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General Directions
for Collecting and Drying Medicinal Substances of the Vegetable Kingdom.
List and Description of Indigenous Plants, etc.;
their Medicinal Properties; Forms of Administration, and Doses.

Electronic Edition.

Confederate States of America. Surgeon General's Office

Funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services
supported the electronic publication of this title.

Text scanned (OCR) by Christie Mawhinney
Text encoded by Patricia Walker and Natalia Smith
First edition, 1999
ca. 70K
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

Call number 1038 Conf. 1862 (Rare Book Collection, UNC-CH)

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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998

LC Subject Headings:

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Collecting and Drying Medicinal Substances of the Vegetable
Kingdom. List and Description of Indigenous
Plants, etc.; their Medicinal Properties; Forms
of Administration, and Doses.

        All leaves, flowers and herbs should be preferably gathered in clear, dry weather, in the morning, after the dew is exhaled.

        The roots of medicinal plants, although more advantageously gathered at certain periods, to be hereafter specified, do not lose their medicinal virtues in consequence of being dug in midsummer. It is probable that most of those imported are thus collected by savages or ignorant persons, when the plant is in full leaf, it being then more easily recognized.


        Should be gathered at the time when their vegetation is most vigorous, which is generally from the time they begin to flower until their leaves begin to change.


        Should in most instances be gathered in the second season of their growth, and about the time of flowering.


        Are to be gathered just before the time of flowering.


        Are to be gathered after the vegetation of the first year has ceased.

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        Are to be gathered in the spring, before vegetation has commenced. Roots should be washed, and the smaller fibres, unless they are the part employed, should be then separated from the body of the root, which, when of any considerable size, is to be cut in slices previous to being dried.


        Are to be gathered after the new bulb is perfected, and before it has begun to vegetate, which is at the time the leaves decay. Those which are to be preserved fresh should be buried in dry sand.


        Whether of the root, trunk or branches, should be gathered in the autumn, or early in the spring. The dead epidermis or outer bark, and the decayed parts should be removed. Of some trees (as the elm), the inner bark only is preserved.


        Are to be gathered after their full development, before the fading of the flowers. The leaves of biennials do not attain their perfect qualities until the second year.


        Should in general be gathered at the time of their expansion, before or immediately after they have fully opened: some--as the Rosa Gallica--while in bud.


        Are to be gathered when in flower.


        Should be collected in autumn.


        Should be collected at the period of their full maturity.

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        Medicinal products of the vegetable kingdom (as plants, roots, etc.) should be dried as rapidly as is consistent with their perfect preservation, but not subjected to extreme heat.

        Those collected in the warm months and during dry weather may, except in a few instances, be dried by their spontaneous evaporation, in a well ventilated apartment: some--as roots and barks--may be exposed to the direct rays of the sun.

        In spring and autumn, and in damp, foggy or rainy weather, a drying house should be resorted to; the temperature to range from 70° to 100° F. There should be an aperture above for the escape of warm, moist air.


        May be dried in the sun, or at a heat of from 65° to 80° F. in the drying room.


        Should be cut in transverse slices, not exceeding half an inch in length, and during the drying process should be stirred several times to prevent their moulding.


        Must have the coarse outer membrane peeled off. In other respects they are to be treated like fleshy roots.


        Readily dry, in thin layers, in the open air.


        After separation from the stalks, should be strewed loosely over hurdle frames, and their position changed twice a day, until they become dry. When very succulent, they require more care to prevent their discoloration. For thin dry leaves, the heat need not exceed 70° F.: for the succulent, it may gradually be raised to 100° F.


        If not too juicy, these may be tied loosely in small bundles, and strung on lines stretched across the drying room.

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        Must be dried carefully and rapidly, so as to preserve their color. They should be spread loosely on the hurdles, and turned several times by stirring. When flowers or leaves owe their virtues to volatile oils, greater care is necessary.

        A carefully pressed specimen of the stem, leaf and flower of each medicinal substance collected, whether it be bark, root or herb, should be obtained and forwarded with each collection, for the purpose of aiding in its identification.

        The time when collected, and the mode of drying of each character of article, should always be stated.

POLYGALA SENEGA--(Seneka Snakeroot.)

Sex. Syst. Diadelph. Decandr. Nat. Or. Polygala. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; branching, fusiform, from the thickness of a straw to that of the little finger, presenting a thick, knotty head, which exhibits traces of numerous stems; often marked with crowded, annular protuberances, and with a projecting keel-like line extending along its whole length. Grows abundantly in the southern and western states, in mountainous tracts, in dry, sandy and gravelly soil, flowering in June and July. Flowers, small and white, forming a close spike at summit of stem. Plant, from nine inches to one foot in height. Stimulating, expectorant. Decoction officinal. Strength--Rad. 1 oz.; aq. bull. 3 pints. Boil to 1 pint. Dose, 1 tablespoonful every 2 or 3 hours.


Sex. Syst. Polyandr. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Papaveraceæ. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Horizontal, abrupt, often contorted, as thick as the finger, two or three inches long, fleshy, brown externally, blood red internally. Found throughout the whole Confederate States, in open woods and on hill sides, flowering in the latter part of March, and in April and May. Plant, from three to three and a half inches high. The stem emits a reddish juice when broken. Flowers, solitary, white, tinged with purple. Should be collected preferably in autumn. Good collected at all times. Tincture officinal. Strength-- Rad. bruised, oz. 2; diluted alcohol, 1 pint. Macerate 14 days.

