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History of the University of North Carolina.
Volume II: From 1868 to 1912:

Electronic Edition.

Kemp P. Battle (Kemp Plummer), 1831-1919

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Source Description:
(title page) History of the University of North Carolina. Volume II: From 1868 to 1912
(cover) History of the University of North Carolina 1868-1912
(spine) History of the University of North Carolina Vol. II
ix, 1-875 p. p., ill.

Call number C378.UEI (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

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        KEMP P. BATTLE






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FROM 1868 TO 1912


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Copyright, 1912

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        TO MY WIFE


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        After unexpected and regretted delays the second volume of my History of the University of North Carolina is issued from the press. It embraces the period from the suspension of exercises in 1868 to the close of the Summer School in 1912. My aim has been to give a clear and truthful pen picture of the revival of the institution from its moribund state, its struggles and its final rise to rank with the first institutions of America. To record all the items of the numerous facts and incidents of forty-four years is manifestly impossible. I have selected such as in my judgment make the narrative both distinct and accurate. The students who attended the University from time to time will doubtless be able to point out omissions. I assure them that such omissions were essential in order to prevent the book from having excessive bulkiness.

        The Faculty in recent years has been larger than that of the old University, and the changes more frequent. I have endeavored to give engravings of all the professors. Where the face of a new professor is not found the deficiency came from inability to procure his photograph.

        The first volume met with a reception which greatly surprised and gratified me. I can not hope that similar favor will be extended to the second. The former chronicled events on which the haze of oblivion had settled or was then settling. The removal of this haze and bringing them again into the light, brought, it seems, to the readers, both interest and instruction.

        The second volume tells of things and persons which have not passed from memory. They are almost contemporary. My readers have shaken hands with the actors. They will not have the pleasure of reviving happy memories half forgotten. Distance, in time as well as in space, "lends enchantment to the view."

        I have, however, aimed higher than merely giving an agreeable hour to my readers. I venture to hope that this minute

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and faithful narrative of the struggles of the University from seven teachers and sixty-nine students to over eight hundred matriculates and over eighty teachers, will be of permanent value to students of education and to students of State Government. I think it will be seen that in a large degree the University has created its own success, by the constant advocacy of higher education in all the counties by its Presidents and Professors; by the excellence of its training; by the culture and energy of the teachers it has sent forth as educational missionaries, like McIver, Alderman, Noble, Joyner, Walker; by the high conduct of its sons in religious, legislative, executive, and judicial functions and in business pursuits. I do not think that I boast too much in claiming that the University has been an influential factor in creating the present high appreciation of education among our people.

        I must express my obligations to Professor Collier Cobb for his assistance in procuring the numerous engravings in my book, often photographing the subjects with his own camera. Also to my sons, K. P., Thos. H., and W. J. Battle, especially Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Junior, for valuable assistance in preparing the manuscript and reading proof.

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Page 1

History of the University of North Carolina
Volume II



        In my first volume I brought the History of the University to the death of President Swain, August 29, 1868. This period covers the life of the Old University. The changes in courses of instruction, in scholastic degrees, in modes of discipline, in buildings and apparatus, the habits and aspirations of students, now make appropriate the name of the New University. There is, however, a substantial connection between the Old and the New. The New is the Old modernized, responding to changed conditions of social life, to new demands of rapidly advancing discoveries, to invention and ever varying phases of scientific, political, industrial, and even theological thought. The New, however, has pride in the history of the past, especially in the great alumni, who have been leaders in all the walks of life, while the survivors, joyful over the continued progress of their Alma Mater and ever ready to applaud its further advancement, have in their hearts an ever increasing love for the University as they knew it. There has been no destruction of the Old. When closed for a season it only slumbered. It was not dead. The influences that awakened it were put into motion by the old alumni, who had eagerly watched for the opportunity. But for those influences an Agricultural and Mechanical College would have taken its place--the application of science to industrial pursuits exalted and literary departments subordinated. The Old University would have died, leaving only a memory of past achievements.

        By the University charter of 1789 its Trustees filled the vacancies which occurred from time to time. As those named

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in the charter were mostly of the Federalist party, it naturally came to pass that when Jeffersonian Democracy was triumphant in the General Assembly, the Board of Trustees was strongly of the adversary party. The University for this and other reasons became very unpopular. Hostile legislation resulted. It became necessary to give the election of Trustees to the General Assembly. From 1804 down to 1868 the choice was by that body, the term of office being for life.

        The University kept its doors open in all the hardships of the war, but it was left in desperate circumstances. The endowment was gone. Professors for the payment of their salaries depended on tuition receipts and, owing to the general paralysis of business, students were few in number, and some of them on the beneficiary list. Professors Martin, Hepburn, and Kimberly, for want of a support, went elsewhere. The Faculty was reduced to five.

        The Trustees adopted a scheme, reported in 1867 by a committee, of which K. P. Battle was chairman and Wm. A. Graham and S. F. Phillips were members, under which Professors were to be supported partly by small salaries paid by the University, the residue by fees paid by students in the respective departments. In order to relieve the Trustees of all embarrassment, the President and Professors in the Fall of 1867 tendered their resignations, which were accepted, but, as the new scheme was not to go into operation until the Commencement of 1868, they by request continued in their chairs until then. When that date arrived it was evident that the old Board would shortly be superseded. It was impossible for them to carry into practical effect the contemplated reorganization. It seemed good to them therefore to reëlect the President and Professors, so that responsible men should be in office to protect the public property and take effectual means for receiving students at the beginning of the following session. These reëlections were duly accepted by the incumbents.

        By the Constitution of 1868 the election of Trustees was taken from the General Assembly and given to the Board of Education, its members being ex officio Trustees. The others were apportioned in the State, one to each county. This arrangement

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was faulty in several particulars. In the first place all the members of the Board of Education, except the Superintendent of Public Instruction, were political officers, with no special interest in the cause of education. Secondly, as many of the counties are remote from the seat of government and it has never been the practice to pay the expenses of Trustees, many of them never attend meetings. And as the members of the Educational Board live in Raleigh, they would usually be the controlling element in the Board of Trustees. Thirdly, it so happened that in 1868 Governor Holden controlled the Board of Education and so dominated the University.

        Since 1835 the practical management of the University has been in the hands of the Executive Committee, prior to 1868 chosen annually by the Trustees, always with special reference to their interest in the University and proximity to Raleigh. The Constitution of 1868 totally changed this salutary arrangement. The Executive Committee was so constituted as no longer to be the helpful servants of the Trustees, but to be under the control of a political body, namely, the Board of Education, then eight in number, the State officers--politicians of course. To these were added the President of the University and three Trustees elected by the Board, the politicians being in a majority of seven to four. The Governor was chairman both of the Board and of the Executive Committee.

        In the Appendix is the list of the first elected Trustees under the Constitution of 1868.

        Eight of those appointed, R. Don Wilson, C. C. Jones, R. S. Abrams, George W. Brooks, J. H. Bowditch, J. A. Maultsby, Anderson Mitchell, and F. J. Kron refused to accept the office, some for private reasons, others because they did not reside in the counties from which they were appointed. Mr. F. J. Kron, of Stanly, in his letter of refusal, said, "The institution as it stood heretofore had no warmer friend than myself. My best wishes for such a Faculty, such as it possessed from its foundation, and such thorough scholarship as will command the gratitude of the State and admiration of the world."

        Judge Starbuck, in agreeing to act, showed considerable acrimony. He said "the University's prosperity is well-nigh destroyed

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by the hand of misrule and treason. Instead of being, as she is accused of late years, a nursery of narrow-minded, bigoted, and sectional ideas she may become the nursery of patriotism, loyalty, love of country, and devotion to this great Union."

        Notwithstanding this censure those who knew the President and Professors of the old University could testify that they accepted the results of the defeat of the South with as much resignation and determination thenceforward to be loyal to the Union, as those of any institution in the land. This was shown by the words and actions of President Swain, by the conciliatory address of Governor Vance in 1866, by the hearty reception accorded to President Johnson, Secretary Seward, and other Northern men in 1867, and by the general attitude of authorities and students.

        The members of the Board of Education owed their places to the influence of the Governor, so that he controlled and virtually appointed the Board of Trustees. Being a strong party man he quite naturally appointed Republicans, and a few whom he hoped to win over.

        This Board was composed of many substantial and some prominent men. There were in it eighteen alumni of the University, but it was a grave defect, that, scattered as they were over the State, one in each county, it was difficult to secure continuity of management. And composed as it was almost entirely of members of the Republican party, at a time when party spirit was virulent, naturally their conduct was watched by censorious eyes and the patronage of the institution was necessarily curtailed.

        The new Board contained only five of the old. These were Rev. Dr. Neill McKay, Thomas Settle, John Pool, Montfort McGehee, a Democrat, who owed his appointment to his brother-in-law, Richard C. Badger, and Governor Holden, who had resigned his place in 1867.

        At the first meeting of the Board, July 23, 1868, the following were present: Governor Holden, Lt.-Governor Caldwell, Secretary Menninger, Auditor Adams, Superintendent Harris, Superintendent Ashley, Treasurer Jenkins, Attorney-General

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Coleman, on the part of the Board of Education; Hon. D. L. Swain, and ex-Governor Manly by invitation; and on the part of the Trustees, Messrs. Tourgée, Ingram, Rodman, John Pool, Russell, V. Barringer, M. Taylor, Thomas, Howze, Lehman, Buxton, Etheridge, Henderson, Wynne, Lassiter, Grimsley, Bynum, Gahagan, Miller, Cantwell, Robinson, Cloud, J. F. Taylor, E. W. Jones, Badham, McDonald, S. Pool, Hayes, Settle, Downing, Reade, Brogden, Long. Total, 41.

        The Executive Committeemen elected by Trustees were Wm. B. Rodman, James F. Taylor, and Thomas Settle, to whom were added by the Constitution Holden, Caldwell, Menninger, Jenkins, Adams, Ashley, Harris, and Coleman.

        The first action of the Board of Trustees was to distribute by lot the counties of the State into four classes. The Trustees from the first class were to hold their office for two years; of the second class for four years; of the third, six years, and of the fourth for eight years.

        Then President Swain, erroneously thinking that he was recognized as President by the new Constitution and therefore entitled to a seat in the Board, moved that the old Secretary and Treasurer, ex-Governor Manly, read his report. This he did with much feeling, closing by a pathetic statement of his pain and suffering from parting with books and papers which had been his companions for 47 years. A resolution was passed thanking him for his efficient services.

        President Swain was then called on to "deliver his address," the mover being too astute to call it a report. It proved to be not a recital of the work of the University or of his own actings for the past year, or of recommendations for the future, but a statement of the progress of the institution, the increase in numbers of students and of buildings, during the thirty-three years of his Presidency. He closed by the assertion that "never had his services been more zealous, faithful and unintermitting." He gave no plan of reconstruction of the institution. His report was identical with that submitted to the old Board in 1867.

        The Board elected Robert W. Lassiter, a member of the Granville bar, Secretary and Treasurer, with a salary of $500 yearly. The most important action, which bears the appearance

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of a "snap judgment," was, on motion of Wm. F. Henderson, the appointment of a committee of five to report some plan for the continuance of the University. The names of the committee were Wm. F. Henderson, Victor C. Barringer, John Pool, Thomas Settle, and Richard I. Wynne. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, Samuel S. Ashley, was added.

        On the next day, in order to negative finally the claim of President Swain that he was still in office, the Board voted to accept the resignations of the President and Professors, made in 1867, and that the chairs be abolished. The reëlection of those officers in June, 1868, were thus ignored as nullities.

        On the report of Henderson's committee it was ordered that the Executive Committee should put into operation a "thorough and efficient organization of the University upon the proper and liberal basis contemplated by the Constitution." They were to have the extraordinary power of electing a President and Professors, devise a system of government, and resume the exercises at the earliest practicable moment, the salaries of President and Professors to be the same as in 1860. They were likewise charged with the duty of inquiring into the state of the funds of the University, with special attention to the mortgage of its property and disposition made of the Land Scrip, and settle the accounts of the late Treasurer Manly. These were subsequently reported as correct. They allowed his claim of $750 for balance of salary as Escheator-General. This overruled the action of the old Board which considered the duties of Escheator-General as appertaining to the office of Secretary and Treasurer, and that the salary of Secretary-Treasurer was sufficient to cover all duties.

        President Swain endeavored in vain to secure a reversal of the decision that he was no longer in office. He claimed his resignation in 1867 was cancelled by his reëlection in 1868. He further contended he held the office legally; that he could not be removed except for "misbehavior, inability, or neglect of duty," grounds mentioned in the charter. No attention was paid to this protest, and further action, if he contemplated any, was prevented by his death. The other members of the old Faculty made no resistance and soon engaged in other fields of labor.

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        In the choice of a President the Board adopted a limitation that no one should be elected who had not an "established national reputation as a scholar and educator." There is no evidence that such a person was sought for, but if the search was made it was inevitably ineffectual on account of the impossibility of paying an adequate salary.

        The unprecedented power to elect all the officers, which had never before been exercised by any Executive Committee, did not meet with the approval of many thoughtful Trustees. Chief Justice Pearson, for example, not to mention others, contended that a matter of so great importance should be passed upon by the whole Board.

        The elections, however, were not then held, although the Presidency was offered to Mr. L. P. Olds, a son-in-law of the Governor. As there was no treasury in sight from which a salary could be drawn, Mr. Olds wisely declined.

        The second meeting of the Board was held November 19, 1868. There were 32 in attendance, so that it appears that there was no lack of interest on the part of the new Trustees. In truth, considering the distance traveled by most of those present, at their own charges, the punctuality was most praise-worthy. There was no diminution of interest for some months. At the January meeting 37 answered to their names, but in June, 1869, they dwindled to 12, mostly State officers.

        The Committee further recommended that the General Assembly be requested to authorize the appointment by the Governor and Council of one student for each Member of the General Assembly, the tuition and College expenses for not exceeding two years to be paid by the State. These students were to be bound to teach in the public schools the length of time they should be at the University. Judge Rodman, Superintendent Ashley, and Senator John Pool were instructed to bring this to the attention of the Legislature. What action, if any, they took, does not appear. Certainly there was no favorable response on the part of the law-making power. The public treasury continued sealed against the University.

        The Governor and Board of Education were requested to protect the property of the institution until the arrival of the Faculty. Under this authority W. N. Harris was employed

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with a salary of $120 per month as Superintendent. The Superintendent of Public Works, Ceburn L. Harris, cared for repairs, there being paid to him from time to time $2,394.19, the account not stating to what objects the money was applied. It is certainly not excessive.

        The Executive Committee also reported the names of the Faculty whom they had selected, a description of whom will be presently given. They were to be supported out of tuition money, but afterwards, as students did not come in, tuition was made free.

        The Committee declared for co-education, but the Board refused to admit females as students. Judges Tourgée and Rodman moved that the appointment of the President and Professors should be provisional only, but the motion was promptly voted down. A motion of Curtis H. Brogden to place the duties of University Treasurer on the Treasurer of the State, and of the Secretary of the University on the Superintendent of Public Instruction, shared the same fate.

        Mr. Victor C. Barringer moved that a school should be established near Raleigh for the instruction of the colored, of equal value as that at the University. Judge Tourgée followed this with a motion which was agreed to that it should be a branch of the University. On motion of Tod R. Caldwell not less than 100 acres was to be bought. It may be as well to state that there never was any proposal to admit the colored youth into the University at Chapel Hill, nor to have co-education of the races in any way. Barringer's proposal, and one afterwards made to give one-third of the Land Scrip money to the colored, were never carried into effect.

        In November (1868) the new Treasurer made his first report. The stay laws and general loss of property, he said, had prevented collection of moneys loaned to individuals and the cash available was only $1,541.08. There was $32,389 due by individuals, most of whom were insolvent, and some municipal bonds, already pledged by the old Board.

        The Treasurer further reported that the debts were about $60,000, including that for $35,712.68 to the Bank of North Carolina. The deed of trust of April 30, 1867, conveyed all



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the property of the University, including about 1,000 acres at Chapel Hill and a tract of land in Buncombe County acquired by escheat, the extent of which was unknown.

        The land grant of 240,000 acres contracted to be sold by the former Board for fifty cents an acre to G. F. Lewis and his associates, Fisher, Boothe & Co., could not be used to pay debts. Congress had forbidden the location of this land until the State should be admitted into the Union by Act of Congress. By the terms of the contract, if the location should not be allowed by the 4th March, 1869, the sale would be void, in which event it was thought a better price, probably one dollar an acre, could be obtained.

        I will now describe the several members of the Faculty, appointed by the Executive Committee in pursuance of authority granted by the Board.


        In filling up the Faculty the Executive Committee looked first for a President. It was clear that the question of party must be a primary consideration. Rev. Mr. Doherty alleged his loyalty to the Union and to Republican principles, and his services in the Union Army, in addition to his scholarship, as qualifications for a Professorship, or the Presidency. The choice fell on Rev. Solomon Pool, afterwards D.D.

        Solomon Pool, born in Elizabeth City, the new President, and Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, was a second honor graduate of this University in 1853. He was then Tutor of Mathematics until 1861, when he was made Adjunct Professor. In 1866 he obtained leave of absence in order to accept the more lucrative post of Deputy Appraiser, the Trustees stipulating that they would not be bound to reëmploy him when this office should end. He was a brother of Senator John Pool. Mr. Pool's political animus was shown in a letter written January 23, 1868, transmitting a draft of a proposed Article in the Constitution on Public Education. He charged the University with being governed by the aristocracy and family influence. He urged that "it should be thoroughly loyalized. Better close it than have it a nursery of treason, to foster and perpetuate the

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feelings of disloyalty. Let the present Board of Trustees be superseded by a loyal Board, and the University will be a blessing, instead of a curse." Although narrow in his views he was a man of decided ability and a good writer. His reports and an article published in the newspapers, entitled "The University and the Public Schools," show thoughtfulness and literary power, but at the time of his election he had no State reputation.

        The Professor of Mathematics, Alexander McIver, a native of Moore County, was a first honor graduate from this University in 1853. After serving as Tutor of Mathematics in his Alma Mater for a few months he distinguished himself as a Principal of an Academy in Wadesboro, and then as Professor of Mathematics at Davidson College. In his application he laid stress on the fact that he was the only Republican at that College and was virtually threatened with dismissal if he should vote for President Grant. He was a hard-working, able and upright man. He was afterwards honored with the post of State Superintendent of Public Instruction.

        The Professor of the Greek Language and Literature, Fisk P. Brewer, was in the Class of 1852, one of the best scholars at Yale University; was, when elected, Principal of a school for the colored at Raleigh, founded by Northern charity. He had studied in Athens, Greece, was Tutor of Greek at Yale, had strongest testimonials from President Woolsey, Professor Dana, and others. Was for one year a Professor in Beloit College. He was a brother of Judge Brewer, of the Supreme Court of the United States. His father was Rev. Josiah Brewer, missionary to Turkey, and his mother was sister to David Dudley Field and other eminent men. A contemporary letter to the newspaper says that he ruined his usefulness by boarding with a negro for a short while after reaching Chapel Hill. It was alleged too that he invited negroes to his house when teaching a colored school in Raleigh.

        David Settle Patrick, nephew of Judge Settle, a native of Rockingham County, had been Principal of a school in Arkansas. He was a graduate of this University in 1856. His title was Professor of the Latin Language and Literature. He had not gained reputation as a classical scholar.

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        James A. Martling, Professor of the English Language and Literature, was a resident of Missouri, a brother-in-law of Superintendent Ashley, and was recommended by him. He seemed to have been a man of good parts, but made no permanent impression while in North Carolina. He graduated at the best colleges in Ohio and had been Principal of high schools.

        George Dixon, Professor of Agriculture, was from Yorkshire, in England, a Quaker. He lectured on Chemistry, Botany, and Theoretical Farming and undertook to prepare a model farm. He was elected in consequence of the duty of the University to carry into effect the Land Grant Act of 1862 and seemed to be proficient in his department. He obtained leave in 1869 to visit his native land, the North of England, and promised to bring chemical tables such as are used in that country in agricultural institutions, of one of which he was President. He wished, he said, to promote the immigration of capital to North Carolina. He never returned to Chapel Hill.

        Professor Patrick was Bursar, Professor Martling Secretary of the Faculty, and Professor Brewer Librarian.

        The President and Professors were all Republicans. It was generally understood that applications from those not Republicans need not be sent in. Rev. C. S. Alexander requested a place on the Faculty, but withdrew his application when he found that the treasury was empty. He wrote that he had always been loyal to the Union, and asserted that to his knowledge the soldiers in Barringer's Brigade were for peace, notwithstanding that under compulsion they had passed resolutions breathing war. He was probably a chaplain in the brigade and gave this information in order to ingratiate himself with Governor Holden, to whom his letter was addressed.

        A communication was read from Rev. William H. Doherty, embodying a scheme of reorganization. He was educated at Belfast Institute and had very high recommendations from its professors. He preached for several years in Ireland as a Presbyterian. Embracing Unitarian principles he resigned his pulpit and emigrated to the United States. He was at one time a chaplain in the United States Army and then Assistant Quartermaster and obtained the rank of Captain. He was for

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awhile Principal of Graham College. His scheme was elaborate, drawn up in excellent style, but required generous expenditures of money.

        An application from an alumnus of the University, who thought to make himself acceptable to Governor Holden by proving, so to speak, that he was a follower of the Vicar of Bray, is on file. When at school he had notions of politics, but now he sees it all is foolishness. He would be willing for any party to rule, provided the country prospered. He was a Methodist but tolerated all other denominations much more than formerly. During the war he was Principal of a High School and was befriended by Republicans and Democrats. "I was considered simply a literary man, belonging to no party. The same may be said of me regarding religion." He then naively asks that in case he can not get a Professorship, the Governor will get him a place in the Revenue Department. Never was a character so thoroughly misunderstood. Governor Holden was an uncompromising party man. No "Doubting Thomas" could please him. The bitterest political enemy could become his friend by joining his party.

        It was not long before there was great unrest in the Faculty. It was the old quarrel which in the Acts of the Apostles divided the pure blood and the Grecian Jews. The Professors from abroad complained that they were neglected in the distribution of the Treasurer's checks. They went further and opined that being strangers they should have the preference, but this claim was decided to have no merit. On the contrary President Pool was paid $1,500 for the first year and the others, some a fourth, others a fifth, of that amount.


        The funds to make these payments came from a loan negotiated with the Board of Public Instruction mainly on pledge of bonds belonging to the Land Scrip Fund. Of course this was illegal, but was overlooked by the General Assembly as the Faculty were really suffering. Moreover there was a bare chance that the University might have a windfall in the shape of an escheat, or a State appropriation.

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        On motion of Judge Cantwell a committee of three was appointed to inquire into the legality of the debts secured by the deed of trust of April, 1868, and all other alleged debts, with power to employ counsel. The committee was composed of the mover and Judges Reade and Tourgée.

        Ex-Judge Cantwell, chairman, reported that in the opinion of the committee the University was not legally or equitably bound to pay the debt due the bank, for the reason that the University was a corporation of specified powers and that, while it could subscribe for the bank stock if possessed of the cash, as an investment, it could not buy on credit. Such purchase was mere speculation and therefore void. The Cameron and Swain debts should be scaled according to the Act of the Assembly, establishing a scale of depreciation for the settlement of debts contracted during the war. These debts really were incurred in 1859.

        The strange argument too was suggested but not pressed, that the University debts were contracted before the Civil War and due to those who had the status of public enemies. The laws of war declare such debts were the subjects of seizure and condemnation. The University with all its properties was seized and appropriated by the conqueror, and the Constitution of 1868 divested the title of the former owners and vested them, free of incumbrance, in the new State authorities. The chairman (Cantwell) suggested as worthy of inquiry how far the present Board of Trustees are bound by these debts any more than other engagements of their predecessors. He then stated that the question was not before the committee and they offered no opinion on this question. I add that the debts of the University were incurred before there was any depreciation.

        It is difficult to see why the question was not before the committee. The chairman was evidently unable to procure the assent of the committee to this enormous extension of the laws of war to Southern institutions.

        It was further resolved that the Executive Committee report whether any teacher will rent the University buildings and grounds for five years, on condition that the State shall pay tuition for county students. This came to naught. No one

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offered to rent the buildings and the General Assembly failed to make any appropriation. Indeed it is noticeable that even the extravagant Legislature of 1868-'69 showed no disposition to aid the University in any way, although spending money with lavish profuseness in other directions.

        On motion of Judge Tourgée the General Assembly was asked to amend the charter of the University so as to have two departments mutually equivalent in all educational facilities, having the same schools, teachers of equal grade and merit, as near as may be conferring the same degrees, subject to the same rules and under the control of the same Board, one for the whites and one for the colored. Also that there should be Normal and Preparatory Schools for both colors.

        Counsel to defend the University against the claim of the bank were also authorized. Under this the chairman, ex-Judge Edward Cantwell, and Ed. Graham Haywood were appointed. The opinion of these counselors that the University was not legally bound by her subscription to the capital stock of the bank was ordered to be printed.

        With regard to the sale of the Land Scrip, the committee reported that it was fraudulent and should be rescinded. The old Board of Trustees, as appears from papers on file, desired to use part of the purchase money for payment of salaries of the Faculty and other objects. G. F. Lewis, the purchaser, knew of this illegality and could not enforce a contract tainted with this fraud. The committee looked on prices with larger eyes than did the Treasurer. Their claim was that the Scrip was worth $1.40 per acre, as against $1.00 reported by him; whereas 50 cents was the value at the time of the sale to the University.

        Before detailing the organization and work of the University in instruction it is convenient to trace the progress of the litigation under the attorneys, Cantwell and Haywood. They had reported, as has been said, in an elaborate paper prepared by Mr. Haywood, that the University was not bound to pay the bank, because the debt was incurred contrary to law. To sustain this it was pointed out that under the bank charter the stock was to be paid for in gold and silver, and the bank was prohibited from discounting any paper to

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which a subscriber's name should be either as principal or surety, until the whole of such subscriber's stock shall have been paid. It was contended that this mandate of the General Assembly had been disobeyed because certain citizens, not connected with the University, borrowed the necessary funds from the bank and lent them to the University. With this money the University paid for its stock in full. Then the University borrowed of the bank the same amount, giving the stock as collateral security and paid off the note signed by the individuals. This transaction, it was urged, was a plain evasion of the law.

        The attorneys conceived the idea that the proper way to attack the mortgage of its property to the bank by the University, was for the State of North Carolina to bring suit in the United States Court. This was instituted, but the Court, after full argument, decided that it had no jurisdiction, and the suit was dismissed. The attorneys urged an appeal to the Federal Supreme Court, but the Trustees declined to prosecute it.

        On motion of Chief Justice Pearson, Judges Bond and Brooks were requested to give their reasons in writing for their dismissing the suit, and the attorney, E. G. Haywood, was requested to give to the Board his reasons for considering the opinion erroneous; further that the Attorney-General and Justices Reade and Rodman be requested to examine the subject and report as to the propriety of taking an appeal.

        At the meeting of July 20, 1871, there was no quorum, but the only Trustees present, Chief Justice Pearson, Justices Reade, Rodman, and Dick of the Supreme Court, Judge Cloud, of the Superior Court, and Secretary-Treasurer Lassiter, concurred in the advice to take no appeal.

        It is presumable that the counsel of the University were of the erroneous opinion that the Federal Court would take cognizance of the case under the bankrupt law, but lawyers generally thought the decision against this view correct. Although the court expressed judicially no opinion as to the validity of the subscription to the capital stock of the bank, it was understood the learned judges thought the objection was not valid. It is unreasonable that the University should receive the stock

Page 16

which she paid for and then repudiate the debt voluntarily contracted to obtain means of payment. The corporations, if their charters were broken, might have been punished under quo warranto, and their officers punished for acting contrary to law, but certainly innocent stockholders ought not to suffer.

        Another objection, that the University did not pay for the stock in gold and silver but in a draft on New York, was held untenable, as the draft was equivalent to specie. Nor was the objection fatal that by borrowing money to pay for the stock the University was speculating, the charter conferring no privilege to speculate. It was an ordinary business transaction.

        The effort by the Secretary and Treasurer, R. W. Lassiter, to break up the contract with G. F. Lewis, made in 1867, for the purchase of the Land Scrip, proved equally abortive. Fifty cents an acre was the true market price at the time of the sale. Several Northern States sold at the same price, and one for less. The Secretary of the Interior, Gen. J. D. Cox, of Ohio, decided that all was regular. The postponement of the location by Congress did not deprive the University of the power of sale. Secretary Lassiter visited Lewis in Detroit, employed counsel, and spent some time in New York but accomplished nothing. The fruitless efforts to break up the contract for the sale cost the University over $500 in counsel fees, besides a very liberal sum for the expenses of the Treasurer.

        By virtue of authority conferred by the Board of Trustees Mr. Lassiter purchased $40,000 of old North Carolina Railroad State bonds, $40,000 in new State bonds, not special tax, and $160,000 in special tax bonds. The old bonds he bought at 51 cents in the dollar, the new bonds 46 cents, and the special tax 50 cents, amounting in the total to $119,000. There was much criticism of the purchase of the special tax bonds as the market price began to sink at once and went rapidly down until it became equal to near zero under the Repudiation Act of 8th March, 1870. As the total amount in the Land Scrip Fund was $125,000, there was left $6,000 to be subsequently disposed of by the Board. No interest was paid by the State on either class of bonds.

        Another lawsuit in which the University was interested was

Page 17

the application by Charles Dewey addressed to the Court in Bankruptcy for the sale of the University property. The result of this suit will be shown in narrating the happenings of the year when the decree was made.

        The Trustees were induced by the advice of counsel to bring suit for lands located in West Tennessee under escheated Revolutionary land warrants granted to the University. As fully described in Volume I of this history, the Secretary and Treasurer (Charles Manly), in conjunction with Samuel Dickens, and under instruction of the Executive Committee, had sold all the residue of these real estate interests to Edward Orme and Alden Gifford, agents of a Boston land company, and reported the same to the Board, which confirmed their action. The result of the suit was a signal defeat to the University, the payment of over $400 in fees and costs and the ill name of bringing a false claim, contrary to her solemn agreement. This cost, however, was paid by the Trustees elected in 1874.

        The chief attorney of the University in this case was ex-Judge Robert R. Heath, who emigrated to Tennessee after the Civil War. He agreed to accept a contingent fee of one-half the recovery. After this was discovered by his associate counsel, S. W. Cochran, he called Judge Heath's attention to the fact that such fees were illegal under the laws of Tennessee and subjected the offender to being disbarred--the offense being called champerty. The Judge was greatly troubled, as was shown by his repeated and urgent requests that all his letters in relation to this suit should be sent to him, and by earnest arguments to show that his action did not come within the purview of the law. It was in his favor that the evidence was in North Carolina, among the University papers. At any rate he was not prosecuted and died soon afterwards.

        There was afterwards much consultation about bringing other suits, but it was wisely concluded that, whatever difficulties there were in the titles of many tracts, the University had no claim, having parted with its rights.

Page 18

        We will now see how the University prospered under the new régime.

        Mr. Lewis P. Olds, who declined the Presidency, recommended that there be six Professors to be paid $9,500 per annum. He predicted that "grown gray with years and sacred by the genius of numberless alumni the University halls should speedily resound with the step and voice of youths--and the fountain now dry be made to send out refreshing streams of other days." But alas! the $9,500 was not obtainable. Even if it had been poured into the University treasury, the intensity of disapproval of the new organization on the part of parents able to send students to the University, would have caused a failure.

        There was no income for the first year from the $125,000 Land Scrip money because of the futile efforts to rescind the contract, and the nonpayment of interest by the State, such payment enjoined by the Act of Congress of 1862.

        Owing to the empty treasury a new scheme was devised. The President and Professors were to trust to tuition receipts for their salaries. Promise was held out to apply to the General Assembly for relief. The Faculty heretofore described was made up on this slender foundation.

        The State Geologist, Dr. W. C. Kerr, was looked to for Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology.


        The old plan of government was adopted for the present but a committee of the Faculty was appointed to examine the reports of institutions of this country and Europe and suggest changes.

        The salary of the President was fixed at $2,000 a year, and $120 house rent, that of the Professors at $1,500 per annum and house rent.

        The committee reported that in order to constitute a University in reality, as well as in name, there should be "the University system," viz.: (1) Instruction by lectures; (2) Free choice of studies; (3) Liberty to graduate in any school; (4) Independent character of the Schools. The following chairs

Page 19

or departments of instruction were recommended, the chairs to be filled when the income would justify it:

  • 1. Department of Latin Language and Literature.
  • 2. Department of Greek Language and Literature.
  • 3. Department of Modern Languages.
  • 4. Department of Logic, Rhetoric, Political Economy, History, Ancient and Modern.
  • 5. Department of Mathematics.
  • 6. Department of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology.
  • 7. Department of Natural and Mental Philosophy.
  • 8. Department of Applied Sciences.
  • 9. Department of Law.

        The Faculty agreed to deliver by turns lectures on Mental and Moral Philosophy, Astronomy, Physiology, Agricultural Chemistry, and Botany, to be open to members of the University and to graduate students. A Preparatory Department was constituted, running over four years. It was agreed that a mark of 75 should pass the student, but the Professor had power to pass on a less mark. The President was to appoint a student to take general supervision of the buildings. The first bell for prayers should ring twenty minutes before sunrise. The second at sunrise and should be continued five minutes.

        On June 10, 1869, a report was made of the work of the first term. The term ran from March 3. There were three students ranking as Sophomores and seven as Freshmen. The Sophomores passed examination in Algebra through Equations of the first degree, 600 lines of the Iliad, nine pages of Herodotus, sixty-four Odes (2 1-2 books) of Horace and ninety-two pages of Whately's Rhetoric.

        The Freshmen passed on Elementary Algebra through Equations of the first degree, and the first book of Milton's "Paradise Lost." Nothing is said of any other Freshman work. If they did any the report is lost.

        Two other students read six chapters of Xenophon's Anabasis and 844 pages of Georgics. Five studied Bingham's Latin Grammar through the third declension and four pages of Whitson's Greek Exercises. All prepared declamations and essays, and read through the Gospel of Luke, whether in the

Page 20

Greek does not appear. The President adds "such labor, though not an occasion of boasting, is evidence of industry."

        The value and interest of the examinations, it was stated, were greatly enhanced by the presence of Superintendent Ashley. All Trustees were desired to imitate his example.

        The degree of Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) was conferred on Abdel Kader Tenny; of Master of Arts (A.M.) on James B. Mason, Prof. D. S. Patrick, Judge Wm. A. Moore, and Judge Samuel W. Watts. That of Doctor of Divinity on Revs. Neill McKay and Samuel M. Frost.

        Tenney was a student of 1863-'65; Mason of the Class of 1867-'68, State Senator; Patrick, an A.B. of 1856; Moore, a student of 1848-'51, a Judge and Speaker of the House of Representatives of this State; Watts a Judge of the Reconstruction period; Dr. McKay a prominent and influential Presbyterian minister of Harnett County, and Frost an able and esteemed preacher of Davie County and then of Pennsylvania--an A.B. of 1852.

        It will be seen from inspection of the report that a considerable portion of the students were in the Preparatory Department. In Mathematics at least the Sophomores were not equal to the Freshmen of the present day. A formal order adopted by the Faculty at the beginning of the next term shows the heterogeneous character of the attendance. "Students now reciting with College students may continue work." Also there were "nineteen entries and no college charges."

        At this time the President presented a complete plan for the reorganization of the University, in order to comply with the Land Scrip Act of 1862. It was as follows:

  • I. College of Literature and the Arts.
  • II. College of Philosophy, Chemistry and Natural History.
  • III. College of Science and the Arts.
  • IV. College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts.
  • V. Business and Commercial College.
  • VI. Normal College.
  • VII. Law.
  • VIII. Medicine.

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        There were no Juniors or Seniors, though to them were assigned Engineering, Modern Languages, Astronomy, Natural Philosophy, Rhetoricals; to Seniors were assigned Engineering, Modern Languages, Intellectual Philosophy, Optionals and Rhetoricals.

        The last word, used as a noun, is new in our University language. It probably means Rhetoric as taught in the books, and also theses, declamations, and the like.

        For the Normal Department were prescribed: First Year, Advanced Geography, Chemistry, Natural History, Algebra, Geometry, Rhetoricals, including Elocution. The other years are not given.

        A plan of discipline was adopted which was a revival of ancient and obsolete methods. Every Friday afternoon the Professors reported publicly infractions of the rules. All but the guilty were ordered to retire. Excuses were then heard and the offenses graded. Tardiness was marked 1, absences 2, visiting other students or going to the village in study hours 1, being out of one's room after 8 o'clock p. m. 1, scribbling on the walls 1, spitting on the floor or disorder in the recitation room 1, indecorum at prayers 2, improper or boisterous noise in study hours or after prayers 2, other offenses not specified 1 to 10. Offenses repeated or glaring, double or triple the above penalties. The perfect deportment grade was 100, the demerits to be taken from this. If there should be 20 demerits the parent to be notified of the downward steps of his son, if 30 his removal to be requested.

        The Monitors were not bound to report other delinquencies than absences. Each student on entering was bound to sign a pledge not to disobey but to comply with all the rules, regulations and laws of the University, so far as he was capable, during his connection with the institution.

        We have a report of delinquencies which shows that they were principally from absences, one charged with eight, two others with six each, and so on.

        Notwithstanding meager numbers there were cases needing discipline. The old joke of ringing the bell contrary to the regulations was perpetrated. Four offenders were arraigned.

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There being a deficiency of evidence, a student was called on as a witness. At first he declined to answer, but, being assured that no penalties would be inflicted, he disclosed the names of the offenders. These were at once pledged and pardoned.

        Other troubles ensued. One student did "not wish to live with Yankees," nor pursue the study of Greek. Guthrie shared this odium towards the divine language and irreverently affirmed that he had not learned three cents worth the whole session. Another announced his dislike of Greek though he did not measure the worth of the language in current coin. The disaffected were allowed to change to Chemistry, taught by Professor McIver.

        President Pool reported a new curriculum, as follows:

        School of Literature and the Arts: Freshman--Latin, Greek, Mathematics, and Rhetoricals. Sophomore--Latin, Greek, Mathematics, Rhetoric, and Rhetoricals. Juniors--History, optional, Mixed Mathematics, and Rhetoricals. Seniors--Political Economy.

        For the College of Science and the Arts, the Freshmen had Chemistry, Natural History, Mathematics, and Rhetoricals; the Sophomores, Chemistry, Natural History, Mathematics, and Rhetoric.

        The second session, or academic year, opened in the middle of August, 1869. The number of those entitled to be called University students was still small.

        In January, 1870, there were reported, Sophomores in the Literature and Art Department, 2; Freshmen, 3; Senior Preps (preparatory students), 5; Junior Preps, 8.

        In the College of Science and the Arts, Freshmen, 3, of whom one was on probation in Mathematics; Preparatory, 1. In the Normal Department there were Freshmen 1, and Preparatory 1, and one irregular. It thus appears that there were claimed to be 9 University students, and 15 Preparatory, with one irregular. A resolution prohibiting from joining the University those under twelve years of age throws a sidelight on the proficiency of those whose names were printed. But, while undoubtedly a number of these could not rank with University

Page 23

students there were some good men, whose careers since have shed honor on their Alma Mater. I instance Col. F. A. Olds, editor; Wm. C. Fields, Senator from Alleghany; Isaac E. Emerson, wealthy druggist; Walter H. Guthrie, machinist in Boston; George W. McIver, Captain in the U. S. Army; Walter F. Pool, Member of the Legislature; George W. Purefoy, physician at Asheville.

        In his report made November 12, 1869, Professor Patrick complains that the former Bursar, Professor Fetter, had not turned over to him any of the books or records of his office, the omission caused admittedly, not by delinquency, but by careless bookkeeping. He gave a sad account of the depredations of late on University property. He says that he has been informed that at the time of the suspension of exercises the opinion prevailed in Chapel Hill that the University property belonged to the people. Books were taken from the libraries and all working utensils abstracted. Some have returned their borrowing with the request that "no questions be asked," while others still retain their spoliations under the impression that "something may turn up."

        The efforts to procure Commencement orators were quite discouraging. Gen. S. C. Abbott, then a Senator of the United States, one of the officers of the Union Army who made this State their home, was secured; Dr. S. S. Satchwell, who always talked good sense on medical and allied subjects, was invited but declined. Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard agreed to preach a serman before the University, Judge Wm. B. Rodman to make an address before the two literary societies. Governor Caldwell, Gen. M. W. Ransom, Attorney-General Coleman, A. Haywood Merritt, R. W. York, Capt. C. B. Denson, and Rev. Dr. Willis M. Miller, found it not their duty to prop up the struggling institution.

        An effort was made to give the University a potential influence among the educational forces of the State by inviting the teachers to exchange views with regard to having a Normal Institution at the University. President Pool appointed a Committee of Correspondence to invite speakers on the subject. The Convention was not held.

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        It is recorded that "it be placed on record that an invitation to deliver an address had been given to Judge A. W. Tourgée, which seems to imply that the Judge, or his friends, deemed that he had been neglected in the distribution of oratorical opportunities.

        President Pool seems to have found one or more members of the Faculty too free with University property. He therefore procured from the Executive Committee an order that no member of the Faculty can bind the University, and no Professor use part of the University property except what has been assigned him. Professor Patrick protested against the order.

        A catalogue of 1869-'70 was issued. Nominally the students were fifty-five in number, but it is impossible to ascertain the facts in regard to their proficiency. The names are in a list in alphabetical order, those more advanced appearing in the same column with those in the Preparatory Department. There is no differentiation of classes. The tradition is that small boys were accorded places and thus swelled the number. The public evidently did not accept the number as indicating the prosperity of the institution. The catalogue did not delay the closing of the exercises.

        It was stated that lectures had been given to all the students on the Theory and Practice of Teaching, on the Constitution of the United States, Astronomy, Philosophy, Physiology, Botany, and Chemistry. On the whole, doubtless, the Professors performed their duties as faithfully as the difficulties of their position allowed.

        An entry in the minutes seems to imply that there was some friction between the President and his staff. This was that the President may question any member of the Faculty individually. This privilege, since the beginning of the University, has always been exercised without question by the Presidents as appertaining to their office.

        A peculiar arrangement was adopted in the practical work of instruction. A class was assigned solely to each member of the Faculty. The President was responsible for the recitations and discipline of the Junior class; Professor Patrick of

Page 25

the Sophomores; Professor Brewer of the Freshmen; Professor McIver of the Preparatory. Each member of the Faculty was the medium of communication between his class and the Faculty as a body.

        On November 15, 1870, President Pool submitted his annual report. He gives the number as 36 who have received instruction in the Junior, Sophomore, Freshman, and Preparatory classes of the University. The Juniors had studied three books of Juvenal, Tacitus, Ancient History, Trigonometry, Analytical Geometry, Differential and Integral Calculus, and Chemistry. The Sophomores were engaged in the study of the Odes of Horace, Homer's Iliad, and Geometry. The Freshmen devoted their time to Vergil's Georgics and the Æneid, Xenophon's Anabasis, and Algebra. The Preparatory classes studied Cæsar's Commentaries, Bingham's Latin Grammar, Rhetoric, Whitson's Greek Lessons, English Grammar, Arithmetic, and Algebra.

        Bible instruction was given each Sunday afternoon and occasional lectures on literary and scientific subjects were delivered before all the students.

        Two prizes of $20 in gold were offered to the best students, but were not to be awarded until the Commencement of 1871, which was never held. The scholarship of the Collegiate classes was stated to be good as a rule, as was also of the Preparatory Department. The frequent rumors circulated by the enemies of the institution were asserted to be not only untrue but tended to distract the attention of the students, impede their progress, and render discipline more difficult.

        It is noticeable that this report does not give the numbers in each class. It was generally understood at the time that there were very few genuine College students, the majority being what are known as "school boys," or Preparatory students.

        Professor Brewer's report on the Library was scholarly. Extracts from it were given in the first volume. The pamphlets, about 1,000 in number, were classified and tied into bundles. Donations were solicited. The whole number of books added as gifts amounted to over 300.

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        On the 1st December, 1870, President Pool submitted a plan for continuing the University, ambitious but impracticable, providing that a Committee of Trustees confer with the authorities of the colleges of the State, with the view of bringing them under the State University, they retaining their present chartered rights and to receive such aid as Colleges of the University as may be agreed upon.

        It was further provided that the property of the University at Chapel Hill be leased, the lessee to give bond for its security and its safe return at the expiration of the lease. Free tuition to be given to fifty youths of the State. The leading religious sects of the State to have representation and party politics to be excluded. The affiliating colleges to submit reports of their operations to the Trustees of the University when called on.

        The Board of Trustees appointed a committee of three to carry out the recommendation as to the proposed lease and a committee of five to confer with the colleges and report to a subsequent meeting.

        The first committee were Rev. James Reed and Messrs. James B. Mason and Henderson Adams. The committee to confer with the colleges were President Pool, and Messrs. R. P. Dick, S. F. Phillips, John Pool, and S. S. Ashley.

        The committee on the lease reported on the 1st February that they doubted the propriety of carrying out the plan under the laws in regard to the University, and at their request were discharged.

        President Pool, on behalf of the Committee on Affiliations, reported that he had not called the committee together, because that on the lease had done nothing. It thus appears that he had in mind probably the leasing of the University to a combination of the colleges. The scheme, however intended, was plainly chimerical, as the denominational colleges were wedded to their independent spheres, and it was impossible to induce them to enter into entangling alliances.

        At this meeting was chronicled the donation of a thousand pamphlets and periodicals by Rev. Josiah Brewer, Missionary to Turkey, through Rev. Fisk P. Brewer, his son.

        On October 5, 1870, Mr. Martling obtained leave of absence.

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Although he hinted at a possible return it was generally felt, and so it proved, that the leave was perpetual. The entry on the records was, that "in view of the financial difficulties we can not refuse consent to any application." It is stated as late in the session as October 10th that Mr. Martling had not heard any class during the entire term except the Junior Preparatory in English Grammar; that he met his classes, assigned lessons and then left the room, his reason being that the textbooks had not arrived. A student would then hear the lesson. After he left Chapel Hill the other Professors divided his work among them.

        On November 2, 1871, the Treasurer reported that the only income for 1870 and 1871 was $1,607.53. As there was no charge for tuition, nothing came in from that source. The Treasurer further stated that of the amounts due by individuals only $1,819.96 was collected or could be collected. This could not be used for present purposes as it was subject to a lien incurred for bonds to pay the former Faculty, and must be applied to those bonds. Of the uncollected debts, some were due by insolvents, some by actual bankrupts, fifty-five bonds of the City of Wilmington, valued at $4,000 (par $5,000); three Virginia State bonds (par $11,200), valued at $6,600, and twenty old North Carolina bonds (par $20,000), valued at $6,000, were hypothecated with the Board of Education for the payment of salaries to the Faculty and other expenses.

        In fine, all the efforts to support the institution resulted in failure. Appeals for legislative aid were not heeded. When the General Assembly of 1868-'69, Republican by a large majority, refused to appropriate money for its relief, it could not be expected that subsequent legislators, of opposite politics, would be more liberal.

        It had now become evident to all that there was no hope of the University to succeed under existing conditions. The General Assembly still refused to pay interest on any of the bonds of the State and declared null and void a large portion alleged to have been fraudulently issued. The Land Scrip Fund was therefore still unproductive. Nothing could be expected from

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public or private benefaction. A handful of students had been enticed by the promise of free tuition, but even if they had paid tuition it would have liquidated only a small fraction of salary dues. Unable to live on airy promises the Faculty were resigning. The time was ripe for closing the doors and ending the experiment.


        There was published at this time a poetical satire on the University as then constituted, particularly pressing the fact of paucity of students. I give part of it. Any one can guess the author.

                         Oh what stupidity,
                         And Old North State frigidity
                         Is it that thus refuses,
                         What Governor Holden chooses
                         To give us as our quantum suff,
                         Of Latin, Greek and all such stuff?
                         The dose is surely small,
                         The pay no pay at all,
                         And yet no man will follow it,
                         Or can be made to swallow it.

                         Now Fortune's wheel revolving,
                         Old ties and links dissolving,
                         The Muses have recorded
                         That when all the good and great,
                         Who so long had served the State,
                         Were compelled by party hate
                         To surrender to their fate
                         And leave the Hall they so long had guarded,
                         Then was Mr. Pool elate,
                         And his services rewarded.
                         With no symptoms of dubiety,
                         Nor sense of impropriety,
                         With no misgiving fears,
                         He claims the vacant chairs,
                         Assumes the god,
                         Affects to nod,
                         And seems to shake the spheres.

                         It surely is a shame,
                         And we're very much to blame,

Page 29

                         That we lose such opportunity
                         To polish our community,
                         For there never was a finer
                         Offered now North Carolina,
                         To send her sons to college,
                         To get a little knowledge.
                         Here's every variety
                         Of the very best society,
                         Among the savants and philosophers.
                         Some of the faculty can spell
                         Very well.
                         Every taste may here be suited
                         Except where prejudice is rooted.

                         Why don't they come to college
                         And get a little knowledge?
                         While all the Sciences,
                         Means and appliances
                         Are lying around loose
                         To rust out for want of use.
                         No misplaced economy
                         Need deter one from Astronomy.
                         All the ologies,
                         Taught in all the colleges,
                         Ancient Latin, modern Greek,
                         Are going a-begging, so to speak,
                         And even Electricity
                         Is in a state of mendicity,
                         While Geology sits idle with her hammer,
                         And yet no scholar will give a dollar
                         For Geography,
                         And Bingham's Latin Grammar.

        We find in the Sentinel newspaper of December 1, 1868, an eloquent letter, written under the Old Poplar, evidently by Mrs. Spencer, which touchingly tells the appearance of the University in those days. "For seventy-five years this Old Poplar * * * has spread a benignant shade over the gay throngs that wandered through the Campus, or pressed into the Chapel in the glorious old days.

        "The old tree still stands guard but over grounds that are now empty and forlorn. The dry grass rustles to my solitary

Page 30

footsteps, and a rabbit starts out from yonder tangled and dying rosebush. I look around and see nothing to disturb the profound and melancholy stillness. A negro girl in a pink frock is leaning on the College well and a few of the negro soldiers are passing in the distance towards the village. The sun shines down on the Old East and West, the Library halls, the Recitation rooms; but the doors are all closed--the place is haunted. Strong and ineffaceable memories rush unbidden, and my eyes are dimmed as I gaze on this Niobe sitting thus discrowned and childless.

        " * * * Chapel Hill is the Deserted Village of the South. Nearly twenty of the best families in the place are leaving and their houses are standing untenanted and desolate. The business of the village is at a standstill, while I am told that no fewer than six places have been lately established where liquor is openly sold. Some of our citizens are even now on their way to California. Some are in Louisiana. Of those whose names have been public property for years, Judge Battle is removing his household goods from his beautiful home--dear to him for twenty-five years, to begin life afresh and leave behind him the graves of his children. Professor Martin is in Tennessee, Professor Hepburn is in Ohio, Dr. Hubbard is in New York, Professor Smith is in Lincolnton, Professor Fetter is preparing to move to Henderson. Professor Phillips alone has not decided on his new home. These all leave the houses they have built, the trees they have planted, the flowers they have tended, the cradles of their children, the graves of their dead. Governor Swain was more favored in that he fell on sleep in good time, and rests quietly under the cedars over yonder."

        "Nos patriæ fines, et dulcia linquimus arva.

        Nos patriam fugimus. * * *

        en quo discordia cives

        Perduxit miseros! en queis consevimus agros!"

        Dr. Phillips soon migrated to Davidson College, and many citizens, not members of the Faculty, sought new homes. Of the "Faculty folks" only Mrs. Spencer and her mother remained

Page 31

to witness the desolation, the former by her pathetic and caustic writings for the press to keep glowing the love of the alumni for their distressed benignant mother.

        Of course the friends of President Pool, and of the new Faculty, did not take tamely the scoffs and sneers, so liberally bestowed by the friends of the old. An anonymous writer charged that there was a regular conspiracy formed, "conjuring the demon of discord, using the infernal incantation of hypocrisy, falsehood, and envy, in order that the fires of sectional hatred may be let loose over the fairest and most beautiful part of the Southland." "The old University was under the control of oligarchs. Under Pool's administration it will have a brilliant career."

        Another correspondent of the Raleigh Standard affirmed that in three months the University under Swain would have gone to the infernal regions. He attacked the qualifications of the Presidents and Professors. Swain, when at the University, was only a few months in the Sophomore class, was then a lawyer of "small bore," was always a "split-the-difference" man. Dr. James Phillips was an Englishman; was, before coming to Chapel Hill, President or Instructor in a preparatory school; Dr. Hubbard came from Pennsylvania (should have been Massachusetts) to the University, may have graduated in a college of little reputation and notoriety. Professor Fetter was cut out in New York for an Episcopal minister and was "spoiled in the making." Professor Smith was from some Northern State and was likely a graduate of a college. Charles Phillips was a graduate but was the son of a foreigner. The Professors by improvident acts placed the University without students and with a $60,000 debt. They did not apply to the new Board of Trustees for reëlection and are all employed elsewhere, except Dr. Hubbard, who is in Chapel Hill bracing up his son-in-law (Argo) to curse out and whip those who don't agree with him. The writer cautiously requests the public not to mind what Mrs. Spencer writes as she is sister and daughter of those who have received $75,000 from the University, nor what Argo says, as his father-in-law, Dr. Hubbard, received $50,000. The adherents of the old Faculty

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answered such attacks and carried the war into Africa. A correspondent, who signed himself "A Student," says that Pool was for six years a tutor of pure Mathematics and, as Governor Swain said, because he growled about being tutor, was elevated to Adjunct Professor. In 1860 he had a chance to accept a collectorship under the United States and held on to this office six or eight months after being President.

        Only one or two of the new Trustees sent sons to the University under Pool. There were only twelve or fifteen from abroad and they came because free tuition was offered.

        Another writer contends that Pool received from the United States $5,000 a year; two brothers-in-law $1,500 each, and mother-in-law as postmistress $1,000 a year. The property in Chapel Hill had greatly depreciated under his Presidency. Land at tax value of $3,500 had gone to $1,000, and at $2,500 to $500. There were only two students from abroad and they were relatives of Pool. The praiseworthy statement is made that leading citizens of Chapel Hill had requested the editors of prominent papers not to criticise the management harshly until the efforts should be demonstrated to be a failure, and they had in vain called on Judge Pearson, Mr. Lassiter and other prominent Republicans to send their boys to the University.

        A third correspondent makes a special attack on Mr. Pool. "You have seen this beautiful village withering into nothingness through your course; the inhabitants either compelled to leave at the sacrifice of all their property, or remaining in poverty or depression. You have known that the country for miles around was suffering in the decay of their only market. You have walked through the streets, where every eye, save those of your family and political associates, was turned on you with something of hatred and indignant scorn; you have been repeatedly snubbed by your own church members, who have refused, in view of these things, to hear you preach or to receive communion with you, and you have stalked on through it all, impenetrable, in a cold-drawn insensibility, in dumb gravity of demeanor and undisturbed pride of place as the President of the University of North Carolina, that might

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well bid defiance to the light artillery of wit, or ridicule or sarcasm."

        A leading merchant of his own church urged him to resign, pointing out the ruin brought on the business men of the town. His reply was: "I would not resign for $50,000. My course has never occasioned a regret or self-reproach."

        The last correspondent dwells on the evidence of ruin about the buildings. There was no appearance of care. The room doors were open, the closet doors carried off, plastering in South Building had fallen into heaps. An old resident walks through and grieves, repeopling them with friends, many gone above long ago. Familiar faces look out of the windows, but they are in the shadowy past. Everywhere is written Ichabod's, "The glory is departed."


        In 1869 there was a strong effort to obtain a railroad from the North Carolina Railroad to Chapel Hill. As the Supreme Court had decided that a corporation could not be aided by the State, either by direct grant of bonds or by the State subscribing for stock and selling bonds to pay the same, without first obtaining a favoring vote of the people, another plan was devised. This was for the State to build the road through commissioners, with an issue of State bonds to the amount of $300,000 in order to supply the funds. It was thought that this avoided the prohibition against the State's issuing bonds to or for individuals or corporations. Unfortunately for the promoters of this laudable enterprise the commissioners declined to elect as President the man favored by Governor Holden, said to be T. M. Argo, but chose Henry C. Thompson instead. The Governor thereupon refused to sign the bonds. A suit was instituted by the University Railroad Company against Holden and the court declared the act unconstitutional. The first objection was that no corporation was created--there were no grantees to receive the bonds; second, the proportion of property tax to capitation tax was disturbed; and, third, that a vote of the people was necessary. On the whole it appears to a plain man that the court regarded itself as guardian of the

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State Treasury and credit and were satisfied with arguments of very indifferent strength. Judge Reade dissented and essayed to make it plain that the State can, through commissioners, undertake a public work and that issuing bonds to pay the expense is not lending her credit to others. But, right or wrong, the decision was fatal to the road. Chapel Hill was forced to wait for many years before obtaining connection with the great railroad lines of the State.

        The Commencement of 1869 was sad and painful to those familiar with the grand ceremonies of old times. The Trustees were mainly State officers. Governor Holden, Superintendent Ashley, Judge Buxton, Secretary-Treasurer Lassiter, Judge Rodman, Judge Dick, Judge Settle, Judge Bynum, Judge Watts, State Geologist Kerr, Judge W. A. Moore, being ten Trustees, the number required for a quorum were present. There were seventeen visitors from abroad, it was said, and twenty-eight all together in the audience, counting children. At the beginning Superintendent Ashley made an address, being introduced by his brother-in-law, J. A. Martling. Declamations followed, the speakers being called out by Mr. Martling.

        On Thursday there were seventy-five whites reported with about that number of colored people in the galleries. The chronicle humorously adds, "There was a tremendous crowd of folks--who did not come." Mrs. Ashley and her daughter, and Mrs. Judge Buxton were the only ladies from outside the village. There were two or three Chapel Hill ladies. The reporter adds that "the members of the Faculty were small men from President Pool down. Drop him in the boots of Caldwell and Swain and while he stumbles about in them, he could not peep over the top of them. President Pool made the opening address; he was very solemn, exceedingly dull and nearly inaudible. The burden of his speech was 'Support me and my faculty.' "

        But another correspondent has the following to say of the address of President Pool: "His points were concisely stated, his diction chaste and elegant, and many who came to criticise

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were forced to praise." This account was nearer the truth. Mr. Pool was a man of decided talent. The description by the former writer is accurate as to his manner, for his face bore constantly a melancholy look. His speech was preceded by an Ode to Dr. Mitchell, probably by J. F. Taylor.

        During the morning Governor Holden delivered a carefully prepared written address, evidently his platform of principles on the subject of University Education. He said the evil of the old system was that the children of the great part of the people were practically excluded from the University. The present Faculty is calumniated because some are from other States, forgetting that Caldwell, Mitchell, and Phillips were the same. Most alumni favor the University as constituted. It must not be the theater of politics. The professors must be for the Union. The people will sustain it, "If parents who possess means will not send their sons because of prejudice or resentment towards those who now control, the people will fill the halls with meritorious young men and maintain and educate them at the public charge." Both races must be educated and polls and property taxed for the purpose. The whites must be educated at Chapel Hill, the colored elsewhere, but both in one University. Education knows no color or condition. It must be free like air and as pervading and universal. It is our chief want. Before the rebellion no Southern State had a more successful system than North Carolina, no State had more colleges and academies. If we fail to educate, the immigration will go elsewhere and the penitentiary and jails will be crowded. Practical education will develop our resources.

        In the afternoon, William Blount Rodman, a first honor graduate of 1836, Judge of the Supreme Court, delivered the University address. He was introduced by Mr. Walter Scott Guthrie, one of the undergraduates. He spoke in favor of establishing the University. "His arguments were too deep and strong to be reached by outline." He urged all with State pride to carry out the schemes of Caldwell, Mitchell, and Gaston. He was calm, conciliatory, and rational.

        The Commencement of 1870 was held June the 8th and 9th. Col. John H. Wheeler delivered an address on "The Past,

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Present, and Future of North Carolina." The chronicle states that it was most favorably received by the audience. The music was furnished by the Fayetteville brass band. At eight o'clock in the evening there were declamations by James T. Lyon, Charles J. Suggs, Milton V. Andrews, Charles J. Dorland, and William P. Lyon. The last named and Andrews were pronounced to be the best speakers.

        On Thursday, United States Senator, Gen. J. C. Abbott, delivered the annual oration. His subject was "The Value of Correct Thinking and the Necessity of Accuracy in Scholarship." It was pronounced to be able and eloquent.

        Original speeches by students came in the afternoon. They were: Archie B. Holton on "Enthusiasm," John H. Pitts on "Intemperance," John Q. A. Wood on "North Carolina," William C. Fields on the "Men of the Hour," Walter H. Guthrie on "Mirabeau," W. P. Overman on "Justice May Sleep but Never Dies." The annual report was then read, followed by an oration by Walter F. Pool on "Washington."

        James F. Taylor, of Raleigh, followed with an elaborate paper on President Swain, Dr. Mitchell, and Dr. James Phillips.


        Professor McIver was elected temporary President, Robert W. Lassiter clerk, and Messrs. Patrick, Martling, and Taylor a committee to report permanent officers. The President reported was Col. J. H. Wheeler. The Vice-Presidents were Governor Holden, Lieutenant-Governor Caldwell, President Pool, Judge W. A. Moore, Nereus Mendenhall, Judge W. H. Battle, Gen. Thomas L. Clingman, Dr. S. S. Satchwell, Editor W. J. Yates, President B. Craven, E. F. Rockwell, Palemon John, and ex-Governor D. S. Reid. The Secretary and Treasurer was Prof. Alexander McIver. All Trustees were made members ex officio. The following were made honorary members: George Bancroft, Alexander H. Stevens, Gen. Daniel H. Hill, Bishop Thomas Atkinson, Bishop Pierce, Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard, Rev. Dr. Neill McKay, Hon. Thomas C. Fuller, Gen. R. B. Vance, Rev. Dr. George W. Purefoy, Rev. Dr. B. York, Hon. J. W. Holden, and Mr. Lewis Hanes,

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Superintendent Ashley, Hon. Curtis H. Brogden, and James F. Taylor were appointed a committee to procure from Mrs. Eleanor H. Swain the books and manuscripts claimed by the society.

        It is pleasant to know that during this period there was at Chapel Hill a flourishing school for the colored which had the reputation of doing much good. The teacher was Miss Fannie C. Colver. At its close there was an impressive ceremony. Rev. Green Caudle, colored, offered up a prayer. His fervent supplication for all the people, of all colors and conditions, was deeply impressive and in newspaper language, "attracted the attention of all present." All seemed to appreciate his devout petitions.

        There was not a total stagnation among the whites, not a total cessation of labors for the uplifting of the young. On June 20, 1871, was held a Sunday School celebration in the University Chapel (Gerrard Hall), which was worthy of Chapel Hill in its best days. On the rostrum were the Rev. Messrs. Bobbitt and A. D. Betts, and teachers in the school, Thomas Long, Superintendent, Patterson McDade, and A. S. Barbee, afterwards Mayor. Rev. Mr. Betts in his prayer made "a beautiful and effective allusion to the present condition of the University." Rev. Mr. Bobbitt, then stationed at Chapel Hill, made an interesting and instructive address. A Bible was presented to Superintendent Long. Adjournment was then had to the campus. Hard-boiled partridge eggs were the main edibles.

        On August 7, 1873, the Old Davie Poplar was struck by lightning. The friends of the University were grieved, as if it were ominous of the fate of the University, but, although there was a rent through the bark at least from top to bottom, the noble tree survived the fiery attack. It was measured and two feet from the ground was 14 feet 6 inches in circumference. It was called the Old Poplar, as Governor Mosely, of Florida, testified, in 1818, when he was a tutor here. Its shade was sufficiently abundant in 1793 to shelter the Trustees who located the buildings. Tradition has it that having eaten their

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humble snack, washed down by the bibulous refreshment usual in that day, qualified by pure water from the spring to the south of University Inn, they unanimously declared that it was impossible to find a more suitable plateau for the future University.

