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Our Own Primary Grammar for the Use of Beginners:
Electronic Edition.

Smythe, Charles W. (Charles Winslow), 1829-1865?

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First edition, 2000
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Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

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Source Description:
Our Own Primary Grammar for the Use of Beginners.
Charles W. Smythe, A. M.
iv, [5]-72 p.
Greensborough, N. C.
Sterling and Campbell
At head of title: Smythe's Primary Grammar
Call number CC375.42 S66o (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South.
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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

Languages Used:

LC Subject Headings:

Revision History:









Page verso

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand
eight hundred and sixty-one, by
In the Clerk's Office of District Court of North Carolina.


Page iii


        THE political revolution in which we are now engaged makes necessary an intellectual one.

        To aid in this, and to supply an existing want, I have undertaken the preparation of a series of ENGLISH GRAMMARS, of which this is the first.

        In its preparation, I shall follow as guides the facts of the language, as shown in its memorials, its history, and its present usage; together with all illustrative facts derived from the comparative study of language.

        In this little book I have aimed to state only the most simple facts of the language, leaving all detail and discussion, beyond what seemed necessary, for the higher books.

        I have endeavored to state these facts clearly, in such language as I hope may be easily learned and understood.

        I have arranged the material so that the study of propositions, of language, may go on with that of words.

Page iv

        I should be glad to receive any suggestions from others that their experience may dictate, that the work may be made hereafter as suitable as possible for the end it has in view.

        We are compelled to undertake these things at our own risk and under great disadvantages, and hope therefore to receive aid and encouragement from the friends of education.

        The second number, "A Common School Grammar," will follow in a few months.

        The third, "A High School Grammar," exhibiting the history, relations, etymological forms, and philosophical structure of the language, is in preparation.


Lexington, N. C., Oct 7, 1861.
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        1. Let each lesson be thoroughly learned and applied before passing to the next.

        2. Let the pupil be required to write upon his slate or the blackboard, daily, exercises upon each lesson and fact stated.

        3. Let him take his reading book, and point out nouns, verbs, and so forth as they may be assigned.

        4. Let him be habituated to give the reasons for everything either in the forms given or in such as the teacher's own judgment may suggest.

        5. Make yourself, as far as possible, master of the subject, that you may be able from your own resources to illustrate and explain the subjects of the lesson.

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        1. If we wish to tell or write anything to each other, we make use of words.

        2. Words are like pictures. If I show you a picture of a horse, or dog, you will instantly think of those animals, and the picture tells you, as it were, a short story.

        3. So, if you hear the word horse or see it in a book, you think at once of the animal called by that name.

        4. Thus the spoken or written word is a picture to the mind of some thing or action.

        5. We know there are a great many words, yet all have something to tell us, just as these have.

        6. If we go into a garden we may find a great many flowers and plants. But, if we look carefully at them, we shall find that there are but few kinds of flowers. One kind may be roses, another tulips, and so on.

        7. So it is with words. They all come into a few classes.

        Some words tell us what the names of things are others what they are doing, others still, tell

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what kind of things they are, or how they do anything.

        8. Learning about such things as these is studying Grammar.

        Grammar tells us about words.



        9. Such words as James, Susan, Mary, Charles, chair, table, box we know are names of persons or things.

        There are a great many words that are names.

        10. The word noun means name.

        We call names nouns.

        11. Remember now that:--

        A Noun is the name of any person, place or thing.

        Point out the nouns in these exercises and tell why they are nouns, in this way:--James is a noun, because it is a name.


        James. Thomas. Susan. Chair. Table. Box. Desk. Ink. Mary reads. The cat mews. The dog barks. Horses run.

        Pointing out words in this way is called parsing.

        Write nouns of your own on your slates or the blackboard and be sure and spell them correctly.

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        12. When I say "John reads," "Mary sings," John and Mary I know are nouns, because they are names.

        13. Reads and sings are not names but they tell what is done. They are called verbs.

        Some verbs, like reads, tell that a thing is done, others like is, are and was tell that something is.

        14. So we say that:--

        A verb is a word that tells what is or is done.

        15. To assert means to tell, to declare, hence we may say also that:--

        A verb is a word that asserts something.


        Point out the nouns and verbs in this way: Horse is a noun because it is a name. Runs is a verb because it tells what is done.

        The horse runs. Rain falls. Snow melts. Water flows. Flowers bloom. Roses fade.



        16. In "John runs," John tells who does something, runs tells what he does.

        John is called the subject, runs the predicate.

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        17. The subject is that of which something is said; as John, in John runs.

        18. The predicate is that which is said of the subject; like runs, in John runs.

        19. A proposition consists of a subject and predicate making good sense.

        Point out the subjects and predicates, nouns and verbs, in these propositions.

        Do it in every lesson.

        Model. John runs. John is the subject because it is that of which something is said. Runs is the predicate, it is that which is said of the subject John is a noun, it is a name. Runs is a verb, it asserts something.


        John runs. The horse neighs. The wind blows. The trees move. The grass grows. The moon rises. Apples fall. Water runs.



        20. I may say "John runs," or "He runs;" "Mary sings," or "She sings."

        The word he and she stand for John and Mary.

        21. They are called pronouns, because they stand for nouns.

        The word pronoun means for a noun.

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        22. A Pronoun is a word that stands for a noun.

        Point out in these exercises, the nouns, pronouns, verbs, subjects and predicates.

        Model. His is a pronoun, because it stands for a noun, and relates to John.


        John reads his book. Mary studies her lesson. James loves his parents. The cows feed in their pasture. The horses draw wagons, carts, ploughs and harrows.



        23. When I say the "apple is sweet," sweet tells what kind of an apple it is or describes it.

        24. Words which describe are called adjectives; as, The tree is tall. The hill is high. A red rose.

        Tall, high, and red are adjectives.

        25. An Adjective is a word joined to a noun or pronoun to describe it.

        Point out in each lesson all the things you have learned and give reasons for every thing.

        Write out exercises of your own.


        Model. The apple is sweet. Sweet is an adjective, because it describes apple.

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        The apple is sweet. The rose is red. The mountain is high. The ocean is broad. A sweet apple. A tall tree. A stone wall. The cold wind blows.



        26. The word city applies to all cities. The word river to all rivers; man to all men.

        But Richmond, the Potomac, James are particular names of single cities, rivers and men.

        27. There are two classes of nouns; common, and proper.

        28. A Common noun is a general name of a whole class of objects; as, man, city, river, tree.

        29. A Proper noun is a particular name of a single person or thing; as John, Norfolk, Yadkin.

        This division applies properly only to those objects that may form classes.

        The names of objects like goodness, sweetness, love, hatred, which have no bodily existence are called Abstract nouns.

        Nouns that signify many things taken as one whole, are called Collective nouns; as, people, nation, army.

        The names of persons with their titles are called Complex nouns; as, Hon. Thos. Ruffin, Mr. Jas. Brown.


        Model. London is a noun, it is a name; proper, it is a particular name, and is the subject of is,

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City is a noun, it is a name, common, it is a general name. London is a great city. Paris is the capital of France. Bonaparte saw the burning of Moscow. The Amazon is a mighty river.



        33. We may say boy, boys; man, men; horse, horses. Boy means one boy; boys, more than one.

        This difference is called in Grammar number.

        34. Number shows whether one, or more than one is meant.

        It belongs in English to nouns, pronouns and verbs.

        35. There are two numbers, singular and plural.

        36. The singular denotes but one.

        The plural denotes more than one.

