. The poltroon shot a raccoon. A platoon of troops. Unmoor the skiff. A cook in a caboose. It behooves you to heed my reproof. Mend the pantaloons. A picaroon or pirate.

        3. Crude food. Water rushes down the flume. The fluke of an anchor A spruce prude. A truce to your jests! A bluish tint. We call the bear Bruin, from a French word meaning brown. A prudent ruler. A fluent truant. A ruby is red. He has no scruples. An abstruse subject. She is a brunette. Salute her. He wore a peruke. The days of the crusades.

        4. Melt it in the crucible. A rubicund cheek. The gift of fluency. Teach her the rudiments. The lunatic sang. A luminous cloud. I like not his scrutiny. A truculent style. A ruinous fire. A man of influence.

        5. Do not lose your shoe. What route shall we choose? Prove all things. Do not wound the youth. He had the croup two days. The wife

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of his bosom. Much ado. The contour of her face. An uncouth surtout On my tour I was wet through in a canoe. The routine of business. Improve thyself. A cruse of oil.

        6. A shrewd shrew. No clew to his fate. In lieu of a brewery, you shall build a school-house. Is she ill with the pleurisy, or the rheumatism? Bruise the fruit. A long cruise. Con'strue that line. Recruit your strength. Good must accrue from it.

XVI. The Sound of short U as in Tub.

        1. Bluff, blunt, budge, buff, bulb, bulge, bulk, bump, bunch, club, crush, drudge, drug, duct dunce, grudge, gull, hulk, judge, jump, lull, lungs mulct, mumps, null, pluck, plug, plump, plunge, pulp, pulse, punch, scrub, scud, shrub, skulk, snuff, snug, struck, strut, stuff, stump, suds, swum, swung, thrum, trunk, tuft.

        2. Blun'der, buck'et, bug'gy, bump'er, crup per, cudg'el, cum'ber, cur'ry, dul'cet, dump'ling, flur'ry, flus'ter, ful'some, gump'tion, gun'wale, gut'ter, hub'bub, huck'ster, lum'ber, lunch'eon, mus'ket, plun'der, punch'eon, pub'lic, put'ty, rus'tic, scutch'eon, stub'born, stud'y, sul'ly, sum'mons, sump'ter, sun'der, sun'dry, sun'dries, tur'ret, ush'er, ut'most, un'der, wood'chuck.

        3. Ab-rupt', ad-just, a-dult, an-nul, con-struct, con-sult, con-vulse, cor-rupt, de-duct, de-funct, dis-cuss, dis-gust, di-vulge, en-gulf, ex-punge, ex-ult, in-dulge, in-struct, ob-struct, oc-cult, re-buff, re-but, re-fund, re-pulse, re-sult, ro-bust, ro-tund, suc-cumb.

        4 Blun'der-buss, cat'a-pult, dif'fi-cult, oc'ci-put, [small o, macron]'ro-tund, mul'ti-form, mul'ti-plex. -- Au-tum'nal,

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con-cur'rent, e-rup'tion, fore-run'ner, im-pul'sive, oc-cur'rence, pro-duc'tive.--In-ter-rupt'.

Words in which o has the sound of u in tub.

        In one, once, the sound of w precedes the o. In tongue, ue is mute.

        5. Come, done, dost, doth, dove, front, glove, love, monk, month, none, once, one, shove, sponge, son, tongue, won, wont.

        6. Bom'b[small a, breve]st, broth'er, col'or, come'ly, com'fit, com'fort, com'fort, com'ing, com'pass, cov'ert, cov'et, doz'en, gov'ern, hon'ey, Mon'day, mon'ey, mon'grel, mon'key, moth'er, noth'ing, on'ion, oth'er, plov'er, pom'mel, shov'el, slov'en, smoth'er, thor'ough, ton'nage, won'der, wor'ry.

        7. A-bove',*

        * Initial a, in this and similar words, has a quick, easy sound of short a, as in fat, &c.

af-front, a-mong, a-mongst, be-come, be-love, c[small o, breve]n-front, un-done.--Col'an-der, com'fort-er, com'pa-ny, con'jur-er, con'sta-ble, cov'e-nant, cov'er-let, cov'et-ous, some'b[small o, breve]d-y, som'er-set, won'der-ful.--Dis-col'or, dis-com'fit, en-com'pass, re-cov'er.--Dis-cov'er-y, ef-front'er-y.

Words in which oe, oo, and ou, have the sound of u in tub.

        Where gh occurs, in the following words, it has the sound of f.

        8. Does. Blood, flood. Joust, touch, young. Chough, rough, slough,*

        * So pronounced when it means the cast skin of a serpent. When it means a deep, miry place, it should be pronounced to rhyme with bough, now, &c.

tough. Coun'try, coup'le, coup let, cour'age, cous'in, doub'let, flour'ish, nour'ish, south'ern, troub'le. Doub-loon'. E-nough'.

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        1. A bluff, blunt, plump judge. He will not budge. Courage he calls pluck. Ill with the mumps. Thieves skulk. Soap suds. Mulct him in a fine. Plunge in. What lungs! A duct for water. A fresh bulb. He had not swum far when he sank.

        2. Pass the buckets. The usher made a blunder. Fulsome praise. Let our bumpers be of cold water. A crupper for the horse. Du'cet strains. A sumpter mule. My grocer charges me with sundries. The gunwale of a boat. A puncheon of rum. Tap it in the gutter. Come to luncheon. Hear my summons. A stubborn mule. A woodchuck in a hole. A cudgel for the bad.

        3, 4. An abrupt manner. Expunge that line Divulge thy secret. A robust youth. An adult, or grown-up person. To succumb is to yield. Rotund is round. Occult is hidden. Do not interrupt me. The occiput, or hinder part of the head. A difficult task. The autumnal season. An impulsive temper. An odd occurrence. Rebut his charge.

        5, 6. A front seat. A kid glove. Hold thy tongue. Once a month. A wet sponge. None will come. Dost thou know it? Mere bombast my brother! An uncomely sloven. The points of the compass. A boiled onion. The pommel of the saddle. A dozen plovers. Govern thy temper. She does nothing on Monday. Covet not. Birds flew to their coverts. A mongrel goose. A thorough flogging. Shovel the snow.

        7, 8. A wonderful somerset. A coverlet for a bed. The constable arrested the conjurer. Confront your foe. Perils encompass, but do not discomfit him. What effrontery! A colander for the jelly. Go amongst friends. The hen was tough enough. A cousin in the country. Floods of blood. Two lines that rhyme are a couplet. The rough slough of a snake My doublet cost a doubloon. The young chough flew. Long may you flourish! Food will nourish her.

XVII. The Sound of U in Mute.

        This is the sound generally known as long u. It has the diphthongal y sound before it, as in the alphabet, and is sometimes marked thus: [small u, macron]. Do not confound this sound with long oo. See Remarks, page 57, on the change which long u undergoes when it comes after the trilled liquids r and l, in the same syllable.

        1. Cube, cure, duke, dupe, fume, fuse, huge, mute, pule, pure, tube, tune, use. -- Cu'bit, du'cal, du'rance, du'ty, hu'mid, mu'sic stu dent, stu'pid,

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stu'por, su'et, tu'lip, tu'mid, tu'm[small u, breve]lt, tu'nic, u'nit--Cos'tume, del'uge, for'tune, glob'ule, gran'ule, leg'ume, prel'ude, p[small u, breve]s'tule, ref'uge, stat'ute, trib'une, trib'ute, vol'ume.

        2. A-cute', as-sume, as-sure, as-tute, com-pute con-sume, de-duce, de-mure, de-nude, e-duce, ex-ude, in-ure, ma-nure, ma-ture, ob-scure, ob-tuse, pre-sume, pro-fuse, re-buke, re-duce, re-fute, re-sume, se-cure, suf-fuse, tra-duce, trans-mute.

        Where i occurs in the second syllable of the following words give it an easy sound of short i in fill.

        3. Am'u-let, ap'er-ture, cent'u-ry, cal'u-met, cu'c[small u, breve]m-ber, cu'ti-cle, du'ra-ble, ep'i-cure, feb'rifuge, fu'gi-tive, fur'ni-ture, lig'a-ture, man'u-script, min'[short i, breve]a-ture, min'u-et, mol'e-cule, nu'tri-ment, ret'i-cule, rid'i-cule, riv'u-let, sig'na-ture, sep'[small u, breve]l-ture, sub'ter-fuge, su'i-cide, u'ni-son, u'su-ry, ver'mi-fuge, ves'ti-bule, vol'u-ble.--Im-por-tune', in-tro-duce, man-u-mit, op-por-tune, pre-ma-ture.--An-nu'i-ty.

        The following words, if verbs, have the a of the last syllable long, as in fate: if adjectives or nouns, the a has a shorter and easier sound. To those that are adjectives an asterisk is here attached; to those that may be adjectives or verbs, a dagger. The rest are verbs.

        4. Ac'cu-rate, * act'u-ate, am'pu-tate, cal'cu late, con'ju-gate, ed'u-cate, em'u-late, fluc'tu-ate, for'tu-nate, * grad'u-ate, grat'u-late, in'du-rate,* in'su-late, mod'u-late, ob'du-rate, * reg'u-late, sat'u-rate, spec'u-late, stim'u-late, sup'pu-rate.

        5. Ac-cu'mu-late, ar-tic'u-late,* at-ten'u-ate,*

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ca-pit'u-late, co-ag'u-late, con-grat'u-late, dis-sim'u-late, ex-ten'u-ate, im-mac'u-late,* in-sin'u-ate, im-p[short o, breve]r'tu-nate,* in-oc'u-late, per-am'bu-late, repu'di-ate.

See remarks on unaccented terminations in ar, page 73.

        6. An'nu-lar, cir'cu-lar, con'su-lar, glob'u-lar, gran'u-lar, in'su-lar, joc'u-lar, pop'u-lar, reg'u-lar, sec'u-lar, sin'gu-lar, tab'u-lar, tit'u-lar, tu'bu-lar.--O-rac'u-lar, par-tic'u-lar, re-tic'u-lar, ve-hic'u-lar ver'nac'u-lar, ve-sic'u-lar.--Per-pen-dic'u-lar.

        7. An'nu-al, cas'u-al, man'u-al, mu'tu-al, nat'u-ral, nu'mer-al, oc'cu-pant, pet'u-lant, punc'tu-al, rit'u-al, sens'u-al, virt'u-al.--Ef-fect'u-al, e-vent'u-al, ha-bit'u-al, per-pet'u-al.--In-di-vid'u-al.

        The e in the last syllable of the following has the sound of short e (as in men), enounced easily, and without stress.

        8. Ar'gu-ment, cor'pu-lent, dil'u-ent, doc'u-ment, fec'u-lent, flat'u-lent, fraud'u-lent, im'pu-dent, mon'u-ment, op'u-lent, tur'bu-lent, suc'cu-lent.--E-mol'u-ment, in-teg'u-ment.

        Where i occurs in the last syllable but one of the following, it has the sound of short i, as in pin.

        9. Al'ti-tude, am'pli-tude, apt'i-tude, at'ti-tude, for'ti-tude, grat'i-tude, hab'i-tude, las'si-tude, lat'i-tude, longi-tude, mag'ni-tude, mul'ti-tude, plen'i-tude, prompt'i-tude, qui'e-tude, rec'ti-tude, serv'i-tude, sol'i-tude.

        10. Be-at'i-tude, com-mu'ni-ty, de-crep'i-tude,

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dis-qui'e-tude, im-mu'ni-ty, im-pu'ni-ty, in-fin' i-tude, si-mil'i-tude, vi-cis'si-tude. -- Con'sti-tute, ex'e-cute, in'sti-tute, sub'sti-tute. -- Dis-trib'ute. -- Con-sti-tu'tion, in-sti-tu'tion. -- Di-min'u-t[short i, breve]ve, retrib'u-t[short i, breve]ve.

        In the last syllable of the following, ou has the sound of short u (as in us), without the stress of accent.

        11. Ar'du-ous, du'bi-ous, em'u-lous, fab'u-lous, fu'ri-ous, neb'u-lous, pop'u-lous, p[short o, breve]st'hu-mous, rapt'ur-ous, scrof'u-lous, sed'u-lous, sin'u-ous, spu'-ri-ous, stu'di-ous, sumpt'u-ous, trem'u-lous, tu'ber-ous, vent'ur-ous, virt'u-ous.

        12. Am-big'u-ous, as-sid'u-ous, bi-tu'mi-nous, cir-cu'i-tous, con-spic'u-ous, con-tempt'u-ous, con-tig'u-ous, con-tin'u-ous, de-cid'u-ous, for-tu'i-tous, gra-tu'i-tous, im-pet'u-ous, in-gen'u-ous, lux-u'-ri-ous, mi-rac'u-lous, per-spic'u-ous, pro-mis'cu-ous, ri-dic'u-lous, tem-pest'u-ous, tu-mult'u-ous, vo-lup'tu-ous.

Words in which ue has the y sound of u in cube, mute, &c.

        13. Cue, due, hue, sue. -- A'gue, ar'gue, is'sue, res'cue, stat'ue, tis'sue, Tues'day, val'ue, virt'ue. -- En-sue', im-bue, in-due, sub-due. -- Av'e-nue, bar'be-cue, res'i-due, ret'i-nue, rev'e-nue. -- Con-tin'ue.

Words in which eu, eau, ew, and iew, have this sound.

        14. Chew, dew, ewe, few, hew, Jew, knew, mew, newl, new, newt, pew, stew, view. -- Ew'er, mil'dew,

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pew'ter sin'ew, skew'er, stew'ard. -- Be-dew, es-chew, re-new, re-view. -- Re-new'al. -- Deuce, feud. -- Feud'al, neu'ter, neu'tral. -- Eu'lo-gy -- Ma-neu'-ver, neu-ral'gic, teu-ton'ic. -- Eu-ro-pe an. -- Deu-ter-on'o-my. -- Beau'ty. Beau'ti-ful.


        1. A cube has six equal sides. The die with which we play backgammon is a cube. The plural of die is dice. A dupe of a duke. A tube is hollow. Play a tune. Do thy duty. A humid soil. The students make a tumult. Put them in durance. A tumid style. Statute law. The tribune of the people. Hark to the prelude! The length of a cubit.

        2. An astute reasoner. A demure manner. May I presume to rebuke her? Blushes suffuse his cheek. To denude is to strip. Traduce him not. Compute the amount. An acute lawyer. Educe good from evil. Haul in the manure. The tree exudes gum. An obtuse understanding. A profuse sweat.

        3. Wear this amulet. An aperture or opening. A ripe cucumber. A century hence. An Indian calumet. A manuscript is writing done by the hand. The cuticle or outermost skin. Mucilage is slimy. A furniture warehouse. Disdain a subterfuge. She lost her reticule. Act in unison. The vestibule or entrance. To manumit is to free. A premature growth. An opportune visit. An annuity, or yearly payment. Importune her not. Introduce me. A voluble lady.

        4, 5. An accurate account. Conjugate the verb. Amputate the arm. Fortunate man! You stimulate my hopes. An obdurate heart. Emulate his worth. He insulates himself. An immaculate reputation. Nothing extenuate. Never dissimulate. An importunate beggar. She perambulates the streets. Inoculate the child. The foe will capitulate. Repudiate all envy.

        6. A popular speaker. An annular form is that of a ring. Tabular refers to a table; circular, to a circle; granular, to a grain; insular, to an island; titular, to a title; jocular, to mirth; tubular, to a tube; globular, to a globe; consular, to a consul; secular, to the world or age; vehicular, to a vehicle; oracular, to an oracle; reticular, to a net; vesicular, to a vesicle. Our vernacular tongue. A particular person. A perpendicular wall.

        7, 8. A punctual scholar. A virtual contract. A casual gain. The ritual of the church. An eventual loss. An impudent argument. He grows corpulent. Succulent is juicy. A fraudulent document. Large emoluments. An integument or covering. Feculent odors.

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        9, 10. The latitude and longitude of our town. An aptitude for study Extreme lassitude. He struck an attitude. Adhere to rectitude. The disquietude of the community. The Beatitudes. Shall he harm us with impunity? Has he an immunity from blame? The vicissitudes of life. Retributive justice. The constitution of the country. The altitude of the hill.

        11, 12. A sinuous stream. A venturous hunter. An impetuous youth. My brother is not only an ingenious workman, but he has an ingenuous or frank disposition. A circuitous route. Deciduous trees. Spurious coin. Posthumous fame. Perspicuous statements. Gratuitous insults. Assiduous in study. Ambiguous remarks. Contiguous is near. Sedulous efforts.

        13, 14. He wore a cue. They will argue the case on Tuesday. Wait the issue. Subdue your rage. Continue to love virtue. A long retinue. An ample revenue. Beautiful statues. Pewter mugs. A review of troops. A European war. Let us be neutral. An eloquent eulogy. Feudal times The renewal of the feud. A skewer for the cook. Stoop not to maneuver

XVIII. The Sound of OI in Voice.

        Avoid the bad habit of making this sound degenerate into that of long i; as if loin were line, roil, rile, &c.

        1. Coif, coil, doit, foil, foist, groin, hoist, joint, joist, loin, moil, noise, oil, point, poise, quoit, roil. soil, spoil, void.

        2. Broid'er, clois'ter, coin'age, doi'ly, foi'ble, hoi'den, join'er, in'voice, loi'ter, moist'en, noi'some, nois'y, oil'y, oint'ment, par'boil, point'er, poi'son, sir'loin, spoil'er, toil'et, tur'moil.

        3. Ad-join', a-droit, a-noint, ap-point, a-void, de-spoil, de-void, em-broil, en-join, ex-ploit, purloin, re-coil, re-joice, sub-join. -- Bois'ter-ous e'qui-poise, moi'e-ty. -- Em-broid'er, re-join'der. -- Va'ri-o-loid.

Woras in which oy has the sound of oi in voice.

        4. Boy, buoy (pronounced bwoy), coy, cloy, hoy

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joy, toy, troy. -- Boy'ish, con'voy, en'voy, joy'ful, loy'al, oys'ter, roy'al, vice'roy, voy'age. -- Al-loy', an-noy, de-coy, de-stroy, en-joy, em-ploy. -- Cor' du-roy.


        1. A can of oil. A game of quoits. Do not roil the wine. A tender loin of beef. A coil of ropes. A coif, or sort of cap. Not worth a dit. Hoist the joist. Foil his tricks. Hurt in the groin.

        2. Noisome ointments. A sirloin of beef. Loiter not. Parboil the meat. Wipe your hands with a doily. She can broider. An invoice of goods. Shut up in a cloister. She plays the hoiden.

        3. An adroit exploit. Recoil from a lie. Boisterous mirth. A moiety is a half. Pen a rejoinder. The scales are in equipoise. Anoint the skin. Enjoin peace.

        4. The boy swam to the buoy. Sweets cloy. A hoy is a sort of boat. We had a fleet as a convoy on our voyage. A viceroy is in place of a king. A corduroy road. A dish of oysters. Gold without alloy.

XIX. The Sound of OU in House.

        In drought, doughty, &c., the gh is unsounded.

        1. Bounce, bound, bout, cloud, douse, drought, drouth, flounce, flour, flout, foul, found, fount, gouge, gout, ground, grouse, hound, lounge, lout, mount, mouse, mouth, noun, ounce, oust, pouch, pounce, pout, scour, scout, shout, shroud, slouch, snout, sound, sour, souse, south, spouse, spout, sprout, stout, thou, trout, vouch.

        2. Boun'ty, cloud'y, count'er, coun'ty, dis'count, dough'ty, floun'der, found'er, found'ling, frou'zy, gout'y, out'law, out'lay, sour'crout, thou'sand.

        3. A-bound', a-bout, ac-count, a-mount, an-nounce, a-rouse, as-tound, ca-rouse, de-nounce, de-vour, de-vout, dis-mount, e-nounce, es-pouse,

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ex-pound, pro-found, pro-nounce, re-dound, re-nounce, re-sound, sur-round, vouch-safe.

        4. Bound'a-ry, coun'te-nance, coun'ter-pane, found'er-y, mount'e-bank, p[small a, breve]r'a-mount. -- A-cous'tic, en-coun'ter, es-pou'sals, ren-coun'ter.

Words in which ow has the sound of ou in house.

        5. Bow, brow, brown, browse, clown, cowl, drown, drowse, fowl, frown, gown, growl, howl, mow, now, owl, plow (also spelt plough), prow, prowl, row, scow, scowl, sow, town, vow.

        6. Bow'els, bow'er, chow'der, cow'ard, cow'er, cow'slip, dow'er, dow'las, dow'ry, drows'y, flow'er, fowl'er, low'er, pow'der, pow'er, prow'ess, row'el, show'er, tow'el, tow'er, towns'man, trow'el, trow'-sers (also spelt trou'sers), vow'el.

        7. Al-low', a-vow, en-dow, re-nown. -- Dow'a-ger. -- Al-low'ance, a-vow'al, en-dow'ment, empow'er.


        1. Scour the pan. The hound found a grouse. Why does the lout lounge? They will oust him from his place. A time of drought. Some persons say drouth. Souse the meat. Scouts are out. A spouse is a husband or wife. Seeds sprout. Our cat has a mouse in her mouth.

        2. The banks will not discount my note. Is it for a thousand dollars? The amount is about ten. A dish of sourcrout. The outlaw fled. A doughty foe. A frouzy head of hair. A gouty foot. I caught a flounder. A large outlay.

        3. A profound student. Expound the law. Arouse the sleepers. A devout woman. Enounce the word. It will redound to her credit. Vouchsafe your attention. She will espouse Mr. B. The troops dismount. They will carouse. I renounce their company.

        4, 5. A counterpane for the bed. An encounter with a mountebank. The boundary line. Health is of paramount importance. A type foundery.

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An acoustic tube. Plow the ground. To mow is to make mouths an ape is said to mow. A row is a riotous noise. A mud scow. Cows browse. The wolf prowls.

        6, 7. A fish chowder. Our townsman is no coward. A trowel for mortar. A pair of dowlas trowsers. A powder-horn. A pain in the bowels. The wife's dowry. A rowel is the point of a spur. The clouds lower. I admire his prowess. A coarse towel.


I. A in Unaccented Syllables.

A Final.

        The sound of unaccented final a, in the following words, has an easy and undecided sound of a in father.

        1. Bo'a, chi'na, com'ma, del'ta, dog'ma, dra'ma, e'ra, ex'tra, ga'la, hy'dra, la'va, lar'va, man'na, mi'ca, pi'ca, quo'ta, sen'na, so'da, so'fa, stan'za, stig'ma, ul'tra, vil'la, vis'ta, ze'bra.

        2. Al'ge-bra, a're-a, cu'po-la, form'[small u, macron]-la, gon'do-la, ma'ni-a, op'e-ra, ret'i-na, scrof'[small u, macron]-la, stam'i-na, taf'fe-ta.

        3. A-re'na, a-ro'ma, au-ro'ra, ba-na'na, ba-ril'la, ce-dil'la, co-rol'la, di-lem'ma, d[short i, breve]-plo'ma, [short e, breve]r-ra'ta, e-nig'ma, fa-ri'na, flo-til'la, hy-e'na, i-de'a, i-o'ta, man-til'la, mi-as'ma, o-me'ga, pa-go'da, p[short i, breve]-az'za, ro-tun'da, re-gat'ta, sa-van'na, sa-li'va, sub-poe'na (or sub-pe'na), ti-a'ra, um-br[short e, breve]l'la, va-nil'la, ve-ran'da, ver-be'na.

        4. Am-mo'ni-a, ef-flu'vi-a, in-sig'ni-a, ma-la'-ri-a, mag-no'li-a, pe-nin'su-la, re-ga'li-a, ta-ran't[small u, macron]-la, -- An-a-con'da, can-de-la'bra, in-flu-en'za, pan-a-cea,

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pan-o-ra'ma, tap-i-o'ca. -- Sar-sa-pa-ril'la -- En-cy-clo-pe'di-a (also spelt encyclopoedia).

Words ending in able unaccented.

        The a in able, in this class of words, has an obscure and easy sound of a in far, or, as some think, of a in fat. The final e is nsounded.

        5. Af'fa-ble, ca'pa-ble, cul'pa-ble, d[small u, macron]'ra-ble, e qua-ble, f[small o, macron]rd'a-ble, li'a-ble, mu'ta-ble, pal'pa-ble, p[small a, breve]r'a-ble, pass'a-ble, pec'ca-ble, p[small o, macron]rt'a-ble, po table, prob'a-ble, tax'a-ble, teach'a-ble, ten'a-ble, tract'a-ble. -- A-me'na-ble, de-mon'stra-ble, im pla'ca-ble, in-ef'fa-ble, in-flam'ma-ble, re-mark'a ble.

        6. A'mi-a-ble, am'i-ca-ble, ap'pli-ca-ble, cred'i-ta-ble, des'pi-ca-ble, ex'e-cra-ble, for'mi-da-ble, mal'le-a-ble, mem'o-ra-ble, nav'i-ga-ble, pen'e-tra ble, pon'der-a-ble, ref'ra-ga-ble, tol'er-a-ble, va'ri-a-ble, ven'er-a-ble, ver'i-ta-ble, war'rant-a-ble.

        7. A-bom'i-na-ble, im-per'me-a-ble, in-ev'i-ta-ble, in-ex'o-ra-ble, in-ex'pli-ca-ble, in-ex'tri-ca-ble, in-im'i-ta-ble, in-sep'a-ra-ble, in-ter'mi-na-ble, in-vul'ner-a-ble, ir-rep'a-ra-ble. In-con-s[small o, macron]l'a-ble, in-con-test'a-ble, in-de-scri'ba-ble, in-dis-pen'sa-ble, in-ex-pug'na-ble, in-sup-port'a-ble. In-de-fat'i-ga ble.

Words ending in age and ange unaccented.

        The g in the last syllable of the following words has the sound of j; but it is not here italicized, as when having this sound elsewhere in this volume. The a, in the last syllable of these words, has an obscure sound, in some instances resembling the sound of short i, as in pin.

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        8. Ad age, bag'gage, band'age, bond'age, cab-bage, car'nage, coin'age, cord'age, cot'tage, crib'-bage, cour'age, dam'age, do'tage, for'age, gar'bage, hom'age, hos'tage, im'age, man'age, mes'sage, mint'age, non'age, or'ange, pack'age, pas'sage, peer'age, pil'lage, plu'mage, p[small o, macron]rt'age, post'age, pres'age, rav'age, rum'mage, sal'vage, sav'age, spin'age, steer'age, st[small o, macron]r'age, suf'frage, til'lage, vil'lage, vint'age, vis'age, um'brage, u'sage.

        9. Av'er-age, bev'er-age, car'ti-lage, fo'li-age, hem'or-rhage, h[short e, breve]r'i-tage, lin'e-age, par'en-tage, pat'ron-age, pas't[small u, macron]-rage, per'son-age, pil'grim-age, pu'pil-age, t[small u, macron]'tel-age, vas'sal-age. -- Ad-van'tage, en-cour'age.

Words ending in al, ald, and als unaccented.

        The sound of the unaccented a, in this and the five succeeding groups, is that of short a (as in hat) obscured and enounced easily and without stress.

        10. An'nals, as'tral, bri'dal, car'nal, dis'mal fa'tal, fi'nal, fis'cal, flo'ral, h[short e, breve]r'ald, le'gal, lo'cal med'al, na'sal, na'val, pet'al, quin'tal, ras'cal, re'gal rib'ald, ri'val, san'dal, scan'dal, ther'mal, v[small a, breve]s'sal ver'bal, ver'nal, vi'als.

        Where i occurs unaccented in the following words, it has its short sound as in pin. Where er occurs, with no mark over the e, it has its sound as in her, but without stress.

        11. Ad'mi-ral, an'i-mal, ar'se-nal, can'ni-bal, car'ni-val, cl[short e, breve]r'i-cal, cor'po-ral, crim'i-nal, crit'i-cal, em'er-ald, fed'er-al, fes'ti-val, gen'er-al, hos'pi-tal, in'te-gral, in'ter-val, lin'e-al, lit'er-al, med'i-cal,

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met'ri-cal, min'er-al, pec'to-ral, ped'es-tal, prac'ti-cal, prod'i-gal, se'ri-al, sem'i-nal, sev'er-al, tem'po ral, trop'i-cal. -- Ac-quit'tal, ca-rous'al, ca-the'dral, co-e val, co-los'sal, i-de'al, pri-me'val, re-ci'tal, re-pri sal, re-qui'tal, re-vi'sal, re-vi'val.

        12. A-e'ri-al, al-lu'vi-al, col-lo'qui-al, di-lu'vi-al, e-pis'co-pal, fan-tas'ti-cal, his-tor'i-cal, in-im'i-cal, i-ron'i-cal, me-mo'ri-al, po-lit'i-cal, pro-ver'bi-al, si-de're-al, t[short e, breve]r-res'tri-al, the-at'ri-cal. Ac-ci-dent' al, det-ri-ment'al, h[short o, breve]r-i-zon'tal, hy-me-ne'al, of-fici'nal, o-ri-en'tal, p[small a, breve]r-ri-ci'dal, su-i-ci'dal, u-ni-ver'sal. -- A-rith-met'i-cal, di-a-met'ri-cal, math-e-mat'i-cal, pe-ri-od'i-cal. -- P[small a, breve]r-a-dis-i'a-cal, me-d[short i, breve]a-to'ri-al.

Words ending in am, an, and, ance, ant; a short and obscure.

        13. Bal'ance, ord'nance, pen'ance, pit'tance, rid'-dance, sub'stance, venge'ance. Bla'tant, con'stant, c[small u, breve]r'rant, des'cant, dis'tant, ex'tant, flip'pant, fra'grant, in'stant, mer'chant, pec'cant, ped'ant, pen'nant, pli'ant, preg'nant, rem'nant, sex'tant, stag'nant, ten'ant, va'cant, va'grant. Buck'ram, mad'am, quon dam. Cap'stan, hu'man, or'gan, pa'gan, sul'tan, tur'ban. Gar'land, hus'band.

        14. Com'plai-sance, dis'so-nance, hin'der-ance, main'te-nance, or'di-nance, sus'te-nance, tem'perance, va'ri-ance. Ad'ju-tant, cog'ni-zant, con'sonant, con'ver-sant, dom'i-nant, el'e-gant, em'i-grant, im'mi-grant, men'di-cant, mil'i-tant, mis'cre-ant, res'o-nant, sup'pli-ant, ter'ma-gant, tol'er-ant. Ar'

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ti-san, par'tisan, pel'i-can, pub'li-can, pu'ri-tan, tal'is-man. Mar'jo-ram.