        Mrs. Spencer wrote from under the Poplar a touching and eloquent letter to the leading Raleigh journal. She then believed that the lightning would be fatal. I give an extract. The program over which she memoralizes was in Governor Graham's Administration, 1845-'49.

        "I have before me one of three Commencement programs to read which brings back a gush of warm, sweet, spring air, crowds the silent Campus with glowing, ardent youth, lights the halls with the fresh Beauty and Grace that once adorned them, sends the music of drum and trumpets floating through the tree tops, and crowns our riven old Poplar again with bud and bloom. Illustrissimo Gulielmo A. Graham, Armigero, Carolinæ Septentrionalis Reipublicæ Gubernatori.

        "Can we not see him? Certainly the noblest figure there--calm, self-poised, and firm, his dark eye glancing over the crowd, not one of whom but is proud that day of him as a representative North Carolinian.

        "It is no everyday feeling of affectionate pride in the past, of pain in the present, of persistent hope for the future of the once honored University of our State that summons round the stricken and deserted old Poplar today one scene from the many it has waved over of glowing hope and glorious prosperity."

        On November 8, 1873, died a person long associated with the University at Chapel Hill, a notable and meritorious character, Miss Nancy Segur Hilliard. She was described in my first volume and I add only a few items. She was born in Granville County, a daughter of William and Lucy (Walker) Hilliard. They removed to Chapel Hill in 1817. She was well connected, being related to the Segurs, Pannills, Oteys, and Jeffreyses. When Mrs. Spencer made an appeal to the alumni for help for her while in a dying state and for contribution to

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her burial and the erection of an humble monument to her memory, an old student wrote advocating the pious scheme. He said, "We can name a judge, a lawyer, a preacher, and a doctor who carried weekly from her table a dollar's worth of ham and biscuit to eat at night. She made more money and did more work than any one woman in North Carolina." If those who owed her board would have paid their dues to her she would have been in comfortable circumstances. Her cooking was excellent, her fried chickens were known far and wide, their fame being carried by students and transient customers, as travelers were then called. The drivers of the stages would give notice afar off, by the music of their tin horns, as to the number to be provided for, and the meals would be ready and hot. Notwithstanding that she was not gifted with personal beauty there were few women in our State more deservedly popular with all classes than this good hard-working old maid. I do what I can to keep her memory green. Her heart was beautiful.

         Perhaps no community in the South experienced greater losses than the village of Chapel Hill during and soon after the war. The deaths of its sons in battle (thirty-five in number) were exceeded by none. Depending on the payments by students and professors, its merchants, mechanics and laborers had a precarious existence as long as this source of income was not entirely exhausted. But this dwindled into insignificance as the numbers of students diminished and professors, one by one, departed to seek new homes. And then came the death of President Swain, the exodus of the remaining professors and the temporary closing of the institution. For a short time the doors were reopened but invitations to the young men of the State were unheeded. Again were the doors closed and so remained for four years. The receipts of all dependent on the University were extinguished. Those who had no private income were forced to leave their homes. The village lost physicians, merchants, tradesmen, mechanics. It was called and well deserved the name of the "Deserted Village."

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        Throughout it all, notwithstanding it was evident that success was impossible, President Pool held to his office with tenacious grasp. So, without duties, supporting his family by the emoluments of an office in the revenue service, he was still President of the University, until ejected by a decree of the court in 1875. His persistency was not in vain. He obtained from the General Assembly the unpaid principal and interest of his salary, his being a minister of the Gospel and in financial straits materially aiding his application.

        Another effect of the hard times through which the village passed was the removal of many cottages which had been built by the landowners for the accommodation of students of prosperous days, who were unable to procure lodging in the University Buildings. These cottages were torn down, or sold, some reërected a mile or so away on the neighboring farms. Thus disappeared from the map "Pandemonium," "Possum Quarter," the "Poor House," "Bat Hall," the "Crystal Palace," and other places dear to the ante-bellum students.

        A number of dwelling houses were left tenantless, grim reminders of the University's closed doors. Many domiciles, being rented to families in meagre circumstances, had their vegetable gardens turned into cotton fields, and where the growth of the plant was dwarfed by the proximity of lordly trees many of these were felled and converted into firewood. One tenant, a Frenchman, used a room which had been the chamber of a popular young lady for a chicken coop.

        The losses were not confined to the village. The neighboring farmers lost the sale of their produce; the farmer's wife of her poultry, her eggs, and her butter. The financial blight was widespread.

        Of course the patronage formerly belonging to the University was diverted to North Carolina colleges, or elsewhere. Many a youth at greater expense wended his way to the University of Virginia, to Princeton, Cornell, Yale, or Harvard. Others remained at home or went into business.

        The buildings of the University were not in the best of condition when President Swain died. The deterioration, after they had been tenantless for several years, was pitiful. There

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were cases of wanton mischief, there were many more of carelessness and neglect. Many valuable books were scattered, many a valuable piece of apparatus handled to its injury by unskillful hands.

        The greatest depredation was on the woodland of the University, peculiarly liable to suffer near a village where the guardianship of the owner has been withdrawn, still more certainly when the forest belongs to a public institution.


        The responsibility of making the motion to suspend the exercises until further orders was taken by Rev. James Reid, of Franklin, at a meeting of Trustees December 1, 1870.

        Sensible action was taken in cutting off salaries of all the Faculty from February 1, 1871. Mr. James A. Graham's motion made November 20, 1870, fixed the date December 1, 1870, but the later date was adopted on motion of Mr. James B. Mason. The record does not show that the President was excepted, but he contended to the contrary.

        Secretary-Treasurer Lassiter and the Trustees residing at Chapel Hill were instructed to provide for the preservation of the University property. The Treasurer was ordered to take steps for paying the Board of Education for its loan and settle with the Faculty, but no means was placed in his hands. A resolution having in it something of the pathetic was that the Treasurer pay Professor Martling one hundred dollars to enable him "to return to his home." The money was raised and Mr. Martling left the State.

        The members of the Executive Committee elected by the Trustees in 1870 were Rev. Dr. Neill McKay, Judge E. G. Reade, and Dr. Wm. D. Whitted. The members of the Board of Education, viz., Tod R. Caldwell, Governor; Curtis H. Brogden, Lieutenant-Governor; Wm. H. Howerton, Secretary of State; John Reilly, Auditor; David A. Jenkins, Treasurer; Silas Burns, Superintendent of Public Works; Alexander McIver, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Tazewell L. Hargrove, Attorney-General, were the other members of the Executive Committee. It is an interesting fact that Auditor

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Reilly was one of the six hundred who made the desperate cavalry charge, at Balaklava, immortalized by Tennyson.

        Of the Committee thus constituted Messrs. McKay, Reade, Whitted, Brogden, Howerton, Reilly, Jenkins, and Burns were not North Carolina University men and at least six of them had not attended any university or college. Only Messrs. Caldwell, McIver, and Hargrove were alumni of this University--three out of eleven. No reflection is intended on the faithfulness of any one by this statement, but it is in accordance with human nature that keener interest is held and more effective work performed by the alumni of the institution than by others. Having more intimate knowledge of its past they know its needs and are more energetic in supplying them. Better work is done by men when their hearts are in it.

        At the annual meeting Treasurer Lassiter made an elaborate report, initiating no new measures, in general terms expatiating on the importance of reopening the University under good auspices, but confessing the hopelessness of success. There was no income. There were some claims of land in Tennessee, he said, to which the bar of the Statute of Limitations was effectually pleaded.

        On the whole, Mr. Lassiter's jeremiad led to no tangible result. The Board showed its want of appreciation of his labors by cutting down his salary to three hundred dollars and electing Dr. W. S. Whitted, of Henderson County, in his place. Mr. Whitted appears, however, not to have accepted the post and Mr. Lassiter continued to act.

        Another pursuit after the ignis fatuus of Tennessee lands was inaugurated. The attorney selected was Hyams T. Johnson, of Humboldt, Tennessee, but nothing was done in consequence, possibly for want of retaining fee. A shadowy claim for an escheat in England was likewise investigated, fruitlessly of tangible results.

        A claim, which seemed to have more hopefulness was inquired into by an able committee, at the head of which was Hon. Samuel F. Phillips, afterwards Solicitor-General of the United States. This arose under the will of Robert Donaldson, a wealthy resident of Hyde Park, New York, a graduate

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of this University, once a resident of Fayetteville. After him Donaldson Academy was named. He bequeathed a handsome amount to the University, to a large extent disinheriting his children, because, it is said, they joined the Roman Catholic Church, whereas he was a strict Presbyterian. It was found on investigation that the will was fatally defective under the laws of New York.

        The Trustees made a fortunate decision in regard to a request for donation of land at Chapel Hill. The School Committee of Chapel Hill, Morgan Closs, W. H. Bunch, and H. C. Andrews, made application to the Board for two acres on the Pittsboro Road, next to the lot known as the Hubbard lot, to be used for a school for the colored. It was stated that it was distinctly understood that divers persons, friendly to education, would make liberal contributions for the erection of a schoolhouse. The Board declined to make the donation because the land was covered by mortgage. The lot so applied for is now covered by pleasant residences occupied by white families, and the village school for the whites is located in the same neighborhood. That for the colored is in a part of the village inhabited by citizens of that race.


        On January 16, 1871, the Faculty had a meeting, President Pool absent. Professor McIver offered a resolution, stating that no member of the Faculty desired to be in the way of the resuscitation of the University, and that it was evident that the present force did not have the confidence of the public. Professors McIver and Patrick voted in the affirmative and Brewer in the negative.

        Professor McIver, who had a full share of Scotch tenacity, on October 17, 1872, offered a resolution to secure a full reorganization of the Faculty. The preamble recites that the President and Professors elected by the Executive Committee on January 1, 1869, had failed to make the University acceptable to the people of the State, the exercises of the institution have been suspended for two years, and the President and Professors have engaged in other pursuits.

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        The chairs of the members of the Faculty were then to be declared vacant, and the best qualified were to be elected to take their places "without any reference to political party." It was found that nothing could be done. A committee was appointed to confer with leading alumni and ascertain the terms on which they would come to the relief of their Alma Mater. This led to no tangible result.

        But for the help of the Board of Education the institution would have come to an untimely end sooner than it did. In 1869, $6,000 was borrowed from the Board, largely on pledge of State bonds; in 1870, $7,691.15, making a total of $13,697.60. Payments on this debt were as follows: In 1873, $1,424.50; in 1874, $1,070; total, $2,494.50, leaving $11,203. But the Board claimed interest on the loans, making a total debt of $17,296.10. As the North Carolina bonds belonged to the Land Scrip Fund, it was really unlawful to pledge them, but there was no public criticism of the transaction. In 1875 the General Assembly concluded to restore the principal of the Fund.

        An effort was contemplated at this time to obtain relief from the mortgage to the Bank of North Carolina. Action was begun in State Courts. Attorney-General Hargrove and Superintendent McIver were appointed the committee to act with the Governor to secure this end. The movement led to no result.

        An adjourned meeting on the 13th February, 1873, was agreed to, with the intent to consider means for resuscitation of the University. In the meantime Superintendent McIver was instructed to memorialize the General Assembly in relation to the Land Scrip Fund with the view to procure payment on interest on the bonds. The request met with no response.

        At this meeting, the last, as appears by the minutes of the Board, no steps were taken to revive the institution. Mr. Ed. Graham Haywood was heard in advocacy of the legality of the suit, dismissed for want of jurisdiction by Judges Bond and Brooks, and the committee heretofore appointed on the subject were authorized, if they deemed it advisable, to appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States.

        This suit, as has been explained, was in the name of the

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State in the Federal Court to set aside the mortgage to the bank and declare the debt void. Lawyers generally thought that Mr. Haywood's eloquence and learning were exerted to prove a legal absurdity.

        In July, 1873, there was held, at the instance of the State Board of Education, a State Educational Convention in which the resuscitation of the University was discussed. Hon. B. F. Moore was President. The Vice-Presidents were Rev. Dr. Braxton Craven of Trinity College, Professor Stephens of Peace Institute, Judge D. A. Barnes, and Dr. S. S. Satchwell. The secretaries were Professors O. W. Carr and John E. Dugger.

        On motion of Dr. Craven a committee of three was appointed to report: (1) On the school law; (2) the University; (3) Normal Schools; and (4) on a permanent organ of the Convention. He was then called on for an address, which he delivered in good style and with his usual thoughtfulness and ability. He chose as his subject, "The Teacher." He was followed by the Rev. Mr. Doub. Major Robert Bingham then gave an excellent lecture on "Our University." He was followed by Rev. Dr. Wingate. A committee on the University was appointed, composed of Rev. Dr. N. McKay, Rev. A. W. Mangum, Mr. J. H. Mills, Mr. J. G. Elliott, and Mr. J. M. Lovejoy.

        Dr. McKay reported a resolution that the revival of the University at the earliest practicable moment is essential to the thorough improvement of the education of the people. It was supported by Messrs. Lovejoy and Wingate. Dr. Craven expressed himself in favor of a University provided that it should be not in name only and no better than a college. It should be fit to send out broad, highminded men. All denominations too should be represented.

        Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard agreed with Dr. Craven that all denominations should be represented. That to which he belonged, the Baptist, by far the largest in the State, had never been represented. The institution should be administered on fair and just principles.

        This speech aroused Rev. A. W. Mangum, who alleged that

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the Methodists were just as numerous as the Baptists. He contended that the Methodists should have representation. The Board of Trustees should be fair. Mr. J. W. Norwood agreed with Dr. Mangum, but pronounced his remarks out of place at this time. The report was then adopted unanimously.

        Mr. Thomas M. Argo offered a resolution that the University should be entirely removed from the field of political and religious controversy. Mr. Fuller moved its adoption, but Rev. Joseph M. Atkinson and Judge A. A. McKoy opposed it on the ground that it was equivalent to discarding the Christian religion. Mr. R. B. Peebles moved to change "religious" into "denominational," so that the resolution should read, "In the opinion of this convention the early revival of the University and establishment in a position of dignity and usefulness is impossible unless upon a basis entirely impartial in denominational and political representation." This passed unanimously.

        Superintendent McIver induced a number of the Trustees to invite a meeting of the Alumni Association of the University in the Senate Chamber on the 1st of February, 1873, with the object of devising means for the revival of the University. The invitation was accepted, fifty-five being in attendance, among them Mr. B. F. Moore, Judge Battle, Judge Pearson, Col. Daniel M. Barringer, General Clingman, Judge Rodman, Governor Caldwell, Hon. S. F. Phillips, Judge Dick, Col. W. L. Saunders, Messrs. William and Robert Bingham, Professor McIver, Judge Gilmer, Judge McNeill, Mr. K. P. Battle, and others of like weight in the community. Mr. B. F. Moore was called to the chair. Justices E. G. Reade and Nathaniel Boyden were elected honorary members.

        Judge Battle's motion that a committee of five be appointed to confer with the committee of Trustees, who had been appointed and had called this meeting, was concurred in and the chair appointed Messrs. W. H. Battle, W. A. Graham, R. M. Pearson, and R. P. Dick, and the chairman was added by vote of the alumni. Adjournment was then had until next afternoon.

        The committee, through its chairman, made a long report, dwelling on the importance of the University to the State and

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the good that it had done in the past, on the necessity of freedom from party politics and sectarian influences, and concluding that there should be an entirely new Faculty and new Board of Trustees. To this end it was proposed that the appointment of Trustees should be in the hands of the Alumni Association, whose love for the University would always make them act for its best interests. Let the Alumni Association nominate and, as the Constitution requires, let the Board of Education appoint. To effect this let the present Trustees resign their places.

        There were three objections to this scheme, understood to be that of Superintendent McIver. These were: First, the attempt to procure the resignation of the Trustees; second, the necessity of the Board of Education acting as dummies and appointing the nominees of the Alumni Association; third, being founded on comity and not on law, it could not be expected to continue long in working order. There was no formal appeal to the Trustees to surrender their posts. Nothing further was heard of the reorganization.

        In order to be perfectly fair towards the "Pool Administration," I give the following letter from Professor Alexander McIver, who told the truth as he saw it:

CUMNOCK, N. C., June 4, 1900.


        MY DEAR SIR:--At your request, I give my recollections of the University under the Trustees of 1868.

        When Mr. Dewey, assignee of the State Bank, gave notice to Governor Caldwell of his purpose to sell the University buildings, etc., under the mortgage to the bank, the Governor requested me to see Mr. E. G. Haywood and get him to attend to the case. I called to see Mr. Haywood at his home and requested him to attend to the case, in the bankrupt court. He asked: By whose authority do you make the request? I answered, By the authority of the Trustees of the University. That Governor Caldwell as president and I as secretary of the Board of Trustees thought that the suits which he had brought for the University contained the defense which should be made in the bankrupt suit, and that, if he would defend that suit, it would terminate his legal services in the suits which he had brought. He agreed to this and did attend to the bankrupt suit without any additional fee. He gained the case, and by the decision

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made by Chief Justice Waite he gained what he had sued for, to wit: the release of the University property from the mortgages which the old Board of Trustees had placed upon it.

        Besides relieving the University property of its mortgages, the Trustees of 1868, in a meeting held in the Executive Office, declared their willingness to resign if the Alumni Association of the University would come to the relief of the University and aid in reorganizing it, by naming a Board of Trustees to be appointed by the State Board of Education, that would restore patronage and confidence. Only four or five of the present Trustees gave their assent to this. Others did not answer. Senators John Pool and General Abbott and Judge Settle voted against it. Chief Justice Pearson made a very able and patriotic talk in favor of it and carried it by a large majority.

        The Alumni Association met in the Senate Chamber, Hon. B. F. Moore, president. The offer of the Trustees of the University was made to them by the secretary of the Trustees. It was received with the utmost good will and a favorable response was given: that they would do all in their power to revive the University and restore it to public favor.

        The State Educational Association, of which your honored father was president, and which he pronounced the ablest body of men that ever assembled in North Carolina, gave its most cordial support to the University. It was the spirit of good will coming from all these sources that breathed upon the dry bones of the University and made them live. These movements all terminated in the larger movement to restore the University by Constitutional Amendment. But they all had their uses as essential parts of the revival in 1875. But for the action of the Trustees of 1868 in preventing the sale of the property it might have passed into private hands. But for the movements of all parties to restore it, it would have become heavy on the public.

        The Trustees no doubt made a sad mistake in electing a Faculty in 1869, and attempting to start the University at a time of so much political excitement and prejudice. The Faculty themselves saw this mistake, and, not willing to hold their places without suitable patronage, tendered their resignations and relinquished more than half their salaries which had not been paid. The Trustees wishing to retrieve their mistake so far as they could, accepted their resignations and closed the University in 1870, and left the different members in the houses which they occupied upon the condition that they would protect the property of the University. The Trustees themselves shortly afterwards offered to resign as Trustees if the Alumni Association would restore it to confidence and good will. But they took care of the property and turned it over to their successors under the Constitutional Amendment, redeemed, regenerated,

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and disenthralled, as Governor Caldwell assured your father in the Convention of 1873 he would do. The great fact to be emphasized is: that good will toward the University from all parties is what restored the University in 1875.

With utmost respect,

Ex-Superintendent of Public Instruction and
Secretary of the Board of Trustees of 1868.

        A few comments are made on Professor McIver's statements. The decision of the Court did not "release the University property from the mortgages." It cleared only such property as was essential to the life of the University as a State institution.

        It remained for the new 1874 Board to obtain a decree defining this exempted property. They succeeded beyond expectation, by the liberality of the Court, as will be seen hereafter. The McIver Board had no part in this. The Professor lays stress on the fact that the old Board had mortgaged the University property. But even if they had not done so the creditors would have obtained a judgment at law, which would have bound the property as strongly as the mortgage. The movement to induce the Trustees of 1868 to resign proved to be chimerical. It led to no result. A majority of the Trustees did not resign. They refused their consent to hold their places in trust for the nominees of the Board of Education. Nor did the friends of the University offer any pecuniary support. There was a settled conviction that the absence of the assent of a large majority of the Trustees of 1868 was equivalent to a defeat of the plan. A change of the Constitution giving the appointment of Trustees to the General Assembly, instead of to the Board of Education, was imperatively necessary to the revival of the University. In this movement many leaders of both political parties, Professor McIver included, coöperated.

        When the mortgage to the bank was executed it was thought to be for the advantage of the University to carry into effect a compromise by which the debt to the Bank of North Carolina was reduced three-fourths, from $90,000 and interest to $25,000 in gold, or $35,700 in currency. It was hoped that

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enough could be borrowed to liquidate the indebtedness. President Swain's futile trip to New York was for the purpose of negotiating the loan. As to the claim that the University's property was saved by the Board of 1868, it is quite certain that the Board of 1874 would have brought the question up for adjudication, if that of 1868 had not anticipated them.


        Finding that the public demanded a number of amendments to the Constitution by the method of legislative enactment, the friends of the University procured in 1871 the passage by the necessary three-fifths majority of an ordinance taking the election of Trustees from the Board of Education and giving it to the General Assembly. This became a part of the Constitution in August, 1873, after a favoring vote by the people and a two-thirds vote of a second General Assembly.

        Public opinion gave the credit of the passage of this measure through the General Assembly in 1871 to two University alumni, brothers-in-law, Montford McGehee of the Class of 1841, and Richard C. Badger of that of 1859, the former a Democrat, the latter a Republican. They united their strength and influence in behalf of the University and thus secured the necessary three-fifths and two-thirds majority. The amendment was afterwards incorporated in the Constitution of 1876.

        The Assembly determined by Act of January 28, 1874, to delegate the management to sixty-four Trustees, elected by joint ballot. Only two of the last Board were reëlected--Rev. Dr. Neill McKay and James A. Graham. Of those deprived of their offices in 1868 were found on the new Board, William H. Battle, first elected in 1833; William A. Graham, in 1834; Charles Manly, in 1838; Bartholomew F. Moore, in 1840; John Kerr, in 1846; Cushing B. Hassell, in 1848; Walter L. Steele, in 1852; Paul C. Cameron, in 1858; Rufus L. Patterson, in 1858; Thomas I. McDowell, in 1858; Rev. Dr. Neill McKay, in 1862; Kemp P. Battle, in 1862; David M. Carter, in 1864; Seaton Gales, in 1865.

        The new Board first met in the Citizens National Bank in Raleigh on the 18th February, 1874. William A. Graham was,

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on motion of Paul C. Cameron, elected temporary Chairman, and on motion of W. L. Steele, Wm. L. Saunders was appointed Secretary pro tempore. A certificate, signed by W. L. Saunders, Clerk of the Senate, and S. D. Pool, Clerk of the House, giving the names of the Trustees elected, was read. The following were present, their names in alphabetical order: James S. Amis, Kemp P. Battle, Paul C. Cameron, John E. Dugger, W. T. Faircloth, B. F. Grady, Wm. A. Graham, James A. Graham, John A. Gilmer, Junior, George Green, Louis Hilliard, John Manning, P. B. Means, W. L. Saunders, Walter L. Steele, fifteen, ten being a quorum. It was then unanimously resolved that a committee, of which Mr. Manning should be chairman, should wait on Gov. Tod R. Caldwell and request him to preside at the meeting. His Excellency declined, because, in his opinion, the General Assembly had no power to elect Trustees, but that they should have been nominated by himself and confirmed by the Senate.

        Notwithstanding this rebuff the Board continued its sessions. On motion of W. L. Steele, Wm. A. Graham was elected President of the Board. Kemp P. Battle was elected permanent Secretary and Treasurer and authorized to demand of the late Treasurer all effects in his hands belonging to the University. William A. Graham, P. C. Cameron, K. P. Battle, John Manning, W. L. Saunders, W. T. Faircloth, and John A. Gilmer were chosen to be the Executive Committee. The Board by lot divided the members into four classes, the terms of those of the first, second, third, and fourth classes expiring on the 30th days of November, 1875, 1877, 1879, and 1881, respectively. The bond of the Secretary-Treasurer was fixed at $20,000, a sum so large as to suggest the hopes of the Trustees as to future incomes rather than the present bank account.

        The next day, on motion of W. A. Graham, Messers. Steele, Cameron, and Saunders were appointed a committee to visit Chapel Hill, and report the condition of the University buildings and other property and of the available funds.

        Messers. W. A. Graham, J. J. Davis, and K. P. Battle were appointed to take steps for bringing the validity of the appointment of the Trustees to judicial determination.

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        Fortunately for the speedy settlement of this question, Secretary and Treasurer Lassiter, being a resident of Granville, had deposited the seal of the University and the books relating to his office in the office of Superintendent McIver. The Superintendent, being in sympathy with the new Trustees, readily consented that suit might be instituted against him for the possession of this property and to expedite the case as much as possible. Consequently one action was brought against him and another against President Pool at the May, 1874, term of Orange Superior Court.

        On motion of W. A. Graham, a committee was appointed to solicit from friends of the University donations outright or in establishment of scholarships and professorships. Owing to the declining health of the Chairman this committee did not report.

        Mr. P. B. Means moved that a committee be appointed to frame a plan of organization, according to the most approved models. It does not appear that this committee reported.

        The following points were made by the defendants against the validity of the new Board:

        1. That the Constitution required that all officers, not otherwise provided for in the Constitution, should be nominated by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate.

        2. That, as the General Assembly in 1873 voted for twenty-six amendments, and after publication, as required by the Constitution of 1868, the following General Assembly by a two-thirds vote submitted to a vote of the people only nine amendments, the provisions of the Constitution of 1868 had not been complied with. It was contended that the identical twenty-six amendments should have been submitted to the people or none at all.

        On behalf of the University, Messrs. John W. Graham and James A. Graham appeared in the Superior Court, refusing to accept a fee for their services. The Judge, Tourgée, decided against them and appeal was taken to the Supreme Court at its June Term, 1874.

        In that Court, in June, 1874, Hon. B. F. Moore and ex-Judge William H. Battle, who had been classmates at the University,

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graduating in 1820, argued the question for their Alma Mater, likewise without charge. At the January Term, 1875, the decision was for the University on all points.

        The possession of the property of the institution was then surrendered to Andrew Mickle, the agent appointed by the new Executive Committee, and the seal, books, and papers in the custody of Superintendent McIver were turned over to Treasurer Battle. Ex-Treasurer Lassiter also surrendered the bonds belonging to the Land Scrip Fund not pledged to the Bureau of Education, with the exception of five, which he had pledged to the State National Bank as collateral security for a loan to pay his own salary. This latter transaction was disapproved by the Board, and suit being instituted on the Treasurer's bond, recovery was duly had.


        The next meeting of the Trustees was on April 9, 1874. Messrs. Fourney George, Mills L. Eure, Thomas D. McDowell, W. W. Peebles, and John H. Thorpe, who were not present at the preceding meeting, took their seats.

        An elaborate report was submitted, prepared by W. L. Steele, Chairman. He was a strong man, not used to give way to his feelings, but in a few words he showed how deeply he felt at the condition of his Alma Mater.

        "In company with P. C. Cameron, on April 3, I visited Chapel Hill on a special mission given us by the Board of Trustees to inspect the condition of the prostrate University. Never shall I forget the sadness that overpowered me when my eyes fell for the first time upon the ruined spot. It was akin to that which swells within my bosom when I stand before the grave of my mother. With dejected hearts we performed the duty assigned us, as well as we were allowed to by those who were then assumed to be in authority there, and left inspired with a firm purpose as far as we could to raise her from the ashes of humiliation and place her once more upon the elevation from which rude hands hurled her, and restore her to her ancient prerogative and power."

        I abbreviate the rest of the report.

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        A written request was made of Dr. Pool for the keys and possession of the buildings. He declined to surrender their custody, on the ground that the Governor had refused to recognize the Trustees as lawfully elected, but allowed the committee the privileges of visitors. Accordingly they inspected all the buildings, except Smith Hall, the key of which was in the possession of Mr. James B. Mason, and made a full report as to their condition. They found that there was need of extensive repairs. The Dialectic Hall and Library were in good order. The books numbered 7,490. The Philanthropic Hall and Library were in worse condition than the Dialectic. The committee were informed that several hundred of the books were scattered among the inhabitants of the village, most of which could probably be recovered; 6,901 volumes were counted on the shelves.

        It may be interesting to our alumni to condense the committee's description of the buildings as they were in 1874, eight in number.

        1. Person Hall, or "the Old Chapel," 36 by 54 feet, one story high.

        2. The "New West Building," 40 by 114 feet, three stories in height. It has 14 dormitories 16 by 18 feet, and the Dialectic Society Hall and Library, 36 by 56 feet. It was in a better condition than any other.

        3. The "Old West," 36 by 120 feet, three stories, with twenty-eight sleeping rooms, 16 by 18 feet, with two halls 30 by 36 feet, lately used by the Dialectic Society for a Debating Hall and for a Library. Besides some broken sashes and many window panes, "the lower rooms in the South end were open, and the passage defiled by the ordure of cattle and horses." (This confirms the statement of an old inhabitant that he had seen horses looking out of the windows of the Old West.)

        4. The Old East is of the same size as the Old West. Doors were broken, mantels fallen, floors covered with broken plaster, one floor badly cut with an axe; all except the outer walls presenting an aspect of neglect and ruin; in many fireplaces the iron supporting the arches had been removed.

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        5. The New East has a size of 40 by 116 feet, four stories high. It has twenty-two dormitories, 16 by 18 feet, and the Debating Hall and Library of the Philanthropic Society, each 36 by 54 feet. It is most illy constructed of all the buildings. Too much inferior mortar was used, resulting in the falling of the stucco in some places. Many window panes were broken. This and the New West were intended to be heated with pipes. The heating apparatus is in bad condition and must be repaired before the winter months.

        6. Smith Hall, usually called the Ball Room, has a length of 122 feet and a width of 35 feet. The committee were told that the chemical and philosophical apparatus and the cabinet of minerals were somewhere in this building, but being denied access to it they could not verify the statement.

        7. The South Building is 50 by 116 feet, with an attic and belfry. It has twenty-four dormitories, 16 by 18 feet, and two only 12 by 15 feet. There are two recitation rooms 28 by 36 and three 20 by 30. The front second story room, known as the Mathematical Room, or, as President Swain loved to call it, the Philosophical Chamber, was open, evidently by a key, and some valuable instruments belonging to the Engineering Department were exposed to damage and removal. The opposite room on the North side, used by the President for his lectures, was locked. Extensive repairs on doors, windows, plastering and roofs are needed. One exception is the old Dialectic Hall. The overhead plastering, where are the gilded name and motto of the Society, look as fresh and bright as they did over forty years ago.

        8. Gerrard Hall, or the "New Chapel," is 45 by 64 feet. The wooden shingles laid on forty years ago need replacing and some sashes reglazing.

        Mr. Foster Utley, the former college carpenter, and now reëlected, estimated the repairs at about $3,000, but this was too low by one hundred per cent. (The opinion of the committee, very experienced men, turned out to be correct.)

        The Campus was in a state of total neglect. The wall was broken in some places, the gates rotted down, the beautiful shrubbery grazed and broken into. The two excellent wells

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were in ruins, the embankment around the Old East and Old West defaced and trodden down, and the old oaks in many places scarred and chopped with the axes of wood choppers. (It must be remembered, in justice to the Pool management, that cattle and hogs were not yet shut up by law and hence, entering by the open gate, they worked their way among the treasured preserves of the Campus.) The committee found it a ground of censure that the drivers of vehicles were allowed to go to the Raleigh Road, passing by the South Building. (It had been the policy of the Faculty to keep the buildings isolated, but this has been abandoned, the road legalized by subsequent administrations, and named Cameron Avenue. It is bordered by beautiful Norway maples, planted by the bounty of the Trustee in whose honor it is named.)

        There were four residences, the report states, belonging to the University, then in the hands of renters. The shrubbery of one or more of the gardens had been cut down and had given place to cotton. There was a generally neglected look. The piazzas were sadly decayed.

        There were eleven vacant lots of size varying from one to eight acres, in the occupancy of various persons, whether paying rent the committee could not ascertain.

        The University owned a large area of land in Buncombe, Henderson, and Madison counties, the particulars of which could not be ascertained. (Information in regard to this tract will be given hereafter, also in regard to the John Calvin McNair tract in Robeson County.)

        It was recommended that suit against Dr. Pool for possession of the property of the University should be instituted at once.

        The committee then gave extracts from the report of Treasurer Lassiter to the former Board, criticising sharply his investment of a large part of the Land Scrip Fund in Special Tax bonds. It was said "he should have known that these bonds bore a suspicious character." Some of the purchases, as the committee were informed, were made even after the General Assembly set upon them its seal of condemnation. (The fact that most of the Special Tax bonds purchased were of a

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peculiarly obnoxious class, having been issued for the Western Division of the Western North Carolina Railroad, of which George W. Swepson was president, might have been mentioned as increasing the injudiciousness of the purchase. All acts appropriating special tax and some other bonds to railroad companies were repealed March 8, 1870.)

        The report is signed by Walter L. Steele, Paul C. Cameron, and William L. Saunders. They were devoted and sagacious friends of the University, Colonel Steele and Mr. Cameron Trustees for years under the old régime; Colonel Saunders was Secretary of State, and soon afterwards was Secretary and Treasurer of the University as well.

        Treasurer Battle reported that he found the creditors of the University, except the assignee of the Bank of North Carolina in bankruptcy, not disposed to harass it. The bank's debt of $35,000, secured by mortgage, could have no more favorable terms because R. Y. McAden and one Wilson had procured an injunction against further compromise. Miss Mildred C. Cameron's debt of $10,000 and ten years interest can be funded into long term bonds at six per cent interest. Mrs. Eleanor H. Swain, the widow of President Swain, holds a note for $3,000, for money lent to aid in building the New East and New West, and about $2,300 bonds issued to pay the Faculty. About $2,000 of bonds issued for the same purpose held by other persons, the owners offer to compromise on the most liberal terms. So it appears that if the debt due the bank can be got out of the way, there would be no great difficulty in freeing the University from pecuniary obligations. The debts could be the more easily settled if the Supreme Court should decide that the property of the University, which belongs to the State as much as the Capitol Building, courthouses and jails, can not be alienated, voluntarily or involuntarily, by the Trustees or by creditors.

        The only solvent assets, counting State bonds not repudiated, are $18,410.64 securities pledged as collateral to pay the Faculty and repay the Board of Education, and also the escheated mountain lands.

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        The friends of the University were afterwards greatly encouraged by a decision of the Circuit Court of the United States at the June Term, 1874. A short statement of facts is necessary to make this clear.

        From 1789 it had been supposed by the best legal talent that all the property of the University was subject to sale by the Trustees. When the war ended it had $200,000 worthless bank stock and owed about $20,000 to individuals and over $90,000 to the bank. It was thought to be a good arrangement to compromise this bank debt for $25,000 in gold or $35,700 in paper currency. The bank agreed to this, on condition that a mortgage should be made covering all the property of the University, which was done. When the institution passed into the hands of the new Trustees, in 1868, they employed counsel to contest the validity of the mortgage. By consent of the Attorney-General, Mr. W. M. Coleman, suit was brought in the Circuit Court of the United States in the name of the State, returnable in June Term, 1869, asking for a decree nullifying the mortgage. This bill was dismissed for want of jurisdiction.

        In 1874, Charles Dewey, assignee in bankruptcy, brought suit to have the property of the University sold under the mortgage. This was resisted by order of Governor Caldwell and the Executive Committee on the ground that, as the State Supreme Court had already decided that property of counties and other municipal corporations could not be sold without the consent of the Legislature, the property of the University, being a State institution, was similarly protected.

        At June Term, 1874, the Circuit Court, Chief Justice Waite, Circuit Judge Hugh L. Bond, and the District Judge, George W. Brooks, unanimously decided that the bank debt was valid, but that neither the judgment creditor nor the Trustees themselves had power to alienate such property as constituted the life of the University, as distinct from the endowment for its support. Mr. George H. Snow, a prominent lawyer of Raleigh, was appointed Commissioner to report as to what personal

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and real property should be exempt from sale under the foregoing decree.

        On motion of ex-Governor Graham, Messrs. P. C. Cameron, John Manning, and Kemp P. Battle were instructed to meet the Commissioner and represent the University's interest.

        Although anticipating, it is well to finish the story now. The committee and the Commissioner met at Chapel Hill in the summer of 1874. The impoverished village had no hotel nor boarding house and they were the invited guests of private families, Mr. Snow going to Mr. S. M. Barbee's, Mr. Manning to Dr. Mallett's, Mr. Cameron to Mr. Mickle's, Mr. Battle to Mrs. Spencer's. A careful inspection was made of buildings, apparatus, libraries, Campus, and Faculty residences. The Commissioner reserved his decision and report.

        Before making his final report the Commissioner consulted Judge Bond. The Judge said, "Be liberal, it is for the education of the young men of the country. Be liberal!" The Commissioner replied, "For instance, Judge, some say that the Professors' houses are not necessary, that the Professors could have rooms in the University buildings." "Yes," said the Judge, "they could be hung up on the trees. Be liberal." And so the Commissioner made a liberal report.

        The chief difficulty was about the 700 acres of woodland. Fortunately the most of it was in a solid block from the Durham to the Pittsboro Road. I was able to prove that I applied to President Swain in behalf of friends to purchase lots south of the town, and was peremptorily refused, on the ground that it was the policy of the University to confine sales to the north and west, so as to have no settlements south, southeast, and southwest of the Campus. It was thought that it would be difficult to preserve discipline if the dormitories and lecture halls should be surrounded by a cordon of citizens, with their colored dependents. As Colonel Carter said, in advocating the confirmation of the report, "Why, may it please your honor, Chapel Hill has only one policeman, and he is lame. He could not outrun a student if one pursued him." The result was the Court gave the University the Campus and 600 acres of land, all houses, libraries, and property appurtenant.

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        There is a parcel of seventy acres called the Piney Prospect rectangle, which was ordered to be sold, although it was between the roads mentioned. The Judge was moved to do this because the map showed that it was comparatively isolated, its nearest point being half a mile from the Campus. The loss is to be regretted because it contains the Point Prospect mentioned by Governor Davie, and is often visited by students. At present it is in friendly hands but in unfriendly hands it might be withdrawn from public recreation. "Point," in old times was called "Pi'nt," hence the change of name to "Piney" Prospect.

        When the sale of the lands not reserved to the University was had, Mr. P. C. Cameron, in order to save his sister's debt, bought all the parcels offered. He also bought the mountain lands*

        * The mountain land was an escheat of many thousand acres, the extent of which was unknown until surveyed afterwards.

and by his various purchases more than paid the debt to his sister. Much of it has been since sold by his executors and the Piney Prospect rectangle is now owned by a Land Company, Prof. Patrick Henry Winston being a large stockholder.

        The decision of the Circuit Court was sustained by the following reasoning: As long ago as 1852, in the case of University v. Maultsby, 8 Iredell Equity, 257, it was decided by our Supreme Court that the University is State property. What is therefore its life as an institution of learning the Trustees can not sell nor mortgage, nor can the judgment creditor seize it, any more than he could the Capitol Square or a courthouse. But property constituting endowment the Trustees control. They can change it from one investment to another. The investment in bank stock was perfectly legitimate. It was made by express permission of the General Assembly. The bank stock was merely an exchange for other funds. The fact of its afterwards losing its value, can not affect the law. The University has yet the $200,000 stock. Why President Swain, who turned his own bank stock into land, and Treasurer Manly, did not urge the Trustees to sell during the war enough stock to pay off the University debts, can only be accounted for by the

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general excitement and unreasoning wrath against public officials exhibiting any particle of distrust of the success of the Confederacy. They doubtless feared that not only themselves, but the institution would become odious to the hotheads of the South. If the Confederacy had been established the Bank would have remained solvent. Besides, the investment having been authorized by the General Assembly it may be that a sale could not be made without the approval of that body.

        The Board of Trustees convened on February 10, 1875, in the Governor's office, Governor Brogden presiding. The Trustees present were Messrs. Amis, K. P. Battle, Cameron, Carter, J. J. Davis, Day, Dugger, Faircloth, Grady, Wm. A. Graham, Jas. A. Graham, Kerr, McKay, Means, Patterson, Peebles, Saunders, Shaw, Steele, and Tate.

        Treasurer Battle reported that ex-Treasurer Lassiter had turned over to him most of the securities of the University. The assets were of a deplorable nature. About $10,000 were either in Confederate bonds, or due by insolvent individuals. The $200,000 stock in the Bank of North Carolina was not worth one dollar. There were $5,500 bonds of the City of Wilmington valued at about $2,200; $10,000 State of Virginia bonds, if at par $11,200 worth about $6,900, and $1,500 of solvent individual securities, all of which were especially pledged for the eight per cents issued to pay the Faculty, and for $8,800 to the Board of Education in addition. There was a $2,500 claim supposed to have escheated but the rightful heiress soon appeared and carried that off--or rather her attorney did, for she never realized a cent for it.

        One hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars in good money, the proceeds of the sale of Land Scrip granted by the United States chiefly for instruction in the principles of agricultural and mechanic arts, was turned over by Treasurer Manly to R. W. Lassiter, holding the same office. What was the condition of that fund in 1874?

        Treasurer Lassiter reported that he had invested this sum in bonds of this State as follows: Forty bonds issued before the war, $40,000; 40 bonds issued under the Funding Acts and

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to the Western North Carolina Railroad Company, not Special Tax, $40,000; Special Tax bonds, $160,000. Total cost, $120,000; leaving $5,000 in the Treasury.

        All should have coupons from January 1, 1869, except $6,000 issued to the North Carolina Railroad Company, which was under the Swazey suit, 80 per cent of coupons from January 1, 1864, to January 1, 1872, paid in cash. Twenty thousand dollars in bonds of the above, belonging to the Land Scrip Fund, were pledged with the Board of Education for $6,000, as already stated. There was also a receipt of the Board of Education for ante-war bonds, pledged for balance of a loan of $14,801.60.

        Treasurer Battle further reported that he had received of Gen. R. Barringer, attorney, $1,516.80 escheat of J. B. Wallace and expended $6.25, leaving cash on hand $1,510.55.

        Mr. Mickle, Bursar, reported books on hand, University Library, 8,394 volumes; Dialectic Library, 6,943 volumes; Philanthropic Library, 6,905 volumes. The mathematical and other apparatus for instruction were much scattered and injured.

        As said heretofore Treasurer Lassiter failed to turn over to Treasurer Battle $5,000 of bonds belonging to the Land Scrip Fund, stating that he had hypothecated them with the State National Bank for a loan wherewith to pay his salary. The new Board of Trustees declined to ratify this and directed a resort to the law.

        The case against the Treasurer well illustrated the danger of "sleeping on a lawsuit." It appeared to the Treasurer, as well as to his lawyers, Messrs. R. H. Battle and S. F. Mordecai, that if the University should sue the Bank, the defendant would take the ground that it was the innocent holder of bonds payable to bearer, with no notice that the ex-Treasurer was without authority to hypothecate them. The safer course, therefore, was to bring suit on the Treasurer's official bond on which was one solvent surety, Mr. C. S. Winstead, of Person County. This surety, although an able and usually prudent man, for some time took no steps to secure himself, but confined his efforts to urging on President Battle the propriety of

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releasing him and looking only to the bank. He became a Member of the Legislature and endeavored in vain to get relief from that body. On his application the Trustees of the University cheerfully allowed him to use its name in suing the bank, which had sold the bonds much below the market value. The Court allowed him the excess of the actual sales over Lassiter's debt to the bank, but decided that he could not recover the excess of the market value over the actual sales because it was barred by the Statute of Limitations. He thus by delay lost hundreds of dollars.

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        Another committee, on motion of ex-Governor Graham, was appointed to memorialize the General Assembly to restore to the University the principal ($125,000) of the Land Grant Fund, which had been impaired by the investment by the late Board largely in worthless special tax bonds.

        The memorial of the Trustees, written by Chairman Graham, was duly submitted to the General Assembly, then in session. The case of the University was strongly argued by the distinguished Chairman and is of peculiar interest as being his last State paper. He showed what the University had done in the past, its forlorn condition then, and the necessity of reviving it. He then sketched the history of the Land Scrip, that it was given to the University on the condition that two professorship to teach the branches of learning relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, should be established, that the Scrip was sold by the Board which expired in 1868, for the market price at that time, fifty cents an acre, the same obtained by Pennsylvania and New York, and three cents less than Ohio and five cents more than Rhode Island; that $125,000 of the amount went into the hands of the recent Board, who had invested it in special tax bonds, and others, though unquestioned, on which the State is not paying interest; that the General Assembly in accepting the Scrip agreed to replace it if lost, if not, to restore it to the General Government. The petitioners therefore ask that $7,500, the interest on $125,000, be paid to the University annually.

        Governor Brogden forwarded the petition, strongly recommending it and lauding the great work of the University since its foundation.


        In order to increase the effect of the memorial by Mr. Graham, Mr. K. P. Battle made a motion, which was carried, that

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Messrs. W. A. Graham, Carter, Steele, Vance, Kerr, and Patterson be appointed to bring to the attention of the General Assembly the condition of the University and the importance of its restoration, and on motion of D. M. Carter, W. T. Faircloth and K. P. Battle were added. At his own request Mr. Steele was excused and J. S. Amis was substituted. Owing to the sickness of the Chairman there was no meeting of this body, which in plain English might be called the lobbying committee.

        After thanking the attorneys who had rendered such valuable service to the institution in securing without compensation a decision for the constitutional rights of the Board, and Governor Brogden for his patience and courtesy as the presiding officer, an adjournment was had until May 5, 1875, when the chief business would be the adoption of a plan of reorganization.

        The bill to carry into effect the memorial for paying interest on the $125,000 Land Grant Fund was introduced in the House of Representatives on February 27, 1875, by Mr. Nereus Mendenhall, of Guilford, a worthy member of the Society of Friends, a veteran teacher of high reputation. It was referred to the Committee on Finance, of which Col. Samuel McDowell Tate was chairman. Messrs. D. M. Carter and K. P. Battle, in pursuance of their appointment by the Trustees, asked and obtained leave to address the committee on behalf of the bill, and were respectfully heard.

        On March 2 Mr. Tate, chairman, reported the bill with the chilling statement that "the committee were divided, a portion recommending its passage." It was made a special order for March 4, subsequently changed to March 9, when it was again postponed to March 11. These postponements were at the instance of friends of the measure, who were laboring to mitigate the intensity of the hostility threatening to be fatal.

        All familiar with the temper of the public mind at that time towards appropriations, especially towards anything like paying interest on the public debt, or aiding higher education, will realize that if nothing had been done by the Trustees the bill would never have seen the light. Accordingly, with the approval

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of all, and at the request of many Trustees, the Secretary and Treasurer spent several weeks in the unpleasant business of lobbying for the measure. The surviving members of the General Assembly will bear witness that he used no argument, not even to the value of a cigar or glass of lemonade, other than earnest pleading for higher education. His work was chiefly with the friends of the University.

        The most active workers for the bill were Representative William N. Mebane, who exchanged his sophomoric gown in 1861 for the uniform of a Confederate soldier; Col. Paul B. Means of the last class under the old régime, who had always been ready with head and time and purse to press forward his Alma Mater; George V. Strong, a first honor man of the Class of 1845, who on this occasion made one of the most eloquent of his many eloquent speeches during a long and successful career at the bar; and those able lawyers, Platt D. Walker, of 1865-'67, now Supreme Court Judge; John M. Moring, of 1860-'62; W. C. Fields, of Alleghany, of 1869. Good work was done by others, who, mainly on account of the Civil War, were not sons of the University. I recall the strong appeals of Col. S. McD. Tate, of Burke, one of our Trustees and one of the ablest men of the Piedmont country, whose position as Chairman of the Committee on Finance, gave him peculiar power; of Alfred M. Erwin, of McDowell, whose advocacy could not possibly have had any taint of self-interest, because he was a confirmed old bachelor; of Mr. John A. Spears, of Harnett, and of the able chairman of the Judiciary Committee, who had at that day as little idea of ever having a position in our Faculty as he had of being Chief Justice of Porto Rico or the Philippines: our esteemed Professor of Law, ex-Judge James Cameron MacRae, then of Cumberland, who has recently passed into the hereafter.

        On the 11th of March the bill failed to pass the second reading by a vote of 41 to 58. Mr. Norment, who voted with the negative for the purpose, moved to reconsider. The motion to table this failed, 48 to 54, and the motion to reconsider prevailed by 58 to 46, and the bill was made a special order for March 15th.

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        On this day the friends of the measure hoped that they could pass it without a division, but the Speaker decided it was lost on the aye and no vote. A motion to reconsider was at once carried, 61 to 31, and then the bill passed its second reading by the handsome majority of 53 to 43.

        Ordinarily the chief opposition to a measure is put forward on the second reading, but such was the animosity to this measure that every effort was made to defeat it on the third reading, which was set for March 17. Amid breathless excitement, surrounded by crowds in the lobby and galleries, fifty-one Members recorded their votes in the affirmative and fifty in the negative. The fate of the University hung on one vote. Great credit is due to John N. Isler, of Wayne, who gave his support and induced two others to do the same. Judge MacRae, ever watchful, at once moved to make the triumph irreversible, and succeeded, by 59 to 38, twenty majority. After this several Members were allowed to record their votes, so that the journal shows 51 to 48.

        Two incidents, of which I am personally cognizant, will show the perils surrounding the measure. The first was caused by the intense hostility of many Members to the Special Tax bonds. As first drawn the bill ordered the University, as a condition precedent to receiving the State's bond for $125,000, to surrender the Special Tax bonds to the State Treasurer to be burnt by him. The opponents of the bill thundered against this as an implied recognition of the bonds. Some friends were shaken by their argument. A hasty conference of Messrs. Sion H. Rogers, George V. Strong, and myself with these doubting legislators, was had. The bill was altered so as to read, "and the said Special Tax bonds, being unconstitutional and void, shall be burnt by the Trustees of the University." This satisfied the doubters. Without the change the bill would have been defeated. The other danger was of a personal nature.

        The friends of the bill had induced a few Members who felt bound to vote "No," not to do so when their names were called, but after the roll was finished, in the fond hope that some waverers might like to be with those who seemingly were triumphant.

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An excellent gentleman, Mr. A. A. McIver, of Moore, a relative of Superintendent Alexander McIver, said: "Mr. Battle, I wish your bill to pass. My kinsman, Dr. Alexander McIver, has explained to me its merits. If necessary it shall have my support. But my constituents are opposed to it, and in deference to them, if I am not needed, I will vote 'No.' " When his name was called, he kept silent. When the roll was finished the University was five or six in the majority, and Mr. McIver said: "Mr. Speaker, I ask leave to vote 'No.' " Then so many Members, silent at first, followed his example, that there was a majority in the negative. Turning with a comically wry face, before the result was announced, he whispered, "I've got to do it." "Mr. Speaker, I ask leave to change my vote. I vote 'Aye!!' " And I wish to record, in memory of my ancient friend and deskmate, Col. Rufus L. Patterson, of Salem, our Chief Marshal of 1850, and graduate of 1851, then a Trustee, that the Member from Forsyth, Dr. Wheeler, a few minutes before the vote was taken, said: "I intend to support your bill. I have just received a letter from one of my constituents, Colonel Patterson, which convinces me that it is right." And the bill passed by only one vote!

        The measure came up in the Senate on March 17th and was made a special order for the next day. The sons of the University had strong influence in this body, as will be seen from their names.

        C. M. T. McCauley, of Union, grandson of Matthew McCauley, one of the donors of the University site, A.B. 1838; Nicholas W. Boddie, of Nash, a student of 1843-'44; Joseph B. Stickney, of Beaufort, a student of 1847-'48; Leigh Richmond Waddell, of Johnston, A.B. 1852; William W. Peebles, of Northampton, A.B. 1853; William Foster French, of Robeson, 1867-'68; James T. Morehead, of Guilford, A.B. 1858; William A. Graham, Jr., of Lincoln, a student of 1856-'59; Charles Manly Busbee, of Wake, a student of 1865-'68. And as reading clerk we had, then in his prime, Patrick Henry Winston, Jr., A.B. 1867, full of enthusiasm for his Alma Mater.

        Having ascertained their safe majority most of them concluded not to consume time by speaking. Mr. W. W. Peebles,

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of Northampton, however, could not be restrained, and short but strong speeches were made by him and Messrs. E. W. Kerr, of Sampson; Wm. A. Graham, Jr., of Lincoln; W. F. French, of Columbus; Joseph Cashwell, of Brunswick and Bladen; Col. Edward Cantwell, of New Hanover, and last, but by no means least, by one, although an alumnus and trustee of another institution, always our friend, active and efficient, long also a Trustee of ours, Charles Mather Cooke, of Franklin, now a Judge of the Superior Court.

        The bill passed its second reading by the handsome vote of 25 to 14. Senators recorded in the affirmative may be found in the Appendix.

        The bill came up on its third reading on March 20th and passed without a division.

        The joyful news was forwarded by electric wire at once to Mrs. C. P. Spencer, who, with her mother and young daughter, remained at Chapel Hill in all its darkest hours and by her potent pen kept the University and its woes before the public eye. She summoned to her aid Misses Susan G. and Jenny Thompson (now Mrs. J. T. Kerr), Mr. A. D. Mickle, and perhaps others, and repairing to the attic of the South Building, exultingly rang out the glad tidings over the hills and vales for four miles around. The tuneful bell had lost by its slumbers none of its deep-toned sonorousness. It seemed to rejoice to enter on its duties again, and to promise never again to cease "calling from duties done," or, "ringing for honors won," to the end of time.

        The reasons which actuated so many Members to oppose this bill, which it was well understood was proposed for the purpose of reviving the University, were not solely drawn from hostility to the institution. The time was not long after the panic of 1873, and the financial prospects were gloomy. Some Members honestly thought that all increase of expenses should be avoided. Others had become so hostile to the recognition, expressly or impliedly, of the validity of the Special Tax bonds, and were so determined, on account of the immense losses of the war, to pay only a portion of the honest public debt, that they regarded the proposition to give a bond of the State for

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the entire principal of the Land Scrip Fund as a dangerous precedent. But many of the opposition were undeniably adverse to the payment of public money for any institution of higher learning or even to support public schools. Not a cent of annuity had ever been voted for what was called the education of rich men's sons, and they wished to prevent its being done under any pretext whatever. Let the State, they argued, help the public schools, if any shall be aided, but not go into the training of lawyers, doctors, and preachers and the like. The argument in regard to the provision of the Act of Congress, that the State in accepting the Land Scrip had contracted with the United States to keep the principal intact, and that it would be a breach of faith to refuse to restore it, had no weight with them, for they argued that the State, owing to her great losses in the Civil War, must compromise all her debts, and that all her creditors, the United States included, should be treated alike. They were not afraid that the United States would bring suit.

        It will be noticed that I do not mention the names of our opponents in the Appendix. I omit them purposely. Many of them have become our friends. And for those who did not, we relied upon our good work in behalf of education to approve itself to their judgment.

        The Executive Committee met on the 12th of March, which was before the bill passed the House. There were present Messrs. Wm. A. Graham, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, and Kemp P. Battle. Mr. Graham was appointed Chairman and Mr. Battle, Secretary. The Committee entered at once on the work of repairs, Messrs. Cameron, Saunders and Battle being entrusted with the task, the understanding being that Mr. Cameron would kindly take on his shoulders all the supervision and direction.

        As the act restoring the Land Scrip Fund required the Trustees to burn the special tax bonds, Messrs. B. F. Moore, D. M. Carter, and Treasurer Battle were ordered to perform this holocaust. They did so, Major Seaton Gales being a witness, on August 19, 1875. They reported that they destroyed by fire one hundred and forty-six $1,000 bonds issued under act ratified

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January 29, 1869, entitled "An Act Amendatory to an Act to Incorporate the Western North Carolina Railroad Company"; fourteen bonds for $1,000 each, issued under "An Act to Reënact and Confirm Certain Acts of the General Assembly Authorizing the Issue of State Bonds to and for Certain Railroads," ratified December 18, 1868, issued for the Western North Carolina Railroad Company.


        The Board of Trustees convened in the Executive office on May 4, 1875, for the purpose of reorganizing the University. The Secretary submitted various schemes which had been lodged with him for presentation to the Board. Rev. C. B. Hassell offered one of his own and moved its adoption. On motion of Mr. P. C. Cameron all were referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. K. P. Battle, chairman; John Manning, J. A. Graham, J. J. Davis, and Rev. C. B. Hassell. On the next day their report was unanimously adopted as follows:

        The University doors should be opened for students on the first Monday in September next, and continue until the second Thursday in June. Tuition to be $60; room rent $10 per annum.

        There were to be six colleges.

  • 1. Agriculture.
  • 2. Engineering and the Mechanic Arts.
  • 3. Natural Sciences.
  • 4. Literature.
  • 5. Mathematics.
  • 6. Philosophy.

        I. The College of Agriculture to be divided into Schools of (a) Scientific Agriculture, (b) Practical Agriculture, (c) Horticulture.

        II. The College of Engineering and the Mechanic Arts was divided into Schools: (a) Mechanical Engineering, (b) Civil Engineering, (c) Mining, (d) Military Science and Tactics.

        III. The College of Natural Science was divided into Schools: (a) of Chemistry, (b) Zoology and Botany, (c) Geology and Mineralogy.

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        IV. The College of Literature consisted of Schools of (a) English Languages and Literature, (b) Ancient Languages, (c) Modern Languages.

        V. The College of Mathematics included Schools of (a) Pure Mathematics, (b) Natural Philosophy or Physics, (c) Commercial Sciences.

        VI. The College of Philosophy embraced Schools (a) Metaphysics and Logic, (b) Moral Science, (c) History, (d) Political Economy, Constitutional and International Law.

        It should not be forgotten in considering the scheme that it was necessary to satisfy the people that the Agricultural and Mechanical College Act of July 2, 1862, was honestly carried out. In order that this may be understood I copy its language. The interest of the fund must be appropriated "to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the Legislatures may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions of life." It thus appears that the leading object of the University was to teach, not agriculture and mechanic arts, but the branches of learning relating thereto. Greek and Latin were likewise to be taught, and the students were to have a liberal as well as a practical education so as to be fitted for any profession or pursuit. It seems clear that the report of the committee, which was adopted by the Board, provided for carrying into effect the Act of Congress, as far as the University had means.

        Col. E. G. Haywood, attorney, addressed a communication to the Board designed to prove that the decision of the Circuit Court of the United States in Dewey, Assignee, v. The University, et. al., is erroneous, and suggested an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States. The matter was referred to the Executive Committee, who declined to follow his advice.

        Mr. Manning, in order to show our good faith in expending the Land Grant interest moved, and the motion was carried, that

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as soon as practicable a farm and workshop should be provided. In this connection it should be stated that the spirit of the law contemplates that such expenditures should be provided by the State or individuals. The eastern part of the Campus, bordering on the Raleigh Road, was ordered to be reserved for athletic purposes and for a parade ground.

        At the same time a committee, K. P. Battle, chairman; B. F. Moore, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, N. McKay, J. Manning, W. L. Saunders, J. A. Gilmer, and J. E. Dugger were appointed on Mr. Moore's motion, to provide for the opening of the University for students.


        The University was exceedingly fortunate in the selection of Mr. Paul C. Cameron as chairman of the Committee on Repairs. He had long experience in building and had a sound head for business, perfect reliability, tireless energy and vigilance, and great love of the University, as had his father and grandfather. He spent weeks in Chapel Hill, purchasing material in the cheapest market, North or South, East or West, and supervising and directing the work. Owing to the money received from donations he was able to buy everything needed at lowest cash prices. He dispensed with a contractor and finished the extensive repairs with unexampled rapidity and economy. When necessarily absent from Chapel Hill he substituted his son, Colonel Benehan Cameron, who has since succeeded his father as one of the most faithful Trustees of the fourth generation of such. The Board thanked the father for his wise and economical management. They offered to reimburse him for his expenses, but he declined to receive a penny. It was a labor of love to him.

        When the work was begun only $1,200 was appropriated, the committee being instructed to confine expenditures to making the buildings barely habitable, leaving more full repairs to the future. But when contributions, unexpectedly liberal, were secured, it was decided not to delay, but to do all that was needful as soon as practicable. This left about $6,000 of the contributions to aid in defraying, from year to year, the current

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expenses. A committee was appointed to invest any surplus of subscriptions as a permanent endowment. Money, however, was so urgently needed for expenses that the Treasurer called for it as fast as paid in and the committee were functi officio, and surrendered their trust.

        Another hope of endowment proved to be a castle in the air. The University had $200,000 stock in the Bank of North Carolina, as has been said. The bank was being wound up in the Bankruptcy Court. Mr. Carter moved that the friends of the University holding stock should be requested to donate to it whatever balance might acrue to them in the final settlement. Before voting on this, however, on motion of Mr. James A. Graham application was made to C. Dewey, assignee, for a report, and he gave the information that nothing would remain to the stockholders. It was useless, therefore, to act on the suggestion of Mr. Carter. I once asked the clerk of the Bankrupt Court what was done with the remainder. He smiled and said: "Oh, the lawyers made a 'divvy,' and took what was left."

        It was hoped to realize funds by procuring the passage of a law authorizing unclaimed dividends of corporations to be paid to the University, as derelict property, if unclaimed for five years, but the Supreme Court declared the act invalid. Four hundred and eighty-five dollars had been paid over by the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad Company.

        It is a sad proof of the poverty of the institution that the Executive Committee felt bound to refuse so small a sum as $100 for the purchase of books.

        On motion of ex-Governor Graham, the election of a President was postponed indefinitely, it being the general opinion that one of the Professors might, for a while, act as Chairman of the Faculty.

        K. P. Battle moved that a committee of five be appointed to solicit contributions for the revival of the University, not to be used to pay any existing debt of the institution. This was carried, and the chair appointed Messrs. K. P. Battle, B. F. Moore, W. A. Graham, P. C. Cameron, and John Manning.

        On motion of Mr. R. L. Patterson the Treasurer was authorized

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to borrow $5,000, if necessary, for carrying on repairs of the buildings, and he volunteered to be surety with such others as would join him, for the University.

        The Board then adjourned until the 16th of June.

        The note for $5,000, signed by Messrs. Patterson, Graham, Moore, Carter, Saunders, Manning, Battle, and perhaps others, was never needed, and was duly cancelled.

        His associates on the committee for raising contributions, for the reason either that they were elderly men or that their residences were distant from Raleigh, requested Chairman Battle to take charge of the duty. He cheerfully consented and by personal solicitation and by correspondence succeeded beyond all expectation. He was able to canvass Raleigh, Goldsboro, Rocky Mount, and Tarboro in person. Ex-Governor Vance and Colonel Charles W. Broadfoot secured the subscriptions in Charlotte and Fayetteville, respectively. But most of the sums were obtained by correspondence, the plan being to write a personal letter to each supposed to be willing to subscribe, enclosing a list of the subscribers up to date. The subscriptions were payable in five equal annual installments, without interest, the first payment being on September 1, 1875. The entire expense for amanuensis, postage, printing, and stationery was $62.66. Mr. Battle charged no traveling expenses, as his business carried him to the towns named.

        The result was that in six weeks the Chairman was able to report $18,787. In six weeks more this sum was raised to $20,167, of which $18,685 was eventually paid. To be entirely accurate, however, it is necessary to state that $1,000 of one subscriber was charged with the tuition of three grandsons who entered the University twelve years afterwards and whose tuition then amounted only to $600. But estimating the interest, as is fair, on the cash advanced in 1875, the donation amounted to considerably over $1,000. An advancement was likewise made of $280, and another of $500, to be paid in tuition, which was done in four years. All the other donations were unconditional, except that they were not to be applied to any debt incurred prior to April 1, 1875. It seems proper that the names of donors should be recorded, and they appear in the Appendix.