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Dose, expectorant and alterative, 30 to 60 drops; emetic, 3 or 4 fluidrachms.

PRUNUS VIRGINIANUS--(Wild Cherry. Choke Cherry.)

        Inner bark officinal. Well known throughout the south, frequenting the borders of moist meadows and banks of streams, flowering in May. Bark of all parts of the tree used--that from the root most active. Bark stronger, if collected from the root in autumn. Deteriorates by keeping. Tonic, sedative, expectorant. Infusion officinal. Strength--Bark bruised, oz. 1/2; water (cold), 1 pint. Macerate for 24 hours. Dose, 2 or 3 fluidounces 3 or 4 times a day. Syrup officinal. Take of wild cherry bark, in coarse powder, 5 oz.; sugar, refined, 2 lbs.; water, sufficient to moisten the bark thoroughly. Let it stand for 24 hours in a close vessel: then transfer it to a percolator, and pour cold water upon it gradually until a pint of filtered liquor is obtained. To this add the sugar, in a bottle, and agitate occasionally until it is dissolved. Dose, 1/2 fluidounce.

ARUM TRYPHILLUM--(Indian Turnip. Wake Robin. Parson in the

Sex. Syst. Monoecia Polyandr. Nat. Or. Araceae. (Perennial.)

        Root or cormus officinal. Perennial; roundish, flattened, an inch or two in diameter, covered with a brown, loose, wrinkled epidermis, and internally white, fleshy and solid. Varieties of the plant, three-- the white, green and purple spathed. Found throughout the whole Confederate States, in damp woods, in swamps and along ditches, its spathe appearing early in spring. The root may be preserved a year, if kept buried in dry sand. Expectorant and diaphoretic. Dose, 10 grs. recently dried root, mixed with gum arabic, sugar and water, in the form of emulsion, repeated two or three times a day, and gradually increased to half a drachm or more.

ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA--(Butterfly Weed. Pleurisy Root.)

Sex. Syst. Pentandr. Digyn. Nat. Or. Asclepiadae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; large, tuberous, branching, often somewhat fusiform, fleshy, externally brown, internally white and striated. Found as far south as Georgia, and west as Texas, in old fields and along the borders of meadows. Its brilliant clusters of bright scarlet flowers appear in June and July. Distinguished from the other varieties, which prefer more moisture, by not emitting a white juice

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when wounded. Stem of plant, three feet high. Better to be collected in autumn. Expectorant, diaphoretic, not stimulant. Dose, powdered root, from 20 grs. to 1 drachm, several times a day. As a diaphoretic, decoction or infusion: Strength--oz. 1, to water, 1 quart. Dose, 1 teacupful every two or three hours.

EUPHORBIA IPECACUANHAE--(Ipecacuanha Spurge. Amer. Ipecac.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; yellowish and very large, penetrating six or seven feet into the sand, and when full grown, from three quarters to one and a half inches in diameter. Found generally throughout the Confederate States, especially along the sea-coast, in sandy soil, blooming from May to August. Flowers, solitary, on long axillary peduncles. Active and tolerably certain emetic. In smaller doses, expectorant and diaphoretic. An over-dose produces alarming hypercatharsis. Dose of powdered root, from ten to fifteen grains. Milder than the E. corrolata. Root equally good collected at any time.

EUPHORBIA CORROLATA--(Large Flowering or Blooming Spurge.)

Sex. Syst. Dodecandr. Trigynia. Nat. Or. Euphorbiaciae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; large, branching, yellowish. Stem two to five feet in height. Flowers in July and August, in a large, white, terminal umbel. Found abundantly throughout the Confederate States, in dry, barren and sandy soils; rarely frequenting woods or borders of streams, and preferring fields cultivated every two or three years. Active and certain emetic, proving at the same time often cathartic; in smaller doses, expectorant and diaphoretic. If given largely in insensibility of the stomach, liable to produce violent hypercatharsis and inflammation of stomach and bowels. Dose as an emetic, from 10 to 20 grs.


Sex. Syst. Icosand. Pent. Nat. Or. Rosaceae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; consisting of many long, slender, brown branches, proceeding from a thick, tuber-like head. Plant two or three feet high. Grows as far south as Florida, in light soils, in shady and moist situations, flowering in June and July. Flowers white, in a loose, terminal, nodding panicle. Should be gathered in September. Mild and efficient emetic; occasionally cathartic. Dose

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of powdered root, from 20 to 80 grains, repeated every 20 minutes until it vomits.


        This variety is taller and more fleshy than the preceding. The flowers are smaller, and grow on long, slender peduncles, in a lax corymb. It supplies the place of the former in the valley of the Mississippi. The root is similar to that of the Trifoliata, and when dried, should be as thick as a quill, wrinkled longitudinally, with occasional, transverse fissures, and in the thicker pieces presenting in some places an irregular, undulated, somewhat knotty appearance, arising from the indentations on one side corresponding with prominences on the other.

LOBELIA INFLATA--(Indian Tobacco.)

Sex. Syst. Pentand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Lobeliaciae. (Annual or Biennial.)