        15. Ac-cept'ance, re-luct'ance, re-sem'blance, A-bun'dant, as-cend ant, be-nig'nant, dis-crep'ant, ex-pect'ant, im-port'ant, in-ces'sant, in-dig'nant, p[small u, macron]-is'sant, re-dun'dant. Al-le'gi-ance, de-liv'er-ance, in-h[short e, breve]r'i-tance. In-hab'i-tant, ir-rel'e-vant. E-ques'tri-an, gram-ma'ri-an, li-bra'ri-an, me-rid'i-an, pe-des'tri-an, re-pub'li-can, tra-ge'di-an. Empy-re'an. An-ti-qua'ri-an, met-ro-pol'i-tan. An te-di-lu'vi-an, Med-i-t[short e, breve]r-ra'ne-an.

Words ending in ar, ard, art, in which a has an easy sound of e in her.

        16. Ce'dar, col'lar, dol'lar, fri'ar, gram'mar, la'zar, li'ar, nec'tar, pil'lar, pop'lar, so'lar, vic'ar, vin'e-gar. Cat'er-pil-lar. Co-lum'nar. In'ter-lin'e-ar, cur'-vi-lin'e-ar, rec'ti-lin'e-ar. -- Cus'tard, das'tard, do'tard, hag'gard, haz'ard, lee'ward, liz'ard, maz'ard, mus'tard, nig'gard, or'chard, pil'chard, pol'lard, scab'bard, spike'nard, stan'dard, tan'kard, way'ward, west'ward, wind'ward, wiz'ard. Stal'wart.

Words ending in ary, acy.

        The a in ary, acy, unaccented, has an obscure sound of short a, as in the last syllable of mad'man. The y has an easy sound of short i.

        17. Con'tra-ry, gloss'a-ry, gran'a-ry, ple'na-ry, pri'ma-ry, ro'sa-ry, va'ga-ry. Ad'ver-sa-ry, an'tiqua-ry, a'pi-a-ry, ar'bi-tra-ry, bre'vi-a-ry, cap'il-la-ry, com'ment-a-ry, com'mis-sa-ry, cor'ol-la-ry, cus'-tom-a-ry, drom'e-da-ry, em'is-sa-ry, ex'em-pla-ry,

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Feb'ru-a-ry, Jan'[small u, macron]a-ry, lap'i-da-ry, lit'er-a-ry, mer'ce-na-ry, mil'i-ta-ry, or'di-na-ry, plan'e-ta-ry, pul'mo-na-ry, sal'[small u, macron]-ta-ry, sanc't[small u, macron]-a-ry, san'guina-ry, sec're-ta-ry, sed'en-ta-ry, sub'lu-na-ry, sumpt'[small u, macron]-a-ry, tem'po-ra-ry, vol'un-ta-ry. Vet'er-i-na-ry. Con't[small u, macron]-ma-cy, ef'fi-ca-cy, in'tri-ca-cy, ob'-sti-na-cy. -- Dis-pen'sa-ry, in-firm'a-ry. Con-sp[short i, breve]r' a-cy, de-moc'ra-cy, d[short i, breve]-plo'ma-cy, su-prem'a-cy. -- El-ee-mos'y-na-ry.

        18. A-poth'e-ca-ry, co-tem'po-ra-ry, he-red'i ta-ry, in-cen'di-a-ry, o-bit'[small u, macron]-a-ry, pe-cu'ni-a-ry, pre-lim'i-na-ry, re-sid'[small u, macron]-a-ry, vo-cab'[small u, macron]-la-ry, volup't[small u, macron]-a-ry. -- An-ni-ver'sa-ry, com-pli-ment'a-ry, el-e-ment'ary, sup-ple-ment'a-ry, test-a-ment'a-ry. S[small u, macron]-per-n[small u, macron]'mer-a ry. Ar-is-toc'ra-cy

Words ending in ace, as, ase, ass, ast.

        The a in the following words has an obscure sound of short a. In furnace the sound is nearer to that of short i; in menace, to that of long a.

        19. Fur'nace, men'ace, pal'ace, pin'nace, pref'ace, sol'ace, sur'face, t[short e, breve]r'race. Pop'[small u, macron]-lace. -- At'las, bi'as, bal'last, cut'lass, fr[small a, macron]'cas, h[small a, breve]r'ass, pur'chase, tres'pass, wind'lass. A'li-as, cop'per-as, i'sin-glass. Em-b[small a, breve]r'rass. -- Er-y-sip'e-las. -- Car'cass.

Words ending in ate, the a having an obscure sound of long a.

        20. Cli'mate, cu'rate, frig'ate, leg'ate, pal'ate, pi'rate, prel'ate, pri'vate, pro'bate, sen'ate, vul'gate -- Ad'e-quate, choc'o-late, del'i-cate, des'per-ate,

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        * When these words are verbs, the a in the final syllable is long. The distinction may be observed in the following sentence: "Intimate to your intimate friend that he is in the wrong." See page 62, paragraph 4.

lau're-ate, mod'er-ate,*

        * When these words are verbs, the a in the final syllable is long. The distinction may be observed in the following sentence: "Intimate to your intimate friend that he is in the wrong." See page 62, paragraph 4.

o'pi-ate, pred'icate,*

        * When these words are verbs, the a in the final syllable is long. The distinction may be observed in the following sentence: "Intimate to your intimate friend that he is in the wrong." See page 62, paragraph 4.

prox'i-mate, ul'ti-mate.*

        * When these words are verbs, the a in the final syllable is long. The distinction may be observed in the following sentence: "Intimate to your intimate friend that he is in the wrong." See page 62, paragraph 4.

-- Con-sum'mate.*

        * When these words are verbs, the a in the final syllable is long. The distinction may be observed in the following sentence: "Intimate to your intimate friend that he is in the wrong." See page 62, paragraph 4.

        21. Con-sid'er-ate, de-ter'mi-nate, dis-con'so-late ef-fem'i-nate, im-me'di-ate, in-an'i-mate, in-or'di-nate, in-vet'er-ate, le-git'i-mate, pe-nul'ti-mate, sub-or'di-nate.


        1,2. An ultra dogma. Delta is the Greek letter [capital Delta, Greek]. An extra supply Senna and manna. A stanza of the poem. Mica shines. A vista through which we can see his villa. An area is any plain surface.

        3. An arena for the combat. Put a cedilla under the c. The corolla of a flower. In a dilemma. A doctor's diploma. Erratum is the singular of errata. I found an erratum in the book. We found some errata.

        4. Effluvium is the singular of effluvia. Bad effluvia come from those houses. A bad effluvium comes from the sink. One candelabrum. Ten candelabra. The insignia of his office were displayed. They subpoenaed the witnesses.

        5. A tractable child. A portable stove. Read the parable. Be more affable. A palpable untruth. Taxable land. Tenable property. Potable wine. A probable story. Amenable to the law. An ineffable vision.

        6, 7. Malleable iron. He is inimitable. A memorable day. They are inseparable. Your loss is irreparable. Inextricable confusion. An invulnerable hero. Impermeable cloth. An inexpugnable fortress. An inexorable tyrant. A navigable river. A ponderable gas.

        8, 9. Repeat the adage. Send a message. He is in his dotage. Spinage is sometimes spelt spinach. Do not take umbrage at my remark. Rich foliage. A hemorrhage of the lungs. Encourage the diligent. A rich vintage. The steerage of a ship. The advantage of early rising. An average quantity. A safe passage. Prepay the postage. He shall have my suffrage.

        10, 11. The annals of the city. An astral lamp. The fatal bridal. Vials of glass. A quintal of fish. A ribald scandal. The petals of the rose. Avoid that nasal delivery. An integral part. The primeval forest. A colossal cathedral. The emerald is green. The prodigal son. Several revisals. Tropical heat.

        12--14. Diluvial sand. An inimical memorial. Sidereal light. A suicidal

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policy. A hymeneal ode. A periodical attack. Ironical praise. Terrestrial scenes. An ordinance for the casting of more ordinance. A blatant calf. A garland for my hat. The sultan threatens vengeance. The tenant of the house. My quondam friend. The 10th inst, or instant, means the tenth of the present month. A vagrant giant. Peccant humors.

        15. The maintenance of a family. Your complaisance oppresses. The miscreant is now a suppliant. The adjutant is cognizant of his affairs. Is he conversant with mine? An irrelevant remark. A redundant word. The Metropolitan Hotel. The Mediterranean Sea. You owe me no allegiance. The defendant is he who defends; the plaintiff is he who complains. A puissant king. Discrepant testimony. Sweet marjoram. That I might soar to the empyrean! Antediluvian vestiges.

        16, 17. Cut down the poplar. The orchard is full of caterpillars. Lee-ward is the part toward which the wind blows; windward, the part from which it blows. Rectilinear marks. A haggard dotard. A columnar form. A silver tankard. The granary is full. A conspiracy against the democracy. A mercenary emissary. Plenary indulgence. A veterinary doctor. Exemplary diplomacy. Sumptuary laws. A sedentary life. Capillary attraction. Your contumacy is too bad. A printed breviary.

        18, 19. A residuary legatee. Look in the supplementary vocabulary. A cotemporary apothecary. Elementary studies. A supernumerary idler. An obituary notice. The populace menace the palace. Throw out the ballast. Purchase a cutlass. Heave at the windlass. A fracas in the street. Brown alias Jones. Commit no trespass. She has the erysipelas. They harass the enemy. Eleemosynary gifts.

        20, 21. A judge of probate. The legate came with the prelate. A cup of chocolate. Name the predicate. The proximate cause. The penultimate syllable is the last but one. An inordinate glutton. The opiate made her sleep. A disconsolate widow.

II. E in unaccented Syllables.

Words ending in ed, the e having an easy sound of short e.

        1. A'ged, crab'bed, dog'ged, dot'ted, dread'ed, ha'tred, heat'ed, hun'dred, kin'dred, learn'ed,*

        * Learned, when an adjective, is pronounced in two syllables; when a verb or a participle, in one syllable.

na'ked, rag'ged, rug'ged, wed'ded, wick'ed.

Words ending in el, the e having an easy sound of short e.

        2. Bev'el, cam'el, can'cel, chan'cel, chan'nel,

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chap'el, char'nel, chat'tel, chis'el, col'onel (pronounced ker'nel), cru'el, cud'gel, dam'sel, flan'nel, fu el, fun'nel, gos'pel, grap'nel, grav'el, jew el, ken'nel, ker'nel.

        3. La'bel, lev'el, li'bel, lin'tel, mar'vel, min'strel, mod'el, mor'sel, nov'el, pan'el, par'cel, rev'el, sach'el (or satch'el), sc[small a, breve]l'pel, scoun'drel, se'quel, sor'rel, tim'brel, tin'sel, tram'mel, trav'el, tun'nel, ves'sel.

        4. Cal'o-mel, cit'a-del, cock'er-el, dog'ger-el, in'fi-del, mack'er-el, o'ri-el, pick'er-el, sen'ti-nel, taf'fer-el. -- Ap-p[small a, breve]r'el, di-sh[short e, breve]v'el, en-am'el, impan'nel.

        In the following words, the e in the last syllable is unsounded, as if they were written driv'l, grov'l, &c.

        5. Driv'el, gr[short o, breve]v'el, ha'zel, na'vel, rav'el, sh[short e, breve]k'el, shov'el, shriv'el, sniv'el, swiv'el, tea'sel, wea'sel.

Words ending in em, the e short as in hem.

        6. An'them, em'blem, i'tem, po'em, prob'lem, pro'em, sa'chem. -- Di'a-dem, re'qui-em, strat'agem, the'o-rem.

Words ending in en, the e short, without stress.

        7. B[small a, breve]r'ren, br[short e, breve]th'ren, chil'dren, chick'en, pat'ten, kitch'en, mit'ten, o'men, pol'len, sud'den, sul'len. -- Cit'i-zen, den'i-zen. -- A-cu'men, bi-t[small u, macron]-men.

Words ending in en, the e unsounded.

        The e before final n in unaccented syllables is unsounded in many verbs, participles, and adjectives, and some nouns.

        8. Bid'den, bit'ten, black'en, bra'zen, bro'ken,

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clo'ven, driv'en, e-l[short e, breve]v'en, e'ven, fresh'en, gar'den giv'en, gold'en, ha'ven, hea'then, heav'en, hemp'en kit'ten, length'en, li'ken, maid'en, miz'zen, m[small o, macron]lt'en.

        9. Ov'en, o'pen, ox'en, quick'en, ra'ven, red'den, rid'den, ri'pen, sad'den, sev'en, sha'pen, sick'en, silk'en, smit'ten, sod'den, spo'ken, stiff'en, strait'en, strength'en, strick'en, striv'en, sw[small o, macron]l'len, to'ken, wax'en, wood'en, writ'ten.

Words ending in ence, ense, ency, and ent, the initial e of the
syllable having an easy sound of short e.

        10. Ab'sence, ca'dence, cre'dence, es'sence, pres'-ence, pru'dence, sci'ence, sen'tence, si'lence, six'pence. Ad'vent, a'gent, ar'dent, clem'ent, cli'ent, co'gent, com'ment, con'vent, cres'cent, de'cent, fer'vent, frag'ment, f[small u, breve]l'gent, gar'ment, lam'bent, la'tent, mo'ment, pave'ment, pig'ment, po'tent, pun'gent, re'gent, seg'ment, tal'ent, tan'gent, tri'dent.

        11. Ab'sti-nence, com'pe-tence, con'fer-ence, con'fi-dence, con'ti-nence, dif'fer-ence, def'er-ence, dil'i-gence, ex'i-gence, frank'in-cense, im'po-tence, in'do-lence, in'fer-ence, in'so-lence, neg'li-gence, pes'ti-lence, pref'er-ence, prev'a-lence, prov'i-dence, ref'er-ence, ve'he-mence, vi'o-lence, ret'i-cence.

        12. Ac'ci-dent, al'i-ment, arm'a-ment, con'di-ment, det'ri-ment, dif'fi-dent, dis'si-dent, el'e-ment, es'cu-lent, em'i-nent, el'o-quent, ev'i-dent, ex'cel lent, im'mi-nent, im'ple-ment, im'po-tent, in'digent, in'do-lent, in'no-cent.

        13. Lig'a-ment, man'age-ment, o'ri-ent, or'nament,

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pen'i-tent, per'ma-nent, pres'i-dent, prom'i-nent, ref'lu-ent, rev'er-ent, red'o-lent, res'i-dent, sa'li-ent, sa'pi-ent, sed'i-ment, sent'i-ment, som'no-lent, sub'se-quent, ten'e-ment, test'a-ment.

        14. A-bate'ment, ad-ja'cent, al-lot'ment, as-sess'ment, a-tone'ment, at-tach'ment, com-pla'cent, con-tin'gent, de-pend'ent, de-po'nent, ef-ful'gent, de-spond'ent, dis-solv'ent, en-r[small o, macron]l'ment, ful-fil'ment, in-h[small e, macron]r'ent, in-clem'ent, in-fringe'ment, in-trech'ment, in-solv'ent, op-po'nent, re-fresh'ment, re spond'ent, vice-ge'rent.

        15. Ab-hor'rence, ad-h[small e, macron]r'ence, co-h[small e, macron]r'ence, con-do'lence, di-ver'gence, ex-cres'cence, im-pru'dence, pre-ce'dence, quin-tes'sence, sub-sist'ence, trans-fer'ence.

        16. Ad-ver't[short i, breve]se-ment, ar-bit'ra-ment, co-in'cident, e-quiv'a-lent, ha-bil'i-ment, in-cip'i-ent, in-com'pe-tent, in-gre'di-ent, mag-nil'o-quent, malev'o-lent, pre-em'i-nent, re-cip'l-ent. -- Cir-cum'-fer-ence, ex-pe'ri-ence, om-nip'o-tence. -- As-cend'-en-cy.

        17. Cor-re-spond'ence, in-ad-vert'ence, in-coh[small e, macron]r'ence, ju-ris-pru'dence. Ac-com'pa-ni-ment. An-te-ce'dent. Cir-cum-am'bi-ent. Su-per-in-tend'ent.

Words ending in er, the e having an easy sound of e in her.

        18. Ad'der, ant'ler, ban'ner, ban'ter, bet'ter, bib'ber, bick'er, blad'der, blub'ber, bri'er, brim'mer, buck'ler, can'cer, chaf'fer, cank'er, chat'ter, crack'er,

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cra'ter, dip'per, dra'per, drum'mer, em'ber, fend'er, fil'ter, flat'ter, flick'er, fod'der, glim'mer, gun ner, ham'mer, ham'per, hank,er, hin'der, jab'ber.

        19. Lad'der, lay'er, ledg'er, le'per, lit'ter, mill'er, of'fer, o'ver, pan'ther, ped'dler, pep'per, prim'er, print'er, qua'ver, quiv'er, ram'bler, rash'er, rub'ber, rud'der, sad'dler, scamp'er, scat'ter, scup'per, sell'er, sharp'er, shat'ter.

        20. Shel'ter, shut'ter, sim'per, sin'ner, skip'per, sliv'er, song'ster, spin'ster, stam'mer, suf'fer, sup'per, sut'ler, tan'ner, tell'er, teth'er, till'er, tin'der, trench'er, tri'fler, tum'bler, twit'ter, ul'cer, ud'der, up'per, ves'per, vouch'er, wel'ter, wheth'er, whim'per, whis'ker, whis'per, whith'er, win'ner.

        21. Al'mon-er, bal'us-ter, ban'ter-er, can'is-ter, cim'e-ter, con'ge-ner, gl[small a, breve]'ci-er, gos'sa-mer, har'bin-ger, in'te-ger, lav'en-der, man'a-ger, scav'en-ger, sin'is-ter, treas'[small u, macron]-rer. -- An-oth'er, a-sun'der, begin'ner, be-wil'der, com-pi'ler, com-po'ser, con-tr[small o, macron]l'-ler, de-cant'er, de-fend'er, de-fi'ner, de-tect'er, en-d[small a, macron]n'ger, ex-p[small o, macron]rt'er, me-an'der, per-form'er, re-cord'er, re-form'er, se-ques'ter, to-geth'er.--Ba-rom'e-ter.

        The following words are spelt by Webster with the termination er, as here presented; but most lexicographers transpose the letters thus: cen'tre, fi'bre, ma-noeu'vre, &c.

        22. Cen'ter, fi'ber, lus'ter, mau'ger, mea'ger, me'ter, mi'ter, ni'ter, o'cher (the ch like k), sa'ber, scep'ter, som'ber, spec'ter.

        23. Cal'i-ber, sep'ul-cher (the ch like k), the a-ter,

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Ac-cou'ter (pronounced ak-koo'ter), ma-neu'ver salt-pe'ter. Re-con-noi'ter.

        In a'cre, lu'cre, mas'sa-cre, me-di-o'cre (pronounced a'ker lu'ker, mas'sa-ker, &c.), the form of re final is retained.

Words ending in ess, the e having an easy sound of short e.

        24. Ab'bess, ab'scess, act'ress, aw'less, blame'less, boot'less, but'tress, duch'ess, e'gress, em'press, end'-less, full'ness, hap'less, har'ness, ill'ness, kind'ness, largess, lean'ness, list'less, match'less, mean'ness, mis'tress, peer'less, plain'ness, priest'ess, prin'cess, reck less, sad'ness, same'ness, sense'less, soul'less, still'ness, taste'less, wit'ness. Gov'ern-ess.

Words ending in et, the e having an easy sound of short e.

        25. Ban'quet, bil'let, blank'et, brace'let, brack'et buf'fet, cam'let, cos'set, crick'et, crotch'et, drib'let, f[short e, breve]r'ret, fidg'et, fresh'et, g[small a, breve]r'ret, gib'bet, gob'let, gor'get, gul'let, gus'set, ham'let, hatch'et, in'let, lan'cet, latch'et, lin'net, lock'et.

        26. Mag'net, mal'let, on'set, pack'et, pal'let, pick'et, plum'met, po'et, pup'pet, rack'et, riv'et, rock'et, rus'set, sig'net, skil'let, sock'et, tick'et, tip'pet, trink'et, trump'et, wick'et.

        27. Cab'i-net, c[short o, breve]r'o-net, b[small a, breve]r'o-net, bay'o-net, ep'au-let, ep'i-thet, min'a-ret, om'e-let, p[small a, breve]r'a-pet.


        1--4. An aged and learned man. What is a bevel? He had a chisel. Goods and chattels. Loads of gravel. The grapnel did not hold. Col. is a contraction for colonel. Sound the timbrel. Fresh mackerel. Sleepy sentinels. Impannel the jury. Oriel windows. A novel in his satchel. The vessel sank. Disheveled hair. The lintel of the door. Doggerel verse The sailor stood at the tafferel (or taffrail). A dose of calomel.

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        5--7. A shekel of silver. A hazel nut. Shovel the snow. They grovel before him. The brethren sang an anthem. A good omen. A kitchen garden. Solve the problem. A denizen of the city. Melt the bitumen.

        8, 9. Quicken thy pace. The maiden's kitten. Bitten by a dog. A silken cord. Black as a raven's wing. A waxen doll. Eleven oxen. The mizzen mast. A swollen gum. Frozen cream. An even temper. Wooden shoes. How far have you ridden?

        10, 11. Pungent odors. A trident has three prongs. The crescent moon. Reticence is concealment by silence. The garment fits. With deference your vehemence is out of place. What insolence! Explain the difference. He has a competence. Burn the frankincense. Total abstinence.

        12, 13. Dissident voters. A diffident youth. An esculent plant is one good for food. The orient is the east. Excellent implements. A permanent president. The refluent tide. The air is redolent of spring. A salient fountain. A ligament for the bones.

        14, 15. A contingent assessment. The respondent is he who answers. A vicegerent is an officer ruling in place of another. Inclement weather. Strong intrenchments. The fulfilment of a prophecy. The quintessence of an extract. Give her your condolence. A transference of troops.

        16, 17. An advertisement in the newspaper. An incompetent superintendent. The arbitrament of arms. I dispute his ascendency. A magniloquent address. Incipient disease. Shabby habiliments. Coincident views. The lake's circumference. A recipient of his bounty. An ingredient of the mixture. Our antecedent correspondence. Pardon the inadvertence. The circumambient air. She played an accompaniment.

        18, 19. Her teeth chatter. Filter the water. Bring a hammer to mend the ladder. A peddler of clocks. The leper was cured. He keeps a ledger. A cracker in the dipper. Bid the sharper scamper. Fodder the cattle. Sweet brier. Do not bicker over your beakers.

        20, 21. A sutler in the army. Whisper low. Whither do you go? Tether the lamb. A sliver of wood. An iron baluster. A canister of tea. The gossamer floats. The glaciers of Switzerland. An exporter of cotton The Counterfeit Detecter. Call the scavenger. A Turkish cimeter. A congener is a thing of like nature with another. The brook meänders. Sequester his estate. The barometer fell.

        22--24. Reconnoiter the field. The caliber of the gun. The fullness of bliss. A largess is a gift. The princess has a governess. A matchless actress. Harness the horse. A bootless errand. Grant him free ingress and egress. A mediocre performance. Seventy acres.

        25--27. The g in gibbet has the sound of j. A bracelet for the wrist Ferret him out. A camlet cloak. A bracket for the clock. A gusset in the shirt. The magnet attracts. A ticket for the concert. A pallet of straw. The baronet wore an paulet. He ate an omelet. Put on the skillet.

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III. The Sound of short I in unaccented Syllables.

Words in which final y, ey, i, and ee, have an easy sound of short i For other words of this class, see page 145.

        1. Bar'ley, ch[short e, breve]r'ry, clum'sy, co'zy, dal'ly, din'gy, drop'sy, ed'dy, en'try, en'vy, fel'ly, flee'cy, fol'ly, fren'zy, fun'ny, gen'try, gen'try, hap'py, ho'ly, hol'ly, hun'gry, i'vy, lil'y, lob'by.

        2. M[short e, breve]r'ry, mot'ley, mum'my, na'vy, [small o, macron]n'ly, pan'try, pars'ley, part'ly, pel'try, pen'ny, pit'y, pla'guy, pu'ny, que'ry, quin'sy, safe'ty, sen'try, sil'ly, sor'ry, stin'gy, stud'y, sul'try, sur'ly, tal'ly, tan'sy, ti'dy, tur'key, wher'ry, whim'sey, whis'key, ves'try, za'ny.

        3. Am'i-ty, am'nes-ty, an'ces-try, ar'te-ry, bal'-co-ny, big'ot-ry, bot'a-ny, bra'ver-y, brev'i-ty, bri'ber-y, cav'al-ry, cel'er-y, chan'cer-y, ch[small a, breve]s'ti-ty, co'gen-cy, con'stan-cy, cur'so-ry, cus'to-dy, dim'i-ty, drudg'er-y, dra'per-y, dy'nas-ty.

        4. Eb'o-ny, ef'fi-gy, el'der-ly, em'bas-sy, fan'ta-sy, fe'al-ty, fer'ven-cy, fi'nal-ly, fi'ner-y, fre'quen-cy, grate'ful-ly, hick'o-ry, hom'i-ly, im'age-ry, in'dus-try, in'fant-ry, in'fa-my, in'fan-cy, la'i-ty, i'vo-ry, jew'el-ry, len'i-ty, lar'ce-ny, lev'i-ty, leg'-a-cy, lep'ro-sy, lib'er-ty, lot'ter-y.

        5. Mod'es-ty, min'is-try, mon'o-dy, mu'ti-ny p[small a, breve]l'mis-try, pan'o-ply, ped'ant-ry, pen'al-ty, pil'lo-ry, po'e-sy, po'et-ry, po'ten-cy, pov'er-ty, prel'a-cy pri'va-cy, priv'i-ly, prob'i-ty, prop'er-ty, pu'ri-ty, pros'o-dy, quack'er-y.

        6. Re'al-ly, re'cen-cy, re'gen-cy, rev'el-ry, rev'er-y (or rev'er-ie), rib'ald-ry, sal'a-ry, san'i-ty,

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se'cre-cy, sol'ven-cy, sur'ger-y, test'i-ly, traves-ty trin'i-ty, ur'gen-cy, v[short e, breve]r'i-ty, war'ran-ty.

        7. Ap'o-plex-y, cas'u-al-ty, cem'e-ter-y, con'tro ver-sy, ig'no-min-y, mil'li-ner-y, nec'ro-man-cy, or'tho-e-py, or'tho-dox-y, pres'by-t[short e, breve]r-y.--Ab-rupt'-ly, an-cho'vy.

        8. A-cer'bi-ty, a-men'i-ty, an-al'o-gy, an-thol'-o-gy, a-nat'o-my, a-pos'ta-sy, as-tron'o-my, di-ver'-si-ty, e-con'o-my, hy-poc'ri-sy, im-pi'e-ty, ma-hog'-a-ny, mis-an'thro-py, mo-nop'o-ly, mo-not'o-ny, o-bes'i-ty, pa-thol'o-gy, so-lil'o-quy.-- Con-fec'tion-er-y. Con-tra-dict'o-ry, gen-e-al'o-gy, in-tro-duc'-to-ry, man-[small u, macron]-fac'to-ry, val-e-dic'to-ry.

        9. Ban-dit'ti, com-mit'tee. Mac-a-ro'ni, sper-ma-ce'ti.

Words ending in ible, the i having an easy sound of short i, ana the final e being silent.

        10. Ed'i-ble, fal'li-ble, flex'i-ble, f[small o, macron]r'ci-ble, pos'si-ble, ris'i-ble, sen'si-ble, tan'gi-ble, t[short e, breve]r'ri-ble, vend'i-ble, vis'i-ble. -- Cor'ri-gi-ble, el'i-gi-ble.

        11. Ac-cess'i-ble, ad-miss'i-ble, com-bus'ti-ble com-pat'i-ble, con-vert'i-ble, in-del'i-ble, in-fal'li-ble in-flex'i-ble, in-vin'ci-ble, per-cep'ti-ble, re-spon'si-ble. -- Ir-re-sist'i-ble, im-pre-script'i-ble, in-exhaust'i-ble, in-di-vis'i-ble, in-ex-press'i-ble. -- Un-in-tel'li-gi-ble. In-con-tro-vert'i-ble.

Words in which i before d, or before the sound of k, represented by c, has an easy sound of short i.

        12. Can'did, flac'cid (pronounced flak'sid), gelid

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lim'pid, liv'id, mor'bid, pal'lid, pu'trid, rab'id, rapid, ran'cid, sap'id, sor'did, splen'did, tor'pid, tur'bid, tur'gid, val'id.--In-sip'id, in-trep'id, pel-lu'cid.

        13. An'tic, arc'tic, at'tic, d[short o, breve]r'ic, ep'ic, fab'ric, gar'lic, m[small a, breve]s'tic, ni'tric, op'tic, pan'ic, pic'nic, pl[small a, breve]s'tic, scen'ic, sto'ic, top'ic, traf'fic.--Ar'se-nic, bish'op-ric, cath'o-lic.

        14. A-cros'tic, a-lem'bic, an-tarc'tic, a-quat'ic, des-pot'ic, di-dac'tic, dog-mat'ic, do-mes'tic, dy-nam'ic, ec-cen'tric, e-clec'tic, e-clip'tic, ecs-tat'ic, e-lec'tric, el-lip'tic, ex-trin'sic, gi-gan'tic, in-trin'sic, la-con'ic, le-thar'gic.

        15. Mag-net'ic, me-tal'lic, mo-sa'ic, or-gan'ic pa-cif'ic, pe-dant'ic, prog-nos'tic, pro-sa'ic, pro-lif'ic, re-pub'lic, sar-c[small a, breve]s'tic, spas-mod'ic, spe-cif'ic, syllab'ic, ter-rif'fic, vol-can'ic.

Words in which i or y before final l or le has the sound of short i, as in ill, without stress.

        16. A'pril, an'vil, cav'il, civ'il, fos'sil, len'til, nos'tril, p[short e, breve]r'il, ten'dril, ton'sil, tum'bril. Duc'tile, fe'brile, fer'tile, flex'ile, fu'tile, hos'tile, mis'sile, rep'tile, serv'ile, st[short e, breve]r'ile, ten'dril, tran'quil. B[short e, breve]r'yl, dac'tyl, sib'yl.

        17. Cod'i-cil, dom'i-cil, im'be-cile, ju've-nile, mer'can-tile, pu'er-ile, vol'a-tile.--Bis-sex'tile, pro-jec'tile, u-ten'sil.