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        It should be recorded in honor of Professor W. C. Kerr that his subscription of $500, very large in proportion to his means, was on account of gratitude to the University for educating him without charge. He was on the beneficiary list of the Dialectic Society and was one of the best scholars of his class and an able debater.

        When the report was made the Board resolved to request ex-Governor Vance, who was then practicing law, to canvass all parts of this State and elsewhere to raise funds for an endowment, to be paid commissions. The request was declined and no one was nominated in his place. Probably he concluded that while friends of the University in their enthusiastic desire to see its doors opened were willing to make contributions, the impoverished condition of the Southern country would make further appeal barren of financial results.


        A pleasant feature of the rebirth was the interest taken by the good women of North Carolina. President Swain was fond of relating how the ladies of Raleigh, soon after the beginning of the century, donated to the infant institution a compass and a quadrant, and the ladies of New Bern, a quadrant.

        And so those of Raleigh, three-quarters of a century afterwards, showed that they appreciated the value of higher education in training young men to be good citizens, enlightened sons and lovers, husbands and fathers. Mrs. Spencer, at the request of the Board, on motion of Mr. Cameron, was the mover of this generous act. The following list shows the result of her work:

  • By the pupils of the school of Misses Nash and Miss Kollock in Hillsboro, Plateau's Apparatus.
  • By the ladies of Louisburg, through Mrs. Joseph J. Davis, Parallellogram of Forces.
  • By the ladies of Salem Female School, Fortin's Barometer.
  • By the ladies of Raleigh, through Mrs. Annie Moore Parker, treasurer, Atwood's Machine, Galvanometer and Thermo-Electric Pile.
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  • By the ladies of Hillsboro, in memoriam of the late ex-Governor Wm. A. Graham, Holtz Electrical Machine, giving a 20-inch spark.
  • By the ladies of Salisbury, through Mrs. May Wheate Shober, Hydraulic Press and Turbine Wheel.
  • By the ladies of North Carolina, through Mrs. Mattie A. Heck, Raleigh, Silk Centennial Banner, the Coat of Arms, and Floral Emblems painted by Rev. J. A. Oertel, for exhibition at the World's Exposition in Philadelphia, in 1876.


        Twenty-eight Trustees met on June 16, 1875, for the purpose of electing Professors. I give their names: William A. Graham, of Orange; B. F. Moore, of Wake; Rev. Dr. Neill McKay, of Harnett; P. C. Cameron, Orange; D. M. Carter, Wake; Mills L. Eure, Gates; J. A. Moore, Halifax; William H. Johnston, Edgecombe; J. E. Dugger, Warren; W. T. Faircloth, Wayne; George Green, Craven; Robert B. Peebles, Northampton; W. L. Saunders, New Hanover; B. F. Grady, Sampson; John McIver, Moore; J. H. Thorpe, Edgecombe; James S. Amis, Granville; John Manning, Chatham; Kemp P. Battle, Wake; J. J. Davis, Franklin; John A. Gilmer, Guilford; James A. Graham, Alamance; W. L. Steele, Richmond; Zebulon B. Vance, Mecklenburg; Paul B. Means, Cabarrus; Rufus L. Patterson, Forsyth; E. Hayne Davis, Iredell. Considering that they paid their own expenses these Trustees, as did those who attended other meetings, showed praiseworthy liberality and enthusiasm. The Governor presided. On account of the unusual number adjournment was had to the Senate Chamber.

        An important question came up on motion of Colonel Steele, that the Professors should hold their offices at the will of the Trustees. This was voted down, but no case is known where the incumbent did not resign when requested by the Trustees. As Professors are entitled to six months' notice, where the resignation is asked for or obtained at once, it is usual to pay salary to the expiration of the six months.

        Some of the older Trustees, particularly Mr. B. F. Moore, were eager for the revisal and reënactment of the by-laws, Accordingly a committee was raised and duly reported the old

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Code with many changes, early in the administration of President Battle, who was opposed to publishing a pamphlet embodying these rules, preferring to make known to the students from time to time such as it was proper for them to know. Availing himself of the emptiness of the treasury, the by-laws and amendments slept quietly in a pigeonhole until it became evident to all that the publication was not needed. In a short while the good old Trustees who had been raised to think printed by-laws were a necessary part of the University, pupils of Caldwell and Swain, went up to the School of the Hereafter, and no one was left to call for the pamphlet. The simple rule is that each man must behave like a gentleman. If he knows how and will not, or if he does not know how, we have no use for him. Let him leave. Necessary notices are printed in the catalogue, announced to the classes or posted on the bulletin board.

        Thus disappeared without any formal repeal many regulations which were a source of annoyance to the students and created hot feeling against the professors and tutors whose duty it was to enforce them. Henceforth a student may call on his friend in study hours whether for conversation or joint study. Henceforth no watchful eye will witness his sitting up beyond 10 o'clock. Henceforth he can go to the village in study hours, whether to buy fruit or call on the barber or his ladylove. It is allowable to sit by a friend in class although not in alphabetical order, and to occupy a chair more comfortable than wooden benches. And monstrous innovation! textbooks can be taken ad libitum into the recitation room. Offenders are not now called before all the Faculty but before the Students' Council or President, subject to appeal in bad cases to the Faculty Committee.

        Other legislation at this and subsequent meetings during 1875 and the first half of 1876 was the offer of a scholarship for $1,000, the proposal of a William A. Graham Professorship, the amount afterwards fixed on being $30,000. This movement failed. The Trustees stood firm on the rule that students not residents of Chapel Hill must occupy University dormitories.

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        On motion of Mr. Moore a committee of nine was empowered, after consultation with the Faculty, to revise the scheme heretofore adopted, and to add, if deemed advisable, Vegetable Physiology and Astronomy.

        Colonel Carter moved that the salaries be $1,500 per annum, that heads of families should have houses rent free, and that the Professor of Mathematics should be Bursar at a salary of $500 per annum, but the motion was defeated by a vote of 13 to 5. The salaries were fixed at $2,000 per annum and house rent.

        Mr. A. Mickle, who had been acting as agent for the University, was elected Bursar at a salary of $400 per annum. Salaries were to begin September 1st following.

        The calculation of those who voted for salaries at $2,000 was that tuition money supplemented by excess of contributions over what was needed for repairs, with the $7,500 paid by the State, would suffice to balance expenses for at least four years. After that it was thought that the increase in the number of students would supply the treasury with the necessary funds.

        Having concluded to postpone indefinitely the election of a President and to have one of the Professors to act as Chairman of the Faculty, the Board caused to be read the testimonials offered for the various chairs and proceeded to elect the Professors by ballot. As a matter of course the loss of prestige consequent on the decline and temporary closing of the University, and the doubt as to its success arising from its slender income; also the vigorous opposition in the General Assembly, coupled with the violent antagonism elsewhere, prevented many teachers from presenting their names as candidates. This made the range of choice as to most of the chairs quite limited.

        For the Chair of Agriculture, Professor John Kimberly and Mr. Wm. A. Allen were nominated. Professor Kimberly was elected.

        For the Chair of Engineering and the Mechanic Arts, the nominees were A. L. Anderson and Ralph H. Graves. Mr. Graves was successful.

        For the Chair of Literature, on motion of Mr. Manning it was resolved to elect two Professors. The following were

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placed in nomination: Professors J. DeB. Hooper and M. Fetter, Messrs. George T. Winston, E. Woodard Hutson, John C. Calhoun, C. H. Martin, Rev. Wm. Royall, Jacob Battle, J. C. Lynes, John P. Weston, G. B. Doggett, John Wilson, Isbon T. Beckwith, Professor Morris, Rev. E. L. Patton, J. W. Fitts, James Southgate. Professor J. DeB. Hooper was declared elected and the election of the second Professor under Mr. Manning's motion was postponed for the present.

        For the Chair of Mathematics Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips and Professor Alexander McIver were nominated. Dr. Phillips was the successful candidate.

        For the Chair of Philosophy the nominees were Rev. A. W. Mangum, Mr. W. J. Solomon, Mr. John H. Wheeler. Mr. Mangum was elected.

        For the Chair of Natural Sciences Messrs. A. F. Redd and Sylvester Hassell were placed in nomination. Mr. Redd was chosen.

        Mr. Carter then moved that the additional Professor in the College of Literature should be only an Adjunct. This was agreed to and Mr. George T. Winston was chosen without opposition. His salary was fixed at $1,500.

        Short sketches of the Professors chosen seem appropriate. Charles Phillips, D.D., LL.D., was the son of Rev. James Phillips, D.D., long Professor of Mathematics in the University. He was born July 30, 1822, graduated here among the best scholars in 1841, then for several years studied in the Theological Seminary at Princeton. He was tutor of Mathematics in this institution from 1844 to 1854, Professor of Civil Engineering 1854-'60, Professor of Mathematics 1861-'68. On the closing of the institution in 1868 he was chosen to the Chair of Mathematics in Davidson College, where he taught that science and for several terms Political Economy. He was a Presbyterian preacher of great power and was likewise eminent as a mathematician. In addition to his talents he was conspicuous for tireless energy and boundless benevolence.

        Professor John DeBerniere Hooper, born in 1811, was a native of Wilmington, in this State. Graduating at this University with highest distinction in 1831, he taught several years

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as tutor. After teaching some years in a classical school in Raleigh, he was Professor of Latin and French in this institution from 1838 to 1848. He then resigned and became Principal of schools in Warren, Fayetteville, and Wilson. He was recognized as one of the most accurate scholars of the old Faculty and as skilled in teaching. His department was Greek and French.

        Rev. Adolphus Williamson Mangum, D.D., was born April 1, 1834, in Orange County, North Carolina. He graduated at Randolph-Macon College in 1854 with highest honor. He then entered the Methodist Episcopal ministry and was pastor, with constantly growing reputation, in various parts of North Carolina, including Charlotte, Salisbury, Greensboro, Goldsboro, Raleigh, and Chapel Hill. He was a Chaplain in the Confederate Army. His department was Moral Philosophy, History, and English Literature.

        Alexander Fletcher Redd was born in Virginia. He was trained at the Virginia Military Institute. He was teacher of Chemistry and Physics in the school of Mr. James H. Horner, who with others warmly endorsed him. When elected he was associate editor of the Biblical Recorder. He had under his charge Physics and Chemistry.

        Professor John Kimberly was a native of New Jersey. In early life he became a teacher in the Albemarle section of the State and gained a wide reputation. Devoting much attention to the study of Chemistry he was in 1856 elected Professor of Agricultural Chemistry in this University. He resigned in 1866 and carried on a farm in Buncombe County near Asheville until his election to the Chair of Agriculture. His instruction was altogether theoretical, as was required by the Act of Congress, unless means was given by the General Assembly, or other agency, for practical work.

        Ralph Henry Graves, born April 1, 1851, son of the widely respected teacher of the same name, was a first honor student at this University in 1867-'68. He then had a distinguished career at the University of Virginia, especially in mathematics, attaining the degree of Bachelor of Science, and Civil and Mechanical Engineer. He was then Professor of Drawing

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and Technical Mechanics in the Polytechnic College at Blacksburg. Afterwards he taught in the school of Horner and Graves at Hillsboro, until elevated to his professorship. In the assignment of duties his department was styled "Engineering and the Mechanic Arts," but his teaching was in the main theoretical, as was required by law, since the University had no fund for building workshops and purchasing machinery.

        George Tayloe Winston was born at Windsor, in Bertie County, October 12, 1856. He was a student of this University with high honor when it closed under the old régime in 1868, being ready to enter the Junior class. Thence he matriculated at the United States Naval Academy, where he remained two years, being No. 1 in his class. Finding from a cruise to Europe that sea life injured his health, he resigned his place and entered Cornell University. After taking a high stand he received his degree in 1874 and for the ensuing year was Instructor in Mathematics. He was then, as has been stated, elected Adjunct Professor in this University, and was assigned to instruction in Latin and German.

        As Professors Phillips, Hooper, and Kimberly were members of the old Faculty and their learning and skill in teaching were fully known to the Trustees, it was not necessary for them to offer testimonials. Professor Kimberly, however, exhibited certificates from leading men in Buncombe County attesting his knowledge of practical agriculture. The others, without exception, laid before the Board testimonials of the strongest character from their professors and prominent men, as to their learning and aptness to teach.

        It was charged by fault finders that conciliation of the leading religious denominations, rather than merit, dictated the choice by the Trustees. An inspection of the list of candidates, as well as the distinct recollection of the Trustees now surviving who voted, shows that this is not true. Of course it was very fortunate that each of the leading denominations had a representative. In the light of the history of the mutations in the Faculty, it will hardly be realized that active efforts were made in many sections to keep students from coming to the University by the charge that it was an "Episcopal concern,"

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because there was a preponderance of members of that denomination, yet it is a fact that such false assertions were widely disseminated. It is conceded that these critics believed that their charges were true, but they were mistaken.

        It was at this meeting that Mr. Cameron made an urgent appeal to ex-Governor Graham to allow the Board to elect him President of the University. An expression of pain passed over his face as he firmly declined. He was thinking of the insidious and fatal disease which was sapping the foundation of his life.

        There are persons other than the Faculty connected with the reopening who must not be neglected in this chronicle. The first is Andrew Mickle, the Bursar, a man of unpretending manners, but of rare intelligence, whose virtues were as solid as the adamantine hills. He was prospering as a merchant when the war began, but during its progress ruined his fortune by acting on the chivalric notion that it was wrong to raise prices of his goods, because it was as difficult for his neighbors to obtain Confederate money as it had been to obtain good money. And so, as the currency depreciated, he sold his merchandise for much less than cost. He bore his poverty with the same dignity which characterized him in his prosperity, and when the Trustees resolved to depart from the old plan of devolving the bursarship on a Professor, it fell by universal consent to him, with whom millions of dollars would have been as safe as in the Bank of England.

        Another indispensable and equally worthy officer of the University was the University carpenter, Foster Utley. He was born in Wake County, on a farm. His mother was a Walton, said to have been of the family of the noted fisherman and author, Isaak Walton. The transparent purity of character, the boundless benevolence, the sturdy honesty, the quiet humor, the love of nature, the delight, on a rare holiday, of sitting for hours on a mossy bank under a beech tree root, with his cork floating on the quiet waters or dancing among the ripples, his devout thankfulness to God, whether the yellow perch yielded to the "eloquent squirm" of bait or passed by in cold indifference, remind us of the sainted father of the art of angling.

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        To complete the personnel of the institution, the Faculty chose, to wait on the students, ring the bell and for other similar services, one who had occupied a similar position under the old Faculty. He had been a slave of President Swain and, therefore, he appears on the records of 1875 as Wilson Swain, though he afterwards preferred the surname of Caldwell, his father having been a slave of President Caldwell. He was an exceedingly intelligent, courteous, faithful man, reliable always, and had the unbounded regard and confidence of the Faculty and students.


        This was the last public meeting attended by Wm. A. Graham. The closing work of his great career was in behalf of the uplifting of the youth of the land, the restoration of the institutions whose halls he had left fifty-one years before.

        William Alexander Graham was so actively connected with the University that he deserves a special notice. He graduated a first honor man in 1824; ten years afterwards was elected a Trustee, and held the office until 1868, was elected again in 1874, and continued to be a Trustee until his death; he was sometimes pro tempore President of the Board and sometimes a member of the Executive Committee. In his long tenure of thirty-five years he seldom missed a meeting of the Board of Trustees, and his handsome and attentive face was seen at nearly all our Commencements--in truth, he never missed unless imperative official business detained him. His five sons were educated at this University.

        Governor Graham, as he was generally called, was one of the most perfect public men we have had--high-toned, honorable, talented, above all tricks and suspicions of demagoguery, a strong but not eloquent speaker, and always well read and prepared on questions under debate. I heard one of our ablest lawyers, Samuel F. Phillips, who served with him on the Judiciary Committee in the General Assembly, when discussing the Revised Code, say "Graham has a broad, statesman-like knowledge of the law." I heard a very intelligent

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member of the Convention of 1861, Wm. S. Battle, of Edgecombe, say: "When I came here I thought you Whigs overrated Governor Graham, but I was mistaken. As a statesman and parliamentarian he is head and shoulders above any man in the Convention." The University lost an able and valuable friend when he died.

        He was honored with the degree of LL.D. in 1849; was Speaker of the House of Commons, 1834-'41; United States Senator, 1840-'43; Governor, 1845-'49; Secretary of the Navy, 1850-'53; Whig candidate for Vice-Presidency, 1852; Senator in Second Confederate Congress, State Senator, and Member of the Convention of 1861. He was born in Lincolnton September 5, 1804, and adopted Hillsboro as his home. Died August 11, 1875.

        He was elected United States Senator in 1866, but was not allowed to take his seat. He was fortunate in his biographer, the address on his "Life and Services," by Montford McGehee, being unexcelled, if equaled, in the annals of this State.

        The Board, at the instance of his old friend, Paul C. Cameron, passed most touching resolutions expressive of their sense of appreciation of his work, certifying that the untiring zeal and great liberality with which Governor Graham devoted his efficient labors to the University, entitle his memory to be enshrined in the hearts of those who love the institution.


        On the 30th of June, 1875, a committee of five Trustees, viz., Kemp P. Battle, chairman, and B. F. Moore, Rev. Dr. McKay, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, and W. L. Saunders, met the Faculty in Raleigh for the purpose of adopting rules for the reopening of the University. The Faculty were called on for recommendations, which were duly submitted and approved. Publication was made by the Secretary of the leading provisions.

        The opening was to be on the first Monday of September, 1875, with two weeks vacation at Christmas, to continue until the second Thursday in June, 1876. Tuition $60, but provision

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would be made for meritorious students who could not pay. With pardonable optimism it was declared that the buildings had been repaired and repainted inside and out and rooms would be ready for several hundred students. The Campus was being placed in order and in a few weeks the College property would be not inferior in beauty and fitness for educational uses to any in the Union! It was of good omen that the Secretary could exaggerate like that. It showed enthusiasm. He believed then what he wrote.

        In order to obey the mandate of the Act of Congress of 1862 instruction in military science in all the classes was ordered. It was found, however, that our people were so sick of war and all likeness to it that there was no demand for military teaching, and it was postponed from year to year.

        It was thought best to notify the public that hazing was absolutely prohibited. It was defined to be teasing, vexing, striking or committing a breach of the peace. The last was called a high offense.

        The titles of the Faculty were then given, their chairs being called Colleges. For example, Charles Phillips, Professor of the College of Mathematics, and so on. Judge W. H. Battle had not then reopened the Law School, and that was not on the list.

        The departments were to be combined into four courses of study, each leading to a diploma. Students not seeking a diploma could obtain certificates of proficiency. This course was called Optional. The degrees to be Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Agriculture, and Master of Arts.

        For admission into the course of Arts the student must have a competent knowledge of the elements of English Language, Geography, Algebra through equations of the second degree, Latin Grammar, Prosody and Composition, four Books of Cæsar, five Books of Virgil's æneid, or the equivalent in Ovid, Sallust or Cicero's Orations; of Greek Grammar and Composition, four Books of Xenophon's Anabasis,

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or Memorabilia, and of two Books of the Iliad. These were called Preparatory Studies.

        For admission into the Science course the requisities to be the same, omitting Latin and Greek. For admission into the course for Bachelor of Agriculture, the requisites to be Arithmetic, the English Language, and Geography.

        The courses of study for Bachelor of Arts to be: First year, four recitations in Mathematics per week, five in Latin and Greek each; second year, four recitations in Mathematics, Latin and Greek each; third year, three in Natural Philosophy, three in Chemistry, French, and German each, and two in Logic and Rhetoric; fourth year, three recitations in Astronomy, three in Mineralogy and Geology, and eight in Mental and Moral Science, International and Constitutional Law, Political Economy, and English Literature.

        For the degree of Bachelor of Science: First year, four recitations per week in Mathematics, three in Chemistry, five in English and two in History. For the second year, four recitations in Mathematics, three in Chemistry and German each, two in Logic and Rhetoric and two in Zoölogy. For the third year, three in Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, Mineralogy and Geology each, and five in Mental Science.

        For the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture the studies were: First year, five recitations per week in Mathematics, five in English, two in History and two in Botany. For the second year, four in Mathematics, three in Chemistry, two in Logic and Rhetoric, two in Zoölogy and three in Agriculture. For the third year, three in Mineralogy, three in Geology, three in Political Economy and Constitutional Law, eight in Agriculture, Engineering, etc.

        The Bible to be taught in all the courses, counting one hour.

        Students to be required to attend one religious service on Sunday at the church of their choice, and daily Prayers in Gerrard Hall, absences from them or recitations to be reported to parents or guardians.

        Students should be at least sixteen years old at entrance. Students to preserve the utmost decorum and courtesy towards

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each other. Secret societies or clubs to be forbidden without the express permission of the Trustees. The Faculty to be authorized to order a student to be removed for neglect of studies or evil influence on his associates.

        Instruction was to begin at 8 a. m. and end at 2 p. m., but Laboratory work in Chemistry to be in the afternoon. The breakfast hour was fixed at 7 a. m.; dinner at 2 p. m., and supper at 6:30. (Until the completion of the State University Raïlroad it was customary to keep these hours nominally winter and summer, moving the College clock and ringing the bell without regard to the true time. The University time was often over half an hour faster or slower than the true time.)

        Unmarried professors were requested to room in the University buildings. Accordingly Professors Graves and Winston selected the third story of the South Building. Afterwards Professors Toy, Venable and Atkinson selected the New West. In pursuance of the policy to trust to the sense of decorum of the students the request after some years was withdrawn.

        The day of the opening was advertised to be September 6th.

        On the 31st August (1875) the Board of Trustees had another meeting; present: K. P. Battle, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, W. T. Faircloth, J. A. Gilmer, John Kerr, Rev. Dr. N. McKay, John Manning, B. F. Moore, and H. C. Thomas.

        Dr. Charles Phillips was unanimously chosen Chairman of the Faculty.

        General Frank H. Cameron submitted a plan for raising an endowment for the University by its friends insuring their lives for its benefit, but nothing resulted from it.

        Authority was given the Treasurer to borrow not exceeding $3,000 at any one time, on pledge of unpaid subscriptions, for the purpose of paying current expenses.

        The Executive Committee for 1875-'76 were B. F. Moore, W. H. Battle, P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, Seaton Gales, W. L. Saunders, and K. P. Battle.

        Messrs. Hooper and Mangum were allowed $100 each in lieu of house rent, they not occupying the Faculty houses.

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        A by-law was adopted that the Professors should take rank according to the designation of the Executive Committee. If the Committee failed to act the President or Presiding Professor had the power.

        The Chief Marshal was directed to be selected alternately by the two literary societies, beginning with the Dialetic as that was the first founded. He must be from the Junior class and was to have the power of selecting his assistants, three from each society.

        Colonel Carter offered a resolution, which was adopted, strongly favoring a railroad to Chapel Hill as essential to the growth of the University. At a subsequent meeting, not seeing that a railroad was practicable, he favored a turn-pike to Durham as within our means. If he had foreseen the days of the automobile his scheme would have seemed eminently practical.

        On motion of Judge Battle the winter vacation was ordered to continue four weeks, the term beginning the 6th of January. Mr. B. F. Moore moved that the summer vacation should be six weeks. Mr. K. P. Battle moved that the summer vacation should be extended to twelve weeks and that in winter there should be two weeks holiday, long enough to enable the students to spend Christmas at home and aid their parents in attending to necessary business on the first of January. This was at first defeated but after a year was agreed to. The old-fashioned Trustees were persuaded that chills and fevers would infallibly torment the bodies of those who should abide in the eastern counties after the middle of July. In this notion experience has proven them in error, while the arguments in favor of the change are cogent. The hot months are unfavorable to study. Many of our students are poor and find that in the three months of vacation they can earn funds necessary to enable them to continue their University course. Others by taking summer courses are much advanced in their studies. Many parents, accustomed to leave home for summer resorts, are desirous of having their sons with them. Professors often utilize this period for study in the great Northern Universities and even in Europe. Opportunity

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was given to hold the Summer Schools for Teachers. The change has been found to be very beneficial to all classes. At present, however, on motion of Mr. J. E. Dugger the vacation was six weeks after the first Monday in June and the term was to close four weeks before the first Thursday in January.

        It was enacted that no degree, except honorary, be granted except where there has been residence for at least one year.

        The Committee on Repairs, through Mr. Paul C. Cameron, the chairman, who did practically all the work, reported that he had expended $10,677.76 for repairs generally and $2,249.09 for gas works and piping, and chemical and natural philosophy apparatus. The Board was impressed with the wisdom and economy with which the work had been conducted and passed a vote of thanks to him for the same.

        With a commendable desire to keep down expenses it was enacted that no student should board at a house where was charged over $15 per month. This law was well observed for years, indeed until broken into by the actual or supposed necessities of the athletic teams. There was a general spirit of economy in those early days. Not only did reputable boardinghouse keepers furnish board at $9 and $10 per month, but private tables under the management of messmates enabled them to live satisfactorily at the rate of $7 and $8 per month and in some instances less.

        Rev. Dr. Neill McKay moved that the students in the College of Agriculture should be allowed to study in other departments and the Faculty must lay out courses in the College of Agriculture which may enable the students to receive instruction in the College of Arts. This was referred to the Executive Committee, who declined to grant the motion on the ground that it would trammel the latter department.

        The apportionment of rooms among the students was different from the old. The two East Buildings went to the Philanthropic Society, and the two West to the Dialectic, but the South was divided equally between them by a north and south line, the latter getting the west half and the former the east.

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A committee, of which Col. D. M. Carter was chairman, was appointed to explain this to the students. The ante-war arrangement gave all the north rooms in the South Building to the Phi's and the south rooms to the Di's. This was because the Phi Hall and Library was on the north side, Di Hall and Library on the south. As the halls have been changed to the New East and New West and the libraries consolidated the present arrangement is acceptable.

        The married members of the Faculty took possession of the University dwellings by amicable arrangement. Dr. Phillips, being Chairman of the Faculty, as was right, selected the President's house, occupied by President Swain at his death; Professor Kimberly that next to the Episcopal Church; Professor Redd the house where Dr. Mitchell so long resided. Professors Winston and Graves were in the South Building until in the course of time, they, too, married, when to Professor Winston was awarded the residence which Dr. James Phillips occupied for many years, and Professor Graves bought one for himself. Professor Hooper occupied a private dwelling on Cameron Avenue, owned by Miss Sally Mallett. After Professor Kimberly resigned he removed to the Kimberly house.

        The Faculty met on the 4th of September and organized by electing Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips as Chairman, the fact that the Trustees had already conferred this honor being overlooked. Professor Winston was chosen Secretary of the Faculty and Professor Graves Librarian. Of all these it may be said that there was no question as to the ability of each, but Dr. Phillips was afflicted by repeated attacks of sickness. Professors Winston and Graves were excellent officers, but Graves' Librarianship was a sinecure, the University Library containing no books tempting to the average reader.

        The Faculty had no doubt of their power and duty to enforce attendance on religious exercises. Attendance was required at the Sunday morning services of one of the four denominations having churches in the village, Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Episcopalian, and also at the Bible classes

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conducted Sunday afternoons by different Professors. Students were expected to inform the Bible class Professor whether they had attended divine service in the morning. Tradition has it that some irreverent youths, by spending a few minutes in the Church, long enough to catch a glimpse of the ladies, or standing in the Church door, or peering in at the windows, and then hurrying to their rooms, deemed themselves justified in answering, "Yes, Sir! I was at Church!" This tradition is undoubtedly true as to ante-war times, a strong argument against enforcing religion on young men, nearly grown, by disciplinary methods.

        Reminiscence of the old Blue Laws is found in the regulation then enacted forbidding talking and noise at Prayers or other Divine service in the Chapel, a prohibition which a youth having sense enough to find his way to Chapel Hill is now presumed to know, without being told by a by-law.

        The Professors then proceeded to map out their duties. To Dr. Phillips in Mathematics was given sixteen recitations per week; to Professor Hooper fifteen, viz., nine in Greek and six in French; to Professor Redd seven in Chemistry, with laboratory work added; to Professor Graves five in Engineering and five in Algebra, in all ten, with instruction in Arithmetic added because of the possession of the Land Grant Fund. Mr. Kimberly, Professor of Agriculture, had three in Physical Geography with work to be added when students in that department should appear. Dr. Mangum's work was four hours in History, four in Logic, and five in English, a total of thirteen. Professor Winston took charge of five hours in Latin with one class and four with another, three in German and three in a more advanced class, making in all fifteen hours per week.

        To the three courses leading to degrees, the Classical, the Scientific, and the Agricultural, was added the Optional, leading to certificates but to no degree. The students in this course corresponded to the old Irregulars, or "Malish" (Militia), described in the first volume. At first there was only one Agricultural student, but after awhile four others joined

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him. There was a general impression that the department was and would be a failure.

        It was resolved to recommend the Trustees not to grant permits to the Greek Letter fraternities. The question was brought up on the petition of Messrs. Ernest Caldwell, James C. Taylor, Henry T. Watkins, Richard B. Henderson, and R. L. Payne in behalf of the &Dgr; K E Fraternity. The Faculty strongly opposed the application on the ground that all the energies and means of the students should be exerted in behalf of the two literary societies until their debts were paid and they should be reinstated into their ante-war prosperous condition.

        Visiting the State Fair, or any other place, was only to be granted on a written request from parent or guardian.

        The old plan of opening Faculty meetings with prayer was resumed, Dr. Phillips, Professor Mangum and Professor Redd being called on in turn. The latter was not a minister of the gospel, but was licensed to preach under the rules of the Baptist Church. The practice was discontinued after a few years for the reason that the meetings of the Faculty assumed a more business and hurried character.

        The Marshals were to be elected by the two societies, and a sumptuary law was adopted by the Faculty in the interest of economy that they should not wear any regalia, except a rosette or ribbon around the arm, these officers before the Civil War having been decorated with broad, costly silken bands from shoulder to waist. This provision was afterwards ignored as was the prohibition against sitting in a chair during lectures, as learning without hard benches seemed impossible.

        There were other changes. The terms Senior, Junior, Sophomore, and Freshman were replaced by first, second, third, and fourth classes, corresponding to Freshman and so on. But old customs were too strong for this innovation and the time-honored names and abbreviations have been restored.

        The precedent was set of a holiday on the 22d of February, the societies afterwards electing a Washington orator, whose address, however, had often very little reference to the Father of his Country. At the first, or possibly the second of these

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anniversaries, Francis D. Winston, lately Judge and Lieutenant-Governor, at the close of an eloquent laudation of the great patriot, exhibited an ancient and well-worn hatchet which he affirmed was the identical weapon that felled the fabulous cherry tree.


        There is a tendency in the human mind to be desirous of ascertaining and glorifying the originators of great movements. We wish to know who brought letters to Greece, who founded Rome, who first set foot on American soil, who discovered oxygen, who kicked the first football, and so on. Thus it happens that Hinton James has gained immortal fame by being the first to trudge through the muddy roads of the winter of 1795, and presenting himself to the delighted gaze of the first presiding Professor, Dr. David Ker, exactly four weeks after the session began.

        My readers, therefore, are in a state of anxiety to know the name of the Hinton James of the nineteenth century. I am glad to be able to crown him with honor. I am proud to set him on the pinnacle of fame.

        In thus awarding the honor I am compelled to ignore the claims of Mr. James C. Taylor and Dr. Isaac M. Taylor, because their residence was Chapel Hill, and, being on the ground, they could not possibly, in the graphic language of General Forrest, "git thar first." Not counting them, the glory belongs to the elder of two brothers, who, with Charles Bond, preceded all other candidates by a day's journey. When their conveyance reached the boundary line of Chapel Hill at the hamlet of Couchtown, the hilltop on the Durham road, the elder suddenly leaped from the vehicle and dashed forward with the amazing speed for which duck-legged youths are often famous, shouting, "Hurrah! I am the first student on the Hill!" He reversed the history of Esau and Jacob. Esau was ahead this time. The unsuspecting Jacob (Hebrew for Robert) had no time to offer his mess of pottage. When I tell you that this long-headed--if short-legged--youth went to the Legislature, with about one thousand majority against his party, intent on looking out for the interests of his Alma Mater,

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it will be guessed that his name is FRANCIS DONNELL WINSTON, the Hinton James of 1875.

        The youth, Robert, thus outgeneraled, has his share of the blood of the old Scandinavian vikings. After great searchings of the heart he devised his scheme and bided his time. It was a signal and cruel revenge. Frank's Nemesis came when there appeared to receive the silver cup for the first boy baby of the Class of 1879--James Horner Winston, son of Robert.

        The good old county of Bertie has another honor which should be here recorded. On the opening day one youth only entered the agricultural department. I therefore proclaim that Charles Bond was the first student of the first college of agriculture in North Carolina.


        The formal celebration of the opening of the University was held September 15, 1875. It was eminently successful. The numerous visitors were surprised and gratified at the renovation of buildings and grounds effected under the direction of the chairman of the Committee on Repairs, Mr. Cameron. Mrs. Spencer called to her aid the young ladies of Chapel Hill and decorated the Chapel with exquisite taste. The portraits of great men of the University borrowed from the two societies--Davie, Caldwell, and Swain, Mitchell, and Phillips, Hawks and Badger, Ruffin, Graham, and Manly--were hung on the walls. There was a single motto in letters of evergreens: "LAUS DEO."

        The Salisbury band, without charge, furnished excellent music. At 11 o'clock Mr. John R. Hutchins, of the Class of 1852, as Chief Marshal, and Mayor A. S. Barbee, of the Class of 1860, and several of the students as assistants, formed a procession, as in the days of yore, in front of the South Building and marched to the Chapel. The rostrum was occupied by Governor Brogden, Judge Battle, Dr. William Hooper, Governor Vance, Dr. Phillips, and Professors Mangum and Redd. Trustees and distinguished visitors were in the area in front. The Chapel was full, floor and galleries, of worthy men and beautiful women. Among the men were about fifty students

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of the Horner School, near Hillsboro. The band began with "Auld Lang Syne." Prayer was offered by Dr. William Hooper, who matriculated seventy years before. The opening hymn was then read by Professor Redd. It was composed by William A. Betts, a graduate of 1880, late an honored member of the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, now in the Florida Conference, whose father, Rev. A. D. Betts, a graduate and Trustee, married his mother, a beautiful girl of Chapel Hill, while in the Senior Class.

                         Great God of Heaven: condescend
                         To meet Thy servants here;
                         Where once we worshipped, Thee again
                         We gratefully revere.

                         Be present while with joyful hearts
                         We consecrate anew
                         This hallowed spot, in Thine own name,
                         And to Thy service true.

                         Favor again, O God, these walls
                         Where once Thy Spirit shone;
                         Send help and wisdom, and may all
                         The glory be Thine own.

        Dr. Phillips, the Chairman of the Faculty, rose to introduce Governor Brogden. He prefaced his introduction by a few remarks as to the past and future policy of the institution. Among other things he said that it had been sarcastically remarked that the University had "neither politics nor religion." In the broad sense of these words it was false, as we teach the principles of true statesmanship and of Christianity. But in the sense that the professor will rigidly abstain from attempting to influence students for or against any political party or religious denomination, the charge is true. All parties and sects shall be treated with perfect impartiality.

        Governor Curtis H. Brogden then made an address, full of animation, with language ornate and strong, pressing the importance of education, classical, professional, technical, primary and collegiate, as necessary to modern progress. The Governor made many friends. His compliments to the ladies


        T. J. JARVIS


        WM. L. SAUNDERS


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were very happy, but some of them wondered if he believed all he said why he had not sued for and obtained for himself one of the angelic beings he described.

        Ex-Governor Vance then in his usual felicitous style introduced the orator of the day, ex-Judge William H. Battle, a graduate of the Class of 1820. To quote from a contemporary letter to the Raleigh News: "Judge Battle's was the tender task to awaken the echoes of memory, and bid us remember, resemble, and persevere." He took a survey of the history of the University. He gave sketches of some of its illustrious sons, and an estimate of their influence on the history of the State. Both addresses were highly appreciated.

        Professor Mangum, with a graceful compliment to the author of the hymn, Mrs. Spencer, who had written it for this occasion, gave out the following lines, which were sung to the tune of Old Hundred, the band leading.

                         Eternal source of light and truth,
                         To Thee again our hearts we raise;
                         Except Thou build and keep the house,
                         In vain the laborer spends his days.

                         Without Thine aid in vain our zeal
                         Strives to rebuild the broken walls;
                         Vainly our sons invoke the muse
                         Among these sacred groves and walls.

                         From off Thine altar send a coal,
                         As burning seraphs erst have brought;
                         Relight the flame that once inspired
                         The faithful teachers and the taught.

                         Pour on our path Thy cloudless light,
                         That from Thy constant favor springs;
                         Let heart and hand be strong beneath
                         The shadow of Almighty wings.

                         Recall, O God! the golden days;
                         May rude, unfruitful discord cease;
                         Our sons in troops exulting throng
                         The ancient haunts of white-robed Peace!

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                         So shall our upward way be fair,
                         As that our sainted fathers trod,
                         Again the "Priest and Muse" declare
                         The holy oracles of God.

        The proceedings in the Chapel were closed by a benediction and the audience separated with their hearts full of thankfulness for the new life of the institution they loved so well.

        The venerable Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies were reinaugurated during the evening. The Dialectic was called together by Thomas M. Argo, Esq., the last Secretary, and Judge Wm. H. Battle was made temporary President.

        The Philanthropic Society was called together by Col. Wm. L. Saunders, in whose care its books were placed in 1868 when the last meeting was held.

        It has been shown how the good old University was started again on its career of usefulness and honor. Its friends have been rapidly swelling in numbers, while its enemies are manifestly growing fewer. May its prosperity for the next third of a century increase as rapidly in proportion as it has increased since 1875!

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        It was at this time that a labored newspaper attack was made on the constitution of the Board of Trustees and the Faculty by Rev. L. S. Burkhead, president of the Board of Trustees of Trinity College. The points made were that, although the Methodists were about one hundred thousand in number and paid their proportion of taxes, yet in the management of the University the Episcopalians and Presbyterians, about one-tenth in number, were the controlling power. Indeed, it was charged that the Episcopalians were about one-half of the Board of Trustees and of course managed things in their own interest. Especial complaint was made that a recent Methodist candidate for the Professorship of Natural History had not been elected.

        Mr. Burkhead favored a University provided that its instruction should be so high as not to come into competition with the colleges and provided that the Methodists should have their share of the Trustees and Faculty.

        Hon. Walter L. Steele, a Methodist of high standing in the church, who was for years one of our most efficient Trustees, thought it best to answer these criticisms. And Rev. Dr. William Closs, a most influential Presiding Elder, took the same side. Instead of making a verbatim report of the points they made I give them as concisely as possible in my own language.

        The Trustees are of high character, chosen by the General Assembly, elected for their attachment to the University, entirely without reference to the denomination to which they belong. They vote for the best interests of the institution and no instance can be given to the contrary. If they had done so there were associates of another faith who would have cried aloud and spared not.

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        If the Professors are to be apportioned among the denominations in proportion to numbers, we will be in a difficulty arising from the fact of there being denominations of like names. For example, there were Methodists South, Methodist Protestants, and Christian Methodists. The Baptists are divided into Primitive Baptists, Christian (Campbellites), and Free Will Baptists. And what is to be done for those belonging to neither of the denominations named and the large number of those belonging to no church? These pay their taxes and are entitled to consideration as much as the large religious organizations.

        Moreover, the University is a State institution, not an institution belonging to the religious denominations. It would be a gross breach of duty to pass by the best man and elect an inferior for ecclesiastical considerations. The case complained of by Dr. Burkhead is in point. The Trustees sought for and obtained an expert in Natural History, who had devoted years to that special branch, whereas the Methodist candidate had no special training, though he was, of course, a man of general intelligence and information.

        It was asserted and could not be contradicted that the Trustees had never voted on denominational considerations, and had never failed to elect a Methodist or Baptist of proper qualifications, whose name was before the Board. Meeting infrequently as they did they confined their attention to those presented to them, in other words to those who applied directly or through their friends.

        It may be true that the Episcopalian and Presbyterian Trustees are more in number than the Methodist and Baptist Trustees, but their church affiliation had nothing to do with their election. They were chosen by the General Assembly as State officers and they represent the State as such. The University is no more a sectarian institution than North Carolina is a Methodist State because Governor Jarvis is a Methodist. The Trustees were chosen because of their honesty, ability, and sincere desire to revive the University. If they should be elected on any other grounds the institution would certainly fail. If they should be chosen merely to equalize the

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denominations, not because of desire to promote its prosperity, its success would be impossible.

        Many claim to be friends of the University provided only that "it be a University indeed"; in other words, shall not compete with the colleges, shall have its courses so high that only the graduates of the colleges shall pursue them. These are really its enemies, or they are thoughtless. To have no undergraduate studies would demand that it have higher requisites than Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and other great institutions. Such a University would not have a dozen students and the General Assembly in disgust would withdraw the appropriation.

        It seems that the argument of Dr. Closs and Colonel Steele prevailed with the members of their church. The opposition soon died out. We hear no more of it.

        Another insidious attack on the University was not infrequently used, and had weight with timid parents--that Episcopal influences would so surround students that they might be induced to desert their religious faith. The answer to this is the fact that no such lapse as that has ever occurred, nor have any such influences ever been exerted. A University officer would be guilty of gross misfeasance if he should become a religious propagandist and numerous eyes, quick to detect wrong-doing in a member of the Faculty, would be ready to expose him. One familiar with college life knows that proselyting is impossible. There is no tradition in over one hundred years of the University life that it was ever attempted.

        One of the most common arguments against the University was that the denominational colleges would be deprived of their students and seriously injured if not ruined by its success. The plainest answer to this is a flat denial. President Battle counted up the Senior classes of the schools that he visited and others which he did not visit, and estimated that there were five thousand youths quite as able to obtain higher education as the eight hundred then in the University and all the colleges. Stir up the spirit of education and the numbers of all will be doubled or trebled. This estimate has been proved to be true and we now hear no more of this objection.

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        It was endeavored to prevent the resort of young men to the University by urging upon parents the danger to the morals as well as religious principles of their sons. Hence arguments were sedulously used throughout the State, not only that the University was "an Episcopal concern," because some of its officers were of that faith, but that it bred infidelity and atheism, in which there was not a word of truth; that it was a hotbed of drunkenness and wildness, because before the war there was a considerable amount of the same, but a minimum amount now; and other statements of the same character. The plan was adopted successfully of not dignifying these charges with answers, and it was not long before our students, settling in various communities, proved by their orderly behavior and high character that the University was a safe place for young men. It was ridiculous to keep up the cry of danger of perversions when not one pervert was ever heard of, while on the contrary students frequently joined their own churches while members of the University.

        Again, it is manifest that if the State is debarred from helping her own institution on account of supposed injury to certain denominational colleges, a serious injustice would be done to the various minor religious organizations, and to persons belonging to no church. It would be forcing them to subject their children to loss of higher training or to influences which their consciences do not approve, a species of propagandism contrary to the genius of our institutions, although pleasing to bitter partisans.

        A prominent preacher published in a much read newspaper an attack on President Battle for besieging the Legislature for "State aid," alleging that Presidents Caldwell and Swain both attained great success without it. The reply was overwhelming, that the State gave the University military land warrants to be located in Tennessee,--that its prosperity under Caldwell arose from the sale of a large portion of these warrants soon after 1820. The sales ceased after the panic of 1825 and the University almost ceased to have life. The remainder of the warrants were sold in 1835 for about $200,000 and prosperity under Swain came from that sale. And when by the results of

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the war the endowment from State aid was lost the University was in sore straits, nigh unto death. Always whenever it had no State aid, arising from the donated escheated warrants, the institution languished. It is impossible to have a successful University on tuition receipts alone under any circumstances, and the impossibility becomes more manifest when there is a large number of free students. The assailant of Dr. Battle then changed his expression from "State aid" to "State aid by taxation," a distinction too absurd for reasonable men.

        It was of the utmost importance that, in the various attacks by the opponents of the University, no acrimonious words should be used nor angry controversy engaged in. My plan was to confine myself to a simple explanation, correcting errors in good temper on the assumption that the adversary was under an honest mistake and would be pleased to know the truth. I was under great temptation to print an angry answer when an editor denounced me for being a lobbyist and "using all the arts of one." I consulted my constant adviser, a very wise man, Colonel William L. Saunders, Secretary of State, a Trustee and Secretary and Treasurer of the University. The Colonel was amused at my excitement. He said, "Where will you publish your answer? If in the News and Observer those who take your adversary's paper will never read it. If you send it to his paper, and if he publishes it at all, he will accompany it with a comment and with innuendos which will nullify or weaken the disclaimer. Better let it alone. The Members of the General Assembly know to what extent you are a lobbyist. Such a preposterous charge will not injure you at all." I saw the wisdom of his counsel and avoided controversy.

        The following statement is made to show the care necessary to conciliate opposition when the fate of the University was trembling in the balance. Some of the University alumni indulged in such bitter taunts against the Republicans for having ruined the institution, that there was danger that party antagonism might be aroused against the new management. I took occasion to interview Judges Settle and Tourgée, Mr. Dockery and others, and to promise faithfully that the University should be conducted strictly without partisan bias. The

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Trustees who were active in the revival of the institution, such as ex-Governor Graham, Rev. Dr. McKay, Colonel Steele, Colonel Carter, Colonel Saunders, Mr. P. C. Cameron, Judge Wm. H. Battle, Colonel Means, Mr. F. H. Busbee, Colonel Kenan, General Carr, Captain Day, Mr. R. H. Battle, and others carefully pursued this policy, and the Faculty did likewise. The students also showed a freedom from party prejudice quite remarkable. I once visited the Dialectic Society when in session. I noticed that out of the seven officers, the presidency and four others were held by Republicans. The students showed little party feeling even in election times.

        Afterwards when the Republican State Convention was about to meet I paid a visit to Judge Settle to interest him in preventing a declaration against the University being made a part of the Republican platform of principles. He and I were members of the Dialectic Society together. He had commanding influence with his party, having been already picked out as the nominee for the Governorship. I can not say how much my visit accomplished, but certainly no attack was ever made by him or his party on the institution. I was able to tell him after he and Vance spoke at Hillsboro that our students, who were allowed to hear the contest, gave the preference to his speech over Vance's as a specimen of oratory. Mr. S. F. Phillips did me the honor of saying that my trying to write a plank in the Republican platform was worthy of Governor Swain.


        In July, 1875-'76, Mr. Carey D. Grandy, of Oxford, was appointed Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Chemistry. He received his collegiate education at the Virginia Military Institute and was an able and thorough teacher.

        In the same summer Mr. Frederick William Simonds was elected by the Trustees Professor of Geology, Zoölogy, and Botany. His training was at Cornell University, where he was Instructor. Soon after his election he obtained a degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Syracuse University, that institution requiring a rigid examination but in proper cases dispensing with residence. He proved to be an expert in his department



        A. W. MANGUM



        T. W. HARRIS

        F. W. SIMONDS

        C. D. GRANDY

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In his instruction he required the pupils to draw the parts of insects, plants, and geologic formations with accuracy and neatness. Being requested to give a lecture in Raleigh before the State Agricultural Society, he made a profound impression on his hearers. An intelligent farmer, who had been for years a teacher, Mr. David Ker, uncle of Prof. W. C. Kerr, remarked as he left for home, "The best thing I saw at the Fair was that Chapel Hill Professor at the blackboard, drawing the figures in his lecture with both hands."

        Dr. Simonds was Professor until May, 1878, when he was unfortunately the victim of a severe attack of pneumonia, his wife being prostrated at the same time with the same disease. They thought it best to live for some years in California. He resigned his chair and became Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Los Angeles. After recovering his health he accepted the Professorship of Natural History in the University of Texas, which position he now holds. Our Faculty passed very flattering resolutions of commendation and regret at his departure from Chapel Hill.


        The Historical Society of North Carolina held a formal session in June, 1876. Judge John Kerr was elected President in place of ex-Governor Graham, deceased.

        The ante-war Historical Society had no charter, was a mere voluntary organization. It was thought best to procure an act of incorporation, especially with the view of receiving the books and papers in the possession of Mrs. Eleanor Swain. This was done March 22, 1875, with the name of the Historical Society of North Carolina. The incorporators named were William A. Graham, William Hooper, Thomas Atkinson, Charles Phillips, F. M. Hubbard, Charles F. Deems, Braxton Craven, William H. Battle, M. E. Manly, B. F. Moore, R. M. Pearson, E. G. Reade, Nereus Mendenhall, John H. Wheeler, Z. B. Vance, Calvin H. Wiley, George Davis, William Eaton, R. B. Creecy, D. H. Hill, S. D. Pool, W. C. Kerr, William S. Harris, K. P. Battle, G. D. Bernheim, George V. Strong, Cyrus L. Hunter, and Cornelia Phillips Spencer. This list contains some of the

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names of those who had the reputation of being interested in historical pursuits. The corporation had the powers conferred in Chapter 26 of Battle's Revisal, as well as those specially named in the charter. The corporation could acquire and hold property, principally books and papers of the late Historical Society of North Carolina. The officer in charge of the Capitol could give the Society the use of a room, provided it would not inconvenience a State officer or a committee of the General Assembly. The corporation was organized under this charter, ex-Governor Graham being chosen President.

        Notwithstanding the distinguished names of the corporators the people of the State could not be induced to become members of the Society. Three strenuous efforts have been made to procure members at the small fee of one dollar, but in vain. Mrs. Swain refused to surrender the books and papers of the old Society, alleging that they were the private property of her late husband. Mrs. Spencer, who was one of her intimate friends, at the request of the Society, exhausted her powers of persuasion in the endeavor to induce her to change her decision.

        At President Swain's death there were in the collection letters of Washington, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Joseph Bonaparte, Baron DeKalb, Edmund Fanning, General Gates, General Greene, Cornelius Harnett, Thomas Jefferson, John Paul Jones, La Fayette, James Madison, James K. Polk, John Rutledge, Count de Rochambeau, Baron Steuben, Talleyrand, Chief Justice Taney, General Wayne, Daniel Webster, General Lincoln, and many others. Some are still on hand. Evidently some came from the papers of Governor Burke and Governor Caswell, and strictly belonged originally to the State. Until the building of the Capitol at Raleigh public documents were kept by officers at their homes and often were not carefully separated from their private papers. Very many were hopelessly lost. President Swain should not be harshly blamed for the loss of manuscripts in his possession as trustee, because his death was unexpected. He had until he was stricken senseless a full hope of recovery, and at the time of his death he claimed to be President of the University. There was

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no other President, Mr. Pool being elected some months afterward. We must suppose that if he had lived that he would have done what was right. He never claimed the papers as his own. On the contrary he had aided in publishing in a forgotten copy of the University magazine the fact that they belonged to the Historical Society. At the date of his death there was no one entitled to receive them. He was petitioning the new Board to recognize him as President of the University and rightful custodian of the property. Mrs. Swain, finding the books and papers in his library alongside his own, and mixed with letters of her grandfather, Governor Caswell, naturally thought that they were vested in her as executrix. President Pool made no claim for them, so she had nearly seven years possession before the new North Carolina Society applied to her for their transfer, and naturally regarded her title as indefeasible.

        Afterwards she found a paper stating that the bound books in the collection were the property of the Historical Society, and she promptly surrendered them. Furthermore she bequeathed by will the unsold papers and manuscripts to the State or to the University as her executors, Judge Walter Clark and Mr. R. H. Battle, should elect. After subjecting them to the inspection of Col. W. L. Saunders to be used in finishing the Colonial Records, they decided in favor of the University, so that the title is not in the Historical Society.

        While the collection is valuable there are lamentable gaps in it. It is stated and believed, though I know not the authority, that autographs were selected and sold to Dr. Thomas Addis Emmett, of New York, for $400. Mr. Paul C. Cameron is authority for the statement that at least one hundred letters, addressed to his grandfather, Richard Bennehan, were loaned to President Swain. Not one can be found. A similar fact is true in regard to the Webb papers from the collections of Members of Congress to Alexander Mebane and Richard Stanford. Mr. John M. Webb, the eminent teacher of Bellbuckle, Tennessee, made a special journey of twenty miles to recover these from President Swain, but was influenced to return home without them. They have all disappeared. The portrait of

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George III, which General Nathanael Greene turned face to wall and wrote on the back, "Oh, George! hide thy face and mourn," was loaned to President Swain. It was sold at the auction of Mrs. Swain's effects and was purchased by Mr. Wm. J. Andrews, of Raleigh.

        A part of Judge Archibald Murphey's collections were once in the custody of the mythical North Carolina Historical Society. They were loaned to Joseph S. Jones, usually called Shocco Jones, the author of "A Defence of North Carolina." When he left North Carolina for Mississippi he deposited the box containing the Murphey papers in the building of the Branch Bank of Cape Fear, at Raleigh. After some years Wm. A. Graham, then Governor, and President Swain induced the bank officers to surrender them to the latter. I think some of these have disappeared.


        On the 4th July, 1876, Rev. Dr. Wm. Hooper, former Professor in the University, then living with his son-in-law, Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper, journeyed to Philadelphia to attend a meeting of the descendants of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. The visit was fatal to him. He never recovered from the exposures suffered in the journey. He died on the 25th of August, and at his request was buried by the side of his mother and her second husband, President Joseph Caldwell, in the grave once marked by a crumbling sandstone shaft. In 1904 the remains of the three bodies were transferred to the east side of the new Caldwell monument as is particularly described in the first volume of this history.

        The Faculty passed resolutions, penned by Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer. "Dr. Hooper's life was a bright example of Christian virtue, of rare culture and of singular social excellence." In 1816 he brought his bride, a daughter of Solicitor-General Jones, to Chapel Hill and began his life work as preacher and teacher. He devoted with unselfish aim to the service of his fellow men, talents and attainments which in the academy and in the pulpit, or with the aid of the press, were never idle. "He gave the University his best years, was during

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his whole life its staunch friend, and shed on her the lustre of his ripe and elegant scholarship, his broad and catholic charity, his unblemished career as a most useful and honored citizen and noble Christian gentleman."


        In 1876-'77 Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips was granted a furlough for the purpose of going North in order to consult experts in regard to his disease. The benefit proved to be very slight, if any at all. Professors Graves and Grandy very ably supplied his place.

        Professor Redd, who had under his charge two great departments, Chemistry and Physics, found it impracticable to do justice to them without a large addition to the apparatus for instruction. The $200 heretofore allowed him proved altogether insufficient. He accordingly asked for $600 for General Chemistry, $1,000 for Applied Chemistry, and $1,500 for Physics, in all $3,100. The Board concluded to allow him $2,000, not a large sum, but seriously encroaching on the assets of the University. Professor Redd was not, however, long burdened with Physics, it being thought best, with his concurrence, to place that department under charge of Professor Graves. Professor Kimberly was voted $200 for his department. Mr. Kimberly was nearly as lavish in his requests as Professor Redd. He had been teaching in the basement of Smith Hall, the old laboratory. He asked for $1,500 to remove to the New East Building and $1,300 for the purchase of various utensils. As he resigned his professorship no action was taken, though $200 was voted to his department.

        Messrs. B. F. Moore, Seaton Gales, and K. P. Battle were appointed to raise funds by donation for additional apparatus and Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer was requested to procure gifts of the same kind. The success of Mrs. Spencer is elsewhere shown; that of the committee was inconsiderable.

        Professor Winston offered a prize of $10 for the best Latin student and $15 for the best and $10 for the next best of the students of 1877. Professor Redd offered similar prizes in chemistry.

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        Mrs. Spencer handed over to the Treasurer of the Board $43 contributed by the young ladies of the Misses Nash and Kollock school for the purchase of a barometer. Also a check for $25 sent by Mrs. Jos. J. Davis, paid by ladies of Louisburg, for the purchase of scientific apparatus.


        The first session of the reborn University, ending June, 1876, was harmonious as a rule. The sixty-nine students seemed to feel their responsibility, to realize that the eyes of the State were on them, that apprehension was felt that at Chapel Hill would be a revival of the wild pranks that were played in the days before the war. There were two or three, however, whose spirit of mischief or love of fun could not be repressed. Nocturnal peals came from the University bell, and shouts resounded which were not in the course of elocutionary practice. Some of the old by-laws, reinstated by the Trustees, were exceedingly vexatious and their reasonableness was not apparent to the students. The younger Professors occasionally engaged in races after law breakers and showed fleetness of foot in pursuit of robbers of the repose of the students and villagers.

        On one occasion there was a revival going on in one of the churches of the town. At a mock meeting of a small group of students burlesque sermons were preached, ridiculous exhortations addressed to grinning sinners, pretended mourners called up. This thoughtless desecration steeled the hearts of the Faculty against the offenders, five in number. Efforts were made to procure pardon for them. Ladies in town petitioned for them. The two societies added their petition, offering to be responsible for their good behavior. But the Faculty were unrelenting. When those under condemnation, who were popular among their fellows, entered their carriage to journey over the melancholy road to Durham, the students in sympathetic procession, in some instances deserting their classrooms, escorted them to near the corporate limits of Chapel Hill. Passing the house of Dr. Phillips they were stopped by the

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highly respected Chairman of the Faculty. His solemn and touching address of admonition and appeal, beginning: "Gentlemen, this is all wrong," will never be forgotten by those who heard it. It was instantly and completely successful and the marchers turned back ashamed. There were no further signs of insubordination. Four of those dismissed were later allowed to return and became graduates.

        Three members of the Visiting Committee, viz., Kemp P. Battle, Chairman, Rev. Dr. N. McKay, and John Manning, Rev. Dr. Wiley and Major Gales absent, spent several days at Chapel Hill and made a critical inspection of the condition of the University and the methods of instruction. They concluded that the Agricultural Department, as separate from the others, was a failure and would probably continue to be so. Those taking the branches relating to agriculture could do so in other classes pursuing scientific subjects. The committee therefore recommended that a young man be employed who had paid particular attention to Biology, Botany and kindred branches at an initial salary of $1,000. As Professor Kimberly was an expert in Chemistry only, which was under the charge of Professor Redd, and was not an expert in these subjects, he resigned his chair and returned to Buncombe, where he soon died. The saving of a large part of his salary was of importance to the University treasury.

        The Visiting Committee further reported that, owing to the frequent disability from sickness of the Chairman of the Faculty, Dr. Phillips, the interests of the University required the election of a President. He should not have as onerous duties in teaching as Dr. Phillips had, but should spend much time in making addresses and popularizing the University. The Board adopted the suggestion and agreed to meet on the 16th of June, 1876, in Raleigh, for the purpose of choosing this officer.

        On the 26th of May, 1876, died a very prominent educator, Ralph Henry Graves, the elder, who was an efficient Tutor of Mathematics in the University, 1837 to 1843, and then a

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Principal of classical schools of high reputation, for some years a partner with James H. Horner, in the excellent Horner and Graves School at Oxford and Hillsboro. He was father of Prof. R. H. Graves, of the University. The resolution passed by the University is not at all exaggerated. It was said "His course affords an example of elevated principle in his social relations, of faithfulness and proficiency in the discharge of his professional duties, and of honorable zeal in the cause of education. Of a spirit pure and unselfish he united the firmness of the faith which he professed with Christian humility and meekness. * * * The memory of his virtue will still live and shed a benign influence upon the minds of all who appreciate moral excellence."

        The resolution was written by Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper, the elegance of whose style was much admired.


        In preparing for Commencement the Faculty concluded to abolish public declamation, as being beneath the dignity of the University. It was thought best to teach the manner of speaking in the classroom. The two societies were requested to choose six debaters each, leaving to the Faculty to designate out of these three from each. This plan was not acceptable to the electing bodies, so they chose three representatives each and tendered them to the Faculty, who acquiesced in the arrangement.

        Mr. R. H. Smith, of Halifax, a prominent planter and lawyer of Halifax, was chosen to deliver an address on Agricultural Education. He declined and Prof. W. C. Kerr, State Geologist, was substituted. Judge Robert P. Dick accepted the invitation to deliver an address on Education. Mr. K. P. Battle was invited to deliver an address on the Past, Present and Future of the University, but he was unable to comply on account of conflicting engagements. Governor Vance was pressed to deliver an address on the Life and Character of the late President Swain, which he was unable to do until the next year. Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard, of the Baptist Church, was selected to preach the annual sermon.

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        The Commencement of 1876 revived the memories of the grand ceremonies of old times. The attendance was large, the addresses of the best, and the weather in temperature and shine of sun perfect. The preacher and orators had won wide fame as public speakers.

        The original speeches by the society representatives were voted to be quite equal to the efforts usually heard on such occasions. They were delivered on Tuesday night. Arthur Arrington, of Louisburg, spoke on "The Influence of Great Examples"; William B. Phillips, of Chapel Hill, on "The Ancient German Confederation"; W. J. Peele, of Northampton County, on "Liberty"; R. L. Payne, of Lexington, on "Esse quam Videri"; J. B. Lewis, of Nash County, a Eulogy on Edwin W. Fuller, and John H. Dobson, of Surry County, on "North Carolina."

        On Wednesday morning the address before the two literary societies was delivered by Hon. Alfred Moore Waddell, a Representative in Congress and an alumnus of the University of the Class of 1854. He was distinguished for his eloquence and polished diction and fully on this day sustained his reputation. He was introduced to the audience by R. E. Caldwell, with whom on the stage were J. McNeill and E. J. Hill.

        In the evening the annual sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard. He was eminent as one of the ablest preachers in his denomination in the State, the Baptist, and indeed in any denomination. His sermon was full of wise counsel, couched in burning words, directed against the infidelity of the age.

        On Thursday, being Commencement Day, there was an oration by Hon. Robert P. Dick, of the Class of 1843, a Judge of the Supreme Court of this State and afterwards of the United States District Court. The invitation to him showed a determination to have no politics in the management of the institution. His address was so felicitous and eloquent that the Trustees gave him a vote of thanks. The behavior of the students throughout the week was so exceedingly orderly that the Board of Trustees recorded a vote of thanks to them also.

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        While there was general commendation of the speeches of the representatives of the two literary societies, not a few of the young ladies said that the words of Mr. P. C. Cameron in congratulation of and counsel to the young men who had won prizes were among the best things at Commencement. In truth his short speeches were always the most appropriate of their kind.

        At the close of Judge Dick's address, there being no graduates, the annual report was read.

        A contemporary writer makes this note: "Messrs. W. B. Phillips, of Chapel Hill, and R. L. Payne, of Lexington, proved themselves so nearly equal in scholarship in their chemical studies that the Faculty was unable to decide between them, and a medal was assigned to each. The two young rivals in honorable strife walked up arm in arm to receive their prizes."

        The Chief Marshal, Mr. Frank M. Fremont, filled his office with grace and dignity and was well supported by his aids, W. B. Phillips and R. L. Payne, Di's, and Julian Baker and Joseph C. Powell, Phi's. The ladies were present in full force from Hillsboro, Raleigh, Fayetteville, Charlotte, Greensboro, Pittsboro, Louisburg, Durham, Lexington, New Bern, and Chapel Hill. The young people had their usual festivities at the Ball on Thursday night, and everything passed off as merry as a marriage bell.

        The honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.), was conferred on Rev. Joseph Caldwell Huske, of Fayetteville, and Rev. Evander McNair, of Arkansas. Dr. Huske was a graduate in 1841.

        In recognition of the ability with which he had conducted his department, George T. Winston was created a full Professor of Latin and German. Professor Hooper was confined to Greek and French.

        At a meeting of the Board of Trustees it was voted that the interests of the University required the election of a President and a special meeting was called for that purpose in the Governor's office in Raleigh on June 16th and that the Secretary should give notice of the same especially to each Trustee.

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        As the time of election of a President approached there developed two parties with their peculiar views on the subject of fitness for the position.

        Some few of the younger Trustees wished for a man who had been strikingly identified on the part of the South in the recent war. They favored Jefferson Davis, Joseph E. Johnston, William Preston, son of Albert Sidney Johnston, or Gen. Matt W. Ransom. The other party thought that the financial and other difficulties required a native of the State known to and acquainted with her people, peculiarly identified with the University and loving it with his whole soul, a Democrat, yet not an active politician, and therefore not offensive to men of the opposite party. He must also be a man with experience in dealing with men and not easily ruffled into loss of temper or vindictive retaliation by opposition however malignant. Above all he must be a "one-idead man," and that idea the University.