        Plant in flower officinal. A common road side weed. Found throughout the whole Confederate States, flowering towards the end of July. Flowers blue, small, numerous, disposed in leafy, terminal racemes, on short, axillary footstalks. The capsules are the more powerful part of the plant, which should be gathered in August. Too powerful as an emetic. Used as sedative expectorant in asthma. Tincture officinal. Strength--Herb, 4 oz.; diluted alcohol, 2 pints. Macerate for 14 days. Dose, 1 or 2 fluidrachms, repeated every 2 or 3 hours.


Sex. Syst. Decandr. Decagynia. Nat. Or. Phylolaccaceae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Large, often six inches in diameter, divided into two or three principal branches; soft, fleshy, fibrous, whitish within, and covered with a brownish cuticle. Well known and abundant throughout the whole Confederate States, flourishing along fences, by the borders of woods, and especially in newly cleared and uncultivated fields, the flowers appearing in July. The succulent young shoots, bleached in small hillocks, on their appearance in the spring or during the summer, edible, not unpleasant to the taste, and digestible, even to dyspeptics. Root emetic, slightly narcotic, occasionally purgative, the experience of practitioners differing widely concerning its use. As an emetic, sometimes slow of action. The powder of the root to be employed. From 10 to 15 grs. frequently acts promptly and without violence. Has been highly recommended in

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alterative doses in rheumatic affections, and in syphilis. Ungt. used in psora and other cutaneous affections. Root to be dug late in autumn or during the winter. It should be cut in transverse slices and dried. The powder to be kept in close stopped phials. Impaired by age.


Sex. Syst. Monadelph. Decandr. Nat. Or. Geraneaceae. (Perennial.)

        Rhizoma officinal. Perennial; horizontal, fleshy, furnished with short fibres. Stem from one to two feet high. Blooms from May to June. Flowers large, and of a purplish pink. The peduncles spring from the forks of the stem, and severally support two flowers upon short pedicels. Found abundantly throughout the Confederate States, inhabiting moist woods, thickets, hedges and low grounds. Should be gathered in autumn. An excellent astringent, without unpleasant taste or qualities, for internal administration and for gargles, injections, etc. Powder--Dose, from 20 to 30 grains. Decoction-- Root, 1 oz.; water, 3 half pints; boil to one pint. Dose, from 1 to 2 fluidounces. Tincture and extract used.


Sex. Syst. Pentand. Pentagyn. Nat. Or. Plumbaginaceae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; large, spindle shaped and branched, fleshy, compact, rough and of a purplish brown color. Conspicuous among the grass in summer for its purple tops. Flower stem, from a few inches to a foot or more in height, sending off near its summit numerous alternate, subdividing branches, which terminate in spikes, and form altogether a loose panicle. Flower small and bluish purple. Found along the sea-coast as far south as Florida. Powerfully astringent, and applicable to nearly all the purposes for which kino and catechu are given. Employed in infusion, decoction or tincture. Alcohol a better solvent of the properties of the root than water. The infusion with cold water preferable to that with hot.

RUBUS VILLOSUS--(Blackberry.) RUBUS TRIVIALIS--(Dewberry.)

Sex. Syst. Icosandr. Polygyn. Nat. Or. Rosaceae.

        Root officinal. Branching, cylindrical, of various thicknesses, from that of a straw to that of the finger; ligneous, and covered with a thin bark, which is externally of a reddish brown color. These two varieties, well known, flower from May to July. The root of the

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latter somewhat smaller. Virtues in the cortical portion. The smaller roots and bark of the larger should therefore be collected. Astringent, tonic. Decoction: Strength--1 oz. of the smaller roots, or bark of the larger; water, 3 half pints; boil to 1 pint. Dose, from 1 to 2 fluidounces. Dose of powdered root, 20 or 30 grs.

QUERCUS ALBA--(White Oak.)

Sex. Syst. Monoecia Polyandr. Nat. Or. Corylaceae.

        Bark officinal. Young bark preferable. The whiter bark, and the delicate and finely lobed leaves, with the general neat appearance of the tree, serve to distinguish this from the other varieties of the oak, than which it is more acceptable to the stomach. All, however, are valuable for external application. Good collected at all seasons. Astringent, somewhat tonic. Powder--Dose, from 1/2 drachm to 1 drachm. Extract--Dose, half that of the powder. Decoction-- Bark bruised, 1 oz.; water, 3 half pints; boil to 1 pint. Dose, 1 wineglassful.

SPIRAEA TOMENTOSA--(Hardhach. Meadow-Sweet.)

Sex. Syst. Icosand. Pentagyn. Nat. Or. Rosaceae.

        Introduced. Root officinal. The plant also used, and by many preferred. Stem from two to three feet in height. Flowers beautifully red or purple, disposed in terminal compound crowded racemes or spikes. Flowers in July and August, seeking low grounds, and found as far south as the Carolinas. Should be gathered in summer. Said to agree well with the stomach. Astringent, tonic. Decoction: Strength--plant, oz. 1; water, 1 pint. Dose, 1 or two fluidounces. Extract preferable, made by evaporating the decoction of the leaves, stems or root.

FRASERA WALTERI--(American Columbo.)

Sex. Syst. Tetrand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Gentianaceae. (Triennial.)