        37. The plural of most nouns is formed by adding s to the singular; as, boy, boys; horse, horses.

        38. Where the s added to the word would be hard to pronounce es is added; as lash, lashes; fox, foxes; church, churches.

        39. The letters a, e, i, o, u, are called vowels. The rest are called consonants.

        40. A few nouns form their plurals by changing the vowel; as, man, men; goose, geese; foot, feet; mouse, mice.

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        Some add en; as, ox, oxen.

        41. Some are found only in the singular; as, gold, silver, wheat, wisdom.

        Some are found only in the plural; as, ashes, dregs, embers, goods, bellows, scissors.

        Some are found both in the singular and plural; as, deer, sheep.

        Form the plural of these nouns:--boy, girl, chair, table, desk, book, inkstand, pen, man, goose, foot, mouse, lash, miss, fox, church.

        What number are these and why?--Man, boys, girl, men, books, guns, top, churches, dishes, mouse, lice, annals, iron, wheat, deer.


        Model. Horse is a noun it is a name; common it is a general name; singular number, it means but one, and it is the subject of trots. My horse trots. Your horse is large. My books are new. Those cows are fine.



        42. We say, I run, You run, He runs or John runs.

        I is the speaker, you the one spoken to, he or John the one spoken of.

        43. This distinction is called person.

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        There are three persons, first, second, and third.

        44. The first person denotes the speaker.

        The second person denotes the one spoken to.

        The third person denotes the one spoken of.

        45. Nouns are generally in the third person.

        I is always first, you second; he, she and it third.

        Verbs have the three persons to agree with the subject.


        Model. John is a proper noun, it is a particular name; third person, spoken of; singular number, it means but one, and is the subject of sings. Sings is a verb, it is used to assert, third person, singular number to agree with its subject John by

        46. Rule II. The verb must agree with its subject in number and person.

        John sings. Mary plays. The apple falls. The sun is bright. Susan reads her book. Thomas flies his kite.



        47. All living things are divided into two classes, males and females.

        This distinction is called sex.

        48. All nouns are divided into three classes,

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those that are names of males, those that are names of females, and those that are neither male nor female.

        49. This distinction is called Gender.

        Gender is a distinction of nouns in regard to sex.

        50. There are three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter.

        51. The names of males are masculine.

        The names of females are feminine.

        The names of things without life are neuter. The word neuter means neither.

        52. A few nouns like parent, cousin, deer, sheep, may be either masculine or feminine.

        They are sometimes said to be of the common gender. If their gender is not known, they may be parsed as "of the masculine or feminine gender."


        Model. John is a proper noun, it is a particular name; masculine gender, it is the name of a male; third person, it is spoken of; singular number, it means but one, and is the subject of studies. His is a pronoun, it stands for a noun; masculine gender; third person; singular number to agree with John by

        53. Rule IX. Pronouns agree with their nouns in gender, number, and person.

        John studies his lesson. He studies Arithmetic. Mary plays upon the piano. Jane reads her books. The green grass grows in the fields.

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        54. I say John runs. John's horse runs. James teaches John. Here John appears in three ways or relations.

        These relations are called cases.

        55. Case is the relation that nouns and pronouns have to other words in the same sentence.

        56. In John runs, John is the subject and is in the nominative case.

        In John's horse runs, John's denotes the possessor and is in the possesive case.

        In James teaches John, John is the object of the verb teach, or the person acted on, and is in the objective case.

        57. The Nominative case is the subject of the verb.

        The Possessive case denotes possession, origin, or fitness; as John's hat, the sun's rays, men's shoes.

        The Objective case is the object of the verb.

        58. When a person is addressed, the noun is in the Vocative case.

        59. To decline is to give the cases, numbers and persons.

        Nouns are declined thus:--

Singular. Plural.
Nominative Boy. Nom. Boys,
Possessive Boy's, Poss. Boys,
Objective Boy, Obj. Boys.

        Decline girl, bird, box, hand.

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        Model. Susan is a noun, it is a name; proper, it is a particular name; feminine gender, it is the name of a female; third person, spoken of; singular number, it means but one; nominative case, it is the subject of reads by

        60. Rule I. The subject of the verb is put in the nominative case.

        Susan reads. James studies. The wind blows. Water flows. Roses bloom. Apples fall. Horses run. The Saviour lives.



        61. The nominative and objective cases have the same form.

        62. The Possessive case is formed by adding the apostrophe(') and letter s to the singular; as, John's hat.

        63. When the s cannot be easily pronounced with the word, the apostrophe only is added; as, Moses' seat. Thetis' son. For conscience' sake.

        64. When the plural ends in s the apostrophe only is added; as, Boys' play.

        When it does not end in s, the s and apostrophe are both added; as, men's shoes.

        Form the possessive case of these nouns, Man,

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Tree, Girl, Horse, Wiliam, Thomas, Susan. Mary, Cow, Horses, Boys, Girls. Decline these words.


        Model. Mary's is a proper noun, a particular name; feminine gender, the name of a female; third person, spoken of; singular number, means but one; possessive case, denotes posession and limit's book by.

        65. Rule V. A noun or pronoun limiting another noun denoting a different person or thing is put in the possessive case.

        Mary's book is new. John's father came. His horse is white. The elephant's skin is thick.



        66. I say a good man, a tall man, this man, that man. Good and tall describe man. This and that point out which one is meant.

        They are all adjectives.

        67. An Adjective is a word joined to a noun or pronoun to discribe or define it.

        68. There are two kinds of adjectives, descriptive, and definitive.

        69. Descriptive adjectives describe nouns by pointing out their qualities: as, a good man, a kind man.

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        70. Definitive adjectives define or limit nouns, by pointing out which one, or how many; as, this man, that man, each man, ten men.


        Model. Sweet is a descriptive adjective, it is a word joined to a noun to describe it, and belongs to apples by

        71. Rule VI. Adjectives belong to nouns which they describe or define.

        Table is a common noun, a general name; neuter gender, neither male nor female; third person, spoken of; singular number, means but one; and objective case, it is the object of strikes by

        Rule X. The object of the transitive verb is put in the objective case.

        The apple is sweet. James strikes the table. The strong wind overturns the trees. Large deep rivers float long heavy rafts.



        72. Proper adjectives are those derived from proper names. They should begin with capital or large letters; as Roman, American.

        73. Definitive adjectives are divided into Numerals and Pronominal adjectives.

        74. Numerals are those used in counting; as, one, two.

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        75. Pronominal adjectives, when used with nouns, are adjectives; when used without, are pronouns: as, This man. This is mine.

        76. Numerals are divided into cardinals, and ordinals.

        77. The cardinals show how many are meant; as, one, two, three.

        78. The ordinals show which ones are meant as, first, second, third.

        79. Pronominal adjectives are divided into demonstratives, distributives, and indefinites.

        80. The demonstratives are this, that, these, those, former, latter. They point out precisely which are meant.

        81. The distributives are each, every, either and neither. They point out separately; as, each man, each separate man.

        82. The indefinites are, some, one, all, such, no, none, same, several, other, another, many, few, &c.

        They point out no particular person or thing.


        Model. This is a definitive adjective, demonstrative kind, it defines precisely what is meant; it defines man by Rule VI.

        83. Remark. Definitives must agree with their nouns in number.

        This man is tall. This excellent little boy respects all other good boys. Good studious girls

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like fine new books. That famous Roman general conquered several Grecian generals.

        Each flying soldier sought some secure hiding-place.