        Secretary Battle had addressed all his energies to the revival of the University, the difficulties in the way being more formidable than can be understood at this day. The success of the lovers of the University has already been chronicled, but with only sixty-nine students the first year, a gratifying number, however, under the circumstances, it was manifest that better things must be accomplished. An officer must be chosen who would not only be the directing power at Chapel Hill, but who would keep the University before the public by writings and speeches, and, whenever possible, by obtaining money.

        Several Trustees had from time to time in 1875 expressed to Mr. Kemp Plummer Battle their wishes that he would consent to allow his name to go before the Board for the office, but his answer was that he had a home in Raleigh, of which he and his wife were fond, and that he doubted if he had the temperament of an executive officer, that when he was student and Trustee eight years the duties of President Swain seemed to him the most irksome and unpleasant of any imaginable. But when he saw the failure of the plan of having a Chairman of the Faculty and the urgent need of an active chief officer, and

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that no available man was before the public, he began to have grave "searchings of heart."

        The urgency of an old friend, a deskmate at school when they were ten years of age, determined him to undertake the perilous task. It was Col. Rufus Lenoir Patterson, a Republican, a great-grandson of Gen. William Lenoir, of the Revolution, and son of Gen. Samuel F. Patterson, once State Treasurer. He was a Trustee of the University as were his father and great-grandfather, and had lived in Raleigh when a boy, his father then being President of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company. Mr. Battle took him to ride around the city to see the changes in thirty years. They naturally talked of the University, of which Patterson was a graduate in 1852. He said, "Kemp, you must agree to be President. There are some Trustees in favor of electing a man on the war idea, of perpetuating feelings of hostility, which ought to be allowed to slumber. His influence will inculcate hostility to our party; his election will be considered an insult and the Republicans will be bound to oppose him. We have confidence in your fairness. You are not a bitter partisan. I feel safe in pledging my party to your support."

        Secretary Battle saw the reasonableness of what he said. He knew the strength of the forces antagonizing openly and secretly the University, and that the Republicans held the balance of power. It could not be advanced to a higher sphere without their coöperation. The plan of appealing to the bitter ideas of the Civil War would make the University one-sided and end in disaster. Besides no great man of the Confederacy talked about could be induced to undertake the work for any salary that could be paid him. To offer the Presidency to a second rate man simply for his war services would be a fatal mistake. This was the state of things when the Board of Trustees met on the 16th of June, 1876.

        Little was done on the first day. The Board met the next day in the Governor's office. On account of the number, twenty-seven, adjournment was had to the Senate chamber. The Trustees present were: J. S. Amis, D. M. Carter, W. H. Day, P. B. Means, W. L. Saunders, J. H. Thorp, J. A.

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Gilmer, John Manning, Dr. John McIver, R. B. Peebles, W. L. Twitty, John Kerr, N. McKay, B. F. Moore, R. L. Patterson, W. L. Steele, Joseph Williams, W. H. Battle, K. P. Battle, P. C. Cameron, J. A. Graham, Lewis Latham, Z. B. Vance, C. H. Wiley, P. H. Winston, Jr., J. E. Dugger, and S. M. Gales. After some routine business Judge Kerr moved to go into the election of a President. The motion was carried. His motion to make the salary $2,000 was amended by Mr. Manning so as to read $2,500. In order to throw light on the question whether a President should be elected the Treasurer's report was called for.

        The reports by the Treasurer of the receipts and expenditures during the half-year are pathetic, instructive too, in showing from what small things the new University has grown. There was the interest on the land grant, $3,750. Then there was an extraordinary item and not likely to be repeated, an escheat of $1,516.80. This was liable to be repaid if an owner should appear in five years, which fortunately did not happen. The next item was tuition fees collected semi-annually from the sixty-nine students, which was for the year $1,680. There were temporary loans $1,096, and subscriptions to the revival of the University not needed for repairs $3,320. In all $11,362.80, and of this meagre amount the prospective amount of tuition fees was a totally uncertain quantity, the interest paid by the State would of course remain stationary, the loans and subscriptions would soon disappear, and no escheat would probably again fall in.

        The expenditures for the first term included $6,651.31 for repairs, $3,860 for salaries, $322.02 for apparatus, $300.20 for advertising and printing, and $98.64 for court cost, freight and postage, leaving a balance in the treasury of $405.61.


        Judge Gilmer moved to go into the election of a President, which was agreed to. Secretary Battle obtained leave to retire and W. L. Saunders took his place. The vote was by ballot. Kemp Plummer Battle was nominated by Judge Gilmer

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and received sixteen votes, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, nominated by W. H. Day, five; M. W. Ransom one, and Montfort McGehee three, so that Battle was chosen by over three-fifths majority. Being sent for he accepted the office, making no speech because many Trustees were desirous of taking the train soon to start. Resigning the office of Secretary and Treasurer, Major Seaton Gales was chosen in his stead.

        A newspaper of the day has this to say in regard to the propriety of electing Secretary Battle to the Presidency: "When reorganization was undertaken the first suggestion was the selection of a President who would give character to the institution and attract patronage by the fame of its chief. High scholarship was not so much the desideratum as that brilliant general reputation in arms or in politics, so fascinating to young men. Most fortunately the fortunes of the University were then too humble to attract these shining lights down into the obscure academic groves, and the choice was then narrowed to home and our people. It fell, when narrowed, by common consent upon Kemp P. Battle, to whom the common judgment assigned, and very rightly too, remarkable qualifications. He had been educated at the University, he had served for some years as tutor in the institution, he had become a lawyer and a successful one, he was a planter, and a good and practical one, he had been State Treasurer of North Carolina, and in every position had displayed sound practical sense, enlightened by broad views; and also such perfect integrity and just and fair dealing that every feature combined to make his selection the fittest that could have been made. He accepted with much personal sacrifice, for he surrendered his business and the comforts of his charming home in Raleigh to engage in the arduous work of reconstructing the University, with a certain amount of privation and with unmistakable assumption of very new and very hard labors. * * * To his tact, his judgment, his vast industry and his indomitable energy, his learning, his suavity of manner and his large acquaintance with men, the resuscitation of the University is largely due."

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        To the above considerations moving the Trustees to their choice can be added that from childhood Secretary Battle had been devoted to the University, as had been his near ancestors, his grandfather having matriculated in 1798, and his father having graduated in 1820. He was a resident of Chapel Hill during the most impressible part of his life, from his eleventh to his twenty-fourth year. He was a Trustee of the old and the new University and of the Executive Committee in both. As chairman of a committee in 1867 he had made an elaborate report on reorganization, which was nearly unanimously adopted. And he had been active in procuring payment of interest on the land grant by the General Assembly and contributions for repairs by the alumni and other friends.

        Another consideration in favor of Secretary Battle was, as Colonel Patterson urged, his acceptability to the leaders of the party opposed to his. This was for two causes: First, as State Treasurer, owing to the complication of the revenue laws existing in 1866-'68, he was called on to decide a large number of disputed questions. He thus acted as a Judge and was so fortunate as to gain the reputation of being strictly impartial. In the second place, he had become weary of the excitement of politics, and, from being an ardent partisan, he became a quiet lawyer. The third cause of his having the favor of the Republicans was that when as president he assisted in reviving the State Agricultural Society, in the conduct of the Fair, the first held after the war, he gave the leaders their due weight as judges and other officers. This gave offense to suspicious political leaders of his own party. He was, to his amusement, censured in the leading newspaper for this course, and called "Mugwump" and "Brindle-tail," but he correspondingly gained the favor of opponents. This led to Governor Caldwell's selection of him as Superintendent of Public Instruction, stating that he as such Superintendent might obtain appropriations from a Democratic Legislature for the education of the children of the State, but that one of the opposite party would not be listened to. Although the Supreme Court decided that the Governor had no right to appoint

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the Superintendent, his endorsement of Secretary Battle gained him favor with thinking men.

        By an exhibition of ordinary honesty Mr. Battle happened to gain popularity among the colored people. When president of the State Agricultural Society, a silver trumpet was offered to the Firemen's Company sending up the highest stream from engines worked by human power, and it was won by the colored company of Raleigh. The secretary read out the victory as gained by a white company. It was probably a mistake but the negroes thought otherwise. As soon as the president heard of it he rectified the error, and afterwards presented the trumpet in public to the captain of the company in the presence of his members and of a large assembly of citizens gathered to witness the ceremony. He accompanied the gift with a short speech certifying to the skill and energy always shown by the colored people in fighting fires in the city. They were at that time suspicious of the fair dealing of the whites in public matters and gave the president of the Agricultural Society the credit of obtaining their rights.

        Moved by this kindly feeling, when there was a vacancy on the Board of Commissioners of Raleigh, the Republicans being in the majority, the colored members united with the Democrats and elected Mr. Battle to the place. He found the finances of the city in apparently inextricable confusion, but availing himself of the experience gained in the office of State Treasurer, he soon untangled the knot and placed the money matters of the city in satisfactory shape. A Sinking Fund was placed in his charge, a position he held until he removed to Chapel Hill.

        When Johns Hopkins University, with its ample endowment, was inaugurated, President Gilman and his Professor of Greek, Dr. B. L. Gildersleeve, made a tour of the Southern colleges in order to gain information useful in carrying out the will of the founder in regard to scholarships. They sought an interview with President Battle, who happened to be in Raleigh. In the course of the conversation Dr. Gildersleeve asked "What is the income of your institution?" He replied, "Seven thousand five hundred dollars from the State and tuition

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fees." With a sympathizing look he said, "I am sorry for you." The gloominess of the existing conditions was admitted, but the University had been in worse straits in former days and had emerged with flying colors.


        There was much interest felt in the opening of the new session in July, 1876. It showed a healthful increase from sixty-nine to one hundred and twelve, and the friends of the institution took heart.

        Before his election President Battle had agreed to deliver on the 4th of July, 1876, an address on the early history of Raleigh in commemoration of the selection of the site of the city in 1792. There was required much research and nothing could be done with his University duties until the discharge of this engagement. As soon as that was finished he journeyed to Chapel Hill. The mode of conveyance from Durham was very primitive. The strength of the horses was exhausted when they had arrived at the bottom of the long hill ascending to the village, and the newly elected head of the University, instead of arriving on the scene of his labors with the stately ceremony befitting such an occasion, with alacrity walked a mile up the hill, but, unlike the "mighty King of France," did not walk down again.

        He at once plunged into his new duties. In addition to those pertaining to the executive department, he gave instruction in Constitutional and International Law, Political Economy and, to the Land Grant students, Business Law. In order to obtain if possible a knowledge of the character of the students he informed himself of the histories of their fathers' and mothers' families. He copied these into a book which the students soon called the "Pedigree Book." To the best of his ability he carried out the policy of making them self-respecting gentlemen. He gave credence practically to their words even if he had doubts as to the statement. He adhered to this natural manner of treating them familiarly as friends and no one became in consequence presumptuous.

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        By the Act for the creation of the Agricultural Department the Scientific Department of the University was strengthened, the State Geologist being required to lecture two months on such subjects as the Faculty might prescribe. They chose the Geology of North Carolina.

        As it was absolutely essential to deal fairly with the Land Grant appropriation the President sought and obtained leave to visit some Agricultural and Mechanical colleges which had the reputation of being successful. Fortunately Prof. W. C. Kerr, State Geologist, whose wide acquaintance with scientific men much facilitated the investigations, accompanied him. They visited Tuft's College at Boston, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Sheffield Scientific School, under control of Yale University, the Wesleyan University, where experiments were being carried on by Prof. W. O. Atwater, the Connecticut State Fair, Williams College, the New Jersey Agricultural and Mechanical College under the charge of Rutgers College, and at a subsequent time the President alone visited the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Virginia, at Blacksburg, now Virginia Polytechnic Institute. His observations led him to the conclusion, and he so reported, that this University was carrying out the Act of Congress of 1862, by theoretical teaching of the branches of learning relating to Agricultural and the Mechanic Arts. The cultivation of fields and orchards and the rearing of cattle, together with experiments on all such subjects, could not be undertaken unless special funds should be given for the purpose.

        In this year it was thought best to strengthen the teaching in the branches relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts by the employment of William H. Smith, of Michigan, a Doctor of Philosophy, as Professor of Natural History. He proved to be a teacher of decided merit, quite an accomplished expert in his department. A pamphlet was prepared by him for general distribution instructing in the art of taxidermy, probably the first attempt of this kind in the State. The circular was issued October 30, 1876, in pamphlet form. It contained minute directions, such as had never been given before in this State, for skinning and preserving the skins, feathers

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and eggs of birds and mammals, for the preservation of reptiles, fish, insects, plants, crabs, lobsters, starfish and sea urchins, corals and sponges. Instructions were also given in regard to specimens of minerals, rocks and fossils, soils and well borings. If the directions given by Professor Smith had been more generally followed throughout the State the University Museum would have been greatly increased in value, and a practical acquaintance with it would have enlightened our people. For personal reasons Professor Smith resigned in the spring of 1877.

        In the fall of 1876 the executive committee of the State Grange made inquiries of President Battle as to the work of the Agricultural Department of the University. On November 1st he made an elaborate reply, which was extensively published and quieted criticism for nearly ten years. After reciting the Act of Congress he called attention to the catalogue which showed that the "branches relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts" had especial attention. "For example, Chemistry, including the composition and analysis of soils, manure, etc.; Botany, Zoölogy, including domestic animals and their foes; Geology, including character of soils; Mineralogy, especially the minerals of our State; Mechanics, including agricultural implements; Physics, light and heat as influencing plant life; also Meteorology; Engineering, including road making, land surveying, etc.; Mathematics necessary for Mechanics, Engineering, etc. All this is in addition to the English Language and Literature, Political Economy, Constitutional and International Law, and the Greek and Latin and the German and French languages needed to make our students intelligent citizens."

        The sequel, however, shows that, moved largely by the example of Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges of other States, who had supplemented the Congressional grant by large donations from the public treasury, the public came to demand an education more largely practical than the words of the Act of Congress required. For the present, owing to the expense necessary, the construction adopted by the University was allowed to stand. The details of the instruction offered were

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left to the Trustees and Faculty of the University. Theoretical and not practical instruction was employed. When at a later date the practical mode of instruction was adopted by the State the costly buildings and apparatus of the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at Raleigh show that President Battle was correct in the position that all this could not be done on the slender means of the University, $7,500 per annum. In 1887 the transfer of the $125,000 Land Grant Fund was made to the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.


        As has been explained, by Act of 1873-'74, it was provided that there should be sixty-four Trustees of the University elected by joint ballot to be divided into four classes, sixteen in each class, so that every two years that number, increased by vacancies for any cause, must be elected. At the election in 1876-'77 the Senate appointed a committee to recommend nominees. The committee consulted with friends of the institution and reported a faultless list. In the House of Representatives a motion was made and carried to adjourn for a short while and let the Members from each Congressional District select the nominees. The result was that good and true men on the Senate list were omitted and, owing to the more numerous voters in the House, its ticket was chosen. Unfortunately two of the most active and useful members of the Board, identified with the reopening of the institution, Colonels W. L. Saunders and D. M. Carter, were omitted. They immediately sent in resignations of their unexpired terms.

        Knowing that this oversight was accidental, and being unwilling to part with such valuable officers, realizing too that the plan adopted by the House, if continued, would result in a Board of Trustees whose members would be too remote from Chapel Hill for efficient business, President Battle proposed that sixteen additional Trustees should be elected "from points conveniently accessible to the University" and to be classified as was the existing Board. The bill was passed in 1877, Colonels Carter and Saunders were reëlected and consented to serve.

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        The plan of election of Trustees now usually adopted (1912) is to have a joint select committee of the two Houses, who investigate and report to their bodies the names of those who ought to be chosen. The nominations are invariably ratified. At first effort was made to give the minority party a fair representation. Recently complaint has been made that the dominant party is disposed to take more than their share. There has been no charge, however, that the spirit of party has been evident in the choice of Professors or in the practical management of University affairs. Of course the General Assembly can change at will this mode of selection. It is praiseworthy that there never has been any symptom of "packing" the Board in order to carry into effect any measure.


        When President Battle was elected President he had been borrowing, as Treasurer, considerable sums for annual expenses from the Citizens National Bank of Raleigh on his individual credit, pledging as collateral the expected receipts from donations. These loans were negotiated more readily because he had been a director and attorney for the bank from its organization. Major Gales continued to hold both offices of Secretary and Treasurer until April 1, 1877, when he resigned the Treasurership and President Battle took his place, declining any part of the salary, which was all paid to Gales, his object being to obtain money from the bank more easily. On the death of Gales in 1878 Col. W. L. Saunders was chosen Secretary under the same arrangement, but when all the solvent subscriptions were collected, President Battle gave up the Treasurership and Colonel Saunders held both offices. Ordinarily it would have been dangerous to endorse a note in bank with only a subscription paper as collateral, but President Battle well knew the subscribers and his trust in their faithfulness was not in vain. By the arrangement the Professors and other officers were regularly and promptly paid until the exhaustion of the subscriptions.

        The Secretary and Treasurer held ex officio another office, that of Escheator-General. His duties were to appoint a

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lawyer in each county to keep watch on all escheats, that is, roughly, land having no owner. For many years, when aliens could not inherit land in North Carolina, substantial benefits were derived from escheats, but a change in the law renders them of little value and the emolument to the officer of five per cent on receipts by no means corresponds to the grandeur of the title of Escheator-General.


        The Law School of Judge Battle was reopened in January, 1877, under the stipulations laid down on October 3, 1845, and recited in the various catalogues since. A striking feature of the same was that his Independent students were not subject to the usual University discipline, nor was he responsible for the conduct of any but the law students. There were two classes, the Independent, having no connection with the University, and the University class, consisting of students of the University. Particular attention was directed to preparation for obtaining license to practice law, and it was sought in addition to give a broad general knowledge of the law. The degree of Bachelor of Laws, ordinarily obtained after two years of study, was granted. The fees were: for the Independent class, $50 per term or $100 a year; for the University class, $35 per term or $70 a year. On the payment of $150 the student could attend four terms.

        At the meeting of the Board of Trustees Mr. P. C. Cameron strongly urged that the University should use every effort to secure the construction of a railroad from Chapel Hill to the North Carolina Railroad.

        On his motion likewise the Board tendered its thanks to Mrs. Cornelia P. Spencer for her unflagging interest in the University, her able efforts in its behalf and for her clear and intelligent reports of transactions in connection with one of its most important adjuncts. This was the Summer Normal School.

        Thanks were offered to Governor Vance for his able, eloquent and instructive address on President Swain. And to

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Col. D. M. Carter for his strong and effective argument for the University in the Circuit Court of the United States, involving the quantity of land to be allotted to it, as necessary to its existence as a State institution.

        On February 6, 1877, Person Hall was destroyed by fire. The Faculty concluded that it was caused by the pipe of a large stove being located too near a rafter in the roof. The walls were so thick that the only loss was the interior woodwork and the tin, aggregating about $1,000. This was one of the earliest buildings, finished in 1798. For a long time it was fitted for and used as a Chapel. In 1838 Gerrard Hall was completed, called the New, and the other the Old Chapel. About 1840 it was divided into four rooms for the use of the Professors of Greek, of Latin, of Logic and Rhetoric, and of the Tutor of Ancient Languages. Shortly before the fire the partitions were removed and the building given to the department of Chemistry. By the aid of contributions from Professor Redd, J. S. Carr, S. F. Phillips, John W. Fries and others the building was speedily restored to its original shape.

        A ludicrous circumstance happened at the fire. While the flames were raging in the attic a ladder was produced and a student, Engelhard, started to mount it. Professor Redd excitedly shouted, "Come down, Mr. Engelhard, that is dangerous. The walls may crumble." Then turning to a negro, he said, "I will give you $10 if you will go up." The negro thought he was worth to himself as much as Mr. Engelhard was to himself and declined the bounty. There was no danger, however, as the walls were so firm that they were not taken down in the rebuilding. A sketch of General Person may be found in the first volume.

        In the next month the time honored speeches of Latin Salutatory and Valedictory were abolished, though by an odd inconsistency the best scholar in the graduating class was for several years termed the Valedictorian, his speech, however, not at all flavored with farewell ideas. As explained in Volume I, up to 1838 the Salutatory oration was the prize of the highest distinction. After that year it was reduced to the

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second rank and the Valedictory was first. Then, on the initiative of President Swain, because serious difficulties had occurred from the conflicting claims of ambitious honor men, they were grouped in three classes. Those who were in the first class, at one time as many as eight, cast lots for the Salutatory and Valedictory orations. The memory of former precedence made the latter the most prized, while the drawer of the other frequently exchanged it with one entitled to an English speech. Rarely a student was so preëminent that the Valedictory was conceded to him by the Faculty. General Pettigrew was one of these.


        The second Visiting Committee was P. C. Cameron, D. M. Carter, W. S. Saunders, Calvin H. Wiley and Rev. Dr. Neill McKay. They made an oral report which was very favorable to the management, after a visit to the University in the spring of 1877.

        At the June, 1877, meeting of the Board the Faculty made an earnest report on the subject of beneficiaries. The present system led to a serious injury to the independence of students, to the culture of the University and to the finances. It resulted in a majority being on the nonpaying list. They recommended that all, save the county appointees, should pay $30 at the beginning of each term. The recommendation was adopted with an amendment offered by Mr. R. H. Battle, that the Faculty by a two-thirds vote could admit without payment. This provision to some extent checked the movement towards free admission of nonpaying students.

        On account of the continued ill health of Dr. Charles Phillips, Carey D. Grandy, an accomplished mathematician, was added to the Faculty with a salary of $700.

        It is sad proof of the poverty of the institution that the Executive Committee felt bound to refuse the Librarian so small a sum as $100 for the purchase of books and periodicals.

        Mr. Cameron moved that President Battle, if he should think proper, should be allowed at the expense of the University to canvass Northern cities for subscriptions. After

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inquiries of Dr. Deems and other friends at the North it was concluded that such solicitations were not likely to be successful. The liberal people had been already so importuned that there was a feeling of disgust. Many college and school presidents had made the effort and returned in despair. Moreover it seemed not compatible with the dignity of the State to beg among strangers for a State institution. The money heretofore raised was nearly all from our own citizens, principally alumni. An elaborate appeal to Mr. W. W. Corcoran for aid to the University of President Polk, Vice-President King, Senator Mangum and others of his personal acquaintances, was forwarded by our Congressman Steele. He replied very courteously, but declined a donation.


        The Commencement of 1877 was pronounced by many to have had a larger attendance than any of its predecessors except the Buchanan Commencement of 1859. The farmers were present in great numbers and manifested peculiar interest. The village was crowded, but the packing powers of the hotels and boarding houses and the hospitality of the citizens provided for all.

        The accustomed procession was formed on June 6, 1877, and marched to the hall, under the order of George McCorkle, Chief Marshal. After music by the Salem Band the President made a short statement of the history of the University, and then ex-Judge Daniel G. Fowle, soon to be Governor, at the request of the Philanthropic Society, delivered a strong address on the Principles of Civil Liberty. He drew many of his illustrations from the occurrences during the administration of Governor Holden. The speech was earnest and eloquent and was very forcibly delivered.

        A short meeting of the Historical Society was held. Col. John D. Cameron called attention to the death of the President, Dr. William Hooper, and moved that Judge Kerr take the chair. Mr. P. C. Cameron, after a short and touching eulogy, moved for a committee to draft resolutions in regard to Hooper's career, which motion prevailed.

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        He was for years a distinguished Professor of the University, generally of Ancient Languages, but for awhile of Rhetoric and Logic. Some of his addresses and sermons were published and show much literary power. A further sketch of him is given in Volume I.

        President Battle called attention to the fact that the treasury of the association was empty. A committee appointed on his motion proceeded to collect one dollar from each member, and a considerable sum was raised.

        In the afternoon of Wednesday, Rev. Dr. Charles Force Deems, of the Church of the Strangers, New York City, delivered the Baccalaureate sermon. He had been pastor of many congregations in our own State, and then had achieved greatness in the great metropolis. Much was expected of him and his hearers were enraptured. His text was, "I am not mad, most noble Festus!" and he showed that the opponents of Christianity are the true madmen.

        On Wednesday evening the representatives of the societies delivered their original addresses. The subject of Francis Donnell Winston was, "The Union and the Century"; of Alfred Daniel Jones, "The Teacher Must First be Taught"; of John Moore Manning, "Patrick Henry"; of Julius Johnston, "There is No Utopia Here"; of William Lanier Hill, "Man Has Done Nobly; Will Do More Nobly Still"; of Henry Thomas Watkins, "Eulogy on William A. Graham." There were strong men in this list and the speaking was good.

        At eleven o'clock on Thursday a procession was formed to escort Governor Vance to the Hall, where he delivered his address on President Swain. Never did a speaker have a more congenial theme.

        I give his estimate of the character of President Swain, from which may be caught a glimpse of Senator Vance's style.

        "In many senses of the term Governor Swain was a great man. As an author, though a man of letters, he neither achieved nor attempted anything lasting. As a politician, though he rose rapidly to the highest honors of his native State, he did not strikingly impress himself upon his times by any great speech nor by any great stroke of policy. In this respect he was inferior to many of his contemporaries who constituted, perhaps, the brightest cluster

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of names in our annals. As a lawyer and a judge he occupied comparatively about the same position; and as a scholar he was not to be distinguished, being inferior to several of his co-laborers in the University.

        "But in many things he was entitled to be called great, if we mean by that term that he so used the faculties which he possessed that he raised himself beyond and above the great mass of his fellows. In him there was a rounded fullness of the qualities, intellectual and moral, which constitute the excellence of manhood in a degree never excelled by any citizen of North Carolina, whom I have personally known, except William A. Graham. If there was in Swain no one grand quality of intellect which lifted him out of comparison with any but the demigods of our race, neither was there any element so wanting as to sink him into or below the common mass. If there were in him no Himalaya peaks of genius piercing into the regions of everlasting frost and ice, neither were there any yawning chasms or slimy pools below the tidewater of mediocrity. * * * If there be those who singly tower above him in gifts or attainments or distinction, there is no one whom as a whole we can contemplate with more interest, affection and admiration, no one whose work for North Carolina will prove to be more valuable, or more lasting, or more important to future generations, no one to whom at the great final review, the greeting may be more heartily addressed, 'Servant of God, well done!'

        "No estimate of Governor Swain's walk through life could omit the consideration of his Christian character. It was especially marked by catholicity of feeling towards all good men of whatever name. He was accustomed to refer this to the circumstances of his bringing up. He would say: 'My father was a Presbyterian elder, and an Arminian; my mother was a Methodist and a Calvinist, who loved and studied Scott's Commentary. Their house was the home of preachers of all sorts west of the Blue Ridge. Bishop Asbury blessed me when a child. Mr. Newton, a Presbyterian, taught me when a boy, and Humphrey Posey, a Baptist, used to pray for me when a youth. So I love all who will show that they are Christian.' * * * He was a decided Presbyterian. * * * In private life he was most upright, kind, social and hospitable. * * * He had a proper conception of the value of wealth, and all his life practiced a judicious economy, but he knew well how to lend and how to give.

        "His remains lie buried in Oakwood Cemetery, near Raleigh, close beside the sleeping soldiers of the Confederacy, and the soil of our State holds the dust of no son who loved her more or served her better. Peaceful be his rest as he waits for the clear breaking of the day over the brow of the eternal hills."

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        Senator Vance closed with a poetical extract so beautiful that I must needs record it:

                         "The daisies prank thy grassy grave,
                         Above, the dark pine branches wave;
                         Sleep on.
                         Below, the merry runnel sings,
                         And swallows sweep with glancing wings,
                         Sleep on, old friend, sleep on.

                         Calm as a summer night at rest,
                         Thy meek hands folded on thy breast;
                         Sleep on.
                         Hushed into stillness life's sharp pain,
                         Naught but the pattering of the rain,
                         Sleep on, dear friend, sleep on."

        Governors Vance and Swain were born and raised in the same country and in the same lovely mountain air. They had both occupied the highest State offices and there were personal ties to stir up the enthusiasm of the orator. It was by President Swain's assistance, a loan freely given and soon repaid, that Vance was able to obtain his legal education at the University. Governor Vance's talent and literary ability were freely given to this task. The result was a captivating pen picture of a most interesting and unique personage. A correspondent writes, "It was a tribute of the noblest order. It was chaste in style, grand in thought, and couched in language of singular vigor, terseness and beauty."

        At the conclusion, Mr. Paul C. Cameron, on the part of the ladies of Hillsboro, presented to the University a Holtz's electrical machine. His speech was couched in eloquent language, in praise both of Governor Vance and President Swain. He stated that the former was as much an object of interest and good will to the people of the State as when he led his regiment to the field, or as when from his first Executive chair he sent out salt and meal to feed the hungry, and distributed cotton cards to clothe the naked. No man is more nearly equal to all that he assumes, no man can wear with more force and truth as his motto, "semper paratus." The ladies of Hillsboro made this offering in commemoration of William A. Graham.

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No one was so richly rewarded for his well spent life of virtue and labor. On no monument may be inscribed with more virtuous purpose the Latin maxim, Labor ipse est voluptas.

        At three o'clock in the afternoon Hon. Walter Leak Steele, a Representative in the Congress of the United States, delivered the address before the Alumni Association. Senator A. G. Thurman had been invited to perform this duty, accepted the invitation and then failed on account of sickness. Colonel Steele had only twenty-four hours' notice, but delivered a most instructive address. His reminiscences of University life and of the old Professors were extremely interesting, his defense of the University strong and true, and his prediction of future success was that it was not only probable but certain. His reminiscences were a happy combination of pathos and humor. The audience seemed delighted to have an address on University topics, past, present and future, sandwiched among political or literary subjects.

        On Thursday came the orations of the graduates. Frank Murray Fremont led, his subject being "Foreign Immigration." He advocated immigration from Europe but prohibition of that from China, the people of that country being, he said, the most corrupt and immoral race on the face of the globe, slavish, cringing, and powerful. Then came Joseph Clay Powell on "The Philosophy of Crime." Julian Meredith Baker read an essay on the Spectroscope. Then followed an oration on "The Progress of Japan," by James Cole Taylor, and the speaking was concluded by what the correspondent called "the gem of this branch of the Commencement exercises," an oration by William Battle Phillips on "Woman in Politics." It sparkled with humor and abounded in good sense. The judges decided that for combined polish of style and force of thought Mr. Fremont was entitled to the Mangum medal, the prize in oratory established by his daughter in honor of Willie P. Mangum.

        The degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred on Rev. George Patterson, Rev. W. J. C. Hiden, and Rev. Jacob Henry Smith. That of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) on Rev. Charles F. Deems and Judge John Kerr.

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        The recipients of medals were:

  • LATIN--Thomas H. Battle, Isaac H. Long.
  • PHYSICS--Julian M. Baker, Frank M. Fremont.

        The Graduates were:


  • William Battle Phillips, Chapel Hill.


  • Julian Meredith Baker, Tarboro.
  • Frank Murray Fremont, Wilmington.
  • Joseph Clay Powell, Tarboro.
  • James Cole Taylor, Chapel Hill.

        Of these Phillips is (1912) a mining engineer of high standing, Professor of Geology in the University of Texas; Baker is a very prominent physician in Tarboro; Frank Fremont was an insurance officer in New York--lost his life in a railroad accident; Powell, who died recently, was a very successful planter, and Taylor cashier of the Bank of Chapel Hill.

        In order to obtain a degree the applicant must have attained a mark of at least 70 in all studies, perfect being 100. Under the old régime the honor men being grouped into classes, their names were read out in public at Commencement. After the reopening in 1875 for some time the names of those who achieved honors, viz., from 95 to 100 the highest, from 90 to 95 the second, and from 80 to 90 the third, were read from the rostrum, but this after a few years was discontinued. I will not therefore attempt to record those attaining 80 and upward as the reader would find them tedious.

        The Chief Marshal, George McCorkle, and his aids, E. B. Engelhard, J. B. Lewis, and D. M. Williams, fully sustained the traditional reputation of the University for the grace and dignity of its officers.

        And the Ball Managers, led by the Chief, Fernando G. James, with assistants, J. H. Faison, N. H. Street, R. H. Davis and F. T. Barrow, prepared some of the most beautiful dances ever seen at the University. The practice of following up the dances by a supper was discontinued on account of financial

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and other reasons. The tradition was that they led to disorder. An incident of one of the oldtime feasts should be recorded. It was the rule that no gentleman could attend the first table without a lady. A Freshman of fourteen summers gallantly offered his arm to an old maid of forty years and weighing two hundred pounds, and under protection of the rule marched boldly by the doorkeeper into the hall where the dainties were spread. The youth who had the pluck to do this has been president of two great universities and one great college.


        In 1877, at the request of President Battle, seconded by Governor Vance, the Executive Committee established the 12th of October as a perpetual holiday to commemorate the laying of the cornerstone of the Old East Building on that day in 1793. For the first celebration ladies of the village with some students, headed by Mrs. Spencer, gave Gerrard Hall a lovely decoration. The entire length of the interior was festooned with wreaths of pines and other evergreens. Over the rostrum was an arch bearing the inscription, "Virtue, Liberty, Science." On the right and above the word "Phi" was the portrait of the first President, Dr. Joseph Caldwell. On the left and above the word "Di" was the portrait of the "Father of the University," William Richardson Davie. Within the recess of the rostrum was suspended the portrait of David L. Swain. Opposite the rostrum were the words, "North Carolina" and suspended in the gallery was the beautiful banner exhibited at the Centennial Exposition of 1876 at Philadelphia by ladies of the State and then presented by them to the University. The rostrum was artistically decorated with flowers, and the whole scene was strikingly picturesque.

        The Glee Club sang "The Old North State" and President Battle followed with an address of an hour on the incidents connected with granting the charter and laying the cornerstone. He sketched the characters of the leading men who spent time, talent and money in starting the institution, such

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as Davie, Treasurer John Haywood, Judge Alfred Moore, Alexander Mebane, Thomas Blount, and William H. Hill, the last three Representatives in Congress. Being called out Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips, Rev. J. A. Mason, Prof. A. F. Redd, and Professor Winston responded very happily and received hearty applause.

        On August 31, 1877, the Faculty, and the Executive Committee on their recommendation, again denied the application of Fraternities to be admitted into the University. But Phi Kappa Sigma first and later others existed sub rosa for some years until prohibition was removed and now (1912) the list includes Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Kappa Alpha, Beta Theta Pi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Pi Kappa Alpha, Sigma Nu, Phi Delta Theta, Alpha Tau Omega, Kappa Sigma, Phi Chi (Medical), and Omega Upsilon Phi (Medical). After their admission there naturally followed the erection of handsome houses, with sleeping rooms for members and other conveniences. The clubs applied to the Faculty and Trustees for permission to build on the margin of the Campus. But it was concluded that the fee simple of the ground should be owned by the fraternities, so that funds could be raised by mortgage. Therefore lots were bought of citizens of Chapel Hill, most of them just outside the northwest portion of the Campus. The principal halls are those of the Zeta Psi, Beta Theta Pi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma Nu, Beta Theta Pi, and Alpha Tau Omega. On the whole the fraternity men and the nonfraternity men have worked together amicably, but in the course of time jealousies arose, partly among one another but mainly among the "frats" and the "nonfrats," which will hereafter be related.


        President Battle became impressed with the evidence that our farmers suffer immense losses in the use of fertilizers: first, in buying the kind of fertilizers that the crops do not need; and second, in being defrauded by the manufacturer or the middleman, or both. He prepared a speech, which he delivered

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at fairs and many other appropriate places, also before the General Assembly, showing that the farming class would be benefited by the establishment of an Experiment Station at Chapel Hill. He offered, as he was authorized by the Trustees to do, to afford all proper laboratory facilities. He also obtained a joint meeting of the State Grange, of representatives of the University, of the several Agricultural Societies of the State, of the Patrons of Husbandry, and the State Geologist. Dr. Columbus Mills, Master of the State Grange, was called to the chair. The conference was addressed by President Battle, Professor Redd, Professor Kerr and Col. J. M. Heck. On motion of President Battle a committee was instructed to lay the matter before the General Assembly. The chairman appointed President Battle, Dr. W. C. Kerr, Col. L. L. Polk and Gen. R. F. Hoke, and on motion the chairman was added to the committee. President Battle wrote their report. The General Assembly passed an act carrying into effect their recommendations. They created a Board of Agriculture and levied a tax on commercial fertilizers, providing among other things for an Experiment Station and analysis of all such fertilizers, the station to be located at Chapel Hill, the chemist in charge to be elected by the Board of Trustees of the University.

        The Superintendent was employed by the Board of Trustees with the approval of the Board of Agriculture. His duty was to analyze the fertilizers and products required by the Department of Agriculture and aid in the suppression of fraud, carry on experiments on the nutrition and growth of plants, to ascertain what fertilizers are best suited to the crops of the State. He was to ascertain whether other crops may not be advantageously grown on our lands, and in general make such investigations as the Agricultural Department should prescribe. His salary was paid by the Department.

        In accordance with this law Albert R. Ledoux, of New York City, a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) of Columbia University and of Goettingen, a most capable chemist and judicious man of business, was elected, in 1877.

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        I give the results of two years' labor in this branch of University work, in order to show its character and efficiency:

        1. Every fertilizer sold in the State analyzed and the results published.

        2. All chemicals purchased for composting and home use analyzed.

        3. The quality and germinating power of all seeds sent to the station tested.

        4. Analysis of soils, marls, mineral waters, etc., made free of charge, when sent with the approval of the State Geologist or the Board of Agriculture.

        5. Sugar beets and other products analyzed when directed by the Board.

        6. Insects injurious to vegetation identified and the means of exterminating them pointed out--all free of charge.

        The liberality of the Board of Agriculture and the Trustees of the University fully equipped the Station for this work. Besides the necessary furnaces, apparatus and reagents, there was secured partly through donations by Mr. Warnecke and partly, at a small expense, from Germany, the most complete collection of seeds in any Agricultural College in the United States, embracing samples of the seeds, the grains, grasses, and weeds, exclusive of the "Centennial Collection" in the University Museum, over one thousand samples.

        The publications of the Station were of great value to farmers and were sent free of charge on application, such as Directions and Formulas for Composting, Directions for Utilizing Bones, Formulas for different crops, Analysis and Valuation of Fertilizers.

        The work of the Station was entirely acceptable to the people of the State, no complaint being made officially or otherwise. The assistants in addition to Messrs. W. B. Phillips and J. C. Taylor being W. Warnecke, of Germany, and A. D. Mickle, of Chapel Hill. It occupied four rooms in Smith Hall, one large laboratory for general work, a balance room, an assay room, and a dark room for work with the polariscope, and also two large store rooms in a neighboring building. In 1880 it was reported that there had been made 900 analyses, requiring 3,000 quantitative determinations. There had been written 5,000 letters on subjects bearing upon the work. In



        CHAS. W. DABNEY

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addition to the work heretofore detailed, the following was regularly undertaken: Search for poisons, sent by order of coroners and county superintendents of health; analysis of mineral waters, sent by the State Geologist; directions for making vinegar, for growing sugar beets; the determination of the value of pine straw; of the cowpea, etc.

        In 1880 Dr. Ledoux resigned his office in order to become the head of a flourishing Chemical Laboratory in New York City. He carried with him the reputation of consummate skill and ability as a chemist, an able and keen-sighted organizer of the Experiment Station, of a lofty, generous character, and a most courteous gentleman. He was succeeded by Charles W. Dabney, Jr., a Doctor of Philosophy of Goettingen, a most able and skillful officer, of acute initiative, of unimpeachable uprightness of conduct, in truth a most worthy successor to Dr. Ledoux, who carried forward the work under his charge to constantly expanding usefulness. In addition to the Assistants in the Department already mentioned were afterwards Wm. F. Bruggman and Herbert B. Battle.

        By Act of March 14, 1881, the Board of Agriculture was authorized to erect a suitable building in Raleigh wherein to carry on its rapidly growing work. Naturally it was desired to have the operations of the Experiment Station conducted under the same roof, and by permission of the General Assembly this removal was effected in that year.


        The address which President Battle delivered on the subject of the Relation of the University to the Farming Interests did not by any means exhaust his elocutionary labors. He spoke, by invitation, at the closing exercises of many schools, at Agricultural Fairs, before the Members of the General Assembly, and on many other occasions in this State and South Carolina; but his address showing how the farmers were benefited by a University education was most noticed by the press and by individuals. He was greatly flattered by a unique compliment paid him by a plump, gray-haired farmer at Walhalla, South Carolina. He was humorously satirizing the agricultural

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class for want of discretion in the purchase of commercial fertilizers and the use of those not adapted to the needs of the crops. He said that they acted as unwisely as would a physician who would prescribe calomel or quinine, ipecac or strychnine without seeing the patient or inquiring whether the trouble was fever or rheumatism, pneumonia or heart disease. The old gentleman laughingly observed to his neighbor, "Don't he call us d--d fools nice."

        He accepted every invitation to speak within the range of possibility. Once he was able to address schools at Wilson, Newton and at Yadkin College, in Davidson County, during the same week. Nor did he confine himself to addressing schools and Agricultural Fairs at their invitation. He met the people of a number of counties at their courthouses, alumni of the University advertising the meetings. It was while waiting for his time to begin at the courthouse in Asheville that he chanced to hear the first prisoner testify in her own defense under a recent Act of the Assembly. It was the case of a woman indicted for retailing spirituous liquors without license. She soon convicted herself. During the examination she had a baby in her arms, who clamored lustily for the sustenance for which he tugged vainly from her skinny breast. Judge Dick ordered her to get rid of the child. She handed him to the Judge who rejected the gift most hastily. She then motioned to some one in the crowd who relieved her of her burden. In passing sentence the Judge said: "I am doubtful what to do with this woman. If I imprison her I must imprison the child and he has not broken the law. Let judgment be suspended on the payment of costs." The woman went on her way rejoicing and then it leaked out that the child was not hers. It was borrowed to play on the notable kindheartedness of Judge Dick.

        Besides these speeches directly connected with the University, President Battle was called on to deliver others, which he thought might at least keep it before the public. Among these were "The Early History of the City of Raleigh"; "Fifty Years of the Episcopal Church in the United States," at the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the ordination of

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Bishop Lyman; "Life and Services of Brigadier-General Sumner," at the Guilford Battle Ground Celebration; "Laymen of the Church of England in the Province of North Carolina"; "Early History of the University of North Carolina," before the Wilmington Historical Society; "The Importance of the Teacher's Calling," before the State Teachers' Association; "The Character of George E. Badger," before the Siler City Academy; "The Constitutional History of North Carolina," at the Commencement of Davidson College; "Trials and Judicial Proceedings of the New Testament," before the American Institute of Christian Philosophy in New York.

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        The General Assembly by Act ratified March 9, 1877, authorized the State Board of Education to establish a Normal School in connection with the University for the purpose of teaching and training young men of the white race for teachers of the common schools of the State. Two thousand dollars a year for two years was appropriated and a like amount was authorized for colored teachers at other places.

        Governor Vance called a meeting of the Board, requesting President Battle to be present and submit such recommendations as the Faculty and himself chose to make as to the constitution of the school. Two plans were suggested. One was to add to the Faculty a Professor of Normal Teaching. The other was strongly recommended by Dr. Barnas Sears, Superintendent of the Peabody Fund, of worldwide fame as an educator, once the head of the public school system of Massachusetts. It was to have a free Summer School at the University, throwing open its halls and lecture rooms, and also its dormitories, and employing the best experts obtainable in all the branches taught in the schools. Such was his faith in this scheme that he offered to aid by giving $500 out of the Peabody Fund to pay the expenses of poor teachers. The Faculty almost unanimously endorsed it, President Battle being strongly in its favor. When it was recommended to the Board of Education Governor Vance said in substance, "Why! with such a project we can electrify the State from Cherokee to Currituck."

        The organization of the school was placed by the Board under the charge of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Hon. J. C. Scarborough, and President Battle, who always worked in entire harmony. It was resolved to open it on the third of July, to continue six weeks. President Battle, on account of Mr. Scarborough's duties calling him elsewhere,

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had general control, including the employment of lecturers and disbursement of the fund for the expenses of poor teachers.

        An important question came up at the outset. The Act authorizing the school confined its benefits to male teachers and those desiring to be teachers. It was exceedingly important that females should be included. The Board of Education took the ground and the University concurred, that while the public money could not be paid to females, there could be no objection to their attending the sessions, and they were accordingly invited to take advantage of all the exercises. Their presence contributed much to the success of the school, and Dr. Sears gave them their share of the $500 appropriation for poor teachers. The Act by its terms only lasted two years, but at the end of the time it was renewed until repealed and the restriction as to sex was removed.

        The object of the school was to teach the latest and most improved methods of managing classes, arousing interest, imparting knowledge, and developing the minds of the pupils, at the same time giving instruction in the subjects usually taught in the schools. Only acknowledged experts were employed, whether residents of North Carolina or elsewhere.

        The Superintendent employed was recommended by Dr. Sears, Prof. John J. Ladd, of Vermont, a graduate of Brown University, who had worked in the public schools of New England and lastly was Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Staunton, Virginia, a man of large experience in such work. He had the general management and each morning delivered lectures of singular point and common sense, with clear and appropriate illustrations. No one could listen to his instruction without having his enthusiasm aroused and having hints as to how wisely to arouse enthusiasm in others. Prominent inhabitants of Chapel Hill, not connected with the schools, attended regularly these lectures.

        He was assisted by a staff of teachers chosen solely for their skill in their special lines, no matter in what locality they resided, disregarding denominational and college affiliations. The branches taught are Arithmetic, written and mental; Grammar, Analysis, Geography, Reading, Orthography, Phonics,

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Penmanship, Vocal Music, School Discipline, Methods, Organization, Qualifications, Legal Relations of Teacher, Parent, and Child. The instruction was by recitation and lectures occupying seven hours a day. Prof. S. H. Owen, late Superintendent of the Public Schools of Petersburg, Virginia, and late President of Deshler Female Institute of Tuscumbia, Alabama, had charge of Geography. Prof. Alexander McIver, formerly Superintendent of Public Instruction in North Carolina, Professor of Mathematics in Davidson College, and now Principal of the Graded Schools of Greensboro, was chief of the department of Mathematics. Prof. Julius L. Tomlinson, former Professor of Santa Barbara University and late Professor in Central Teachers' Institute, had charge of the English Language and Literature. Mr. Eugene H. Wilson, assisted by his brother, Mr. Charles L. Wilson, both accomplished musical instructors, gave lessons in singing. Prof. George T. Winston, Professor of Latin and German in the University, organized a class in the Latin Language. Mr. John E. Dugger, Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Raleigh, was Secretary.

        The number of pupils enrolled was two hundred and thirty-five, of whom one hundred and twenty-eight were men, one hundred and seven women. One hundred and seventeen were actual teachers, the rest as a rule designing to teach. Forty-two counties were represented.

        In addition to the regular instruction, public lectures were delivered by prominent men at night before the school and all comers. They were very instructive and inspiring, especially to those students who were residents of places far from the centers of population. The following list will show the character of these addresses, which were listened to with the most intense interest.

        His Excellency, Governor Vance, on "America the Granary of the World." Prof. W. C. Kerr, State Geologist, three lectures, on the "Formation of Coal," on the "Climatology of North Carolina," and on "Iron and Iron Ores." These lectures were illustrated with maps, diagrams, and stereopticon views. The third was at the mouth of the iron mine near Chapel Hill, to which the school made an excursion. Prof. A.

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W. Mangum on "The Sufficiency of the Bible for the Religious Needs of the World." Prof. J. N. Moffatt, two lectures on "What is Education?" and on "Poets and Poetry." Hon. F. H. Busbee on "The Correlation of Forces." Hon. A. M. Waddell on "Two Americans--Morse and Maury." Dr. R. H. Lewis, of Raleigh, on "The Eye as Affected by School Life." Dr. George W. Graham, "The Ear, Its Structure and Functions." Judge A. S. Merrimon on "Our Public Evils and Their Remedies." Dr. Eugene Grissom on "Mental Hygiene for Pupil and Teacher." Judge John Kerr on "Public and Private Education." Major Robert Bingham on "The Anglo-Saxon Race." Hon. Paul C. Cameron on "Agriculture and Its Changed Condition." Prof. George T. Winston on the "Historic Value of Words." Prof. S. H. Owen, several lectures on "What is Normal Instruction?" Prof. A. McIver, several lectures on "Physiology." Prof. J. S. Tomlinson, two lectures on "California." President Battle on "The History of the University and Its Relation to Agricultural Training." In addition to the regular instruction the male teachers were encouraged to form a Debating Society. They entered into it with spirit. The meetings were public and largely attended.

        In order to promote mutual acquaintance and sociability a weekly meeting of all the school, reinforced by citizens of the village, was had in the University Library, which was then free of alcoves. Here couples, introduced to each other by the energetic tact of Secretary Dugger, promenaded and chatted until the prescribed hour for breaking up, eleven o'clock p. m. Singing and recitations were features of the gathering, so that the "Cold Water Walk Arounds," as these meetings were appropriately called, gave much pleasure and incidentally profit in the practice of easy manners.

        Another pleasant and significant feature of the school was the visits of prominent teachers and other intelligent persons, who came to inspect the novel and much-talked-of enterprise. They did not hand in their names to the Secretary for enrollment, but they gave to the school their approval and spread abroad its prestige. Many of the inhabitants of Chapel Hill were regular attendants upon the exercises. Among the visitors

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from abroad was the Superintendent of Public Instruction of South Carolina, Hon. Hugh Thompson, afterwards Governor, who was so pleased that he inaugurated a similar school in his own State.

        The following lines were found on the breakfast table of President Battle and were recited with great applause at the Normal Concert on the night of Wednesday, the 8th of August. The author was Mrs. C. P. Spencer.


                         Let us sing to the Normal School,
                         Where Nature, not Art, is the rule,
                         Where the teacher is brought
                         Like a child to be taught,
                         What is that we call Education?
                         That not all the knowledge
                         He gains in a college,
                         Not the problems that vex,
                         Nor the laws that perplex,
                         Nor the strongest reliance
                         On what he calls "Science,"
                         Are all he needs in his vocation.
                         But he learns that the teacher,
                         As well as the preacher,
                         Must raise his thoughts higher
                         Than selfish desire
                         Of wealth, or of fame, or mere worldly well-doing.
                         That to hear the "Well done,"
                         When his race he has run,
                         He must labor and "tho' faint, be pursuing."

                         'Twas with very much wondering,
                         And laughing and blundering,
                         To the famous old Hill
                         We came with a will,
                         By way most informal,
                         To look at the Normal,
                         Not dreaming of what would befall,
                         And oh! it is past telling,
                         The reading and spelling,
                         The grammar and the writing,
                         And the lectures we delight in,
                         And the kindness that we met withal.
                         Time would fail should we tell
                         Of the campus and well,

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                         Of the walks
                         And the talks,
                         And the tuneful college bell.
                         What a treasure
                         Is the pleasure
                         That the six weeks have brought us.
                         Our hearts will ever burn
                         When our memories we turn
                         To the thoughts of the lessons they have taught us.
                         When each of us became
                         As a little child again,
                         And sat low at the feet of a master.
                         Our pulse will beat faster
                         As we think of the long summer days;
                         When all the good and the great
                         Who adorn our native State,
                         Came to help and to cheer and to praise.

                         And now ere we go,
                         Let us pay the thanks we owe
                         To the college and the President,
                         And every Chapel Hill resident,
                         For the kindness and the grace
                         That have so endeared the place.
                         Never was there such a Ladd,
                         As this Normal School has had
                         To point them to their duty,
                         And show them all the beauty
                         Of a self-denying labor
                         For the welfare of their neighbor.
                         Such instruction makes us glad,
                         Every lass must love a Ladd.
                         And what true and hearty gratitude
                         We shall ever be Owen
                         To him who has been showin'
                         Us his notions
                         Of the ocean,
                         Of climate, dry and wet,
                         And of longitude and latitude.

                         In Professor A. McIver,
                         His quotients and his fractions
                         And other such distractions,
                         We are, each, a firm believer,
                         For though he teased us much,
                         He pleased us much.
                         And though Prof. Winston*

        * Pronounce the name Wine-stone by poetical license.

                         Kept our noses on the grindstone,
                         In a brave attempt to grind
                         A bit of Latin into our mind,
                         Yet our thanks must be sent,
                         For we know 'twas kindly meant.
                         And as for Mr. Wilson,
                         We are sure that Madame Nilsson,
                         Though the world is ringing
                         With her singing,
                         Never draws
                         More applause
                         Than our master's skilful rule
                         Merits from his grateful school.
                         Now when all is said and done,
                         Here's Professor Tomlinson--**

        ** Professor Tomlinson was a Quaker and a bachelor.

                         For such a Friend indeed
                         We have verily a need,
                         As many a kind glance will confer;
                         Yet with every disposition
                         To suggest
                         That a change in his condition
                         Would be best--
                         Alas! is all we can express.
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                         And now, friends, fare ye well!
                         Our pen will never tell
                         Of our heart's true and lasting emotion.
                         Never more,
                         As heretofore,
                         Shall we rove
                         Through the grove--
                         But in that Higher School,
                         Where Christ Himself doth rule;
                         And there we may believe
                         The faithful teacher shall receive
                         The reward of his life-long devotion.

        Of course among so many young people gathered together in the beautiful Campus, there was some love making, but never a scandal or harsh criticism. Some happy marriages owe their beginning to the social attraction of the University of North Carolina Summer Normal School. Among them for

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example the eminent Father of higher female education by the State, Dr. Charles D. McIver, gained his life partner here.

        It is difficult to understand at the present day the amount of interest and enthusiasm created by this Normal School throughout this State and elsewhere in the South. It was imitated by the University of Virginia, South Carolina, Mississippi, and perhaps other States. It was the fons et origo of many graded schools. Dr. Sears affirmed that it was the first summer school in the Union connected with any university or college. On account of his connection with the Peabody Fund he watched with deepest interest all efforts tending to advance public education. He was greatly pleased with the success of our school, and wrote President Battle as follows:

STAUNTON, VA., Aug. 18, 1877.


        MY DEAR SIR:--I write a word to congratulate you on the splendid success of your Normal School. Many things and many men seem to have contributed to this result, but I know enough of such matters to know that he who has had the marshalling of all the forces has been the chief agent. I feel greatly obliged to you for the wisdom, energy and great labor on your part, which has made the whole movement so auspicious.

Yours truly,

General Agent.

        In another letter, dated September 10, 1877, Dr. Sears wrote: "I expected some measure of success, but nothing like what has been realized. I am happy to see this new evidence of what I knew before, that all grades of instruction are reciprocally dependent on each other. The University men are to throw their light on all the lower schools, and these in turn are to be feeders of the higher. * * * You are now doing a great thing for the State. It is fortunate that we can work together with so much mutual confidence."

        Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer, ever on the lookout for means to advance the success of the University, was a most efficient co-worker, in increasing the prestige of the Summer School. With the aid of her daughter Julia, now the wife of Professor James Lee Love, of Cambridge, Mass., she sent

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full reports of the lectures to the public press. They were duly published and turned the attention of thousands of readers to the important work going on at Chapel Hill.


        During this year was organized a band of four burglars, whose crimes seriously threatened the prosperity of the Normal School and alarmed the inhabitants of the neighborhood. Six houses in different parts of the village and in its neighborhood were entered, the miscreants aiming for rooms in which were sleeping young ladies. On one of them rude hands were laid, but her screams frightened them into a rapid retreat. At last it became known that a widow, Mrs. Margaret Hendon, had received a remittance from her Southern plantation, the amount of course greatly exaggerated, and a little before midnight two of them, leaving two on the outside, boldly forced her front door and then her bed chamber. She rushed to the window and screamed for help. A blow was aimed at her head with the blade of an axe which gave her a deep scalp wound. Other blows followed with a small club. Fortunately her screams were heard by Mr. John Mallett and his father, Dr. Wm. P. Mallett, and the son, quickly followed by the father and some colored boys sleeping in an outhouse, rushed to her help and the robbers fled without obtaining the money. Their victim languished for some weeks, but recovered.

        This transaction aroused the village to fever heat. Patrols were appointed to watch the town at night. An expert detective from Richmond was employed. Leading citizens acted as voluntary detectives. Almost by accident one Albert Atwater, colored, was detected in a minor offense. While a prisoner he became frightened and confessed that he, with two white men and one colored had committed all the burglaries, one or more watching on the outside while the others entered the houses. They were tried in Orange Superior Court and convicted of burglary and three were hanged on the 16th of April, 1878--all except Atwater, who, allowed to turn State's evidence, escaped with a period of imprisonment, but died soon afterwards. The condemned admitted that they had a fair trial and that the

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jury was justified in finding a verdict against them on the evidence, but asserted that some of the evidence was false. The Governor (Jarvis) was importuned to grant a pardon or commutation, but after thorough investigation refused. The chief ground pressed on the Governor was that a white man should not be hanged on the evidence of a negro, but it was shown that there were corroborating circumstances pointing to guilt. The Judge, the Solicitor, and lawyers assisting the Solicitor, including Thomas Ruffin, Jr., late a Judge of the Supreme Court of the State, had no doubt of guilt.

        The execution had a wonderfully good effect. There was not a burglary in this neighborhood for many years afterwards, and in the limits of Chapel Hill not one to this day.


        In 1878 the Committee of Visitation, Hon. John Manning and ex-Judge Wm. H. Battle, and General Julian S. Carr, reported most favorably on "the character and thoroughness of the instruction and the good behavior and morals of the students."

        The Commencement of 1878 was very brilliant. As an index to the attendance it may be mentioned that at the annual ball, held after the regular exercises were over, the reporter interviewed and described the dresses of seventy-eight ladies, stating that there were others that he was not able to meet. The seventy-eight were from Alabama, Virginia, and from Raleigh, Hillsboro, Fayetteville, Wilson, Richmond County, Greensboro, Yadkin County, Pittsboro, Charlotte, Pitt County, Halifax, Wilmington, and other points. Of course gentlemen attended these ladies, and there were numbers who were not in their service. On the last day large numbers came in from the country within a few miles of Chapel Hill. The reporter counted one hundred and seventeen vehicles between Commons Hall and the Chapel. There was also in attendance the Orange County Guards, a fine company, under Captain Halcott Jones.

        The Baccalaureate sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. George Patterson, then of Wilmington, afterwards of Memphis, of the

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Episcopal Church. He was by descent half Greek, his father named Papatharkes, but becoming an American missionary, changed his name to the equivalent, Patterson. His mother was of Massachusetts. He was a man of eloquence and power, not diminished by some harmless eccentricities. He preached on the "Race of Life," prefacing with a vivid description of the Grecian games and the regulations governing it.

        The address before the two Literary Societies on Wednesday morning was by Major Joseph A. Engelhard, an honor man of the graduating class of 1854, then Secretary of State, an Adjutant-General in the Confederate Army. His subject was "The Duty of Young Men of the South at the Present Time." The discourse teemed with sound and patriotic advice, all the more appreciated because he had served four years in the Confederate Army, mainly under Lee. His peroration was much admired. "My young friends! I ask you to look into your hearts and commence there the exalted work I have proposed for you and the youth of the country. Your hearts are the altars on which must burn the fires of our country's liberty and honor. These altars are no longer made of stone and brass. They are composed of immortal emotions and thoughts. As the best means of preserving our country's honor watch and guard your own: 'it is the immediate jewel of your souls.' Let the life of each of you be the record of your country and humanity, and next to, and part of, your duty to your God; preserve your own characters, always remembering that honor is the armor of the true gentleman. Keep yours as bright as the diamond and the jewel that adorns your breast will be the shield that defends it."

        Hon. James Grant, ex-Judge of the Superior Court of Iowa, delivered a most interesting and instructive address before the Alumni Association. He graduated here in 1831, taught school a year and concluded to seek his fortunes in the then far west. Leaving Raleigh on horseback and alone he stopped at Chicago, then a mere hamlet, but not liking the place he continued his journey and settled at Davenport, Iowa. Here he engaged in the practice of the law, and, according to the custom of the members of the bar of that region, in land speculation.

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He was very successful, rising to the dignity of Judge and accumulating a handsome fortune. In the early part of his address he gave sketches of our old Professors, and then launched into a description of the wonderful progress of the age, especially of the United States. The address was so full of instruction that a copy was asked for publication.

        The original orations of the representatives of the two societies were pronounced to be most creditable. In the choice of these the Faculty had no part. The speakers were as a rule fair specimens of the best society orators, but occasionally afterwards one triumphed mainly because of his being a leader in one of the "Factions" as they were called. Of these among the Di's there were three, the South Building, the West Building, and the New West Building parties. Among the Phi's they were East and South Buildings. It is difficult to explain the difference between these parties. Probably they were not divided on account of any matter of principle, but by the accident of rooming in separate dormitories. The South Building faction, roughly speaking, corresponded to the subsequent fraternities. Although these parties had only a loose organization, with no by-laws or permanent place of meeting, University public opinion held the students very firmly bound and much rancorous feeling ensued from one claiming the privilege to renounce his faction and join another.

        The speakers of the Philanthropic Society and their subjects were: David Bell, Enfield, "The Voice of the People"; James Smith Manning, Pittsboro, "Communism in America"; Robert Watson Winston, Windsor, "Chivalry." From the Dialectic Society there were: Robert Strange, Wilmington, "What Shall be Done With the Turk?"; Edward Benson Engelhard, Wilmington, "Does Defeat Make Treason?"; James Madison Leach, Jr., Lexington, "Philosophy and Effects of Popular Election."

        The audience seemed to favor Mr. Leach, next to him Mr. Strange, and then Messrs. Engelhard and Winston. The first named and the third died early, the second became a Bishop. Winston is an able lawyer and has been a Judge.

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        Thursday, Commencement Day, was perfect as to weather and there was a large company and much enjoyment. There was a procession led by the Salem Cornet Band, at the head of which was the Chief Marshal, Charles B. Aycock. Behind them were the Orange County Guards. After them came students, alumni, citizens of Chapel Hill and vicinity, visitors, teachers, parents and guardians, clergy, Faculty, Trustees, State officers, and lastly Governor Vance and President Battle. The custom of baring the head passing the grave of President Caldwell was kept up. At the Chapel the procession paused, opened ranks and entered in reverse order.

        The exercises began with the singing of the following hymn, attributed to Mrs. Spencer:

                         Oh God, our father's God, whose care
                         With blessings fills the circling year,
                         Rememb'ring Thee in all our ways,
                         We bring our annual song of praise.

                         We bless Thy name, Almighty God,
                         Who giv'st us here a sure abode,
                         For all the favor Thou hast shown
                         The State and age we call our own.

                         Here Freedom spreads her banners wide,
                         Here learning and religion guide,
                         By heavenly Truth's unfading ray,
                         Our youth in Wisdom's narrow way.

                         "Eternal source of every joy"!
                         Well may Thy praise our life employ,
                         And all our powers unite to bless
                         The Lord, our strength and righteousness.

        A prayer led by Rev. Frank L. Reid, President of the Louisburg Female College, followed the hymn. Then came the speeches of the Seniors. Their names and subjects are given:

  • William Pinckney Cline, Newton, "The Anglo-Saxon."
  • James Mann Nicholson, Enfield, "The Dollar of Our Fathers."
  • Nathaniel Heath Street, New Bern, "Be Men, Live Men, Die Men!"
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  • Henry Thomas Watkins, Henderson, "Utah and the Mormons."
  • Edward John Hill, Faison, "Other Worlds."
  • John Bryan Lewis, Raleigh, "None but True Americans on Guard."
  • Arthur Arrington, Louisburg, "Choosing a Vocation."
  • Charles Wilcher Gallaway, Mt. Airy, "The Real in the Mythical."
  • George McCorkle, Newton, "Why Leave North Carolina?"