        In the words dev'il, e'vil, wee'vil, the i before l final is unsounded and they are pronounced as if written d[short e, breve]v'l, [small e, macron]v'l, weev'l.

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Words ending in [short i, breve]m, [short i, breve]n, and [short i, breve]ne.

        18. Bob'bin, bod'kin, bus'kin, cof'fin, cum'in, fl[short o, breve]r'in, gob'lin, Lat'in, mar'gin, muf'fin, mus'lin, pig'gin, pip'kin, pump'kin, res'in, ros'in, sav'in, spav'in, tan'nin, toc'sin, ur'chin, ver'min, wel'kin. -- Des'tine, doc'trine, en'gine, er'mine, fam'ine, jas'mine, mar'line, vac'cine (pronounced vak'sin).

        In the words ba'sin, cous'in, rai'sin, the i before n final is unsounded.

        19. Al'ka-line, dis'ci-pline, eg'lan-tine, fem'i nine, gen'[small u, macron]-ine, h[short e, breve]r'o-ine, i'o-dine, gel'a-tine, jes'sa-mine, lib'er-tine, mas'cu-line, med'i-cine, nec'ta-rine. Har'le-quin, jac'o-bin, moc'ca-sin, or'i-gin, t[short e, breve]r'ra-pin. Rag'a-muf-fin.

        20. Clan-des'tine, de-ter'mine, il-lu'mine, in-tes'tine, pre-des'tine. Ver-ba'tim. Me-theg'lin, re-plev'in. Ad-a-man'tine, al-ex-an'drine, am-a-ran'thine.

Words ending in [short i, breve]ce, [short i, breve]s, [short i, breve]se, ist.

        21. Au'spice, bod'ice, chal'ice, cor'nice, cop'pice, crev'ice, just'ice, lat'tice, mal'ice, no'tice, nov'ice, serv'ice, sol'stice, sur'plice. An'ise. Ax'is, ba'sis, cri'sis, da'is, fi'nis, glot'tis, gra'tis, i'ris, mar'quis, or'ris, ten'nis, trel'lis.

        22. Arm'is-tice, art'i-fice, av'a-rice, ben'e-fice, cic'a-trice, cow'ard-ice, dent'i-frice, ed'i-fice, gen'-e-sis, in'ter-stice, lic'o-rice, or'i-fice, prej'u-dice.

        23. Ac-com'plice, ap-pren'tice, el-lip'sis, o-a'sis, p[small o, macron]rt-c[small u, breve]l'lis, syn-op'sis. -- A-nal'y-sis, me-trop'o-lis,

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pa-ral'y-sis.--Di-ag-no'sis, ep-i-der'mis A-man-u-en'sis.

        24. Art'ist, bap'tist, de'ist, dent'ist, flo'rist, the'ist, tour'ist.--A'the-ist, cop'y-ist, dram'a-tist, d[small u, macron]'el-ist, e'go-tist, hu'mor-ist, oc'u-list, mor'al-ist, nov'el-ist, pan'the-ist, pu'gil-ist.--Or'tho-e-pist. Ven-tril'o quist. Ag-ri-cult'[small u, macron]-rist, hor-ti-cult'[small u, macron]-rist.

Words ending in it, ite, and ive, in which i has its short sound, and final e is idle.

        25. Ban'dit, cred'it, cul'prit, ed'it, gran'ite, hab'it, lim'it, m[short e, breve]r'it, out'fit, rab'bit, res'pite, sum'mit, tran'sit, vis'it, vom'it.--Def'i-cit, def'i-nite, ex'-qui-site, in'fi-nite, op'po-site, per'qui-site, pret'er-it.

        26. Com-pos'ite, de-crep'it, d[short e, breve]-mer'it, de-pos'it, in-hab'it, in-h[short e, breve]r'it, pro-hib'it.--Af-fi-da'vit.

        27. Act'ive, cap'tive, cos'tive, da'tive, fes'tive, mass'ive, mo'tive, na'tive, ol'ive, pen'sive, rest'ive, sp[small o, macron]rt'ive, vo'tive.

        28. Ad'jec-tive, ex'ple-tive,gen'i-tive, neg'a-tive, posi-tive, prim'i-tive, priv'a-tive, sed'a-tive, sens'i-tive, sub'stan-tive, trans'i-tive, voc'a-tive.

        29. Ad-he'sive, at-ten'tive, at-tract'ive, co-he'-sive, col-lect'ive, com-pul'sive, con-d[small u, macron]'cive, de-ci'-sive, de-fen'sive, de-script'ive, di-gest'ive, e-va'sive, ex-cess'ive, ex-pan'sive, ex-press'ive, in-duct'ive, in-struct'ive, in-vec'tive, in-vent'ive.

        30. Of-fen'sive, op-press'ive, pro-spect'ive, possess'ive, pre-vent'ive, pro-gress'ive, re-flect'ive, re-spon'sive, re-ten'tive, re-puls'ive, re-spect'ive, re-strict'ive, sub-miss'ive, suc-cess'ive, vin-dic'tive

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        31 Fed'er-a-tive, fig'u-ra-tive, im'i-ta-tive, med'i-ca-tive, nom'i-na-tive, op'er-a-tive, pal'li-a-tive, spec'u-la-tive.

        32. Com-p[small a, breve]r'a-tive, [small a, breve]l-ter'na-tive, con-sec'u-tive, con-serv'a-tive, de-fin'i-tive, de-mon'stra-tive, imp[short e, breve]r'a-tive, in-dic'a-tive, in-fin'i-tive, in-quisi-tive, pre-p[small a, breve]r'a-tive, pre-rog'a-tive, pro-vo'ca-tive, super'la-tive.--Ap-pre-hen'sive, com-pre-hen'sive, retro-spect'ive. In-ter-rog'a-tive.

Words having short i before ng and sh final.*

        * The teacher will bear in mind that ng and sh are distinct elements, for which our alphabet is deficient in any simple signs. Guard against the vicious mode which some speakers have of clipping the full sound of ng in terminations in ing; converting morning, for example, into mornin'.

        33. Awn'ing, bed'ding, dump'ling, fat'ling, gos'ling, hire'ling, ink'ling, li'ning, lus'tring, lodg'ing, mean'ing, nest'ling, scant'ling, star'ling, stock'ing, wed'ding.

        34. Ban'ish, blan'dish, blem'ish, bran'dish, bru'tish, bur'nish, ch[short e, breve]r'ish, child'ish, churl'ish, fam'ish, fin'ish, fool'ish, fur'bish, lav'ish, p[short e, breve]r'ish, pub'lish, pun'ish, rel'ish, rub'bish, self'ish, skit'tish, tar'nish, van'ish, van'quish, var'nish.

        35. A-bol'ish, ac-com'plish, ad-mon'ish, as-ton'ish, de-mol'ish, di-min'ish, em-bel'lish, es-tab'lish, re-plen'ish.


        1--3. A cozy room. A lonely lily. The odor of tansy. Parsley in the pantry. Stand sentry. She has the quinsy. A motley fool. A plaguy fly. A stingy maid. Barley candy. Celery for dinner. A chancery suit. A cavalry officer. Look from the balcony. The present dynasty of France. A cursory review. Dimity curtains. Brevity is the soul of wit. A felly is the outward rim of a wheel: it was formerly written felloe.

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        4 -6. An effigy in ebony. An elderly person. The laïty and the clergy A jewelry shop. Boil the hominy. Petty larceny. They swore feälty to the king. A homily or sermon. The crew mutiny. Prosody treats of verse. A youth of probity. I guarantee his solvency. Her sanity is reälly questioned. A large salary. Her eyes are fixed on vacancy. She is in a reverie. A warranty deed. Rely on my secrecy.

        7--9. A fit of apoplexy. A long controversy. A deed of ignominy. Orthoëpy is the art of pronouncing words properly. A list of casualties A mahogany box. A confectionery shop. The genealogy of the family. A valedictory address. A card manufactory. Taste of the macaroni. The Mississippi river. A spermaceti candle. Obesity is fatness. A soliloquy is a speech to one's self. We lament his apostasy. Millinery goods.

        10--12. An eligible candidate. An accessible spot. An inexhaustible spring. Indelible ink. Man's imprescriptible rights. Incontrovertible proofs. Incompatible with safety. Edible roots. An irresistible attack. All are fallible. An intrepid girl. A turgid style. The water is limpid and gelid. Rancid butter. His flesh is flaccid. The fruit is insipid.

        13--15. Arctic ice. A scenic display. A laconic saying. A volcanic eruption. Didactic poetry. An ecstatic mood. An acrostic on Helen's name. The eclectic is a chooser. I look to intrinsic, not extrinsic worth. A specific for your spasmodic cough. An aquatic bird. Mosaic work. Arsenic is poison. Organic remains. My prognostic proved true.

        16--18. A codicil to a will. A hostile missile. Febrile symptoms. A futile attempt. A mercantile library. Juvenile zeal. The bissextile day. A kitchen utensil. A volatile fluid. Shun evil. A weevil in the wheat. A beryl is a gem. Vaccine matter. Sound the tocsin. Bring out the engine. White as ermine. Rosin the bow. Resin exudes from the tree. A basin of water. My second cousin. A fresh raisin.

        19, 20. A verbatim report. A clandestine marriage. Terrapin soup. She lost her moccasins. The harlequin turned a somerset. An alkaline powder. An alexandrine verse. Shun the libertine. A writ of replevin. Taste the metheglin. A ripe nectarine. Intestine wars. A genuine medicine. Honor the heroine.

        21--23. Anise seed. Finis is the Latin for end. Orris root. We have justice gratis. Put down the chalice. The summer solstice. Trellis work Keep thy promise. Mortise the wood. The marquis sat on a daïs. The earth turns on its axis. No basis for the slander. A crisis in our affairs. Charcoal dentifrice. Licorice root. A cicatrice is a scar. The bad apprentice had an accomplice. An interstice between the planks. A stroke of paralysis. My amanuensis writes as I dictate.

        24--28. The duelist was an atheist. An active horticulturist. A moralist and a humorist, but no egotist. A granite store. The preterit tense. A decrepit old man. No respite from toil. An exquisite tune. Our opposite

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neighbor. A massive rock. A large deficit. He made affidavit to the fact. The substantive or noun. The composite order Strike out the expletive. Not positive, but privative.

        29--32. An adhesive plaster. The possessive case. The superlative degree. An inquisitive girl. Exercise is a preventive of ill health. A provocative of appetite. An interrogative mark. I am apprehensive that the palliative draught will do no good. A retentive memory. Choose the alternative.

        33--35. Abolish the custom. Accomplish thy task. A skittish colt. The lining of a coat. A hireling crew. Boarding and lodging. An inkling of success. An apple dumpling. Free from blemish. Vanquish passion. Cherish the poor. Shoes and stockings. The callow nestling. A brilliant wedding. Without spot or blemish. They brandish their swords. Burnish the silver. A churlish refusal. Publish the news. A heap of rubbish. Let me replenish your plate. Varnish the panel.

IV. O in Unaccented Syllables.

Words ending in om, ome, and on, in which o has an easy and obscure sound, nearly resembling that of short u.

        1. At'om, be'som, blos'som, bot'tom, bux'om, cus'tom, d[small u, macron]ke'dom, fath'om, free'dom, king'dom, ran'dom, ran'som, sel'dom, symp'tom, tran'som, ven'om. Dark'some, loath'some, lone'some, tire'some, wel'come.

        2. Ax'i-om, cum'ber-some, frol'ic-some, id'i-om, mar'tyr-dom, mas'ter-dom.

        3. Ar'son, bi'son, can'ton, car'bon, cit'ron, chal'dron, ci'on (also spelt sci'on), com'mon, de'mon, drag'on, eb'on, fel'on, flag'on, gal'lon, gam'mon, h[short e, breve]r'on, jar'gon, lem'on, mam'mon, mel'on, pen'non, pis'ton, rib'bon, saf'fron, ser'mon, summon, sex'ton, tal'on, ten'on, wag'on.

        In a'pron and i'ron the sound of the r is transposed, and these words are pronounced as if a'purn, i'urn.

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        In the following words the o before final n is unsounded.

        4. Ba con, b[small e, macron]a'con, beck'on, bla'zon, but'ton, crim'son, cot'ton, dam'son, d[small e, macron]a'con, glut'ton, les'son, ma'son, mut'ton, par'don, par'son, per'son, poi'son, pris'on, r[small e, macron]a'son, reck'on, s[small e, macron]a'son, tr[small e, macron]a'son, w[short e, breve]ap'on, ven'ison.

        The obscure sound of the o, nearly resembling that of u short, is retained in the last syllable of the following.

        5. Ben'i-son, c[small a, breve]r'ri-on, cham'pi-on, cin'na-mon, cl[small a, breve]r'i-on, g[small a, breve]r'ri-son, hal'cy-on, lex'i-con, or'i-son, scor'pi-on, skel'e-ton, sim'ple-ton.

        6. A-ban'don, O-ri'on, per-sim'mon. -- Al-lu'vion, ca-p[small a, breve]r'i-son, cen-tu'ri-on, com-p[small a, breve]r'i-son, crite'ri-on, ob-liv'i-on. Dan'de-l[small i, macron]-on. Di-a-pa'son, sem-[short i, breve]-co'lon.

Words in which o, in final or unaccented, has an easy sound of e in her.

        7. Act'or, ar'bor, ar'dor, ar'mor, can'dor, cap'tor, cas'tor, clam'or, doc'tor, do'lor, do'nor, er'ror, fac'tor, fa'vor, fer'vor, fla'vor, har'bor, hec'tor, hor'ror, ju'ror, la'bor, ma'jor, may'or, mi'nor, o'dor, pas'tor, par'lor, proc'tor, ra'zor, rec'tor, rig'or, ru'mor, sa'vor, sculp'tor, spon'sor, suc'cor, ta'bor, ter'ror, ten'or, tor'por, tre'mor, t[small u, macron]'mor, t[small u, macron]'tor, val'or, va'por, vic'tor, vig'or.

        8. An'ces-tor, bach'e-lor, chan'cel-lor, cred'i-tor, ed'i-tor, em'per-or, gov'ern-or, me'te-or, mon'i-tor, or'a-tor, sen'a-tor, vis'i-tor.

        9. A-bet'tor, ag-gress'or, as-sess'or, col-lector,

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con-duct or, con-fes'sor, con-trac'tor, cre-'ator cu-r'ator de-mea'nor, dic-t'ator, d[short i, breve]-vi'sor, e-le'tor, en-a'mor, e-qu'ator, im-po'stor, in-spec'tor, in struc'tor, in-ven'tor, n[small a, breve]r-r'ator, op-pres'sor, precep'tor, pro-fes'sor, pro-jec'tor, spec-t'ator, succes'sor, sur-v'ivor, tes-t'ator, tor-men'tor, transgres'sor, trans-l'ator.

        10. A'lli-ga-tor, a'rbi-tra-tor, ca'lcu-la-tor, co'mmen-ta-tor, cu'lti-va-tor, gla'di-a-tor, i'mi-ta-tor, i'nsti-ga-tor, m'edi-a-tor, mo'der-a-tor, na'vi-ga-tor, n'umer-a-tor, pe'rse-cu-tor, re'gu-la-tor, spe'cu la-tor, ve'nti-la-tor.

        11. Am-ba'ssa-dor, an-t'eri-or, com-pe'ti-tor, com-pos'i-tor, con-tri'bu-tor, con-sp[short i, breve]r'a-tor, de-pos'i-tor, ex-pos'i-tor, ex-t'eri-or, in-f'eri-or, in-t'eri-or, in-quis'i-tor, pos-t'eri-or, pro-ge'ni-tor, pro-pr'ie-tor, su-p'eri-or, ul-t'eri-or.

        12. Ben-e-fa'ctor, co-ad-j'utor, in-ter-ce'ssor, pred-e-ce'ssor, su-per-v'isor. -- Ad-min-is-tr'ator. Ca-lu'mni-[small a, macron]-tor.

Words ending in ony and ory, in which o has an easy sound of short o in got; final y an easy sound of short i.

        13. A'cri-mo-ny, a'li-mo-ny, a'nti-mo-ny, c[short e, breve]r'e-mo-ny, mat'ri-mo-ny, pa'rsi-mo-ny, pa'tri-mo-ny, tes'ti-mo-ny.

        14. A'lle-go-ry, a'ma-to-ry, di'la-to-ry, do'rmi-to-ry, e'xcre-to-ry, i'nven-to-ry, m'igra-to-ry, mo'ni-to-ry, n[small u, macron]'ga-to ry, prela-to-ry, pre'fa-to-ry,

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pro'mis-so-ry, pro'mon-to-ry, pu'rga-to-ry, rep'er-tory, te'rri-to-ry, tran'si-to-ry, v'ibra-to-ry.

        15. E'xpi-a-to-ry, j'udi-ca-to-ry, la'bo-ra-to-ry, o'bli-ga-to-ry. -- Con-ser'va-to-ry, con-so'la-to-ry, de-pi'la-to-ry, ob-ser'va-to-ry, pre-p[small a, breve]'ra-to-ry, repos'i-to-ry. -- E-ja'cu-la-to-ry. In-ter-ro'ga-to-ry.

Words ending in ot unaccented, in which o has an obscure sound nearly resembling that of u in but.

        16. A'bbot, ba'llot, fa'got, ma'ggot, p'ilot, r'iot, tu'rbot. -- Cha'ri-ot, i'di-ot, p'atri-ot.


        1--3. A chaldron of coal. Four quarts make a gallon. The last cion of the tree. A common felon. The talon of a bird. A tenon is the end of a timber fitted to another. The crime of arson. An ebon cloud. The act of a demon. A bad symptom. A ribbon for my apron. An iron flagon. Andirons for the hearth. A besom is a broom. A herd of bisons.

        4--6. Tough bacon. Blazon his worth. A crimson tint. My champion had no weapon. Halcyon days. The garrison holds out. A faded dandelion. Make a semicolon. A persimmon tree. She is at her orisons. Venison steaks. A benison on you! Caparison the steed. The plural of criterion is criteria. Abandon him to oblivion.

        7--9. A donor is one who gives. they punish the transgressor. Succor the needy. A bachelor of arts. The testator makes a will. Assessors were chosen. A dazzling meteor. An instructor of the poor. My tutor became a governor. The precursor of ruin. professor H--. The inventor was no impostor. The collector of the port.

        10--12. The gladiator was slain. My ulterior views. The coadjutor of the ambassador. The conspirators fled. The administrator of the estate. An administratrix must be a female. My progenitors. A patent ventilator. The compositor sets type. My predecessor in office. Be an arbitrator between us. No instigator of mischief. The chief inquisitor.

        13--16. She spoke with acrimony. Alimony was granted to her by the court. Prefatory remarks. An inventory of my goods. Dilatory boys. Predatory attempts. A promissory note. This transitory life. The promontory juts into the sea. A repertory of good sayings. Did you put an interrogatory? An ejaculatory remark. The depilatory spoiled my eyebrow.

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Lay it before the judicatory. A boiled turbot. They vote by ballot. A bundle of fagots. Honor the patriot. Bring out the chariot. A flower from the conservatory.

V. U in Final Syllables Unaccented

Words ending in um and us unaccented, in which u has an easy sound of short u, as in us, &c.

        1. A'lbum, a'lum, d'atum, f'orum, f[small u, breve]'lcrum, l[small a, breve]'rum, lu'strum, no'strum, oa'kum, qu'orum, ro'strum, spe'ctrum, str'atum, ve'llum.

        2. C[short e, breve]'re-brum, cr'ani-um, lau'da-num, ma'xi mum, m'edi-um, mi'ni-mum, 'odi-um, 'opi-um, pa'bu-lum, pen'du-lum, pla'ti-num, pr'emi-um, spe'cu-lum, t'edi-um, va'cu-um, ty'mpa-num.

        3. Ad-de'ndum, a-s'ylum, co-nu'ndrum, de-c'o-rum, la-bu'rnum, ly-c'eum, mo-men'tum, mu-s'eum, o-po'ssum, po-m'atum, ar-c'anum.

        4. Al-l'uvi-um, com-pen'di-um, de-l[short i, breve]'ri-um, emp'ori-um, en-c'omi-um, eu-l'ogi-um, ex-o'rdi-um, ge-r'ani-um, mil-le'nni-um, op-pr'obri-um, pal-l'a-di-um, sen-s'ori-um, stra-m'oni-um.

        5. Col-os-s'eum, in-ter-re'gnum, mem-o-ra'n-dum. E-qui-li'bri-um. De-sid-er-[small a, breve]'tum.

        6. B'onus, ce'nsus, ci'rcus, cr'ocus, f'ocus, g'enus, gra'mpus, l'otus, no'nplus, r'ebus, su'rplus.

        7. Ca'la-mus, e'xo-dus, g'eni-us, i'mpe-tus, i'ncu-bus, mi'tti-mus, na'uti-lus, n'ucle-us, o'mni-bus, po'ly-pus, r'adi-us, sti'mu-lus. -- As-be'stus, hi'atus, i-a'mbus, man-d'amus, nar-ci'ssus, pro-spe'c-tus, pa-p'yrus. -- As-p[small a, breve]'ra-gus. Ap-pa-r'atus, ig-no-r'amus, sal-e ra tus.

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Words in which ou in final syllables has an easy sound of short u.

        8. Bul'bous, ca'llous, cu'mbrous, de'xtrous, f'amous, f'ibrous, jo'yous, le'prous, mo'nstrous, p'ious, pom'pous, p'orous, ner'vous, righ'teous (pronounced r'ichus), vi'scous (pronounced vi'skus).

        9. A'mo-rous, 'aque-ous, cla'mor-ous, c'opi-ous, d'evi-ous, e'nvi-ous, fri'vo-lous, ge'ner-ous, gl'ori-ous, glu'tton-ous, i'mpi-ous, i'nfa-mous, l'ibel-ous, li'gne-ous, 'odor-ous, o'mi-nous, o'ner-ous, p[short e, breve]'rilous, pr'evi-ous, pro'sper-ous, ra'ven-ous, r'iot-ous, sca'ndal-ous, s'eri-ous, ti'mor-ous, va'lor-ous, v'apor ous, ve'nom-ous, vi'llain-ous, v'iper-ous, r'uin-ous, sp'uri-ous, tra'itor-ous.

        10. Dis-a'strous, e-no'rmous, por-ten'tous, sini'strous, so-n'orous, tre-me'ndous.

        11. Ab-st'emi-ous, am-bi'gu-ous, a-na'lo-gous, a-no'ma-lous, a-no'ny-mous, car-ni'vo-rous, cens'ori-ous, com-m'odi-ous, er-r'one-ous, fe-l'oni-ous, ge-la'ti-nous, gre-g'ari-ous, il-lu'stri-ous, im-pe'r-vi-ous, in-de'co-rous, in-du'stri-ous, in-j'uri-ous, in-vi'di-ous, le-g[small u, macron]'mi-nous, lu-g[small u, macron]'bri-ous, mel-li'f-lu-ous, mag-na'ni-mous, ne-f'ari-ous, ob-stre'per-ous, op-pr'obri-ous, pre-c'ari-ous, pre-po'ster-ous, su-pe'rflu-ous.

        12. Ac-ri-m'oni-ous, cer-e-m'oni-ous, del-e-t'e-ri-ous, gram-in-i'vo-rous, ho-mo-g'ene-ous, in-stant'ane-ous, mis-cel-l'ane-ous, par-si-m'oni-ous, pusil-la'ni-mous, sanc-ti-m'oni-ous, s'imul-t'ane-ous. -- Ex-tem-po-r'ane-ous, het-e-ro-g'ene-ous.

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Words in which ure final and unaccented has the sound of yur,
rhyming with her, but enounced without stress.

        13. Capture, cinct'ure, creat'ure, cult'ure, fail'ure, feat'ure, fig'ure, fixt'ure, flex'ure, fract'ure, fu'ture, gest'ure, joint'ure, junct'ure, lect'ure, mixt'ure, moist'ure, na'ture, nurt'ure.

        14. Ord'ure, past'ure, pict'ure, p[short o, breve]st'ure, punct'ure, rapt'ure, rupt'ure, script'ure, sculpt'ure, stat'ure, strict'ure, struct'ure, ten'ure, text'ure, tinct'ure, tort'ure, vent'ure, verd'ure, vest'ure, vult'ure.

        15. Ad-vent'ure, con-ject'ure, de-bent'ure, depart'ure, im-p[short o, breve]st'ure, in-dent'ure, pro-c[small e, macron]d'ure. -- Man-u-fact'ure, per-ad-vent'ure, su-per-struct'ure. Ag'ri-cult-ure, hor'ti-cult-ure. No'men-cl[small a, macron]-ture.


        1--4. A lustrum is a space of five years. Write in my album. A quorum not being present, the house adjourned. The plural of datum is data; of stratum, strata; of arcanum, arcana; of addendum, addenda. Pomatum for the hair. A state of delirium. A compendium of the news. From the musěum we went to the lyc[small e, macron]um.

        5--7. I made some memoranda in my memorandum book. The Colosseum yet stands. A correct census is a desideratum. Other desiderata are well-ventilated omnibuses and clean streets. A surplus crop. A crocus in bloom. The plural of stimulus is stimuli. A nucleüs, or kernel. A prospectus of our plan. An asparagus bed. Asbestus is often spelt asbestos. Put no saleratus in the bread. A hiatus, or gap. The judge issued a mittimus. That was indeed a nonplus. A tremendous storm.

        8--10 A viscous fluid. A callous hand. A leprous complaint. A righteous judgment. A cumbrous bundle. The previous question. A libelous charge; villainous, viperous, and mischievous. Copious rains. An onerous task. Ligneous deposits.

        11, 12. Disastrous shipwrecks. Nefarious frauds. Obstreperous hilarity. Preposterous conduct. A superfluous apology. Abstemious diet. Was the animal carnivorous or graminivorous? A pusillanimous assailant. An anomalous word. A hat impervious to rain. Gregarious animals.

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I. Sounds of F, G hard, J, K.

Words in which p and ph have the sound of f.

        1. Lymph, nymph, phase, phiz, phrase, sphere, sphinx, sylph.--Ca'liph, cam'phor, ci'pher, dau'phin, diph'thong,*

        * In diph'thong, triph'thong, and oph'thal-my, Walker gives the ph the sound of p; but this mode leads many persons to misspell the words, by omitting the h after p. We have given Webster's mode.

dol'phin, eph'od, graph'ic, hy'phen, neph'ew,*

        * Pronounced nev'ew by Walker.

or'phan, pam'phlet, phal'anx, phan'tom, pha'ros, phe'nix, ph[short e, breve]as'ant.

        2. Phil'ter, phys'ic, proph'et, sapphic (pronounced saf'fik), sap'phire (pronounced saf'f[small i, macron]re), s[short e, breve]r'aph, si'phon, soph'ist, sph[short e, breve]r'ic, sul'ph[small a, macron]te, sul'phur, triph'thong, tri'umph, tro'phy, ty'phus, zeph'yr, phon'ic.

        3. Al'pha-bet, aph'or-ism, at'mos-phere, at'rophy, blas'phe-my, el'e-phant, em'pha-sis, ep'[short i, breve]-t[small a, breve]ph, eu'pho-ny, hem'[short i, breve]s-phere, lith'o-gr[small a, breve]ph, met'a-phor, ne'o-phyte, oph'thal-my, p[small a, breve]r'a-phrase, p[small a, breve]r'a-gr[small a, breve]ph, pha'e-ton, phos'pho-rus, phar'ma-cy, proph'e-cy, proph'e-sy (when a verb), soph'is-try, soph'o-more, sph[short e, breve]r'i-cal, sul'phur-ous, syc'o-phant, sym'pho-ny, tele-graph, zo'o-phyte.

        4. As-phal'tic, de-ci'pher, em-phat'ic, lymphat'ic, me-phit'ic, phleg-mat'ic, pho-net'ic, prophet'ic, tri-um'phant.

        5. A-ceph'a-lous, am-phib'i-ous, a-pocry-phal,

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a-pos'tro-phe, bi-og'ra-phy, ca-lig ra-phy, ca-tas' tro-phe, cos-mog'ra-phy, di-aph'a-nous, e-ph[short e, breve]m'e-ral, e-piph'a-ny, ge-og'ra-phy, or-thog'ra-phy, pe-riph' ra-sis, phe-nom'e-non, phle-bot'o-my, phi-lan-thro-py, phi-lol'o-gy, phi-los'o-pher, phy-lac'ter-y, sar-coph'a-gus, ste-nog'ra-phy, to-pog'ra-phy, ty-pog'ra-phy.

        6. Met-a-phys'ics, phos-pho-res'cent. Am-phi-the'a-ter, hy-dro-pho'bi-a, lex-i-cog'ra-phy, met-a-mor'pho-sis, phys-i-og'no-my. P[small a, breve]r-a-pher-na'li-a.

        Gh has the sound of f in chough, cough, draught, laugh, rough, trough, enough. These words have been already introduced under their appropriate vowel sounds.

Words in which g before e, i, or y, has its hard sound, as in bag.

        7. Gear, geese, get, gift, gig, gild, gills, gimp, gird, girl, girth, give. Be-gin'.

        8. Au'ger, bug'gy, crag'gy, dag'ger, drug'get, drug'gist, ea'ger, flog'ging, fog'gy, gew'gaw, gib'ber, gib'bous, gig'gle, gig'let, giz'zard, gim'let, ging'ham, gir'dle, leg'gin, mug'gy, rug'ged, scrag'gy, slug'gish, sog'gy, stag'ger, swag'ger, tar'get, ti'ger, trig'ger, wag'gish. -- Gib'ber-ish, log'ger-head, wag'ger-y. -- Pet'ti-fog-ger.

Words in which x has the sound of gz, as in ex-ist', pronounced egz-ist'.

        9. Ex-ile', ex-act, ex-alt, ex-empt, ex-ert, ex-hale, ex-haust, ex-hort, ex-ist, ex-ult. -- Ex-am'ine, ex-am'ple, ex-em'plar, ex-er'tion, ex hib'it ex-ist'ence, ex-ot'ic.

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        10 Anx-i'e-ty, aux-il'ia-ry, ex-ag'ger-ate, ex as'per-ate, ex-ec'u-tive, ex-ec'u-trix, ex-em'pli-fy, ex-hil'a-rate, ex-on'er-ate, ex-or'bi-tant, ex-or' di-um, ex-u'ber-ant, lux-u'ri-ant.

Words in which g before e or i, at the end of an accented syllable, has the sound of j.