        84. I may say, this man is tall, that man is taller, but James is the tallest.

        85. There are three different degrees of height. This distinction is called in Grammar comparison.

        86. There are three degrees, positive, comparative, and superlative.

        87. The positive describes without comparison.

        The comparative makes a comparison between two; as "John is taller than James."

        The superlative degree makes a comparison between three or more; as, "John is the tallest of the family."

        88. The comparative degree is formed by adding r or er to the positive.

        The superlative is formed by adding st or est to the positive.

        Positive small, comparative smaller, superlative smallest.

        89. Compare in this manner, high, pretty, low, green, rough, sweet, sour, happy, tall.

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        The comparative degree is followed by than and a noun in the nominative to a verb understood; as, wisdom is better than rubies [are].


        Model. Taller is an adjective, a word joined to a noun to modify it; descriptive, it describes Thomas; comparative degree, it makes a comparison between two, and belongs to Thomas, by Rule VI.

        Thomas is taller than James. Wisdom is better than rubies. Platinum is heavier than gold; it is the heaviest of the metals. The best and wisest men are sometimes wrong.



        90. Most long adjectives are compared by the help of more and most, or less and least; as pleasant, more pleasant, most pleasant, industrious less industrious, least industrious.

        91. Some adjectives are wanting in some of the degrees, which are supplied by other words.


Positive. Comparative. Superlative.
Good, better, best.
Bad, ill, or evil worse, worst.
Much, or many more, most.
Little, less, least.

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        The best men are not the most successful.

        The worst men are often successful. Honesty is the best policy. Truth is more wonderful than fiction.



        92. The words a or an and the are called articles.

        93. A or an is called the indefinite article.

        The is called the definite article.

        94. The noun without the article is used in its widest sense. Man means all men, the race of men.

        A man means one man, but no particular man.

        The man means a particular man, who was known before.

        95. A is used before consonant sounds only. An is used before vowels.

        96. A or an is used with singular nouns, the with singular or plural.

        Correct these exercises.

        A inkstand. A apple. A hour. A ounce. An horse. An high hill. A industrious man.

        The indefinite article limits nouns, by

        97. Rule VII. The indefinite article limits nouns in the singular number.

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        The definite article by

        98. Rule VIII. The definite article limits nouns in the siugular or plural number.



        99. Pronouns are divided into Personal, Relative, Interrogative, Possessive, and Definitive pronouns.

        100. Personal pronouns are those which always represent the same person.

        101. They are I, thou or you, he, she, and it.

        1 is first person, thou or you, second he, she, and it, third. He is masculine; she feminine; it neuter.

        102. They are thus declined:

Nom. Poss. Obj. Nom. Poss. Obj.
I, my, me; We, our, us.
Thou, thy, thee; You, your, you.
He, his, him; They, their, them.
She, her, her; They, their, them.
It, its, it; They, their, them.


        Model. He is a pronoun, it stands for a noun; personal, it represents the same person; masculine gender, third person, singular to agree with John by Rule IX.

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        John studies, he will excel. My horse is stronger than your uncle's horse. They saw us. We respect our friends. Thou, God, seest me. He knew its faults. My uncle came to our house.



        103. "The boy, who studies, will learn." Who relates to boy and stands for it. It also connects "Who studies" with "The boy will learn."

        Who is called a relative pronoun.

        104. The Relative pronouns are who, which and that. As is a relative after many, such, and same.

        105. Relative pronouns stand for nouns and connect propositions or clauses.

        106. Who stands for persons, which for animals and things. That is used in the place of who or which.

        They have the same form in both numbers and are thus declined.

Nom. Poss. Obj. Nom. Poss. Obj.
Who, whose, whom; Who, whose, whom.
Which, whose, which; Which, whose, which.
That, whose, that; That, whose, that.

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        Model. Who is a pronoun, it stands for a noun; relative, it relates to man and connects the clauses, third person, singular to agree with man by Rule IX, and in the nominative case, the subject of is by Rule I.

        Point out the clauses, thus: "The man is happy" is the principal clause, "who is good," is the relative clause. Who connects the two to-together.

        The man, who is good, is happy. He is the man, whom I saw. The orator, whom we heard, was eloquent. The rose, which we saw, was fading. The lady, who visited us, has gone to Europe.



        107. The Interrogative pronouns are those used in asking questions. They are who, which, and what. When joined to nouns they are interrogative adjectives; as, "what man is that?

        108. The Possessive pronouns are mine, thine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, and theirs.

        109. They are found in the nominative and objective cases; as, This book is mine. He has lost yours but she has found hers.

        110. The Definitive pronouns are the same as the Pronominal adjectives.

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        111. This, that, these, and those are demonstratives.

        Each, every, either, neither are distributives.

        Some, any, all, other, both, same, another, one, such, none, few, many, are indefinites.

        112. The pronouns, whoever, whichever, whosoever, whichsoever, what, whatsoever perform a a double office and are called Double Relatives. The simplest way of parsing them is as follows: "I know not what you say." "What you say" is the object of know, and "what" the object of say. "Whoever studies will learn." "Whoever studies" is the subject of will learn, and, "whoever," the subject of studies.


        Model. Who is a pronoun, it stands for a noun; interrogative, it asks a question; third person, singular to agree with the answer, father, by Rule IX.

        Who gave this book to you? My father gave it to me. Which is your book? The one with a red cover is mine. What man is that? Which rose will you take? Whoever is industrious and temperate will succeed.



        113. The verb is a word that asserts something.

        114. When I say "John runs" I express a complete thought, but when I say "John reads" something

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else, a book or paper is necessary to complete the thought.

        115. Hence, there are two classes of verbs.

        They are called Transitive and Intransitive.

        116. Transitive means passing over, because the action passes over from the actor to the object.

        Intransitive means not passing over.

        117. Transitive verbs are those which require the addition of an object to complete the sense; as, John reads his book.

        Intransitive verbs are those which do not require an object; as John runs.

        118. If it or them can follow a verb it is transitive, otherwise it is intransitive.

        119. Transitive verbs have two forms called the Active and Passive voices.

        120. In the Active voice the subject acts upon some object; as, James teaches William.

        In the Passive voice the object is acted upon and is the subject of the verb; as, William is struck by James.


        Model. Falls is a verb, it asserts something; intransitive, it does not require an object; third, singular to agree with rain by Rule II.

        Rain falls. The snow melts. The warm sun revives the earth. The trees put forth their leaves. The flowers and grass spring up.

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        121. Verbs assert action, or being in different ways or manners.

        122. The manner in which assertion is made is called Mode.

        123. There are four modes; the Indicative, the Potential, the Subjunctive and the Imperative.

        124. The Indicative indicates or declares positively.

        125. The Potential asserts power, liberty and necessity.

        126. The Subjunctive implies a condition or supposition.

        127. There are other forms which do not assert and therefore are not modes. They represent action in an indefinite manner.

        128. They are the Infinitives, Participles and Verbal noun.

        The Infinitives of the verb learn are To learn and To have learned.

        The Participles are Learning, Learned, Having Learned.

        The Verbal noun is Learning.

        129. It can be the subject of a proposition. The participle in ing cannot be.

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        Model. Shines is a verb, it asserts; intransitive, it does not require an object; indicative mode, it asserts positively; third, singular to agree with sun by Rule II.

        The sun shines. The waves beat. The sea roars. The carpenter builds houses. Fire burns wood and coal. The smoke rises. The farmer sows his seed. Writing is a useful exercise. Writing letters to our friends is a pleasant labor.