        In the afternoon Colonel John H. Wheeler, author of Wheeler's History, delivered an interesting historical address on Theodosia (Burr) Alston. He inclined to the opinion that the portrait recently discovered in the cabin of a fisherman is that of Aaron Burr's daughter, Theodosia, and that she was either lost in a shipwreck or was made to "walk the plank" by a pirate. After discussing this question Colonel Wheeler narrated the principal events of Burr's life, especially after the killing of Hamilton.

        The services were concluded by singing a Psalm to the tune of "Old Hundred," and the benediction by Rev. Dr. Patterson.

        The graduates of 1878 were:


  • Arthur Arrington, Louisburg.
  • James Hicks Faison, Faison.
  • Charles Wilcher Gallaway, Mt. Airy.
  • Edward John Hill, Faison.
  • George McCorkle, Newton.
  • James Mann Nicholson, Enfield.
  • Henry Thomas Watkins, Henderson . . . . . 7


  • William Pinckney Cline, Newton . . . . . 1


  • Nathaniel Heath Street, New Bern . . . . . 1

        Henry Barber Nixon, graduated in the College of Mathematics; Charles Brantley Aycock, Robert Ernest Caldwell, Alfred Daniel Jones, and John Bryan Lewis in the College of Philosophy, and Marcus Cicero Stephens Noble in the School of Latin.

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        The following medals were granted:

  • LATIN--Frank Battle Dancy.
  • CHEMISTRY--Ernest Haywood.
  • ORATORY--Arthur Arrington.
  • GERMAN--James Smith Manning.

        The following honorary degrees were conferred on the recommendation of the Faculty:

        Doctor of Laws (LL.D.): Ex-Judge James Grant, of Iowa, graduate of 1831; ex-Chief Justice Thomas C. Manning, of Louisiana, alumnus of 1843.

        Doctor of Divinity (D.D.): Rev. James M. Sprunt, Duplin County; Rev. John J. Roberts, New York, a graduate of 1838.

        Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.): Hon. J. B. Killebrew, of Tennessee, graduate of 1856.

        Master of Arts (A.M.): Prof. W. M. Brookins, Ohio; W. J. B. Wesson.

        The Marshals were as usual efficient and well supported the dignity of the occasion. They were Charles B. Aycock, Chief, with John M. Manning, Joseph E. Ransom, and Frank K. Borden, of the Philanthropic Society, and John C. Angier, Thomas I. McNeill, and Charles C. Covington, of the Dialectic. The Philanthropic Society at first elected a law student, Neil A. McLean. The members of the opposition party protested before President Battle that he was ineligible as the law passed by the Trustees confined the office to undergraduates of the Junior Class, and at that time law students were not subject to the ordinary University discipline and classification. Mr. McLean gracefully retired. But the party to whom the Society had already given the three Assistants also coveted the place of Chief. Their candidate was, however, defeated by Mr. Aycock. Mr. McLean, by his ready acquiesence in the adverse ruling of the Faculty, was entitled to and received their approbation. If he had insisted on his claim of right to the office it is certain that he would have been sustained by the majority of the Philanthropic Society, and we would have had a repetition of the trouble of 1852. He was excellently qualified for the position, having talent and goodly appearance and having learned how to manage men when Captain in

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the Bingham School. He afterwards became a State Senator and a prominent lawyer.

        The first chosen Chief Marshal of this notable Commencement was Frank Wood, a member of the Philanthropic Society, but he was prevented from accepting the office on account of a trip to Europe.

        The Ball Managers were Alva C. Springs, Chief, of the Dialectic Society; Joseph C. Dowd and Thomas Edmundson, Phi's, and Charles C. Cobb and Lucien H. Walker, Di's.

        In 1877-'78 Professor Redd took General and Analytical Chemistry; Professor Graves, Engineering and Physics; Frederick Wm. Simonds, M.S. (Cornell), succeeded Professor Smith, resigned--his department was Geology, Zoölogy, and Botany; Professor Grandy became Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Botany; Professor Simonds became Librarian; Professor Grandy, Secretary.


        The Normal School was opened June 18th and closed July 26th. Before enrollment the teachers were addressed by President Battle, Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips, Rev. J. F. Heitman, and Rev. Dr. A. W. Mangum, of the Methodist Church, and Rev. A. C. Dixon, of the Baptist Church. These all gave a hearty welcome to Chapel Hill and urged strongly the importance of a teacher's calling. They were followed by Prof. J. J. Ladd, who expressed his pride in being engaged in this glorious work. He regarded his connection with the Normal School of North Carolina as a crowning event of a long life as a teacher.

        President Battle had general charge; Prof. John J. Ladd was Superintendent and Lecturer on Methods, School Management, Discipline, etc.; Mr. S. H. Owen had charge of Geography and Reading, Phonetics, and Penmanship; Alexander McIver had charge of Mathematics, English Grammar, and Physiology; Major Jed Hotchkiss lectured on Geography and the methods of teaching it; J. Madison Watson lectured on Elocution; Walter H. Page was Professor of English Philology;

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George T. Winston and M. C. S. Noble were Professors of the Latin Language; R. H. Graves was Professor of Algebra; C. D. Grandy lectured on Chemistry; Messrs. E. M. Wilson and C. L. Wilson were teachers of Vocal Music; Prof. J. E. Dugger was Secretary.

        So much attention had been given in recent years to the training of children it was thought best to employ an instructor in the Kindergarten system. An accomplished exponent of the system was found in Miss Emily M. Coe, of New York City, who regularly taught a special class of teachers, and also delivered lectures on the subject before the whole school. Fifty-three children of various ages were daily drilled under her guidance by the members of the Kindergarten Class. This is thought to be the first Normal Kindergarten class in North Carolina.

        In addition to the regular instruction by the Faculty of the school lectures on important subjects were delivered by prominent gentlemen of this State and elsewhere. A list of their names and subjects are given.

  • President Battle: "History of the Selection of the Site of the University."
  • Maj. Robert Bingham: "The English Bible."
  • General Thomas L. Clingman: "Follies of the Positive Philosophers."
  • Major Seaton Gales: "The Nineteenth Century."
  • Hon. S. F. Phillips, Solicitor-General U. S. A.: "Influence of the Normal School on Education in North Carolina."
  • Prof. A. W. Mangum: "History of Church Customs."
  • Hon. J. C. Scarborough: "Defects of the Public School System in North Carolina."
  • Governor Vance: "Practical Education and Its Importance to North Carolina."
  • Major Jed Hotchkiss: Three lectures, on "Geography" and "Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign."
  • Prof. John R. Blake: "Natural Science: Its Importance."
  • Dr. Thomas W. Harris: "The Circulation of the Blood."
  • Miss Coe: "Color and Form."
  • Prof. J. Madison Watson: Four lectures, on Teaching Reading, on Spelling and Letter Sounds; two on Elocution.
  • Rev. Dr. J. Henry Smith: "The Importance of Little Things."
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  • Judge R. P. Dick: "The Bible as a Textbook."
  • Prof. W. C. Kerr: "The Geology of North Carolina."
  • Prof. C. D. Grandy: "The Spectroscope."
  • Rev. Dr. C. H. Wiley: "The History of Our Public School System."
  • Rev. Dr. T. H. Pritchard: "The English Language."
  • Rev. Dr. N. B. Cobb: "Phonography."
  • Hon. L. L. Polk, Commissioner of Agriculture: "What Are the Demands of Our State and How Shall We Meet Them?"
  • Prof. George T. Winston: Two lectures, on "The Character of the Romans" and on "Latin Pronunciation."

        This was a brilliant session of the school. The total number in attendance was four hundred and two, of whom one hundred and ninety were women. The number of counties represented was fifty-nine. Among the new features were the novel and suggestive lectures of Major Hotchkiss, of Staunton, Virginia, particularly his illuminating story of the Valley Campaign of Stonewall Jackson; the lectures of Mr. Watson, writer of popular school books and teacher in the schools of New York; the teachings on English Philology by Mr. Page, illustrated by extracts from the great authors, particularly Shakespeare; the best methods of teaching Algebra, Latin, and Chemistry, by University Professors, Messrs. Graves, Winston, and Grandy; the introduction into the State of kindergarten instruction, by the accomplished Miss E. M. Coe, of New York, while the vocal music was further extended by the addition of Mr. Charles Wilson, who formed choirs and glee clubs while his brother taught the school at large. The singing added liveliness and happiness to the school and enabled the teachers to secure the same result among their classes.

        An inspection of the list of lecturers will enable one to realize what intellectual advantages were enjoyed during this school. General Clingman was then in his prime and discussed his subject in a way to delight all orthodox hearers. Major Bingham handled his great subject in his usual able, thorough and unconventional style. Rev. Dr. J. Henry Smith and Judge Dick were, as always, strong and eloquent; Professor Kerr was the greatest then living authority on the Geology of North Carolina, and Professor Grandy explained lucidly the wonders of the spectroscope. Dr. Wiley's history was highest authority,

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as it might be said to him, "quorum magna pars fuisti." Rev. Dr. Pritchard was considered one of the ablest speakers in his church, the Baptist. Dr. Cobb showed how easily a bright mind could acquire shorthand writing. Colonel Polk's office gave him full opportunity to know the needs of the State and he well illustrated his subject. Dr. Winston's lectures showed much thought and impressive delivery. President Battle's History of the Selection of the Site of the University was listened to with great interest. Major Gales was considered one of the best speakers in the State and his lecture was one of his most admirable. Solicitor-General Phillips proved what we claimed, that the Normal School was almost revolutionizing education in North Carolina. Rev. Dr. Mangum was at his best in the History of Church Customs. Mr. Scarborough's long service as Superintendent of Public Instruction gave him full insight into the defects of the Public School system and he most forcibly pointed them out. Governor Vance showed his usual strength and forcible style in pointing out the advantages to individuals and to the State of practical education. Prof. John R. Blake, of Davidson College, gave a charming exposition of the importance of Natural Science, and Dr. Thomas W. Harris a lucid exposition on the Circulation of the Blood. And finally Miss Coe, in the graceful style for which women are conspicuous, lectured on Color and Form.

        The teachers in attendance organized a State Teachers' Association, and took steps toward the formation of County Associations. President Battle was elected President.

        The Normal students were allowed free use of the University Library, and by the courtesy of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies, of their libraries. The University Museum and Laboratories were likewise open for their use.

        The Normal School Debating Society, formed the previous year, was continued and was of great advantage in training how to speak and how to write. The orations and essays on the closing day by Messrs. C. W. Howard, R. P. Pell, J. M. Bandy, C. B. Aycock, R. S. Arrowood, J. H. Small, R. E. Caldwell, and W. R. Slade, were much praised by the large audience, both for matter and manner.

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        The fund placed in President Battle's hands by Rev. Dr. Sears, $500, supplemented from the State appropriation, for the payment of the expenses of indigent teachers, was carefully expended and was a blessing to many. By this aid eighty-three indigent teachers were enabled to attend the school. The fund was devoted almost entirely to defraying traveling expenses. The railroad companies of the State and the Blackwater line of steamboats likewise increased the attendance by granting reduced fares.

        Every exertion was made by giving the free use of the University dormitories, and the loan or rent of bedding, etc., as well as by supplying facilities for cooking for those desiring to board themselves, to reduce expenses to a minimum. Many persons of small means lived at a cost of only $4 or $5 per month, while others, from Orange and adjoining counties, and even from counties as remote as Randolph, Johnston, and Harnett brought their supplies and lived almost as cheaply as at home. The business agent of the school, Mr. Andrew Mickle, was indefatigable in counseling and assisting those needing his services.

        President Battle reported to the Board of Trustees that "the industry and efficiency of the instructors of the school, the enthusiasm, order, and devotion to duty of the students have achieved results of lasting benefit to the cause of education in the State." There were teachers in attendance who had spent years in their calling; there were teachers only beginning their work; there were those seeking to become qualified to take charge of schools. But, one and all, over four hundred of the best material in the State gave unanimous and earnest approval of the Normal School. They declared that they had their minds enlarged and quickened, their stores of information and power to acquire other stores, increased. They of their own accord united in a memorial to the General Assembly for the continuation of the school in the future, expressing the decided conviction that "the discontinuance would be a great misfortune to the State." The memorial was submitted to the Board of Education, who indorsed it and transmitted it to the General

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Assembly. The appropriation of $2,000 per annum was continued until repealed and its benefits were extended to females.

        The closing exercises of the school were of exceptional interest. They were preceded on the day before by the kindergarten class of nearly sixty children, many, quite young, exhibiting the perfection of their training under Miss Coe and her coadjutors. The same evening was the enjoyable concert, mostly vocal, but with guitar, piano, and violin music, very pleasurable. On the closing day Mr. A. J. Jones, President of the Debating Society, called out the speakers. Rev. J. F. Heitman, of the Methodist Church, offered prayer. The speeches and the essays were considered to be quite up to the standard of those of the average college graduate. Then Prof. John A. Woodburn, on behalf of the students, presented Professor Ladd with a gold headed cane, and Miss Nettie Marshall to President Battle a beautiful mantel clock, ornamented with a figure of the Genius of Education, a graceful woman pointing a boy at her side upward to Heaven. Both the presenters made very appropriate speeches, which met with impromptu replies, as the secret had been perfectly kept,--disproving the hoary gibes on woman for non-reticence.

        In the absence of the Governor, Mr. P. C. Cameron, President of the Board of Trustees of the University, in his usual forcible and happy style, closed the school. A hymn, composed by Mrs. C. P. Spencer especially for the occasion, was sung with spirit.

        Mr. John H. Mills, traveling with a Concert Class of the Oxford Orphanage, he being the Superintendent of the Asylum, met the Normalites going home as they spent the night at Durham. He wrote, "The Normal School is closing and these are the most affectionate students we ever saw. Such delicious promenades and tender adieus! They have enjoyed a Chapel Hill Commencement six weeks long. * * *Everybody was as happy as an old woman at a campmeeting. Long live President Battle, Governor Vance, the gifted Professors, and Brother Dugger! * * *Farewell, happy Normalites!"

        Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard, President of Wake Forest College, addressed the school, and on his return home gave his

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impressions in the Biblical Recorder. I give some quotations from his article:

        "It may not be inappropriate to say that Professors Grandy, Watson, Owen, and the Brothers Wilson are Baptists. The School continued six weeks wanting two days, and rarely has so much work been accomplished in so brief a period of time. There was an air of business about the whole thing that struck every one--everybody seemed to know everybody and to feel perfectly at home, and resolved to realize all the good they could out of the school while it lasted.

        "Did space allow I should like to describe in detail the exercises of a day, the morning worship, the lecture in Geography from Professor Owen; the striking system of instructing the very young, known as the Kindergarten System; the very wise and practical lectures of Professor Ladd on the discipline of school and the best methods of teaching; the classes for studying Arithmetic, Grammar, analyzing English, Latin; the Shakespeare class of Professor Page, and his lectures on the English language; the rare skill in singing, and the training of the Professors Wilson; all was interesting and must have been profitable in a high degree.

        "Almost every night there was a lecture on some important and interesting topic by prominent men from this and other States. Besides Major Hotchkiss, of Virginia, and the Hon. Samuel F. Phillips, of Washington, D. C., Governor Vance and Messrs. Polk, Wiley, I. H. Smith, Gales, Dick, Bingham, Pritchard, etc., addressed the school.

        "It would be difficult, I think, to estimate the good that must result from this school. The teachers were greatly benefited. Not only did they learn much as to the best methods of teaching and managing schools, books, etc., but they were obliged to be intellectually stimulated and quickened in a high degree, and besides this they formed valuable friendships, they came to appreciate their calling more highly; there was necessarily and naturally awakened in them an esprit de corps, which has already manifested itself in the formation of a State Teachers' Association. Then they, as well as the hundreds who visited the school, will take to their homes a quickened interest in the

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cause of education, to be felt, I trust, throughout the State, and exert an influence upon the coming Legislature by which our system of common schools will be greatly improved.

        "Of course, the Normal School is a splendid advertisement to the University. Dr. Battle and everybody else at Chapel Hill were so pleasant to all these strangers, and all the associations of the place were so delightful that very many of these teachers will feel very much like saying a good word for the University when they see a boy who wishes to go to college."

        Scores of eminent men of the State visited the school and their testimony coincided with that of Dr. Pritchard. Major Bingham said in a public address, "The establishment of the Normal School was the greatest event in the history of North Carolina of the past one hundred years. Its successes are more direct and affect the future of the State more than any event which has occurred or is likely to occur.

        "Again, this State is the first to connect the Normal School with her University, and put it under the control of the same. In this the State has done wisely. President Battle has done more for North Carolina in his efforts for education than any man in the State. This is the first time in the annals of the State that females have enjoyed the benefits of the public money." He eulogized the Normal School and stated that had he attended a Normal School many of his own defects would have been remedied. " * * * It will be a sad day in the State when the sun of the Normal School shines for the last time on the University Campus."

        These views from one of the most distinguished educators the State has, or ever had, are entitled to the utmost respect.

        Governor Vance made several addresses before the school. He congratulated in tones that gave depth and earnestness to his emotions the teachers present, and their teachers, and their friends, and the Faculty of the University, and the residents of Chapel Hill on the wonderful and most gratifying results of this experiment. And his messages to the General Assembly reiterated this view.

        Rev. Dr. A. D. Hepburn, the scholarly President of Davidson College, was as emphatic in his laudations. He congratulated

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President Battle "on being called by God's good providence to inaugurate this new movement in education; this effort to popularize culture, to show that the University was for all the citizens of the State."

        The commendations of scores of our best people, especially teachers, were equally strong. It can not be affirmed that the press of the State was unanimous in the same direction, but it is true that no contrary comment was ever heard of, and the leading newspapers endorsed the movement in strong terms. For example, the Raleigh Observer said, "The opening of the Normal School at the University inaugurated a movement the beneficial results of which will continue to be felt for all time to come, in fact we regard it as the actual dawn of a new, brighter, and better era in North Carolina."

        Solicitor-General S. F. Phillips said, "This Normal School is giving to the future of North Carolina a light possessed by no other movement since the war."

        University Day was in this year held for convenience sake on October 11th. The rostrum was beautifully decorated by ladies, above it the legend "Sicut patribus, 1776-1878." The Glee Club sang "The Old North State." President Battle then continued his History of the University, by giving an account of the several buildings, beginning with the Old East. The University Ode was sung and President Battle then introduced Hon. John W. Norwood, of Hillsboro, of the Class of 1824, who proceeded to give a most interesting history of his class. Out of eighty Freshmen only thirty-six took their degrees. After a lapse of twenty years only five were left in the State. Some great men belonged to the class, among them Wm. A. Graham, John Bragg, Matthias E. Manly, Edward D. Simms, Daniel B. Baker, James W. Bryan, A. J. DeRosset, Thomas Dews, Augustus Moore, David Outlaw, Blomfield L. Ridley. Only Judge M. E. Manly and Dr. A. J. DeRosset and the speaker were then surviving.

        The exercises were closed by a hymn sung by the Glee Club, and the benediction by Rev. Dr. Roe, of New Jersey, a relative of Dr. Charles Phillips.

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        It was remarked that Judge William H. Battle, who had been a Trustee since 1835, except for the interval from 1868 to 1874, and who had attended almost every public exercise of the University during that period, was present on this occasion, his last attendance on a public exercise. Fifty-eight years ago he had at his graduation delivered the valedictory oration from the rostrum in Person Hall. His interested face was seen at almost every Normal School exercise.


        On February 12, 1879, the Medical School was established by the Executive Committee in accordance with a scheme considered after consultation with Dr. Thomas W. Harris, late of Chatham County, a first honor graduate of 1859, an M.D. of Paris, a Captain in the Confederate Army, a physician of recognized skill and ability. Dr. Harris was elected Professor of Anatomy and Dean of the School. Prof. A. Fletcher Redd had charge of General and Analytical Chemistry, Frederick W. Simonds was Professor of Botany and Physiology. The design of the school was modest--to prepare students for attendance on the lectures of the leading medical colleges. For the first year's course instruction was given in the above named studies. For the second year instruction was by Dr. Harris in Anatomy, Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and the Practice of Medicine. Anatomy was taught by dissection of human subjects and by models, of which the Professor had a large collection of the make of the celebrated Auzoux. Then followed a short course in the operation of Surgery, in which Dr. Harris was well skilled. Free clinics were given once or twice a week and opportunity afforded to the students of seeing diseases at the clinic and at other times, and, under the direction of the Professor, of treating them. The Professor of Anatomy was not subject to University regulations and received no salary.

        Dr. Harris had exceptional advantages as Dean of the Medical School. He graduated at this University in 1858, being one of the first honor men in a class of ninety-three. He obtained his medical diploma at the University of New York.

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He then spent two years in hospital work in the famous Ecole de Medecine of Paris, France, devoting himself especially to Anatomy. He was medical attendant for nine months under the distinguished Velpeau. He studied diligently the latest French and other works and was abreast with the newest discoveries of his profession. He was very active and industrious, with a decided genius for his science.

        Dr. Harris was an able man and a good teacher, but the necessity of engaging in general practice resulted in such frequent absence from his classes that they continued very small. This caused his resignation and removal to Durham in 1885. The School of Medicine was then suspended for five years.

        While he was at the head of the department the body of a woman disappeared from a country graveyard. Shortly before bedtime an aged colored woman, once Judge Battle's cook, called on President Battle. She said, "Mars Kemp! them people are mighty mad about that body being stolen. They have got the right from the Mayor and are going to search the University and I thought you ought to know it." I suitably thanked her and went in the rain nearly a mile to the residence of Dr. Harris. He said simply, "They will not find anything," and they did not. It was never known who robbed the grave.

        There was much indignation and anxiety in the neighborhood. One man had the graves of his two daughters guarded by an armed watch for the nights of three weeks. It led to the passage by the General Assembly of an act making grave robbery a misdemeanor. The Professors gave their assurance to the people that no such act should be perpetrated by their students. For nearly thirty years the promise has been faithfully kept and the fears and anxieties of those whose relatives and friends lie in the ground have completely passed away.


        Judge William Horn Battle, on account of increasing infirmities, resigned his professorship in January, 1879, and died March 19th of the same year. He had been an enthusiastic and efficient Trustee for thirty-eight years, beginning with

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1833, and much of that time a member of the Executive Committee. He had been Professor of Law for twenty-three years. While he was not charged with enforcing the discipline of the University, after his removal to Chapel Hill in 1843 until the death of President Swain, in 1868, it was the constant habit of the President to consult him on all matters of difficulty connected with the government of the institution, and by invitation he attended Faculty meetings when not attending his courts.

        Judge Battle was born October 17, 1802, graduated at this University in 1820, among the highest honor men. He studied law with Chief Justice Henderson in Granville County, where he met the lady who afterwards became his wife, Lucy Martin Plummer, daughter of Kemp Plummer, a leader of the bar of Warrenton, N. C. He settled at Louisburg as a lawyer, was a Member of the Legislature; was joint Reporter with T. P. Devereux of the decisions of the Supreme Court; largely aiding in the extensive necessary copying. He was then sole Reporter until appointed in 1840 Superior Court Judge. In 1848 he was appointed by Governor Graham a Judge of the Supreme Court, but was not elected by the General Assembly, because there were already so many high officers from Orange County, and because he refused to solicit votes from Members of the Legislature. He was reinstated in his position as Superior Court Judge. In 1852 he was elected by the General Assembly to the Supreme Court and so continued until 1868, when he was not reëlected because he was opposed to the party dominant under the Reconstruction Acts of Congress. He then practiced law in Raleigh until 1876, for one year being president of the Raleigh National Bank. The next year he removed to Chapel Hill and was elected Professor of Law.

        In addition to his labors as lawyer, Reporter, Professor and Judge, he edited and annotated some of the early North Carolina Reports, republishing two volumes with copious notes. He also published four volumes of Digests. In 1836, with Chief Justice Nash and ex-Governor Iredell, he prepared and published the Revised Statutes, residing in Boston some months in order to read proof. He also prepared at his own charge

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Battle's Revisal, which was accepted by the General Assembly. Judge Battle, though without prejudice against the other denominations, was a faithful member of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He attended as a Delegate all of the Diocesan Conventions and was a Delegate to all the General Conventions, in the United States and in the Confederate States, from shortly before the War of Secession to his death. In 1865 he assisted Bishop Atkinson in reuniting the Episcopal Church.

        The Faculty attested that Judge Battle was "eminent for all the virtues and endowments that ennoble one's nature." "His career is an admirable instance of well poised intellectual and moral powers, under the influence of right principles, steadily applied to the accomplishment of high purpose and noble ends." These words were penned by Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper, who had been an intimate friend for a third of a century.

        Chief Justice Merrimon of the Supreme Court Bench said: "I shall not say that Judge Battle was a great man in any single respect, but he was great in the unity, symmetry, goodness and beauty of his character. His whole record is stainless."

        A writer in the University monthly says: "The period of his death is a memorable one and will ever be vivid to the students of 1879. On Sunday morning as the sun was rising the old College bell rang out for the students to do the last honor to the old man, the Judge, who had gone to his well earned rest. They escorted the remains to the edge of the village, and their committee went on to Raleigh to lay the body in state in the Capitol. Three days later, in the darkness of the night, the bell rang out again. At the dreary summons the students once more gathered. This time it was to perform the same service to one of their comrades, one who a short time before had been as happy and as thoughtless as any one. In double file they followed the corpse slowly and sorrowfully to the edge of the town. They thought as they separated of the strangeness of death--of the old man taken in the fullness of years, of the young man taken in his prime."

        Judge Battle's teaching in the University was from 1845 to 1868, and from 1877 to 1879. He was a Trustee from 1833

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to 1868 and from 1874 to 1879. While a resident of Raleigh, 1840 to 1843, he was an active member of the Executive Committee. He was an ardent lover of the University and infused that love into his wife and children. I give an incident of his early manhood, as indicating his temperate habits and as a lesson to young men to avoid spirituous liquors. Being in poor health his physician prescribed the old fashioned remedy, a toddy before breakfast. One morning while dressing he said, "Old Woman!" (a playful name he gave his wife), "Old Woman! I will not take another toddy!" "Why?" said she, "I think it is doing you good." "Well, I think so, too, but I found myself dressing fast in order to get to it. Don't make me another." And so he lived with mens sana in corpore sano.

        He was buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Raleigh, by his wife of forty-nine years, near children, parents, and other relatives. The young man above mentioned, Maurice H. Wilcox, found a resting place among his kindred in the cemetery of Warrenton.


        The Visiting Committee for 1879 were Rev. Dr. C. H. Wiley, Messrs. J. D. Cameron, J. S. Carr, John Manning, and Will H. Battle. Their report was very favorable. The Executive Committee were Governor Vance, B. F. Moore, Wm. H. Battle, Paul C. Cameron, William L. Saunders, and George V. Strong.

        Mr. P. C. Cameron brought before the Board the claims of his sister and President Swain. They were of high dignity, for money lent to the University for finishing the New East and New West Buildings. The principal of the former was $10,000, and accrued interest brought it probably to $15,000. The latter was at first $3,000 but increased to about $5,000. After discussion of the claims, the matter was referred to the Governor, K. P. Battle, and D. M. Carter. The committee after investigation found themselves unable to pay the debt for the reason that everything owned by the University, and whatever was given by the General Assembly or by private donors, were for the special purpose of carrying forward the

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work of the University and could be used for no other purpose. The Swain debt was left unpaid. Mr. P. C. Cameron determined to save his sister's claim by buying all the land sold under the decree of the court. This embraced some two hundred and fifty acres at Chapel Hill, decided by the court not to be necessary to the life of the University, and a large tract, whose extent was unknown, of escheated lands of David Allison, in the counties of Buncombe, Henderson and Transylvania. This tract after survey was found to be much larger than was expected and Mr. Cameron by a fortunate resale more than paid his sister's debt. The Trustees of the University took no step towards ascertaining the value of this land for in no event was it deemed possible to pay out of the proceeds the debts due the banks and all others. It was not deemed wise to expend out of the small amount in the treasury sums merely to increase the dividend on liabilities totally beyond their power to meet.

        The lands about Chapel Hill bought by Mr. Cameron have been mostly resold by him or by his executors. Part of this land is about seventy acres reaching to and comprising about one-half of Piney Prospect. It is to be hoped that means may be found to save this for the University. To lose Piney Prospect with its extensive vistas, described by Davie and resorted to by students and visitors for over a hundred years, would be a disaster. From it can be seen hundreds of square miles of the old Triassic Sea, with the spires and factory chimneys of Durham, the Main Building of Trinity College conspicuous above the trees. It gives the University the advantage of semi-mountainous scenery.


        The Seniors of the reconstructed University dearly coveted the privileges of their predecessors of the old régime, constantly petitioning for the same, never daunted by yearly refusals by the Faculty, until their stubborn denials were found to be final.

        They had heard of the Senior vacation of old times, giving the Seniors a month's holiday before Commencement. The

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reason assigned was that time was necessary to enable the speakers to prepare their orations. As these constituted only about one-third of the class there must have been another reason. It was in accordance with the policy of President Swain to aggrandize this class. It was a favorite maxim of his, "As is the Senior Class so is the University." Hence was granted this coveted holiday, and hence the "grave and reverend Seniors," besides this vacation, were required to attend only two-thirds of the hours of lectures, being exempted from the recitation before breakfast, a boon dear to the somnolent youth, and of real value to those of the diligent who devoted themselves to general reading.

        Such was the meagreness of entertainment of visitors at Commencement that the Secretary and Treasurer took the responsibility of expending $91.36 for purchasing bedding and other furniture for the accommodation of the Trustees. His action was ratified and the articles purchased were afterwards sold to students.

        The Chief Marshal was James M. Leach, Jr. His assistants were J. C. Dowd, J. H. Hill, E. P. Maynard, Philanthropics; R. D. Reid, C. A. McNeill, and C. D. McIver, Dialectics, the Chief belonging to the same society.

        Rev. Dr. Moses D. Hoge was on his way to the University to preach, by invitation, the sermon to the graduating class, the Baccalaureate sermon. At Durham he met President Battle, who informed him that Senator Thurman, who had agreed to deliver the annual address, was unable to carry out his promise. The Philanthropic Society, whose turn it was to choose the orator, requested Dr. Hoge, instead of a sermon, to take the Ohio Senator's place. He kindly consented and delivered without notes an address of great power and appropriateness on the "Nobility and Beauty of an Unselfish Life." He was introduced to the audience by Henry E. Faison, of the Philanthropic Society.

        At the meeting of the alumni, which took place after Dr. Hoge's address, Major J. W. Graham announced the death of ex-Judge Wm. H. Battle, president of the Association, and nominated Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper, as president pro tem.,

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in his place. Being unanimously elected he took the chair, and Mr. Fabius H. Busbee introduced Hon. Samuel Field Phillips. Solicitor-General of the United States, the meeting being public. His address was of great excellence. Graduating in 1841 at the University, one of the first honor men, he soon was regarded as one of our ablest lawyers and ultimately attained the eminent dignity of Solicitor-General of the United States. Among other topics he eulogized in glowing terms three of our graduates, who had recently died, B. F. Moore, William H. Battle, and David M. Carter, whose lives shed lustre on the University. He also eulogized Lewis Bond, of Tennessee, and Hugh Waddell, of the Class of 1818, once Speaker of the Senate, both of whom had died during the year. He gave many reminiscences of the past of the University and wise suggestions as to its future and that of the society. General Phillips' tongue, pen, and purse were always at the command of his Alma Mater.

        On Wednesday night the society representatives delivered original orations. In introducing them President Battle alluded to the colors of the two societies. "A man who wears a white ribbon never says Die, and no one cay say Fie to one who wears a blue."

        The Dialectics were Roderick Belton John, his subject being "Three Necessary Elements of National Prosperity"; James Wiley Forbis on "The South Shall Yet be Free"; and Robert Paine Pell on "The Present Demand for a Southern Literature."

        The Philanthropics were Marcus Cicero Stephens Noble on "National Unity"; Locke Craig on "The Philosophy of the Strength and Progress of Islamism"; and Charles Randolph Thomas on "The French Revolution."

        On Commencement Day, after the usual procession, well conducted by James M. Leach, Jr., Chief Marshal, a very large company assembled in the Chapel. The exercises were begun by a prayer by Rev. Dr. Theodore B. Whitfield, of the Class of 1854. Then followed a hymn led by the Salem Band.

        The first speaker was John Moore Manning on "Capital and Labor as Affected by Government." The next was Robert

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Watson Winston on the "Effect of Modern Inventions on Politics and Morality." Next came a strong speech by Robert Strange on "Compulsory Education." The fourth speaker was Richard Bullock Henderson and his subject was "Call Things by Their Right Names." This oration was peculiar in having much humor. Francis Donnell Winston followed on "National Character as influenced by Agriculture." The audience pronounced this speech as "replete with brilliant ideas, and abundance of old fashioned hard horse sense." James Smith Manning received the praise of having "an excellent speech" on "Influence of Individual Character." "Some beautiful and valuable gems of thought" were attributed to Willliam Joseph Peele, his theme being "Philosophy of Reform." William Lanier Hill in a forcible speech on "The Chinese in America" advocated bringing them to America for the purpose of building our railroads and other works.

        The Mangum Medal was won by R. W. Winston. It was presented by Gen. James Madison Leach.

        The annual report was then read by Prof. C. D. Grandy. The following Degrees were conferred:


  • Kemp Plummer Battle, Jr.
  • Richard B. Henderson.
  • William Lanier Hill.
  • James Smith Manning.
  • John Moore Manning.
  • William Joseph Peele.
  • Alva Connell Springs.
  • Robert Strange.
  • Francis Donnell Winston.
  • Robert Watson Winston . . . . . 10


  • Isaac Montrose Taylor . . . . . 1


  • Gaston Ahi Robbins . . . . . 1
  • Total . . . . . 12

        Battle, Springs, Robbins, and Taylor were allowed to present theses instead of speaking.

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        The Honorary degrees were as follows:

        Doctor of Laws (L.L.D.): Thomas Samuel Ashe, 1832, and John Henry Dillard, 1839, then Judges of the Supreme Court, and Samuel Field Phillips, 1841, then Solicitor-General of the United States.

        Doctor of Divinity (D.D.): Rev. F. H. Kerfoot, of Baltimore; J. F. Pickett, of Mississippi, 1859; Daniel S. Henderson, of Alabama, and Aristides S. Smith, of North Carolina.

        Master of Arts (A.M.): Fabius H. Busbee, 1868, of North Carolina, and John M. Webb, 1868, of Tennessee.

        The winners of Medals and Prizes were:

  • GREEK MEDALS--Charles Duncan McIver, John Alton McIver.
  • CHEMISTRY MEDAL--Robert Ransom.
  • LATIN MEDAL--Louis Morehead Patterson.
  • BINGHAM MEDAL (Entrance)--Albert Sidney Grandy.
  • GERMAN PRIZE--Alexander Lacy Phillips.
  • MANGUM MEDAL--Robert Watson Winston.

        After the graduates had been called up to receive their diplomas at the hands of the Governor, as President of the Board of Trustees, he gave them sound advice and fairest wishes for success and happiness in life. He reminded them that "Success in arms in the acquisition of territory gives temporary renown, but after the lapse of a few centuries everything but the great thoughts of a people perishes." The reporter adds, "How true! We speak of the age of Dante, careless of what Julius or Nicholas or Gregory might occupy the Papal chair."

        Judge Ashe gave an amusing account of the reception of his doctorate by Judge Dillard. The Supreme Court was puzzling over the question whether an old lady, Mibra Gulley, was a necessary party in an action. Judge Ashe walked into Judge Dillard's room before breakfast and found him poring over his books. "Good morning, Dr. Dillard!" "What do you mean?" said Dillard, looking up from his work. "I mean what I say. The University has made us Doctors of Laws." "The Dickens you say. A mighty sorry Doctor of Laws am I, when for the life of me I can't decide whether under the Code of Civil

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Procedure old Mibra Gulley should be joined as a plaintiff in this action."

        The graduates of 1879 have, as a rule, done well in life. Battle an eye, ear, and throat specialist; Henderson and Manning, J. M., prominent physicians; Manning, J. S., ex-Supreme Court Judge, State Senator, and Representative; Peele, lawyer and author; Strange, Bishop of East Carolina; Winston, F. D., Judge, Lieutenant-Governor, and State Senator; Winston, R. W., Judge and very prominent lawyer; Taylor, long assistant physician of the Western Hospital for the Insane, and now Principal of the Broadoaks Sanitarium, at Morganton; Robbins, a Representative in Congress, now dead; Hill, a prosperous lawyer, and Springs, a bank president.

        On Thursday night an effort was made by means of a lawn party to provide amusement for the large number of nondancers present, engineered by a most worthy man, Eugene L. Harris, whose useful career in a few years was cut short by pulmonary consumption. Chinese lanterns were hung on the trees in the Campus, light refreshments were provided and seats distributed where "sweet nothings" could be whispered. The experiment was not successful. The absence of the gay dancers was severely felt and it was found that those who did not participate in the mazy whirl preferred the brilliant lights of the ballroom, where they could gaze on the flashing diamonds, the radiant costumes, the graceful figures of the evolutions. A Methodist, writing for the Christian Advocate, gave his impressions as follows: "The ball, as usual, was, as I am told, largely attended, and continued all night until morning light. Many members of the different churches visited the enchanting scene, some going just to meet their friends, some to accompany their visiting friends, some to hear the music, some to see the ladies' dresses, and some to hear the woman play on the fiddle, but I have heard of none who went to see the dancing! Perhaps they ought not to be blamed too much for going, for the thing is equal to a circus to draw the curious and the impressible."

        It may be well here to explain the attitude of the University towards dancing. On one hand there are people of excellent

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piety and good intentions who think it wrong, as inciting to licentiousness. They also think that the tenets of their churches, as expounded by their clerical leaders, are against it. On the other hand there are people of equal piety and good intentions who think it a harmless amusement. They point to the undenied fact that young men and women of the highest character and conduct participate in it and are encouraged to do so by godly parents. Moreover, the preachers and leaders of other denominations of Christians countenance it, at any rate they do not object. Under these circumstances the University takes sides with neither. It is a social question about which there is difference of opinion. The authorities can not think it a crime or leads to crime for experience shows that the ball managers and other student participants are and have been among our most hightoned and free from vice, and the wildest malignity dares not to cast suspicions on the conduct and purity of their partners.

        The allowing the use of a room on the Campus, not needed for instruction at the time, was not considered a violation of neutrality. But even this was forbidden when the increase of the library required that its floor should be taken up with alcoves.

        The Chief Ball Manager was B. C. Sharpe, the assistants C. D. Hill, J. P. MacRae, W. E. Philips, and R. W. Winborne.

        One of the most agreeable features of Commencement was the Reunion of the Class of 1854. Death by disease and battle had made sad inroads in its ranks. The members present were Hon. Richard H. Battle, Rev. Dr. Needham B. Cobb, Captain Elnathan Hayne Davis, Colonel Ivey Foreman Lewis, Captain Richard B. Saunders, and Rev. Dr. Theodore B. Whitfield. They had their social meeting and in the Chapel had reserved seats together. The class contained sixty members and many of them have been distinguished in Church and State.

        A novel incident of the Commencement was the bringing of the members of the Masonic Order, then in session in Durham, by Messrs. W. T. Blackwell and J. S. Carr, to Chapel Hill to witness the Commencement exercises. There were seven four-horse

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and five two-horse vehicles, all gaily caparisoned. Each Mason was puffing away at a long reed and clay pipe. A bounteous picnic dinner was had on the lawn.

        Solicitor-General Phillips, Hon. John Manning, and Prof. W. C. Kerr were appointed by the Alumni Association to procure funds for erecting on Mount Mitchell and at Chapel Hill monuments to Dr. Elisha Mitchell. That on Mt. Mitchell was provided for by the will of Mrs. Eliza Grant, his daughter. It was in due time placed in position after much difficulty and labor by the energy of Dr. Wm. B. Phillips. A marble slab in a conspicuous place in Memorial Hall, by order of the Trustees, and a similar slab in the Presbyterian Church, keep alive the memory of the learned doctor.

        There were only a few changes in the Faculty of 1878-'79. Professor Grandy was given the Chair of Natural Philosophy. The Chair of Law, vacant by Judge Battle's death, was temporarily filled by President Battle. Thomas W. Harris, M.D., became Professor of Anatomy and Materia Medica. W. C. Kerr, Ph.D., State Geologist, was Lecturer on Geology of North Carolina. Isaac E. Emerson was Instructor in Chemistry. He has since used his chemical education to such advantage that he has become one of the most prosperous druggists in the United States. He is numbered among the millionaires of the land, now of Baltimore.


        It was in this year that Professor Redd, a strong Baptist, authorized by his church to be a lay preacher, and often exercising this liberty, took the ground that it was against principle to require students to attend Prayers. He contended that enforced religious practice was especially against the tenets of his church. The Faculty concluded to yield to his arguments and to try the experiment. It resulted as some predicted. For a short while there was a respectable attendance and then the numbers present dwindled almost to the vanishing point. It was determined to resume the marking of absentees. For some time the roll was called and the absent thus noted. When by the generosity of Mr. David G. Worth, of Wilmington,





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the interior of Gerrard Hall was remodeled and chairs replaced the uncomfortable benches, numbers were attached to the chairs, each student having his own number. Two students, one for each aisle, are employed to report the numbers of the vacant chairs. The penalty for nonattendance is, first, the loss of character as an orderly student, and second, being reported to superiors at home. The result is good, especially as public prayers are not held on Saturday and Sunday mornings, nor at any time during the examination period. As for attending divine worship on Sundays, there is no obligation as a University duty. Experience shows that the removal of compulsion promotes the cause of religion. The number of professing Christians has largely increased. While a considerable number shirk the Sunday services, if they should be forced to go, by inattention and positive misbehavior they would not only derive no benefit to themselves, but be of injury to others.

        For years the meeting for Prayers was held a half hour after the breakfast hour, but now (1911-'12) it is after the first morning lecture. To give greater inducements to attend, after Prayers are over a five minutes' talk on an interesting subject is given by some selected person. The seats placed in the Hall by the donation of Mr. D. Worth, were found to occupy so much space that only one-half of the students could be accommodated and the gallery benches were too uncomfortable for use. Both these troubles were afterward remedied, so that the Seniors and Juniors can join the Sophomores and Freshmen in the worship of their Maker.

        For one year, in accordance with a vote of the Faculty, the giving of Bibles to graduates was dispensed with. One of the Trustees, Rev. A. D. Betts, D.D., of the Methodist Church, was so hurt at this omission that the practice was resumed. As this is a literary institution having no theological department, and as Bibles are commonly owned throughout the land, the Faculty surrendered their judgment only in deference to religious sentiment, as voiced by Dr. Betts.

        The University has never made a continuous effort to introduce the study and the practice of instrumental or vocal music. In 1877 Mr. Eugene Wilson, a very competent man, was employed

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for one year to teach singing to those desiring to learn. In 1879 a member of the Senior Class, Rev. Wm. A. Betts, although entitled as the son of a preacher to free tuition, preferred to pay it by giving similar instruction with consent of the Faculty to a class in singing, and to lead a choir at Prayers. And President Battle, who believed in the efficacy of singing as a mode of recreation and culture, as well as aiding in discipline, procured song books of Yale University, in the hope that some of the stirring odes of that institution, slightly altered, would be popular here. He had a temporary success. A Glee Club was formed, led by Mr. Betts and Mr. James M. Leach, which showed considerable enthusiasm, but it soon died away. Since then Glee Clubs have been formed from time to time. They have even given concerts here and elsewhere. And at match games of football and baseball we hear rollicking songs to cheer the players, or at other times a carol from an untaught group on the Campus. But there is a deplorable absence of systematic practice among the students generally. The Superintendent of Public Instruction of Connecticut stated to me that the Superintendent of the high schools in Berlin informed him that the 6,000 pupils under him all sang. Said he: "Any one who can talk can sing." I saw two German students once at a private house requested to give specimens of their University songs. Each pulled from his pocket a well worn note book, one took his seat at the piano and they proceeded to comply with the request of the hostess. I can not conceive of two Chapel Hill students always prepared for singing by note as those Germans were. We have generally had in recent years one or two sufficiently skilled to lead a choir by playing the tune on the piano, but as a rule he has been insufficiently supported.

        The foregoing criticism does not apply to the various Glee Clubs, who, after proper instruction, here and elsewhere sustained the honor of the University.

        Besides the Glee Club, at various times companies of students have acted in dramas with as large a measure of success as could be expected of novices. Some of them had never seen a theatre.

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        The Faculty asked that Person Hall should not be rebuilt and the money thus saved should be spent on equipment, but the Trustees resolved otherwise. They were, however, as liberal in this regard as the state of the treasury justified.

        The Faculty kept a vigilant eye to prevent people of bad character from pandering to the vices or evil habits of students. Boarding with such at tables prepared by them was broken up and all except visitors were forbidden to frequent the Campus unless licensed by the President or Faculty.

        The habits of the students were much influenced by the condition of old times, when the forest stretched for miles from the buildings towards the South. The question of how to introduce the decencies of modern life was often discussed and proved to be insoluble until the General Assembly gave funds for the construction of water works. At one time water closets of planks, having every appearance of being of a temporary nature, were constructed near the old dormitories, Old East, Old West, and South, but it was not long before the larger was burned as a public nuisance by students who roomed near it, and the Faculty had the others torn down. The primitive status of things is indicated by the grave law of the Faculty that no dead animal should be deposited within a half mile of the Campus or on the premises of any citizens. As the University had no control over any other than a Professor the enactment could not protect the Faculty from the odors of the unsavory prey of those useful birds, whose comeliness and graceful flight can only be appreciated when "distance lends enchantment to the view."

        Cognate to this provision of law was the prohibition at or near Chapel Hill of lager beer saloons. Whatever argument was used for them, by those who declaimed about the small percentage of alcohol in this popular beverage, was rendered futile by the potent fact that the beer could be, and would be, adulterated with additional measures of alcohol, even as harmless cider often becomes an intoxicating mixture. But even without this liability to become stronger the license would have been refused.

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        The Secretaries of the Faculty from the reopening to 1886 are here given: Prof. George Tayloe Winston, 1875-'78; Prof. Carey D. Grandy, 1878-'79; Prof. Frederick W. Simonds, 1879-'80; Prof. Carey D. Grandy, 1880-'81; Asst. Prof. Robert P. Pell, 1881-'82; Bursar William T. Patterson, 1882-'84; Prof. and Registrar J. W. Gore, 1884-'86; Asst. Prof. and Librarian James Lee Love, 1886.


        Four of the graduates of 1879, Robert Strange, Kemp P. Battle, Jr., Alva Springs, and James S. Manning, determined to take a pedestrian tour over our mountains. For the information of those inclined to follow their robust example I give their itinerary. They journeyed to Icard's Station, now Connelly's, in Catawba County, by rail, then began their walking, first to Lenoir, visiting Hibriten peak; thence to the top of the Blue Ridge, Blowing Rock, and Raven's Rock. Crossing the Ridge they visited Valle Crucis and Dutch Creek Falls, then climbed Grandfather Mountain, camping on top to see the sun rise. They next visited Linville River to the Falls, then Table Rock, Hawk's Bill, and the neighboring cave. Again crossing the Blue Ridge they went down Plum Tree Creek to Toe River, thence up the river to the Yellow Mountain, where they spent the night in a deserted cabin. They then followed the ridges to the Roan and its points of interest; thence to Bakersville. Their itinerary then led to Sink Hole mica mines, Black Mountain, Swannanoa Gap, Hickory Nut Gap and Falls, and Cæsar's Head, then around the headwaters of the French Broad to Mt. Pisgah, then to Whiteside Mountain, then to the Macon Highlands, to Tallulah and Toccoa Falls in Georgia, thence by rail home. Their entire outfit consisted of a few articles of clothing carried in knapsacks.

        The Bakersville Republican, from whose columns the foregoing points are gathered, adds, "Their gentlemanly deportment and social manners won the admiration of our citizens, and they left with many heartfelt good wishes for their safety on their trip. If these young gentlemen are a fair sample of

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the students at Chapel Hill, North Carolina may well be proud of her State University." The editor then goes into poetry, probably the refrain of a mountain song,

                         "They strapped their knapsacks on their backs
                         And started off for Georgia."

        They carried no fishing tackle on their journey, nor firearms of any sort, but occasionally borrowed instruments for fishing or hunting. They met with kindness everywhere, enjoyed the mountain food, as a rule, gloried in the scenery, and grew stronger every day. There was only one mishap, a sprained ankle, but this did not detain them long. There came near being a serious trouble. Borrowing a gun Battle went grouse hunting. Stepping on a log in a place where the laurel was extremely thick he felt something writhing under his feet. Looking down he saw a huge rattler. The rapidity with which he leaped back and shot the snake was a credit to the first baseman of his team at Chapel Hill. This was the only rattlesnake seen on the whole trip.

        Some particulars of the experience of these walkers may be of interest to those contemplating a similar vacation tour. They walked in all about 530 miles. They made no effort to cover much distance in a day, except once towards the close when they made thirty-four miles. They crossed the Blue Ridge eleven times during their journey. They met with great hospitality except when, in one instance, they asked for lodging after bedtime and were requested to try the next house. Let us hope that the occupants had good reason for this exceptional treatment. Sometimes there was no charge for entertainment. Once it was ten cents for supper, lodging, and breakfast. More often it was twenty-five cents. The whole trip cost about $75 each. They were never required to pay for the use of guns or fishing tackle. The fishing luck was sometimes good and sometimes bad; one of the party caught about thirty small trout one day on the Grandfather reaches of the Linville. Mr. Galloway, the guide of the Grandfather, who lived on the dividing line between the Watauga and the Linville, instructed them in the art of tying flies for trout; they

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did not fish for bass or other fish. One incident of their trip is memorable. On the flanks of the Big Yellow they experienced the hospitality of a couple who lived in a log cabin of one room about twelve feet square. The children were ten in number, some sleeping on trundle beds and some on the floor. The four travelers spread themselves on the floor in front of the fire, "And all lived happily together," as children's stories go.

        Our trampers returned rich in health and strength, with pleasant memories to last a lifetime, and ready to begin with stout hearts the business of life.

        It was in this year that a short physical struggle took place between two Professors, which created much amusement. The poverty of the University was such that Chemistry and Physics had been placed in charge of the same Professor. As this did not have good results, the Professor of Pure Mathematics was induced to add Physics to his charge. The two Professors proceeded to divide the apparatus. All went on amicably until they reached the air pump, which was mounted on a temporary tripod for convenience of lecturing. A vigorous dispute ensued over the possession of this article. Finally temper was lost. Mathematics forcibly pushed Chemistry against the wall, seized the bone of contention and darted for the door. Recovering from his surprise Chemistry made a lunge for the retreating air pump, caught the tripod and held it triumphantly, while Mathematics carried to his lecture room the spolia opima, the air pump.

        Of course this little ebullition of temper, which was witnessed by three students who chanced along, was seized on by all the satirists and wits in the University. Next morning at Prayers, on the wall behind the pulpit appeared two broadsides--two locomotives about to crash into one another. One was colored red and the other gray. The engine drivers were frantically objurgating one another and demanding in opprobrious terms the right of way. The other caricature showed two game cocks, one red and the other gray, valiantly fighting for the honors of the ring. Dr. Charles Phillips conducted

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Prayers that morning and by promptly tearing down the offending papers put a stop to the fun.

        These were the best caricatures I have seen of University happenings, said to have been the work of a very orderly and successful student, Frank B. Dancy. It was nearly equalled by a series of pictures on the belfry about 1852, done in black on the white wall, pleasantly ridiculing the names and other peculiarities of the old Faculty. President Swain, by promising the merchant who furnished the paint that he would not prosecute the offender, ascertained that he was Frederick Henry Cobb, of Alabama, a fine manly fellow and a fair student, who had acquired skill in drawing and penmanship.

        After the ill health of Dr. Charles Phillips prevented his attention to the duties of his chair, which was evidenced by the report of a committee of which Mr. P. C. Cameron was chairman, the Trustees liberally allowed the employment of a mathematical substitute at $800 annually and Dr. Phillips to receive the residue of the salary. Afterwards his physician, Dr. Wm. P. Mallett, gave it as his opinion that his patient should resign permanently his professorship in order to obtain freedom from responsibility, and avoid the nervous wear and tear consequent on holding an office the duties of which he could not perform. This advice was taken and Dr. Phillips ceased to be a working teacher of the institution he loved so well. The Trustees voted him to be Professor Emeritus, a position without pay and without work. The Executive Committee adopted unanimously resolutions of regret for the resignation and its cause, and their sense of the great value he had been to the University. He lived for ten years longer, never recovering his health but keeping to the last his deep interest in the affairs of the University and rejoicing in its upward march. He said to me one day, "Kemp! it is a sore dispensation to me to witness the efforts made by you and others to advance the University while I am chained by sickness, so that I can not work for its advancement, but God's will be done!" He made no complaint, but left his case in the hands of his Maker.

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        Prof. Ralph H. Graves married Julia, third daughter of Prof. John DeBerniere Hooper. When their eldest child was born Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips published the following in a local newspaper (The Ledger.) It shows a remarkable association of one family with the University.


        He arrived Thursday morning. His ancestors to the fifth generation have been officers in the University of North Carolina. His father2 is now a Professor. His paternal grandfather3 was a Professor. His maternal grandfather4 is now a Professor. His mother's maternal grandfather,5 his own great-grandfather, was a Professor. His father's maternal grandfather,6 his own great-grandfather, was Steward. His maternal grandmother's paternal grandfather7 (by marriage), was the first President of the University. He has been represented in the Faculty by his father, his two grandfathers, two great-grandfathers, and one great-great-grandfather. His great-great-great-grandfather signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and his great-grandfather was present at the Centennial in Philadelphia in 1876. At present he is in the department of Literature, his specialty being Elementary Sounds. Weight, ten pounds.

        Explanation of the above:

        1 Ralph Henry Graves, Junior.

        2 Ralph H. Graves, his father.

        3 Ralph H. Graves, father of (2).

        4 John DeBerniere Hooper, Professor of Greek and French.

        5 Rev. Dr. Wm. Hooper, Professor of Ancient Languages.

        6 John Taylor, the first Steward.

        7 Rev. Dr. Joseph Caldwell, who married the mother of Dr. Wm. Hooper.


        The Normal School of 1879 was opened June 17th and closed July 24th. Some of the officers were the same. President Battle retained the general authority with the coöperation of Superintendent Scarborough. Prof. John J. Ladd was Superintendent and Lecturer on Methods, School Management, etc.; Alexander McIver was Professor of Mathematics, English Grammar, and Physiology; Julius L. Tomlinson took charge of English Grammar and Geography; J. Allen Holt was Professor of Drawing and Penmanship; Dr. Wm. B.

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Phillips of Chemistry, M. C. S. Noble of Latin and Algebra, John E. Dugger of Reading and Phonetics, Wm. G. Gaither of Grammar and Geography, Benjamin W. Hatcher of Arithmetic and Reading, Wilbur F. Tillett of English Philology, N. C. English of Grammar and Geography, Franklin S. Blair of Arithmetic and Grammar, Wm. A. Bridges of Geography and Reading, John W. Thaxton of Arithmetic and Grammar, Miss Emily M. Coe of the Kindergarten System, Misses Marshall, Lawrence, and Wilkinson of Calisthenics; Messrs. Eugene H. Wilson and Chas. L. Wilson of Vocal Music. Captain John E. Dugger was Secretary. Inspection of the foregoing list will show that some of the pupils were employed to drill the classes and thus were classed with the Faculty. The Secretary in addition to his teaching and secretarial duties was of inestimable value in cultivating harmonious relations between the students, thus making them feel at home.

        Lectures and addresses were delivered by prominent men and were of great value:

  • Prof. Jed Hotchkiss gave eight matchless lectures on Geography, one on Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign, and one on Arithmetic.
  • Rev. A. W. Mangum, on "The Best Lights are Those that Shine From Above," and one on Elocution.
  • Rev. N. B. Cobb, on "How Shall We Develop North Carolina?"
  • Hon. J. C. Scarborough, "Public School System of North Carolina."
  • Prof. J. H. Horner, "Language as the Instrument of Thought."
  • Prof. W. H. Pegram, "Nostrorum, Nostrarum, Nostrorum."
  • Prof. W. C. Doub, "Some Essentials to Success in Elementary Instruction."
  • Miss E. M. Coe, "The Teacher's Work; Its Rewards."
  • Dr. S. S. Satchwell, "School Hygiene."
  • Maj. Robert Bingham, "A Method of Teaching English Composition."
  • President K. P. Battle, address, "Education for Farmers," and four lectures on Palestine and Jewish History.
  • Dr. F. W. Simonds, five lectures on Natural History.
  • Prof. Walter H. Page, "How Shall We Get to be a Reading People?"
  • Prof. J. A. Tomlinson, "California."
  • Dr. Thomas W. Harris, "The Vocal Organs."
  • Gen. Wm. R. Cox, "The Duty of Teachers to the State."
  • Rev. A. C. Dixon, "Mental Gunnery."
  • Capt. John E. Dugger, "Graded Schools."
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  • Prof. W. G. Gaither, "Relations of Teachers to Church and State."
  • Prof. Allen McIver, "Aims and Methods of Instruction."
  • Prof. A. F. Redd, "Poisons and Their Detection."
  • Prof. W. B. Phillips, "Water."

        These addresses and lectures were generally at night and were in addition to the regular instruction.

        The whole number of pupils enrolled was 290. The average daily attendance 207. There were fifty-four counties represented. There was much enthusiasm among teachers and pupils. Miss Coe may be considered the introducer into North Carolina of Kindergarten instruction. She was not only extremely skillful with her class of children but formed an advanced class of teachers and imparted the system to them. To those of us who remembered how odious the monotony and confinement of school were to us in our boyhood it was a marvel to see children of all ages eager for Miss Coe's school to begin and regretful of its ending.

        The lectures of Professor Hotchkiss were novel and illumining. His explanation of the causes of deserts, rainfalls, and other phenomena were not only entertaining but of lasting value. His lectures on Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign gave a vivid idea of the wonderful strategy and tactics of that great soldier. And so the learned instruction of Ladd, McIver, Tillett, Phillips, Holt, Noble, and the others have borne excellent fruit in the schools in which their pupils were teachers.

        A most valuable feature was the instruction and practice of vocal music by the Messrs. Wilson. They had not time to enter on the niceties and refinements of the art, but aimed successfully to enable their pupils to introduce singing as a part of school exercises.

        A writer in the Raleigh Observer gives a truthful account of the general worth of the Normal School. "The teachers attend lectures and recitations all day, except at proper intervals for meals, listen eagerly to two lectures at night, return home to compare notes, indulge in criticisms, etc., and appear next morning fresh and ready to undergo the same arduous routine. Such indeed is the daily program of the Normalites. Every one looks cheerful and happy. Dr. Mangum says it is a

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marked feature of the school that it obeys the Apostolic injunction to 'rejoice always.' Mr. President is cheerful, the Professors are all cheerful, the ladies are all cheerful, the gentlemen are all cheerful, and the sun shines cheerfully upon them all."

        The exercises at the close were very interesting, and a short description is given. They began with a chorus by the Music Class, followed by a prayer by Rev. A. C. Dixon. Mr. Edwin Anderson Alderman made an address on the subject "Thoughts on our Professors." Mr. Henry Horace Williams read an essay on "Select Teaching." The query was debated by Cyril T. Wyche and Adolphus G. Faucette in the affirmative and James P. McNeill and Benjamin F. McMillan in the negative, "Ought the Ability to Read and Write be Established as a Qualification of Voters?" Mr. Alexander L. Phillips read an essay on the "Responsibility of Educated Men to Society." Mr. Henry Elias Faison then delivered an oration on "A Normal Department in connection with the University." The speeches and essays were followed by music.

        Governor Jarvis was unable to be present and Professor Ladd formally closed the school, which he did in chaste language. After him came a hymn and benediction. At night there was a concert by members of the school admitted to be notably harmonious and in excellent taste. The leaders were Misses Faison and Clinton, Mrs. Tankersley and Miss Milliken. There were solos by Miss Bessie Whitfield and Miss Merry, which were received with enthusiasm.

        The ladies of the school, through the Secretary, Captain Dugger, caused to be read the following graceful resolutions adopted by them.

        "We, the ladies of the Normal School of North Carolina, desiring to express our appreciation of the benefits accruing to us therefrom,

        "Resolve, first. To the honorable body, the Legislature of North Carolina, we tender our sincere thanks for giving us such an opportunity of elevating and improving our standard of scholarship.

        "Second. To President Battle, and the professors and teachers of the school generally, our grateful appreciation of a wisdom, kindness and courtesy which 'like the sun has shone on all alike.'

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        "Third. To the distinguished lecturers who have honored us since the commencement of the school, our thanks are due for a feast of reason rarely vouchsafed to us before.

        "Fourth. To the citizens of Chapel Hill an acknowledgment of a kindness which has made us feel that we were indeed at home.

        "Finally, to the Giver of every good and perfect gift, the homage of our praise and prayer that this school and every effort to promote the good of our State, 'may be so ordered on the best and surest foundations that peace and happiness, truth and justice, religion and piety may be established among us for all generations.' "

        The school was marked by polishing influences of calisthenics, drawing, and music, by severe drilling in the usual branches taught at schools, by the best experiences of discipline and methods, by instruction in the elements of chemistry and other sciences, in public speaking, in higher literary culture by Professor Tillett's lectures on Shakespeare, and in the inestimable advantages of the association of old and young, from different grades of society and far removed localities, all intent on self-improvement in one of the most useful and important professions of life.

        The proceedings of the school and abstracts of the lectures and addresses were fully and lucidly reported by "R. P. P.", known to be the initials of Rev. Dr. Robert Paine Pell, now the able president of Converse College in South Carolina.


        University Day was celebrated in 1879 on October 13th, the 12th, the eighty-sixth anniversary of the foundation of the University, falling on Sunday. President Battle gave another chapter of the history of the University. He described the excellent men who assisted in the ceremony of laying the corner stone, beginning with the illustrious Davie. He also commemorated the first President of the Board of Trustees, William Lenoir, who was also the last survivor, dying fifty years after his appointment, and expressed gratification that two of his descendants, Louis Morehead Patterson and Thomas Ballard Lenoir, were then among the students.

        Short ex tempore addresses of a most interesting nature were made by Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, afterwards bishop,

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one of whose ancestors was Lawrence Toole, who changed his Christian name to Henry Irwin, in honor of the gallant officer who was killed in the battle of Germantown; by Rev. James Pleasant Mason, a Baptist minister; Rev. Mr. Heitman, the Methodist minister at Chapel Hill, and by Professors Winston, Simonds, and Redd. The University Glee Club of students, assisted by ladies of the village, sang two odes composed for the occasion by Mrs. Spencer, one of them being the University Ode, given elsewhere, the first verse being,

                         Dear University,
                         Thy sons right loyally
                         Thy praises sing.
                         For thee, our Mother dear,
                         May every coming year
                         Fresh crowned with joy appear,
                         Fresh honors bring.


        December 20, 1879, Rev. Dr. Charles F. Deems, former Aujunct Professor of Rhetoric and Logic in this University, and then Pastor of the Church of the Strangers in New York City, sent to the University $300 as the beginning of a fund to be lent to the students on good security with interest. He wrote, "I wish the sons of the members of the North Carolina Conference to be preferred. I was once a member of that body and many of my most cherished friendships have been with good men, some living, some dead, who were my co-laborers therein. After this class, let the money be lent to the sons of any ministers of the Gospel. If there be none of them who desire it, let it be at the discretion of the President of the University." He requested that Professor Mangum be associated with the President as long as both are members of the Faculty. The fund is a memorial to his first-born, Theodore Disosway Deems, who was born in Chapel Hill and fell at Gettysburg. Dr. Deems adds, "The Lord bless you and the University." He closes his letter by a characteristic evidence of feeling.