        11. Ag'ile,*

        * These words being classified in reference to the soft sound of g, the italicizing of that letter, as in other instances where it has the sound of j in this volume, is here dispensed with.

dig'it, frag'ile, frig'id, log'ic, mag'ic, pig'eon, rig'id, trag'ic, vig'il. -- Ag'i-tate, cog'i-tate, leg'i-ble, f[small o, macron]rg'er-y, leg'is-late, log'i-cal, mag'is-trate, flag'eo-let, flag'el-late, prog'e-ny, reg'i-c[small i, macron]de, reg'i-men, reg'i-ment, reg'is-ter, veg'e-tate, vig'i-lant. Li-tig'ious, pro-dig'ious, re-lig'ious.

        12. Leg'is-la-tive, leg'is-la-t[small u, macron]re, mag'is-tra-cy, veg'e-ta-tive. Bel-lig'er-ent, ex-ag'ger-ate, ex-eg'-e-sis, im-ag'in-ing, in-dig'e-nous, o-rig'i-nal, re-frig'er-ate. -- Cog-i-ta'tion, leg-is-la'tion, reg-i-ment'al. -- Leg-er-de-main'.

        13. Ab-o-rig'i-nal, ab-o-rig'i-n[small e, macron]s, an-a-log'i-cal, car-ti-lag'i-nous, ge-o-log'i-cal, mu-ci-lag'i-nous, o-le-ag'i-nous, phil-o-log'i-cal, phre-no-log'i-cal, sag-it-ta'ri-us, tau-to-log'i-cal, the-o-log'i-cal, zo-o-log'i-cal. -- Gen-e-a-log'i-cal. Me-te-or-o-log'i-cal.

Words in which ge and gi have the sound of j.

        14. Blud'geon, bour'geon, dud'geon, dun'geon, gor'geous, gud'geon, sur'geon, stur'geon. Le'gion, re'gion. Pa'geant. Con-ta'gion, cour-a'geous,

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con-ta'gious, cur-mud'geon, e-gre'gious, out-ra'geous -- Ad-van-ta'geous, sac-ri-le'gious.

Words in which ch has the sound of k.

        When arch, signifying chief, begins a word from the Greek language, and is followed by a vowel, it is pronounced ark, as in arch'ive, &c.; but when arch is prefixed to a word of French or Saxon origin, it is pronounced to rhyme with march; as in arch-bishop, arch-fiend, &c.

        15. Ache, chasm, chord, chrome, chyle, conch, scheme, school, loch, chrism.--An'arch, an'chor, arch'[small i, macron]ves, cha'os, chem'ist, chlo'r[short i, breve]ne, chol'er, cho'rus, chron'ic, dis'tich, drach'ma, ech'o, ep'och, lich'en, mech'lin, mon'arch, or'chis, p[small a, breve]s'chal, sched'[small u, macron]le, sch[short i, breve]r'rus, pi'broch, schol'ar, schoon'er, stom'ach, strych'n[short i, breve]ne, su'm[small a, breve]ch, te'trarch, tro'chee, cho'ral, mas'tich.

        16. Al'che-mist, al'che-my, an'chor-age, an'cho-ret, an'ar-chy, ar'che-type, ar'chi-tect, ar'chi-tr[small a, macron]ve, bac'cha-nal, bron'chi-al, cat'e-chism, cat'e-ch[small i, macron]se, cham'o-m[small i, macron]le, char'ac-ter, chem'ist-ry, chlo'ro-form, chol'er-a, chor'is-ter, chron'i-cle, chrys'a-lis, chrys'-o-l[small i, macron]te, eu'cha-rist, harp'si-chord, hep'tar-chy.

        17. Hi'e-rarch, in'cho-ate, lach'ry-mal, lach'ry-m[small o, macron]se, mach'i-n[small a, macron]te, mech'a-nism, mich'ael-mas, or'ches-tra, pa'tri-arch, pen'ta-teuch, sac'cha-r[short i, breve]ne, sep'ul-cher, syn'chro-nism, tech'ni-cal, hem'i-stich. -- Arch-[small a, macron]n'gel, cha-ot'ic, chi-me'ra, chro-mat'ic me-chan'ic, scho-las'tic, se-pul'chral. Mel'an-chol-y.

        18. An-ach'ro-nism, chal-ced'o-ny, cha-lyb'e-ate, cha-me'le-on, chi-m[short e, breve]r'i-cal, chi-rur'ge-ry, chi-rog'ra-phy,

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chro-nol'o-gy, chro-nom'e-ter, pa-ro'chi-al, psy-chol'o-gy, syn-ecdo-che, me-chan'i-cal - Ar-chæ-ol'o-gy, ar-ch[short i, breve]-pel'a-go. Char-ac-teristic, me-temp-sy-cho'sis.

Words in which q has the sound of k, and the following u is unsounded.

        19. Con'quer, lac'quer, liq'uor, piq'uant.--Co-quette', p[short i, breve]-quet, qua-drille.--Ex-cheq'uer, mos-qui'to.--Et-i-quette', mas-quer-ade, pal-an-quin, p[small a, breve]r-o-quet.

Words in which que has the sound of k.

        Where i occurs before q in the following words, it has the sound of e long. In hough (h[short o, breve]k) gh has the sound of k.

        20. Pique. An-tique', cri-tique, ob-lique, o-paque, u-nique. Bur-lesque', gro-tesque. Stat-[small u, macron]-esque'.

Words in which q ending a syllable has the sound of k, and the following u the sound of w.

        21. Aq'ue-duct, aq'ui-l[short i, breve]ne, eq'ui-page, eq'ui-ty, liq'uid-ate, liq'ue-fy, req'u[short i, breve]-site. -- An-tiq'ui-ty, in-iq'ui-ty, ob-liq'ui-ty, u-biq'ui-ty.


        1--3. The nymph had a sylph-like form. My orphan nephew shot a pheasant. A dying dolphin. A graphic description. A pharos or light-house. The sphinx's riddle. A pure atmosphere. Alphabet is from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet, alpha and beta. He drove a phaëton. A paraphrase of a poem. They formed a phalanx. The sophomore class. A strange metaphor. An improper diphthong. Heed the emphasis. I prophesy that you will fail. Your prophecy will fail.

        4--6. A phlegmatic temper. A mephitic odor. An amphibious animal The apocryphal books. Say this phenomenon, these phenomena; never use

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the last word as in the singular number. We sound the g in physiognomy. A phosphorescent light. Topography is a description of places. Typography is the art of printing. A diaphanous complexion. John's book: -- point to the apostrophe; the colon; the semicolon; the dash. A metamorphosis, or change of shape. A sarcophagus is a sort of stone coffin. What a catastrophe! Philology has reference to the study of languages. Phlebotomy is the art of blood-letting.

        7--10. Gimp is a kind of silk twist. Give me the gimlet. He talks gibberish. The moon has a gibbous appearance. They giggle and gibber. An executive officer. An auxiliary verb. We sound the h in exhort, exhaust, exhibit, exhilarate. An exotic plant. An exuberant growth. Your anxiety exaggerates the danger. An exorbitant price. The gills of a fish. An exordium, or introduction. Examine the target. Exempt from danger Do not exasperate her.

        11--14. An agile dancer. A magic lantern. A litigious magistrate. Play on the flageolet. The legislature is in session. A carrier pigeon. Meteorological observations. Phrenological developments. A prodigious student. A sacrilegious theft. A courageous surgeon. A noble pageant. A tautological epithet. The zoölogical gardens. An advantageous arrangement. Dark as a dungeon. The trees bourgeon (pronounced bur'jun). The American aborigines. Indigenous to the soil.

        15--17. Pick up the conch. Chyle is formed in the stomach. Repeat the distich; also the hemistich. A bronchial complaint. The archives of the state. Catechise the architect. Tread on the chamomile. Strychnine is poison. An epoch in our history. Mastich or mastic. A schedule of my losses. Michaelmas day. A melancholy, lachrymose tragedy. A perfect chrysolite. A book on chemistry. The architrave of the edifice. A safe anchorage. An inchoäte habit. The patriarch of the pentateuch. Technical words. Lichen from the rock. Mechlin lace. A fast schooner. The dentist administered chloroform.

        18. A parochial visit. The chronometer keeps good time. That date is an anachronism. The Archipelago is between Greece and Asia Minor. A chalybeate spring. Fair chirography. The hues of the chameleon. A characteristic act. (Remember that ch has its sound of tsh, as in much, march, &c., in words like the following: arch-bishop, arch-deacon, arch-duke, arch-enemy, arch-fiend, &c.) Chalcedony is a silicious stone. A chimerical scheme. Chronology treats of the dates of events.

        19--21. A statuesque posture. A grotesque gesture. You pique her curiosity. A critique on her style. An aquiline nose. The Croton aqueduct. Liquidate the bill. A splendid equipage. An antique gem. The power of ubiquity. The requisite amount. The Chancellor of the Exchequer A frivolous coquette. A piquant story. A mosquito-bar. Etiquette at a masquerade. Lacquer the box.

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II. Sounds of L, M, NG, S.

Words ending with the sound of l; final e unsounded.

        The addition of d or of s to any of these words leaves the e of the last syllable still unsounded. Should a final s be added, it takes the sound of z.

        1. A'ble, ad'dle, am'ble, ap'ple, ax'le, bab'ble, bat'tle, bot'tle, bram'ble, bub'ble, buck'le, bun'dle, ca'ble, cack'le, can'dle, cat'tle, cra'dle, crip'ple, crum'ble, cur'dle, daz'zle, dwin'dle, fa'ble, fid'dle, fum'ble, ga'ble, gen'tle, gir'dle, grap'ple, grid'dle, gur'gle, i'dle, han'dle, jog'gle.

        2. Kin'dle, la'dle, lit'tle, man'tle, ma'ple, med'dle, muf'fle, net'tle, nib'ble, nim'ble, noz'zle, o'gle, pad'dle, ped'dle, pick'le, pud'dle, pur'ple, quid'dle, raf'fle, ram'ble, rat'tle, rid'dle, ri'fle, rip'ple, sam'ple, scram'ble, scrib'ble, scru'ple, scuf'fle, scut'tle, set'tle, shack'le, shut'tle, smug'gle.

        3. Spar'kle, speck'le, sta'ble, star'tle, sti'fle, stop'ple, strad'dle, strag'gle, sup'ple, swin'dle, ta'ble, tack'le, tat'tle, tem'ple, thim'ble, throt'tle, tick'le, ti'tle, tit'tle, tram'ple, treb'le, trem'ble, trick'le, trip'le, tum'ble, tur'tle, tus'sle, whee'dle, whif'fle, whit'tle.

        4. Ar'ti-cle, bar'na-cle, bin'na-cle, ed'i-ble, flex'i-ble, i'ci-cle, man'a-cle, mul'ti-ple, ob'sta-cle, or'a-cle, par'ti-cle, pin'na-cle, pos'si-ble, pre'[small a, breve]m-ble, ris'i-ble, sens'i-ble, spec'ta-cle, sol'u-ble, tan'gi-ble, t[small u, macron]'ber-cle, ve'hi-cle, vend'i-ble, ven'tri-cle, ves'i-cle

        5. As-sem'ble, dis-ci'ple, em-bez'zle, en a'ble,

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en-fee'ble, re-sem'ble. Tab'er-na-cle, par'ti-ci-ple Con-ven'ti-cle.

        6. Ap'ples, ca'bles, dim'ples, pick'les, ta'bles. Bri'dled, crip'pled, kin'dled, rat'tled, tram'pled, whit'tled.

Words ending with m after a consonant.

        Where s occurs before final m in these words, it has the sound of z in gaze. Let the pure consonant sound of the m be given. Do not say el'um, hel'um, &c.

        7. Elm, helm, prism, rhythm, spasm, whelm. -- Bap'tism, sar'casm, tru'ism.--An'gli-cism, a'the-ism, bar'ba-rism, crit'i-cism, des'po-tism, e'go-tism, ex'or-cism, gal'va-nism, hea'then-ism, h[short e, breve]r'o-ism, ju'da-ism, log'a-rithm.

        8. Mag'ne-tism, os'tra-cism, ma'cro-cosm, mi'cro-cosm, mys'ti-cism, nep'o-tism, pa'gan-ism, pan'the-ism, p[small a, breve]r'ox-ysm, ple'o-nasm, pu'gi-lism, skep'ti-cism, sol'e-cism, sto'i-cism, syl'lo-gism, van'dal-ism, wit'ti-cism, vul'gar-ism.

        9. Lib'er-ti-nism, pa'tri-ot-ism, pla'gi-a-rism, pol'y-the-ism, prot'es-tant-ism, pu'ri-tan-ism. -- An-tag'o-nism, ca-thol'i-cism, em-p[short i, breve]r'i-cism, en-thusi-asm, fa-nat'i-cism, som-nam'bu-lism, ven-tril'o-quism.

Words in which n before g has the sound of ng in thing, and the
g has its hard sound, as in bag.

        In the following words the sound of g hard goes to the subsequent syllable, while the elementary sound ng is represented by the substitute n in the preceding syllable.

        10. An'ger, an'gle, bun'gle, clan'gor, con'gress,

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dan'gle, fin'ger, fun'gus, gan'gr[small e, macron]ne, hun'ger, in'gle, in'got, jan'gle, jin'gle, lin'ger, lon'ger, man'gle, man'go, min'gle, shin'gle, sin'gle, span'gle, tan'gle, tin'gle, youn'ger. Sy-rin'ga.

Words in which n before the sound of k (whether represented by k, c, or q), also before g hard, has the sound of ng.

        11. An'kle, con'cord, con'course, con'quest, con'quer, tran'quil. De-lin'quent, dis-tin'guish, dis-tinct'ly, e-lon'gate, ex-tin'guish, re-lin'quish

Words in which c before e or i, and ending a syllable, has the sound of s in sin.

        12. Ac'id, doc'[short i, breve]le, fac'et, fac'[short i, breve]le, plac'id, proc'ess, tac'it. Dec'i-mal, dec'i-mate, lac'er-ate, mac'er-ate, pac'i-fy, prec'e-dent, prec'i-pice, rec'i-pe, spec'i-fy, spec'i-men, tac'i-turn, vac'il-late, vic'in-age. -- E-lic'it, ex-plic'it, il-lic'it, im-plic'it, in-doc'[short i, breve]le, so-lic'it. -- Nec'es-sa-ry. Sac-er-do'tal.

        13. An-tic'i-pate, a-troc'i-ty, au-dac'-ity, ca-pac'i-ty, com-plic'i-ty, du-plic'ity, ex-ac'er-bate, fe-lic'i-ty, fe-roc'i-ty, lo-quac'i-ty, me-dic'i-nal, men-dac'i-ty, men-dic'i-ty, mu-nic'i-pal, o-pac'i-ty, par-tic'i-pate, pub-lic'i-ty, ra-pac'ity, rhi-noc'e-ros, rus-tic'i-ty, sa-gac'i-ty, sim-plic'i-ty, so-lic'i-tor, so-lic'i-t[small u, macron]de, ve-loc'i-p[small e, macron]de, ve-loc'i-ty, ve-rac'i-ty, vi-vac'i-ty, vo-rac'i-ty. Un-prec'e-dent-ed.

        14. Au-then-tic'i-ty, du-o-dec'i-mo. e-las-tic'i-ty, ec-cen-tric'i-ty, e-lec-tric'i-ty, mul-ti-plic'i-ty, per-spi-cac'i-ty, per-ti-nac'i-ty, r[short e, breve]c-i-proc'i-ty.

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        The following words, compounded with dis, a Latin prefix sig nifying disjunction, undoing, &c., are spelled with double s

        15. Dis-sect', dis-sent, dis-suade. Dis'si-dent, dis'si-pate, dis'so-lute, dis'so-nant. Dis-sem'ble, dis-sen'sion, dis-sent'er, dis-sev'er. Dis-sat'is-fy, dis-sem'i-nate, dis-sim'i-lar, dis-syl'la-ble. Dis-serta'tion. Dis-sim-u-la'tion.

Words in which c and sc have the sound of s in sin.

        16. Cres'cent, mus'cle, vis'cid. Scin'til-late, sci'ence, scis'sors. Ar'bus-cle, fas'ci-nate, mis'ci-ble, sus'ci-tate, vis'ce-ral. Mis'cel-la-ny. Ac-qui-esce', co-a-lesce, ef-fer-vesce, ef-flo-resce.

        17. As-cet'ic, ex-cres'cence, pro-bos'cis, pu-tres'cence, qui-es'cence, tran-scend'ent. Ac-qui-es'cence, ad-o-les'cent, con-va-les cence, ef-fer-ves'cent, rem-i-nis'cence. De-scend'. De-scend' ant.


        1--5. The axle-tree broke. A buckle for my belt. The bubble burst. Mend the whiffle-tree of the vehicle. This gum is soluble. To manacle is to shackle. The beloved disciple. A particle of dust. A light in the binnacle. Why all this preamble? An edible fruit. My risible faculties. A tangible icicle. A barnacle on the ship. A flexible cane. Twelve is a multiple of three. We stood on the pinnacle. The nozzle of the bellows. A silver thimble. A supple figure. He tried to embezzle funds intrusted to him. The conventicle is in session.

        6--8. The pilot at the helm. The rhythm of the verse. She showed h[short e, breve]roism in the act. His enthusiasm is much like fanaticism. A cruel sarcasm. Macrocosm, the great or whole world, is in contradistinction to the microcosm, or little world of man. A paroxysm of grief. A solecism or impropriety. Polytheism is a belief in a plurality of gods. A pleonasm is a redundant expression in speaking or writing. Skepticism is doubt on any subject.

        9, 10. A sprained ankle. Relinquish your hold. She spoke in anger. A

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syringa bush. A mushroom is a fungus. An ingot is a wedge of gold or silver. The younger delinquent. Shingle the roof. A concourse of people. I heard him distinctly. Elongate the belt. His conquest was complete. He came, he saw, he conquered. Do not languish in my absence. Linger not. My finger tingles. The clangor of arms.

        11, 12. A docile learner. An acid plum. The facets of a prism. A placid temper. You gave a tacit consent. A new process of making paper. Here is a specimen. Unpr[short e, breve]cedented voracity. Try the velocipede. It moves with velocity. Her loquacity is tedious. You exacerbate her anger His complicity was proved. I said mendicity, not mendacity. A municipal court. Elicit the truth. An illicit traffic. A s[small a, breve]cerdotal robe. A doubtful precedent. A necessary expense. Why so taciturn? Macerate the berries. He will decimate the prisoners. An explicit demand. A medicinal quality. Participate in my joy. A recipe from the physician. Give publicity to the report.

        13--15. A duodecimo volume. I doubt its authenticity. A reciprocity treaty. An amusing miscellany. A postscript to the letter. A lady of transcendent beauty. My reminiscence accords with yours. I am dissatisfied with your dissensions. A dissipated and dissolute fellow. They disseminate mischief. Dissimilar tempers. Never dissemble. The dissenters met. Dissect is a dissyllable. Dissuade her from indulging in such dissensions. A dissonant tone. Dissever the tie. Dissimulation is a disgrace. He read a dissertation.

        16, 17. The liquid will effervesce. A viscid mixture. His perspicacity led him to anticipate the result. An arbuscle, or dwarf tree. A visceral complaint. Rely on my acquiescence. His proboscis formed a singular excrescence. Ascetic habits. May his convalescence be speedy. Adolescence is the age between childhood and manhood.

III. The Sound of SH in Shine.

        The digraph ch, when pronounced tsh, indicates a purely English word; as child, each: pronounced as sh, it implies that the word is from the French; as chaise, chagrin: and pronounced as k, as in monarch, it implies that the word is from the Greek.

Words in which ch has the sound of sh in shine.

        1. Chaise. Stan'chion, trun'cheon. Char'la-tan, chev'er-il, chiv'al-ry, mar'chion-ess, p[small a, breve]r'a-chute, sen'es-chal. -- Cha-rade, cha-grin, cham-pagne

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cham-paign, Cham-plain, che-mise,*

        * The i in chemise, machine, machinery, capuchin, and the ie in chandelier, &c., have the sound of e long.

chi-cane , ma-chine,*

        * The i in chemise, machine, machinery, capuchin, and the ie in chandelier, &c., have the sound of e long.

mus-tache, ga-l[small o, macron]che. -- Ma-chin'er y. Cap-u-chin', chan-de-lier, chev-a-lier, chif-fo-nier, non-cha-lance, av-a-lanche. Cha-mois'.*

        * Pronounced sh[small a, breve]m-wa' -- the last a as in war.

Words in which ce, ci, and sci, have the sound of sh.

        2. Con'science, [small a, macron]n'cient, gra'cious, Gre'cian, lus'cious, o'cean, pres'cient, so'cial, spa'cious, spe'cie, spe'cies, spe'cious. -- A-ca'cia, ap-pre'ciate, as-so'ciate, a-tro'cious, au-da'cious, ca-pa'cious, co-er'cion, com-mer'cial, crus-ta'ceous, de-pre'ciate.

        3. E-ma'ciate, e-nun'ciate, ex-cru'ciate, fal-la'cious, fe-ro'cious, fi-nan'cial, her-ba'ceous, lo-qua'cious, men-da'cious, pre-co'cious, pro-vin'cial, ra-pa'cious, sa-ga'cious, se-qua'cious, te-na'cious, tes-ta'ceous, ve-ra'cious, vi-va'cious, vo-ra'cious. -- Ar-gil-la'ceous, brag-ga-do'cio, con-tu-ma'cious, ef-fi-ca'cious, far-i-na'ceous, per-ti-na'cious. Unconscion-a-ble.

Words in which ci has the sound of sh, and is united in sound with the preceding syllable, the final vowel of which is short.

        4. Pre'cious, spe'cial, vi'cious. -- Aus-pi'cious, ca-pri'cious, de-fi'cient, de-li'cious, ef-fi'cient, espe'cial, ju-di'cial, ju-di'cious, lo-gi'cian, ma-gi'cian, ma-li'cious, mu-si'cian, of-fi'cial, of-fi'cious, om-nis'cience, op-ti'cian, pa-tri'cian, per-ni'cious, phy-si'cian, pro-fi'cient, si-li'cious, suf-fi'cient, sus-pi'cion.

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        5. Ar-ti-fi'cial, av-a-ri'cious, ben-e-fi'cial, pol-i-ti'cian, rhet-o-ri'cian, su-per-fi'cial. -- Ac-ad-e mi'-cian, a-rith-me-ti'cian, math-e-ma-ti'cian. -- Ef-fi'-cien-cy, ju-di'cia-ry, pro-fi'cien-cy.

Words in which si in sion final and unaccented has the sound of sh.

        Give the o in sion an easy sound of short u. When si is preceded by s (as in passion) the first s is merged in the sound of sh, and the word pronounced as if written pash'un. In cas'sia, nau'sea, nau'seous, se and si have the sound of sh.

        6. Ces'sion, man'sion, mis'sion, pas'sion, pen'sion, ten'sion, ver'sion. -- Ac-ces'sion, ad-mis'sion, aggres'sion, as-cen'sion, as-per'sion, a-ver'sion, commis'sion, com-pas'sion, com-pres'sion, com-pul'sion, con-ces'sion, con-cus'sion, con-fes'sion, con-ver'sion, con-vul'sion, de-clen'sion, de-pres'sion.

        7. Di-gres'sion, di-men'sion, dis-cus'sion, dis-mis'sion, dis-per'sion, di-ver'sion, ex-cur'sion, ex-pan'sion, ex-pres'sion, ex-pul'sion, ex-ten'sion, im-pres'sion, im-pul'sion, in-cur'sion, in-ver'sion, o mis'sion, op-pres'sion, per-cus'sion, per-ver'sion.

        8. Pos-ses'sion, pre-ten'sion, pro-ces'sion, pro-fes'sion, pro-gres'sion, re-mis'sion, re-ver'sion, se-ces'sion, sub-mis'sion, sub-ver'sion, suc-ces'sion sup-pres'sion, sus-pen'sion, tr[small a, breve]ns-gres'sion. -- Ap-pre-hen'sion, com-pre-hen'sion, con-de-scen'sion, in-ter-ces'sion, in-ter-mis'sion, man-[small u, macron]-mis'sion, re-per-cus'sion, rep-re-hen'sion. An-i-mad-ver'sion.

Words in which ti has the sound of sh.

        9. Ac'tion, cap'tion, cap'tious, cau'tion, dic'tion,

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fac'tion, fic'tion, frac'tion, frac'tious, fric'tion, func'tion, lo'tion, mar'tial, men'tion, mo'tion, na'tion, no'tion, nup'tial, op'tion, pa'tient, par'tial, p[small o, macron]r'tion, quo'tient, ra'tio, ra'tion, sa'tiate, sec'tion, sen'tient, sta'tion, suc'tion, unc'tion, vi'tiate.

        10. Ab-duc'tion, ab-lu'tion, ab-sorp'tion, ab-strac'tion, a-dop'tion, af-fec'tion, af-flic'tion, ap-p[small o, macron]rtion, as-ser'tion, as-sump'tion, at-ten'tion, at-trac'tion, col-lec'tion, con-cep'tion, con-junc'tion, con-nec'tion, con-struc'tion, con-sump'tion, con-trac'tion, con-ven'tion, con-vic'tion, cor-rup'tion, cre-a'tion, cre-den'tials, de-cep'tion, de-duc'tion, de-jec'tion.

        11. De-scrip'tion, de-ser'tion, de-struc'tion, de-tec'tion, dis-sec'tion, dis-tinc'tion, dis-tor'tion, dis-trac'tion, e-jec'tion, e-lec'tion, e-mo'tion, e-qua'tion, es-sen'tial, ex-cep'tion, ex-pa'tiate, ex-tinc'tion, ex-trac'tion, fa-ce'tious, for-ma'tion, foun-da'tion, frus-tra'tion, im-pa'tient, in-duc'tion, in-er'tia, in-gra'tiate, in-fla'tion, in-fec'tious.

        12. In-sa'tiate, in-scrip'tion, in-ser'tion, in-spec'tion, in-struc'tion, li-cen'tious, mi-gra'tion, n[small a, breve]r-ra'tion, ne-go'tiate, ob-jec'tion, ob-struc'tion, o-ra'tion, per-cep'tion, plan-ta'tion, po-ten'tial, pre-dic'tion, pre-emp'tion, pre-scrip'tion, pre-sump'tion, pro-duc tion, pro-mo'tion, pros-tra'tion, pro-tec'tion, pru-den tial, pul-sa'tion, quo-ta'tion.

        13. Re-ac tion, re-cep'tion, re-demp'tion, re-ple'tion, re-flec'tion, re-frac'tion, re-stric'tion, re-sump'tion, ro-ta'tion, sal-va'tion, se-cre'tion, se-lec'tion, sen-ten'tious, stag-na'tion, sub-jec'tion, sub-scrip'tion,

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sub-stan'tial, sub-trac'tion, tax-a'tion, temp-ta'tion, trans-ac'tion, trans-la'tion, va-ca'tion, vex-a'tious, vi-bra'tion, vo-ca'tion.

  • 14 Ab di ca'tion
  • ab er ra tion
  • ab ju ra tion
  • ab so lu tion
  • ac cla ma tion
  • ac cu sa tion
  • ad ap ta tion
  • ad mi ra tion
  • af fir ma tion
  • ag gra va tion
  • al ter ca tion
  • am pu ta tion
  • an nex a tion
  • ap pel la tion
  • ap pli ca tion
  • ap pro ba tion
  • ar bi tra tion
  • as sig na tion
  • at tes ta tion
  • ben e dic tion
  • cal cu la tion
  • cel e bra tion
  • cir cu la tion
  • cir cum spec tion
  • com bi na tion
  • com mu ta tion
  • Com pen sa'tion
  • con fis ca tion
  • con fla gra tion
  • con fu ta tion
  • con ju ga tion
  • con se cra tion
  • con se quen tial
  • con stel la tion
  • con ster na tion
  • con ver sa tion
  • cor po ra tion
  • cul ti va tion
  • de bar ka tion
  • dec la ma tion
  • dec li na tion
  • ded i ca tion
  • de fal ca tion
  • def a ma tion
  • de lec ta tion
  • del e ga tion
  • dem on stra tion
  • dep u ta tion
  • des o la tion
  • det es ta tion
  • det o na tion
  • dev as ta tion
  • 15. De vi a'tion
  • dil a ta tion
  • dis ser ta tion
  • dis si pa tion
  • dis til la tion
  • el o cu tion
  • em a na tion
  • em en da tion
  • em i gra tion
  • en er va tion
  • e qui noc tial
  • ex ca va tion
  • ex cla ma tion
  • ex ha la tion
  • ex pec ta tion
  • ex pi ra tion
  • ex ult a tion
  • fas ci na tion
  • flag el la tion
  • gen er a tion
  • g[short e, breve]n u flec tion
  • grav i ta tion
  • hab i ta tion
  • hes i ta tion
  • il lus tra tion
  • im i ta tion
    Page 112

  • Im pli ca'tion
  • in car na tion
  • in cu ba tion
  • in flam ma tion
  • in flu en tial
  • in for ma tion
  • in no va tion
  • in spi ra tion
  • in stal la tion
  • in sur rec tion
  • in ter jec tion
  • in ter rup tion
  • in to na tion
  • in tro duc tion
  • in un da tion
  • in vi ta tion
  • is o la tion
  • ju ris dic tion
  • lam en ta tion
  • lib er a tion
  • lim i ta tion
  • lit i ga tion
  • lo co mo tion
  • mal e dic tion
  • mod u la tion
  • mas ti ca tion
  • me di a tion
  • med i ta tion
  • mit i ga tion
  • mol es ta tion
  • 16. Nav i ga'tion
  • ob scu ra tion
  • ob ser va tion
  • oc cu pa tion
  • op er a tion
  • or di na tion
  • os cil la tion
  • os ten ta tion
  • pal li a tion
  • pal pi ta tion
  • per fo ra tion
  • per pe tra tion
  • per spi ra tion
  • per tur ba tion
  • pes ti len tial
  • pre con cep tion
  • prep a ra tion
  • pre di lec tion
  • pres en ta tion
  • pres i den tial
  • proc la ma tion
  • pro mul ga tion
  • pro ro ga tion
  • pros e cu tion
  • prot es ta tion
  • prov i den tial
  • pub li ca tion
  • r[small a, breve]r e fac tion
  • rec ol lec tion
  • rec re a tion
  • Ref or ma'tion
  • rep ro ba tion
  • res ig na tion
  • res o lu tion
  • res ur rec tion
  • ret ri bu tion
  • rev e la tion
  • rev er en tial
  • rev o lu tion
  • sal i va tion
  • sal u ta tion
  • sep a ra tion
  • sib i la tion
  • sim u la tion
  • spec u la tion
  • spo li a tion
  • stip u la tion
  • suf fo ca tion
  • su per scrip tion
  • sup pli ca tion
  • trep i da tion
  • trit u ra tion
  • ul cer a tion
  • un du la tion
  • u sur pa tion
  • vac cin a tion
  • val u a tion
  • ven ti la tion
  • vis i ta tion
  • val e dic tion

Page 113

  • 17. Ab bre vi a'tion
  • ad ju di ca tion
  • ad min is tra tion
  • al lit er a tion
  • a mal ga ma tion
  • am pli fi ca tion
  • ap pro pri a tion
  • as sas si na tion
  • as sim i la tion
  • cir cum lo cu tion
  • clas si fi ca tion
  • col o ni za tion
  • com mis er a tion
  • con fed er a tion
  • Co op er a'tion
  • cor rob o ra tion
  • de lin e a tion
  • de ter mi na tion
  • dis sem i na tion
  • dis sim u la tion
  • e man ci pa tion
  • e quiv o ca tion
  • e vac u a tion
  • e vap o ra tion
  • ex am i na tion
  • for ti fi ca tion
  • ges tic u la tion
  • hu mil i a tion
  • 18. In car cer a tion
  • in oc u la tion
  • in t[short e, breve]r ro ga tion
  • mul ti pli ca tion
  • or gan i za tion
  • p[short e, breve]r e grin a tion
  • pro cras ti na tion
  • pro nun ci a tion
  • ram i fi ca tion
  • re al i za tion
  • re cip ro ca tion
  • re it er a tion
  • rep re sen ta tion
  • re tal i a tion
  • re verb er a tion
  • sig ni fi ca tion
  • sol em ni za tion
  • ter gi ver sa tion
  • trans fig u ra tion
  • va ri e ga tion
  • ver si fi ca tion
  • vo cif er a tion
  • Ex e cu'tion er
  • pen i ten tia ry
  • prov i den tial ly
  • Plen i po ten'tia ry
  • Pro p[small o, macron]r tion al'i ty
  • Cir cum nav i ga'tion
  • in ter lin e a tion
  • Su p[short e, breve]r er o ga'tion

Page 114

Words in which ti has the sound of sh, and is united, in pronunciation, with the preceding syllable, the accented vowel of which is short.