        Root officinal. Triennial; long, spindle shaped, horizontal, fleshy and yellow. Stem from five to ten feet high. Flowers yellowish white, large, numerous, and disposed in a beautiful terminal, pyramidal panicle. Frequents rich woodlands and moist meadows throughout the southern and western sections of the Confederacy, blooming from May to July. Should be collected in autumn of the second year or spring of the third. Before being dried, should be cut in transverse slices. Mild tonic. Powder--Dose, from 30 grains to 1

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drachm. Infusion: Strength--Bruised root, 1 oz.; aq. bull. 1 pint. Dose, 1 or 2 fluidounces.

GENTIANA CATESBEI--(American Gentian.)

Sex. Syst. Pent. Dygin. Nat. Or. Gentianaceae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; branching and somewhat fleshy. Stem eight to ten inches high. Flowers palish blue, bell-shaped, crowded, nearly sessile, and axillary or terminal. Blooms from September to December, preferring the grassy swamps of the Carolinas. Little inferior to the European gentian. Tonic: Powder--Dose, from 15 to 30 grs. Infusion: Compound: Strength--Rad. oz. 1/2; orange peel, coriander, each 1 drachm; dilute alcohol, 4 fluidounces; water (cold), 12 fluidounces. Macerate for 12 hours. Dose, 1 fluidounce. Extract-- Dose, from 10 to 30 grs.


Sex. Syst. Tetrand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Cornaceae.

        Bark from stem, branches and root officinal. That of the root preferred. Blooms in May. Involucre white. Well known throughout the south, where it is found abundantly on the borders of swamps, meadows and in moist woods. Gather preferably from the stem in spring, and from the root in the fall. The recent bark not unfrequently disagrees with the stomach: that kept for one year generally thought to be preferable. Tonic, somewhat astringent. Powder-- Dose, from 1 scruple to 1 drachm. Decoction: Strength--Bark bruised, 1 oz.; water, boiling, 1 pint; boil for 10 minutes. Strain while hot. Dose, 2 fluidounces. May be employed in form of tincture or extract.


Sex. Syst. Dioecia Diand. Nat. Or. Saliaceae.

        White or European willow. Bark of branches or root officinal. Tree from twenty-five to thirty feet in height, with numerous round, spreading branches. Smaller branches smooth and greenish. Very common throughout the Confederate States, blossoming in April and May. Bark easily separable throughout the summer. Tonic, and somewhat astringent. Strength of decoction--Bark, oz. 1; water (bull.), 1 pint. Dose, 2 fluidounces. Should be boiled for 10 minutes, and strained whilst hot. Salicin--Dose, from 2 to 8 grs.: from 20 to 40 grs. to be administered in the intervals of paroxysms of intermittent fever.

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LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA--(American Tulip Tree. White Wood.
Canoe Wood. American Poplar

Sex. Syst. Polyand. Polygina. Nat. Or. Magnoliaciae.

        Bark from root, trunk and branches officinal; that from the root preferable. Found abundantly in the northern and western sections of the Confederate States, and through the elevated parts of Georgia and the Carolinas, delighting in a rich, strong soil. The tree is well known throughout the south for its handsome appearance, its erect form, large bright leaves, and its tulip-shaped blossoms of green and orange, which appear in April and May. Stimulant, tonic, slightly diaphoretic. Bark, in powder, dose, from 1/2 to 2 drs.: more efficient than infusion or decoction in the proportion of an ounce to a pint of water, and in dose of 1 or 2 fluidounces. Dose of the saturated tincture, is a fluidrachm.


Sex. Syst. Dioecia Octandr. Nat. Or. Ebenaceae.

        Bark from the young twigs and root officinal; the latter preferable. Found abundantly throughout the Confederate States, flowering in May and June. Too well known to need description. Astringent, tonic. May be combined in decoction with C. Florida.


Sex. Syst. Pentand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Gentianaceae. (Annual or Biennial.)

        The herb officinal. One or two feet in height; frequents low meadows, damp, rich soils and uplands in wet seasons. Flowers delicate rose color, numerous, growing on the ends of the branches, and forming a large terminal corymb. Found abundantly throughout the Confederate States in July and August. Should be collected when in flower. Tonic. Infusion: Strength--Herb, 1 oz.; boiling water, 1 pint; pour on, and allow to cool. Dose, 2 fluidounces, repeated. Powder--Dose, from 30 grs. to 1 drachm. The decoction, extract and tincture, efficient preparations.

EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM--(Boneset. Thoroughwort.)

Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Aequalis. Nat. Or. Comps. Eupatoriaceae. (Perennial.)

        Whole plant officinal. From two to five feet high. Flowers white, numerous, supported on hairy peduncles, in dense corymbs, with a

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flattened summit. Frequents meadows, banks of streams and other low places, flowering from the middle of summer to October. Should be gathered when in flower. Tonic, diaphoretic. Infusion--Dried herb, 1 oz.; water, boiling, 1 pint. Macerate 2 hours. Dose as tonic, 1 or 2 fluidounces, frequently repeated. As a diaphoretic, to be given warm. The aqueous extract has been used with advantage. Dose of powder, 20 or 30 grs. As an emetic and cathartic, a strong decoction, made by boiling an ounce of the herb with 3 half pints of water to 1 pint, in doses of 1 or 2 gills or more.