        130. There are three divisions of time, present, past, and future.

        131. In each of these an action may be asserted as indefinite, going on or progressive, and completed.

        He writes is indefinite. He is writing is progressive. He has written is completed.

        These distinctions of time are called Tenses.

        132. Tense means time.

        133. There are six tenses: Present, Past, Future, Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect.

        There are two forms in each, the simple and the progressive.

        134. The progressive is formed by adding the Participle in ing to the verb, Be or Am.

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        135. The Present tense denotes present time.

        First, as indefinite. "He writes well," that is, he is accustomed to write well.

        Second, as progressive. "He is writing" now.

        136. The Past tense denotes past time.

        First, as indefinite. "He wrote well," that is, he was accustomed to do it.

        Second, as progressive. "He was writing" then.

        137. The future tense denotes future time.

        First, as indefinite. "He will write" sometime.

        Second, as progressive. "He will be writing" then.


        Model. Studies is a verb, it asserts; transitive, it requires an object; indicative mode, it asserts positively; present tense, it denotes present time; third, singular to agree with Mary by Rule II.

        Mary studies her lesson. The birds are singing. He retired early. The farmer was ploughing his field. The sun was shining.



        138. The Present Perfect tense denonotes an action or state completed in

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past time connected with the present; as "James has written a letter to day."

        The progressive form denotes an action going on in past time connected with the present; as, "He has been writing to day."

        139. The Past Perfect tense denotes an action or state completed before some past time; as, "He had gone when I came."

        The progressive form denotes an action or state going on before some past time; as "He had been writing before I came."

        140. The Future Perfect tense denotes that an action or state will be completed before some future time; as "He will have gone before you get there."

        The progressive form denotes an action or state going on before some future time: as, "He will have been travelling a week tomorrow."


        Model. Has written is a verb, it asserts; transitive, it requires an object; indicative mode, it asserts positively; present perfect tense, it denotes an action completed in present time; third, singular to agree with he by Rule II.

        He has written a letter. Thomas had gone before the stage came. The messenger will have reached him by to-morrow.

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        He has been studying Latin and Greek. Mary had been playing with her doll. James will have been studying an hour when the clock strikes.



        141. These six tenses belong only to the Indicative mode, since that, only, asserts positively.

        The tenses do not have the same definite meaning in the other modes.

        142. The Potential has four forms:

        Present, Past, Present Perfect, Past Perfect.

        143. The signs of the Present are may, can, must.

        The signs of the Past are might, could, would and should.

        The signs of the Present Perfect, may have, can have, must have.

        The signs of the Past Perfect, might have, could have, &c.

        144. The Present tense denotes present or future time; as, "He may go now," or "He may go to-morrow."

        The Past tense denotes what might take place at any time.

        The Present Perfect tense denotes what may have taken place in past time.

        The Past Perfect tense denotes what might have taken place in past time.

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        145. The Subjunctive mode has two forms called the Present and Past tenses.

        The Present denotes a future condition; as "If he study" means if he shall study.

        The Past denotes a supposition in present time which is known not to be real; as, "If he were studious, he would learn," but he is not studious.

        The Imperative has only the Present tense and second person.

        The Infinitive has two forms, Present, To love; and Perfect, To have loved.

        The Participle has three forms, the Imperfect, Loving; the Perfect, Loved; and the Compound, Having Loved.


        The apple is sour. The time has come. The wind blew. His farm produces, corn, wheat, hay, and oats.



        146. The principal parts of a verb are the Present and Past tenses indicative and the Perfect Participle.

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        147. From these the other parts of the verb are formed.

        There are two ways of forming these principal parts, and therefore two classes of verbs.

        148. One class adds a syllable to the present tense, the other changes the vowel; as, learn, learned, learned; sing, sang, sung.

        149. They are commonly called Regular and Irregular, and are thus defined:

        150. The Regular verbs and d or ed to form their principal parts.

        Their regular verbs do not add d or ed to form their principal parts.

        151. The later and more correct division is into Strong and Weak verbs.

        152. The Strong verbs form their principal parts by changing the vowel; as, sing, sang, sung.

        The Weak verbs require the addition of a letter or syllable, t, d, or ed; as, keep, kept, kept; love, loved, loved; learn, learned, learned.

        The Strong verbs are so called, because they form their parts in themselves; while the weak require an addition.


        Model. Had studied is a verb, it asserts; weak (or regular) it adds ed to form its principal parts; indicative mode, it asserts positively; past perfect tense, it denotes what had taken place before some other action; third, singular to agree with he by Rule II.

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        He had studied his lesson before he went to recite. He has gone. The river has fallen. The birds have flown.

        It is sufficient to say in parsing that the verb adds ed to form the past tense.



        153. The verb Be is a defective verb made up of the verbs, am, be, and was.

Principal Parts.

Present, am. Past, was. Perfect Part. been.




Singular. Plural.
1st Person, I am, 1st Person, We are,
2d Person, Thou art, 2d Person, You are,
3d Person, He is, 3d Person, They are,



Singular. Plural.
1. I was, 1. We were,
2. Thou wast, 2. You were,
3. He was; 3. They were.



Singular. Plural.
1. I shall or will be, 1. We shall or will be,
2. Thou shalt or wilt be, 2. You shall or will be,
3. He shall or will be; 3. They shall or will be.

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Singular. Plural.
1. I have been, 1. We have been,
2. Thou hast been, 2. You have been,
3. He has been. 3. They have been.



Singular. Plural.
1. I had been, 1. We had been,
2. Thou hadst been, 2. You had been,
3. He had been, 3. They had been.



Singular. Plural.
1. I shall or will have been, 1. We shall or will have
2. Thou shalt or wilt have 2. You shall or will have
been, been,
3. He shall or will have been. 3. They shall or will have


        He had been rich. James was a painter. He will be wise if he listens to his advice. It is summer and the fields are green.




        Signs, may, can, must. Conjugate with each.

Singular. Plural.
1. I may be, 1. We may be,
2. Thou mayst be, 2. You may be,
3. He may be; 3. They may be.

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        Signs, might, could, would and should.

Singular. Plural.
1. I might be, 1. We might be,
2. Thou mightst be, 2. You might be,
3. He might be; 3. They might be.


        Signs, may have, can have, must have.

Singular. Plural.
1. I may have been, 1. We may have been,
2. Thou mayst have been, 2. You may have been,
3. He may have been; 3. They may have been.


        Signs, might have, could have, would have, should have.

Singular. Plural.
1. I might have been, 1. We might have been,
2. Thou mightst have been. 2. You might have been,
3. He might have been. 3. They might have been.




Singular. Plural.
1. If I be, 1. If we be,
2. If thou be, 2. If you be,
3. If he be; 3. If they be.



Singular. Plural.
1. If I were, 1. If we were,
2. If thou wert, 2. If you were,
3. If he were; 3. If they were.

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Singular. Plural.
2 Be thou or you, 2. Be ye or you.



Present. To be. Perfect. To have been.



Imperfect. Being. Perfect. Been. Compound. Having been

        154. A synopsis is given by naming the first persons singular of each mode and tense.

        155. Synopsis of Be or Am.

Present, I am. I may, can or must be.
Past, I was. I might, could, would or
Future, I shall or will be. should be.
Pres. Perf., I have been. I may, or can have been.
Past Perf., I had been. I might or could have been
Fut, Perf., I shall or will have



Present. If I be. Past, If I were.



Be, thou, or you.



Present, To be. Perfect, To have been.