        "With great respect, I am affectionately your old preceptor, CHARLES F. DEEMS."

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        President Battle wrote compositions and studied Horace under Dr. Deems in 1848.

        This gift is unique, in that it provides that the principal as well as interest shall be loaned to students on their giving security. A Trustee on hearing this said that they could get money at home on giving security, but the result proves that he was wrong. The Faculty decided that not exceeding $200 should be lent to any one during the year of his membership.

        Subsequently Dr. Deems increased the loan fund by $400, making his donation $700, and then Mr. William H. Vanderbilt added $10,000 through him. He then made several changes in the machinery of administration: First, putting the loan into the hands of the Faculty; second, allowing loans to nonresident students; third, removing preferences of sons of ministers of the Gospel.

        The fund has been of conspicuous benefit to indigent youths and to the University. Very little has been lost. The worthy find no difficulty in getting friends to become their sureties. There is a constant stream of outflow to borrowers and of inflow of repayments. From $10,700 the fund has grown to nearly $30,000. The plan prescribed by the donor of lending the principal, instead of the interest on an investment, secures more firmly the perpetuation of the memorial intended by the giver. Single investments are often lost by panics, misfortune or fraud. The annihilation of the values of all the numerous secured notes given by rising young men of all parts of the country seems practically impossible.


        A great grievance not only to the University but to the village was the running at large of cattle, including hogs and goats. On the streets, often, daintily dressed ladies were forced to the option of taking to the middle of the street in order to avoid the ponderous beasts sprawling on the sidewalk or to wait until by repeated urging they rose from their lair and opened the way. About the University buildings there was a constant noise, accompanied by a pungent odor, especially in fruit and watermelon time. A favorite joke in ancient days

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was to throw a slip knot around a half-grown pig and draw him up amid loud porcine lamentations to the third story.

        Of course gates were erected to keep the Campus sacred from intruders, but with so many careless young people passing and repassing the effort was practically fruitless. The annoyance continued, with an occasional worry of a bovine pulled and pushed up three flights of stairs and fastened to the bell rope. This would not have been thought of if the aforesaid bovines had not been running around the buildings and disturbing the inmates with unacademic lowing.

        Another evil of the cattle running at large was the practical diminution of the Campus. The Trustees had passed a law making that extend from the line of Dr. Battle's fence to that of Prof. A. H. Patterson, late Professor Gore's, and of the same extent north and south. As it was impracticable to close the Raleigh Road, the stone wall was built west of this road, cutting off temporarily from the Campus a very beautiful territory.

        The experiment was tried of having a small space of the Campus enclosed and called a pound, in which the cattle trespassing on the Campus could be confined. This succeeded to a limited extent, but with the ill will of the owners. After some years the General Assembly passed a law allowing a majority of the voters of Chapel Hill Township to decide by ballot whether cattle should be kept confined. A majority was against the proposal. Then a law was procured requiring the County Commissioners, on the affirmative petition of one-third of the landowners of the township to place it under what was called the "No-fence Law." This method secured the confinement of cattle, and no complaint is ever heard of its operation.


        On Tuesday of Commencement Week, at eleven o'clock, was the address before the Young Men's Christian Association by Rev. F. C. Woodward, of Elizabeth City. He showed more than ordinary gifts of oratory and made very successful this the first participation of the Association in the exercises of Commencement.

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        On Wednesday at eleven o'clock an address was made before the two literary societies by Judge Augustus S. Merrimon. His subject was "Some of the Duties of a Young Man to the State." He spoke from a heart in sympathy with the rising generation and from deepest love for his native State.

        At four o'clock came the Baccalaureate sermon, which was preached by Rev. Dr. H. H. Tucker, of Georgia, author of works on religious liberty and other subjects. His sermon was strong and peculiarly appropriate to young men.

        On Wednesday night the representatives spoke. The chronicler noted that "The sweet music served the double purpose of welcome and of strengthening the nerve of the young men, upon whom the success of the occasion depended." The first speaker was Allen T. Davidson on "The Present Demand for Political Culture." He showed a high appreciation of the duties of a true statesman. Next came James D. Murphy on "Centralization, the General Tendency of the Age." In eloquent style he made plain how the ideals of the fathers of our government have been thrown aside and a stronger government substituted. "The Importance of a Congress of Nations" was then discussed by Lycurgus E. Mauney. His argument for peace was so strong that a member of the Society of Friends, who was in the audience, presented him with a Bible. Then came William J. Adams on "The Present Duty of North Carolina in Regard to Education." Education causes material advancement and our State would be made richer and more happy by fostering higher culture. He was succeeded by Donnell Gilliam on the "Progress of Society." Mr. Gilliam was an accomplished orator. He gave the causes that have changed the manners of a barbarous age into the refined society of the present day. Robert B. Albertson spoke on "The Negro and the South." As he was known to be a Republican his views commanded all the more attention. He contended that the South needed the Negro's labor, and harmony between the two should be the rule.

        The next day at ten o'clock, after a hymn and a prayer by Rev. Dr. Joseph M. Atkinson, Senior speaking began. As

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usual at this time the number of speeches was not limited, as the classes were small and it was desired to interest the parents and friends of the speakers in their efforts.

        Robert Ransom began with "Republicanism in France." He spoke with force and developed his interesting subject well. He was followed by Thomas C. Brooks on "Agriculture as a Vocation." He pleaded for agricultural education and the beautification of country homes and in general making life in rural districts more agreeable. Then came Locke Craig on "Catholicism in the United States." His subject was treated in an exhaustive and tolerant style and the speaker showed the traits of a true orator. Both he and the Faculty were censured in a public print because he criticised the Roman Catholic Church. The Faculty could not think that the speech could injure this powerful organization and it was felt to be important that the students should discuss subjects in which they were interested.

        He was followed by Thomas H. Battle in a strong and rather pessimistic discussion of the question, "Will Russia be Dangerous to Europe?" He predicted that it will be--has he changed his opinion since the Japanese War? Alexander L. Phillips came next, his subject being "Protection Necessitates Protection." His arguments were cogent in proving that high rates press heavily on other business. "The Late Commercial Depression of the World" was discussed by Charles C. Cobb in a thoughtful way. "Why have we no Southern Literature?" was a question which Roderick B. John essayed to answer. He showed an extensive knowledge of general literature as well as that of our Southland. "The Irish Question" was the theme of Ernest Haywood. He handled it with his usual thoroughness and with a sympathetic spirit. Next came William B. Slade on "Empire Against Republic." His address was worthy of this great question. Then Charles B. Aycock delivered a discourse on "The Philosophy of New England Morals." The audience predicted for him the reputation as an orator which he has since attained. Then came Albert L. Coble on the great theme, "The Unification of Germany." Latimer C. Vaughan followed with a discussion of a profession which he

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embraced for several years in the distant State of Florida, "Journalism in North Carolina." Henry E. Faison closed with a thoughtful speech on "Science, the Benefactor of Mankind."

        The judges thought that Aycock was best, and the audience generally concurred. He was awarded the Wiley P. Mangum medal for oratory.

        The diplomas were delivered to the graduates by Governor Jarvis, who addressed to them very appropriate counsels as to their duties in life.

        There were Bachelors of Arts (A.B.), eleven; there were Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.), four; a total of fifteen.

        The members of the class, as a rule, have been successful. Battle is president of a bank and manager of a large cotton mill; Craig a State Senator and able lawyer; Coble has been a Judge; Haywood a successful lawyer; John a Presiding Elder in the Methodist Church; Phillips, a Presbyterian Doctor of Divinity; Slade, president of a bank; Aycock, Governor of North Carolina; Betts, late president of Mansfield Female College in Louisiana; Cobb, a thriving lawyer in Texas.

        The degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was conferred on Wm. N. H. Smith, Chief Justice of North Carolina, and on David Schenck, Judge of the Superior Court and an author.

        The degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred on Rev. David McGilvary, missionary in Siam; Rev. Thomas G. Starr, of Richmond, Virginia; Rev. Joseph M. Atkinson, of Raleigh, and Rev. Edward Rondthaler, of Salem.

        The Medals and Prizes were awarded as follows:

  • GREEK MEDAL--Frederick Nash Skinner, Henry Horace Williams.
  • CHEMISTRY MEDAL.--John Morehead Avery.
  • LATIN MEDAL.--Charles Watts Smedes.
  • GERMAN PRIZE.--Robert Paine Pell.
  • MCCAULAY PRIZE.--Donnell Gilliam.
  • BINGHAM ENTRANCE PRIZE.--Hugh Paris Markham.
  • BINGHAM ENGLISH MEDAL.--Charles Brantley Aycock.
  • MANGUM MEDAL.--Charles Brantley Aycock.

        The Marshals of 1880 were Frank Battle Dancy, Chief; Charles E. McLean, Edward E. Richardson, Thomas T. Covington,

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Dialectics, and Frank H. Stedman, James P. Joyner, and Noah J. Rouse, Philanthropics.

        In 1879-'80 there were no changes in the Faculty except that Rev. Charles Phillips, D.D., LL.D., having resigned the Chair of Mathematics, was made Professor Emeritus. His resignation was on account of ill health.

        The Ball Managers were John M. Walker, Chief, and Thomas D. Stokes, Frank G. Hines, L. B. Eaton, A. W. McAlister, assistants. The reporter becomes enthusiastic: "The decorations were exceedingly tasteful and beautiful. Every part of the handsome hall seemed fairly ablaze with light. The striking contrast between the sombre black of the dress suits and the brilliant hues of the ladies' costumes afforded exquisite grouping of colors, while the merry chatter of the gay couples made a very contagion of merriment. Every section of the State had sent forth its fairest to grace the scene."

        The reporter then gives the dresses of thirty-nine ladies and states that the ball broke up at four-thirty o'clock "amid a perfect pandemonium of those peculiar unearthly yells in which the college boy delights and excels."


        In the spring of this year the Senior Class originated the custom of planting a class tree. This and the Class Day exercises were held together and the affair was at first successful. A large audience of students, Faculty, and villagers was gathered in amphitheater shape in the open space in front of the College well. The class then marched out from the front door of the South Building, led by its President, Thomas H. Battle, carrying the class tree, a fine sugar maple, on his shoulders.

        After forming in line in front of the audience they sang their class song, written for them by Mrs. C. P. Spencer. A class history, a class prophecy, etc., were then delivered. Charles B. Aycock, whose fame as an orator and great educational Governor is now so well known, was one of the chief speakers. Others were Robert Ransom, of Northampton County, Secretary

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of the Class and now a large planter; Alexander L. Phillips, now in charge of the Sunday School work of the Presbyterian Church in the South; William B. Slade, now a banker of Columbus, Georgia, and Locke Craig, now a well known lawyer of Asheville. The tree was then planted on the edge of the "Forbidden Ground," where it now remains--a harbinger of the ever increasing value of the good Class of 1850 to its Alma Mater.

        By the way, this "Forbidden Ground" was a curious relic of North Carolina conservatism and respect for ante-bellum traditions. It was originally planned to preserve the great quadrangle between the East and West Buildings and Main Street as a section for foliage, etc. The two societies were enlisted in the attempt to make the students "keep off the grass," and imposed a fine of fifty cents for each transgression. Offenders were reported by the society monitors and fined without mercy. This was carried on effectively for several years. During the spring in question, 1880, a rabbit was once started up and pursued by a crowd of students across the "Forbidden Ground" and every soul that a monitor could locate was fined fifty cents. The restraint that the societies then exercised in this and other matters was really unique. At times it almost amounted to Blue Law persecution. For instance, a prominent member of the Class of '80 was actually fined two dollars for "reading matter in a church not connected with the service," the matter being a note just received from his best girl. This member is now a well known clergyman.


        The Summer Normal School of 1880 extended from June 24th to July 29th, President Battle having general charge. Major Jed Hotchkiss, of Staunton, Virginia, was Superintendent until July 6th, when he had engagements elsewhere. He was likewise Lecturer in Geography. He was succeeded in the office of Superintendent by Prof. Henry E. Shepherd. LL.D., of Baltimore, Maryland, Superintendent of the City

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Schools, who was also Lecturer on the English Language. The other members of the Faculty were as follows:

  • Alexander McIver, once Professor of Mathematics in Davidson College, afterwards Superintendent of Public Instruction: Teacher of Mathematics, English Grammar, and History.
  • Prof. J. L. Tomlinson, of Baltimore, Md., late Teacher in Graded Schools of California: Teacher of English Grammar and Geography.
  • Dr. Richard H. Lewis, of Kinston, once Doctor of Medicine, late Principal of Kinston College: Physiology and Hygiene.
  • Prof. Robert O. Holt, Oak Ridge, N. C., Teacher in Academy of Oak Ridge: Teacher of Drawing and Penmanship.
  • Prof. Wm. B. Phillips, Chapel Hill, N. C.: Teacher of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy.
  • Albert L. Coble, Graham, N. C., since Judge of the Superior Court: Teacher of Algebra.
  • Alexander W. McAlister, Asheboro, N. C.: Teacher of Latin.
  • Prof. Robert T. Bryan, now President of Baptist University at Shanghai, China: Teacher of Latin.
  • N. C. English, Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Greensboro: Teacher of Grammar and Geography.
  • Capt. John E. Dugger, Superintendent of Graded Schools of Raleigh: Reading and Phonics.
  • Prof. Benjamin W. Hatcher, Principal of High School of Selma: Arithmetic and Analytical Geometry.
  • Prof. Robert P. Pell, Instructor in English, University of North Carolina: English Philology and Shakespeare.
  • J. M. Weatherly, Principal of High School: Teacher of Reading and Mental Arithmetic.
  • Mrs. Louise Pollock, head of a Kindergarten School, Washington, D. C.: Teacher of the Kindergarten system.
  • Miss Susie Pollock, Washington, D. C.: Teacher of Kindergarten system.
  • Miss Jane F. Long, a teacher of the Public Schools of New York: Teacher of the Model Class.

        These teachers were as a rule at the head of their profession and indoctrinated their pupils with the latest and best modes of instruction and of the conduct of schools. Prominent men delivered lectures and addresses before the whole school in Gerrard Hall:

  • Prof. Jed Hotchkiss, thirteen lectures, including two on Palestine and one on Africa.
  • Prof. W. C. Kerr, six lectures on North Carolina.
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  • Prof. Sylvester Hassell, one on Astronomy.
  • Major Robert Bingham, "The English Speaking People."
  • Prof. F. W. Simonds, two on Zoölogy and one on Curious Flowers.
  • Bishop Theodore B. Lyman, "Egypt and the Nile."
  • Rev. Dr. Edward Rondthaler, "German Schools."
  • Rev. Dr. T. H. Pritchard, "Education in North Carolina."
  • Supt. J. C. Scarborough, "School System in North Carolina."
  • Rev. Wm. B. Royall, D.D., "The Happy Teacher."
  • President Battle, "The History of the University"; also a lecture on Sacred History.
  • Robert T. Gray, Esq., "Progressive Education."
  • Eugene Grissom, M.D., LL.D., "Evolution and Science."
  • Prof. W. B. Phillips, nine lectures on Natural Philosophy, with experiments.

        The whole number of pupils enrolled was 241, representing fifty-five counties. The average daily attendance was 167.

        President Battle in the course of one of his lectures made some interesting statements showing lineal descent of friendship for the University. One of the Committeemen, who reported the first scheme of instruction in the University, was Samuel Ashe, one of the three first Judges of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 1776, afterwards Governor. One of his grandsons, Thomas Samuel Ashe, a high honor graduate and a Trustee, was one of the first three Judges of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 1876.

        Two great-grandsons of David Stone, afterwards Governor, another Committeeman, were lately students in the University, David Stone Cowan and John L. Phillips (now, 1912, a Surgeon in the United States Army, with the rank of Major).

        The first President of the Board of Trustees, Charles Johnson being only chairman of a called meeting, was William Lenoir, a hero of Kings Mountain. One of his descendants was Rufus Lenoir Patterson, Chief Marshal of 1850, and a leading spirit in the revival of the University in 1875, and a son of his, Lenoir Morehead Patterson, and his cousin, Thomas Ballard Lenoir, were descendants of the noble man who called the Trustees to order on the morning of November 15, 1790.

        Again, the county of Mecklenburg, indignant because those of the Presbyterian faith were excluded from teaching in

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Queen's College, demanded a public institution bound by no such trammels. Waightstill Avery, one of the delegates, was on the committee which reported the Constitution. He was author of the clause commanding the establishment of the University. The line of Averys was represented by John Morehead Avery, a first honor man, son of the lamented Colonel William Waightstill Avery, who lost his life in the Civil War.

        Another coincidence was noted. The delegates from Edgecombe to the Constitutional Convention of 1776 were William Haywood, Elisha Battle, Jonas Johnston, Isaac Sessoms, and William Horn. Each of them had lineal descendants in college at that time. From Col. William Haywood came Ernest Haywood; Frank G. Hines represented Col. Jonas Johnston; Frank Battle Dancy represented Isaac Sessoms and Elisha Battle; Alexander L. Phillips and Kemp P., Junior, Thomas H., Herbert B., and Henry L. Battle were descendants of Elisha Battle and William Horn. This old patriot, Elisha Battle, State Senator throughout the Revolutionary War, in addition to being the ancestor of the six students named, and of President Battle and of two Trustees, had also the good fortune of being the progenitor of five generations, students of the University he indirectly aided in founding.


        In 1880 the Executive Committee was unexpectedly aroused to interference in a matter generally thought to be peculiarly within the province of the Faculty. It was enacted that Professors should mark each recitation and make a weekly report. In the final marking of the pupil these recitation marks must have a controlling weight. The Faculty afterwards decided that they should have a two-thirds weight. It is obvious that this might be practicable in Mathematics but in History and other like subjects, this close attention to recitation is incompatible with arousing enthusiasm by the Professor. It seems that final examinations create and test a broad acquaintance with the subject taught during the session and should be the controlling influence.

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        The Scientific Course was revised and printed in the catalogue. The studies relating especially to the practical pursuits of life, e. g., the "branches relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts," being emphasized. An inspection of this course will show that there was an honest attempt to earn the $7,500 a year granted on account of the Act of Congress of 1862, often called by the name of its author, the Morrill Act. As it is very desirable to show the good faith of the University in this regard I give a list of studies of the Scientific Course in 1881-'82.

  • FIRST YEAR.--Algebra and Geometry, English, Natural History Laboratory, Bookkeeping, and any one of the following: Latin, Greek, French, German.
  • SECOND YEAR.--Trigonometry and Analytical Geometry, Chemistry, French or German, Rhetoric, History, Physiology, Zoölogy, and Botany.
  • THIRD YEAR.--Physics, Industrial and Agricultural Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis, Agricultural Botany, Business Law, Logic and Rhetoric, Surveying and Engineering, or Calculus.
  • FOURTH YEAR.--Mechanics and Astronomy, Geology and Mineralogy, Political Economy, Constitutional Law, International Law, English Literature, and two electives, one out of each of the following groups: (a) Calculus or Surveying and Engineering or Quantitative Analysis; (b) English Literature, or Psychology, Moral Philosophy, Essays and Orations.

        The Teachers' Course was:

  • FIRST YEAR.--English, Reading and Elocution, Arithmetic, Algebra, Geography (Physical and Descriptive), Physiology and School Hygiene, Drawing and Writing, Latin or Greek, Theory of Teaching.
  • SECOND YEAR.--Rhetoric, History, Reading and Elocution, Bookkeeping, Surveying, Algebra, Geometry, Natural Philosophy, Business Law, Composition, Theory of Teaching.

        This Teacher's Course was for those preparing to be teachers, either in public or private schools. It embraced the studies required by law and some others indispensable to excellence. Students in this course could take free of charge studies embraced in the other courses.

        With the consent of the Faculty in each case students might pursue any studies they pleased, provided they had fifteen

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hours of class exercise a week. By this means a purely agricultural education was possible.

        A beginning was made in the collection of best models of plows and other agricultural implements. Handsome donations were made by E. H. Plummer, Belcher & Taylor, B. F. Avery & Sons, South Bend Iron Works, A. B. Farquhar.


        On the 23d of September, 1880, the College of Pharmacy was added to the University, with the following professors:

  • Kemp P. Battle, LL.D., President.
  • Thomas W. Harris, A.M., M.D., Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy.
  • Frederick W. Simonds, M.S., Professor of Botany.
  • Francis P. Venable, Professor of General, Analytical and Applied Chemistry.

        During the spring term three lectures a week were given on Structural and Physiological Botany. Special attention was required for analysis of plants and the making of herbaria. In Chemistry there were three lectures per week for nine months, written examinations in December and May, oral quizzes often, and six hours required in the laboratory each week. The well appointed laboratories of the University gave every facility for work, which included the reactions of drugs, tests for their impurities and the detection of poison.

        Dr. Harris in Materia Medica and Pharmacy gave instruction in the description of the articles of Materia Medica, their physical properties, their impurities and tests for the same, the action of poisons and their antidotes.

        The pharmacy and medical students had free access to libraries and museums, including cabinets of minerals, plants, and medicines.


        From the beginning in 1875 the honor system in examinations was adopted. Each student signed a pledge that he neither gave nor received aid during the examination. Short absences from the classroom, not over a quarter of an hour,

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were allowed, the examination paper not to be removed. At one time the Faculty proposed that there should be no retiring, but finding that there was a general objection to this, it was dropped. On the whole the honor plan has worked wonderfully well. For some time accusations of cheating, which have been very rare, were tried before the members of the class as judges, but of late years before the Student's Council. Before 1868 cheating on examinations was not frowned upon by the student body; indeed, unless the perpetrator was "running for an honor," was pleasantly condoned. The reason for this was explained in Volume I of the History, briefly that there was a well founded belief that President Swain desired a large graduating class and that the diploma was no evidence of scholarship. There was no punishment for cheating, but now, on conviction, the offender must leave the University. The very few trials have been conducted fairly and wisely. According to the agreement of the students in mass meetings, any student detecting the offender is in honor bound to report him to the Student Council. The jurisdiction of the Council has been extended and now (1912) includes all accusations of serious breaches of discipline. Recently eight students have been reported to the Prsident as worthy of dismissal for hazing and they were dismissed accordingly.


        The games of this period consisted of baseball and football. The first was much like the present but not altogether. Pitching by the pitcher was abandoned and throwing substituted. No gloves were worn and the hands of the first baseman were generally blue in spots from bruises. The ball was usually taken on a bound far behind the batter. There were no catcher's masks nor mitts; "taking them off the bat" by the catcher was resorted to only seldom, for example, when there was a man on base.

        Football was played pretty much as is described in "Tom Brown at Rugby," i. e., by as many as were willing to engage in it, the players being chosen by captains on both sides. The eleven on a side came afterwards. As played at this time the

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game was very animated, and gave exercise to a much larger number than at present. The "rooters" instead of sitting on benches and occasionally giving their college yells were active participants in the running, dodging, and kicking.

        In 1880 the Agricultural Experiment Station was very active and did good work. Among the employees was a skilled analyst from Prussia. After doing efficient service for some months his work became irregular and his actions abnormal. He devoted himself to a Fayetteville lady at the Normal School, followed her home and manifested his love by extravagant attentions. Then we heard of his resignation, probably at the request of his chief, Dr. Ledoux. He transmitted a few dollars to the doctor, saying it was to pay for alcohol which he had used as an intoxicant out of the Department stores. He then determined to return to the old country to visit his father. While in mid-Atlantic on his return trip, he suddenly leaped overboard and was swallowed up in the mighty ocean--a victim to the drug which poisons mind and body. He was a man of uncommon force, had the thorough training of a German University, bore on his face the scar of a student's sword duel. In manner he was courteous and agreeable. It is unnecessary to give his name.


        A meeting of the Alumni Association was held in the evening of January 26, 1881, in Raleigh, in pursuance of a resolution of the Association in June preceding, at the instance of President Battle. A number of alumni paid the annual fee of one dollar and became members. Mr. Paul C. Cameron was elected President, W. L. Saunders Secretary, E. B. Engelhard Assistant Secretary, F. J. Busbee, J. S. Carr, and J. R. Hutchins Executive Committee. The Association assembled in the Hall of the House of Representatives. A very large and intelligent audience showed by earnest attention their appreciation of the proceedings. President Cameron delivered a most interesting address. He began by praising the ladies

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for the value of their presence to the University exercises. It had been an inspiring sight to see such men as Wm. H. Battle, Wm. A. Graham, B. F. Moore, and David M. Carter engaged in resuscitating the institution. He called over some of the older surviving alumni: Mark Alexander, of 1808; Matthew R. Moore, of Alabama, 1815; Rev. Dr. Robert Hall Morrison, Bishop W. M. Green, General Edward J. Mallett, of New York, of the Class of 1818, and Wm. H. Hardin, of 1819. We should keep in mind James K. Polk, 1815, Willie P. Mangum, 1815, Wm. A. Graham, 1824, and John Y. Mason, 1816, as having a national reputation.

        Mr. Cameron then paid a glowing tribute to Governor John M. Morehead, 1817. Commencing life as a Tutor in the University, he ended it with the highest honors of the State and the richest rewards of a practical utilitarian and man of all work. Then there was Judge Archibald Murphey, 1799, who went into life from a Professor's chair, able lawyer and master of English, very kind to young men. He wrote once to the speaker a letter giving fatherly advice and closing with an entreaty never to wear a ring, walk with a gold headed cane, or ride a pony. Then we should remember R. M. Pearson, 1823, Thomas C. Manning, 1843, and Walker Anderson, 1819, Chief Justices of North Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida respectively. There were mentioned the astute lawyer, B. F. Moore, 1820, and the orators W. P. Mangum and Zebulon B. Vance, 1852. And there were the great pulpit orators, Francis L. Hawks, 1815, and William Hooper, 1809. Two of the most prominent graduates, J. J. Pettigrew and M. W. Ransom, were competitors for honors in the same class, 1847, while Wm. R. Holt, 1817, was a pioneer in improved agriculture and cattle breeding.

        For nearly seventy years the fortunes of the University were in the hands of President Caldwell and David L. Swain, 1822, who managed its affairs with good judgment and success. On the reorganization in 1875 ex-Governor Graham was urged to become the chief officer of the University, but he shook his head and said "it can not be." He was in the grasp of a fatal

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malady. He gave his earnest sanction to the election of Mr. Battle a year afterwards.

        Mr. Cameron gave his endorsement to the Summer Normal School "the wisest provision, the best blow struck in North Carolina for general education--to teach the teachers how to teach." Lastly he praised the establishment at the University of the Agricultural Experiment Station as full of untold blessings to the farmer. He then introduced to the audience President Battle, who delivered the annual address as the substitute of Rev. Dr. Thos. E. Skinner, who had been chosen but was called off to the bedside of a sick son. As President Battle's address was on the early history of the University, and as that is given in detail in the first volume of his History, it will not be repeated now. After mentioning the benefactors of the University in the past he closed, "Every one of these good men and women of the old time have gone to their silent homes, their bodies resting in the bosom of the green earth, not one of all that noble band looking forth with benignant eyes on their beloved North Carolina and the many changes flashing over its surface. But not dead. They live in their worthy descendants, whose character they aided by transmitted influence to mould, the true transmigration of souls, in the beneficent institutions which they inaugurated, in the capacious structures, whose corner stones they laid, in the children of the land they assisted to educate. The University buildings and noble grounds, its libraries and apparatus for instruction, long lines of useful and honorable citizens in all the walks of life, in all the States from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, their mental panoply supplied from her armory, these are alike their work and ever enduring monument."

        "The thanks of the Association were tendered to Messrs. Cameron and Battle for their very able, instructive and interesting addresses."

        Adjournment was then had subject to the call of the President or Executive Committee. Messrs. Paul B. Means, F. H. Busbee, and J. S. Carr were appointed a committee to prepare an address to the alumni. It does not appear that the committee ever reported.

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        After the conclusion of the meeting in the Hall of the House of Representatives the Association and its guests partook of an elegant banquet at the Yarborough House, care being taken to have no wine nor strong drink. Rev. Dr. Neill McKay asked the Divine blessing. Mr. Cameron was president of the feast. There were sundry toasts called and responses made, short abstracts of which are given.

        1. North Carolina and the Federal Union. Governor Thomas J. Jarvis said, "Great as North Carolina is, dear to our hearts as she is, dear to us as the blood which so many of us have shed, and which so many more are willing to shed in her defense, she is but an integral part of this mighty Union, with which heaven and our forefathers have blessed us. North Carolina and the Federal Union: Long may they go on prospering and to prosper, one and inseparable, now and forever."

        The second toast was The General Assembly of North Carolina. Responded to by the President of the Senate, Lieutenant-Governor Robinson, and the Speaker of the House, Charles M. Cooke. We have only the speech of Mr. Cooke. "The groundwork of every system of government is the voice of the legislative power as expressed in its laws. The idea of this age in our State is in higher mental and moral culture. In this General Assembly are found representatives of that idea. To the members of the Alumni Association I would say in behalf of the General Assembly, we have the kindest feelings for your Alma Mater. We appreciate her for what she has done. We value her for what she is still to do, and we shall help her to extend her usefulness."

        To the third toast, The Judiciary of North Carolina and the Bar, Col. John N. Staples, Senator from Guilford County, responded: "Who of us, the most humble of the legal profession, that is not stirred to the very depths when we read of those great judges and eminent advocates, whose fame and glory fill the earth, and whose names like great stars in the world's firmament, shine through the gloom of centuries with a brilliancy and a splendor which time can not efface nor the ages obscure. * * * The pages of history do not disclose the time when the lawyers and the judges, as a class, were not

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the truest friends of good government, wholesome laws and popular rights." Colonel Staples continued for some minutes in eloquent style and closed as follows:

                         " 'The skies are painted with unnumbered sparks;
                         They all are fire and every one doth shine,
                         But there's but one in all doth hold his place,
                         Unchanged of motion, immovable.'

        "So let it be with the State. Let the hills and the valleys and eastern plains be studded with colleges and schools and seminaries of learning, and let each send forth a bright and beautiful light, but among them all let there be but one unchangeable and immovable, always resplendent with a never failing brightness, and let that one be our State University."

        The next toast was The University and the Board of Trustees. Responded to by Hon. John Manning, Representative from Chatham, and Dr. Eugene Grissom, Superintendent of the Central Asylum for the Insane.

        Mr. Manning said, "From the walls of the University has issued annually for more than three-quarters of a century a steady stream of generous, intelligent, well bred gentlemen, who have done much to formulate a healthy public opinion, and to elevate the standard of morals and politics. In 1875 the College curriculum was expanded and now the University stands abreast with the modern colleges or universities." The speaker gave details of the work of the University, awarding especial commendation to the Summer Normal School. He stated that the friends of the University have always been champions of the public schools. The Trustees have endeavored to carry out in good faith the provisions of the Land Grant Act. If anyone thinks otherwise they will be grateful for friendly criticism.

        Dr. Grissom said, "The influence of this institution of learning has extended throughout every portion of our Common-wealth, and its usefulness has pervaded every interest of our people. Its mission has not been hemmed in by State lines nor its blessings 'circumscribed within the same narrow limits.' Let it grow and flourish and bear fruit to feed the hungry

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thoughts of the rising generation, soon to fill our ranks. Its past history is secure, its career has been covered with renown, its present and future is as bright and full of praise. The Athenian pointed to the splendid Acropolis with exulting pride, because he believed that there in the matchless Parthenon was enshrined the palladium of his country--the symbol of heavenly knowledge. But were I asked to declare the preserving charm of our beloved country and its glorious liberties, I would direct the inquirer, * * * to our public schools, academies, colleges and universities. Here the minds that rule our land are fashioned. Here, under God, the destinies of the nation are determined."

        The next toast was The Clergy, responded to by Rev. Thos. E. Skinner, D.D. "True education is under the guidance and control of the Great Teacher sent from God. Its two great factors are Nature and Christ, and the design of both schools is the training, growth and salvation of the human family. In all the colleges of the State let a friendly emulation stimulate to the highest success. Let not the University underrate the denominational colleges as sectarian nor should the latter antagonize the University, the mother of high education in North Carolina."

        The sixth toast was Our Sister Institutions--Davidson, Wake Forest, and Trinity. Major J. G. Morrison, Representative from Lincoln, spoke for Davidson. He said that his father, Rev. Dr. Robert Hall Morrison, eighty-two years old, is one of the three oldest living graduates of the University. "No one will cherish more esteem, or who will be more ready to extend to it a helping hand than myself."

        Senator H. R. Scott, of Rockingham, for Wake Forest, said, "There is really no conflict of interests between the University and the colleges of the State. The liberal patronage extended to the University, and the increased matriculation of the colleges since its revival confirm this belief. Alike the advocates and inculcators of the great principles of moral and intellectual development, the colleges, with the University at their head, should march shoulder to shoulder against the twin gorgons, illiteracy and vice."

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        Representative D. B. Nicholson, of Duplin, for Trinity College, said, "Our University and her 'Sister Colleges' are the fountains from which flow, and from which must continue to flow, the crystal streams of knowledge and culture from which the manhood of our grand old Commonwealth may quaff the waters of refinement, of honor and distinction. Long live and flourish our grand old University! Long live and flourish her 'Sister Colleges.' "

        The seventh toast was The Common Schools of North Carolina. Senator A. Haywood Merritt, of Chatham, responded. "We are bound to extend a support to the University and the Common Schools, not only by the Constitution, but by the stronger ties of patriotic affection. The Common Schools and the University, two but inseparable, the handmaids of virtue and intelligence, which bear their welcome blessings alike to the cottage and the palace, and bring up the poor to the level of the peer. May they live forever!"

        Representative J. R. Webster, of Rockingham, responded to the same toast, "There is nothing I so much desire as the prosperity and happiness of the whole people of the State. The education of the masses is the only enduring basis upon which permanent prosperity and happiness can rest. The University's history constitutes the most brilliant and useful chapter in the splendid history of our grand old Commonwealth. I assuredly wish the University long life and abundant prosperity."

        Representative J. S. Bradshaw, of Randolph, responded to The Press, "Of all oppressed, depressed, and hard pressed, overworked, overtaxed, and unappreciated mortals between heaven and the new county of Durham, the Press stands foremost. I am not too envious not to exult with you over the resuscitation of your Alma Mater, nor can I be too selfish or too narrow souled not to rejoice with you over the greater and more glorious future that yet awaits her. The Press claims a share in her redemption and the honor of her success. While the Press has built up the University I could point you to other monuments on every hand that will perpetuate its honor and tell its power in the years to come. In the Press you will have

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always the strongest ally, the warmest advocate and the truest friend of your own beloved Alma Mater, the gem and the pride of North Carolina."

        The ninth toast was The Agricultural, Commercial, Manufacturing and Mining Interests of the State. Responded to by Hon. Montford McGehee, 1841, Commissioner of Agriculture, Major Rufus S. Tucker, Gen. Julian S. Carr, and Prof. W. C. Kerr. Mr. McGehee said, "The medical and law brethren, who have preceded me, seem to claim that the supreme good of society is dependent on the proper exercise of their professional functions. But let us not forget that the leaders of these professions have often in one generation reversed the opinions and practices of their predecessors. But if deprived of their breakfasts and other meals furnished by agriculture, what would become of the learning of our Executives, Legislators, and Judiciary? Our dear mother, ever fair and ever young, looks from her far famed hill with as much complacency upon those of her children who excel in agricultural as upon those who excel in professional pursuits. We hold in peculiar honor the men who established our University and those who maintained and supported her. Agriculture is reverenced as the calling of the good and wise of every age. It is revered as the true theater of peace, virtue, and independence."

        The speaker regretted the absence of the other sex "who, in the language of the great Cicero, 'Delectant domi, non impediunt foris, peregrinantur, rusticantur, pernoctant nobiscum.' Does the field of literature furnish a finer climax than that embraced in the above passage?"

        Major Tucker, taking Commerce as his subject, gave a rapid history of trade from the Jews, PhŒnicians, Carthaginians, Romans: "In our day the volume of exchanges has enormously increased, aided by ocean steamers, railroads, the telegraph." The dates of the charters of the various railroads in North Carolina were given. He then adverted to the delightful days spent at Chapel Hill in the old days. He paid a warm tribute to the ladies of Chapel Hill. He then gave a glowing description of the mineral and other resources of the State

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and exhorted the young men to prepare to develop them. He then reversed the advice of Greeley and urged them to "stay at home, young men."

        General Carr spoke on Manufactures. He urged the General Assembly to encourage manufacturing in every way possible. He asked pardon for stating that the mills, with which he was connected, since the first of January of the present year (1881), made sales to or had bona fide inquiries from, every State and Territory, perhaps, in the Union and besides from South America, West Indies, England, Germany, Norway, Australia, Japan, and China, and the "far-off isles of the sea." Though

                         "The heathen in his blindness
                         Bows down to wood and stone,"
in their lucid moments they cry, "Give us Blackwell's Durham tobacco and cigarettes, none genuine unless they have the trademark of the Durham Bull stamped on each package."

        Professor Kerr then responded, his subject being Geology. "The University has included in the scope of her plans and work, with a true University spirit, the whole circle of scientific culture and development. She built the first astronomical observatory on the continent, and not only recommended the establishment of, but actually conducted through a series of years, the first State Geological Survey in America. And the President of the University, Caldwell, sketched out a ground plan of internal improvements which the present generation is just beginning to comprehend and soon to realize."

        Col. Duncan K. MacRae coming in was called on and responded in a very witty and sensible speech, which was not reported.

        The last speech was not made until after midnight. The alumni and their invited guests went to rest, the former more enthusiastic than ever over their intellectual mother and the latter with more friendly feelings towards the institution which had become better known to them.

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        In January, 1879, the Treasurer reported that the collections from contributions were exhausted and that the receipts from tuition were insufficient to pay expenses. The numbers had increased to an extent greater than the most sanguine had anticipated. During the session 1877-'78 there were one hundred and ninety-eight in attendance. It had been the calculation, as has been stated, that the tuition receipts and contributions not needed for repairs, with the $7,500 by the State, would suffice to pay all bills until the tuition receipts should increase to the needed amount. Unfortunately this was not the case. If all the 198 students had paid their $60 tuition and $10 room rent the receipts would have been $13,180. The actual receipts were $6,987, very little over one-half. The prediction as to the increase of numbers was correct; the prediction as to the tuition receipts was incorrect.

        What was the cause of the increase of nonpaying students? Mainly the county student feature. By some it was considered a mark of distinction to be chosen by the Commissioners to represent their county. A few received the county appointment who were not strictly entitled to it.

        The evil to the University treasury did not stop here. Other youths, their parents naturally assenting, compared themselves to the county students and thought that they were entitled to the same privileges, claiming that financially they were in no better condition. Also the sons of clergymen were entitled to free tuition and those intending to become clergymen. And all who were indigent were allowed to give their notes for their University dues. These considerations diminished largely the number of paying students. And probably Trustees and Faculty, partly from pure charity and partly to increase the prestige of the institution, naturally leaned to liberality in granting free admission.

        The University, while willing to aid the bona fide indigent in all cases, would have been glad to abandon the county student feature, but was unable to do so, because the obligation had been imposed by the General Assembly as one of the conditions

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on which the grant of the land scrip had been made in 1867. It added very few students. Most of those who availed themselves of it would have entered the University without it.

        It may be asked why the Faculty did not refuse those county students whom they considered able to pay. Simply because the law gave the decision of the question to the County Commissioners, who were supposed to know the pecuniary condition of their people. The applicant was a resident of their county, the Faculty could know nothing about him except from hearsay and hearsay was often wrong or only half right. For instance, there was a county student whose father owned four hundred acres of good land, but the land was under a heavy mortgage. This, of course, the Commissioners knew, but the Faculty had no means of knowing. They had no authority to overrule the Commissioners. If they had done so bitter enmities would have resulted.

        The charge that rich boys were appointed county students, true or untrue, aroused sharp hostility in certain quarters. It was charged that this free tuition was intentionally used to gain students designing to go to other colleges. Rev. Columbus Durham insisted on getting and publishing copies of the University accounts and sharply criticised President Battle for the large amount of free tuition. His attack had little weight as the sympathies of the people were with indigent young men struggling for a higher life.

        At the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees the situation was carefully discussed. Rev. D. A. Long moved that all salaries should be reduced twenty per cent, and tuition fees increased by ten dollars. This was voted down and the Trustees settled upon ten per cent decrease of salaries as long as it should be necessary. It is to the credit of the members of the Faculty that they accepted this unpalatable action without a protest or a murmur. They did not even ask that scrip should be given for the amount so cut off, to be paid when more prosperous times should arrive.

        President Battle then proposed that he should appeal to the alumni and other friends of higher education for aid, and, if

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this should not meet with success, application should be made to the General Assembly for an annual appropriation. The whole matter devolved on him. Fortified by a strong letter from Governor Jarvis he accordingly proceeded to seek interviews with leading alumni in the chief cities and towns of the State and asked their counsel and their gifts. The unanimous answer was that it was not wise to rely on voluntary donations, but that the University, like all other State institutions, should be regularly supported out of the public treasury. As his opinion concurred with theirs, he turned his energies to procuring an appropriation.

        Strange to say no annual appropriation had ever been asked for and of course had not been granted. In 1790 a loan of ten thousand dollars for building the Old East was voted and afterwards it was converted into a gift. About seventy-five years afterwards, in 1867, President Swain procured seven thousand dollars for one year to pay part of the unpaid salaries of the Faculty. Large sums were obtained from time to time from escheats, including soldiers' land warrants located in West Tennessee, which that State claimed as her property, but there was no money from the State Treasury. The seven thousand and five hundred dollars annually from the Land Grant is no exception to this statement because that was paid to fulfill a contract with the United States, specified in the Act of Congress of July, 1862, in lieu of the investments made under the Pool administration.

        After consulting with Governor Jarvis, Colonel Saunders, and other wise friends it was concluded that, as we had $7,500 per annum coupled with the obligation to receive one free student from each county, that the proposed bill would be more acceptable if, coupled with an additional $7,500, there should be another free student from each county.

        This provision was bitterly fought by friends of other institutions, who alleged that the county student feature was used to take away their students. This allegation was probably true in one or two cases. Some County Commissioners possibly reasoned that a young man, while his father lived, had

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no property of his own. There was, however, only one case known where a student was induced to desert his college for the University, but it was charged that there were many.

        In order to get the bill in any shape through the Legislature we had the help of Governor Jarvis, Secretary of State Wm. L. Saunders, and other enlightened statesmen, including alumni of the University in the General Assembly.

        Colonel Saunders, graduate of the University of 1854, in a very strong paper, published in the Sentinel newspaper as an editorial, pointed out that the memorial of the opponents to the General Assembly opposing the appropriation was an attempt by the churches to control the State, contrary to the genius of our institutions.

        Rev. Dr. J. D. Hufham, a sincere and influential Baptist, a friend of Wake Forest College and also of the University, of which his father was an alumnus, journeyed to Raleigh from his distant home and sought an interview with President Battle. He stated that he was not opposed to the University but that he was unalterably an enemy to doubling the county student feature. He proposed that if the friends of the University would ask for $5,000 annually only and strike out the additional county student feature, he would cease his own opposition and would advise his friends to support the bill. Believing it to be the best policy for the University, with the approval of Governor Jarvis, Colonel Saunders and other Trustees, the proposal was accepted.

        The bill then passed without serious trouble.

        When passage of the bill was reported to Colonel Saunders he was much pleased, saying, "That settles the principle--more will follow."

        What caused the change in public sentiment which led to this beginning of annual appropriations to the University? It was partly from the judicious conduct of the President and Professors in working hard and often making educational addresses throughout the State, partly to the admirable behavior of our students, and the high stand in their communities of

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our alumni, but chiefly to our Summer Normal School. Teachers from two-thirds of the counties returned to their homes full of love for the University and demonstrating its usefulness to the public schools. Friends of education everywhere had their attention turned hitherward.

        Connected with this success of the University was an incident which was so distorted in the telling as to be offensive to some who had opposed us. The students, on Washington's birthday, through Mr. A. W. McAlister, a Junior, presented President Battle with a gold headed cane. The secret was so well kept that the President knew not what was coming until the orator was half through his speech of presentation. He replied in a conciliatory tone, giving credit to all who supported our bill, expressing gratification at the withdrawal of opposition, and explaining that the opposition was chiefly directed against doubling the number of county students. There was nothing said in a boastful way but probably the public presentation of the cane was regarded in that light. Over that President Battle had no control whatever. His uniform practice was to say nothing which could leave a sting. Doubtless, too, some thin skinned opponent of the University was guilty of misunderstanding or distorting the speeches and endeavored to make mischief.

        In order to satisfy the public that the county student law of 1867 would be honestly administered, it was materially strengthened by the Act of 1881. The applicant was required to prove that neither he, nor guardian, nor parent, had the requisite means to pay his tuition and room rent at the University, that he was a citizen of the State, a resident of the county, of good moral character and capacity for usefulness. The appointment was revocable if the alleged facts were found to be untrue, or the applicant, his parent or guardian, should become able to pay. The Faculty were allowed to bring the question of ability before the Board of Commissioners. And if any student should obtain the appointment, he should still be liable for tuition and room rent, if he should afterwards be able to pay. It was made the duty of the Trustees to require

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that students receiving free tuition should promise in writing to teach in the State for a period of time half as long as they should be at the University under such tuition.

        This law continued until 1887, when the Land Scrip was taken from the University and the county student feature was abolished. This abolition, however, does not prevent the aiding of the indigent to obtain a University education.

        Of course, although not altogether satisfactory in its workings, the law did much good. Many valuable youths were brought from their obscure surroundings and trained for an honorable life. President Battle was careful to send printed copies of the law to the counties and thus poor young men were informed how to obtain a University education, which would not have otherwise been made known to them.

        The report of President Battle for 1881 was placed before the General Assembly. Some statements in the report should be recorded.

        The President bears testimony to the high standard of honor, sobriety, economy, and deportment of the students. He acknowledges the great indebtedness of the Faculty to them for their invaluable coöperation through the Literary Societies in preserving so elevated a standard of decorum and morality.

        The Faculty are studious and ambitious. They have performed their work with cheerfulness, harmony, energy and thoroughness.

        The income does not meet expenses. It is impossible to curtail our expense without serious injury to the institution. For example, curtailment of salaries would drive off some of our best Professors, while diminution of our teaching force will cause to be untaught subjects of vital importance.

        The Act of Congress does not allow buildings to be put up out of the fund, or cattle or machinery bought. It requires the teaching of Latin and Greek and also the "branches of learning relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts," not "Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts." The farmer's son should have a general training, so that he can hold his own in all circles. It is the intent of the Act to elevate the business

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of the farmers and mechanics to take rank with the professional men of law, medicine, theology and the like.

        We were assailed for not having stables and barns and blooded cattle, for not having workshops and costly machinery, and the like plants necessary to the efficiency of a complete institute of technology. The answer is plain. In the first place, how is it possible to provide these expenditures, running into many thousands of dollars, out of $7,500 a year? Could the ablest financier provide for the demands on his budget to this extent out of an empty treasury--in truth out of a deficient treasury?

        In the second place, the diversion of the Land Scrip Fund to permanent structures is against the Act of Congress. The second paragraph of section five of said act is explicit. "No portion of said fund nor interest thereon shall be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretense whatever, to the purchase, erection, preservation, or repair of any building or buildings."

        It is confidently submitted that no fair man can accuse the University of not carrying out its obligation. It established not only two but several more professorships designed to teach the branches of learning relating to agriculture and the mechanic arts. It was impossible to do more with only $7,500 a year.

        It is possible that if the Trustees had cut off from its past and turned the University into an Agricultural and Mechanical College, the General Assembly would have shown greater liberality. But they wisely determined to develop it along the ancient lines, embracing, however, a much greater scope of scientific teaching. Surely it was right to have our institution of the type of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, University of Virginia, a character that this University has always had, with a reputation wide and enduring.


        A memorial in behalf of the denominational colleges of the State was submitted to the General Assembly and published in the newspapers, against the passage of the bill. While the

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memorialists especially attacked the county student feature on the ground that it would take students from the colleges and was not fairly administered, the paper contains arguments against any State appropriation to the University. They say "we oppose the measure because such a large sum as $7,500 should not be given to collegiate education, when common school education is especially needed. Now only one-third of the children are at school, the State is so poor that it can only open the schools ten and one-fourth weeks in the year, and the appropriation for each child is only eighty-one cents, it seems unreasonable for the State to pay eighty dollars a year for each student sent to Chapel Hill."

        Again, they said, the number of really poor who will be aided will not be materially increased as the colleges are aiding, in whole or in part, one hundred and sixty-five needy young men. The tendency of the State student system is to have all University students free, as is the case in Virginia (and many other States), thus forcing by involuntary taxation the education of well to do and even the richest families.

        It was charged that the University was doing no better teaching than the colleges. "In fact even the high schools were injured because the University 'receives students of almost any degree of preparation.' In truth the development of the past few years shows that the colleges possess a value and vitality as factors in the great work of education, which do not belong to 'the State School at Chapel Hill.' Chapel Hill, with its illustrious alumni, its buildings and its endowment of $125,000, is unable to sustain itself, while the colleges are in a prosperous condition."

        Finally, deeming the measure violative of their most sacred rights as citizens, the memorialists entered their solemn protest against it as inexpedient, unfair, and unjust, and they would resist its passage by every legitimate measure.

        The memorial was signed by Rev. Drs. T. H. Pritchard, B. Craven, and L. M. McKinnon, presidents respectively of Wake Forest, Trinity, and Davidson Colleges, Rev. J. D. Hufham and Mr. L. L. Polk, of the Baptist, Mr. John L. Brown of the Presbyterian, and Rev. F. L. Reid of the Methodist Churches.

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        Many members of these denominations made known that they had no sympathy with the movement.

        The temper of the paper is indicated in several ways. First, the institution under discussion is belittled by calling it "the State School at Chapel Hill," and "Chapel Hill." Nowhere is it called "the University."

        Second, in throwing up to the University its paucity of numbers in recent years, when it was struggling under much opposition by the petitioners and others to regain the prosperity lost by the disasters of war and unfortunate legislation.

        Third, that it had no standard of admission. The only ground for this accusation is that the Land Grant Act required the University not to require Latin and Greek for applicants desiring to study the branches of learning relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. The possession of $7,500 a year made it imperative to obey the act, but very few students availed themselves of the offer.

        Fourth, that the colleges without an endowment were flourishing. On the contrary their numbers were small, and they were seeking and ultimately obtained endowments. Their prosperity then increased. The rise of the University has helped them all notably.

        Fifth, while some of the arguments are only against free State students the spirit of the paper is against having any State University at all--a question settled in 1776 by constitutional enactment, and with few exceptions cherished throughout all civilized countries. The argument was that members of denominations which support their own colleges ought not to be called on to help public institutions, an argument which does not satisfy their own members, as is shown by the large attendance of their sons at the University.

        Sixth, the reflections on the work of the University come with a bad grace from men who never visited it and know not whereof they affirm. The Visiting Committees, able men, who annually inspect the institution, certify to faithful and sound work. The standards were as high as most of the best institutions in the land, as high as the standard of the preparatory schools allowed.

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        Seventh, the statement that $7,500 a year is a large appropriation, with the necessary inference that it is burdensome on the taxpayer, shows a lamentable ignorance or forgetfulness on the part of the memorialists. Institutions in many States get ten, twenty, thirty times as much. Those with even $1,000,000 to $2,000,000 annually complain of lack of means to provide for instruction in important branches of learning.

        Eighth, the authorities of the University preferred not to be burdened with this second obligation of county students. But they thought that the General Assembly would require it as a condition of a second appropriation of the same amount. They welcomed gladly the compromise to eliminate this feature, and reduce the appropriation to $5,000. It did not occur to them, however, that such respectable bodies as the County Commissioners, very fair representatives of the integrity and good sense of the people, would violate their duty by breaking a plain law and appointing students not entitled under its provisions.


        The following brief for the grant of additional aid to the University was prepared by President Battle and Professor Winston, and submitted to the Members of the General Assembly, in 1881. It is said that it had a good effect in conciliating opposition.


        Constitution of 1776--"All useful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more universities." Section 41.

        Charter granted in 1789, one month after the State entered the Union. The Legislature declared that "in all well regulated governments it is the indispensable duty of every Legislature to consult the happiness of a rising generation and endeavor to fit them for an honorable discharge of the social duties of life, by paying the strictest attention to their education, and whereas an university, supported by permanent funds and well endowed would have the most direct tendency to answer the above purpose," etc. etc.

        The Convention of 1835 left the requirement of the University in the Constitution.

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        The Convention of 1861 did the same.

        The Convention of 1865 reënacted the provision.

        The Convention of 1868 did the same.

        The people, by an immense majority, ratified the University by separate vote in 1873, and gave the management to the General Assembly.

        The Convention of 1875 reënacted the University provisions, and the people ratified their action in 1876.

        So that the people have imposed it on the General Assembly, at seven different epochs, to support and maintain the University. Art. IX, sec. 6, of Const.

        The General Assembly are sworn to carry out the provisions "wherever practicable":

  • 1. To give free tuition to the poor.
  • 2. To establish College of Agriculture.
  • 3. To establish College of Mechanics.
  • 4. To establish College of Mining.
  • 5. To establish College of Normal Instruction.

        All the Legislature has done is--

    I. To pay interest on the Land Scrip Fund, $7,500 per annum. This they agreed with the United States to do or pay back the whole amount to the United States.

  • (a) In return for this $7,500 the University grants 94 free scholarships, one from each county.
  • (b) The University agrees to establish at least two professorships, whose professors shall "teach the branches of learning relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts."

        As a matter of fact the University has organized all its departments with special reference to carrying out the Land Grant Act.

        The present work of the University:

    • I. Instruction to beneficiaries and county students. Over 270 since 1875.

    • (a) These free students have all the advantages given to the richest.
    • (b) They are taught not only branches relating to Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, but also all the studies usually taught in universities. They have really--
      • 1. The instruction demanded by Congress.
      • 2. The best university education.
      • 3. Both free of charge.
    • (c) These students are among the best students in all respects; many of them represent their Societies at Commencement.
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    • (d) Thus the University is educating the poorer classes and furnishing teachers for public and private schools, educated citizens for the civil offices and duties of the State.
    • (e) These poor students are not required to study Latin and Greek, but they can do so if they desire.
    • (f) They are not excluded on account of poor preparation; the Professors, by extra labor, provide for them.
    • II. Economy is the order of the day at the University.

    • (a) About half the students board at $7 to $8 per month, less than ten cents a meal.
    • (b) The Faculty interdict expensive boarding houses.
    • (c) Extravagance in all shapes and forms is banished.
    • III. The standard of graduation is higher than ever before.

    • (a) The range of studies is wider.
    • (b) Various courses of study are arranged to suit the tastes and necessities of individuals.
    • (c) The several studies are pursued further than ever before.
    • (d) The most improved methods of instruction are used.
    • (e) Idlers and poor scholars are sifted out of each class by searching final examinations.
    • (f) The scientific instruction is given not only by lectures and recitations, but also and especially by actual practice and experiment in the field and in the laboratory.
    • (g) The highest testimony has been given in flattering terms to the character of the institution: e. g., by Major Bingham, Rev. Dr. McKay, Hon. John Manning, Rev. C. H. Wiley, Major A. M. Lewis, Rev. Dr. Huske, and others, who have visited the class rooms.
    • IV. The instruction is largely practical.

    • (a) Land Surveying and Plotting.
    • (b) Bookkeeping and Commercial Arithmetic.
    • (c) Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry.
    • (d) Mechanics.
    • (e) Geology and Mineralogy.
    • (f) Botany.
    • (g) Zoölogy and Physiology.
    • (h) Constitutions of United States and of North Carolina.
    • (i) Rights and Duties of Citizenship.
    • (j) Laws of Business, Notes, Bills, etc.
    • (k) The University needs money to extend its usefulness in this direction.
    • V. The University is educating a great many teachers.

    • (a) Manning at Pittsboro, Noble with Bingham, Phillips with Lynch, Coble at Graham, Bryan at Cary, Craig at Chapel Hill, etc., etc., etc.
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    • (b) Many students study during the session and then remain during the Normal School, to learn the theory of teaching.
    • (c) The University needs money to secure a regular Professor of the Theory and Art of Teaching the Common School Branches.
    • VI. The number of the students shows the University's merits.

    • (a) The number has risen to 200 since 1875.
    • (b) This is more than the University ever had up to 1850.
    • (c) We have 50 per cent more from North Carolina than the University had up to 1850.
    • (d) The students from other States were diverted elsewhere when the University closed. They are returning.
    • (e) Many native students went abroad when the University closed.
    • VII. Shall the University live, or shall it die?

    • (a) The Constitution commands the University to exist.
    • (b) The State owns a great deal of University property; e. g.:
      • 1. Eight buildings, five spacious, all brick.
      • 2. Laboratories.
      • 3. Museums.
      • 4. Libraries.
      • 5. Scientific apparatus.
      • 6. Four professors' houses and lots.
      • 7. Six hundred acres of land.
    • (c) This belongs to the University forever by decision of the Circuit Court of the United States and Supreme Court of North Carolina.
    • (d) Shall the deaf, dumb, and blind be educated and not the seeing and hearing sons? Shall the insane be cared for and not the sane?
    • (e) The University is essential to the Common School System--the fountain of education.
    • (f) It saves annually from $75,000 to $100,000 to the State by educating our boys at home: e. g., Princeton, once the resort of students from North Carolina, now has only one. Hampden-Sidney has now none. University of Virginia, once the favorite, with forty or fifty or more, now has only twelve, counting the professional students in the Law and Medical Schools, etc., etc. Before the war the University had 185 from other States, who brought into North Carolina at least $100,000 every year. It had besides 272 from our own State, most of whom would have left it for education. The University therefore gained and saved together, to the State, about $200,000 per annum. From 1850 to 1860, there were 3,626 matriculates. At an average of $400 each, this netted the State $1,450,400 in ten years. Strengthen its hands and it will bring back the ancient numbers. Supposing
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      that of the present numbers, only half would leave the State for education, say 100, they would spend out of North Carolina $50,000 at least per year.

    • (g) The University alone can do its work. Trinity College claims to do as good work as the best institutions, and it is not denied; Wake Forest makes the same claim, and so does Davidson. For this reason it is said by some that the University, which was started fifty years before either of these, must desert its old work and get out of their way. Where shall it go? Must it go above Harvard, above Yale, above the University of Virginia, above Cornell, above Vanderbilt, above the University of Georgia, above Johns Hopkins? Such demands can not be complied with, for the simple reason that to do so would cut the University off from its connection with the great mass of poor young men in the State struggling to acquire liberal education. The University is not intended alone for the benefit of graduates of other institutions and the rich, but for the poor and needy as well, whose narrow fortunes will not permit them to go elsewhere. It is, and ought to be, emphatically a State institution, doing the State's work, and the real question at issue is not whether young men shall go to Chapel Hill or to other institutions, but whether they shall go to Chapel Hill and there acquire a liberal education, or remain at home without one. No institution in North Carolina, other than a State institution, can do the beneficiary work that the University has done, and desires to do. But let us not quarrel about this, for Heaven knows that in the field of education there is work enough for us all; that there are, and will always be, boys enough in North Carolina seeking higher education to fill all of our institutions of learning. So far as the University is concerned, it knows full well that the poor are always with us, and it desires always to open its doors to those who, for lack of fortune, can not go elsewhere.
    • VIII. With a little more money the University can vastly increase its usefulness.

    • (a) It could give more and better instruction as to--
      • 1. The theory and art of teaching.
      • 2. House building.
      • 3. Mining.
      • 4. Machinery, tools, etc.
      • 5. Surveying, drainage, and irrigation.
      • 6. Road making and bridge building.
      • 7. Carpentry.
      • 8. Draughting and drawing.
      • 9. Agriculture.

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    • IX. The University is doing more for the $7,500 than any similar institution in the United States that has as little money.

    • (a) It is teaching all the sciences relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts.
    • (b) Its instruction in these sciences is as extensive as the funds allow.
    • (c) It has gone in debt to support the Professorship of Natural History, relating solely to Agriculture.
    • (d) But for said professorship it would now be out of debt and self-supporting.
    • (e) It has fitted up three large and valuable chemical laboratories for agricultural students.
    • (f) It has purchased valuable and costly apparatus for students of Chemistry and Mechanics.
    • (g) It teaches the analysis of soils, marls, manures, foods, etc., the principles of Agriculture and Mechanics, etc., etc.
    • (h) Its work needs extending in these branches.
  • X. What appropriations do other States make? The list of appropriations by other States may be found in President Winston's report in 1892.
    • XI. Money contributed by individuals to revive the University and intended to pay Professors' salaries, has been applied to improving the property of the State.

    • (a) Individuals contributed over twenty thousand dollars.
      • (b) Of this sum nearly fifteen thousand dollars was spent in--

      • 1. Repairing the buildings.
      • 2. Constructing scientific laboratories.
      • 3. Buying scientific apparatus.
    • (c) But for these expenses the University would be out of debt.
    • (d) The State ought to refund this money by making an annual appropriation.
    • XII. The past history and work of the University entitle her to the patriotic support of the State.

    • (a) Over five thousand students educated.
      • (b) Public men and business men.

      • 1. Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Senators, etc., etc.
      • 2. R. S. Tucker, J. S. Carr, T. M. Holt, J. T. Morehead, R. R. Bridgers, W. S. Battle, and hundreds of other business men.
    •         (c) Work of Caldwell, Swain, Olmstead, Mitchell and others of the Faculty.

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        Objections to the University and answers:

    • I. It takes so many beneficiaries.
      Answer. Guilty and proud of it.

    • (a) The Constitution (Art. IX, sec. 7) demands it.
    • (b) If the present law is faulty, whereby those able to pay get in free, amend the law. The principle is all right.
    • (c) But certainly very few, if any, county students are able to pay.
    • (d) Ninety-nine out of one hundred are certainly needy.
    • (e) These ninety-nine would certainly not have been educated, except as beneficiaries somewhere. Their education is due to the University.
    • (f) Some of them will be strong and valuable men.
    • II. By taking beneficiaries it hurts denominational colleges.
      Answer. Not true. The opening of the University has helped them.

    • (a) It has aroused a deep interest everywhere in education.
    • (b) Wake Forest had 91 before the University opened; it has now double that number. The others have increased also.
    • (c) Of the 2,500 to 3,000 boys in the State that ought to be at college, only 600 to 700 are there.
    • (d) The other colleges want paying students.
    • (e) The Constitution (Art. IX, sec. 7) requires the University to receive poor boys. It is the duty of the State to educate them, and the University is the proper medium.
    • III. The University should raise its standard of scholarship so high as to be out of the way of the colleges.
      Answer. How can this be done? What institution in America does it?

    • (a) The colleges publish that they teach Latin, Greek, Mathematics, Chemistry and everything which our people want to learn, as well as any institution; they claim that their graduates are equal to those of Yale, Princeton, Cornell, etc.
    • (b) What is left for the University to do? Shall it go up into the skies?
    • (c) Suppose the University received only graduates of the colleges; it would not have ten students.
    • (d) It is hard to induce students to stay at the colleges to graduate. It is chimerical to expect many of them to go higher.
    • (e) The standard of admission at Chapel Hill is as high as at Princeton, the University of Virginia and other colleges of the same rank. (See paper annexed, "Requisites for Admission Into the University of Virginia.")
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    • (f) The University of Virginia has a high reputation for her degrees by granting them only to the best scholars. The best scholars at Chapel Hill are equal substantially to those of the University of Virginia.
    • (g) Graves, Jacob Battle and others, among the best at Chapel Hill, went to the University of Virginia, and were equal to the best there. Gildersleeve told President Battle that Jacob Battle was one of the best Greek scholars he ever had. Graves' reputation was equally high, as Professor Davis and others say.
    • (h) True, we receive county students not possessing the qualifications to enter on the regular classical curriculum, but we are required by law so to do, and we ought to do so. We should be applauded for it.
  • IV. The University does not meet the requirements of the Land Grant Act.
    Answer. This has been explained by President Battle in his report sent to the Legislature by the Governor.