Sex. Syst. Gynandr. Hexandr. Nat. Or. Aristolochiae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; consisting of numerous slender fibres proceeding from a short horizontal caudex; stem 8 or 10 inches in height; flowers purple, proceeding from the joints near the root, and standing singly on long, slender, round, jointed peduncles, which bend downward, so as nearly to bury the flower in the earth or decayed leaves. Found throughout the whole Confederate States; more abundant in the mountainous regions of the interior. Flowers in May and June. Should be collected in the fall or early in the spring. Stimulant, tonic. Powdered root--Dose, from 10 to 30 grs. Infusion preferred. Strength--Root, 1/2 oz.; boiling water, 1 pint. Macerate 2 hours. Dose, 1 or 2 fluidounces, repeated every 2 hours. The volatile oil dissipated by boiling. Decoction therefore inadmissible.


Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Aequalis. Nat. Or. Chicoraceae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; fusiform, round, tapering, and somewhat branched. Found generally throughout the south, and well known by its bright golden flower, along roadsides, in pasture grounds and grass plots, showing itself early in spring. Should be collected from August to latter part of October, until frost. Slightly tonic, diuretic and aperient. Supposed to exert specific action on the liver. The fluid extract preferable to the dry. Decoction: Strength-- Bruised root, 4 oz.; water, pure, 3 half pints; boil to 1 pint. Dose, 1 wineglassful 2 or 3 times a day. Infusion--Root, bruised, 2 oz.; water, boiling, 1 pint. Macerate for 2 hours. Dose, same as of decoction.

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Sex. Syst. Dioecia Pentand. Nat. Or. Urticaceae. (Perennial.)

        The strobiles officinal. Vine climbing. Found abundantly in the western sections of the Confederate States, along the banks of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Strobiles to be collected in autumn, when at their maturity. Tonic, and moderately narcotic. Infusion-- Hops, 1 oz.; boiling water, 1 pint. Dose, 2 fluidounces 2 or 3 times a day. Tincture--Hops, finely broken, 5 oz.; diluted alcohol, 2 pints. Macerate for 14 days, stirring frequently. Dose, 1 to 3 fluidrachms. Tincture of lupulin preferable. Dose, 1 or 2 fluidrachms.

CASSIA MARALANDICA--(American, or Wild Senna.)

Sex. Syst. Decand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Leguminosae. (Perennial.)

        Leaves officinal. Stem from three to six feet high. Found as far south as the Carolinas, and west to the Missouri, preferring rich soils in flat, moist grounds bordering rivers, where it grows abundantly, blooming in July and August. Form of inflorescence, short axillary racemes. Flowers beautiful golden yellow. Leaflets from one and a half to two inches long; from a quarter to a half in breadth; thin, pliable, and of a pale green color. Should be collected in August or the early part of September. Safe and efficient cathartic. Strength of infusion--Leaves, 1 oz. to water 1 pint, infused with some aromatic. Dose, one-third larger than imported article: between 5 and 6 oz. repeated.

PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM--(May Apple or Mandrake.)

Sex. Syst. Polyandr. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Ranunculi. (Perennial.)

        Rhizoma officinal. Perennial; creeping, usually several feet in length, about one-quarter of an inch thick, brown externally, smooth, jointed, and furnished with radicles at the joints. Found abundantly throughout the whole Confederate States, blooming in April and May, preferring moist, shady woods, and low, moist grounds. Found in large patches, its white odorous flowers springing from between the bases of the petioles of its large palmate leaves. Active and certain cathartic, without much griping. Dose--Powdered root, 20 grs.; of the extract, from 5 to 15 grs.

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Sex. Syst. Monoec. Polyandr. Nat. Or. Juglandaceae.

        Inner bark of the root officinal. Generally known. Abounding in the mountainous parts of Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia and Kentucky, flowering in May. Should be collected in May or June. Extract of root officinal. Mild and efficient aperient, operating without pain or irritation, and like rhubarb, evacuating without debilitating the alimentary canal. Dose of extract (mild cathartic), 20 or 30 grs. Laxative, 5 to 10 grs. Highly recommended.


Sex. Syst. Pentand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Caprifoliaceae. (Perennial)

        Root officinal. Horizontal, long, about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, thick and tuberculated near the edge of the stem, of a yellowish or brownish color externally, and whitish within. Flowers, of dull purple color, axillary, sessile, generally in triplets, or five together in whorls at the bases of the leaves. Stem from one to four feet high. Found throughout the Confederate States. Rather a solitary plant, preferring a limestone soil and shady situation, and blooming in June. Virtues in the bark of the root, of which 20 or 30 grs. should be given as a cathartic. Dose of extract, from 10 to 15 grs.

VERATRUM VIRIDE--(American Hellebore.)

Sex. Syst. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Or. Melanthaceae. (Perennial.)

        Rhizoma officinal. Perennial; fleshy, upper portion truncated, the lower solid, beset with numerous whitish fibres or radicles. Stem from three to six feet high. Leaves oval, from six inches to one foot long, nerved, pubescent , of bright green color, decreasing in size as they ascend the stalk. Flowers greenish yellow, in a terminal panicle. Inhabits wet, swampy grounds and banks of moist streams, as far south as Carolina, flowering from May to July. It is also found by the sides of brooks, in rocky and mountainous situations, and springing up more rapidly than the surrounding grass, is readily recognized. It frequently associates with the Skunk Cabbage. Sedative, emetic, expectorant. Tincture (Norwood's): Macerate 8 oz. of the dried root in 16 oz. of alcohol for two weeks. Dose, from 6 to 8 drops, repeated cautiously every 3 hours, gradually increased until its effects are experienced. Great care should be taken in its administration, and its effects carefully observed. Very valuable when

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used with discretion. Should be collected in autumn. Deteriorates by age.