Imperfect, Being. Per., Been. Compound, Having been.


        He may be there if he is not at home. He will be happy. James might have been rich if he had been prudent.

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Principal Parts.

        Present, love.

Past, loved. Perfect Part. loved.




Singular. Plural.
1. I love, 1. We love,
2. Thou lovest, 2. You love.
3. He loves; 3. They love.



Singular. Plural.
1. I loved. 1. We loved,
2. Thou lovedst, 2. You loved,
3. He loved; 3. They loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I shall or will love, 1. We shall or will love,
2. Thou shalt or wilt love. 2. You shall or will love.
3. He shall or will love; 3. They shall or will love.



Singular. Plural.
1. I have loved, 1. We have loved,
2. Thou hast loved, 2. You have loved.
3. He has loved; 3. They have loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I had loved, 1. We had loved,
2. Thou hadst loved, 2. You had loved,
3. He had loved; 3. They had loved.

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Singular. Plural.
1. I shall or will have loved, 1. We shall or will have loved.
2. Thou shalt or wilt have loved, 2. You shall or will have loved,
3. He shall or will have loved; 3. They shall or will have loved.




Singular. Plural,
1. I may love, 1. We may love,
2. Thou mayst love, 2. You may love,
3. He may love; 3. They may love.



Singular. Plural,
1. I might love, 1. We might love,
2. Thou mighst love, 2. You might love,
3. He might love; 3. They might love.



Singular. Plural.
1. I may have loved, 1. We may have loved.
2. Thou mayst have loved. 2. You may have loved,
3. He may have loved; 3. They may have loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I might have loved, 1. We might have loved,
2. Thou mightst have loved, 2. You might have loved,
3. He might have loved; 3. They might have loved.

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Singular. Plural.
1. If I love, 1. If we love,
2. If thou love, 2. If you love,
3. If he love; 3. If They love.

        156. The Present is the only conditional form that differs from the indicative except the past of be or am.


Singular. Plural.
2. Love thou or you 2. Love ye or you.


        Present, To love.

        Perfect, To have loved.


        Imper., Loving. Per., Loved. Compound, Having loved.

        Let the pupil write or give a synopsis of this verb.


        Model. May have loved is a verb, it asserts, weak (or regular,) it adds ed to form the past tense; transitive it requires an object, potential, it implies possibility; present perfect, it asserts what may have taken place; third, singular to agree with he by Rule II.

        He may have loved. I learn my lesson by hard study. James had played until he was tired. We play ball after we have learned our lessons.

        Like love conjugate learn, study, play.

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        157. The progressive form is conjugated by adding the Imperfect Participle of any verb to the forms of be or am.

        158. Synopsis of Learn, Progressive Form.

Present, I am learning. I may be learning.
Past, I was learning. I might be learning.
Future, I shall or will be learning.
Pres. Per., I have been learning. I may have been learning.
Past Perf., I had been learning. I might have been learning.
Fut. Perf., I shall have been learning.



Present, If I be learning. Past, If I were learning.

Singular. Plural.
2. Be thou learning. 2. Be ye learning.



Present, To be learning. Perf., To have been learning.

        Conjugate thus: I am learning, Thou art learning, He is learning, We are learning, &c.


        Model. (If he) learn is a verb, it asserts, weak, it adds ed to form the past tense; transitive, it requires

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an object; subjunctive mode, it implies a future condition; present tense in its form; third, singular to agree with he by Rule II. If he learn he will please us. If it rain to-morrow I cannot go. If it were he, he would come to see us. Come to me and bring me your book. I saw a boy reading his book.



        159. The Passive voice is formed by adding the perfect participle of any transitive verb to the forms of the verb be or am.




Singular. Plural.
1. I am loved, 1. We are loved,
2. Thou art loved, 2. You are loved,
3. He is loved; 3. They are loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I was loved, 1. We were loved,
2. Thou wast loved, 2. You were loved,
3. He was loved; 3. They were loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I shall be loved, 1. We shall be loved,
2. Thou wilt be loved, 2. You will be loved,
3. He will be loved; 3. They will be loved.

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Singular. Plural.
1. I have been loved. 1. We have been loved,
2. Thou hast been loved. 2. You have been loved,
3. He has been loved; 3. They have been loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I had been loved, 1. We had been loved,
2. Thou hadst been loved, 2. You had been loved,
3. He had been loved; 3. They had been loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I shall have been loved. 1. We shall have been loved,
2. Thou wilt have been loved, 2. You will have been loved,
3. He will have been loved. 3. They will have been loved.




Singular. Plural.
1. I may be loved, 1. We may be loved,
2. Thou mayst be loved, 2. You may be loved,
3. He may be loved; 3. They may be loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I might be loved, 1. We might be loved,
2. Thou mightst be loved, 2. You might be loved,
3. He might be loved; 3. They might be loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. I may have been loved, 1. We may have been loved,
2. Thou mayst have been loved, 2. You may have been loved,
3. He may have been loved; 3. They may have been loved

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Singular. Plural.
1. I might have been loved, 1. We might have been loved,
2. Thou mightst have been loved, 2. You might have been loved,
3. He might have been loved; 3. They might have been loved.




Singular. Plural.
1. If I be loved, 1. If we be loved,
2. If thou be loved, 2. If you be loved,
3. If he be loved; 3. If they be loved.



Singular. Plural.
1. If I were loved, 1. If we were loved,
2. If thou wert loved, 2. If you were loved,
3. If he were loved; 3. If they were loved.



Singular. Plural.
2. Be thou or you loved. 2. Be ye or you loved.



Present, To be loved, Perfect, To have been loved.



Imperfect, Being loved. Perfect, Loved.
Compound, Having been loved.

        Conjugate in like manner, learn, place, teach.

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        Model. Am praised is a verb, it asserts; weak,*

        *The teacher may use the terms weak or regular as he may desire. The terms regular and irregular though long used are not scientifically correct and are objectionable. 1 prefer to follow the highest authorities in the use of weak and strong.

it forms its past tense by adding ed; transitive, it requires an object; passive voice, the object is used as subject, Indicative, present, first singular to agree with I by Rule II. I am praised. You are loved. They are blessed. We were esteemed. James was accused. He has heard the news. She had learned her lesson. They will be loved.




Principal Parts.

Present, take. Past, took. Perfect Participle, taken.





Singular. Plural.
1. I take, 1. We take,
2. Thou takest, 2. You take,
3. He takes; 3. They take.



Singular. Plural.
1. I took, 1. We took,
2. Thou tookest, 2. You took,
3. He took; 3. They took.

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Singular. Plural.
1. I shall take. 1. We shall take.



Singular. Plural.
1. I have taken. 1. We have taken.



Singular. Plural.
1. I had taken. 1. We had taken.



Singular. Plural.
1. I shall have taken. 1. We shall have taken.




Singular. Plural.
1. I may, can, or must take. 1. We may, can, or must take.



Singular. Plural.
1. I might, could would, or should take. 1. We might, could, would or should take.



Singular. Plural.
1. I may, can, or must have taken. 1. We may, can or must have taken.



Singular. Plural.
1. I might, could, would, or should have taken. 1. We might, could, would or should have taken.

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Singular. Plural.
1. If I take, If thou take, &c. 1. If we take.



Singular. Plural.
2. Take thou or you. 2. Take ye or you.



Present, To take. Perfect, To have taken.



Imperfect, Taking. Perfect, Taken.
Compound, Having taken.

        Give a synopsis in full of this verb.