        19. Na'tion-al, ra'tion-al. -- Ad-di'tion, am-bi'tion, at-tri'tion, con-di'tion, con-tri'tion, dis-cre'tion, e-di'tion, fic-ti'tious, fla-gi'tious, fru-i'tion, ig-ni'tion, in-i'tial, in-i'tiate, mi-li'tia, mo-ni'tion, mu-ni'tion, nu-tri'tion, par-ti'tion, per-di'tion, pe-ti'tion, po-si'tion, pro-pi'tious, se-di tious, sol-sti'tial, tra-di'tion, tu-i'tion, vo-li'tion.

        20. Ab-o-li tion, ac-qui-si'tion, ad-ven-ti'tious, am-mu-ni'tion, ap-pa-ri'tion, ap-po-si'tion, co-a-li'tion, com-pe-ti'tion, com-po-si'tion, def-i-ni'tion, dep-o-si'tion, dis-po-si'tion, eb-[small u, breve]l-li'tion, [short e, breve]r-[small u, macron]-di'tion, ex-hi-bi'tion, ex-pe-di'tion, ex-po-si'tion, im-po-si'tion, in-qui-si'tion, op-po-si'tion, pre-mo-ni'tion, prep-o-si'tion, pro-hi-bi'tion, rec-og-ni'tion, rep-e-ti'tion, su-per-sti'tion, sup-po-si'tion, trans-po-si'tion. -- Prac-ti'tion-er. In-i'tia-to-ry, pro-pi'tia-to-ry.

Words in which s, followed by u, has the sound of sh.

        21. Sure. Cen'sure, fis'sure, press'ure, su'gar, su mac, sure'ty. Cy'no-sure. As-sure'. As-sur'ance, in-sur'ance.


        1, 2. The marshal's truncheon. A stanchion or prop. On Lake Champlain. The charlatan came in a chaise. The chevalier has shaved off his mustache. The aëronaut came down in a parachute. An avalanche swept away the hut. The marchioness treated him with nonchalance. The chandelier fell. Ingenious machines. A gracious smile. A specious pretence I use no coërcion. Her knowledge seems like prescience. A luscious grape. Pay me in specie. She pines with chagrin A lobster is crustaceous; an

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oyster, testaceous. Champagne wine. By a champaign country, we mean an open, level country.

        3--5. A veracious narrative. An argillaceous or clayey soil. Farinaceous food. Efficacious medicine. A contumacious boy. A pertinacious blunderer. A voracious fish. A special verdict. A precious baby. An auspicious beginning. A capricious and superficial little lady. An efficient teacher. A sufficient suspicion. A silicious or flinty earth. Her proficiency amazes. A politician, but no rhetorician. An officious, avaricious man. A ready arithmetician. Reverence the Omniscient One.

        6--8. A balloon ascension. An unjust aspersion. Depression of spirits A long procession. False professions. In possession of property. A percussion cap. An animadversion on his transgression. Quick of apprehension. The queen's condescension. An excursion into the country. A succession of losses. The secession of our allies must lead to a suspension of hostilities. A nauseous draught. Is it cassia or cinnamon? A new version. An important mission. A fit of passion.

        9--11. The nuptial ceremony. A fractious child. A partial report. A captious critic. The ratio of in'crease. A sailor's rations. The convention met. They showed their credentials. A portion of the nation. The doctor has many patients. An infectious disease. A facetious youth. The frustration of my plans. You drive me to distraction. A description of the scene. Expatiate on it. Divide 12 by 3, and 4 is the quotient. The consumption of fuel. Inertia is want of action. A solid foundation. My morning ablution. The abduction of the maid.

        12, 13. Apt quotations. An inspection of troops. Inscriptions on tombstones. Preëmption rights. My heart's pulsation. Prudential policy. Obstructions in the road. Negotiate for the plantation. Filled to repletion. Rotation in office. A sententious style. A sum in subtraction. Give him your subscription. Shun temptations. A vexatious taxation. Stagnation in business. A reäction must be near.

        14, 15. The [small a, breve]daptation of the parts. An [small a, breve]ltercation among the students. A dilatation of the eyes. The confiscation of his property. A severe flagel-lation. Free from m[short o, breve]lestation. She holds him in d[short e, breve]testation. He sought an assignation. D[short e, breve]famation of character. An aberration from the right. Numerous [short e, breve]mendations. He accused her by implication. What is his appellation? A commutation of his sentence. The d[short e, breve]clination of the star. A ruinous conflagration.

        16, 17. The rarefaction of the air. He was fluent in his pr[short o, breve]testations A presidential proclamation. His conduct is without palliation. The oscillation of the pendulum. Let there be good ventilation. A reverential supplication. In vaccination the first c has the sound of k, the second the sound of s in so. A predilection in her favor. My recollection fails. The preparation for winter. The prorogation of parliament. A specimen of

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alliteration. The Colonization Society. Give me your coöperation A corroboration of the fact. Speak without circumlocution or amplification.

        18. A minister pl[short e, breve]nipotentiary. A work of supererogation. Procrastination is the thief of time. The circumnavigation of the globe. Never resort to tergiversation or evasion. A reciprocation of benefits. I met her in my p[short e, breve]regrinations. The multiplication table. A mark of interrogation. The reälization of my hopes. Study to be accurate in your pronunciation.

        19--21. A new edition. A rational ambition. Flagitious conduct. Munitions of war. A partition of the spoils. A partition of wood. He made deposition to the fact. An eb[small u, breve]llition of anger. The attrition of the stone has worn a hole. The ignition of the chips. A dishonest coälition. An initiatory explanation. Solstitial weather. A pressure in the money market. The cynosure of all eyes. A fissure in the wall. A policy of insurance.

IV. Sounds of T, TH, W, Y, Z. ZH.

Words in which d has the sound of t.

        The words in which d has the sound of t are, for the most part, either the past tenses of verbs, or the participles of verbs,--as plucked, tossed, stepped, &c. Now, the letter e before d in these words is not sounded; whence the sounds of k in pluck, of s in toss, and of p in step, come in immediate contact with the sound of the letter d. But the sound of the letter d is vocal, whilst those of k, s, and p, are aspirate; so that the combinations kd, sd, and pd, are unpronounceable. Hence d is sounded as t.

        1. Asked, baked, danced, guessed, inked, laughed, milked, missed, puffed, shocked, stamped, strapped, tripped, walked, washed, whipped. Betr[short o, breve]thed.

Words in which th has its aspirate sound, as in thin.

        2. Bath, b[small o, macron]th, breath, breaths, lath, l[small o, macron]th, mouth, myth, oath, path, sheath, think, tr[short o, breve]th, truth, truths, w[short i, breve]the, youth, youths. -- An'them, au'thor, ba'thos, bis'muth, e'ther, eth'ics, hun'dredth, ja'cinth, meth'od,

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sab'bath, the'sis, Thu'le, thun'der, ze'nith. -- Be-tr[short o, breve]th', en-throne.

        3. Am'a-ranth, ap'a-thy, az'i-muth, ep'i-thet, lab'y-rinth, leth'ar-gy, mis'an-thrope, pleth'o-ric, syn'the sis, the'o-ry. -- A-can'thus, au-then'tic, cathar'tic, ne-pen'the, pan-the'on, pa-thet'ic.

        4. A-nath'e-ma, an-tith'e-sis, a-rith'me-tic, antip'a-thy, can-th[small a, breve]r'i-d[small e, macron]s, hy-poth'e-sis, le-vi'a-than, my-thol'o-gy, pa-ren'the-sis, the-oc'ra-cy, the-od'o-l[small i, macron]te, the-ol'o-gy, ther-mom'e-ter.

Words in which th has its vocal sound, as in thine.

        5. Bathe, baths, blithe, booth, booths, breathe, laths, lithe, mouth (when a verb), mouths, oaths, paths, with. -- Bur'then, ei'ther, far'thing, hith'er, lath'er, leath'er, prith'ee, thith'er, wor'thy. -- Beneath', be-queath, un-sheathe.

Words in which u has the sound of w.

        6. An'guish, lan'guage, lan'guid, lan'guor, lin'guist, pen'guin, pin'guid, san'guine, sua'sion, un'guent. -- As-suage', dis-suade, per-suade. -- As'sue-t[small u, macron]de, des'ue-t[small u, macron]de, suav'i-ty. -- Dis-sua'sive, per-sua'sion.

Words in which i, preceded by the accent, and followed by a vowel, has the consonant sound of y.

        7. Anx'ious, [small a, macron]l'ien, ban'ian, bast'ion, bes'tial, bil'ious, bill'iards, bill'ion, brill'iant, bull'ion, Chris'tian, cl[small o, macron]th'ier, coll'ier, cord'ial, court'ier, d[small a, breve]hl'ia, fil'ial, flex'ion, f[small o, macron]l'io, fust'ian, h[small a, breve]ll'iards, Ind'ian, j[small u, macron]n'ior, mill'ion, min'ion.

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        8. Noxious, on'ion, pann'ier, p[small a, macron]v'ior, pill'ion, pin'ion, pon'iard, pump'ion, prem'ier, ques'tion, ruf'fian, S[small a, macron]v'iour, scull'ion, s[small e, macron]n'ior, span'iel, trill'ion, triv'ial, trun'nion, [small u, macron]n'ion, val'iant, vis'ion, viz'ier.

        9. A-ph[small e, macron]l'ion, au-re'lia, aux-il'iar, bat-t[small a, breve]l'ion, be-h[small a, macron]v'ior, ce-les'tial, ci-vil'ian, con-ges'tion, comm[small u, macron]n'ion, com-bus'tion, com-pan'ion, com-plex'ion, con-cil'iate, con-viv'ial, con-v[small e, macron]n'ient, di-ges'tion, do-min'ion, ex-haus'tion, e-lys'ium, e-b[small u, breve]ll'ient, e-moll'ient, es-p[small a, breve]l'ier.

        10. Fa-mil'iar, in-g[small e, macron]n'ious, me-dal'lion, mag no'lia, o-pin'ion, pa-vil'ion, pe-c[small u, macron]l'iar, per-fid'ious, ple-be'ian, p[small o, macron]rt-f[small o, macron]l'io, p[small o, macron]s-till'ion, co-till'ion, punctil'io, re-sil'ient, re-bell'ion, tri-en'nial, ver-mil'ion. -- Ig-no-min'ious, su-per-cil'ious.

Words in which s has the sound of z in gaze.

        The words where s is sounded like z are, many of them, either possessive cases or plural forms of nouns, -- as stag's, stags; slab's, slabs, &c. In these words (and in words like them) the sounds of g (in stag) and of b (in slab) come in immediate contact with the letter s. But the sound of the letter s is aspirate, while those of b and g are vocal; so that the combinations gs, bs, are unpronounceable. Hence s is sounded as z. S is pronounced like z when it forms an additional syllable, with e before it, in the plural of nouns and the third person singular of verbs; also in several other instances.

        11. Heads, ribs, rags, sieves. Box'es, ca'ges, rich'es, rush'es, wish'es. Means, mor'als, seems, hers. Dis'mal, prism. Com'mas, dues, shoes, views. Dai'sy, ea'sy, grea'sy.

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Words in which s, si, ti, and zi, have the sound of zh, or of z in
a'zure, ra'zure.

        12. Bra'sier, cro'sier, fu'sion, gla'zier, ho'sier, meas'ure, o'sier. -- Com-po'sure, em-bra'sure, enclo'sure, e-ra'sure, ex-po'sure, fore-clo'sure. -- A-bra'sion, ad-he'sion, af-fu'sion, al-lu'sion, ambro'sia, co-he'sion, col-l[short i, breve]'sion, col-lu'sion, con-fu'sion, con-clu'sion, con-tu'sion, cor-ro'sion, de-c[short i, breve]'sion, de-lu'sion, de-r[short i, breve]'sion, di-v[short i, breve]'sion, dif-fu'sion.

        13. Ef fu'sion, e-l[short i, breve]'sion, e-va'sion, ex-clu'sion, ex-plo'sion, il-lu'sion, in-fu'sion, in-tru'sion, in-va'sion, mis-pris'ion, ob-tru'sion, oc-ca'sion, per-va'sion, pre-c[short i, breve]'sion, pro-tru'sion, pro-fu'sion, se-clu'sion, suf-fu'sion, tran-s[short i, breve]'tion.


        1--4. She laughed while he danced. He missed the path. Our breaths froze. The youths had w[short i, breve]thes. She is betr[short o, breve]thed. He took ether. The surveyor had a theödolite. The misanthrope grumbled. Overcome your antipathy. The plural of antithesis is antitheses. A probable theory The acanthus tree.

        5. A heavy burthen. The baths are ready. Our paths are different. A lithe figure. Oaths are superfluous. Do not mouth your words. She makes mouths. Prithee, go thither with thy laths.

        6--8. Moral suasion. The custom has fallen into desuetude. He speaks with suavity. A soothing unguent. A sanguine disposition. Filial respect. The pr[short e, breve]mier has resigned. The Saviour of the world. A valiant vizier He dropped a poniard. A folio volume. A dahlia in bloom. Stand by the Union! Noxious vapors.

        9--10. Excuse my companion's behavior. The battalion consisted of ten companies. A congestion of the lungs. An emollient application. An ebullient enthusiasm. An espalier is a tree on a frame. A supercilious glance. A peculiar opinion. A fusion of parties A violent transition.

        11--13. The foreclosure of a mortgage. A collision of locomotives. A contusion on the head. Try a cold affusion. Do you suspect him of collusion? Why this intrusion? Misprision of treason.

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        Words are said to be silent when they are unsounded in the pronunciation, though introduced in spelling and writing.

Words in which b, except when initial, is silent.

        1. Bomb, climb, c[small o, macron]mb, crumb (or crum), debt, doubt, dumb, jamb, lamb, limb, numb, plumb, tomb. Sub'tle. Re-doubt'. Hec'a-tomb.

Words in which c, ch, and d, are silent.

        2. Czar, drachm, schism, yacht. Vict'uals, vict'ual-er (pronounced vit'tlz, vit'ler). In-d[small i, macron]ct'. Schis-mat'ic. -- Hand'some, Wednes'day. Hand'-ker-chief, stadt'hold-er.

Words in which g and gh are silent.*

        * See page 46 for other words of this class.

        3. Deign, dough, feign, gnarl, gnash, gnat, gnaw, gnome, neigh, phlegm, reign, sleigh, sign. Gno'mon, poign'ant, neigh'bor, fur'lough, bor'ough (pronounced b[small u, breve]r'ro). Ar-raign', as-sign, be-nign, cam-paign, con-d[small i, macron]gn, con-sign, de-sign, im-p[small u, macron]gn, ma-lign, re-sign, in-veigh, out-weigh. Bagn'io, en'sign, for'eign, gnos'tic, s[small e, macron]ign'ior. Ap'o-thegm, di'a-phragm, par'a-digm, sov'er-eign (pronounced s[small u, breve]ver-in).

Words in which h is silent.

        The h in these words, namely: ex-hale', ex-hib'it, ex-hi-bi'tion, ex-hort', hum'ble, hum'ble-bee, host'ler, hos'pi-tal, hu'mor, hu'-mor-ous, shep'herd, is made silent by some authorities; but,

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under the best usage, and according to Webster, it has its aspirate quality.

        In herb, herb'age, herb'al, the present tendency is to aspirate the h, though in most dictionaries it is otherwise marked. In naph'tha (pronounced nap'tha) the first h is unsounded.

        4. Ghost, heir, hour, myrrh, rheum (pronounced room), rhomb, rhyme, thyme. Asth'ma, burgh'er, gher'kin, ghast'ly, hon'est, hon'or, isth'mus, rhu'-barb. Ca-tarrh'. Hon'es-ty, rhap'so-dy, rhet'o-ric

Words in which k is silent.

        K is always silent before n in the same syllable.

        5. Knack, knag, knave, knead, knee, kneel, knell, knew, knife, knight, knit, knob, knock, kn[small o, macron]ll, knob, knout, know. Knap'sack, knuck'le, knurl'y.

Words in which l is silent.

        The a in the first sixteen words following has the sound of a in far; in balk, and the eight words following, it has the sound of a in fall; in salmon it has the sound of a in fat. In p[small a, breve]l'mis-try the l is sounded; and, according to Walker, it should be sounded in psalmist and psalmody; but in these words Webster drops the sound of the l. In psalter (pronounced sawl'ter) the sound of the l is retained.

        6. Alms, balm, calf, calve, calm, half, halve, palm, psalm, qualm, salve. Al'mond, balm'y, calm er, palm'er, palm'y. -- Balk, calk, chalk, stalk, talk, walk. Calk'er, fal'con, hal'ser.*

        * Commonly spelt haw'ser.

Folks, could, should, would. Salm'on.

M is silent in mne-mon'ic; N is silent in the following.

        7. Hymn, kiln, limn. Au'tumn, col'[small u, breve]mn, sol'emn.

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Con-demn', con-temn. Con-demn'ing, con temn'ing.

Words in which p is silent.*

        * Phthis'ic we pronounce tiz'ik; and pathi'sis, thi'sis.

        8. Psalm, tempt. Empty, pt[short i, breve]s'an, pseu'do At-tempt', re-ceipt. Rasp'ber-ry.

Words in which s is silent.

        9. Aisle, isle, isl'and, vis'count. De-mesne'. Ap-ro-p[small o, macron]s'.

Words in which t is silent.

        In the following words, where e occurs before final n, or final after l, it is unsounded. Say of'n, sof'n, bris'l, &c.

        10. Bris'tle, bus, cas'tle, gris'tle, hus'tle, jos'-tle, mis'tle, nes'tle, pes'tle, rus'tle, this'tle, thros'tle, tres'tle, whis'tle, wres'tle. Ch[small a, macron]st'en, christ'en, fast'en, glist'en, h[small a, macron]st'en, list'en, moist'en, oft'en, soft'en. Cnest'nut, Christ'mas, h[short o, breve]st'ler, mort'gage. Mis'tle-toe. A-postle, e-pis'tle.

Words in which ue is silent.

        11. Brogue, fugue, league, plague, rogue, tongue, vague, vogue. Masque, mosque, pique. Colleague, ec'logue, pro'logue. Fa-tigue', in-trigue, ob-lique, u-nique. Ha-rangue, o-paque, pro-rogue. Ap'o-logue, cat'a-logue, dec'a-logue, dem'a-gogue, di'a-logue, ep'i-logue, ped'a-gogue, syn'a-gogue.

Words in which w is silent.

        12. Whole, whom, whoop, whose, wrap, wrath, wreak, wreath, wreck, wren, wrench, wrest, wretch,

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wright, wring, wrist, write, writhe, wrong, wr[short o, breve]th, wring, wrought, wry. An'swer, whole'some, wran'-gle, wrig'gle, wrin'kle. A-wry', be-wray.


        1--3. The jamb of the door. A plumb line. The redoubt was taken. The czar's palace. They will indict the victualer. A schism in the church. A poignant malady. Condign punishment. Impugn the foreign witness. An apothegm or maxim. A paradigm or model. The Grand Seignior The hand of a dial is a gnomon. Be resigned. A schismatic intruder. The campaign is finished. An ambitious sovereign. The captain is absent on a furlough. A sign of rain. A benign disposition. A gnarled oak. He could not assign a reason for his conduct.

        4--6. She is an heiress. Give the knave the knout. An honest burgher. A plate of gherkins. Rhubarb for the asthma. The isthmus of Suez. A knurly tree. Smoked salmon. She suffers from a catarrh. Bestow alms. A humble exhibition. The falcon flew. The calker let go the hawser. A wooded kn[small o, macron]ll. A knuckle of veal. A Psalter is a book of the Psalms. Balk his malice. A pretender to p[small a, breve]lmistry. My palmy days. The old folks at home. An almond tree. A qualm of conscience. A humorous rhapsody. The psalmody of the psalmist. A soldier's knapsack. Naphtha is bituminous. A balmy air. A figure like a rhomb.

        7--9. The lim'ner sat down to limn. They sang a hymn. The solemn autumn time. A column of infantry. In condemning his attempt, recall the provocation. A mnemonic device. A pseudo viscount. Apropos to that, Where is his demesne? A ptisan for the sick man. An empty coach. A sumptuous banquet. Preserved raspberries. I paid the bill, but received no receipt.

        10--12. A bustle at the castle. It does not rain; it mistles. Often at Christmas we used to wrestle. The beloved apostle. The mistletoe bough. A mortgage on the land. My colleague was wroth. A prologue is spoken before, and an epilogue after, a play. Fasten the window. Harangue the crowd. Answer the demagogue. The ten commandments are the decalogue. A sprained wrist. Opaque glass. A catalogue of the goods. An amusing dialogue. An apologue or fable. A fugue is a repetition of parts in a musical composition. He was hustled by the mob. A pestle and mortar. Leaves rustle. A trestle for the bridge. She looked awry. He was wroth at her misdemeanor. They wrought well, and finished their labors soon.

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        1. Adds, adz, ale, ail; air, ere, heir, e'er; all, awl, aisle, I'll, isle; al'tar, al'ter; an'chor an'ker; ark, arc; as-cent, as-sent; ate, eight; au'ger, au'gur; aught, ought.

        2. Bald, bawled; bad, bade; bale, bail; ball, bawl; baize, bays; bare, bear; base, bass; barm, balm; bay, bey; be, bee; beat, beet; beach, beech; beer, bier.

        3. Bell, belle; bin, been; birth, berth; bite, bight; blew, blue; bold'er, bowl'der; bold, bowled; bore, boar; bored, board; bole, boll, bowl.

        4. B[small o, macron]rne, bourn; bow, bough; bow, beau; braid, brayed; brake, break; breech, breach; bred, bread; broach, brooch; brews, bruise; brute, bruit, but, butt; by, buy; bur'y, ber'ry.

        5. Cal'en-dar, cal'en-der; call, caul; can'non, can'on; can'vas, can'vass; cask, casque; cast, caste; cede, seed; ceil, seal, seel; ceil'ing, seal'ing; cell, sell; cel'lar, sell'er.

        6. Cent, scent, sent; cere, sear, sere, seer; cession, session; chaste, chased; cite, sight, site; clause, claws; clime, climb; coarse, course.

        7. Com'pli-ment, com'ple-ment; cord, chord; c[small o, macron]re, corps; cote, coat; cous in, coz'en; creak, creek; crews, cruise; crew'el, cru'el; cyg'net, sig'net.

        8. Dane, deign; day, dey; dear, deer; dew, due; die, dye; dire, dyer; doe, dough; draft,

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draught; dram, drachm; dun, done; dust, dost; earn, urn; I, eye; ewe, you.

        9. Fane, fain, feign; faint, feint; fare, fair; fate, fête; feet, feat; fil'ter, phil'ter; fil'lip, Phil'ip; flee, flea; find, fined.

        10. Flew, flue; flour, flower; fort, forte; fore, four; forth, fourth; foul, fowl; frays, phrase, freeze, frieze; fur, fir; furs, furze.

        11. Gage, gauge; gall, Gaul; gate, gait; gild, guild; gilt, guilt; gloze, glows; grate, great; gr[small a, macron]t'er, great'er; grease, Greece; groan, grown; guest, guessed; greaves, grieves.

        12. Hale, hail; hall, haul; hare, hair; hart, heart; hay, hey; heel, heal; hear, here; herd, heard; hew, hue, Hugh; hide, hied.

        13. Hie, high; him, hymn; hire, higher; hoard, horde; hoe, ho; hoes, hose; hole, whole, holy, wholly; hoop, whoop; hour, our; hus-sar', huz-za'.

        14. In, inn; in-dite, in-dict; in-vade, in-veighed; jam, jamb; just, joust; key, quay; kill, kiln; knave, nave; knead, need, kneed; knew, new; knows, nose; knight, night; knot, not; lade, laid; lane, lain; lapse, laps; lax, lacks; lee, lea; leach, leech.

        15. Leaf, lief; leak, leek; led, lead; lean, lien; les'son, les'sen; lev'ee, lev'y; lie, lye; limb, limn; links, lynx; load, lode, lowed; lone, loan; loch, lock; lo, low; lyre, liar.

        16. Made, maid; male, mail; mane, main;

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man'ner, man'or; mark, marque; mar'shal, martial; maze, maize; meed, mead; mean, mien; meet, meat, mete; mi'nor, mi'ner; mist, missed.

        17. Mite, might; moan, mown; mode, mowed; mote, moat; mu'cus, mu'cous; muse, mews; nay, neigh; nice, gneiss; nit, knit; nun, none; oar, o'er, ore; ode, owed; one, won; O, oh, owe.

        18. Pale, pail; pall, Paul; pane, pain; pare, pair, pear; pause, paws; peace, piece; peak, pique; peal, peel; pearl, purl; peer, pier; pen' cil, pen'sile; plane, plain.

        19. Plate, plait; please, pleas; plum, plumb; pole, poll; pore, pour; port, porte; pray, prey; pum'ice, pom'ace; quartz, quarts; quire, choir.

        20. Rack, wrack; rain, rein, reign; raze, raise, rays; rap, wrap; red, read; reed, read; reck wreck; reek, wreak; rest, wrest; retch, wretch; rice, rise; rig'ger, rig'or; rime, rhyme; ring, wring

        21. Rite, right, write, wright; rode, road rowed; roe, row; rote, wrote; rout, route*

        * The ou of this word is also pronounced as in youth.

; rose, rows; rude, rood; ruff, rough; rung, wrung; rye, wry.

        22. Sale, sail; seen, scene, seine; see, sea; seem, seam; sees, seas, seize; serf, surf; serge, surge; shear, sheer; shears, sheers; shown, shone.

        23. Side, sighed; sine, sign; skull, scull; slay, sleigh; sleeve, sleave; slew, slue; slight, sleight, slow, sloe; sole, soul; so, sew, sow; sore, soar staid, stayed.

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        24 Stare, stair; stake, steak; step, steppe steel, steal; stile, style; stoop, stoup; straight, strait; straight'en, strait'en; sweet, suite; suc'cor, suck'er; sum, some; sun, son.

        25. Tale, tail; tare, tear; tax, tacks; teem, team; tear, tier; their, there; threw, through; throw, throe; throws, throes; throne, thrown; tide, tied.

        26. Time, thyme; toad, towed; toe, tow; too, two; told, toled, tolled; tole, toll; tract, tracked, tray, trey; vale, veil, vail; vane, vain, vein.

        27. Wade, weighed; wale, wail; wane, wain; wait, weight; waste, waist; ware, wear; wave, waive; way, weigh; week, weak; ween, wean; weth'er, weath'er; wood, would.


        1. He adds it up. An adz for cutting. Home-brewed ale. What can ail him? Pure air. Heir to the estate. Whene'er I am late at school, I regret it. Think twice ere you do it. The shoemaker's awl. All the world. The aisle of the church. An isle in the take. I'll go kneel at the altar. Alter thy course. The ship's anchor. An anker of wine. Noah's ark. The arc of a circle. A steep ascent. Ask his assent. He ate eight muffins. An auger for boring. An augur's predictions. For aught I know you ought to go.

        2. A bald head. He bawled for his ball. A bale of goods. He gave bail. Bail out the boat. Green baize. The poet's bays. A bear's skin is better than a bare skin, this cold weather. A base attack. He sings bass. Barm is yeast. A soothing balm. I bade the bad boy wait. The Bay of Biscay. The Bey of Tunis. Be busy as a bee. Beat the carpet. Sugar from beets. The sea beach. A beech tree. Spruce beer. A body on a bier.

        3. Ring the bell. The belle of the ball-room. A bin for wine. Where have you been? My birth-day. No vacant berth in the cabin. The fish will not bite. The bight of a rope. A blue sky. The wind blew. She is holder than he. A bowlder of granite. I bowled in the alley an hour. A bold man. Bore a hole. A wild boar. Plane the board. Board and

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lodging. They bored two holes. A bowl of milk. The boll of a plant Bole is a kind of clay.

        4. He was borne away. Gone to his long bourn. Bow as you enter. A leafy bough. A bow and arrow. A spruce beau. Braid thy hair. The ass brayed. A cane brake. Break the stick. A brakeman was killed. A breach in a wall. Breech the lad. Brown bread. A well-bred girl Broach the topic. Wear this brooch. He brews porter. A bad bruise. A brute beast. A bruit or rumor. A butt for ridicule. A butt of wine. But why? Buy this book. By and by. A ripe berry. Bury the dead.