SOLANUM DULCAMARA--(Bitter Sweet. Woody Night Shade.)

Sex. Syst. Pentandr. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Solanaceae.

        Stalks officinal. A climbing shrub, rising six or eight feet. Blooming from June to August in violet blue clusters, and adorned, after the fall of the leaves, with bunches of bright scarlet berries. Found throughout the Confederate States, frequenting damp, sheltered places, and in thickets bordering moist meadows. Should be gathered in the autumn, after the fall of the leaves. The extreme twigs should be collected. That grown in high and dry situations is said to be the best. Moderately narcotic, alterative, increasing secretions of the kidneys and skin: valuable in cutaneous affections. Strength of decoction-- Stalks bruised, oz. 1; water, 3 half pints; boil to 1 pint and strain. Dose, from 1 to 2 fluidounces 3 or 4 times a day. Dose of extract, from 5 to 10 grs. Dose of powder, from 30 grs. to 1 drachm.


Sex. Syst. Tetrand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Araceae. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Perennial; large, abrupt, furnished with numerous fleshy fibres, which penetrate to the depth of two feet or more. Found throughout the more northern of the Confederate States. Infesting wet, marshy grounds, growing more generally near the head or source of the same. The purple spathe appears in March and April, sometimes, however, as early as February, the large green leaves rising from one to two feet, and becoming fully developed in May. Found in extensive patches. Should more properly be collected very early in the spring, before vegetation becomes brisk. Stimulant, antispasmodic, narcotic--more valuable as an antispasmodic expectorant. Dose, powdered root, from 10 to 20 grs. three times a day.

DATURA STRAMONIUM--(Jamestown Weed.)

Sex. Syst. Pentand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Solanaceæ (Annual.)

        Seed and leaves officinal. Well known, infesting old yards, and the waste outskirts of cities, and flowering from May to August. The leaves may be gathered at any time before the autumn frosts-- the seed late in autumn. Powerful narcotic. Extract of leaves and seed. Tinct. officinal. The smoke of the leaves, if inhaled in asthma

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incautiously and immoderately, dangerous. Infusion of leaves as local application: Strength of tincture--Seed bruised, 4 oz.; diluted alcohol, 2 pints. Macerate for 14 days. Dose, from 10 to 20 minims.


Sex. Syst. Pentand. Dygin. Nat. Or. Umbellifferae. (Biennial.)

        Leaves and seed officinal. Naturalized, growing usually along the roadsides and in waste grounds around old settlements. Stem from 3 to 6 feet high, round, smooth, and marked with brownish purple spots; lower leaves tripinnate; upper, bipinnate. The flowers are very small, white, and disposed in compound terminal umbels. Flowers in June and July. The leaves should be gathered when the plant is in flower. The footstalks should be rejected, and the leaflets quickly dried either in the hot sun or by a stove heat, not exceeding 120° F. Should be excluded as much as possible from the air and light. Narcotic, sedative, anodyne. Powdered leaves--Dose, 2 or 3 grs. twice a day. Strength of tincture--Leaves, 4 oz.; diluted alcohol, 2 pints. Macerate for 14 days. Dose, from 30 minims to a fluidrachm. Ext. watery--Dose, 2 grs. two, three or four times a day, gradually increased. Ext. alcoholic--Dose, 2 or 3 grs.


Sex. Syst. Pent. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Solanaceae. (Annual and biennial.)

        Leaves and seed officinal. Introduced. Root long, tapering, whitish, fleshy, and somewhat branching. Stem from 1 to 4 feet high, thickly furnished with leaves. Flowers obscure yellow, beautifully variegated with purple veins, form long, one-sided, leafy spikes, which terminate the branches, and hang downward. Recognized by its rank, offensive smell. Found in waste grounds of old settlements, in graveyards, old gardens, and the ruins of old houses--the annual blooming in July and August; the biennial, in May and June. Narcotic, anodyne. Leaves in powder--Dose, from 5 to 10 grs. Seed, somewhat less. Extract, watery, prepared like that of the stramonium, of uncertain strength. Dose, 2 or 3 grains, gradually increased. Ext. alc. preferable--Dose, 1 or 2 grains, gradually increased to 20 or 30 grains. Tincture: leaves 4 oz.; diluted alcohol, 2 pints. Macerate for 14 days. Dose, 1 fluidrachm. Fluid extract recommended.

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Sex. Syst. Decand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Pyrolaceoe. (Evergreen.)

        The herb officinal. Evergreen. Found abundantly throughout the south, frequenting shady woods, chiefly pine, preferring loose, sandy soil. Plant 4 to 8 inches high. Flowers white, tinged with red, disposed in a small terminal corymb, standing upon nodding peduncles and appearing in June and July. The leaves will distinguish it from the C. maculata, which is not to be gathered. Those of the C. maculata are lanceolate, rounded at the base, where they are broader than nearer the summit, and are of a deep olive green, veined with greenish white. Those of the C. umbellata are broadest near the summit, gradually narrowing to the base, and of a uniform shining green. Should be preferably gathered in spring. Diuretic, somewhat tonic and astringent. Decoction--Pipsissewa bruised, 1 oz.; water, 3 half pints; boil to 1 pint. One pint to be given in the 24 hours, in divided doses.