        He sang a song. The birds were singing. In all the meadows the flowers are blooming, for joyous spring has come again.



Present, Do I learn? Present, May I learn?
Past, Did I learn? Past, Might I learn?
Future, Shall I learn?
Pres. Perf., Have I learned? Pres. Perf., May I have learned?
Past Perf., Had I learned?
Fut. Perf., Shall I have learned? Past Perf., Might I have learned?

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        There are two forms of the infinitive, the simple infinitive without to, and the form with to or the prepositional infinitive.

        The first is the true infinitive, the last is a case of the infinitive.

        NOTE FOR THE TEACHER.--In Saxon the infinitive of love was lufian while the prepositional form was to lufienne. The last is called a supine and is the source of our to love.

        163. The simple infinitive is now found only after may, can, must, will, shall, do, let, make, need, have, hear, see, bid, dare, feel, and sometimes, observe, perceive, know, help.

        164. The Infinitive depends upon verbs, nouns, and adjectives; as, He desires to play: A time to learn; He is anxious to improve.

        165. The compound tenses will love, may love can love are indicative tenses of will, may, and can, followed by the simple infinitive.

        166. The Participle partakes of the nature of the adjective.

        167. It is sometimes used as an adjective; as, the rising sun, the opening flowers.

        It is then called a Participial adjective.

        168. When un is joined to the perfect participle it becomes an adjective unless there is a verb of that form; as, unawakened unconcerned.


        Model. To play is the present infinitive of the verb play and depends upon desires by

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        169. Rule XXI. The Infinitive depends upon cerbs, nouns, and adjectives.

        Having learned is a compound participle from the verb learned and refers to James by

        170. Rule XXIII. Participles refer to nouns and pronouns. He desires to play in the fields. James, having learned his lesson, recited it. He is eager to learn. Boys love to play. The rising sun dispels the darkness.



        171. The Irregular verb, commonly so called, includes several classes. 1st. The strong verbs; as, sing, sang, sung. 2d. Some defectives; as, Am, was, been. 3d. Those that are weak in the past tense but have the participle in en. 4th. Those that have also a weak or Regular form, marked R. 5th. Those that change the vowel and add the termination; as, seek, sough-t, marked W. The parts not now in use are marked *.

Abide, abode, abode.
Am or be, was, been.
Awake, awoke, R. awaked.
Bear, bore, bare, * borne.
Beat, beat, beat, beaten.
Begin, began, begun.

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Bend, bent, bended, bent.
Beseech, besought, besought, W.
Bid, bid, bade, bidden, bid.
Bind, bound, bound.
Bite, bit, bitten, bit.
Bleed, bled, bled.
Blow, blew, blown.
Break, broke, brake, * broken.
Breed, bred, bred.
Bring, brought, brought, W.
Burst, burst, burst.
Buy, bought, bought, W.
Cast, cast, cast.
Catch, caught, caugh, W.
Chide, chid, chidden, chid.
Choose, chose, chosen.
Cleave, cleaved, clave, * cleaved.
Cleave, clove, clave, * cleft, cloven, cleft.
Cling, clung, clung.
Clothe, clad, R. clad.
Come, came, come.
Cost, cost, cost.
Creep, crept, crept.
Crow, crew, R. crown, R.
Cut, cut, cut.
Dare, durst, R. durst.
Deal, dealt, R. dealt.
Dig, dug, R. dug.
Do, did, done.
Draw, drew, drawn.
Drink, drank, drunk.
Drive, drove, drave, * driven.
Eat, ate, eat, eaten.
Fall, fell, fallen.

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Feed, fed, fed.
Fight, fought, fought, W.
Find, found, found.
Fling, flung, flung.
Fly, flew, flown.
Forsake, forsook, forsaken.
Freeze, froze, frozen.
Get, got, gat, * gotten, got.
Give, gave, given.
Go, went, gone,
Grind, ground, ground.
Grow grew, grown.
Hang, hung, R. hung.
Have, had, had.
Heave, hove, R. hoven.
Hew, hewed, hewn.
Hide, hid, hidden, hid.
Hold, held, held, holden.
Hurt, hurt, hurt.
Knit, knit, R. knit.
Know, knew, known.
Lade, laded, laden.
Lay, laid, laid.
Lead, led, led.
Lie, lay, lain.
Light, lit, R. lit.
Lose, lost, lost.
Make, made, made.
Meet, met, met.
Mow, mowed, mown.
Put, put, put.
Read, read, (Pron. red) read (red.)
Rid, rid, rid.
Ride, rode, ridden, rid.
Ring, rang, rung, rung.

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Rise, rose, risen.
Run, ran, run.
See, saw, seen.
Seek, sought, sought. W.
Sell, sold, sold, W.
Set, set, set.
Sit, sat, sat.
Shake, shook, shaken.
Shed, shed, shed.
Shine, shone, R. shone.
Shoot, shot, shot.
Shrink, shrunk. shrank, shrunk.
Sing, sang, sung, sung.
Sink, sunk, sank, sunk
Slay, slew, slain.
Slide, slid, slidden.
Sling, slung, slang,* slung.
Smite, smote, smitten,
Speak, spoke, spake, spoken.
Spin, spun, span, spun.
Spring, sprang, sprung, sprung.
Stand, stood, stood.
Steal, stole, stolen.
Stick, stuck, stuck.
Sting, stung, stung.
Stride, strode, stridden.
Strike, struck, struck, stricken.
String, strung, strung.
Strive, strove, striven.
Swear, swore, sware,* sworn.
Swell, swelled, swollen.
Swim, swum, swam, swum.
Swing, swung, swung.
Take, took, taken.
Teach, taught, taught, W.

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Tear, tore, tare, torn.
Tell, told, told.
Think, thought, thought, W.
Thrive, throve, thriven.
Throw, threw, thrown.
Tread, trod, trodden.
Wear, wore, worn.
Weave, wove, woven.
Win, won, won.
Wind, wound, wound.
Wring, wrung, R. wrung.
Write, wrote, written.

        The past tense and past participle should not be used for each other.


        The horses drawed the carriage. The horses were drove. The birds have flew away. The stream has froze over. They have wrote to-day. The meeting has began. She has sang a song. The sun has rose. They done their work. My watch was stole. The ball was throwed. The apples have fell. The letter was writ. The letter was wrote badly. We rid a mile. I have not saw him. My uncle has came. The bird has flew away.



        172. A few verbs are defective or wanting in some of their parts.

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        Am, was, been is a defective, made up of am, was, be, three words.

        Go, went, gone is defective. Went is the past tense of wend.

        173. The auxiliary verbs shall, will, may, can, must are defective in all but the present and past tenses, indicative.


        174. Unipersonal verbs are those that are found only in the third person singular; as, It rains; It hails; It snows.



        175. When I say "He runs swiftly," "She speaks correctly," swiftly and correctly tell how the thing or action is done, and modify the verb.

        They are called adverbs, which means to a verb, that is, added to a verb.

        Adverbs also modify adjectives and other adverbs; as, most pleasant, very slowly.

        176. An adverb is a word joined to verbs, adjectives and other adverbs to modify them.

        177. They are divided into classes according to their meaning.

        Adverbs of manner; justly, pleasantly, sweetly.

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        Adverbs of time; now, to-day, lately, since, then.

        Adverbs of place; here, there, where, hence.

        Adverbs of degree; more, most, hardly, less.

        Adverbs of affirmation; yea, yes, certainly.

        Adverbs of negation; no, not.