        5. A calendar month. Calender the cloth. Call the girl with a caon her head. The canons of the church, not cannons for firing. The speakers are to canvass the topic in a canvas tent. A cask of beer. A plumed casque for the warrior's head. He has lost caste. Be not cast down. We cede our claims. Sow the good seed. Ceil the roof. Seal the letter. Seel the eyes of the hawk. A painted ceiling. Sealing-wax. A dark cell. We buy and sell. The seller of stolen goods lived in a cellar.

        6. He sent for his ten per cent. dividend. The scent of the rose. Cere the cork. A sere leaf. Sear the wound. He calls himself a seer. Congress is in session. The Indians made a cession of land. A chaste design. Dogs chased a wolf. Cite the passage. A site for a cottage. Her eyesight fails. The cat's claws. A clause in a will. A pleasant clime. Climb the mast. Coarse cloth. Cheap, of course.

        7. A kernel of corn for Colonel B--. A full complement of men. My compliments to your aunt. A musical chord. A cord of wood. Whip-cord. The core of an apple. A military corps. My coat is in the sheep-cote. Cousin, you cannot cozen me. Why creak the door? He fished in the creek. The crews returned from a long cruise. Cruel Susan, put down your crewel. A cygnet or young swan. A signet ring.

        8. Deign, noble Dane, to hear us. No Dey of Algiers reigns to-day. Come, dear, and see the deer. Wet with dew. My note falls due. A dire event. A shawl for the dyer. The doe runs. Bake the dough. Cash the draft. A draught horse. A draught of ale. A dram drinker. Eight drams make an ounce. A drachm was a Grecian silver coin. A cow of a dun color. He ran from a dun. You have done it. Dust to dust. Dost thou dare? Earn your bread. An urn for tea. Must she die? Dye the cloth. A ewe*

        * As this word begins with the consonant sound of y, it has a before it, and not an. .

is a female sheep.

        9. I would fain know why you feign illness. The fane at Eph'esus. Did she faint? All a feint! Fair ladies, pay your fare. It was my fate to be ill the day of the fête. To jump ten feet is a feat indeed. Filter the river water. A love philter. Philip, why that fillip with your fingers? A flea made me flee. Find the man who was fined for smoking.

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        10. The bird flew up the flue. A barrel of flour. A fragrant flower Fort Ticonderoga. Dancing is not my forte. A fourth time I went forth. A foul deed. A fat fowl. A strange phrase. Frays in the street. Hang thy fur cloak on the fir tree. Freeze the cream. Frieze the cloth. An ornamented frieze. My dog has two hind feet, and fore feet besides; yet he has only four feet. He was wrapt in furs. A hill overgrown with furze.

        11. Throw down thy gage. Gauge the cask. Bitter as gall. Ancient Gaul. He walked on with a peculiar gait to the great gate. An iron grate. A nutmeg grater. A greater than Cæsar. A grease spot. The isles of Greece. How Laura has grown! I heard a groan. I guessed it was from the strange guest. Grieves he for aught? Greaves are for the legs.

        12. The hale man said to the hail storm, All hall. They met in the hall. Haul in the rope. Auburn hair. Hounds chase the hare. The hunter shot the hart through the heart. Hey, boys! what say you to getting in the hay -- eh? She hurt her heel, and asked him to heal it. Let them come here and hear me sing the hymn. I heard the lowing of a herd of cattle. Master Hugh, you may hew down that yew tree of the dark hue. Hide and seek. She hied to school.

        13. Hie along. High tide. I know those who will hire me at higher wages. A hoard of money. A horde of savages. Ho! ye that hoe in the field. The hoes for hoeing are in the barn. Here are the hose for your feet. I was a whole day digging that hole. The holy man must be wholly sincere. Drive hoop. Come with a whoop, and come with a call. Our school will not begin for an hour. Huzza! cried the hussar

        14. I'll wait in the inn. The Isle of Man. They will indict him for forgery. Take your pen; I will indite. She will jam her finger. Point out the jamb of a fireplace. Be just, and fear not. A joust, or mock fight. The knave tried to kill him in a lime-kiln. What is the nave of a wheel? Of a church? Knead the bread. A time of need. He walks inkneed. He inveighed against the men who are going to invade Ireland. I knew the coat was not new. He knows he has a nose. Dark as night was the steed of the knight. Why not untie the knot? He laid down his gun, and began to lade the ship. He then lay down to sleep. He had lain an hour in the lane. The lapse of time. The cat laps milk. Lax morals. He lacks strength. We strolled over the lea. A lee shore. A leech in a vial. Leach the ashes.

        15. Pluck the leaf. Would you as lief walk? Stop the leak. John ate a leek. He led me through a lead mine. Lean on my arm. I have a lien on his estate. Lessen the lines of my lesson. A levy of troops. I was present at her levee. I hate a lie. Of lye we make soap. The limb of a tree. Limn it on canvas. The eyes of a lynx. The links of a chain. A

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heavy load. A lode, or metallic vein. The cows lowed. A lodestone. A lone woman. A state loan. Lock the door. We sailed on a Scottish loch. Lo! low lies the hero! The music of the lyre. Shame on the liar!

        16. The maid made a mistake. The male passenger sent his letter by mail. The main chance. A lion's mane. The lord of the manor has a gracious manner. A man of mark. Letters of marque. United States Marshal. Martial music. Maize is Indian corn. Lost in a maze. Taste the mead. The meed of thy exertions. What mean you? A lofty mien. Carve the meat. When shall we meet again? With what measure ye mete. While a minor he labored as a miner in Iowa. I missed you in the mist.

        17. You might give me a mite. A mighty man. Mity cheese. A mown field. A loud moan. A mote in the eye. A moat around a castle The patient raised a quantity of mucus. Mucous matter. The cat mews Muse on his fate. Did the horse neigh? Nay! I gave him a nice bit of gneiss. A nit in the hair. Knit the purse. A veiled nun. None are left Iron ore. An oar for the boat. O'er the lake we go. He won one prize He wrote an ode. He owed me money. O, did he owe you? Oh, despair

        18. Pale features. Paul, fill the pail. A sable pall. Panes of glass. Pains in the head. She tried to pare a pear with a pair of scissors. The dog's paws. Pause, and reflect. Peace, ye brawlers! A piece of bread. The highest peak. A feeling of pique. A peal of thunder. Orange peel. Pearl breast-pins. The streams purl. The noble peer built a pier. A lead pencil. A pensile garden. A plain statement. My carpenter's plane.

        19. A plate of fruit. A metal plate. Plait my ruff. Please attend. The Court of Common Pleas. A ripe plum. Plumb the wall. A barber's pole. Poll the votes. Pour out the tea. The pores of the skin. Safe in port. The Sublime Porte. Pray to be good. A bird of prey. Pumice stone. A pomace of apples. California quartz. Eight quarts of oil. A quire of paper. The choir sang.

        20. On the rack. From wrack we make kelp. Rain fell. Rein in the colt. The Reign of Terror. Raze the building. Raise the fallen. The sun's rays. A rap for your knuckles. Wrap thy old cloak about thee He read from a book with red covers. Can you read? A reed shaken by the wind. The wreck of a ship. What reck I? They reek with perspiration. Why wreak your vengeance on me? Rest here. Wrest the bowie knife from his clutch. Succor the wretch. The medicine makes him retch. A rice field. A rise in the price of land. The rigger treated me with too much rigor. Windows covered with rime. A rhyme for it is time. Ring the bell. Wring out the cloth.

        21. Do right, come what may. Write to the shipwright. The s[small a, breve]cra ment is a holy rite. We rowed up the river, while they rode along the road. A row on the pond. The roe of a smelt. I wrote a page. I learnt

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it by rote. The enemy were put to rout. What route do you take? Under the rose. Six rows of elms. A rude boy. The holy rood. Rough weather A clean ruff. They rung the bells, and wrung out the towels. A wry face. Rye bread.

        22. For sale. Ships under sail. I have seen the fish that were caught in a seine. A fair scene. You can see the sea. The ships seem near. A coarse seam. Seize the present. On the high seas. She sees a star. A Russian serf. A boat swamped in the surf. A coat of serge. The roarings of the surge. Sheer nonsense. Shear the sheep. A pair of shears. Sheers for raising weights. The sun shone. A picture was shown.

        23. She sighed to quit my side. A good sign. The sine of an arc. A thick skull. Scull the boat. A drive in a sleigh. Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him. A loose sleeve. Sleave the threads. They slew the fugitive. Slue the sleigh round. A sleight of hand. A slight illness. At a slow rate. Sloe berries. The sole of the foot. The immortal soul. Sow the seed. Is it so you sew my sleeve? Eagles soar. A sore lip. She had a staid demeanor. He stayed some time.

        24. Why stare as you go up stairs? A beef steak. Drive the stake in the earth. I have all at stake. Step on. The steppes of Asia are like our prairies. Steal not. A steel chain. Climb the stile. A style of writing. The stoop of a house. Stoop lower. A stoup of wine. A narrow strait A straight path. Straighten the lead pipe. In straitened circumstances. Do it straightway. A sweet peach. One of the prince's suite. Succor the suffering. Pull up those suckers. Some boys would do that sum mentally. Mr. Gay's eldest son was sun-struck.

        25. A tale-bearer. A fox's tail. Tear up the tares. The dog tax. Tacks for the carpet. He drives a team. These ponds teem with fish. A tier of boxes. She shed tears. There they left their horses. He threw the cat through the window. A throe of pain. Throw a quoit. He throws it well. Throes of anguish. The king sat on his throne. They wrestled, and he was thrown. High tide. They tied his hands.

        26. It is time to pluck the thyme. They towed the boat. Toads are harmless. He hurt his toe. A load of tow. They told the sexton, and he tolled the bell. Two o'clock. Too late. They toled along the fish by throwing bait. A desert tract. They tracked him through the snow. A tea tray. The trey of clubs. A shady vale. She wears a veil (or vail). See the veins in her neck. A vain attempt. The vane on the steeple.

        27. Boys wade in the stream. They weighed the gold. A wail of sorrow. Cloth woven with a wale. The creaking wain. The moon is on the wane. Wait a moment. The weight of an ox. Waste not, want not. A slim waist. Hard ware. Why wear that cap? The ocean wave. Waive the question. This is the way. Weigh the meat. Once a week. A weak woman. She will wean the infant, I ween. Fine weather. The bell-wether of the flock. Would you go? A cord of wood.

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        There are shades of difference, which a good speaker will regard in his enunciation, in most of the words here coupled.

        1. Alms, arms; a-loud, al-lowed; b[small a, breve]r'on, bar'ren; bor'ough, bur'row; bri'dal, bri'dle; calk, cork; can'did, can'died; cap'i-tal, cap'i-tol; car'at, car'rot; cen'sor, cen'ser, col'lar, chol'er; coun'cil, coun'sel; coun'cil-or, coun'sel-or; cur'rant, cur'rent; cym'bal, sym'bol.

        2. De-srt', d[short e, breve]s-sert'; d[small u, macron]'al, d[small u, macron]'el; for'mal-ly, for'mer-ly; gam'ble, gam'bol; gris'ly, grist'ly; i'dle, i'dol; laud, lord; lin'e-a-ment, lin'i-ment; low'er, lore; mat'rass, mat'tress; met'al, met'tle; med'al, med'dle; mis'sile, mis'sal; ot'tar, ot'ter.

        3. Ped'al, ped'dle; pend'ant, pend'ent; pis'til, pis'tol; pit'ied, pit'ted; prin'ci-pal, prin'ci-ple; prof'it, proph'et; roar, row'er; sects, sex; sought, sort; stalk, stork; sta'tion-a-ry, sta'tion-er-y; sub'tile, sub'tle; tal'ents, tal'ons; trav'el, trav'ail; vi'al, vi'ol.


        1. Carry alms, not arms. She allowed him to speak aloud. The baron's barren acres. The bridal feast. A bridle for the horse. Calk the ship's sides, and put a cork in the jug. I said a candied, not a candid tongue. A capital crime was committed in the capitol. A y[short e, breve]llow carrot, but not a carat of gold. In his choler he threw off his collar. Currant wine. Current news. A councilor is a member of a council. Call the counselor at law.

        2. A dessert spoon. Never desert a friend. A grisly bear. Gristly meat. Formerly you addressed me less formally. Expressive lineaments. Liniments for rheumatism. A hair mattress. A chemist's matrass. Meddle

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not with my medal. An illuminated missal. He threw a missile. Ottar of roses. They caught an otter.

        3. A pedal for the piano-forte. A pendant at the ear. A pendent rock. She pitied me, I was so pitted by the small-pox. A stationary cart. The stationer sells stationery. Subtile air. A subtle rascal. Religious sects. The glory of her sex. The prophet found neither credit nor profit. The pistil of a flower. A double-barreled pistol. He sought a sort of glue. A man without principle. The principal man of the town The peddlers peddle wooden wares. A bass viol. A vial of medicine. Her travaia ended. We will travel together.


        Many English words, spelled alike, are distinguished only by the accent. In such words, when dissyllables, the accent, which in the noun or adjective falls on the first, in the verb generally falls on the second syllable.


        1. Ab'sent, ab-sent'; ab'stract, ab-stract; ac'cent, ac-cent; af'fix, af-fix; at'trib-ute, at-trib'ute; aug'ment, aug-ment; cem'ent, ce-ment; col'league, col-league; col'lect, col-lect; com'pound; com-pound; con'cert, con-cert; con'crete, con-crete; con'duct, con-duct; con'fine, con-fine; con'flict, con-flict; con'serve, con-serve; con'sort, con-sort; con'test, con-test; con'tract, con-tract; con'trast, con-trast, con'verse, con-verse; con'vert, con-vert; con'vict, con-vict; con'voy, con-voy.

        2. Des'ert, de-sert'; des'cant, des-cant; di'gest, di gest; es'cort, es-cort; es'say, es-say; ex'port, ex-port; ex'tract, ex-tract; fer'ment, fer-ment;

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fre quent, fre-quent; gal'lant, gal-lant; im'port, im-port; im'press, im-press; in'cense, in-cense; in'crease, in-crease; in'sult, in-sult; in'ter-dict, in-ter-dict'; ob'ject, ob-ject; per'fume, per-fume; per'mit, per-mit; per'vert, per-vert; pre'fix, pre-fix; prel'ude, pre-lude; prem'ise, pre-mise; pres'-age, pre-sage, pres'ent, pre-sent; prod'uce, pro-duce; pr[short o, breve]j'ect, pro-ject; pr[short o, breve]g'ress, pro-gress; pro'test, pro-test.

        3. Reb'el, re-bel'; rec'ord, re-cord; ref'use, re-fuse; sub'ject, sub-ject; sur'name, sur-name; sur'vey, sur-vey; tor'ment, tor-ment; trans'fer, trans-fer; trans'port, trans-port; up'start, up-start.

        In the following words, the nouns have the closing s aspirate (as in so), while the verbs have it soft, as in his.

        4. A-buse, a-buse; close, close; dif-fuse, diffuse; ex-cuse, ex-cuse; grease, grease; house, house; mouse, mouse; rise, rise; use, use; com'pro-mise, com'pro-mise.

        In the following words, the c in the noun becomes an s in the verb: ad-vice, ad-vise; de-vice, de-vise; proph'e-cy, proph'e-sy. To these words most lexicographers add prac'tice, prac'tise; but Webster spells both noun and verb alike: namely, prac'tice. As there is no difference in the pronunciation, this seems right.

        The th in teeth, as a plural noun, is aspirate (as in thin); as a verb, it is vocal (as in this). The i in live, when an adjective, is long; when a verb, it is short. In com'pact (a noun) the accent is on the first syllable; but on the second when it is an adjective. In gal'lant, meaning brave, &c., the accent is on the first syllable. In gal-lant', meaning polite, the accent is on the second. In Au'gust, the name of a month, the accent is on the first; in the adjective au-gust', on the second.

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        In'va-lid (a noun) has the accent on the first syllable; as an adjective (meaning null) it is accentuated thus: in-val'id. The noun prec'e-dent is distinguished in a similar manner from the adjective pre-ce'dent. In alternate the verb has the accent on the first syllable; the adjective, on the second.

        In the words al-ly' and ro-mance' the accent is on the last syllable, whether they are nouns or verbs.

        Accent must not be confounded with quantity. In the substantive com'pact, and the adjective com-pact', the quantity of the vowels is the same, although the accent of the syllables is different.


        1. Those who absent themselves are absent. An abstract noun. He abstracted the money. A wrong accent. Accent the word. Put an affix to the word. Affix your signature. An attribute of deity. Attribute it to the right cause. A charming concert. Concert your plans. A strong contrast. Contrast this with that. A convert is one converted. A convict is one convicted of a crime. A concrete mass. Concrete the particles. Pleasant converse. Let us converse.

        2. Do not desert us in the desert. An escort of cavalry. They escorted the governor. His first essay. He essayed in vain. An export duty. They export cotton. An extract from Addison. Extract the tooth. The town is in a ferment. Beer ferments. A frequent occurrence. He frequents bad society. A sweet perfume. It perfumes the air. A base insult. Insult no one. Do you object? A wretched object. He presents some presents. The project failed. He will project another. I protest against it. Your protest will not be heeded Let me premise. Your premises are fallacious.

        3. A rebel is one who rebels. Record the date. Search the records. A basket for refuse paper. Refuse the gift. A subject for a poem. Man subjects animals to his use. A survey of land. Survey the field. He suffered torments. Why torment her? A transport ship. You transport me by the good news.

        4. He heeds not her abuse. Do not abuse him. A close atmosphere. Close the door. A diffuse style. The furnace diffuse warmth. A poor excuse. Excuse her. A pot of grease. Grease the wheels. They effected a compromise. Compromise the matter. The invalid's agreement was invalid. A gallant ship. He was quite gallant to the ladies. The month of August. An august presence.

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        1. Words of one syllable ending with any consonant but f, l, or s preceded by a single vowel, do not double the final consonant; as, man, bed, ham.

        EXCEPTIONS. -- Add, burr, butt, buzz, ebb, egg, err, inn, odd.

        2. Words of one syllable ending with f, l, or s, preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant; as, stiff, full, class.

        EXCEPTIONS. -- As, has, his, if, is, gas, of, this, thus, yes, us, was.

        3. Words ending in silent e drop e on taking an additional syllable beginning with a vowel; as, have, hav'ing; cure, cur'a-ble; sense, sens'i-ble.

        Blame, move, reprove, sale, and their compounds, are sometimes, though improperly, made to retain e before able. The proper spelling is blamable, &c.

        Words ending in ge and ce retain e before able, in order to preserve the soft sounds of g and c (the sounds of j and s); as, changeable, peaceable, &c. We write singeing, springeing, and swingeing, to distinguish these words from singing, springing, and swinging.

        Dye has dyeing, to distinguish it from dying; but eye has eying.

        The e is retained in verbs ending in oe and ee; as, shoe, shoeing; hoe, hoeing; toe, toeing; see, seeing; agree, agreeing, &c.

        Words ending with c hard insert k before a syllable beginning with e or i, to preserve the hard sound; as, frol'ic, frol'icked, frol'ick-ing; phys'ic, phys'icked, phys'ick-ing.

        Words ending in ie change the ie into y on adding ing; as vie, vying; tie, tying; lie, lying; hie, hying; die, dying.


        Ad-mire, ad'mi-ra-ble; a-dore, a-d[small o, macron]r'a-ble; ad vise, ad-vi'sa-ble; blame, bla'ma-ble; cen sure

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cen s[small u, macron]-ra-ble; com-pare, com'pa-ra-ble; con-ceive, con-ceiv'a-ble; con-sume, con-su'ma-ble; con-vince, con-vin'ci-ble; cure, c[small u, macron]r'a-ble; de-bate, de-ba'ta-ble; de-cline, de-cli'na-ble; de-duce, de-du'ci-ble; de-fine, de-fi'na-ble; de-plore, de-pl[small o, macron]r' a-ble; de-scribe, de-scri ba-ble; de-sire, de-s[small i, macron]r'-a-ble; dis-pute, dis'pu-ta-ble; ex-cuse, ex-cu'-sa-ble; force, f[small o, macron]r'ci-ble; fuse, fu'si-ble; ig-nite, ig-ni'-ti-ble; im-ag'ine, im-ag'i-na-ble.

        Im-prove, im-prov'a-ble; im-pute, im-pu'ta-ble; mis-take, mis-ta'ka-ble; move, mov'a-ble; note, no'ta-ble; ob-serve, ob-serv'a-ble; pal'ate, pal'a-ta-ble; pro-cure, pro-c[small u, macron]r'a-ble; prove, prov'a-ble; rate, ra'ta-ble; rec'on-cile, rec-on-ci'la-ble; reduce, re-d[small u, macron]'ci-ble; re-move, re-mov'a-ble; re-pute, rep'u-ta-ble; re-solve, re-solv'a-ble; re-verse, re-vers'i-ble; sale, sa'la-ble; sense, sens'i-ble; size, si'za-ble; tame, ta'ma-ble; tithe, ti'tha-ble; val'-ue, val'u-a-ble.

        EXCEPTIONS.--A-gree'a-ble, change'a-ble, charge'-a-ble, dam'age-a-ble, man'age-a-ble, no'tice-a-ble, peace'a-ble, ser'vice-a-ble, trace'a-ble.


        Add ing to the following words, in accordance with Rule 3.

        Bathe, bribe, change, chase, come, cringe, dance, fife, gore, grieve, hinge, like, lodge, page, pine, probe, ride, shame, snore, splice, squeeze, take, tease, trace, trade, tire, wane, wedge, wince.

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        Add ish, y, ance, or al, to the following words, in accordance with Rule 3.

        Ish. Brute, knave, pale, rogue, slave, swine, thieve, white. -- Y. Able, double, fleece, idle, juice, plague, noble, scale, shade, spice. -- Ance. Assure, continue, contrive, endure, grieve, insure, observe, persevere, pursue. -- Al. Arrive, bride, dispose, fes'tive, nature, propose, refuse, revive, u'ni-verse.

        4. Words ending in silent e generally retain e on receiving an additional syllable beginning with a consonant; as move'ment, a-chieve'ment.

        EXCEPTIONS. -- Awful, argument, abridgment acknowledgment, judgment, duly, truly, wholly.


        Add ful, less, ly, ment, or ness, to the following words, in accordance with Rule 4.

        Ful. Hope, peace, rue, shame, spite, tune, wake, waste. -- Less. Care, cease, cure, force, grace, life, name, shame, shape. -- Ly. Bare, home, late, mere, rude, safe, sage, tame, wide, wise. -- Ment. Ad-vance, com-mence, en-cour'age, en-tice, en-gage, in-duce, man'age, re-fine. -- Ness. Base, fee'ble, hoarse, i'dle, lame, large, like, pale ripe, rude.

        5. Words ending in y preceded by a consonant change the y to before any augment but's, or one beginning with i.

        EXCEPTIONS -- The derivatives of dry and shy retain the y; as, dryly, shyly; dryness, shyness &c

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        Add the augments est, es, eth, and ed, severally, to the following verbs, in accordance with Rule 5; thus, glo'ri-fy, glo'ri-fi-est, glo'ri-fies, glo'ri-fi-eth, glo'ri-fied.

        Am'pli-fy, ap-ply, cer'ti-fy, cl[small a, breve]r'i-fy, com ply, cru'ci-fy, cry, de-cry, de'i-fy, de-scry, de-fy, de-ny, dig'ni-fy, ed'i-fy, es-py, for'ti-fy, fry, grat'i-fy, im-ply, in-dem'ni-fy, just'i-fy, mag'ni-fy, mod'i-fy, mol'li-fy, mor'ti-fy, mul'ti-ply, no'ti-fy, oc'cu-py, ply, proph'e-sy, pry, pu'ri-fy, qual'i-fy, ram'i-fy, rat'i-fy, rec'ti-fy, re-ply, sanc'ti-fy, sat'is-fy, sc[small a, breve]r'-i-fy, sim'pli-fy, spy, stu'pe-fy, sup-ply, test'i-fy, try, v[short e, breve]r'i-fy, viv'i-fy.

        Add er, est, ful, less, ly, or ness, to the following words, in accordance with Rule 5.

        Er, est, and ly. Bus'y, cra'zy, clum'sy, daint'y, ea'sy, gid'dy, greed'y, hap'py, luck'y, mer'ry, ready, sha'dy, speed'y, stin'gy, tar'dy, ti'dy, worth'y. -- Ful. Fan'cy, pit'y.--Less. Mer'cy, pit'y, rem'e-dy. -- Ness. Bus'y, daint'y, gid'dy, greed'y, read'y.

        6. When a vowel precedes the y final, or when ing is added, the y is generally retained.

        EXCEPTIONS. -- Paid, laid, lain, saith, said, and most of their compounds, as un-paid, mis-laid. Dai-ly is also a frequent exception. Gay'ly and gay'e-ty are generally spelled as here given.


        Add ing to the verbs given in the examples under Rule 5. Add s, ed, er, and ing, severally, to the following verbs, in accord ance with Rule 6.

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        Be-tray, de-lay, de-stroy, em-ploy, en-joy, play.

        7. Words of one syllable, and words accented on the last syllable, ending with a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, double that consonant on taking an augment beginning with a vowel.

        EXCEPTIONS.--The derivatives of gas have only one s; as, gas'es, gas'i-fy. X, h, and k, are never doubled in English words; as, wax, wax'en.


        Add ed and ing, severally, to the following verbs, in accordance with Rule 7.

        A-bet', ac-quit, ad-mit, al-lot, be-fit, blot, bud, chat, com-mit, dot, fit, im-bed, per-mit, plot, quit, send, sub-mit, wed. (In the following, when ed is added, the e before the final d is silent.) An-nul', beg, brag, con-trol, de-bar, de-mur, dis-til, drum, ex-t[short o, breve]l, ex-pel, hem, hop, hum, im-pel, lag, mob, nap, pro-pel, rob, rub, sin, sob.

        Add er, ar, or, y, est, to the following words, in accordance with Rule 7.

        Er. Be-gin, big, drum, rob, rub, run, stab, swim.--Ar. Beg.--Or. A-bet.--Y. Crag, gum, skin, shrub, smut.--Est. Big, fat, glad, red, sad.

        8. But if there are two final consonants, or two vowels preceding a final consonant--likewise if the accent is not on the last syllable, or if the accent is shifted--no doubling takes place.*

        * The word ex-cel departs from this rule in ex'cel-lence. But in pref'er-ence, in'fer-ence, &c., the rule holds.


        Add ed or ing to the following words, under the foregoing Rule. (Heed the sound of t, taken by d, after an aspirate consonant

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sound; as in cuffed, stripped, missed, &c., pronounced cuft, stript, mist, &c. See page 116.)

        Call, chill, con-fess, cuff, cull, dis-tress, ebb, en-gr[small o, macron]ss, err, fell, fill, gall, hiss, hurl, im-press, kill, l[short o, breve]ll, op-press, pass, puff, pull, quaff, quell, re-press, roll, scoff, shell, smell, snuff, spell, spill, thrill, till, trans-gress, trill, will, yell.

        Beam, beat, boil, cheat, clean, com-plain, cool, drain, pail, gain, heal, heap, join, look, mail, nail, rail, sneer, spoil, spout, steam, toil.

        Bal'lot, ban'ter, beck'on, beg'gar, ben'e-fit, bi'as, big'ot, bil'let, cab'in, car'pet, com'bat, cov'et, cred'it, dif'fer, doc'tor, en-vel'op, ex-hib'it, fat'ten, fig'get, fil'ter, for'feit, gal'lop, gib'bet, har'den, in her'it, lim'it, mur'mur, offer, par'al-lel, pil'fer, pi'lot, prof'fer, prof'it, rea'son, riv'et, suf'fer, tem'-per, vis'it, wain'scot, wor'ship.

        REMARKS.--The following words are, by many writers and lexicographers, regarded as exceptions to Rule 8, and are made to double the final consonant before ed, ing, &c. But this deviation is condemned by Lowth, Walker, Perry, and Webster; and present usage is in favor of the reform introduced by the latter, under which these words are spelled in accordance with Rule 8; thus, trav'eled, trav'el-ing, trav'el-er;*

        * Walker says: "An ignorance of this Rule (Rule 8) has led many to write bigotted for bigoted, &c., and from this spelling has frequently arisen a false pronunciation: but no letter seems to be more frequently doubled improperly than l. Why we should write libelling, levelling, revelling, and yet offering, suffering, reasoning, I am totally at a loss to determine."

jew'el, jew'el-er,

        Add ed or ing to the following:

        Ap-p[small a, breve]r'el, b[small a, breve]r'rel, bev'el, can'cel, c[small a, breve]r'ol, cav'il,

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chan'nel, chis'el, coun'sel, cud'gel, di'al, di-shev'el, driv'el, du'el, em-bow'el, en-am'el, e'qual, gam'bol, grav'el, grov'el, hand'sel, hatch'el, im-pan'nel, jew'el, ken'nel, ker'nel, la'bel, lau'rel, lev'el, li'bel, mar'shal, mar'vel, mod'el, pan'el, par'cel, pen'cil, p[short e, breve]r'il, pis'tol, pom'mel, quar'rel, rav'el, rev'el, ri'val, row'el, shov'el, shriv'el, sniv'el, tas'sel, tram'mel, trav'el, tun'nel, vict'ual.

        9. Words ending in a double consonant generally retain both consonants on receiving an addition.

        REMARKS.--Some words ending in ll drop one l before less and ly; as, skil'less, ful'ly, chil'ly, squal'ly. But, according to Webster, the derivatives of dull, skill, will, and full, retain the ll before ness and ful; as, dull'ness, full'ness, skill'ful, will'ful; though Walker and other lexicographers place but one l in the first syllable of these words. In the words dis-till, fore-tell, fulfill, in-still, Webster retains the ll of the primitive words still, tell, fill, inasmuch as it must be retained in the participles and other derivatives; as, dis-till'er, fore-tell'ing, ful-filled, &c. But dis-till and ful-fill are frequently spelled with but one final l.


        Add the augments ful, ly, ness, to the following words, in accordance with Rule 9.

        Ful. Bliss, dis-tress, skill, suc-cess, will.--Ly. Heed'less, gross, rest'less, use'less.--Ness. Care'less, chill, dull, full, gross, ill, small, stiff, still, tall.