(Catalogue of 1879-'80.)

        All students are required to pass entrance examinations in English and arithmetic. The examination in English includes spelling, parsing and writing. The examination in arithmetic includes addition, substraction, multiplication and division, vulgar and decimal fractions, proportion and denominate numbers.

        After passing these two examinations, Virginia students may receive instruction in any school of the University, except four. If they wish to study Latin, Greek, Mathematics, or History and Literature, they must be examined on these studies respectively.

        In Latin the examination covers two books of Cæsar's Gallic War and Cicero's Four Orations against Catiline.

        In Greek the examination covers two books of Xenophon's Anabasis.

        In Mathematics, Algebra (through Quadratics) and three books of Plane Geometry.

        In History and Literature, Modern Geography and an elementary knowledge of the history of Greece, Rome, England, or the United States.

        It will be noticed that the University of North Carolina has as high a standard of admission as the University of Virginia.

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        President Battle in substance described the work of the University as follows:

        The University after being closed for a few years previously was reopened in 1875. Its progress since then, considering the financial disturbance and the shattered fortunes of the people of the South, has been rapid. It has more students than it ever had prior to 1850, from all the States. It has many more from North Carolina than it ever had prior to 1850. It was inevitable that when its doors were closed, the patronage from other States should be diverted to other channels. New universities have been opened in the States south of us which have the confidence of their home people. Most grant free tuition. But there is full scope in North Carolina. If all those who are able will send their sons to the universities or to the colleges, we would have five hundred and the colleges double or treble their numbers. There are large counties that have very few if any students at any college. The revival of the University has not decreased the number attending other institutions--some have increased. The University has also called back students from distant States. Princeton, once frequented by North Carolina youths, has only one, and few can be found in any institution outside our limits.

        Besides the Academic Department the University has special schools.

  • I.--Law, fitting students to obtain license to practice in this State.
  • II.--Medicine, in which they are fitted to attend the great medical colleges.
  • III.--Pharmacy, fitting them to be practical druggists.

        The Faculty are ready to furnish postgraduate instruction. Hereafter the degree of Master of Arts (A.M.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) will not be conferred except upon rigid examination on prescribed courses.

        The Normal School, giving instruction for five weeks during summer vacation under eminent experts in Normal methods, is

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continued. Thus far seven or eight hundred teachers have reaped this educational harvest, and their testimony is unanimous as to the benefits realized.

        The Fertilizer Control Station, established by the General Assembly in a building of the University, is greatly helping the farmers and others by analyses of fertilizers, drinking waters, ores, minerals, soils, etc., and publishing the results.

        Rev. Calvin H. Wiley, D.D., the former able Superintendent of Public Instruction, was Chairman of the Committee of Visitation. He wrote and signed their report which certifies to "the existence of certain primary conditions necessary to the success of such institutions, namely, sober and quiet living, unity in counsel, and hearty coöperation among the Faculty, and kindness and sympathy between the teachers and pupils.

        "The range of studies is very broad, and has necessarily been extended beyond the usual University course by a proper compliance with the conditions imposed by the Land Scrip Grant of the Federal Government. The method of instruction is simple, careful, and thorough, evidently designed for the improvement of the pupils and not for display. * * * The recitations exhibited the teachers as full of their subjects rather than of themselves. While there is an air of neatness and self-respect among the students there is little extravagance * * * and none of the odious characteristics of caste."

        Dr. Wiley then, as specimens of the character of the teaching, gives a syllabus of a lecture by Dr. F. P. Venable, Professor of Chemistry, on "The Natural Gums," and one by President Battle, which brought in review important facts and precedents in the experience of the Federal Government, exhibiting in an impressive way its genius and tendencies.

        Dr. Wiley gave as an appendix to his report a tabulated statement of the work of the University in 1881, showing concretely that the meagre resources of the University at that time were fully realized.

        After the grant of $5,000 per annum, in 1881, in addition to the amount already had, the Trustees requested the opinion of

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the Faculty as to the best mode of expending it. The Faculty strongly opposed the creation of new professorships, urging the purchase of books, journals, and apparatus in aid of the existing departments. Of course they properly asked as a matter of justice that their salaries should be restored to the amounts originally promised. Their advice was substantially complied with.


        The Commencement of 1881 was largely attended by representative men of the State. On Wednesday, when the speaking in public began, there were on the rostrum Senators Ransom and Vance, Rev. Drs. Patterson and W. P. Harrison, Governor Jarvis, Gen. E. J. Mallett, President Battle, of course, and the "Introductory Orator," J. M. Walker. The quadrangle, or "bull pen," contained, among many others, Judge Albertson, Gen. W. R. Cox, Hon. John Manning, and Hon. J. J. Davis, soon to be Supreme Court Judge.

        A prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. Geo. Patterson. Mr. F. G. Hines introduced the orator, Gen. M. W. Ransom, who always attracted admiration by his striking presence, his sonorous voice, the gracefulness of his gesticulation, the eloquence of his language. His theme was "The Duties of the Young Men of the State to the State." He exhorted his hearers to cultivate patriotism, education, and justice. Many were delighted that he counseled them to stand by the religion of their fathers and not listen to the siren wooing them with the song of science. The speech was enthusiastically received, all the more because the General stated that he had left his manuscript in Durham and made his address "without rest."

        Although it interrupts the narrative I must state that some time after this, on the occasion of a visit to Chapel Hill, he called on President Battle and for two hours they talked over University incidents of 1843-'47. The General showed that he had forgotten no material points of his college career and preserved brightly in his heart its memories. Five of his sons were of our boys and most of them were distinguished for scholarship.

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        After General Ransom's address the Historical Society had a meeting. President Battle was elected President and Rev. J. F. Heitman Secretary and the usual business transacted.

        The Baccalaureate sermon was preached in the afternoon by Rev. Dr. W. P. Harrison, of Washington, D. C. It was a discourse of marked ability. He described the seven great religions of the world--that of the Egyptians, Buddhism, Confucianism, Parseeism, Mohammedanism, the Polytheism of Greece and Rome, Christianity--and showed the perfection of the latter. He sharply criticised evolution and closed with a glowing tribute to moral courage.

        At night the representatives of the two societies delivered their addresses. The first speaker was Thomas Malvern Vance, on the theme, "Has the Time Come for Universal Suffrage?" Of course he decided against the claims of negroes and women.

        It is interesting that the speaker, son of Governor Vance, was born not long after the disastrous fight at Malvern Hill in 1862 and was named after the battle, the Governor, then Colonel of a regiment stationed in sound of the cannon, but not near enough to participate in the fight.

        The next speaker was Albert Sidney Grandy, whose Christian name recalls a hero of the Civil War. He discussed "The Present Demand for Political Reform." He compared the political problems of the leading nations of Europe with our own, and advocated trenchant changes.

        Mr. Edward Thomas Greenlee came next and advocated national education as the solution of "Our National Problem."

        Mr. John Randolph Uzzell spoke on "Literature as a Profession." The company welcomed this subject and its interesting discussion as a relief from politics.

        Thomas William Mayhew then discussed "The Discontent of the Age." He attributed it to the misdirection of educational influence.

        Edwin Anderson Alderman followed with a glowing tribute to Ireland and fierce denunciation of her treatment by the English. His subject was "Ireland and Her Woes." Of

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the above Vance, Greene, and Alderman were Dialectics, the others Philanthropics. Alderman was considered best speaker.

        On Commencement Day the speakers, chosen by request of the Faculty by the Senior Class out of their number, were:

  • William J. Adams, "The Character of Lee."
  • Robert B. Albertson, "The Philosophy of the Decline of Persecution."
  • John M. Avery, "Nihilism."
  • James Y. Joyner, "Self-Government."
  • James M. Leach, Jr., "The Passing Century."
  • James D. Murphy, "The Laboring Classes of America."
  • Robert P. Pell, "The Influence of the Scientific Movement Upon Literature."
  • Charles R. Thomas, Jr., "The Philosophy and Retribution of History."
  • Lucian H. Walker, "The Chosen Race."
  • William B. Stewart, "The Records of Human Influence."
  • Robert W. Winborne, "The Influence of Free Thought on American Society."
  • Noah J. Rouse, "The Reform Needed."

        The judges of the debate awarded the Mangum Medal to James M. Leach, Jr. It was presented in an eloquent address by Gen. Robert B. Vance.

        The candidates for the Degrees in Course were then presented by President Battle to Governor Jarvis, who handed to each a diploma and Bible, and then gave wise words of counsel to all. For their names see Appendix.

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 18
Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B) 10
Bachelors of Science (B.S.) 3
Total 31

        Those of this class who had conspicuous success in life are Adams, lawyer and State Senator; Avery, eminent lawyer in Texas; Brady, Professor of Greek in Smith College, Massachusetts; Dancy, general agent of the Royster Fertilizing

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Company; Charles D. McIver, D.D., President and Founder of the State Normal College for Women; Pell, President of Converse College, South Carolina; Thomas, Representative in Congress; Albertson, Judge in State of Washington; Joyner, State Superintendent of Public Instruction; Ruffin, who accumulated a large fortune as manager of cotton mills; Battle, Director of State Experiment Station and State Chemist; Nixon, Sheriff and Superior Court Clerk of Lincoln and writer of historical monographs; Winborne, lawyer and Member of Virginia Legislature; Murphy, a strong lawyer and Judge; Rouse, a good lawyer and president of a bank.

        Two of the class of high promise whose names are together on the list lost their lives by drowning, one in a North Carolina river and the other in the ocean, Harris and Hines.

        At this Commencement there appeared a visitor of more than usual interest, General Edward J. Mallett. He was a native of Fayetteville but had made his residence in the city of New York. He had been Consul-General to Italy and during the Civil War Paymaster in the United States Army, which fact did not in the least diminish the warmth of his reception. President Battle introduced him to the audience as a classmate of President Polk, a graduate of 1818, who had never once in sixty-three years partaken of ardent spirits and therefore appeared before us with mens sana in corpore sano, and with the still higher attribute mens sibi conscia recti. When this utterance was made Gen. Robert B. Vance, of whom his brother the ex-Governor said, "I am a Calvinist and do not believe in falling from grace, yet am always falling, while Bob, a Methodist, believes in falling from grace, yet never falls," an ardent prohibitionist, rose and proposed three cheers for General Mallett, which were given with great enthusiasm. The General then delivered a short address, which was a gem of its kind, showing that long absence had not diminished his love for Alma Mater, nor his extreme age his interest in young men. I quote some sentences:

        "The most miserable and useless position a man can be placed in is when he has nothing to do. An idle man is a sponge on his fellowman and a blight on society. * * *

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Every man who is idle, or gets a living without work, is adding so much to the misery of the world and is really injuring the morals and the happiness of the human family, and he should be held responsible for it. * * * There are now living hundreds, yea thousands, who are physically, mentally, morally, and financially bankrupt, and who can trace their first step of error to an idle hour. * * * Humanity requires a lifetime for its development, and a long tale of years for its bloom, its fruitage and its death. Sometimes the harvests are sudden, sometimes (as in my case) they linger. * * * Sooner or later there will be an eternal uprising, when the bloom will know no harvest, when it will be perennial spring, when brightest stars will glisten on the mantle of night, and a more effulgent sun will sparkle on the dewdrops of morning. * * * Let me suggest four cardinal points, and believe me, if you adhere to them you will float over the ocean of time with never a ripple or a wave. Be sober, be honest, always speak the truth, and fear nothing but God."

        Our old friend two years after ended life's journey. His classmate, William Mercer Green, Bishop of Mississippi, lived four years longer.

        The recipients of the prizes were as follows:

  • GREEK MEDALS.--James Everett Brady, Numa Fletcher Heitman, Henry Erwin Thompson.
  • CHEMISTRY MEDAL--Alexander Worth McAlister.
  • REPRESENTATIVE (ORATORY) MEDAL.--Edwin Anderson Alderman.
  • BINGHAM ESSAY MEDAL.--James Madison Leach, Jr.
  • MANGUM (ORATORY) MEDAL.--James Madison Leach, Jr.
  • BINGHAM ENTRANCE MEDAL.--Marion Charles Millender.
  • PRIZE IN MATERIA MEDICA.--Jesse Bynum Triplett.

        The Chemistry Medals were presented by Mr. Paul C. Cameron. The Bingham Entrance Medal by Gen. J. M. Leach and the Medical Prize by Hon. W. L. Steele. Others by Hon. John Manning, E. R. Stamps, Esq., Major John W. Graham. While all the speeches of presentation were appropriate the audience gave the palm to Mr. Cameron as being peculiarly happy in such deliverances, short, strong, to the point and full

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of sense. If nature had given him a good voice he would have been a conspicuous orator.

        Honorary Degrees were awarded as follows:

        Doctors of Laws (LL.D.), Right Reverend William Mercer Green, Bishop of Mississippi, Chancellor of the University of the South, a former Professor of the University.

        Thomas Ruffin, Judge of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, whose father of the same name was Chief Justice, a graduate of 1843.

        Reverend Andrew D. Hepburn, D.D., President of Davidson College and once Professor of Logic and Rhetoric in the University.

        Matthew Whitaker Ransom, Senator of the United States, a first honor graduate of the Class of 1847; Brigadier-General C. S. A.; appointed Major-General just prior to Lee's surrender.

        Doctor of Divinity (D.D.), Reverend Calvin H. Wiley, once State Superintendent of Public Instruction, who put in operation the system of public schools; an author; graduate of 1840.

        Reverend Joseph H. Foy, eloquent preacher, of St. Louis, Missouri, once of North Carolina, belonging to the Campbellite or Christian Church.

        Master of Arts (M.A.), Reverend Robert W. Boyd.

        Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Frank M. Deems, M.D., New York.

        Changes in the Faculty in 1880-'81 were that Francis Preston Venable, Ph.D. (Bonn), was made Professor of General and Analytical Chemistry. Charles W. Dabney, Junior, succeeded Dr. A. R. Ledoux as State Chemist and Director of the Agricultural Experiment and Fertilizer Control Station. Rev. A. W. Mangum was made a Doctor of Divinity by his Alma Mater, Randolph-Macon College.

        Changes in 1881-'82: Professor Graves' department was confined to Mathematics. Professor Grandy was charged with Natural Philosophy and Engineering. Joseph Austin Holmes, of South Carolina, B.Agr. (Cornell), took charge of Geology and Natural History. Hon. John Manning filled the Chair of


        J. W. GORE


        J. A. HOLMES

        F. P. VENABLE

        W. B. PHILLIPS

        J. L. LOVE

        GEO. F. ATKINSON

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Law. Robert Paine Pell was Assistant Professor of English, Latin, and Mathematics. Angus R. Shaw, Assistant in the Chemical Laboratory. Numa F. Heitman, Instructor in Greek. Henry Horace Williams, Librarian. R. P. Pell, Secretary.


        In this year Hon. John Manning, of Pittsboro, by unanimous election became Professor of Law. He had the advantages of a high degree of learning, of extensive practice in the State and Federal Courts, and service in the Convention of 1861 and in the General Assembly. He was during the Civil War for some months an Adjutant of a regiment and then Sequestrator of confiscated property under the Confederacy. When elected he was one of the Commissioners to codify the Public Laws of the State. He was a thorough and sympathetic teacher and the Law School flourished under his guidance.

        He prescribed two courses. (A) that laid down by the Supreme Court for license to practice law, and (B) leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws (B.L.) The textbooks in course A prescribed by the Supreme Court were, Blackstone's Commentaries, four books, Stephen on Pleading, Smith on Contracts, Bigelow on Torts, Washburn or Williams on Real Property, Greenleaf on Evidence, first volume; Schouler on Executors, Adams' Equity, the Constitutions of the United States and of North Carolina, the Code of North Carolina, particularly the Code of Civil Procedure. For course B in addition to the foregoing were Angel and Ames on Corporations, Pierce on American Railroad Law, May on Insurance, Darlington's Williams on Personal Property, Starkie on Evidence, Pollock on Contracts, and Russell on Crimes.

        In addition to the regular session of forty weeks, Dr. Manning inaugurated a Summer Session in vacation lasting about twelve weeks. In this he was assisted by one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the State, James E. Shepherd. One class studied all the books in A and B. Another those in A only.

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        The fees in the Law School were not the same as those in the undergraduate courses, nor did free scholarship exempt from payment.

For regular session, Course A $90
For regular session, Course B 90
For summer session, both classes 60
Matriculation fee for regular session 10
Medical fee 5

        While all the books in the two courses were required to be read, lectures were regularly delivered to the classes and Dr. Manning published a book, entitled Commentaries on First Blackstone, all changes in First Blackstone by judicial decisions and legislation being clearly explained.

        In 1881 the two societies entered into a joint agreement to put a stop to hazing. Under a heavy penalty it was forbidden to enter the room of another against his will, to lay hands on him, to touch him with any object, to throw at him, or commit any act of indignity or annoyance. This prohibition by the societies succeeded in its object for several years, but a new set of students came in, who either were ignorant of the law or had no sympathy with it, and so the unmanly practice was resumed, often, however, with effort, by masks and otherwise, to conceal the identity of the perpetrators. But the intersociety agreement remained on the statute books.


        The Normal School of 1881 began on June 16 and closed July 21. President Battle, as heretofore, had general charge, having the coöperation of Superintendent Scarborough. Prof. J. L. Tomlinson, then of Baltimore, was superintendent until July 4th, when pressing engagements called him elsewhere; Dr. Henry E. Shepherd, Superintendent of the Baltimore City Schools, succeeded. Dr. Shepherd was likewise Lecturer on the English Language.

  • Prof. A. McIver, as heretofore, had charge of Mathematics, Geography, and History.
  • Prof. N. Y. Gulley, of Smithfield, late of Wake Forest College, was Teacher of English Grammar and Arithmetic.
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  • Rev. Wm. S. Long, of Graham: English Grammar.
  • Mr. Eugene L. Harris: Writing and Penmanship.
  • Dr. Thomas W. Harris: Physiology and Hygiene.
  • Dr. James J. Vance, of Wisconsin, was Lecturer on Elocution and Vocal Culture.
  • Prof. Wm. B. Phillips: Chemistry and Natural Philosophy.
  • Rev. Wm. R. Atkinson, of Charlotte: Algebra and Geometry.
  • Prof. Frederick N. Skinner: Latin.
  • Prof. Robt. T. Bryan: Latin.
  • Prof. Robert P. Pell: English Philology.
  • Prof. Charles L. Wilson: Vocal Music.
  • Prof. Wm. I. Marshall, of Massachusetts: Lecturer on Geography and Arithmetic.
  • Miss Jane F. Long, of Greensboro: Teacher of "Model Class."
  • Miss Mary T. Pescud, of Raleigh: Calisthenics.
  • Capt. John E. Dugger, of Raleigh: Phonics and Calisthenics.
  • Capt. J. E. Dugger, Secretary.


The students represented sixty-two counties.

Males 170
Females 168
Total 338

        Conspicuous among the teachers from abroad was Prof. William D. Marshall, of Massachusetts. His lectures on "Gold Mines and Mining," "The Yosemite Valley and the Yellowstone Park," also the "Structure and Climate of the Western Half of our Country as Affecting its Settlement and the Occupations of Its People," were singularly clear and full. They were illustrated by views of wonderful beauty, the photographs taken by himself. His explanation of the pictures as thrown on the screen were so lucid that the listeners felt that they had learned as much as if they had traveled in person to the regions displayed. His advice to teachers in regard to instructing in penmanship was singularly reasonable and wise. "There are a few pupils who are endowed with peculiar aptitude for drawing and wish to become skilled teachers. These may be taught the mysteries of caligraphy, illuminated manuscript, Old English, German texts, and the like. But all that the great majority need is legible and rapid writing. Therefore let the beginner be taught first how to hold his pen, so as not to pain or fatigue the fingers, then to make the letters as distinct

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as possible, at first slowly, then increasing in speed, but always carefully retaining legibility. Discard all the fancy or the newly invented styles. The pupil by gaining what ought to be the object of all penmanship, capacity of being easily read, forms his own style, and has the valuable accompaniment of speed.

        There were, as heretofore, frequent valuable addresses by eminent men, not connected with the school.

        University Day in 1881 was celebrated by an address by Major (now Colonel) Robert Bingham, which was greatly admired for its wisdom and sound instruction. His subject was the "Practical Value of Education." He spoke of the practical value of university and college training and the necessity of personal power in order to secure and profit by it.

        At the conclusion of Major Bingham's address, the students called out President Battle, Dr. John Manning, and Professors Venable, Holmes and Winston, who responded in brief speeches, which met apparently hearty appreciation.


        On March 15, 1882, the Seniors were called on for original speeches, delivered in public. Their names and subjects are as follows:

        J. W. Jackson on "Immigration and Its Results." He advocated more stringent naturalization laws, because of the immense influx of men who can not and will not understand our institutions.

        David S. Kennedy asked, "Why Study Law?" Literature, manufactures, medicine, offer greater fame, wealth, usefulness.

        Mack M. Thompson spoke on the "Philosophy of Nihilism." The Nihilists, although often wrong in their methods, are working for reform in the Russian government.

        "The Golden Industry of the South" was treated by Emile A. de Schweinitz. The golden industry is the production and manufacture of cotton.

        G. G. Wilson described a "Representative American Statesman." In his opinion it was Daniel Webster.

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        The "Opium War and Its Results" was handled by Frederick N. Skinner. The war was because of the seizure of opium smuggled into China by the English. The Chinese violated treaties made with England.

        A. W. McAlister discussed the fruitful subject, "The Puritan and Cavalier in England and America." The Puritan was conservative, the Cavalier an innovator. The Puritan settled Massachusetts, the Cavalier, Virginia. The fortitude of the Cavalier after the ruins of the Civil War is worthy of all praise.

        "The Railroad Problem" was the subject of E. A. Alderman. The railroads are claiming some of the attributes of sovereignty. They are public plunderers, "hard as steel and pitiless as the storm." Liberty is in danger. The National Government must check and control this new power.

        G. W. Whitsett spoke on "Drifting With the Tide." Civilization and religion are threatened by a new crusade of infidelity headed by Ingersoll and others. The forces of truth must organize to resist this evil.

        A. W. Allen selected a great theme, "True Heroism." In his view conspicuous examples are found in the fifty-one signers of the Declaration of Independence and those who labored with them.

        Charles W. Worth spoke on "Our Newspapers." They promote reforms, but are too much given to politics. Their reciprocal wrangling is disgraceful.

        Albert S. Grandy's oration was "The Insanity Plea." Too much abused. Human life is unsafe. The atrocity of a murder is deemed proof of insanity.

        The Senior Class Day celebration of 1882 was held on the 31st of March. The University choir furnished the music. A thriving young water oak was planted not far from the Old Poplar and the exercises were under the Poplar's shade. The President of the class, Charles W. Worth, made a short introductory speech. Then the Orator, A. W. McAlister, followed. The Historian, Fred N. Skinner, gave a faithful record of the class from its callow "Freshmancy" to the lordly "Seniority."

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Edwin A. Alderman, the Prophet, convulsed the listeners with his humorous and sometimes satirical description of the future fates of his classmates. It was interesting to witness the extreme gravity with which his preposterous predictions were made, and the good humor with which the sharp satire was received by the victims. There was no effort to make the prophecy fit the man but rather the reverse. For example one of the most pious and steadfast men would be depicted as in the future engaged in conducting a low-down groggery, being his own best customer, beating his wife and dying in a ditch. To use the words of a contemporary "he told candidly whether they would be henpecked by their wives, marry an heiress and spend their lives quarreling with their mothers-in-law, study law, run for town constable, or help their wives run a bakery, and pull teeth in the backroom, 'three jerks for a quarter.' "

        It is of some interest to know that the average weight of the class was one hundred and forty-six and one-half pounds; the oldest member twenty-six, the youngest eighteen years of age, the average twenty-one and one-half years. Four were Methodists, five Baptists, six Presbyterians, two Episcopalians, one Lutheran, and one Christian Methodist. Eight proposed to be lawyers, two preachers, one a teacher, three physicians, three merchants, one a dentist, and one hesitated between law and farming.

        The report of the Committee of Investigation, as they call themselves, properly termed the Visiting Committee--viz., Hon. Walter L. Steele, Chairman, and Hons. C. M. Cooke and Robert B. Peebles, Rev. Dr. N. H. D. Wilson and Wm. J. Yates, Esq.--mentions the fact that all the assistants in the State Agricultural Bureau are recent graduates of the University * * * The Professors and Instructors are not only learned in their several departments but devoted to their work and understand the art of practical rather than mere theoretical teaching. * * * The students feel that their teachers are men fully endowed with human sympathy, ready to assist in leading them up to knowledge, and to treat them with the courtesy and kindness which is a moral duty.

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        The committee expressed sincere pleasure in commending the general good conduct and gentlemanly bearing of the students. The seeds of kindness sown by the Faculty have yielded most excellent fruit, and the young men themselves deserve credit for the assistance which they have given in the production of this result. Strong praise was given to the new Professor of Law, Hon. John Manning, and to the Professor of Medicine and Pharmacy, Dr. Thomas W. Harris. The committee felt gratified in saying that the University has met, and is meeting, all the obligations which just men will say it owes the public.

        They report that the moral tone pervading the institution is worthy of all praise and parents may feel, with entire confidence, that their sons will be as free from temptation to do wrong as they would be at any similar establishment, either within or without the borders of the State.

        The report was penned by Chairman Steele. Appended to it are extracts from the reports of members of the Faculty showing their work during the year.


        All the customary forms were adopted in inaugurating the State University Railroad. Being the first named in the list of corporators I called them together on April 12, 1879. Mr. P. C. Cameron was called to the chair and Seaton M. Barbee was elected secretary. The following were present, P. C. Cameron, K. P. Battle, Julian S. Carr, John R. Hutchins, James B. Mason, and W. F. Stroud. Messrs. R. F. Hoke, Thomas M. Holt, David McCauley, and Jones Watson were absent.

        Books of subscriptions were ordered to be opened, under supervision of proper persons, at Chapel Hill, Durham, Patterson's Mill, Morrisville, Pittsboro, Bynum's Factory, Hillsboro, University Station, Cary, Apex, Oaks, and Raleigh. Three commissioners at each place were appointed to solicit subscriptions. It was voted that no conditional subscriptions should be received. The Board adjourned to meet on the 17th of May.

        The failure of one attempt to build a railroad from the North Carolina Railroad to Chapel Hill has been heretofore narrated.

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In 1873 a new charter was obtained from the General Assembly under which the work was eventually accomplished. Considering the poverty of the people of Chapel Hill and of the University, only wise and careful management could have succeeded. The prime mover was General Robert F. Hoke. The University, through its President, coöperated with him, but their joint efforts would have been naught without the powerful assistance of Governor Jarvis and of Colonel A. B. Andrews, then superintendent of the Richmond and Danville Railroad Company, now first vice-president of the Southern Railway Company, of which the Richmond and Danville railroad is a part. General Hoke owned the greater part of the Iron Mountain, one mile north of Chapel Hill. In 1880 the price of iron was so high that it was profitable to ship the ore to the furnaces in Pennsylvania. Hence the General desired the railroad.

        Colonel Andrews agreed that if we would grade and crosstie the road his company would iron and provide the rolling stock. Governor Jarvis obtained for us the hire of convicts at a very moderate figure because it was chiefly for the benefit of a State institution. The North Carolina Railroad Company agreed to subscribe $5,000 for buying the crossties. Only one stockholder, D. F. Caldwell, objected to this, alleging that some thirty years of its lease to the Richmond and Danville Railroad Company had expired, and his company had little interest in the enterprise. Care was taken to make him president of the meeting of stockholders, so that the proposition passed unanimously, or at any rate nem. con. About $4,300 was secured from Chapel Hill and the Iron Mountain Company subscribed $6,000. President Battle was made president of the road without salary and General Hoke was superintendent on the same terms. The manager of the hands was the efficient Mr. John Holt, whose theory was to feed them well, clothe them well, give them good sleeping quarters, and then require a good day's work. The civil engineer was Captain Fry, a man of noted skill.

        It was desired to run the road to Durham, about three miles further than the route adopted. Owing to the scantiness of

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our funds, to secure this result it was necessary for people of that city to subscribe enough to pay for the excess in distance. As chairman of the commissioners for procuring subscriptions to the capital stock I spent a day in the endeavor to persuade them to do this, but met with no response. General J. S. Carr's $500, given with no stipulation as to the route to be adopted, was the only subscription that could be secured. One merchant replied, "Your road is against the interests of Durham. Trade would stop at Chapel Hill." A meeting of the stockholders was called and the shorter line selected: that to what is now called University Station or simply "University." It had the advantage over the line to Durham not only of being shorter, but of easier grade, and of being nine miles nearer to Greensboro, through which the iron ore was to be transported to a northern furnace.

        The road was graded, by the favor as to convicts granted by Governor Jarvis, by buying all supplies for cash and by having no salaried president and superintendent, for about $1,100 per mile. It was necessary, however, to leave the ravines over which the line ran to be covered by wooden trestles. Colonel Andrews and his company looked upon this at first with a doubting eye, having expected the State University Railroad Company to prepare all parts of the roadbed ready for the iron, but they magnanimously waived the objection and finished the trestling. The road has been a safe one, except in one winter, when the settling of the track caused locomotives or cars occasionally to leave the rails. Although some passengers were well shaken up--in one instance a passenger car was completely turned over, Dr. Winston for the fraction of a second standing on his head--no lives were lost. The brakeman rejoiced at being awarded $500 for an injury, without suit.

        The road has been of great benefit to the University and the town. The University could not possibly have increased so fast without it and valuable factories and new buildings owe their origin to its facilities.

        The iron mine has not been successful. The expense of transportation of the ore is too heavy to make its mining profitable, and there is not fuel adjacent to it to enable it to be

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smelted on the spot. The market price of iron ore was high when the road was being built, but fell soon after it was finished.

        It is a proof of the estimation of the citizens as to the value of the road that when it was proposed to dispense with it in order to obtain a trolley line to Durham, the proposal was declined.

        The original corporate name was "The Chapel Hill Iron Mountain Railroad Company," but, under a clause in the charter giving the privilege, the name was changed to "The State University Railroad Company."

        By agreement the expenditures incurred by the Richmond and Danville Railroad Company were to be charged to capital stock. Owing to the number and depth of the ravines trestled, the high price of rails, and other expenditures, when a settlement was made that company was found to have the controlling interest. The organization of the State University Railroad Company is still kept up, but is under the control of the Southern Railway Company.

        When the grading was finished the ladies of the village gave the employees and convicts an excellent dinner. The daughter of Mrs. C. P. Spencer, Miss Julia J., now Mrs. James Lee Love, was induced to come up from Raleigh, where she was teaching in Peace Institute, in order to drive the last spike. Speeches were made by President Battle, Mr. Jones Watson, and others. The first speaker (Battle) ventured on a parody of Daniel Webster on the Falls of Rochester. "Egypt has her pyramids, Athens her Parthenon, Rome her Colisseum, but neither Egypt, nor Athens, nor Rome in all their glory had a railroad ten and two-fifths miles long." He also defended President Swain from the charge of keeping the North Carolina Railroad away from Chapel Hill. But Mr. Watson, who followed, combated this defense vigorously, alleging that the charge was true of his own knowledge.

        President Battle recalled an incident strikingly illustrating the rapid growth of the railroad system. Shortly after President Caldwell's return from Europe in 1825 he was called on to address the citizens of Chapel Hill and vicinity on their

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favorite subject, internal improvements. Among other things he stated that he had seen a load as heavy as could be drawn by four four-horse teams carried without horses, mules or oxen at a speed of ten miles an hour. One of the auditors, after the speaking was over, gave it as his opinion that Dr. Caldwell was in his dotage--that the story was incredible. The new railroad ran near the home of this man, who was still living. Dr. Battle told of having once in the old days consumed nine hours in the journey from Chapel Hill to Raleigh.

        Miss Spencer, whose love for our University, its village and the lovely scenery around it, is equal to that of her mother, tapped the last spike with becoming grace, and the hammer, with gilded handle, especially prepared for the occasion, was presented to her as a trophy. Afterward, when she moved to Cambridge, she transferred it to the University Museum.

        The following stirring song, the words written in honor of the completion of the road, was sung:

                         A song, my boys, for Chapel Hill,
                         And for the N. C. U.,
                         And three times three the echoes thrill,
                         And keep them ringing, too.
                         Away with study, toil and care;
                         Our hearts, with pride elate,
                         Shall crown in joy without alloy
                         The day we celebrate.


                         Farewell, old wagon,
                         Jolting hack and phaeton,
                         Farewell forever,
                         We're going to take the train.

                         With hill and valley smiling 'round,
                         In vernal robe arrayed,
                         We are summoned by a grander sound
                         Than cannon ever made--
                         The whistle of the engine, boys;
                         The cars are here at last.
                         So, fellows, let us all rejoice,
                         For jolting days are past.

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                         Farewell forever,
                         Old road to Durham,
                         Farewell forever;
                         We'll travel now by train.

                         And all along the coming years
                         That time for us may fill,
                         We'll bless the men that brought the road
                         To dear old Chapel Hill.
                         So cheers and thanks we join to give
                         For what we all do see;
                         The railroad, boys, has reached up to
                         The University.


                         Three cheers for the whistle,
                         The grand old whistle,
                         The loud sounding whistle,
                         That blows for the train.

                         Now that the ending rail is laid,
                         The last hard spike is driven,
                         Some special tribute should be paid,
                         Some names with honor given.
                         Thank Battle, Jarvis, Andrews, Hoke,
                         Caldwell and Coley strong;
                         Holt, Raiford, Cooley, Witherspoon--
                         We'll bless them all in song.


                         Hurrah for the builders,
                         The brave hearted builders,
                         The hard working builders,
                         And the crew that run the train.

        Two disasters occurred in the progress of the work. The first was the shooting of a convict, a bad white man, near University Station. He entered into a conspiracy with the negroes in his cabin, all agreeing to run on the march to their work, when he gave the word. Either because their hearts failed them or because they did not understand the signal he was the solitary fugitive. Several of the guards nearest to him missed their aim, but as he was entering a forest about one hundred

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yards off, one, who had been a Confederate soldier, fired and killed him instantly. He was acquitted of the homicide as he was in the performance of official duty.

        The other was when a negro convict died soon after being whipped by the railroad authorities. Those engaged in the whipping were at first bound over by Judge Seymour to appear at the next term of the court on the charge of manslaughter. A coroner's jury, after hearing the evidence, found that "the man, Fries, came to his death from gangrene, caused by a combination of circumstances, among them his treatment in the town of Winston prior to his being brought to the State penitentiary, and his being compelled to work on the University railroad while in a depleted state, and that said death was hastened by whipping, inflicted at the hands of Charles H. Motz, instigated by John A. Holt." Of course Motz and Holt contended that they were not physicians, that they had a right to presume that the penitentiary authorities would not have sent a diseased man to work on the road. They further proved that the punishment by them was not unduly severe. The Solicitor of the Circuit, Hon. Fred N. Strudwick, reviewed the facts carefully, and decided that there was no evidence of a legal crime and declined to send a bill to the Grand Jury. It is well to add that Fries was not whipped until he had been caught in two falsehoods as to what was the matter with him, and after an attempt to escape; moreover, that re reputable physician employed to examine him did not report that he had gangrene.

        On the whole the convicts were humanely treated. They had good quarters and good food. Visits were made to the camps by experienced employers of labor, without notice to the officers, and their report was very favorable. General Hoke and myself repeatedly examined into the management and saw nothing wrong. It seems to be certain that the whipping of Fries was not such as would have been of permanent injury to a healthy man, and that those who punished did not know of his precarious condition. The action of the Solicitor quieted all complaints.

        At Commencement a special hour was set apart to celebrate in Gerrard Hall the coming of the railroad to Chapel Hill.

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President Battle made the introductory speech. He called attention to the letters from Professor Harris to Dr. Caldwell informing him how he might travel from Princeton to Chapel Hill in thirty days, if he should not be impeded by high waters. Now the journey is made in less than twenty-four hours.

        He then gave a history of the building of the road. Col. John M. Robinson, president of the Seaboard Air Line, came by invitation to Chapel Hill, but after examination declined to aid a branch to his lines. Fortunately Col. A. B. Andrews took a different view. He, Governor Jarvis, the University, and the stockholders of the company who subscribed without expectation of dividends, were efficient aids in procuring this benefit to Chapel Hill and to the University, but in truth Gen. R. F. Hoke is fons et origo of the enterprise. He may be called the Father of the State University Railroad Company. I was his willing coadjutor.

        A letter of Col. Thos. M. Holt was read expressing his love for the University and gratification at being of service in building the road. Governor Jarvis spoke, as he always does, strongly and pointedly. He explained the great value of branch lines and advocated the policy of employing convicts in building them whenever needed. Mr. A. W. Allen, a student, was then called on and made an admirable address.

        Mr. Paul C. Cameron began with a gloomy description of Chapel Hill when Col. W. L. Steele and he visited it as committeemen in 1875, before the reopening. There was no hotel nor boarding house and he acknowledged with thanks the hospitality of the citizens who entertained them. His speech was eloquent and was much applauded. Mr. F. H. Busbee felicitated the citizens of Chapel Hill and friends of the University on obtaining a railroad so cheaply, stating that the Richmond and Danville Railroad Company had defrayed four-fifths of the cost. Colonel Andrews and Colonel Buford, President of the last named company, deserve our hearty thanks.

        In response to the call of the President Col. W. L. Steele made a short talk, full of humor and love of the University. His description of Professor Manning and himself as survivors of the old Mound Builders created much merriment.

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        The Commencement of 1882 began as usual with the meeting of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies held in their halls, only members of the societies being admitted. The chief business was short speeches by the old members and presentation of prizes for victories in competitive speaking and debates. On one occasion Rev. Dr. C. F. Deems was asked as he entered the door to present a medal, the distinguished visitor selected for the purpose finding it impossible to be present. His short speech was wonderfully appropriate and in beautiful language. After concluding, the good Doctor, one of the kindest hearted of men, for the encouragement of his auditors said, "Young men! doubtless some of you, knowing that I had no time for preparation, may give me credit for extraordinary readiness. But the speech you have just heard is no exception to the rule that labor is necessary to success in speaking as in everything else. I have had that speech 'in soak' for fifteen years and have been waiting for the opportunity of getting it off. I am thus egotistical because I wish to encourage my young friends. Some may possibly conclude that because they can not discourse so elaborately they will not try at all."

        Kesnich's First Virginia Regimental Band furnished delightful music.

        This eighty-seventh Commencement was the first when visitors came to Chapel Hill by railway. The correspondent of the New York Herald praises bountifully the beauty of the place and the attractiveness of the lady visitors. Of the latter he says, "The type of beauty is delicate and high bred. There is a lack of color to a Northern critic, but the eyes are bright and full of spirit, the forms well rounded, the hands and feet wondrously small and beautiful. These bright and sparkling creatures make the best wives and mothers in the country. I remember to have heard an old Alabamian say twenty years ago, 'Go to North Carolina for a wife if you want a good one.' "

        At ten o'clock on Wednesday came an address before the two societies by Hon. Wm. M. Robbins, of Statesville, an orator of

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wide reputation in this State. His subject was in substance "The world moves on and we must keep pace with it educationally, industrially, politically."

        At 4 p. m. was the Baccalaureate Sermon by Rev. J. G. Armstrong, D.D., a distinguished Episcopal divine of Richmond, Virginia. His text was from Ecclesiastes, "Strive for the truth unto death, and the Lord God will fight for thee." It was a powerful sermon, especially valuable to young men seeking to build an upright character.

        After supper the society representatives delivered original addresses:

        Livingston Vann on "Florida," of which State he was a native.

        John W. Hays, Jr., made a plea for "Freedom of Thought and Discussion."

        T. A. Wharton spoke on "The Peace Victories of the Nineteenth Century."

        Thomas Radcliffe discussed "Labor Unions," having good purpose but sometimes wrong.

        J. T. Strayhorn discussed "Southern Development." Abolition of slavery will be succeeded by rapid increase of wealth.

        T. A. Wharton's speech on "The Peace Victories of the Nineteenth Century" was so cogent that a preacher of the Society of Friends (Quakers) presented him with a Bible.

        Mr. Strayhorn was decided to be the best speaker.

        A graceful feature at the Commencement was the bringing over of the Masons, then in attendance at their annual meeting, by Messrs. Julian S. Carr and W. T. Blackwell, at their own expense. Their presence was of great interest and value to the institution. In addition to this liberality Mr. Carr donated to the fund for rebuilding Person Hall, one-half of the expenses of the expedition, including a handsome dinner to the company. The cavalcade as the visitors entered and left the Campus was quite imposing.

        The speeches by the graduates were confined to ten, chosen by members of the Faculty:

        Jonathan W. Jackson discussed "The Relation of Law to Justice in American Society."

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        Allen T. Davidson, Jr., uttered a "Plea for Reform in Federal Taxation."

        Emile A. de Schweinitz handled the subject of "Legislators and Legislation."

        David S. Kennedy's subject was "Modern Culture."

        George G. Wilson gave his views of "The True Hero in the Light of History." He eulogized Daniel Webster as entitled to this distinction.

        Frederick N. Skinner spoke on a very live subject, "The Inter-oceanic Canal." He preferred one through Lake Nicaragua.

        Alexander W. McAlister's address was less practical, "The Philosophy of American Civilization."

        Charles W. Worth spoke on "The Relations of the Executive." He thought that his powers were becoming so widespread as to be dangerous to liberty.

        Albert Sidney Grandy's subject was "Civilization and Poverty." He contended that poverty and crime go together.

        Edwin Anderson Alderman spoke on "Corporate Power," predicting direful results if it should not be placed under legal restraints.

        The judges of the debate had no hesitation in giving the palm to the last speaker.

        In the afternoon the diplomas were delivered, medals awarded, reports read and degrees announced.

        The graduates, whose names will appear in the Appendix, were:

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 9
Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 5
Bachelors of Science (B.S.) 2

        Medals and prizes:

  • GREEK MEDALS.--William Donald McIver, Samuel Bryant Turrentine.
  • MANGUM MEDAL.--Edwin Anderson Alderman.
  • FIRST ENGLISH MEDAL.--John Robert Herring, Jr.
  • PRIZE IN MATERIA MEDICA.--Joshua Montgomery Reece.
  • CHEMISTRY MEDAL.--Emile Alexander de Schweinitz.

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        Honorary degrees were conferred upon the following:

        Doctor of Laws.--Hon. Thomas L. Clingman, Representative and Senator in United States Congress, Brigadier-General C. S. A.; Hon. George Davis, Attorney-General C. S. A.

        Doctor of Divinity.--Rev. Jethro Rumple, Presbyterian minister, author of History of Rowan County; Rev. E. Rockwell, minister of the Lutheran Church; Rev. Robert Burwell, Presbyterian minister, Principal of Advanced School for Girls.

  • Master of Arts.--Rev. D. A. Long, Dr. Nelson M. Ferebee.
  • Master of Science.--A. R. Ledoux, Ph.D.

        In 1882 the Chief Marshal was M. C. Millender. He had as aids W. T. Dortch, J. A. Bryan, and C. W. Smedes from the Philanthropic, and G. A. Mebane, J. F. Rogers, and Edmund Ruffin from the Dialectic Society.

        J. F. Wilkes was elected Chief Ball Manager by all the students, and J. Wood, T. R. Ranson, P. Stamps, and J. R. Beaman were the submanagers.

        The editors of the monthly for the ensuing year were Thomas M. Vance, Turner A. Wharton, and Walter W. Vandiver, of the Dialectic Society, and Frank S. Spruill, M. C. Millender, and J. U. Newman, of the Philanthropic Society.

        In August, 1882, the University had the misfortune to lose by resignation, on account of sickness, Professor Carey Dempsey Grandy, an exceedingly promising man. He was trained at the Virginia Military Institute and was one of its best students. He was an excellent teacher, and with the highest virtues as a man. His disease, tuberculosis, soon carried him to his grave. His specialties were mathematics, engineering, and physics. His chair at the time of his resignation was Natural Philosophy and Engineering.

        The changes in the Faculty were few: Professor W. C. Kerr's lectureship was vacated by his death. Thomas Radcliffe was appointed Assistant in the Chemical Laboratory. He was a promising student in science, but was cut off in early manhood.

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        In place of Carey Dempsey Grandy, Professor of Natural Philosophy and Engineering, the Board unanimously chose Joshua Walker Gore, C.E. He was a native of Virginia, about thirty years old, a graduate first of Richmond College. He then gained the degree of Civil Engineer at the University of Virginia. He then won a Fellowship at Johns Hopkins University by a paper on the cycloid, and spent two years at that institution in the study of mathematics and allied branches. He was for three years Professor of Physics, Astronomy, and Chemistry in a Baptist institution, the South-western University of Tennessee. Wishing to confine his energies to mathematics, physics, and engineering he became an assistant in the department of Mathematics in the University of Virginia. He showed himself a skilled teacher. He was endorsed as to scholarship and character by President Gilmer, Professors Sylvester and Story of Johns Hopkins, by Colonel Venable and Professors Peters, Cable, Mallet, Davis, and Minor of the University of Virginia, and Professor Simon Newcomb of the United States Astronomical Observatory, in addition to the authorities of Richmond College and the South-western University of Tennessee. He proved to be in all respects worthy of his endorsements--an excellent man and an accomplished and useful officer.


        The Normal School of 1882 began June 15 and ended July 20. President Battle had general charge and had the coöperation of Superintendent Scarborough. The Superintendent of the School was Hon. M. A. Newell, Superintendent of the City Schools of Baltimore.

  • Prof. Edward P. Moses, Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Goldsboro, was Assistant Superintendent, and teacher of Geography, History, and Calisthenics.
  • Prof. N. Y. Gulley, Franklinton, was teacher of Mathematics.
  • Prof. Eugene L. Harris: Penmanship and Drawing.
  • Prof. Robert P. Pell, Chapel Hill: Grammar and English Literature.
  • Prof. J. H. Rayhill, Illinois: Reading and Elocution.
  • Capt. John E. Dugger, Raleigh: Phonics.
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  • Dr. R. H. Lewis, Kinston: Physiology.
  • Prof. William B. Phillips, Chapel Hill: Physics.
  • Prof. E. H. Wilson, Chapel Hill: Vocal Music.
  • Prof. M. C. S. Noble, Wilmington: Algebra.
  • Miss Jane F. Long, Raleigh, trained the Model Class.

        The number of students enrolled was 352, of whom 177 were women. The number of counties represented was sixty-two. There were many addresses by eminent men.


        University Day, October 12, 1882, was celebrated with due dignity and to the gratification of a large audience. Rev. Mr. Stone, of the Methodist Church, opened the exercises with prayer. Then the Foundation hymn was sung by the University Glee Club to the air of "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, The Boys Are Marching." The words were by Mr. A. D. Betts, of the class, adapted from a similar hymn at Cornell University. It is in honor of the University bell.

                         To the busy morning light,
                         To the slumbers of the night,
                         To the labors and the lessons of the hour,
                         With a ringing, rhythmic tone,
                         O'er hill and valley blown,
                         Come the voices, mellow voices, from the tower.


                         Cling, clang, cling!
                         The bell is ringing;
                         Hope and health its chimings tell, chimings tell!
                         O'er the halls of N. C. U.,
                         O'er the quiet village, too,
                         Come the voices, gentle voices, from the tower.

                         By our Otey's famed Retreat,
                         Where the loved and lovers meet;
                         By the laurel bank and glen of dreaming flower,
                         Where the groves are dark and grand,
                         And the oaks majestic stand,
                         Come the voices, mellow voices, from the tower.
                         CHORUS--Cling, clang, cling, etc.

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                         When the gentle hand that gave
                         Lies beneath the marble grave,
                         And the daisies weep with drippings of the shower,
                         Oh! believe me, brother dear,
                         In the future we shall hear
                         Guiding voices from our angel in the tower.
                         CHORUS--Cling, clang, cling, etc.

                         Not afraid to dare and do,
                         Let us rouse ourselves anew,
                         With the knowledge that is victory and power;
                         And arrayed in every fight,
                         On the battle side of right,
                         Gather glory from our angel in the tower.
                         CHORUS--Cling, clang, cling, etc.

        President Battle continued his history of the foundation of the University. He described the Committee on the Curriculum, Rev. Dr. S. E. McCorkle, David Stone, Alfred Moore, Samuel Ashe, John Hay, and Dr. Hugh Williamson. The curriculum reported was a marked advance in the direction of industrial and scientific studies. He further sketched Dr. David Ker, not given the office of President but that of Presiding Professor, afterwards a Federal Judge in the Territory of Mississippi. It is possible that his throwing off his Presbyterian principles and embracing the then fashionable infidel or atheistic notions commended him to Jefferson, who appointed him on the recommendation of David Stone. He had no reputation as a lawyer before entering on his judgeship.

        In accordance with custom short speeches were called for. Talks in excellent taste were made by Hon. John Manning, newly elected Professor of Law; Rev. Dr. Jeffreys, of the Baptist church; Professors J. W. Gore and George T. Winston. All of these speeches were full of spice, humor and good advice.

        "Roaring Fountain" was a lovely spring, so called because the water trickled into it with a gentle sound! In old times it was a favorite spot to which girls and boys were fond of walking. After spending much coin on an artesian well, Professor Winston concluded to have a hydraulic ram force water from

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the spring into his dwelling. After full-trial it was given up on account of the frequent stoppage in the flow of water and its unpleasant warmth after reaching the summit of the hill. Mrs. Spencer penned the following exulting ode, parodying an old English song, Twickenham Ferry:

                         Oho ye ho! ho ye ho! who's for the Fountain?
                         (Well-a-day for the Ram and the Spring's flowing free.)
                         Come from the Valley, or come from the Mountain,
                         And 'tis but a step to felicitate me.

                         Oho ye ho! ho ye ho! who's for the Fountain?
                         (Well-a-day for the Ram and the Spring's flowing free.)
                         Fireflies are glancing and Naiads are dancing
                         With Fairies of the Glen and Dryads of the tree.

                         Oho ye ho! ho ye ho! who's for the Fountain?
                         (Well-a-day for the Ram and the Spring's flowing free.)
                         Oho, ho ye ho! Dame Nature willed it so,
                         That Science should be foiled and victory with me.

                         Oho ye ho! ho ye ho! who's for the Fountain?
                         (Well-a-day for the Ram and the Spring's flowing free.)
                         In my heart is no malice, I fill a brimming chalice,
                         Wishing well, well, well, to the man who scorns me.

        The following account of an abortive combat, found in a number of the University Magazine of 1882, shows literary skill superior to the ordinary attempts at humor.

        "The thrilling encounter between a Fresh and a Junior last month, which would have resulted in a sanguinary struggle but for the exquisite calmness and extraordinary presence of mind in one of the combatants in retreating promptly, has, we are proud to say, been amicably adjusted. Though the retreat was not one which, in strict military parlance, might be termed orderly, yet it was conducted with such astounding celerity and earnestness of purpose--two military requisites, that we are surprised and delighted to see among us such undoubted military genius in one so young."

        The names of the parties to this Parthian duella have not come down to us.

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        The Eagle Hotel, so long under the efficient management of the kindhearted old maid, Miss Nancy Hilliard, was after her régime leased by Colonel Hugh B. Guthrie. He was a good, kindly man and capable of an interesting and humorous speech. He was afterwards postmaster of the village. His wife, Miss Jane Cave, a descendant of "a land giver," Christopher Barbee, left a son, John Guthrie, one of the very few of the blood of the old donors of the site of the University residing in Chapel Hill. The hotel next went into the hands of Mrs. Rowe, daughter of old Postmaster McDade, and afterwards to John H. Watson, an excellent man, a Justice of the Peace and often Mayor of the village. The property was then bought by a New York lawyer, Wm. G. Peckham, and was leased to W. W. Pickard for several years. Peckham sold it to Prof. H. H. Williams. He transferred it to the University, whose plans in regard to it have not yet been formed. At present the buildings are used for dormitories and for table board.


        During this period the cabinets of the various departments were brought together in a large hall on the third floor of the north end of the Old East Building, once the Philanthropic Library. The Geological and Mineralogical collection includes the "Vienna Cabinet," which alone comprises over two thousand specimens from many parts of the world. There is also a large number of minerals, rocks and fossils, collected by the late Dr. E. Emmons, when State Geologist, donated to the University by the State, and much material secured through the energy of the State Geologist, Dr. W. C. Kerr, illustrating the practical application of Geology to the arts, among others a number of jars of pigments of various colors, donated by John Lucas and Company, a set of North Carolina marls, samples of mica, gold and other minerals, and of building stones found within the State.

        The Zoölogical Collection includes a cabinet of insects found in the vicinity of Chapel Hill, containing rare species, reptiles preserved in alcohol, and skins of species of birds found in and near the village, collected by Professor Atkinson.

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        In Botany, besides an herbarium of the local flora, there is a fine set of native woods, and a large collection of seeds, grains and fibres from many countries.

        During this year the good order was broken by a ludicrous combat which came near having a serious termination. A student, A. B., had a grievance against another, C. D. A friend of A. B., a meddlesome, Ransy Sniffle sort of a fellow, persuaded him to take a pistol and demand an apology. Learning this C. D. borrowed a pistol. They met near a large oak tree, when C. D. ran around the tree, shooting wildly and aimlessly as he ran. Accidentally a bullet grazed A. B.'s neck; but the wound was not dangerous. On examining into the matter the Faculty concluded that the man most blamable was Ransy Sniffle, and dismissed him; that A. B. did not intend to use his pistol, but only to intimidate, but that C. D. did not know this and acted in self-defense, as he thought. The Faculty concluded that the dismissal of Ransy was sufficient. C. D. was an exceptionally faithful student.

        During the year the University lost the services of one whose name has long been a synonym for active and faithful discharge of duty and for fearless and conscientious devotion to right, our Bursar, Andrew Mickle. He removed to Texas to live with his children and carried with him the love and admiration of the entire Faculty and of the community. He has since died.

        Mr. Willie T. Patterson, an experienced bookkeeper, and of rare business talent, entered on the duties of Bursar, with intelligent zeal which had no impairment by the loss of a leg at Sharpsburg. Although a private in the Confederate Army he was generally called Major Patterson.

        The wish expressed by the Board that the Professors should, as far as practicable, make addresses in different sections was met by frequent excursions of the President in all parts of the State, and by Professor Winston, who delivered speeches of great force and eloquence in Oxford, Salem, Winston, Raleigh,

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and at the Bingham School. He aroused the spirit of education and gained favor to the University.

        As there is much curiosity on the subject of the actions of the Ku Klux Klan I state that there is no tradition of their invading Chapel Hill except on one occasion. They rode in at midnight, searched for a man who had criticized the organization, but not finding them, they rode out again. They were fully disguised.


        February 1, 1883, President Battle submitted his report. The number of students had reached two hundred and five, the largest since 1860. The new members were ninety-seven in number. The behavior had been very good, testified to by all visitors to Chapel Hill. The standard of scholarship was continually raised and, as so many of our graduates became teachers, the preparatory schools were being multiplied and their pupils better taught. The society elections were still affected by party spirit, resulting in occasional choice of inferior men and arousing bad temper among the minority of the voters. The health of the students had been, as usual, good. A gymnasium was sadly needed for bad weather. Efforts were being made to remedy this defect.

        A department for the education of teachers was needed. The University was already a potent influence among the educators of the State. Four-fifths, thirteen, of the last graduating class became teachers and their work was of the best. There was a constant demand for others. The Faculty had arranged a course to prepare young men for this important calling, embracing all the studies required by law, with liberty to pursue the other studies free of charge. By attending in vacation the Summer Normal School the student could become an expert in this grand profession. With $3,000 annually could be organized a permanent Normal Department.

        Hon. Joseph J. Davis was chairman of the Visiting Committee in 1883, the other members being Col. Paul B. Means, Rev. J. L. Stewart, Messrs. F. P. Johnston, and D. P. McEachern. Their report was eminently favorable. "The President

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and Faculty have discharged their duties faithfully and are entitled to the confidence and commendation of the public for the zeal and ability with which they have labored in the interests of the University and the cause of education in the State. The training and instruction has been as thorough and complete as at any time in the history of the University. The students and the Faculty seem inspired by love and devotion to the University."

        The committee recommended assistants in various departments as soon as the means of the institution would admit, especially in that of Dr. Mangum, and a larger salary to the Assistant in Chemistry. The class in Mathematics especially needed division and an able instructor secured to aid the Professor.


        The Commencement of 1883 began on the 6th of June, the annual meeting of the two societies having been on the evening before. The visitors were struck with the orderly conduct of the students. The press correspondent heard repeatedly the remark, "Never has the University had better behaved students." He gave much of the credit to the "Christian and gentle bearing" of the officers.

        The address before the two literary societies was by the Hon. Thomas Courtland Manning, LL.D., Chief Justice of Louisiana. He had been Brigadier-General C. S. A. and was afterwards United States Minister to Mexico. He was an alumnus of the University from Edenton in 1842-'43, then settled in Louisiana. He gave in a clear and comprehensive way the requisites of success in a public career and was much applauded.

        In the afternoon the Rev. Andrew Doz Hepburn, President of Davidson College, once Professor of Rhetoric and Logic in this University, delivered the Baccalaureate Sermon. He was a strong and graceful orator and able preacher.

        His text was "I have written unto you, young men, because you are strong." Strength is necessary to persevere, to avoid falling into temptation. * * * In the dark hours of waiting

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the decisive hours of the battle are fought. Manly strength is shown in firmness and courage. * * * Blended courage and moderation is the royal virtue. * * * Man lives to work. Only God and the angels are created to look on. The excellency of the thought and the language was equaled by the appropriateness of the delivery.

        At 8 p. m. representatives of the two societies delivered original orations.

        John Robert Herring, Jr., spoke on "The Mission of the Jews in Europe."

        James Alexander Bryan on "The Benefits of Organized Charity."

        John Charles Slocumb on "The Destiny of the Indians."

        Jesse Bowden Hawes on "The Perils of Infidelity."

        Wm. Theophilus Dortch, Jr., on "The Rebounds of Public Sentiment."

        Zebulon Baird Walser on "Shall the Land of Washington Survive?"

        The Philanthropics were Herring, Bryan, and Dortch. The Dialectics were Slocumb, Hawes, and Walser. The judges of the contest decided in favor of Hawes as the best speaker.

        The Commencement exercises opened with the following hymn, led by the band:

                         Oh God, our fathers' God, whose care
                         With blessings fill the circling year;
                         Remembering Thee in all our ways,
                         We bring our annual song of praise.

                         We bless Thy name, Almighty God,
                         Who giv'st us here a sure abode,
                         For all the favor Thou hast shown
                         The State and age we call our own.

                         Here Freedom spreads her banner wide;
                         Here Learning and Religion guide,
                         By heavenly Truth's unfading ray,
                         Our youth in Wisdom's narrow way.

                         Eternal Source of every joy!
                         Well may Thy praise our lips employ;
                         And all our powers unite to bless
                         The Lord, our Strength and Righteousness.

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        There were seven graduates selected by a committee of the Faculty to deliver original orations. Henry Horace Williams spoke on "England's Middle Class."

  • Charles Urquhart Hill on "Influence of the Crusades on Modern Civilization."
  • Preston Stamps on "The Final Verdict on the Character of the Regulators."
  • Ira Thomas Turlington on "The Immoral Influence of our Literature."
  • Charles Lucien Riddle on "The Priceless Haritage of our English Blood."
  • Thomas Radcliffe on "The Ideals of the Great Civilizations."
  • Numa Fletcher Heitman on "Liberty and Law in North Carolina."

        The judges gave their preference to Mr. Heitman for the Mangum Medal.

        The degrees conferred were: Masters of Arts (A.M.) two, Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) eight, Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.) three, Bachelors of Science (B.S.) three, Bachelor of Law (B.L.) one, a total of fifteen. (For names see Appendix.)

        The following Honorary Degrees were conferred:

        Doctor of Laws, LL.D.--Hon. John Manning, graduate of 1850, Professor of Law in this University, member of the Convention of 1861, Representative in Congress, U. S. A., Code Commissioner. Rev. Albert Micajah Shipp, D.D., graduate of 1840, Professor of History in the University of North Carolina, Professor of Theology and Dean of the Theological Department, Vanderbilt University, author. Rabbi S. Mendelsohn, Wilmington, N. C., author of Jewish Jurisprudence Dr. Henry E. Shepherd, President of College of Charleston, Superintendent of City Schools of Baltimore, author of the Life of Robert E. Lee and other works.

        Doctor of Divinity, D.D.--Rev. J. E. C. Smedes, President of the St. Augustine Normal School and Collegiate Institute.

        Master of Arts.--Prof. Alexander Graham, Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Fayetteville and then of Charlotte.

        The Marshals performed their duties with great assiduity

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and grace. They were Missouri R. Hamer, of South Carolina, Chief, and Assistants Tilman B. Cherry, James H. Bobbitt and Alexander C. Tate, and William H. McNeill, Silas A. Holleman, and Samuel B. Turrentine. Of these Cherry, Bobbitt and Tate were Philanthropics, and the others, including the Chief, Dialectics.

        Medals and prizes were awarded as follows:

  • GREEK MEDALS.--Berrie Chandler McIver, Solomon Cohen Weill.
  • REPRESENTATIVE MEDAL.--Jesse Bowden Hawes.
  • MANGUM MEDAL (ORATORY).--Numa Fletcher Heitman.
  • WORTH PRIZE.--Numa Fletcher Heitman.
  • CHEMISTRY MEDAL.--James Lee Love.
  • MATERIA MEDICA PRIZE.--James Clifford Perry.

        The Class Day officers of the Senior Class of 1883 were Henry Horace Williams, President; Robert Percy Gray, Vice-President; J. Urquhardt Newman, Orator; Thomas Radcliffe, Prophet; Numa Fletcher Heitman, Historian; Edmund Ruffin, Poet; J. F. Wilkes, Marshal.

        The tree selected for planting was the white pine. The feature of all the class smoking the Pipe of Peace under the Old Poplar was introduced for the first time.


        The University Normal School of 1883 was opened June 21 and closed July 26. President Battle had general charge as before.

  • Prof. E. P. Moses was Superintendent and teacher of Arithmetic.
  • Prof. A. Leazer, of Mooresville: English Grammar.
  • Prof. A. Wilborn, Salisbury: Geography.
  • Prof. E. L. Harris: Penmanship and Drawing.
  • Prof. E. W. Kennedy, Durham: Algebra and Natural Philosophy.
  • Dr. R. H. Lewis, Kinston: Physiology and Hygiene.
  • Prof. James C. Meares, Raleigh: Vocal Music.
  • Capt. John E. Dugger, Rocky Mount: Phonics and Reading.
  • Prof. E. V. DeGraff, Paterson, N. J.: Lecturer on Science and Art of Teaching.
  • Prof. George Little, Washington, D. C.: Freehand Drawing in Crayon and Charcoal.
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  • Mrs. Mary O. Humphrey, Goldsboro: Teacher of Model Primary Class.
  • Miss Lillie W. Long, Charlotte: French.
  • Miss Jane C. Wade, Monroe: Calisthenics.
  • Mrs. Charlotte D. Murrill, Lynchburg, Va.: Reading.
  • Mr. Willie T. Patterson, Chapel Hill, Business Agent.
  • Capt. John E. Dugger, Secretary.

        There were:

Men 123
Women 194
Total 317
Children in Model School 29


        In June, 1883, the Executive Committee adopted fifteen rules in regard to the Bursar's duties. Among others he was bound to keep a list of the students, apply to them for University dues, if the same have not been paid; if not paid notify parents and guardians; make monthly reports to the Faculty, oftener if requested. He must furnish the Faculty once a year with a list of all delinquents, shall have charge of the University Grounds and Buildings, and keep from the Campus hogs and cattle; shall keep the keys of the rooms and let the rooms to students, requiring a written agreement to restore them in as good condition as when taken possession of, shall keep the buildings in good order, and exclude from the Campus all idlers, loafers, vicious, immoral, and suspicious persons; shall keep the College servants to their work. If a student shall fail to repair damages to his room, the Bursar must have the repairs done at the student's expense. His office must be in the University Buildings and his hours from 10 to 12 a. m. and 3 to 5 p. m. He must give the new students information concerning board, furniture, books, etc. It must be admitted that this is a formidable burden put on an officer with $350 salary. As a matter of fact the Bursar was never physically able to perform them all with equal fidelity.