        178. Some adverbs are used to connect propositions and clauses, and are called Connective Adverbs; as, "He will hear the news when he arrives."

        179. Adverbs are compared like adjectives; as, far, farther, farthest; wisely, more wisely, most wisely.


        Model. Brightly is an adverb, it is a word used to modify verbs, and modifies shines by

        180. Rule XVI. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

        The sun shines brightly. Thomas learns rapidly. Susan is very diligent. He drove very swiftly. They came to-day. They are very young. The trees bend, when the wind blows.



        181. He came with me. With connects the objective case me with came, and shows the relation between them.

        It is called a preposition.

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        The word which follows the preposition is always in the objective case.

        182. A Preposition is a word which shows the relation between its objective case and some other word in the same sentence.

        183. The preposition with its object is called an adjunct; as, "He came with me." With me is an adjunct modifying came.

        184. The principal prepositions are:--About, above, after, against, among, around, before, behind, beside, beyond, by, down, for, from, in, into, of, on, over, through, under, unto, up, upon, with, within, without.


        Model. In is a preposition, a word used to show the relation of nouns and pronouns to other words, it shows the relation between Richmond and resides by

        185. Rule XVII. Prepositions show the relation between nouns and pronouns and other words in the same sentence.

        Richmond is the object of in by

        186. Rule XVIII. Prepositions are followed by the objective case.

        He resides in Richmond. Flowers bloom in summer. Rivers flow into the sea. He came from Rome. Birds fly through the air. The ball rolls along the ground.

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        187. John writes and Thomas reads. Here and connects two propositions without forming a part of either.

        It is called a conjunction, which means joining together.

        188. A conjunction is a word used to connect words and propositions.

        189. The principal conjunctions are;--And, as, although, because, but, either, except, for, if, lest, neither, nor, or, than, that, though, unless, whether, yet.


        190. The interjection is a word used in cries of pain, anger, sorrow, calling, &c. They are chiefly, O! Oh! ah! alas! hold! shame! tush! away! lo! &c.

        191. There are nine classes of words called parts of speech. They are the Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Article, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection.


        Model. And is a conjunction, it is used to connect words and sentences. It connects Mary and sister by

        192. Rule XIX. Conjunctions connect words and sentences.

        Mary and her sister have come. The winter is past and Spring has come. James or his brother will come to-morrow. Beaches, apples and pears grow in the orchard.

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        193. Syntax treats of the construction of sentences according to the laws of the language.

        194. Language consists of sentences, propositions, clauses, and phrases.

        195. A Sentence is a collection of words making complete sense.

        196. A Proposition is a simple assertion; as, John runs.

        197. When a sentence contains but one proposition, it is a simple sentence; when more than one, a compound sentence.

        198. The clause is a proposition or a collection of words introducing some new fact, and which is dependent upon some word in the sentence; as, "The tree which you see is a maple." "Which you see," is a clause dependent upon tree.

        Clauses may be used as members of a proposition.

        199. A Phrase is a short expression like, in vain, in fine, in short, to be sure, &c.

        They express a single idea when taken together. Taken word by word they have no grammatical connection with the rest of the proposition.



        200. Rule I. The subject of the verb is put in the nominative case.

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        The infinitive, a clause, or a sentence may be used as the subject of the verb; as, "To err is human, to forgive, divine." "Whoever runs, may read." "That Columbus discovered America is well known."

        201. Rule II. The verb must agree with its subject in number and person.

        Two or more subjects connected by and require a plural verb.

        202. Two or more subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb.

        203. Collective nouns take a plural verb when they may be substituted for them, in other cases the singular.


        The clouds has dispersed. The birds sings. There was three men in the company. There is men who never think. Idleness and ignorance is the parent of many vices. James and John was there. John or William have come. The horse or cow are his.

        A meeting were called. The crowd were very great. The council was unanimous. The assembly was divided in opinion.


        204. Rule III. The noun or pronoun in the predicate agrees with the subject in case; as, "It is I;" "It is he;" "It is they."

        The infinitive or clause may take the place of the noun: "To sleep is to dream." "The old saying is, `Birds of a feather flock together.' "

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        Correct. It was he that said it. It is they who are to blame. James is a skillful workman.

        Incorrect. It was me that you saw. It is them. If it is them whom you saw, it is right.

        205. Rule IV. A noun or pronoun limiting another noun denoting the same person or thing is put in the same case. This is called Apposition.

        The names of persons form complex nouns and are parsed as one word; as, Mark Antony mourned the death of Julius Cæsar.

        As sometimes connects words in apposition; as, "Clay as an orator was unrivalled."

        Distributive pronouns and nouns modified by distributive adjectives, in the singular agree with nouns in the plural; as, They fled, every man to his tent.

        They love each other. Here each is in apposition with they, and other is the object of love.

        A noun may be in apposition with a sentence, and an infinitive or sentence may be in apposition with a noun.

        Correct. Newton, the great philosopher, was an humble Christian. We men are mortal. Ye men of Athens. Jane and Mary, our cousins. Thou, even thou art feared.

        Incorrect. It was Virgil, him who wrote the Aeneid. I speak of Cromwell he who beheaded Charles. Thomas and Maria, our cousin.


        206. Rule V. The noun or pronoun limiting another noun denoting a different person or thing is put in the possessive case.

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        Or, The Possessive case limits the following noun.

        The possessive case modifies like an adjective; as "John's hat," John's limits or describes hat.

        The noun, and preposition of are often used instead of the possessive case; as, "The hat of John," for John's hat.

        207. When two or three nouns in apposition follow each other the sign of the possessive is annexed to the last; as, "Paul, the apostle's, journey."

        208. When the thing possessed belongs to several persons the sign is annexed to the last only; as, "James, Thomas, and William's house."

        When the thing belongs to each one separately the sign is annexed to each; as, "Webster's and Worcester's Dictionaries."

        209. Words united so as to form a complex noun add the sign to the last; as, "Henry the eighth's reign."

        Correct. He accompanied me to St. Mary's church. The church of St. Mary. That is Brown, the printer's house. Smith, Brown, and Jones's store. Sargent's and Sanders' readers. Sterling and Campbell's series of "Our Own Books." The King of Saxony's army.

        Incorrect. This was your fathers estate. One mans loss is often another mans gain. These books are their's, those are your's. The men shoes are in the box. Daniel's Websters speech. David and Solomon's reign were prosperous. Mary's sister's cousin's child is sick.


        210. Rule VI. Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns.

        Definitives must agree with their nouns in number.

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        They modify infinitives; as, "To see the sun is pleasant;" and sentences; as, "That he should have refused the appointment is extraordinary."

        They sometimes modify other adjectives; as, "Red hot iron."

        They modify also a noun and adjective taken together as one idea; as, a poor old man. A fine bay horse.

        211. They modify intransitive verbs, and with them form the predicate; as, "He fell ill." "He looks pale."

        They modify also transitive verbs, to show the effect produced; as, "He made me glad." "Thou makest the earth soft with showers." Making glad is the assertion, and me is the object of it. See Rule XIII.

        Adjectives should not be used in the place of adverbs, except in cases like those just given.

        With the they are used as nouns; as, "The rich are not always happy."

        212. When comparison is made between two objects the comparative degree must be used; when it is made between three or more, the superlative is used.


        Incorrect. A new barrel of flour. (It should be "A barrel of new flour.") A clear spring of water. A green load of wood. A new pair of boots. She reads proper, writes neat, and sings elegant. A tree fifty, foot high. Twenty ton of hay.