        10. Compound words are usually spelt in the same manner as the simple words of which they are composed; as, ice-house, cow-yard, down-fall. But full, as an additional syllable, drops one l; as handful,

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        * Some persons speak of "so many spoonsfull," instead of "so many spoonfuls." The rule on this subject is: Compounds ending in ful, and all those in which the principal word is put last, form the plural in the same manner as other nouns,--as handfuls, spoonfuls, mouthfuls, &c.

the u retaining an easy sound of u in bull full, &c.

        EXCEPTIONS.--An e is dropped in wherever; and words ending in ll often drop one l in composition; as al-be'it, al-might'y, al-most, al-read'y, al'so, although, al-to-geth'er, al'ways, el'bow, un-til, wel'fare, with-al.

        11. The plural of nouns is generally formed by adding s, when the singular ends with a sound that will unite with the sound of s: as, lamp, lamps; date, dates; woe, woes: or by adding es, or s having the sound of es, when the singular ends with a sound that will not unite with the sound of s: as, fox, foxes; lens, lenses; torch, torches; rose, roses; Miss, Misses; excellence, excellences.

        Nouns having any other ending than y preceded by a consonant or than f, h, o, s, x, also nouns ending in silent e, form their plurals by adding s.

        When c soft (having the sound of s), g soft (having the sound of j), or s, comes before silent e, a syllable is added to the word; as, face, fa'ces; age, a'ges; case, ca'ses.

        Nouns ending in ch soft (as in chest), sh, ss, or x, form their plurals by adding es.


        Add s*

        * See page 118 in regard to the sound of s as z.

to the following nouns to form the plural.

        Bag, bar, beam, bed, cork, crew, crew, eel, head, farm, flood, frog, kick, leg, mob, pair, pearl, pig, pulp, sloop, sound, street, trout, vein, wall.

        Ap'ple, babe, bribe, cane, cave, duke, fire, flame, guide, hive, hope, joke, mule, name, rip'ple,

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ruffle, skate, shoe, sieve, side, sleeve, stone, valve wave, yoke, zone.

        Add es to the following nouns, ending in ch, sh, ss, or x. to form the plural.

        Arch, batch, bench, blush, box, branch, br[small o, macron]och, brush, bunch, bush, church, class, coach, crash, cross, crutch, dash, dish, flash, fox, gash, glass, hatch, hiss, inch, lash, lass, loss, lynx, march, match, mesh, peach, perch, pinch, p[small o, macron]rch, pouch, sash, scratch, sex, slash, tax, trench, truss, wish, wietch. -- Cru'ci-fix, count'ess, in'dex, os'trich, par'ish.

        Add s in writing, but the sound of es in pronouncing, to form the plural of the following. (See Paragraph 2, under Rule 11.)

        Bridge, cheese, furze, gauze, hinge, judge, lease, muse, noise, place, purse, siege, sluice, surge.

        12. Most nouns ending in o, preceded by a consonant, form the plural by the addition of es; as, car'go, car'goes; ech'o, ech'oes; he'ro, he'roes; mot'to, mot'toes; mu-lat'to, mu-lat'toes; ne'gro, ne'groes, po-ta'to, po-ta'toes; sti-let'to, sti-let'toes; vol-ca'no, vol-ca'noes, &c. (See page 52 for words ending in o.)

        EXCEPTIONS. -- Where o is preceded by a vowel, as in tri'o, cam'e-o, s only is added. The following also are commonly written in the plural, with s only: Bra'vo, can'to, du-o-dec'i-mo, grot'to, ha'lo, jun'to, man-i-fes'to, me-men'to, p[small o, macron]r'ti-co, quar'to, oc-ta'vo, so'lo, two, ty'ro, ze'ro, mus-qui'to.

        13. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant form their plural by changing the y into ies; but nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel form the plural regularly by the addition of s.

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        14. The following nouns ending in f, or fe, form the plural by changing their endings into ves: beef, beeves; calf, calves; elf, elves; half, halves; knife, knives; leaf, leaves; life, lives; loaf, loaves; self, selves; sheaf, sheaves; shelf, shelves; thief, thieves; wife, wives; wolf, wolves.

        15. Other nouns ending in f or fe, as chief, dwarf, fife, grief, gulf, hand'ker-chief, hoof, proof, re-proof, roof, safe, scarf, strife, surf, turf, wharf, and most of those ending in ff, form the plural regularly; as gulf, gulfs; muff, muffs; wharf, wharfs. Staff has staves in the plural, but its compounds are regular; as, flag'staff, flag'staffs.


        Change the final y into ies in the plural, in the following nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant. The y has the sound of short i unaccented; the ies the sound of [short i, breve]z, or, where the accent is on the last syllable, of [small i, macron]z.

        Ar'my, ba'by, ber'ry, bod'y, cit'y, cop'y, coun'try, dai'sy, fan'cy, fol'ly, gip'sy, jel'ly, la'dy, mer'cy, par'ty, po'ny, pop'py, ru'by. -- Al-ly', re-ply, supply.

        A'gen-cy, ag'o-ny, ar'te-ry, cal'um-ny, can'o-py, cav'i-ty, cen'tu-ry, char'i-ty, col'o-ny, com'e-dy, com'pa-ny, cru'el-ty, de'cen-cy, de'i-ty, dep'[small u, macron]-ty, di'a-ry, ecs'ta-sy, ef'fi-gy, el'e-gy, en'e-my, en'ergy, en'mi-ty, eu'lo-gy, ex'i-gen-cy, fac'to-ry, fac'ul-ty, fam'i-ly, f[small o, macron]rg'er-y, gal'ler-y guar an-ty, gro'cer-y, har'mo-ny, h[short e, breve]r'e-sy, his'to-ry, in'ju-ry.

        Leg'a-cy, li'bra-ry, lot'ter-y, lux'u-ry, mal'a-dy, mel'o-dy, mis'er-y, mu'ti-ny, ni'ce-ty, [short o, breve]r're-ry, p[small a, breve]r'o-dy, pen'al-ty, pe'o-ny, per'fi-dy, pi-ra-cy, pol'i-cy, prod'i-gy, r[small a, breve]r'i-ty, rem'e-dy, rob'ber-y, sub'si-dy, ten'den-cy, the'o-ry, trag'e-dy, u'ni-ty, van i-ty, vic'to-ry, vo'ta-ry, ex'cel-len-cy.

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        In the following nouns, ending in y preceded by a vowel, add (with its z sound) to form the plural.

        Al-loy, bay, boy, day, dray, de-cay, de-lay, dis play, fray, joy, key, ray, toy, way.

        Ab'bey, al'ley, at-tor'ney, chim'ney, con'voy, don'key, en'voy, es'say, gal'ley, jock'ey, jour'ney, ker'sey, kid'ney, lack'ey, lam prey, med'ley, mon'ey, mon'key, os'prey, pull'ey, tur'key, turn'key, val'ley, vice'roy, vol'ley.


        1. There are no eggs in the inn. A full class. A curable disease. Salable property. She is blamable. A movable rock. Changeable silk. A serviceable cloak. Peaceable neighbors. The boy received a swingeing for swinging without leave. The cook, while singeing the turkey, is singing. The dyer is dyeing my mantilla. The cat is eying a blackbird.

        2. The blacksmith is shoeing a horse. Stop frolicking, boys! He is hoeing potatoes. She is tying a knot. He is lying down. A debatable subject. An irreversible decision. Improvable land. Your horse is not comparable to mine. A desirable lot. An excusable retreat. An indisputable fact. A manageable colt. An agreeable person. A noticeable woman.

        3. Bathing in the river. She is teasing him to go. He is cringing to the rich man. We are chasing a fox. She is wincing at his rebuke. A juicy peach. He is lying on the sofa. They are frolicking in the barn. The doctor is physicking the patient. In pursuance of your request, I will go. A universal festival.

        4. A sudden movement. Illustrious achievements. That which is awful inspires awe. You argue the point, but your arguments are old. A convenient abridgment. Accept my acknowledgment for your judgment. A graceless youth. A peaceful assembly. A rueful glance. His management failed. Excuse my hoarseness. My engagements forbid.

        5. She behaved shyly. He certified to the fact. She magnifies my merits. The dryness of the atmosphere. Thou prophesiest. The clumsiest of the boys. A fanciful project. A remediless complaint. Be in readiness. Busily employed. Which horse is the speedier? A pitiless master. He justified his conduct. He defieth his oppressors. Thou repliest not.

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        6. I mislaid the paper-knife. She laid her hand on his head. He lay down gayly on the floor. Why did he lie down? He had not lain long when he rose. He delayed his departure. He slays his thousands. The Daily Gazette. Irrepressible gayety. The destroyer of her peace.

        7. Unwholesome gases. A waxen image. They acquitted the prisoner. He is blotting his book. They submitted at once. He annulled the contract. They controlled his choice. He demurred. He was impelled to do it. They are ext[short o, breve]lling his conduct. They are controlling the affair The drummer was a swimmer. The beggar was an abettor of the crime. A shrubby growth. The bigger of the two. The fattest of the three.

        8. He confessed his connivance. They lolled in their chairs. He engrossed the bill. I repressed my tears. You transgressed the bounds. He spilled the soup. They are toiling at the oars. They are balloting for a speaker. She enveloped me with her shawl. They paralleled the act. You are forfeiting my esteem. A fattened ox. They profited by my ignorance. He riveted the chains. A tedious visitor. A devout worshiper. He galloped fast. My preference is for her. Its excellence is plain. Lightly appareled. The birds caroled. He libeled the doctor. Disheveled hair. An enameled watch. They shoveled the snow. The jeweler gamboled. The gambler gambled. The traveler periled his life. They tunneled the hill, and leveled the mound.

        9. A successful practitioner. Fulfill your promise. Instill good thoughts. A skillful mechanic. She ran heedlessly to the cars, and her carelessness was punished. The smallness of the amount. A willful temper. She blundered grossly.

        10. Take three spoonfuls of the liquid. Shake the door-mat. Two handfuls of corn. Until we meet, farewell. Your welfare shall be my concern So it has been always, albeit you are altogether bad withal. Their Excellencies, the Governors, had many excellences of character.

        11. Roses for the Misses B --. Light the torches. Six cases of preserves. Six gills of vinegar. The gills of a fish. Malapert girls. Gooseberry pies. Six glasses of syllabub. Ten demijohns of vitriol. Ripe musk-melons. Silver salt-cellars. The nightingales sang. The purlieus of the state-house. Numbers were massacred (pronounced mas'sa-kerd). Memoirs of Napoleon. Battledoors and shuttlecocks. Worsted stockings. An-i-mal'c[small u, macron]les in the water. The thresholds of the doors.

        12. The calicoes were cheap. Sweet potatoes. The bravos had stilettoes. A poem in ten cantos. Two small duodecimos. Receive them as mementos of my affection. The General's manifestos. Beautiful cameos. The mulattoes rose against the negroes. Volcanoes in a state of eruption The porticos were spacious. Prolonged echoes. The manifestos were read to the armies.

        13. Daisies in bloom. She defies his calumnies. The comedies were

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hissed. Prodigies of valor. They had subsidies from the enemy. The chimneys were blown down. Volleys of musketry. Lackeys were in waiting. The penalties of his offences. Parodies of the poem. Bad tendencies. She is in ecstasies. The forgeries were discovered. Task all your energies They sat in the galleries. The deputies are here. The poppies are faded. The rubies sparkle. Parties are divided. The jellies are too soft. The ponies ran. Our allies refuse further supplies. The chimneys fell.

        14, 15. Put the loaves on the shelves. With knives we cut the apples in halves. The thieves fled. The beeves were in good condition. Ten handkerchiefs. The Southern gulfs. What is the singular of staves? The ships are at the wharfs. The dwarfs were exhibited. Your reproofs pass unheeded. Muffs for the ladies. The flagstaffs were pulled down. Will their strifes never end?


        A Prefix is that which is put before, and a Postfix (or affix) that which is put after another word, to make with it a new word.


        A, on or in, as a-foot, a-bed.

        Be, about, as besprinkle; also for or before, as bespeak.

        En, in or on, as encircle; also make, as enfeeble. (En is changed into em in roots beginning with b or p, as embark, empower.)

        For, from, against; as forbid.

        Fore, before, as foresee.

        Mis, error or defect, as misdeed.

        Out, excess or superiority, as outrun.

        Over, eminence or excess, as overcharge.

        Un, before an adjective or adverb, signifies not, as unworthy; un, before a verb, signifies the undoing of the act expressed by the verb, as unfetter. Un is sometimes prefixed to a verb without altering the sense, as loose, unloose.

        Up, motion upwards, as upstart; also subversion, as upset.

        With, from or against, as withdraw withstand.

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        A, ab, abs, from or away, as avert, absolve, abstain.

        Ad, to, as adhere. (Ad assumes the various forms of a, ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, according to the commencing letter of the root with which it is joined; as ascend, accede, affix, aggran dize, allot, annex, appeal, arrest, assume, attract.)

        Am, round about, as ambient.

        An'te, before, as antecedent.

        Circum, round or about, as circumnavigate. (Circum also takes the form circu, as circuit.)

        Cis, on this side, as cisalpine.

        Con, together, as convoke. (Con takes also the various forms of co, cog, col, com, cor, as coöperate, cognate, collect, commotion, correlative.)

        Contra, against, as contradict. (Contra sometimes takes the form counter, as counterbalance.)

        De, down, as dejected.

        Dis, asunder, as distract; also negation or undoing, as disarm. (Dis has also the forms of di and dif, as diverge, diffuse.)

        E, ex, out of, as egress, exclude. (E, ex, take also the form of ex, ef, as eccentric, efflux.)

        Extra, beyond, as extraordinary.

        In, before an adjective, signifies not, as inactive; in, before a verb, signifies in or into, as inject. (In has also the various forms of ig, il, im, ir, as ignoble, illuminate, import, irradiate.)

        Inter, between, as intervene.

        Intro, to, within, as introduce.

        Juxta, nigh to, as juxtaposition.

        Ob, in the way of, or opposition, as obstacle. (Ob has also the various forms of oc, of, o, op, os, as occur, offend, omit, oppose, ostentation.)

        Per, through or thoroughly, as perforate, perfect. (Per has also the form of pel, as pellucid.)

        Post, after, as postdiluvian.

        Pre, or præ, before, as predict.

        Preter, or præter, past or beyond, as preternatural.

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        Pro, for, forth, or forward, as pronoun, provoke, proceed.

        Re, back or again, as retract, rebuild.

        Retro, backwards, as retrospect.

        Se, aside or apart, as secede.

        Si'ne, without, as sinecure. (Sine has also the form of sim and sin, as simple, sincere.)

        Sub, under or after, as subside. (Sub has also the forms of suc, suf, sug, sup, sus contracted for subs, as succeed, suffuse suggest, suppress, suspend.)

        Subter, under or beneath, as subterfuge.

        Super, above or over, as superfluous. (Super has also the French form sur, as surmount.)

        Trans, over from one place to another, as transport.

        Ultra, beyond, as ultramundane.


        A or an, without or privation, as apathy, anonymous.

        Amphi, both or the two, as amphibious.

        Ana, through or up, as anatomy.

        Anti, against, as Antichrist. (Anti has sometimes the contracted form of ant, as antarctic.)

        Apo, from or away, as apostasy. (Apo has sometimes the contracted form of ap, as aphelion.)

        Cata, down, as catarrh. (Cata has also the form of cat, as catechise.)

        Dia, through, as diaphanous.

        Epi, upon, as epitaph. (Epi has also the form of ep, as ephemeral.)

        Hyper, over and above, as hypercritical.

        Hypo, under, as hypothesis.

        Meta, change, as metamorphosis. (Meta has also the form of met, as method.)

        Para, near to, or side by side as if for the purpose of comparison, and hence sometimes similarity, and sometimes contrariety, as paradox. (Para has also the form of par, as parody.)

        Peri, round about, as periph'rasis.

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        Syn, together, as syn'th[short e, breve]sis. (Syn has also the forms sy, syl sym, as system, syllogism, sympathy.)


        NOUNS ending in an, ant, ar, ard, ary, eer, ent, er, ist, ive, or, ster, denote the agent or doer; as, comedian, accountant, liar, dotard, adversary, charioteer, student, maker, elocutionist representative, professor, maltster.

        Nouns ending in ate, ee, ite, denote the person or thing acted upon, being derived from the Latin and French terminations of the past participle atus, itus, and ée; as mandate, lessee, favorite.

        Nouns ending in acy, age, ance, ancy, ence, ency, hood, tion or sion, ism, ment, mony, ness, ry, ship, th, tude, ty or ity, ure, y, denote being or a state of being; as, effeminacy, heritage, inheritance, constancy, reference, excellency, neighborhood, combustion, heroism, judgment, parsimony, loudness, adversary, worship, health, latitude, plenty, ability, judicature, butchery.

        Nouns ending in dom, ic, ick, denote jurisdiction; as, dukedom, bishopric, bailiwick.

        Nouns ending in logy denote treating of; as, conchology.

        Nouns ending in let, kin, ling, ock, cle, denote littleness; as bracelet, lambkin, gosling, hillock, particle.

        ADJECTIVES ending in ac, al, an, ane, ar, ary, en, ic or ical, ile, ine, ory, denote of or belonging to; as ammoniac, claustral, meridian, mundane, secular, military, brazen, eccentric, puerile, masculine, transitory.

        Adjectives ending in ate, ful, ose, ous, some, y, denote possessing or abounding in; as precipitate, skillful, verbose, pompous, irksome, pithy.

        Adjectives ending in ish, like, ly, denote likeness; as womanish, soldierlike, manly. -- Ish sometimes signifies diminution; as reddish, a little red. In most cases it implies some degree of contempt.

        Adjectives ending in ent, ive, denote active capacity; as replendent, persuasive.

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        Adjectives ending in able, ible, denote passive capacity; as amiable, flexible.

        Adjectives ending in less denote privation; as houseless.

        VERBS ending in ate, en, fy, ish, ise, ize, denote to make; as elongate, embolden, beautify, embellish, criticise, harmonize.

        WORDS ending in escent denote progression; as convalescent.

        Words ending in ward denote direction; as upward, downward, northward.

        Words ending in ite, ote, ot, an, ish, ard, denote of a particular nation, sect, &c.; as Israelite, Sciote, Austrian, Irish, English, Savoyard.




        The marks of punctuation are, the Comma (,), which usually represents the shortest pause; the Semicolon (,), a longer pause than the comma; the Colon (:), a longer pause than the semicolon; and the Period (.), a full stop.

        The Interrogation point (?) is used to denote that a question is asked; as, Who is there? The Exclamation point (!) is expressive of any strong or sudden emotion; as, O, heavy day!

        The Dash (--) is used where a sentence breaks off abruptly, and sometimes to mark off parenthetical sentences; also in connection with the punctuation-marks, to increase their force.

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        The Apostrophe ('), a mark differing from the comma only in being placed above the line, denotes the omission of one or more letters; as, o'er for over,'gan for began. It also marks the separation of the final s of the possessive case from the noun; as, John' hat. The possessive case plural is indicated by an apostrophe after the letter s; as, the trees' leaves.

        The Marks of Parenthesis () are used when a word, passage, or mark, which interrupts the progress of the sentence, is inserted; as, Honesty (the proverb is an old one) is the best policy.

        Brackets [ ] include an explanation or name not originally in the text, and generally inserted by some other person than the author.

        The Caret (^) is used only in writing, to point to something interlined above it. The Cedilla is used under the French c, thus (ç), to signify that it is to have the soft sound of s.

        The Hyphen (-) is used to separate syllables; also the parts of compound words; as, com-pre-hend, milk-pail. The Hyphen is placed after a syllable ending a line, to show that the remainder of the word begins the next line.

        There are three marks of accent: the mark of the acute accent (`), the mark of the grave (') accent, the mark of the circumflex (^), which is a compound of the other two. The acute accent is used in English to mark the accent'ed syllable. The other accents are used chiefly in French, and in that language to denote a difference in quantity, not in accent. The circumflex accent over e denotes that it has the long sound of a, as in name; thus, fête (pronounced fate.)

        A Paragraph, sometimes indicated by the sign (¶), is a small subdivision in writing, which is now generally represented simply by beginning a sentence with a new line having a slight blank space at its commencement.

        Marks of Quotation (" ") are used to denote that the words of another person, real or supposed, than the author, are quoted. Two commas (") are sometimes used to show that something is understood to be repeated, which was expressed in the line and word immediately above.

        The Index, or Hand ([see image above]), points out a passage for special attention. The Section (§) denotes the division of a discourse or

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chapter into inferior portions. The Asterisk (*), the Obelisk or Dagger (*), the Double Dagger ([see image above]), the Paragraph (¶), and Parallels ([see image above]), are marks of reference to the margin, the foot of a page, or some other part of a book.

        The mark of Ellipsis or omission is formed either by a long dash, or by a succession of points or stars; as, Q * * * n for Queen.

        The Diæresis ([see image above]), a Greek word signifying a division, divides two vowels, that would otherwise make a diphthong, into two syllables; as, Creätor. It may also be placed over a single vowel to show that it ought not to be merged in a preceding syllable; as, agëd, blessëd.

        The Makron ([see above image]), from a Greek word signifying long, is sometimes placed over a vowel to denote that the quantity is long; as f[small a, macron]te, c[small e, macron]de, p[small i, macron]ne, r[small o, macron]ll.

        The Breve ([see above image]), from the Latin, brevis, short, is placed over a vowel to denote that it is short; as, h[small a, breve]t, y[short e, breve]t, H[short e, breve]l[short e, breve]na, p[short i, breve]t, n[short o, breve]t, b[small u, breve]t, cr[short y, breve]stal.

        Italic letters are often employed in printing letters, words, or passages, to which the author wishes to call the special attention of the reader, or which he wishes to distinguish for any purpose.


        Capital Letters should be used in the following instances:

        1. At the beginning of the first word of every sentence, and after every full stop; as, It was a starlight night. What do you want?

        2. At the beginning of every line of poetry; as,

                         He sendeth sun, He sendeth shower,--
                         Alike they're needful to the flower;
                         And joys and tears alike are sent
                         To give the soul fit nourishment.
                         As comes to me or cloud or sun,
                         Father! thy will, not mine, be done

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        3. At the beginning of proper names and of adjectives derived from them, in whatever part of the sentence; as, I saw John and Thomas. An Italian sunset. An American steam-ship.

        4. In epithets, used like the following: Charles the Fat Peter the Great; William the Conqueror.

        5. Titles, when followed by names; as, The Emperor Napoleon. They spoke of Queen Victoria; of Governor Brooks; of General Scott; the Duke of Devonshire.

        6. Appellations of the Deity; as, Lord, Jehovah, Providence, and often in pronouns referring to Him.

        7. The pronoun I, and the interjections O, oh, &c.

        8. The days of the week, and months of the year; as, February, Tuesday.

        9. The divisions of a printed work; as, Book the first, Section the second, Chapter the third, Volume the tenth, &c.

        10. Nouns denoting a religious sect; as, A Christian, a Jew, a Lutheran, a Mahometan.

        11. Words to which it is desired to give importance; as, The army of the Revolution. When will Congress sit?


Illustrating the Punctuation-Marks, &c.

        Notwithstanding all his diligence, the general could not reach the city before the enemy. Lend, lend your wings. Alfred the Great was a brave, pious, and patriotic prince. Milton the poet seemed a different being from Milton the politician.

        God, who made the world, dwelleth not in temples made with hands. I sold my house, which was not large, for a moderate sum. Napoleon, whose impatient spirit could brook no obstacle, was highly indignant at this concession.

        He insisted upon a condition which ultimately proved fatal to the arrangement. I met the person whom you introduced. Every teacher must love a boy who is attentive and docile. Study, I beseech you, to store your mind with the exquisite learning of former ages.

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        Boast not, my dear friends, of to-morrow. Antonio, light my lamp. I am obliged to you, ladies, for your kindness. The impossibility of extricating himself and his comrades from their dangerous position, drove the commander to desperation. Peace of mind being secured, we may smile at misfortune.

        Wisdom, power, and goodness, are the attributes of the Deity. They passed their time in drawing, working, reading, and playing. He is a worthy, liberal, and benevolent man. I came, saw, and conquered. Two, four, six, eight, and ten, are even numbers. He behaved rashly and violently. They rushed into the streets singing, shouting, and screaming violently. I was received civilly and hospitably.

        Young and old, rich and poor, wise and ignorant, will appear before the judgment-seat. The captain drew his sword, encouraged his men, and led them on to the conflict. Scipio was called the sword, and Fabius the shield, of Rome. Fill thy heart with goodness, and thou wilt find that the world is full of good. As virtue is its own reward, so vice is its own punishment.

        The slaughter was dreadful; a few escaped by subterraneous passages, and made good their flight into the country; others retired into the citadel, which was soon obliged to surrender at discretion, and was razed to the ground; but by far the greater number perished in the town, under the sword of an irritated and relentless victor.

        "Augustus well knew," says the historian, "that mankind are governed by names; and that they will, in general, submit to real slavery, if they are told that they are in the enjoyment of freedom." Straws swim on the surface; but pearls lie at the bottom. Yesterday the sky was beautifully bright; to-day, all is dark and dreary. Sem[short i, breve]r'amis built Babylon; Dido, Carthage; Rom'[small u, macron]lus, Rome.

        Patrick Henry commenced by saying, "It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope." Good and evil are the lot of man. No one must expect either happiness or misery unmixed. Virtue is too lovely and useful to be immured in a cell: the world is her sphere of action. Brutus's speech over Cæsar's body begins thus: "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears."

        Collins's Ode on the Passions contains this line:

"Through glades and glooms the mingled measure stole."

        Avoid affectation: it is a contemptible weakness. The air was sweet and plaintive; and the words, literally translated, were these: "The winds roared and the rains fell, when the poor white man, faint and weary, came and sat under our tree." The Rev.*

        * The period is used after every abbreviated word.

Dr. Paley.

        What do you want? Will you come with me? What o'clock is it! Where is Elizabeth? Here! dear mother. Hush! you will wake the child.

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Where have you been all day? Bravo! well done! How beautiful is night Daughter of Faith! awake! arise! illume the dread unknown, the chaos of the tomb. Alas! poor Yorick.

        Consider (and may the consideration sink deep into your hearts!) the fatal consequences of a wicked life. A coälition took place. Coöperate with us in the undertaking. Should that time come -- but I will not descend to threats. Newton, Franklin, Washington, Napoleon, -- different as they were in many respects, -- were all renowned as hard workers. I could not stop my hiccough.*

        * Pronounced hik'kup or hih kof


        I picked up a lady's fan, and have asked several ladies if it belonged to any one of them. A person's manners are apt to influence his fortune. The doctor's horse was got ready at five minutes' notice. I admired the workman's dexterity. Our country's welfare. Deer's flesh is called venison. William's book is torn. What is everybody's business is nobody's business. Wisdom's voice.

        Cows' horns are made into combs. The men's hats were hanging against the wall. Ladies' and gentlemen's shoes for sale here. The tiger's skin is striped, the leopard's spotted. The ship's rudder was knocked to pieces. Seven weeks' sickness has made poor Oliver quite thin. The boys' pens were mixed up with the girls' knitting-needles. I hear the sound of horses' feet. A horse's speed. The swan's neck is long and graceful Ducks' feet are webbed.

        The contractions in the following sentences are often used in conversation, but rarely in writing, except in dialogues, &c.

        Does n't this fine weather make one happy? That's right: you've done this exercise well. There were n't more than ten persons present. We've been at play. You're welcome to go, if your wishes so incline you. Would n't you like to see the new cow? We'd rather see her another time. I could n't give the poor man money, for I had n't any. They're all gone. 'T was early dawn. Where'er you go, don't forget me. They'll jump o'er the brook.

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        Where's my hat? Thou 'dst better walk than ride. Whate'er*

        * E'er is a contraction of ever, and is pronounced like air; but ere, though having precisely the same pronunciation, is an adverb, meaning before, sooner than

I do, I'll do it well. Thou 'rt better than thou 'dst have us think. 'T is long since I was there. I have n't a minute to waste. There is n't a drop in the can. It's getting late; is n't it? Shan't we see you again? Are n't*

        * Pronounced arnt.

they ready? I said it was Mr. Adam's book, not Mr. Adams's.


        The Romans counted up to three by single strokes, supposed to represent the fingers of the hand: thus I. stood for one; II for two; and III. for three.

        A smaller figure placed to the left of a larger is meant to be subtracted from it: thus IV. means I. (one) subtracted from V. (five); that is, four.

        V. stands for five; it represents the five fingers of the hand, and was originally written thus,


: afterwards, the middle fingers were left out, and the figure stood V.

        A smaller figure placed to the right of a larger is meant to be added to it: thus, VI., VII., and VIII., stand, respectively, for six, seven, and eight; that is, five and one, five and two, and five and three.

        IX. stands for nine; that is, I. (one) from X. (ten).

        X. stands for ten; it represents two fives placed vertically, thus:



        XI., XII., XIII. Eleven, twelve, thirteen; that is, ten and one, ten and two, ten and three.

        XIV. Fourteen; that is, ten and (one from five) four.

        XV. Fifteen; that is, five added to ten.

        XVI., XVII., XVIII., XIX. Sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen.

        XX. Twenty; two tens.

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        XXI., XXII., &c. Twenty-one, twenty-two, &c.

        XXX. Thirty; three tens.

        XL. Forty; that is, ten from fifty.

        L. Fifty; this letter stands for fifty, as being the half of one hundred. The Romans expressed one hundred by C., the initial of centum (the Latin for a hundred). In many manuscripts the letter C is found in this form, E. A horizontal line drawn across it gives the lower half, L, and hence the application.

        LX. Sixty; fifty and two ten.

        LXX. Seventy; fifty and two tens.

        LXXX. Eighty; fifty and three tens.

        XC. Ninety; that is, ten from one hundred

        C. One hundred (the initial of centum)

        CC. Two hundred.

        CCC. Three hundred.

        CCCC., or CD. Four hundred.

        D. Five hundred. This letter stands in the same relation to a thousand that L. (fifty) does to C. (one hundred); that is, it represents the half of a thousand. The initial letter M, of mil'le (a thousand), was used to represent that number. An ancient form of this letter is


. A line drawn vertically through this letter leaves on the right-hand side a D, and hence its application.

        DC. Six hundred.

        DCC. Seven hundred.

        DCCC. Eight hundred.

        DCCCC. Nine hundred.

        M. (the initial of mil'le). A thousand.


        Express the following sums in Roman numerals:

        Twenty-nine. Sixty-four. Eighty-seven. Ninety-five. Fourteen hundred and fifty-three. Twelve hundred and forty-two. Two hundred and eight. Four hundred and fifty-seven. Six hundred and forty-three Eighteen hundred and forty-seven. One thousand six hundred and twelve. Three hundred and forty-four. Eighteen hundred and fifty-eight.