UVA URSI--(Bearberry.)

Sex. Syst. Decand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Ericaceæ. (Evergreen.)

        Leaves officinal. Evergreen shrub. Found throughout the Confederate States, preferring sandy woods, low, gravelly hills and sandy districts at the base of mountains. Stems of plant trailing; smaller branches rising obliquely a few inches. Flowers reddish white, with red lip, standing on short reflexed peduncles, in small clusters at the end of the branches. Leaves obovate, acute at base, attached by short petioles, coriaceous, glabrous, shining above, pale beneath, entire, the margin rounded but scarcely reflexed. Distinguished from the leaf of the Vaccineum Vitis Ideae, which are of a rounder shape, with revolute edges, sometimes slightly toothed, under surface dotted instead of reticulated. Should be gathered in autumn. Astringent, tonic, with specific direction to the urinary organs. Decoction: Strength--Leaves, 1 oz.; water, 20 fluidounces; boil to 1 pint. Dose, 1 or 2 fluidounces. Fluid extract--Dose, 1 fluidrachm.


Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat. Or. Asteraceæ. (Biennial.)

        Plant officinal, 2 or 3 feet in height, frequenting fields and wastes around cities. Blooms in June and July. Florets of the disc

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yellow; those of the ray very slender, and of a pale blue or pale purple color. Flowers in terminal corymbs. Lower leaves ovate, acute, deeply toothed, and supported on long winged footstalks; the upper are lanceolate, acute, deeply serrate in the middle and sessile. The floral leaves are lanceolate and entire. All, except those from the root, are ciliate at the base. Diuretic.

ERIGERON PHILADELPHICUM--(Fleabane or Scabious.)

        Plant officinal. Herbaceous, stem erect, 2 or 3 feet high, branching at the top. Leaves: the lower are ovate, lanceolate, nearly obtuse, ciliate on the margin, entire, or marked with a few serratures, and supported on very long footstalks; the upper are narrow, oblong, somewhat wedgeshaped, obtuse, entire, sessile, and slightly embrace the stem. The floral leaves are small and lanceolate. Flowers numerous, in a panicled corymb, with peduncles bearing from one to three flowers, in color resembling the E. heterophyllum. Found with it in bloom, in the same places. Should be collected while the plant is in flower. Diuretic. Acceptable to the stomach. One ounce of the plant to be administered in an infusion or decoction, of 1 pint in 24 hours.


Sex. Syst. Diadelph. Decand. Nat. Or. Leguminosae. (Perennial.)

        Tops of stems officinal. Not indigenous, but introduced from Europe, and found growing abundantly along the banks of rail roads. The flowers of this handsome shrub, which is from four to five feet high, and which grows in dense masses, spreading rapidly, are numerous, papilonaceous, large, showy, and of a golden yellow color, being supported on short axillary peduncles. Should be gathered before the flowers appear. Very popular diuretic in Great Britain. Diuretic: Decoction--Broom, 1/2 oz.; water, 1/2 pint; boil for 10 minutes. Dose, from 4 to 8 oz. in the 24 hours. Compound decoction-- Broom, juniper, dandelion, bruised, each 1/2 oz.; water, 3 half pints; boil to 1 pint. One-half or the whole to be taken in the course of 24 hours.

POLYTRICHUM JUNIPERINUM--(Hair Cap Moss. Robin's Rye.)

        A ground moss, found abundantly in the more northern of the United States. Southern localities not known. A valuable diuretic.

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SPIGELIA MARILANDICA--(Pink Root. Carolina Pink.)
Sex. Syst. Pentand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Gentianæ. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal; consisting of numerous slender, branching, crooked, wrinkled fibres, from three to six inches long, attached to a knotty head, which exhibits traces of the stems of former years; yellowish brown externally, of a faint, peculiar smell, a sweetish and slightly bitter taste. Found throughout south and southwestern states, preferring rich soil on the borders of woods, and flowering from May to July. Form of inflorescence, a spike bearing from four to ten funnel-shaped flowers, bright carmine externally, and orange yellow within; stem from twelve to twenty inches high. Anthelmintic: Powdered root--Dose for adult, from 1 to 2 drachms, morning and night for several days, followed by a cathartic. Infusion: Root, 1/2 oz.; water, 1 pint. Macerate for 2 hours. A quantity of senna equal to that of spigelia, should be added. Dose, from 4 to 8 oz.; repeated morning and evening. Ext. Senna and Spig. Fld. officinal. Dose, 1/2 fluidounce.


Sex. Syst. Pentand. Digyn. Nat. Or. Chenopodiaceæ.

        Fruit or seed officinal. Found abundantly throughout the Confederate States, flowering from July to September. Easily recognized by its odor. Should be collected in October. Seed--Dose, for a child two or three years old, from 1 to 2 scruples, mixed with syrup, or bruised in castor oil. The distilled water and the oil used.

GAULTHERIA PROCUMBENS--(Winter Green. Partridge Berry.)

Sex. Syst. Decand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Ericaceae (Evergreen.)