        James is the tallest of the two. He is the oldest of the two. It is the most best. His is the bestest. Eve was the fairest of all her daughters.

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        213. Rule VII. The Indefinite article limits nouns in the singular number only.

        214. Rule VIII. The Definite article limits nouns in the singular or plural numbers.

        Articles sometimes modify the sense of adjectives; as, "A few days." "So much the stronger seemed he."

        The often modifies adverbs; as, "the longer you delay the worse it will be."


        Correct. I saw a white and black horse. A white and a black horse were in the pasture. He has a little reverence, but not much. He has little, if any, reverence.

        Incorrect. Those sort of questions. These kind of people is troublesome. He sold six bushels of wheat at nine shilling a bushel. He bought an old span of horses and a new set of harness. I have a Jemon and orange. He may be a judge or doctor. Oak produces acorns. A rose is the beautiful flower.

        215. Rule IX. Pronouns agree with their nouns in gender, number and person.

        When the pronoun agrees with two or more nouns taken together it must be plural: but when they are taken separately it must be singular.

        When there are several persons the first is preferred to the second, and the second to the third; as, "James, you, and I must study our lessons."


        Incorrect. Rebecca took goodly raiment and put them upon Jacob. One cannot be too careful of

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their reputation. George and Charles are diligent in his studies.

        You and I will recite your lessons.

        James or John lost their book.


        216. Rule X. The object of the Transitive verb is put in the objective case.

        A few verbs not transitive take after them a noun of similar meaning as to run a race, to live a life.

        The infinitives, participles, and verbal nouns have the same government as their verbs; as, To make clothes. The man making clothes. Making clothes. Clothes is the object in each case.

        The infinitive or clause may be used as the object; as, He desires to learn. He said that he would go.


        Incorrect. Who did you see? He I must punish. Thou have I chosen. She who you met. He and they we know, but whom art thou? No one should practice of stealing.

        217. Rule XI. Verbs of asking and teaching are followed by two objective cases one of person and the other of thing; as, "He taught me history." "He asked me a question."

        When these verbs are changed to the passive form the objective of person becomes the subject while that of thing remains in the objective case; as, "I was taught Grammar."


        Correct. Our parents love us. The carpenter builds houses. The miller grinds flower. He

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ran a long race. He lived a happy life. He taught James Arithmetic. William asked him many questions.


        218. Rule XII. Verbs of giving, granting, allowing, &c., are followed by two objectives, the direct and the indirect object.

        The indirect object precedes the direct, and is properly in the Dative case.

        If it follows, it becomes a noun and preposition; as, "He gave me a book." "He gave a book to me."

        When these verbs take the passive voice, the direct object becomes the subject, while the indirect remains unchanged; as, "A book was given me."

        There is also a form where the indirect object becomes the subject; as, "He promised me a present." "I was promised a present."

        219. Rule XIII. Verbs of choosing, making, rendering and constituting are followed by two objectives, one the direct object and the other the effect produced; as "They chose him general." Choosing general is the assertion, him the direct object, and general the effect produced.

        In the passive voice the direct object becomes the subject, and the object of effect is put in the same case; as, "He was chosen general."

        The object of effect may be a noun; as, "They elected him President;" an adjective; as, "They make us glad," "They esteemed Socrates wise;"

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or, an infinitive; as, "They made him go." "Thou wilt make us to live."

        The adjective in such cases agrees with the noun, but modifies the verb by expressing the effect produced by its action.

        220. Rule XIV. Nouns denoting duration of time, distance, weight, measure, and price are put in the objective case after adjectives and verbs.

        221. Rule XV. The adjectives like, unlike, near, and nigh are followed by the objective case. [Or more correctly, the dative, as that was their former power.]


        He gave me a book. A present was promised me. They chose him secretary. He was chosen clerk. It made them delirious. They were made delirious. He is like his father. He was sitting near me. His son is unlike him. The sight made him shout for joy.


        222. Rule XVI. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

        They sometimes modify prepositions, adjuncts, and phrases; as, "Just below the surface;" "Independently of these things;" "I lived almost in vain."

        Yes, and no, yea, nay, and amen are used independently. There is used as an introductory word without any force in the sentence; as, "There was a man." It is used when the subject is to be put after the verb. Adverbs are sometimes used as nouns; as, "Until now." "Since when."

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        223. Rule XVII. Prepositions connect words and show the relation between them.

        224. Rule XVIII. The object of the preposition is put in the objective case.

        225. Rule XIX. Conjuctions connect words and sentences.

        When they connect words they may be considered as connecting sentences: James and John were studying, that is, James was studying, John was studying.

        226. The connectives are conjunctions, connective adverbs and relative pronouns.

        227. Rule XX. The interjections O! oh! ah! are followed by the objective of the first person and the nominative of the second.


        He heard him gladly. The journey was very tiresome. He outran him very easily. Just above the house there was a large tree. Did you hear me? Yes. There is a happy land far, far away. I had not heard it until now. He left on Monday. James and his brother came with me. They came with the intention of speaking.


        228. Rule XXI. The Infinitive depends upon nouns, verbs, and adjectives.

        229. The infinitive, in its nature, is a verbal noun, and may be used as a uoun in nearly all cases; as, To lie is base, (subject.) To lie is to deceive,

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(predicate.) He loves to play, (object.) He taught him to write, or they taught him writing. They chose him to lead the way, or they chose him as guide. He permitted him to choose. He permitted or granted him the choice.

        230. It also denotes the purpose, and is equal to a contracted sentence; as, "He prepared to go," that is, "He prepared that he might go." He reads to learn." "He reads that he may learn."

        231. Rule XXII. The simple infinitive--without to--is used after bid, feel, do, have, hear, let, make, need, see, may, can, will, shall, must.

        232. Rule XXIII. The subject of the infinitive is put in the objective; as, "I advised him to do it," "I advised that he should do it."

        233. Rule XXIV. Participles refer to nouns or pronouns.

        234. Rule XXV. A noun joined with a participle having no dependence upon other words is put in the nominative case absolute; as, "He being defeated, the army returned."

        235. Rule XXVI. The name of the person or thing addressed is put in the vocative case.


        He desires to go abroad. He is anxious to hear the news. There is a time to die. He let him go without farther trouble. He desired us to come with him. John having learned his lesson recited it. He being dead, we shall live. John come here. O Judgment thou art fled to brutish breasts.

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        Calm was the day and the scene delightful. There is always a calm after a storm. We strove to calm his fears. They think of me. They think little of their duty. A little labor would have finished it. He is still afraid. Still waters are commonly deep. The air is damp. Guilt casts a damp over every pleasure. Many persons came to see us. Few, very few, are those who win the prize. His years are more than hers, but he has not more knowledge. Every being loves its like. Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee. To do to others as we would that they should do to us, is the golden rule. Yesterday was a fine day. We shall arrive to day, In singing as in piping you excel. The tree is as tall as the house. The pine is taller than the maple. I know not what you say. Whoever is industrious will excel. One while we thought him innocent. There is no man that sinneth not. The storm beats the trees against one another. To live soberly and righteously is required of all men. One added to nineteen makes twenty. I intended to call on my way home. Neither despise the poor nor envy the rich. Give me neither poverty nor riches. Idleness and ignorance are the parents of many vices. Humility and love are signs of a pious heart. Do good to all men.

        Christ the Saviour died that we might live. Thou shalt love the Lord the God with all thy heart Cast thy bread upon the waters and it shall return to thee again.