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        Express the following Roman in Arabic numerals:*

        * The Arabic numerals are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 They are so called because they were introduced into Europe by the Arabians, who are believed to have received them from the Hindoos.


        Put the following Arabic into Roman numerals:

        Book 9. Chapter 7. Section 8. Appendix, No. 24. Volume 6. Part 19 Chapter 30. Book 5. Section 13. No. 27. Volume 35. Part 56. In the year 1763. The year 1453. The year 1856. The second verse of chapter 12.



        Aaron, A'bel, A-bi'el, A-bi'jah, Ab'ner, Ad'am, A'bra-ham, A-dol'phus, Al'bert, Al-ex-an'der, Al'fred, A-lon'zo, Al'vin, A'mos, Am'a-sa, Am'brose, An'drew, An'tho-ny, Ar'chi-bald, Ar'te-mas, Ar'thur, A'sa, A'saph, Ash'er, Au-gus'tus.

        Bar'na-bas, Be'la, Ben'ja-min, Ben'e-dict, Beno'ni, Be-ri'ah, Be-thu'el, Ca'leb, Cal'vin, Ce'phas, Charles, Chris'to-pher, Clem'ent, Cy'rus, Dan'iel, Da-ri'us, Da'vid.

        Eb-en-e'zer, Ed'gar, Ed'mund, Ed'ward, Ed'win, Eg'bert, El-e-a'zar, E-li'as, E-li'hu, E-li'jah, E-li'sha, E-li'pha-let, E'noch, E'nos, E'phra-im, E-ras'thus, E'than, Eu-gene', E-ze'ki-el, Ez'ra.

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        Fer'di-nand, Fran'cis, Frank'lin, Fred'er-ic, George, Greg'o-ry, Gid'e-on, Gil'bert, Gus-ta'vus, Hen'ry, Hez-e-ki'ah, Hi'ram, Hor'ace, Ho-ra'tio, Ho'se-a, Hugh, Hum'phrey, Ich'a-bod, Ig-na'tius, I'ra, I'saac, Is'ra-el.

        Ja'cob, Ja'bez, Jai'rus, James, Ja'red, Ja'son, Jed-e-di'ah, Jer-e-mi'ah, Jer'e-my, Jer'ome, Jes'se, Je'thro, Jo'el, John, Jo'nah, Jo'nas, Jon'a-than, Jo'seph, Josh'u-a, Jo-si'ah, Jo'tham.

        Laz'a-rus, Lem'uel, Leon'ard, Le'vi, Lew'is, Loam'mi, Lu'cius, Luke, Lu'ther, Mar'cus, Mark, Mar'tin, Mat'thew, Mat-thi'as, Mi'cah, Mi'cha-el, Mo'ses, Na'hum, Na'than, Na-than'i-el, Ne-he mi'ah, Nich'o-las, No'ah.

        O-ba-di'ah, O'bed, Oc-ta'vi-us, Ol'i-ver, Pat'rick, Paul, Pe'leg, Pe'rez, Pe'ter, Phil'ip, Phi'lo, Phin'e-as, Ralph, Reu'ben, Rich'ard, Rob'ert, Ru'fus, Sam'u-el, Saul, Seth, Si'las, Si'mon, Sim'e-on, Sol'o-mon, Ste'phen, Syd'ney, Syl-va'nus, Syl ves'ter.

        Thad'de-us, The'o-dore, The-oph'i-lus, Thom'as, Tim'o-thy, Ti'tus, U-ri'ah, Wal'ter, Will'iam, Zab'-di-el, Zech-a-ri'ah, Zac-che'us, Zach'a-ry.


        Ab'i-gail, Ad'a-line, A-de'lia, Al'ice, A-man'da, A-me'lia, An'na, Anne, Ar'ri-a, Au-gus'ta, Be lin'da, Bet'sy[,] Blanche,*

        * The ch in Blanche and Charlotte has the sound of sh.

Car'o-line, Cath'a-rine,
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Char'lotte, Chris-ti'na, Clar-is'sa, Clem-en-tina, Cor-ne'lia, Cyn'thi-a.

        Deb'o-rah, Dor'o-thy, E'dith, El'ea-nor, E-li'za, E-liz'a-beth, El'len, Em'i-ly, Em'ma, Em'e-line, Es'ther, E[small u, macron]'ge-nie, Eu'nice, Fan'ny, Fran'ces, Han'nah, Har'ri-et, Hel'en, Hen-ri-et'ta, Is-a-bel'la, Jane, Jo'seph-ine,*

        * The i in Josephine has the sound of e long.

Ju'dith, Ju'lia.

        La-vin'ia, Lau'ra, Lou-i'sa, Lu-cin'da, Lu-cre'tia, Lu'cy, Lyd'i-a, Mad'e-line, Mar'ga-ret, Ma-ri'a, Ma'ry, Mar'tha, Ma-til'da, Nan'cy, Ol'ive, Pris cil'la, Ra'chel, Re-bec'ca, Sa'rah, So-phi'a, Su'san, Vic-to'ri-a.


        A long vowel in a primitive generally (though not always, becomes short in its derivative.


        1. Break, breakfast; cave, cavern; chaste, chastity; game, gamble; humane, humanity; nation, national; nature, natural; pale, pallid; prate, prattle; sane, sanity; shade, shadow; slake, slacken; vain, vanity; vale, valley.

        2. Breathe, breath; clean, cleanse; dear, dearth; deep, depth; heal, health; please, pleasure; secret, secretary; serene, serenity; sheep,

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shepherd; shield, shelter; steal, stealth; zeal, zealous.

        3. Behind, hinder; bite, bit; conspire, conspiracy; crime, criminal; decline, declension; divine, divinity; five, fifty; ignite, ignition; line, lin eäl; mime, mimic; vine, vineyard; wide, width; wild, wilderness; wise, wisdom.

        4. Clothe, cloth; coal, collier; cone, conic, fore, forehead; goose, gosling; hole, hollow; holy, holiday; import, important; know, knowledge; mode, model; moon, month; nose, nostril; poke, pocket; sore, sorry; throat, throttle; tone, tonic.


        1. Walk in the shade. The shadow of the stick. You breakfast when you break your fast. A wild beast's cave. A robber's cavern. Vanity is being vain. The vale of Tempë. The valley of the Shadow of Death. They who continue to prate, prattle. A humane man is known for his humanity. A great nation. National customs. That is natural which is according to nature. A pale blue. A pallid hue. A sane mind. An act of insanity. A vain attempt. A proof of vanity. Slake your thirst. He slackened his pace. A game at cricket. To gamble at cards.

        2. We are pleased with what is pleasant. A man of zeal is zealous. Those who cleanse make clean. A deep ditch. The depth of the hole. A shepherd tends sheep. A dearth of provisions. Things are dear. A serene sky. The serenity of the mind. A secretary keeps secrets. A shield shelters us from danger. His wound is healed. In good health. What is breathed forth is the breath. Those who steal do it by stealth.

        3. A wide ditch. The width of the room. Bite the apple. A bit of bread. A wise man. Solomon's wisdom. A criminal has committed a crime. A vine in the vineyard. A lineal descent. In a right line. Five times ten are fifty. Behind the house. Do not hinder me. Every thing grows wild in a wilderness. Divinity is the state of being divine. They conspired against him, and a conspiracy was formed. When coals are ignited, they are in a state of ignition. Decline a noun of the first declension. Mimes are men who mimic.

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        4. A new mode. The model of a statue. Knowledge is what we know Colliers carry coals. The forehead is the fore part of the head. Holidays were formerly kept holy. He imports corn. An important fact. A pig in a poke. Put it in your pocket. Black cloth. Clothed in flannel. A deep hole. A hollow tube. Tonic medicines give tone to the nerves. Conic sections are the cuttings of cones. I am sorry you have a sore throat. The young of a goose are goslings. A full moon once a month.


        Most of the Abbreviations, Phrases, &c., here used, will be found in the Lists which follow.

        America was discovered A. D. 1492. The MS. poem was lost. Send me all the MSS. Did it happen on the 3d inst., or the 29th ult.? Henry Hone, Esq. Lieut. Lane. Capt. Leroy. Hon. Chas. King, M. C. Washington, D. C. Rev. Mr. Hope. Messrs. Lawrence & Lovejoy. Horace Smith, jr. Will you come? N. B. Answer before night.

        I was glad to stand once more on terra firma. An impromptu address. He has shaved off his mustache. I shall proceed via Charleston, S. C., to Columbus. The meeting adjourned sine die. The vote was taken viva voce. A daguerreotype likeness. The reservoir is full. Interesting memoirs. I lost my porte-monnaie. A French vaudeville. A turkois ring.

        They made him cry peccavi. He was chosen speaker pro tem. He rendered me a quid pro quo. An extempore address. She appeared in dishabille. A small clique of enemies. Smell of the bouquet. A fac simile copy. A protégé of Mrs. O. Does she use rouge? I had a tête-à-tête with her. My vis-à-vis in the dance. Finis is Latin for end.

        Magna charta (kar'ta), the great charter, so called, was obtained by the English barons from King John, A. D. 1215. Give me the minutiæ of the affair. The horses ran away with the barouche. A bona fide offer. She received a billet-doux. He is a musical amateur. It is not etiquette to wear an over-coat at a ball. You shall be my locum tenens in my absence

        The verbs lay and lie are often misused. Bear in mind that lay is a transitive verb, of which the preterit and the past participle are laid. Lie is an intransitive verb, of which the preterit is lay and the past participle lain. So we should say: Come and lie down. Lay the pillow by my side. I lay down yesterday; I lie down to-day. Now I lay me down to sleep. Now I lie down to sleep. He laid his hand on my head. She had lain an hour when they woke her. Go and lie down. The proper use of these words is one sign of a good education.

        Was it an 8vo., a 12mo., or a 4to., volume? W. I. Goods. Col. Gardner. Gen. Scott. The 60th p. I found his name mentioned on the 7th and 27th pp. You should learn the difference between meum and trum.

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  • A. B Bachelor of Arts.
  • A. C. Before Christ.
  • Acct. Account.
  • A. D. In the year of our Lord.
  • Al. Alabama.
  • A. M. Master of Arts;
  • A. M. Before noon; or,
  • A. M. In the year of the world.
  • Anon. Anonymous.
  • Ans. Answer.
  • Apr. April.
  • Atty. Attorney.
  • Aug. August.
  • Ark. Arkansas.
  • bbl. Barrel.
  • B. D. Bachelor of Divinity.
  • Benj. Benjamin.
  • Ca. Canada.
  • Cal. California.
  • Capt. Captain.
  • C. E. Canada East.
  • Chap. Chapter.
  • Chas. Charles.
  • Chron. Chronicles.
  • Co. Company; or, County.
  • Col. Colonel.
  • Coll. College.
  • Com. Commodore.
  • Comr. Commissioner.
  • con. Against; or,
  • con. In opposition.
  • Const. Constable.
  • Cor. Corinthians.
  • Cr. Credit; or, Creditor.
  • Ct. or Conn. Connecticut.
  • cts. Cents.
  • C. W. Canada West.
  • cwt. Hundred weight.
  • D. C. District of Columbia.
  • D. D. Doctor of Divinity.
  • Dea. Deacon.
  • Dec. December.
  • Deg. Degree.
  • Del. Delaware.
  • Dept. Deputy.
  • Deut. Deuteronomy.
  • Do. or Ditto. The same.
  • Dr. Doctor; or, Debtor.
  • 12mo. Duedecimo.
  • E. East.
  • Eccl. Ecclesiastes.
  • Ed. Edition; or, Editor.
  • e. g. For example.
  • E. I. East Indies.
  • E. L. East Longtude.
  • Eng. England; or, English.
  • Eph. Ephesians.
  • Esq. Esquire.
  • etc. And so forth.
  • Ex. Example; or, Exodus.
  • Exr. Executor.
  • Fa. Florida.
  • Feb. February.
  • Fr. France; or, French.
  • Ga. Georgia.
  • Gal. Galatians.
  • Gen. General; or, Genesis.
  • Gent. Gentleman.
  • Geo. George.
  • Gov. Governor.
  • H. B. M. Her Britannic Majesty.
  • Heb. Hebrews.
  • hhd. Hogshead.
  • Hon. Honorable.
  • hund. Hundred.
  • Ia. Iowa.
  • Ib. or Ibid. In the same place.
  • Id. The same.
  • i. e. That is.
  • Ill. Illinois.
  • Ind. Indiana.
  • inst. Instant.
  • Isa. Isaiah.
  • J. H. S. (Jesus hominum Salvator.) Jesus the Saviour of men.
  • Jac. Jacob.
  • Jan. January.
  • Jos. Joseph.
  • Josh. Joshua.
  • jr. Junior.
  • Kt. Knight.
  • Ky. Kentucky.
  • La. Louisiana.
  • Lat. Latitude.
  • lbs. Pounds.
  • Lev. Leviticus.
  • Lieut Lieutenant.
  • LL. D. Doctor of Laws.
  • Lon. Longitude.
  • Lond. London.
  • L. S. Place of the seal.
  • M. Monsieur.
  • Ma. or Min. Minesota.
  • Maj. Major.
  • Mar. March.
  • Mass. Massachusetts.
  • Mat. Matthew.
  • M. C. Member of Congress.
  • M. D. Doctor of Medicine.
  • Md. Maryland.
  • Me. Maine.
  • Messrs. Gentlemen, or Sirs.
  • Mich. Michigan.
  • Miss. Mississippi.
  • Mo. Missouri.
  • Mr. Master; or, Mister.
  • Mrs. Mistress.
  • MS. Manuscript.
  • MSS. Manuscripts.
  • N. North.
  • N. B. Take notice.
  • N. C. North Carolina.
  • N. E. North East.
  • N. H. New Hampshire.
  • N. J. New Jersey.
  • N. L. North Latitude.
  • No. Number.
  • Nov. November.
  • N. W. North West.
  • N. Y. New York.
  • O. Ohio.
  • obt. Obedient.
  • Oct. October.
  • On. Oregon.
  • oz. Ounce.
  • 8vo. Octavo.
  • 18mo. Octodecimo.
  • p. Page.
  • pp. Pages.
  • Parl. Parliament.
  • Penn. Pennsylvania.
  • per. By the; as, per yard. by the yard.
  • per cent. By the hundred.
  • Pet. Peter.
  • Phil. Phillippians; or, Philip
  • P. M. Post Master; or,
  • P. M. Afternoon.
  • P. O. Post Office.
  • Pres. President.
  • pro. For; or, In favor of
  • Prob. Problem.
  • Prof. Professor.
  • P. S. Postscript.
  • Ps. Psalm.
  • Q. Question; or. Queen.
  • 4to. Quarto.
  • Q. V. (Quod vi'de.) Which see.
  • Recd. Received
  • Regr. Register.
  • Rep. Representative.
  • Rev. Reverend; or.
  • Rev. Revelation.
  • R. I. Rhode Island.
  • Rom. Romans.
  • Rt. Hon. Right Honorable.
  • S. South.
  • Sam. Samuel.
  • S. C. South Carolina.
  • S. E. South East.
  • Sec. Secretary.
  • Sect. Section.
  • Sen. Senator; or, Senior
  • Sept. September.
  • Serg. Sergeant.
  • Servt. Servant.
  • S. L. South Latitude.
  • St. Saint; or, Street.
  • S. W. South West.
  • Tenn. Tennessee.
  • Tex. Texas.
  • Thess. Thessalonians.
  • Tho. Thomas.
  • ult. The last (month).
  • U. S. United States.
  • Va. Virginia.
  • via. By way of.
  • viz. To wit, namely.
  • Vol. Volume.
  • Vt. Vermont.
  • W. West.
  • W. I. West Indies.
  • Wis. Wisconsin.
  • W. L. West Longitude
  • Wm. William.
  • wt. Weight.
  • yd. Yard.
  • &c. And so forth.

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        ABBREVIATIONS. -- L. Latin; F. French; S. Spanish; I. Italian.

    • A LA (ah-lah), F. After the manner of.
    • AD LIBITUM, L. At pleasure.
    • AD VALOREM, L. According to the value.
    • AIDE-DE-CAMP (aid-deh-kong'), F.
    • [A]LIAS, L. Otherwise.
    • [A]LIBI, L. Elsewhere.
    • [A]LMA MATER, L. A benign mother; a university.
    • AMATEUR (ah-mah-ter'), F.
    • ANNO MUNDI, I. In the year of the world.
    • ANGLI-CE, L. In English.
    • AQUA FORTIS, L. Literally, strong water; nitric acid.
    • ATTACH'E (at-tash-ay'), F.
    • AUTO DA FE (au-to-da-fa'), S. Act of faith.
    • BAGATELLE (bag-a-tel'), F.
    • BAROUCHE (ba-roosh'), F.
    • BALLET (bal-lay'), F.
    • BEAU MONDE (bo mond), F. The gay world.
    • BEAUX ESPRITS (b[small o, macron]z-es-pree'), F. Persons of wit.
    • BELLE (bel), F. A fine lady.
    • BELLES LETTRES (bel-letr'), F. Polite literature.
    • BIJOU (be-joo'), F. A jewel.
    • BILLET DOUX (bil-la-doo'), F. A love-letter.
    • BON JOUR (bong joor), F. Good-day.
    • BON MOT (bong mo), F. A witty remark.
    • BON VIVANT (bong ve-vong'). An epicure.
    • BONA FIDE (bo'na fi'de), L. In good faith.
    • BOUDOIR (boo-dwahr'), F. A small room.
    • BOUQUET (boo-ka'), F.
    • CABRIOLET (kab-ri-o-la'), F.
    • CACOËTHES SCRIBENDI, L. The itch of writing.
    • CANAILLE, F. The rabble.
    • CAPIAS, L. A law-term; you may take.
    • CARTOUCH (car-toosh'), F.
    • CHAPERON (shap-e-rong'), F.
    • CHATEAU (shat-to'), F.
    • CHEF D'ŒUVRE (shay-dehrvr'), F. A master-piece.
    • CHEVAUX DE FRISE (shev-o-deh-freez'), F. A spiked fence.
    • CICERONE (Chè-Cha-ro'ne), I. A guide showing works of art.
    • CI-DEVANT (see-deh-vang'), F. Formerly.
    • CLIQUE (cleek), F. A party.
    • COMME IL FAUT (kom-il-fo'), F. As it ought to be.
    • COMPOS MENTIS, L. Of sound mind.
    • CONNOISSEUR (kon-a-ser'), F. A skillful judge.
    • CONTRETEMPS (kon-tr-tong), F. An unseasonable mishap.
    • CON AMORE (kon a-mo're), I. With zest.
    • CONGE (kon-jay'), F. Leave.
    • CONVERSAZIONE (sat-ze-o'ny), I. A social discussion.
    • CORTÉGE (kor-tazh'), F. An escort.
    • CORNUCOPAÆ, L. Horn of plenty.
    • COUP D'ÉTAT (koo-da-tah'), F. A master-stroke in politics.
    • COUP DE GRACE (koo-deh-grass), F. The finishing blow.
    • COUP DE MAIN (koo-deh-mang'), F. A taking by surprise.
    • COUP D'ŒIL (koo dehl), F. A giance of the eye; a hasty view.
    • CURREN'TE CALAMO, L. With a running pen.
    • CUSTOS, L. A keeper.
    • DAGUERREOTYPE (da-ger'o-type), F. So called from Daguerre, one of the inventors.
    • DATA, L. Things granted.
    • DEBRIS (deh-bree'), F. Broken remnants.
    • DEBUT (da-b[small u, macron]), F.
    • DÉNOUEMENT (da-noo-mong'), F. The unraveling of a plot.
    • DE FACTO, L. In fact.
    • DE NOVO, L. Anew.
    • DE PROFUNDIS, L. Out of the depths.
    • DE TROP (de-tro'), F. Too much, or too many.
    • DERNIER RESSORT (dairn-yair-res-sor'), F. Last resort.
    • DEVOIRS (dev-waurz'), F. Duties.
    • DIEU ET MON DROIT (Dieu-a-mong-drwau'), F. God and my right.
    • DISHABILLE (dis-ah-beel'), F. An undress.
    • DONNA, I. A lady of rank.
    • DOUBLE ENTENDRE (doobl-ontongdr), F. Double meaning.
    • DOUCEUR (doo-ser'), F. A small gift, or bribe.
    • DRAMATIS PERSONÆ, L. Persons of the drama.
    • E PLURIBUS UNUM, L. One of many.
    • EAU DE VIE (o-deh-ve'), F. Brandy.
    • ECCE HOMO, L. Behold the man.
    • ECLAIRCISSEMENT (ek-lair-cis-mong), F. A clearing up, or explanation.
    • ECLAT (a-klah'), F. Splendor, applause.
    • ELITE (ai-leet'), F. Choice, select society.
    • ELÈVE (el-ave'), F. A pupil.
    • ENCORE (ahn-kore'), F. Again.
    • EN MASSE (ahn mass), F. In a mass.
    • ENNUI (ahn-wee), F. Weariness.
    • ENTRÉE (ahn-tra'), F. Entrance.
    • ENTRE NOUS (ahntr-noo'), F. Between us confidentially.
    • ENTREPOT (ahn-tr-po'), F. Depot for goods
    • ERGO, L. Therefore.
    • ESPIONAGE (es-pe-o-nazh'), F.
    • ESTO PERPETUA, L. May it be perpetual.
    • ESPRIT DE CORPS (es-pre-deh-kor'), F. The spirit of a body of men.
    • ETIQUETTE (et-e-ket'), F.
    • ET CÆTERA, L. And so forth.
    • EXIT, L. He goes off.
    • EX'E-UNT OMNES, L. All go off.
    • EXEMPLI GRATIA, L. For the sake of example
    • EX CATHEDRA, L. From the chair.
    • EX CURIA, L. Out of court.
    • EX OFFICIO, L. By virtue of office.
    • EX PAR'TE, L. On one side; on the part of
    • EXPOSÉ (ex-po-za'), F. An exposition.
    • EX TEM'PO-RE, L. On the spur of the moment.

    Page 167

    • FACADE (fan-sahd'), F. Front view of elevation of a building.
    • FAC SIM'I-LE, L. An exact copy.
    • FACILE PRINCEPS (fas'si-le), L. Cleary the first; the acknowledged chief.
    • FÊTE CHAMPETRE (fate shawng-p[small a, macron]tr'), F. A rural festival.
    • FELO DE SE, L. Self-murder.
    • FIAT, L. Let it be done.
    • FI-NA'LE, I. The concluding piece in music.
    • GENS D'ARMES (zhawng d'arm), F. Armed guards belonging to the police.
    • GOUT (goo), F. Taste.
    • GRATIS, L. For nothing.
    • GUILLOTINE (gil-lo-teen'), F.
    • HA'BE-AS CORPUS, L. You may have the body. A writ for delivering a person from false imprisonment.
    • HAUTEUR (ho-ter'), F. Haughtiness.
    • HI-A'TUS, L. A gap.
    • HORS DE COMBAT (hor-deh-kong-bah). F. Disabled.
    • IBIDEM, L. In the same place.
    • IDEM, L. The same.
    • ID EST, L. That is.
    • IGNIS FATUUS, L. Wild fire; will o' the wisp.
    • IGNORAMUS, L. An uninformed blockhead.
    • IMPROMPTU, L. On the spur of the moment.
    • IMPRIMATUR, L. Let it be printed.
    • IMPRIMIS, L. In the first place.
    • IM-PRO-VIS'A-TO'RE, I. An impromptu poet.
    • IN PROPRIA PERSONA, L. In person.
    • IN EXTENSO, L. In full.
    • IN EXTREMIS, L. In one's last moments.
    • IN MEDIAS RES, L. Into the midst of affairs.
    • IN STATU QUO, L. In its former state.
    • IN TOTO, L. Wholly, entirely.
    • IN TRANSITU, L. On the passage.
    • INCOGNITO, I. In disguise.
    • INSTANTER, L. Quickly, earnestly.
    • IPSE DIXIT, L. He himself has said it.
    • IPSO FACTO, L. By the act itself.
    • ITEM, L. Likewise, also.
    • JU NE SAIS QUOI (zheh-neh-sa-kwaw), F. I know not what.
    • JMU D'ESPRIT (zheh-des-pree'), F. Play of wit.
    • JET D'EAU (zha-do'), F. Play of water.
    • JU'AE DIVI'NO, L. By divine law.
    • LAPSUS LINGUÆ, L. A slip of the tongue.
    • LAUS DEO, L. Praise to God.
    • LEX TALIONIS, L. The law of retaliation.
    • LIEUTENANT (lef-ten'ant), F.
    • LICET, L. It is allowed.
    • LITERATI, L. Literary men.
    • LOCUM TENENS, L. A proxy; a substitute.
    • LUSUS NATURÆ, L. A freak of nature.
    • MADAME (m[small a, breve]-dam'), F. A married lady.
    • MADEMOISELLE (ma-dem-wah-zel), F. A young unmarried lady.
    • MAG'NA CHAR'TA, L. The great charter.
    • MAITRE D'HOTEL (maytr-do-tel'), F. Steward.
    • MEMENTO MORI, L. Remember that you must die.
    • MEMOIR (mem'war), F.
    • MEMORABILIA, L. Memorable things.
    • MENAGERIE (men-azh'e-re), F.
    • MESSIEURS (mes-se-er'), F. Gentlemen.
    • ME'UM ET TUUM, L. Mine and thine.
    • MIGNONETTE (min-yon-et'), F.
    • MINUTIÆ (mi-nu'she), L.
    • MODUS OP-ERANDI, L. The mode of operation.
    • MORCEAU (mor-so'), F.
    • MULTUM IN PARVO, L. Much in a little.
    • NAIVETÉ (nah-eev-tay'), F. Simplicity
    • NE PLUS ULTRA, L. The farthest limit or point; perfection.
    • NEM'I-NE CONTRADICEN'TE, L. No one contradicting.
    • NOLENS VOLENS, L. Willing or unwilling.
    • NOM DE GUERRE, F. An assumed name.
    • NOM DE PLUME, F. An assumed name.
    • NON COMPOS MENTIS, L. Not of a sound mind.
    • NOL'LE PROSEQUI, L. Unwilling to proceed.
    • NONCHALANCE (non-sha-lans'), F.
    • NOTA BE'NE, L. Mark well.
    • OBIIT, L. He or she died.
    • OMNIBUS, L. For all.
    • ON DIT (ong de), F. People say
    • ORA PRO NOBIS, L. Pray for us.
    • OUTRE (oo-tray'), F. Exaggerated.
    • PASSIM, L. Everywhere.
    • PECCAVI, L. I have sinned.
    • PENCHANT (pahn-shahng'), F. Inclination.
    • PERDU (pair-du'), F. Lost.
    • PINXIT, L. He or she painted it.
    • PLATEAU (plat-to'), F. Table land.
    • PORTE-MONNAIE (port-mon-ay'), F. A flat money-purse.
    • PORTMANTEAU (port-man'to), F.
    • POS'SE COMITATUS, L. The power of the county; an armed body.
    • POST MERIDIEM, L. Afternoon.
    • POST MOR'TEM, L. After death.
    • PRIMA FACIE, L. From the first view; self-evident.
    • PRO BONO PUBLICO, L. For the public good.
    • PRO HAC VI'CE, L. For this time.
    • PRO ET CON, i. e., pro et contra, L. For and against.
    • PRO TEM'PO-RE, L. For the time.
    • QUANTUM SUF'FICIT, L. As much as is sufficient.
    • QUI VIVE (ke veev), F. Who's there?
    • QUID NUNC, L. What now? A news seeker.
    • QUID PRO QUO, L. What for what; tit for tat
    • QUOD ERAT DEMONSTRANDUM, L. Which was to be demonstrated.
    • QUONDAM, L. Formerly.
    • RAGOUT (ra-goo'), F. Stewed meat.
    • RENDEZVOUS (rahn-day-voo'), F. The place of meeting.
    • REQUIESCAT IN PA'CE (rek-we-es'sat), L. May he or she rest in peace.
    • RESERVOIR (rez-er-vwor'), F.
    • RESURGAM, L. I shall rise.
    • RÉVEILLÉ (re-vale'ye), F. An alarm.
    • ROUGE (roozh), F. Red color.

    Page 168

    • SANS (sahng), F. Without.
    • SANG FROID (sang frwor), F. Cold-bloodedness.
    • SCI'RE FACIAS, L. Cause it to be known.
    • SCULPSIT, L. He or she engraved it.
    • SECUNDUM ARTEM, L. According to art.
    • SIC SEMPER TYRANNIS, L. So may it always be with tyrants.
    • SI'NE DI'E, L. Without day.
    • SI'NE QUA NON, L. Indispensable condition.
    • SOBRIQUET (sob-re-ka'), F. Nickname.
    • SOI-DISANT (swor-de-sahng'), F. Self-styled.
    • SOIREE (swor-ra'), F. Evening party.
    • STATUS QUO, L. The same state as before.
    • SUI GENERIS, L. Of a peculiar kind.
    • SUMMUM BONUM, L. The chief good.
    • SURSUM CORDA, L. Raise hearts to God.
    • TABLEAU (tab-lo'), F. A picture.
    • TAPIS (tah-pe'), F. A carpet.
    • TE DE'UM LAUDAMUS, L. The first words of a Latin hymn, "We praise thee, O God"
    • TERRA FIRMA, L. Firm earth.
    • TETE-A-TETE (tait-ah-tait), F. Head to head; a private conversation.
    • TOUT ENSEMBLE (too-tahn-sahn-bl), F. The whole taken together.
    • VA'DE MECUM, L. Go with me; a constan companion.
    • VA'LE, L. Farewell.
    • VERBATIM ET LITERATIM, L. Word for word, and letter for letter.
    • VALET DE CHAMBRE (val-a-deh-shambr'), F. A footman.
    • VAUDEVILLE (vode-vil), F.
    • VIA, L. By way of.
    • VI'CE VERSA, L. The opposite way.
    • VI'DE, L. See.
    • VIGNETTE (vin-yet'), F.
    • VIS-À-VIS (veez-ah-vee'), L. Opposite.
    • VI ET ARMIS, L. By force and arms.
    • VIS INERTIÆ, L. The force of indolence.
    • VIVA VO'CE, L. By the living voice.
    • VIVAT, L. A shout of "Long live," &c.
    • VOX POPULI VOX DE'I, L. The voice of the people is the voice of God