        Leaves officinal. Evergreen, ovate or obovate, coriaceous, shining bright green above, paler beneath, easily recognized by odor. Flowers white, berry bright scarlet. Found growing in beds throughout the Confederate States, frequenting the shade of evergreens in dry sandy soil, and in mountainous tracts. Flowers from May to September. Good collected at all times. A stimulant and astringent aromatic. Oil officinal.


Sex. Syst. Diandria Monogyn. Nat. Or. Lamiaceae. (Perennial or Biennial.)

        Herbs officinal. Stem from 1 to 2 feet in height. Flowers yellow, spotted with red or brown, and disposed upon the stem in numerous

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whorls. Found throughout the whole south, in light gravelly or sandy soil, flowering from June to September. Easily recognized by odor. Should be collected in flower. Stimulant, carminative. Oil officinal.

ACORUS CALAMUS--(Calamus--Sweet Flag.)

Sex. Syst. Hexandr. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Acoraceæ. (Perennial.)

        Rizoma officinal. Perennial, horizontal, jointed, sending off hairy fibres from the joints. Found throughout the Confederate States, in low, wet, swampy places, and along ditches, flowering in May and June. Flowers greenish yellow, leaves green, and sword-shaped. Easily recognized by its taste and odor. Should be collected late in autumn or early in spring. Stimulant, aromatic, and a good substitute for many others more costly. Root--Dose, from 1 scruple to 1 drachm. Infusion--Root, 1 oz.; water (boiling), 1 pint. Dose, 1 wineglassful.


Sex. Syst. Enneand. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Lauraceae.

        Bark of root officinal. Well known throughout the Confederate States. Best collected late in the fall. Stimulant, aromatic. Infusion of pith: Strength--1 dr. to water, 1 pint. Oil officinal.

ASARUM CANADENSE--(Canada Snakeroot. Wild Ginger.)

Sex. Syst. Dodecandr. Monogyn. Nat. Or. Aristolochiaceæ.

        Root officinal. Long, creeping, jointed, fleshy, of yellowish color, furnished with radicles of same color. Flower single, dull purple, in the fork of the stem upon a hairy pendulous peduncle, often concealed in the loose soil or decayed leaves. This low, obscure plant, with its two reniform leaves, is apt to escape observation. It is found in woods and shady places, as far south as the Carolinas, flowering from April to July. Aromatic, stimulant, tonic. Promises well as a substitute for ginger. A valuable adjuvant to tonic infusions and decoctions.


Sex. Syst. Monoecia Monadelph. Nat. Or. Euphorbiaceæ. (Perennial.)

        Root officinal. Large, thick, woody; ligneous portion yellowish; bark pinkish colored; taste bitterish and pungent. Stem 2 or 3 feet high. Flowers yellow, arranged in the form of a spike; male

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flowers above--female below. Frequents pine barrens from Virginia to Florida. Emits a milky juice when wounded. Alterative. Has some reputation in scrofula, cutaneous, chronic hepatic affections and secondary syphilis, occasionally combined with sarsaparilla. Tincture: Root, 2 oz.; diluted alcohol, 1 pint. Dose, 1 fluidrachm. Decoction-- Bruised root, 1 oz.; water, 1 1/4 pint. Boil to 1 pint. Dose, 1 or 2 fluidounces three or four times a day--increased if the stomach be tolerant. In over-doses, emetic and cathartic.

ULMUS: RUBRA OR FULVA--(Red Elm. Slippery Elm.)

        Inner bark officinal. Found in all parts of the Confederate States north of Carolina. Most abundant west of the Alleghany mountains. The slippery elm may be distinguished from the white elm (Ulmus Americana), by its rougher branches, its larger, thicker and rougher leaves, its downy buds, and the character of its flowers and seeds. Period of flowering, April.

        In addition to the above enumerated, many other important substances of medicinal value, whether indigenous, or introduced, may with propriety be collected and set apart for use. Among these may be mentioned the leaves and stems of the Lavender, seed of the Anise, herb of the Spearmint and Peppermint, Sem. Lini, tops of the common Juniper and of the Red Cedar. An ointment prepared by boiling the fresh leaves of the latter for a short time, in twice their weight of lard, with the addition of a little wax, may be used as a substitute for Savine Cerate. For the preparation of tinctures the peel of the orange and stigmas of the Autumn Crocus (saffron) should be carefully preserved.

        The ripe capsules of the Poppy, and the inspissated juice of the garden Lettuce should be collected. Attention is called to the narcotic properties of the Argemone Mexicana, or Prickly Poppy, found abundantly throughout Texas, Arkansas and New Mexico. The leaves of the Benne (Lisamum Indicum) afford a rich, bland mucilage. A free cultivation of the plant, and a careful preservation of its leaves for winter use, is recommended.

        The Prickly Ash--Xanthorylum Fraxineum--(not the Aralia Spinosa, or Angelica Tree, prickly ash) has much reputation in chronic rheumatism, operating like Guaiacum and Mezereon; given in the infusion of 1 oz. of the bark to 1 quart of boiling water; 1 pint to be administered in divided doses, during the 24 hours.

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        The root of the Ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) is thought to resemble liquorice in its taste and external qualities, and may partially supply the place of that article. The powder of the root is innocuous, and may be used as a drying powder in the preparation of pills.

        Surgeon General's Office,
Richmond, Va., March 21, 1862.