        President Battle resigned the Treasurership August 15, 1883, and W. L. Saunders was elected in his place.

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        The offices at Commencement and those in the societies were as much prized apparently as those of President, Governors and Judges in the larger world. Parties, called "factions," were formed and, soon after admission into the University, the new men were pledged to vote with one or the other. Generally the fraternity men formed the bulk of one faction, sometimes, in the early days, occupying the South Building. In the Philanthropic Society there were usually two factions, the South Building and the East. In the Dialectic there were generally three, South, West and New West Buildings. Outsiders could with difficulty understand the differences between them but to the students it was a serious reality. The weakest would endeavor to hold the balance of power between the other two. Now it sometimes happened that when the election came, the members in the parties were equal or nearly so. Then ensued angry discussions as to who were entitled to vote. Proxies were allowed and it would be contended that the man who gave the proxy was absent because he had "quit college." Students were obliged to be in the University so many weeks before joining the societies. It was contended that this had not been complied with strictly. In truth the technicalities brought forward would have done credit to a criminal court.

        In 1884 much bad feeling was engendered in the societies, including charges of fraud and snap judgments. It caused a secession of some good members of the Philanthropic Society, and came near causing a similar secession from the Dialectic.

        The cause of this secession is a good example of the perplexing questions that would come up for settlement. Two students, belonging to the South Building party, although, as was alleged, repeatedly invited to join the Philanthropic Society, delayed doing so until the end of the term. With them their party had the majority and could have elected their candidates; without them the East Building party had the advantage. Importuned by party friends they offered to join at the last meeting of the term. The election was to take place at the first meeting in January. Their opponents said, "You have refused

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to become members until the last meeting, you know nothing of the workings of the society. You have no means of knowing the merits of the candidates, having never heard them debate, or perform other society duties. You wish to become members merely to dictate the representatives of the society. We who have borne the burden and heat of the day should not be deprived of our victory by those coming in at the eleventh hour, not to perform the duties of the society, because exercises are all finished. Besides we are not preventing your joining the society. We merely postpone it for two meetings."

        As I am a member of the Dialectic Society I could not attend the meeting of the other but I requested Professors Winston and Manning to do so, and if possible induce the seceders to return. They found that nothing could be done. In the opinion of the committee they did not much regard the severance of their connection. The Faculty could do nothing. To have forced them to reënter the society would have introduced a discordant element which would have paralyzed its usefulness.

        For many years it was the rule that all students should join one or the other of the two literary societies. As the numbers increased it became necessary to excuse first the Seniors and then the Juniors from regular attendance. This had the effect of throwing the conduct of business into the hands of inexperienced men. It also had the tendency of accustoming the minds of students to seeing members enjoying the freedom from society restraint. Then again the increase of the Law, Medical, and Pharmacy departments and of the special scientific schools, introduced a large number of students who would have found it extremely irksome to be forced into the society obligations. It is probable, too, that some fraternity men were satisfied with their own meetings and desired to attend no other.

        From another point of view a change was deemed advisable. The compulsory feature forced into the societies youths who were reluctant and even hostile members. There was begun disorder unknown in early days, such as applauding or hissing speakers, which seriously affected the character of the bodies.

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        Accordingly, in 1889, joining them was made voluntary and they have been improved by it. The Faculty add to their dignity by requiring that the representative speakers at Commencement shall be chosen by them. They are now in good condition. Their inter-society debates in public, and debates with other institutions, their union in the procurement of star entertainments, and their joint banquet at Commencements, not to mention the opportunities for training in debate, and the advice of old members, are powerful factors in keeping up respectable numbers.

        While the relations between the law students and the University were for some years only nominal, one of them was allowed to have a room in the New East Building. One night a company of young men, having acquired a small quantity of larger beer, were desirous of imbibing it, without interruption by the society monitors or accidental visit of a Faculty man. The law student kindly invited them to his more sequestered apartment. When haled up for punishment he pleaded that he was not amenable to the laws of the University. The Faculty concluded not to dismiss him but to put him and all other law students occupying University buildings under its jurisdiction. It was not long before the distinction in discipline between the two classes of students was abolished. It was also enacted that Law and Medical students might compete for society honors, if they were regular members and had ten hours a week in academic studies.

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        The Visiting Committee of 1884 was large and composed of able and practical men. At the head was Hon. A. Haywood Merritt, who had served as State Senator from Chatham and was an experienced and successful teacher. The other members were Charles M. Cooke, afterwards Judge; Julian S. Carr, a wealthy manufacturer; D. P. McEachern, a noted farmer and Member of the Legislature; Col. Paul B. Means, a prominent lawyer and Member of both branches of the General Assembly; Hon. Benjamin F. Grady, an experienced teacher and Member of Congress, and Rev. A. D. Betts, D.D., a valued preacher of the Methodist Church. As one of the accusations against the University at that time was that it was under Episcopalian influence, I state that of the seven, the Chairman and two others were Methodists, two were Presbyterians, another a Presbyterian by lineage, and one a prominent Baptist, President of the Board of Trustees of Wake Forest College. There was not one Episcopalian. As the report is a true picture of the University I give much of it as written:

        "The Constitution of the State is but the written expression of the will of the people. Our fathers of the past century met in Convention at Halifax, December 18, 1776, and declared in the Constitution then adopted that schools shall be established and all useful learning shall be duly promoted and encouraged in one or more Universities. This injunction has been reaffirmed from time to time, and our present Constitution declares that 'religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and means of education shall be forever encouraged.' The educational system of the State is but the outgrowth of the will of the people. The University is placed at the head of this system, and consequently belongs, to the people; and as it is from the people and for the people they have a right

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to know how their institution is conducted, and how far it is carrying out the objects of its creation and meeting the just expectations of the public.


        "The range of studies is broad and comprehensive. There are three regular curricula, each leading to a separate academic degree of equal dignity. The Classical Course is essentially the old curriculum, and leads to the degree of A.B. The Scientific Course includes all the studies of the Classical Course except Latin and Greek, and for them it substitutes Agricultural Chemistry, Natural History, Drawing, Bookkeeping, and additional studies in English; it leads to the degree of B.S. The Philosophical Course is a mean between the two other courses. It includes either Latin or Greek at the option of the student, and leads to the degree of Ph.B. In addition to these three are a one year advanced course leading to the degrees of A.M. and M.S.; and a two years course leading to the degree of Ph.D. Young men are thus offered the means of a broad and liberal culture, and at the same time they may consult their tastes, talents, and future aims in life.


        "We were greatly impressed with the enthusiasm of the Faculty. There is a spirit of zeal and earnestness visible in every recitation room that is truly refreshing. Instruction is given from textbooks, by lectures, on the blackboard, and by practical work in the laboratory, the field and the museum. Every student is armed with tablet and pencil for notes, and in the classics frequent compositions are required in the different languages. A great deal of writing is insisted on as necessary to accuracy. The methods of instruction are thoroughly progressive.


        "We are glad to know that, while general and abstract principles are thoroughly taught at the University, the application of these principles to the common uses of life is not neglected. Much of the teaching leads to practical results. The conditions

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imposed by the Federal Government in the Land Scrip Grant are met and the University is prepared to turn out men educated for the farm as well as the forum and the bench. Especial attention is given to the English language in all the departments, from the beginning to the end of all the courses. When the student comes to the study of Botany his attention is directed to the diseases of agricultural plants, such as smut, rust, mildew, and the remedies and precautions against them; to forage plants, the improvement of lands, the germination of seeds, and the influence of fertilizers on the growth of plants. In Physiology and Zoölogy the student is taught the anatomy of the common domestic animals, and their internal organs are used to illustrate those of the human system. He is taught the principles of breeding, feeding and improvement of farm stock. He learns about food-fishes and their propagation, injurious insects, vermin, and reptiles. In Geology the student's attention is turned from the theoretical to such practical subjects as mines and how to mine coal, iron, gold, etc., the origin and varieties of soils, building stones, marls, and phosphates and their uses in agriculture. The Natural History Museum contains over three thousand specimens of rocks, ores, and minerals, and a valuable and increasing collection of native woods, botanical and zoölogical specimens illustrating the fauna and flora of North Carolina. This department has two laboratories, one for practical work in Geology and Mineralogy, the other for Zoölogy and Botany. Professor Holmes presides with the vigor of youth and the skill and learning of age. Professor Venable has charge of general Agricultural and Analytical Chemistry. He is a valuable man, an excellent instructor, and is fully up with the progress of the age.

        "Here the student is taught the analysis of soils, manures, and ores, how to extract metals from ores, how glass, porcelain, and earthenware are manufactured, how leather is tanned, how soap, sugar, ink, and matches are made, how calico is printed, cloth dyed and bleached, woods preserved by paints, and many other such practical things. The two laboratories connected with this department are supplied with water, gas

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and other appliances necessary to the successful prosecution of scientific investigation. Professor Venable deserves special mention for the elegant and valuable museum of chemical, industrial, and agricultural products which he has collected and so handsomely arranged. In the department of Natural Philosophy, presided over by Professor Gore, another young, learned and efficient instructor, the student is enabled to gain an intelligent understanding of the forces in nature from the motions of the planets to the turning of a flutter-mill. The skill and industry of the Professor in repairing the old apparatus and the purchase of new enable him to make experiments in the presence of the class which constitute an important and impressive part of his instruction. He illustrates the movements of the sidereal heavens, shows the application of electricity to the telegraph, telephone, etc. He explains the phenomena of sound and the properties of light and heat. He also teaches land surveying, plotting, leveling, laying out railroad curves and switches, and all railroad work, to the point of actual construction.

        "The President teaches Constitutional, International, and Business Law. This latter department embraces such legal principles, civil and criminal, as are indispensable to a correct transaction of the ordinary business of life. This feature is believed to be peculiar to this institution. It is appreciated by the students, is practical and praiseworthy.

        "We might show how Professor Graves, thoroughly competent and skilled as he is, comes down from Differential and Integral Calculus and the theory of logarithms to the science of accounts and practical bookkeeping; how that elegant classical scholar, Professor Hooper, and that earnest and excellent teacher, Professor Winston, manage to give a practical turn to all their teachings in the modern and ancient languages; and how well that faithful worker, Professor Mangum, leads the student along the plains of higher English literature and thence into the fields of moral science and Christian ethics. But enough has been said to show that the teaching is not only progressive and of wide range but eminently practical.

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        "The diplomas of the University can be obtained only by successful study. Strict accounts are kept of daily recitations, followed by rigid and searching examinations. If certain real attainments are not reached, the student is not permitted to advance. The standard of scholarship is high.


        "Each student is required to attend three recitations a day, and a strict accountability is demanded for absences. No incorrigibly idle or vicious student is permitted to remain in the institution. The discipline is mild, firm, and successful.


        "What moral and religious influences will surround his boy when he shall go from home is a question of prime importance to parents. It affords your committee sincere pleasure to assure such parents that there is a very healthy moral and religious atmosphere at the University. We are assured of this by personal observation of the students in the recitation rooms, in their private apartments, in the Campus, at the meals, and at their daily worship in the College Chapel, and we are confirmed in this belief by evidence from various and disinterested sources. The Young Men's Christian Association meets regularly in its well fitted hall in the South Building, and the exercises are for the most part conducted by the students themselves. On the Sabbath the village churches are open to and attended by the students; and each student is expected to attend one of the four Bible classes, conducted by the Faculty for their benefit. There is no such thing as 'deviling the Faculty,' and 'paping,' or cheating on recitation or examination, is not tolerated by the students themselves. 'Hazing the Fresh' is also under ban, by order of the Faculty and the joint action of the two literary societies. A manly sense of honor pervades the whole body of students. Instances of disorder and violation of law occur sometimes, but they are rare. When over two hundred young men are thrown together so intimately, it were vain to expect perfect harmony at all times.

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An altercation occurred while your committee was on the Hill, and we witnessed the prompt decision of the Faculty in dealing with the offenders and punishing the offense. We note this as an exception to the general rule of good behavior.


        "There is no attempt at display, and a spirit of economy is visible in every direction. We are assured that the total expenses for tuition, books, board, fuel, lights, and washing need not exceed $200 per annum. Considering its advantages the University is one of the very cheapest institutions in the land.

        "The Constitution provides that the benefits of the University, as far as practicable, shall be extended to the youth of the State free of expense for tuition. Therefore, under legislative enactment, the University grants free tuition to one student from each county. Forty counties are thus represented. The Faculty, moreover, carrying out the spirit of the Constitution, has dispensed charities with a liberal hand. Time is allowed for the payment of tuition of young men of limited means, and in some extraordinary cases the fees are altogether remitted. Since 1875 about two hundred have been granted free tuition, exclusive of county students. Three young men are now enjoying the benefits of the scholarships established by the late B. F. Moore; and still further aiding in this direction is the Deems Fund. Through the munificence of Rev. Dr. C. F. Deems and Mr. W. H. Vanderbilt, of New York, a fund now amounting to about $12,000 has been placed at the disposal of the Faculty to assist students by loans. It is judiciously used, and many worthy young men are thus enabled to secure a liberal education.


        "The halls and library rooms of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies are commodious and elegantly furnished. They contain perhaps the finest collection of portraits in the South. Each library has about eight thousand volumes and

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an interesting cabinet of minerals and curiosities. These societies are held in affectionate remembrance by all their old members. They, still in their dignity and glory, give practice to young authors and orators, cherish an honorable rivalry, and cultivate a literary taste. They exercise a wholesome influence over the conduct of their members, and thus lighten for the Faculty the burden of discipline.


        "The University Library numbers nine thousand volumes and two thousand pamphlets. Many of these books are exceedingly rare and valuable, but are so arranged as to be comparatively useless for consultation. Some of them are on shelves twelve or fifteen feet from the floor. With nothing but a frail ladder to aid one in reaching them, the sublime ascent is likely to end in a ridiculous descent.

        "For practical purposes these books might as well be with Alexander Selkirk on the Island of Juan Fernandez--'they are out of humanity's reach.' Your committee earnestly urges that alcoves be speedily fitted up, the books brought down from their lofty heights, classified and arranged for use. We recommend that an appropriation for this purpose by the Legislature be applied for and also for the binding of pamphlets and the rebinding of valuable old volumes, and for the purchase of some new scientific works. When this is done, but not till then, will this library be worthy of Smith Hall and the University.


        "Your committee is of opinion that the fees of the Professor of Law (Mr. Manning) ought to be supplemented, that he be made a regular member of the Faculty, and his full time be required in the service of the Institution.

        "The Medical Department seems to be less successful than any other. We are assured of the ability and qualifications of Dr. Harris, who has charge of this department; but, however great may be the facilities for study, the course does not and can not now lead to a degree. Let a thoroughly organized Medical School be established. If the means to do this are

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not within the reach of the Trustees (and we fear they are not), let State aid be invoked. Let the Legislature be impressed with the fact that it can be done with comparatively little outlay; that such a school would soon be self-supporting; that we can not afford to be outstripped by neighboring States; that the University has never been a burden on the State Treasury; that our sister States grant much larger appropriations to their educational centers than we do; that twice as much money is annually carried out of the State to Medical Colleges as it would require to equip one for ourselves; and that we owe it as a great patriotic duty to our State to provide this additional educational advantage. Such an appeal, we think, would not go unheeded.

        "We congratulate the Trustees and the good people of the State on the past glory of their University, its present usefulness, and its future prosperity! With an able President at its helm, who is so devoted to its interests that his life seems bound up with that of the institution over which he presides; with a Faculty thoroughly competent, enthusiastic and skilled in imparting knowledge, the prospects for success are most flattering."


        The Commencement of 1884 was one of extreme interest. The number attending was large and included some of the best men in the State, such as Governor Jarvis, Lieutenant-Governor Robinson, who was a nephew of President Swain; Colonel Saunders, Secretary of State; Mr. Paul Cameron; Col. W. L. Steele; Major (now Colonel) Bingham; Dr. Grissom, Superintendent of the State Hospital for the Insane; Col. A. B. Andrews, railroad magnate; Editors Ashe, Yates, Daniels, and Page; and Rev. Drs. Skinner and Wilson. Besides these were merchants and farmers, teachers and preachers, manufacturers and mechanics, and their wives, daughters and friends, including a goodly array of alumni. Jupiter Pluvius smiled benignantly. This was notable as the last time when the Trustees and other dignitaries sat in the open space in the irreverently named Bull Pen. The next Commencement they were in the spacious Memorial Hall.

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        What passed in the society halls Monday night was not made public, but Dr. Hawthorne in his sermon praised a speech he had heard in the Dialectic Society meeting. It transpired, too, that when called on for a talk, among other topics of good advice, he warned the members against bathos and gave this specimen, said to be a part of a sermon on the miracle of healing the Gergasene madman: "The sun was just illumining the tops of the mountains, the company in reverential attitude was gathered around the Divine Healer, while the man from whom the devil had been cast was worshipping at His feet. All was calm and peaceful save where the frightened swine leaped into the lake and on its placid surface could be seen the twinkling of their curly tails as they dived for the bottom."

        On Tuesday afternoon the Senior Class Day exercises were held in the Chapel, the class tree having been planted in the early spring. Samuel M. Gattis narrated interestingly and often humorously the history of the class. Jesse B. Hawes delivered an oration of good sense and in good style. William G. Randall was the Prophet, giving the fate of each member, some in dark colors, but mostly absurd and humorous.

        James Lee Love, the President of the Class, delivered the parting address, full of wise counsel and feeling. At the close was sung an ode written especially for the occasion by Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer, "whose pen in prose and poetry has been ever ready to utter delicate sentiments and bright thoughts and graceful words for the honor of North Carolina."


                         Bright be the beams of this vernal morn,
                         Far hence, ye clouds, ye dark shadows borne;
                         Light are our hearts while pleasure has sway,
                         Classmates and comrades, honor our day;
                         Day that henceforth shall ever be bright,
                         Calling up memories of sweetness and light.
                         Gaily we sing,
                         Time's on the wing;
                         Hail, grove and dell,
                         Hail and farewell.

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                         Brothers, our tree will a symbol prove
                         Of faith, of hope, and of constant love;
                         Strong shall it grow, piercing the blue,
                         Drinking for ages sunlight and dew;
                         Thus may our life grow prosperously,
                         Deep in our hearts may its friendships be.
                         Ring bells and sing,
                         Time's on the wing;
                         Each well known dell,
                         Hail and farewell.

                         Swiftly will pass our youth's golden day;
                         Far up yon height lies our toilsome way;
                         Duty will summon, answer its call,
                         Courage within us and God over all.
                         Far from the Hill, but loving it still,
                         Clasp hands at parting with peace and good will.
                         Then let us sing,
                         Time's on the wing;
                         Tree, hill and dell,
                         Hail and farewell.

        There came a telegram from Mr. Henry Watterson, the well-known editor of the Louisville Journal, who had accepted his election as orator by the Dialectic Society, announcing that ill health prevented his fulfilling his engagement. The society thereupon chose Col. Walter L. Steele to fill the vacancy. Although he had only one day's notice, Colonel Steele made an address of remarkable merit. His counsels were founded on a text of the Book of Proverbs, "Remove not the old landmarks." He insisted on the Latin maxim, Festina lente. He urged economy in business, charity in politics, veracity in morals, courtesy in manners, and the fear of God in religion. It was the universal opinion of the auditors that, while the eminent Kentuckian may have spoken more eloquently, he could not have excelled Colonel Steele in sound sense, embodied in deeply interesting discourse.

        At the conclusion of this address Hon. John Manning, at the request of the grandsons of the late Gov. Jonathan Worth, presented an oil portrait of the Governor to the University. The short speech of Dr. Manning was truly eloquent and was most gracefully delivered and with a peculiarly sonorous

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voice. I give one sentence: "Called by the voice of the people of this State twice to the gubernatorial office, we all know how nobly, strongly, grandly he bore himself in those worrying, exciting, tempestuous years, and how firmly, plainly and ably he contended for the liberties of the citizens against the exercise of unwarranted power, though that power was clothed with all the panoply of war, supported by the sheen of bayonets under the banners of a victorious army." Dr. Manning further stated that he was a Trustee of the University for nearly thirty years, devoted to its interests and a strong advocate for higher education as well as improvement of the public schools.

        President Battle received the gift for the University, saying, among other things, "I was thrown into intimate personal and official relations with Gov. Jonathan Worth while he occupied the Executive chair. I freely say that I have never known a more estimable man, or a more firm, prudent and sagacious officer. He investigated all subjects with deliberate care, he weighed all arguments with unprejudiced judgment; he made his decisions without fear, favor or affection; he carried them into execution with a courage that knew no faltering. No man had a harder task. No man could have performed it with more thorough conscientiousness, more intelligent zeal, more determined nerve or a broader patriotism. It was in the labors, the troubles, the torments of endeavoring to uphold the civil over the military law that he broke down a fine constitution. He died a martyr to his struggles to maintain constitutional liberty. In the name of the University I thank the donors for this generous gift. It shall be placed upon our walls as a monument of a most important epoch of our history and as a perpetual incentive to our youth to imitate what is brave and honorable and true."

        Governor Jarvis, being called on, added his earnest testimony to the real value of his predecessor's example of diligence, integrity and independence. No such letter books, as those which belong to Governor Worth's administration, are in the Executive office. They set forth clearly the proper relations between our State and our general government, and

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are marked by a very proper spirit of independence, breathing all loyalty to law and order.

        The portrait was then hung by the side of those of Davie, "the Father of the University," and of Presidents Caldwell and Swain.

        On Wednesday afternoon came the sermon before the graduating class by Rev. Dr. J. B. Hawthorne, of the First Baptist Church of Richmond, Virginia. He discussed with ability and clearness, and frequent bursts of eloquence, the relation of the Christian pulpit to trade and politics, and the other questions of the present day. The principles of the Gospel, rightly applied, are sufficient for their solution. His intonation and gesticulation were eminently appropriate and matter and manner were a great intellectual and moral treat. An admirer wrote, "It was simply grand--toweringly and magnificently grand."

        The night of Wednesday saw the friendly rivalry between the venerable societies of the University. The following was the program: Adolphus Hill Eller on "Servility in American Politics"; Heber Amos Latham on "What is the True Aristocracy?"; Frank Fries Patterson on "Orators and Oratory of America"; Augustus White Long on "The Morals of Southern Society"; Oscar B. Eaton on "Popular Amusements"; Edward W. Pou, Jr., on "The Freedom of the Seas."

        Of these Eller, Patterson and Eaton were Dialectics, the others Philanthropics.

        While all were creditable, the preference was given to Mr. Long. Mr. Seymour W. Whiting presented to Mr. Latham a handsome volume of Tennyson's Poems as a tribute of admiration for his address.

        The reporter criticised four of the six speeches of these representatives, in that while they praised Southern manners and morals, they were perhaps too depreciatory of the morals and manners of other folks. "These young gentlemen," Dr. Skinner remarked, "have just found out that we had a war. Massachusetts may indeed be blameworthy, but is the rostrum of the University the place for such criticism? It hardly gives the institution credit for the cosmopolitan character that it really

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has." The declamation was, however, pronounced to be uncommonly graceful and appropriate, and better results are obtained by allowing the young orators to express their own ideas, and not restricting their tongues to speaking only what is agreeable to all in the audience.

        On Thursday the graduates spoke, Rev. Dr. Thomas E. Skinner, of the Class of 1847, opening with prayer. The speakers and their subjects were as follows:

        Samuel Mallett Gattis, "A Dangerous Question"; that is, Mormonism.

        Lee Martin Warlick, "The Race Problem in the United States." The Caucasian must rule.

        Thomas Richard Rouse, "North Carolina Since the War." Our future is bright.

        James Cole Roberts, "The Present Status and Influence of Mohammedanism." It is losing its influence.

        Missouri Robert Hamer, "Influence of the Legal Profession." Lawyers are at the head of great movements.

        John Lemuel Borden, "The Virtues and Vices of the Press." The greatest power in the land. Should be kept pure.

        Julian Wood, "North Carolina for North Carolinians." We have an excellent population. We wish no influx of foreigners.

        Edward Daniel Monroe, an essay on "Science." Colonel Steele, in awarding the Mangum Medal to another, said: "This essayist exhibits a power of reasoning and analyzing worthy of any man in the State."

        Samuel Bryant Turrentine, "The Progress and Prospects of Christian Missions." This is a great field for work. In it women can do great good.

        Jesse Bowden Hawes, "The Day and Its Demands." A thoughtful dissertation on this subject of passing importance.

        William George Randall, "North Carolina Folk Lore." A humorous and able disquisition.

        James Lee Love (Valedictorian), "The New North State." He spoke gracefully and strongly of the causes transforming the old into the new State.

        Mr. Love was pronounced the best for general excellence

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in oratory and won the Mangum Medal. Besides the above, eight members of the class were at their own request excused from speaking. These were: Charles Taylor Alexander, Andrew Jackson Harris, William Donald McIver, George A. Mebane, James Daniel Miller, Thomas Samuel Osborne, John Charles Slocum, and Benjamin Franklin White.

        In the afternoon the reports were read. The degree of A.B. was conferred on five graduates, that of Ph.D. on eleven.

        The Classical Oration was won by Lee Martin Warlick; the Greek Medal for Scholarship by James R. Monroe, Henry Wm. Rice, James Thomas, and Stephen Beauregard Weeks; that for Improvement by Joseph John Jenkins; the Phillips Mathematical Medal by Frank Milton Little; the Worth Prize by Samuel Bryant Turrentine; the Chemistry Medal by James Cole Roberts; the Representative Medal for Oratory by Augustus White Long. The best scholar in the class was James Lee Love, and to him had been awarded the Valedictory Oration.

        Some of the graduates have attained distinction. Randall, now dead, was a painter of merit; Turrentine, now a Doctor of Divinity, is an honored Presiding Elder of the Methodist Episcopal Church; Gattis has been Speaker of the House of Representatives; Love has been an Instructor of Mathematics in Harvard University and Superintendent of its Summer School; Miller is an able and useful Episcopal minister.

        In 1884 the grades of the undergraduates were arranged as follows: Those who obtained marks of 70 to 80 in all studies were allowed to pass and the Seniors were granted diplomas. The Seniors obtaining 80 to 90 obtained diplomas cum laude; those from 90 to 95 magna cum laude; those who obtained from 90 to 100, insigni cum honore. The student who obtained the highest average of all, not less than 90, obtained the Valedictory Oration. To him who should have the highest mark, not less than 90, in the Classical Course, was awarded the Classical Oration. The Philosophical and Scientific Orations were awarded to the best scholars in those courses, provided the marks averaged as high as 90. For speaking at Commencement four Seniors were to be selected by the Faculty

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after competition. Medical and Law students were not allowed to compete.

        The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was conferred on Gov. Thomas J. Jarvis, an officer of enlightened views generally and an especial advocate of higher education; on Augustus S. Merrimon, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, a learned jurist; and on Dr. Edward Warren, Bey, who was, during the Civil War, Surgeon-General of this State, then a Professor in the Medical College of Baltimore, from which he was appointed a surgeon on the staff of the Khedive of Egypt, from whom he received the title of Bey. He was also author of a book entitled "Experiences of a Physician in Three Continents."

        Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred upon Rev. N. Collin Hughes, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, Principal of a classical school of high standing at Chocowinity; on Rev. John S. Watkins, an eloquent Presbyterian divine, then of Raleigh; and on Rev. M. L. Wood, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, President of Trinity College, of this State.

        Governor Jarvis, in presenting diplomas to the graduating class, made a speech whose eloquence was in an inverse ratio to its length. Alluding feelingly to the fact that this was his last duty as President of the Board of Trustees, as he would, before the next Commencement, cease to be Governor, he asked, "What constitutes the University? These spacious and attractive grounds? These magnificent trees? These commodious buildings? No! The University consists of the manhood of her sons! You have a responsibility, young gentlemen, that you could not escape if you would, for you are the University and its destiny is largely in your hands. I feel that this is in one way my valedictory. And although I may not have the means or the opportunity to be here as frequently as in the six years past, my interest in the institution shall not wane."

        President Battle paid a strong tribute to Governor Jarvis's fidelity as Chairman of the Board. "To him we owe more than to any other man, our railroad, Memorial Hall, and pecuniary aid in times of desperate need."

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        The changes in the Faculty in 1883-'84 were principally among the Instructors and Assistants.

        Prof. Joshua W. Gore, C.E., took charge of Natural Philosophy and Engineering. Emile A. de Schweinitz, A.B., was made Assistant in Chemistry and Mineralogy; Albert L. Coble, Assistant in Mathematics; James Lee Love, Instructor in English; Berrie C. McIver, Instructor in Greek; Benjamin F. White, Instructor in Latin; Edward D. Monroe, Assistant Librarian.


        The Summer Normal School of the University in 1884 was opened June 17th and closed July 17th.

        The following is a list of the Faculty, Officers and Instructors:

  • Kemp P. Battle, LL.D.: President.
  • Prof. Julius S. Tomlinson, Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Winston: Superintendent.
  • Prof. E. V. De Graff, Washington, D. C.: Lecturer on Methods.
  • Prof. Alexander L. Phillips, Burgaw: Teacher of Geography.
  • Prof. T. J. Mitchell, Charlotte: Teacher of Arithmetic and Algebra.
  • Prof. A. Leazar, Mooresville: Teacher of Grammar.
  • Prof. J. H. Meyers, New York: Teacher of Primary Work.
  • Prof. R. H. Lewis, Kinston: Teacher of Physiology and Hygiene.
  • Prof. F. P. Venable, Chapel Hill: Lecturer in Chemistry.
  • Prof. J. W. Gore, Chapel Hill: Lecturer on Natural Philosophy.
  • Prof. E. L. Harris, Raleigh: Teacher of Drawing and Penmanship.
  • Prof. H. E. Holt, Boston: Teacher of Music.
  • Prof. C. L. Wilson, Asheville: Teacher of Music.
  • Miss Boice, Philadelphia: Teacher of Reading.
  • Mrs. M. O. Humphrey, Goldsboro: Teacher of Model and Principal of Primary Class.
  • Mr. W. T. Patterson, Chapel Hill: Business Agent.
  • Rev. C. C. Newton, Chapel Hill: Secretary.
  • The enrollment was:

Men 167
Women 138
Total 305
Children in Model School 23

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        This was the last of these schools. The average attendance was about equally divided between men and women. The largest number of counties represented at any one term was sixty-two, but there was only a handful of counties that did not send representatives during one or more of the eight terms. As heretofore explained the University Normal School was the fons et origo of the upward growth of the public schools of the State. From it date most of the graded schools, and although there are not many separate kindergarten establishments among us, yet the principles of Froebel's teaching, introduced by the University, are blessing the little children under the guidance of numerous skilled instructors.

        There grew up a demand from distant sections of the State to inaugurate similar schools in their neighborhood, in order to enable their citizens at less cost to reap the benefits. The fund, $2,000 per annum, was equally divided by the General Assembly, to be disbursed at four points selected by the Board of Education. Hence Asheville, Newton, Elizabeth City for some years had their yearly gatherings. It was inevitable that, while the aggregate harvest was great, no one point could attain the preëminence of the University Normal School.

        The attendance on the various sessions of the University Summer Normal School was as follows:

Years. No. of Pupils. Counties Represented.
1877 235 42
1878 402 59
1879 290 54
1880 241 54
1881 338 62
1882 352 62
1883 317  
1884 305  
Total 2,480  

        Of course many attended more than one session and are counted twice--very few more than twice. The numbers of counties represented for the last two years were not recorded but they were about the same as in 1882.

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        After serving as Superintendent of the Summer Normal School, the able and accomplished scholar, Dr. Henry E. Shepherd, accepted the Presidency of the College of Charleston. From that city he wrote to the Chronicle, a newspaper of Raleigh, his observations on the status of education in North Carolina. He was surprised as well as gratified to note the progress which had been made.

        "A new dispensation has arisen at Chapel Hill. The University is beginning to assume a scholarly air, for the most part alien to its ante-bellum era. Its teaching is imbued with the critical spirit of modern science and philology. Original investigation is at last obtaining a recognized place in its scheme of work. It may be affirmed without exaggeration that the quality of work in most departments is immensely in advance of that which prevailed during its ancient days. The marked contrast between the Chapel Hill of 1860-'61 and the Chapel Hill of 1884, is one of the notable and distinctive features in the intellectual development of North Carolina."

        Dr. Shepherd then shows a "conspicuous defect in the present organization of the University, in the want of a Professorship of the English Language and Literature. This proceeds from no failure on the part of the esteemed Professor in charge, whose affectionate assiduity, invincible energy, and consecration to his work" are well known. Dr. Shepherd then states, what the authorities of the University were painfully cognizant of, and remedied as soon as more money was voted them, that Dr. Mangum was grievously overburdened. What he hoped for, the creation of a specific Professorship of English, not a mere annex to some favored department, would tend to elevate the institution to a far higher rank in the world of critical scholarship, than it had thus far attained.


        As has been said, there was a complete change in the exercise of discipline of the University. No restrictions on the movements of students within Chapel Hill were enforced. The old plan of all reciting at the same hour was necessarily abolished, and recitations were going on at all hours from breakfast

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to dinner, and laboratory work in the afternoon. As the students were not all in their rooms at the same time the old nuisance of shouting at objects and persons passing by was nonexistent.

        On one occasion President Battle heard of a number of students behaving in a boisterous manner in Durham, as they were coming to Chapel Hill. Of course the malevolent said that they were intoxicated, so he summoned them before him. They stood up solemnly in a line. "Gentlemen," said the President, "I am grieved to hear that you have been on a bender in Durham." One of them, very much frightened, leaped forward in his earnestness and blurted out, "It's a mighty little bender I have been on." It was very comical. The President soon found that there had been nothing but boyish exuberance and closed the incident with a caution. One of them, now a great educational dignitary, Alderman, composed a song with the refrain, "It's a mighty little bender I've been on," which was sung by the students for many months. I regret its loss.

        Another case illustrates my manner with the students. The fact of a student going to Pittsboro without my permission came to my ears. He was of exemplary conduct and I knew that his father allowed him to ride twenty or thirty miles or any other distance whenever he chose. With him a trip of seventeen miles to Pittsboro without permission was a malum prohibitum and not a malum in se. So my summons to him to appear before me was a mere matter of form. I began the interview, "Mr. Braswell, I understand that you have been to Pittsboro." He replied, "Well, Mr. President, I will tell you how it was. I learned that there was to be a hanging in Pittsboro. I thought that I would never have another chance to witness one. I knew that my father would not care. If I asked your permission you would refuse because I did not have permission from home and there was not time to obtain it. So I concluded to risk it." "Well, sir," said I, "consider yourself well scolded and tell me all about the hanging."

        I add that this kindly manner of treatment of students by no

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means led to greater misconduct but seemed to have a healthy effect.

        Among the most annoying incidents of University life have been the pledges taken by the students, sometimes in matters in which they were exclusively concerned, sometimes in matters of University discipline. As a rule the public opinion of the students holds them as irrevocable, so that, for example, if A pledges himself to vote for B, he continues to be bound to give the vote although for some reason he concludes that he ought to support some other person. The following episode illustrates the difficulty and folly of these engagements.

        As an examination of a class in Mathematics in the latter part of May was nearly due, members of the class approached their Professor, who was an assistant only, with the object of "pumping" him in regard to their prospects of success. They first asked for their term standing, which was given. They then learned his system of marking the examination papers, and, as they understood him, it was impossible to pass without obtaining an abnormally high mark. There was consternation in the class so great that some of the less diligent scholars drew up stipulations that they would not be examined by this Professor. There were statements in the paper founded on mistake, but still every member of the class signed it and agreed not to withdraw unless by unanimous consent. Their object was to be examined by the Senior Professor.

        On inquiring into the facts the Faculty found that the Professor had been misunderstood and the paper had been signed under a misapprehension. The class was summoned before them and, after hearing their explanation, were told that they had committed a breach of the laws by entering into a conspiracy not to perform a University duty but that the Faculty were disposed to be lenient if they would retrace their steps. The Professor involved made such an explanation as was satisfactory to the students. The leaders of the class admitted that they had signed inadvertently and would be glad to be released and would withdraw their names if it were not for the unanimous consent clause. This consent could not well be obtained because one of the signers had left the Hill to

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visit Bingham School. It was suggested that the signatures were obtained on a misstatement of facts, and moreover the signers agreed to do an unlawful act, that is, to abstain from performing a duty assigned by lawful authority, and hence were not bound. But law was not considered by students as binding as a pledge. The knot was cut by obtaining the consent of the absent one by telegraph and "all was serene." On an inspection of the signed paper it appeared that there were the names of some who were not at all interested because the examination in question was not in their course, yet their consent was needed to cancel or modify the pledge. In other words, orderly, hightoned students, successful in their studies, put themselves into the power not only of the careless, unambitious pupils, but even of men not in the class at all.

        This is, I think, the only conspiracy against a law of the University that I have known since the reopening. It ended so ridiculously that it will hardly be repeated.

        The practical jokes mentioned in my first volume were continued, though seldom. One was managed so adroitly as to deceive President Battle. A mock furious quarrel was carried on in presence of a student, who fully believed that a fight in the woods with pistols was imminent. He was so frightened that he invoked the President's aid to prevent slaughter. The President repaired to the spot, ascertained that the affair was a hoax, but thought it best to put a stop to this playing with firearms. One of the combatants lay on the ground feigning death, but the sudden resurrection and rapid running away of the corpse when the President approached was amusing. He caught the other combatant and sequestered his pistol for the term.

        Afterwards a similar trick was attempted. The only person deceived was the Episcopal minister, who made a fruitless journey at 10 o'clock at night to the "Trysting Poplar" in Battle Park.

        A college president has all sorts of trials and often has to make up his mind as to what course to pursue unaided by any precedent. One morning while recitations were going on I was shocked by the loud ringing of the bell. Inquiring into it

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I found that a very athletic and bright-minded student had become really insane. He was just then calling a meeting of the Dialectic Society in order to send delegates to an imaginary convention to be held in Raleigh to raise money for the University. I instructed four of his friends to provide cords, to be used in confining his limbs if absolutely necessary only, and ordered a carriage to be at the door. I then provided myself with a blank telegraphic paper and repaired to the Dialectic Hall. He was in the presidential chair. Instead of his ordinary dignified conduct he was indulging in profane language, totally contrary to his normal habit. I arose with the fictitious telegram in my hand and gravely said, "Mr. President, I am told that a meeting is to be held in Raleigh this afternoon in the interests of the University. I move that you, Mr. President, and Messrs. Dockery and three others be a committee to represent this society, and as you are interested, I put the motion myself." The motion was carried of course and before his mind had time to go off on another tack we had him in a carriage surrounded by his four friends. I telegraphed the Superintendent of the Hospital for the Insane, to meet him at the Raleigh station and he was lodged in the Asylum without trouble. But for the ruse I employed it would probably have been necessary to bind him hand and foot, and the injury to his brain from the fury into which this would have thrown him might have been a permanent injury. He recovered from this attack.

        One Saturday night a half dozen students concluded to bring back old customs. A venerable gentleman by invitation had made an address before the University. Even while he was speaking a mock alarm of fire was made which created some disturbance. After the exercises were over there was continuous bell ringing, explosions of gunpowder and shouting for hours. I sent word to the perpetrators and politely suggested that it was not right to disturb the rest of an aged guest. For the only time in my presidency the request was unheeded. I retired to my bed as usual but could not sleep. At three o'clock my patience was exhausted. I went to the buildings and recognized three of the rioters. I found that they had led

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and pushed a cow up to the third story of the South Building, on which was the belfry, and tied her horns to the bell rope.*

        * As there may be curiosity as to the behavior of a cow in such circumstances, I write that this particular cow was peacefully chewing her cud and not pulling the bell rope at all.

        The next day I had the ringleader before the Faculty. As in addition to the present offense, he had been neglecting his studies, an order was made that his father should withdraw him. A letter containing this sentence was actually mailed. I announced that the two other known offenders would be called up next day. Seeing that we were in earnest there was great consternation among the rioters, who did not know how many I had caught. One of the best students, now a United States Marshal, called on me to know what could be done to stop the prosecution. I said, "Mr. Dockery, if the gentlemen engaged in this business will authorize you to say that they will quit this rowdy behavior I think that the Faculty will grant a general amnesty." He went off to consult the offenders and I withdrew the letter of recall from the postoffice. In about an hour he and Z. B. Walser, also an exemplary student, returned and reported that the compromise was accepted. This ended the matter. There was some reluctance in giving the promise, which, by the way, was faithfully kept, not because there was any wish to continue this disorderly conduct, but simply from the uncomfortable feeling of being under a pledge. This feeling should be fostered, rather than by too frequent pledges impair their efficacy. Indeed the Faculty never proposed them, but sometimes accepted them when voluntarily offered.

        The practice of hazing gave much difficulty. It was at first sparingly done, but was revived by the Sophomores gradually learning the old customs. Even grave alumni at Commencement took a pride in narrating what was done in their day. The practice was popularized by the influx of boys from schools where hazing prevailed. There were two kinds, one for cause, where the manners of a Freshman were peculiarly obnoxious, and the other of all the Freshmen, well-behaved or not. The first was most severe and usually attended with some violence, the blacking being of the entire person. The other ranged from blacking the face down to compulsory singing and declamations.

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Occasionally the Freshmen were enticed into the forest at night on an alleged "snipe hunting" expedition and then abandoned in the darkness. Another form of hazing was "trotting," that is, compulsory running between two Sophs, each holding the arm of the Freshman. When the escorts became tired others would take their places. A student from the Indian Territory, one-fourth Indian, introduced a cowboy form of hazing which the good sense of the students caused them to abandon after one trial, as too dangerous. This was fastening by night a bull yearling by the horns to a tree with a rope thirty feet long, the Freshman being mounted upon him. Then the bullock was lashed into a run, tumbling over with his rider when he got to the end of his tether. A Freshman, now a learned Doctor of Divinity, received this treatment. His mentioning it in a letter to his father provoked a furious letter to me. "Better for the University to be buried in the earth than to be continued with such outrages." I sought an interview with the boy. He admitted the truth of the story, said that he was thrown high into the air and came down with such force as to "knock the breath out of his body." A tall Soph came up, put his hand into his bosom and said, "Freshman, are you dead?" The reply was, "Yes, I am killed." The Soph replied, "Freshman, you are lying; you will be all right in a minute." He was a plucky fellow. He said to me, "Father is making too much of this. Please let it drop."

        I thought at one time that I had "bagged game." While I was admiring the perfect quiet of the dormitories a student, usually orderly, afterwards a Representative in the Federal Congress, stepped out of his room and shouted, "Strick! have you got that bull ready?" I astonished him by stepping up at once, but found that he was joking. "Strick" was not even a student, only a visitor on his way to Philadelphia to attend Medical Lectures.

        One night soon after the beginning of the session I heard sounds which clearly showed that hazing was going on. I at once went to the scene of the operations and caught three of the guilty ones. They were duly dismissed from the University. Soon I was visited by them and their friends seeking

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grounds for their reinstatement. The practice of hazing, being mostly in secret, is most difficult to suppress. When I was a Tutor in the University, 1850-'54, the two literary societies very effectually controlled their members. In view of these facts I told the young men that, if the two societies would enter into an agreement to punish hazing by adequate fines or by expulsion, I would advocate the rescinding of the decree of dismissal. This was done with excellent effect. There was no hazing for four or five years, but in the course of time, when an entirely new body of members came in, the bargain was forgotten and the law became practically obsolete.

        I appealed to the power of the societies in another instance and with still greater success. Two students ordered by express a large quantity of lager beer for the purpose of giving an election treat. They forgot that the express book is sent to all receivers of packages and is practically a public document. The practice of treating to alcoholic beverages in order to get votes and afterwards to celebrate the triumph of those elected, was extremely pernicious in the old University. It led to loss of study, disorder, and drunkenness. When the dismissed students applied for restoration, with the consent of the Faculty I granted it on the condition that the societies would abolish treating. This was done and the law has been observed well. One of the young men involved is distinguished in political life and a warm friend of his Alma Mater.

        A peculiar hazing case occurred during this term. A Junior agreed in writing to vote for certain candidates. In other words he became a member of their "faction." He changed his mind, ceased to be a member of that party and joined another. This was regarded as "rank treason" and to be avenged. Some eight or ten went to his room when he and his roommate were asleep and gave him what was called "a good blacking." His roommate was of great spirit and physical strength and would have given the hazers trouble if he had not been overpowered before awaking.

        The Faculty learned their names, and as it was not an ordinary case of hazing, being a punishment of a Junior for fancied injury, and as nearly all were very good students, they gave

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them the option of pledging themselves not to engage in such work again or leaving the institution. They all signed the pledge, though some reluctantly. The roommate provided himself with a pistol, avowing his intention of shooting any one who would renew the assault. I sent for him and told him plainly the consequence of such action, i. e., he would put to death a fellow being for so trivial an offense as rubbing a little lampblack on another; second, he would inflict an awful pain on the father, mother, and other relatives of himself and his victim; third, that he would go through life a marked man, perhaps always afflicted with remorse for the act; fourth, that he would have to stand trial in court and must heavily fee a lawyer, even if not convicted; and fifth, that his education would be interrupted, that the sums thus far spent on it by parents, who, I knew, could hardly spare them, would be mostly wasted. Lastly, as he was a member of the church, I brought him face to face with the commandment, "Thou shalt not kill." He was much affected, even to tears, and readily placed his pistol in my custody until the end of the session. It was ludicrously small. It was not impossible for a bullet from it to kill, but it was improbable. Certainly it could not, as a rule, have prevented one from committing much violence after receiving its bullet.

        There have been two cases of shooting in consequence of hazing. In one a Freshman of rather singular temperament and manners was walking in the Campus after night. It was quite dark and a Sophomore conceived the idea that it would be fun to jump from behind a tree and frighten him. Startled by the sudden movement the Freshman fired. It was generally thought that he did not know that he was shooting a student. The joker was severely wounded, but recovered. The Freshman voluntarily left the University.

        In another case the Freshman gave notice that he would not submit to hazing--that he would shoot if necessary to prevent it. Hearing of the coming of a blacking party he not only locked but barricaded his door and prepared his pistol. When the crowd came he fired through a lower panel of the door, as he was unwilling to kill. The ball entered the leg of one, who declared that he was a mere bystander, who "had come to see

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the fun." The crowd then left, I think not because they were more cowardly than others, but, because if a fight should ensue they would be detected and mercilessly dismissed from the University. In this case the man who fired was applauded; the man wounded was ordered home. The Faculty did not believe his story, but even if true he was an accessory--an aider and abettor.

        It is commonly said that, just as a man can keep an intruder out of his dwelling house by force, even to the extent of taking his life, so a Freshman would be excusable for killing the Soph who breaks into his room in order to haze him. I doubt if this is good law. The Freshman knows that the intruder intends only boyish sport and it is awful doctrine, though we hear it often, even from the lips of thoughtful and high principled men, that the aggressor may be slain to prevent a mere prank which causes only temporary inconvenience. Death is too terrible a penalty for such an offense. It inflicts deepest suffering to the family of the slain. It is altogether probable that the whole course of life of the destroyer would be haunted by remorse for his fatal act, whereas in a very short while the memory of his hazing would pass away or even be a source of merriment. Some of the most dignified upper classmen have suffered the temporary annoyance and are none the worse for it. Possibly a jury might not convict the offender, but that does not prove that the law would excuse the slaying.

        Professor Gore and I were unmistakably circumvented on one occasion. He was Dean and was aiding in the discipline. The bell was rung furiously in the daytime while recitations were going on. We both repaired to the belfry, then in the attic of the South Building. The ringing ceased but the ringers could nowhere be seen. It was afterwards found that an opening had been made through the ceiling of the students' room beneath and the escape was by that route. There was no further annoyance. Probably the fright caused by being so near detection destroyed the fun of ringing. After the fastening of the cow to the bellrope, heretofore narrated, there has been very little, if any, ringing of the bell and none for the purpose of annoying the Faculty.

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        The Faculty do not turn out to pursue the offenders, and for this reason the fun of making the noise is destroyed. The chief enjoyment in old times came from the knowledge that the Faculty were teased. The sport of the consequent race in the dark and danger of being caught was great fun. Stories were told with glee among the students and the ladies they visited listened with interest and applause. One, being pursued to the top of the South Building, lay undetected in foolhardy peril on the very edge of the eaves. Another climbed like a squirrel down the lightning rod. Another beat a Professor in a fair foot race, leaped over the stone wall and escaped. Another Professor, running in the dark, fell headlong, unmindful of a projecting root, while the lucky fugitive laughed at his mishap. A student closely pursued rushed into his bed, full dressed, and successfully imitated the deep breathing of an innocent sleeper.

        Fights were not common, yet I was greatly startled at one conflict in my day. I had dismissed my class when I heard a shot underneath my window. I hurried down and saw a student on the ground and two others forcibly holding him. I found that they were taking away his weapon. The other antagonist was being held by the arms. It seems that he contended that he had been cheated by his antagonist in an election question and was determined to inflict punishment for the offense. In order to end the matter and also to prevent the parties being hauled to Orange Superior Court, I had them go before the Mayor of Chapel Hill and submit that they were guilty. The Mayor bound them over to keep the peace and inflicted a small fine on each and the case ended.

        The rule of law is that when deadly weapons are used the case comes under the jurisdiction of the Superior Court. But the officers of the town of Chapel Hill generally carry out the wishes of the President of the University in regard to offenses of the students, and in this case the witnesses believed that the weapon was not loaded with lead. Having only a powder load it could not be called a "deadly weapon."

        In this year a student came to the University under the influence of an intoxicant. He was refused permission to register. Twelve of his friends of their own motion proposed to the

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Faculty that they would sign a pledge not to drink any intoxicating liquor while at the University if their friend should be allowed to register. The offer was promptly declined, whereupon twenty-four repeated the offer. Their spokesman said, "Gentlemen, we offer the pledge, not of temperance men but of drinking men, that is of men who have no objection to taking a drink occasionally. In truth if you accept this offer we believe that there will be no drinking as long as the signers shall be in the institution. Of course, the applicant for registration will sign the pledge with the others."

        There was much division in the Faculty on this question. Seven of us, a majority, took the ground that the offer should be accepted. Three voted against it and three were silent. One of the opponents felt so strongly on the subject that he asked and obtained leave to enter a protest against the action of the majority. His points were, First, That the system of pledging had been carried to such excess as to injure the influence of the Faculty. This was denied by the majority. There had been little pledging, and the influence of the Faculty was not at all impaired. The offer came from the students, the Faculty not having suggested it.

        The pledges were faithfully kept. The guilty man, the only child of a widow, was kept from ardent spirits for several years, whereas if he had been turned away he might have been ruined, and two dozen others were by their own actions and from loyal friendship compelled to absolute sobriety. The students generally, who did not sign the pledge, were during the period of abstinence exceptionally free from dissipation.

        The second objection of the protest was, "That it is against the true interest of the University to have law keepers bound by the law breakers." This is begging the question and is denied by the majority. The law keepers were nearly all temperance men. The pledged men were almost the only non-temperance men. It was the true interest of the University to banish drinking from the Campus. It was the true interest to have the students happy, that they should realize that they had the sympathy of the Faculty. The rejection of one man would have been a small deterrent for his friends, irritated by the refusal

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of their offer. The result showed the wisdom of the majority as the order afterwards was exceptionally good. The predicted evil of loss of respect for Faculty discipline proved to be a false prophecy. On the contrary the students were grateful for the concession and more friendly in consequence. The Faculty were regarded not as hard-hearted executioners, but as merciful judges, desirous of reformation of offenders.

        The third objection was that the Faculty having decided once, the second action had the appearance of a dicker, a trade, haggling, etc. All this was denied by the majority. Without any suggestion by the Faculty the offer was made and the proposal accepted. If the Faculty had said "twelve are not enough, get more," there might be ground for the charge. But the Faculty kept a dignified silence until the second offer was made.

        One of the student advocates of the measure said, "Mr. President, we have not picked out total abstainers. We offer on the pledge the names of drinking men." After the acceptance one of the number came in great perturbation, saying, "I understand that the Faculty have been told that the signers are 'drinking men.' That is not true in my case. I am, and always have been, entirely temperate. I do not desire to be considered as admitting to the contrary. What can I do about it?" I pacified him by writing his disclaimer at the foot of the paper.

        The plan of taking voluntary pledges was repeatedly followed afterwards. In one case fifty students came to the rescue of their fallen comrade. Sometimes their disapprobation was so great that there was no effort made to retain the offender, but wherever the Faculty approved the voluntary action of a respectable following of the guilty, the effect on the discipline of the institution was wholesome. The procedure reminds us of the mutual responsibility of towns, boroughs, and guilds in Anglo-Saxon times.

        On the night of an election in Chapel Hill in 1884 there was danger of a collision between the races. While the vote was being counted, the process going into the night, a young negro from the country attempted to trip a student, now

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a judge. Doubtless it was intended for a joke, but a white boy could not but consider it an affront to be instantly resented. The aggressor promptly ran, other negroes took his part, students began to collect filled with ire. There seemed danger of a conflict. But, though there was blustering, little harm was done.

        Consequent on this row there was an amusing incident. There was a very black man named Eli, who waited on the occupants of the West Building. On the occasion above mentioned, being full of whiskey, he lost his senses and cheered on the colored combatants, instead of standing by the students on whom he waited. They afterwards, as a good lesson, gave him a whipping. Knowing nothing of this I called him up with the intention of discharging him. I said, "Eli, I am told that instead of pacifying things at the row on election day, you tried to make them worse by stirring up the negroes." With a perfectly cheerful voice and face, without the slightest intimation of shame or resentment, he replied as if it was a sufficient answer to my complaint, "Oh, sir, the students done settled with me for that." I felt compelled to allow this new sort of "receipt in full," and continued him in his position. But his addiction to strong drink continued to increase and it soon became necessary to discharge him. He afterwards committed forgery, served a term on the roads, returned and soon drank himself into the grave.

        Later a student considered himself wronged by a colored man and, finding him about the University building one night, gave him a flogging. A new student, quite raw, stood by and perhaps assisted. Whereupon some of his fellows frightened him with the story that the constable was after him with a warrant. He fled down the avenue and several pistol shots were fired near him. When the joke was carried far enough a squad of boys was sent to bring him in. They searched in vain. In three days he appeared at his father's home in Richmond County and never returned to the University. Having no money he was forced to beg his way home, traveling on foot.

        These incidents ended in a much deplored tragedy.

        Of course I endeavored to infuse a better spirit into the students

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and I warned them of the danger of such collisions. I told them that practically all young negroes carried pistols; they think it a proof of their freedom. I warned them that some night a negro feeling himself protected from detection by the darkness would fire and run away. Besides, a brawl with them was an unseemly thing, unworthy of men seeking higher education at a great University, in which they could gain no glory but might be disgraced.

        My prediction proved unfortunately too true. A student, the same who flogged the colored man as above narrated, considering himself insulted by a negro named Pat, procured two other students of great physical strength to join him in castigating the alleged offender. News of this was brought to me and I sought them out and ordered them to their rooms, which order was obeyed. Afterwards, about ten o'clock in the evening, a well known white man asked two students to aid him to his home as he was too drunk to walk. While on their way they passed a house where a number of negroes, Pat among them, had gathered to indulge in a carousal with blockade whiskey just brought from Chatham County. By that time the drunken man was sober enough to walk and requested his helpers to wait until he could get another drink. The negroes thought that he was an emissary of the students and threw stones at him. He retreated to his escort, and stones were thrown at the students, who thought this a disgrace which must be avenged. They repaired to the dormitories, roused those who had a feud with Pat and besieged the house where the frolic was going on. The negroes fired from the windows and killed one student, Freeze, by a bullet through the breast. Another received a bullet through the clothes. As soon as they saw the dead body on the ground the negroes fled, scattering as they went. Three were captured and sentenced to the penitentiary, the leader, Pat, for seven years, and the others for five years. Pat soon escaped and has not been heard from. The tragedy was all the more sad because Freeze was an only child.

        Since this sad occurrence there has been no further trouble with the negroes. A more quiet set of students can not be found and the colored population is well-behaved. It may be

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that just such a lesson was inevitable to teach the races to have mutual forbearance.

        President Battle, seeing the evident approval by the people of the State of the annuity of $5,000 granted in 1881, determined to ask for a still further increase. After consultation with Faculty and Trustees, $15,000 additional was fixed on as the sum which would enable us to add important professorships and supply much needed apparatus. After deliberation and consultation a bill to add $15,000 to the annual income of the University was introduced in the General Assembly of 1885 by Hon. Lee S. Overman, a graduate of Trinity College, now United States Senator. Besides the $15,000 per annum, it was thought best to ask for the payment of a debt of $12,000 recently incurred. I was in the lobby when the bill was read and saw in the faces of the Members a decided disapprobation. As there was adjournment until next day there was opportunity for consultation with the known friends of the measure. At my request Col. Paul B. Means called an informal meeting of them at his chambers in the Yarborough House. Gov. A. M. Scales, an alumnus of the Class of 1847, a warm friend of his Alma Mater, presided. After taking his seat he inquired of each present as to what was best to be done to make the bill acceptable. Lieutenant-Governor Robinson, of Macon County, Col. Samuel McD. Tate, Representative from Burke, and others, frankly informed him that the payment of the $12,000 debt must be eliminated, as the general opinion was that it would be a bad precedent for the State to pay the recent debts of the University, or any other public institution. It would tend to make State officers careless. The Members present unanimously concurred with this view. Another objection to this paragraph swayed the minds of some. Nearly all of the $12,000 was designed to repay Mr. P. C. Cameron for his advances for finishing Memorial Hall and there was a general belief that he intended the amount as a gift. This was erroneous, but was strengthened by the rumor that he had sold the University lands bought at its bankrupt sale in order to save a debt at a large profit, much in excess of the debt. These facts and surmises,

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although totally irrelevant, were strong enough to carry votes, especially of Members who were doubtful whether their constituents favored State aid to the University.

        As Mr. Overman was compelled to be absent for a few days, Mr. Augustus Leazar, of Iredell County, an experienced and enlightened legislator, a graduate of Davidson College, by special request took charge of the bill. He performed the duty with exceptional ability. He was seconded by Col. Thomas M. Holt, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor and Governor, an alumnus of the University. He prefaced his remarks by the statement that he advocated the measure as a Trustee of Davidson College, as he felt sure that the impetus to higher education by the rise of the University would increase the numbers in the colleges. But the constitutional demands should be obeyed at all hazards.

        Mr. John D. Stanford, of Duplin, a Davidson College man and soon to be a Presbyterian minister, followed with similar arguments. Mr. James H. Pou, of Johnston, spoke in opposition, believing that he voiced the wishes of the people of his county. Mr. E. B. Jones, of Alexander, agreed with Mr. Pou, as did Mr. N. Y. Gulley, of Franklin. Mr. Richmond Pearson, of Buncombe, made a most eloquent speech for the bill, as did Mr. Thomas Dixon, of Cleveland, now a popular author. Col. John M. Galloway, of Rockingham, an alumnus of 1854, who had acquired the nickname of "Watch dog of the Treasury," ably supported the appropriation as just and proper for the good of the State by promoting education among all classes. Mr. J. A. Barringer, of Guilford, took the same ground, in behalf of his father's University. Mr. R. T. Waring, of Mecklenburg, likewise spoke strongly in favor of the measure, as did Messrs. C. B. Green, of Durham; T. B. Womack, of Chatham; E. F. Lovell, of Watauga, and J. Y. Phillips, of Stokes, while Mr. Felton, of Tyrrell, opposed it. One of the most convincing arguments in the affirmative was by Rev. N. H. Harrison, of Washington County, a Primitive Baptist preacher, who closed with an eloquent assertion of his love for his native State: "I want to see North Carolina on a high plane, and I want to do whatever I can to aid and benefit her whole people.

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Her welfare is my welfare and her people are my people, their interests are my interests. Where they live I want to live; where they die I want to die; where they are buried I want to be buried; and where they are resurrected I want to be resurrected. I vote aye."

        The amendment of Mr. Jones, reducing the appropriation to $12,500, was lost by a vote of 44 to 53. The bill then was passed by an unexpected majority, 58 to 32.

        In the Senate the friends of the appropriation were relatively more numerous than in the House. Mr. H. A. Gudger, of Buncombe, stated that the States of Virginia, Tennessee, and South Carolina gave larger sums than were asked here. Enlarging the University will help the colleges. It must be the head of the public school system. Mr. H. G. Connor, of Wilson, contended that there was a constitutional duty to pass the bill. Facilities should be given to every boy in North Carolina to make a man of himself. Mr. Sydenham B. Alexander, of Mecklenburg, said that it was impossible for the Professors with their present income to do all they should in order to make the University a first class institution. On business principles the Faculty should be increased. Mr. W. M. Bond, of Edenton, argued that we should carry out the progressive ideas of our forefathers as written in the first Constitution. The University should tower above the other institutions. Mr. R. S. Taylor, of Tarboro, a colored Senator, avowed his intention to vote for the good of the State without regard to color or party. He was mindful too of the favorable action of the Senate in granting a charter to Zion-Wesley College. Dr. Cyrus Thompson, of Onslow, offered an amendment, which failed to pass, to strike out the provision of one free student for each county--was willing to increase the appropriation if this should be done. Mr. Paul B. Means, of Cabarrus, stated that the commissioners in his county had acted fairly. If there was any fault in other counties it lay with their officers. The institution was built on the Constitution of 1776. Mr. J. C. Buxton, of Forsyth, said that he had been forced to go for an education to New England when the University was closed. The counties ought to have the right to send one student in compensation

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for the tax. Build up the University. Mr. A. W. Graham, of Hillsboro, asserted that every word spoken in behalf of the University was true. The charges against the county commissioners for wrongly appointing rich boys as indigent students are untrue. They amount to charges of perjury against the appointees. Mr. Willis R. Williams, of Pitt, was opposed to the county student system, and would vote for the Thompson amendment, but favored the bill even if it was not adopted. He thought the partial free system was a hindrance. Mr. H. A. Gudger remarked that, as chairman of the Committee on Education, he had investigated the charges of perjury as to appointments of county beneficiaries and that the editor of the Biblical Recorder was absolutely and totally wrong in making such charges. Mr. R. F. Hackett, of Wilkes, expressed his disapproval of the efforts to take away free tuition from poor boys. Mr. W. C. Troy, of Cumberland, thought that, so far from abolishing the free student feature, the number should be doubled or trebled.

        The act is entitled "An Act for the Maintenance of the University of North Carolina," recites the constitutional power to maintain the institution, and the duty to establish as soon as practicable a Department of Agriculture, of Mechanics, of Mining and of Normal instruction, and states that the income is insufficient to carry out these purposes and supply the educational needs of the State. It was impossible to have an efficient system of public schools without competent teachers, and it is of supreme importance to the well being of the State that young men of all pursuits shall be able to receive the advantages of higher education within its own limits at moderate expense.

        Fifteen thousand dollars, payable quarterly, was appropriated and the two thousand dollars for the University Normal School was placed at the disposal of the Board of Education for aid to other Normal Schools. So that the increase to the University was only $13,000.

        The obligation on county students to teach was repealed. If there should be more than one applicant for the county appointment the County Superintendent of Schools must hold an examination and the Board of Commissioners shall appoint

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him who has stood the best examination, if otherwise qualified. The appropriation in 1881, $5,000, added to that under this act, made $20,000, while the interest on the Land Grant, $7,500, made $27,500. It will be seen that the latter item was taken away two years afterwards.

        The proposal to add $15,000 per annum to the support of the University met with violent opposition on the part of certain friends of the denominational colleges outside the Legislature. As there was no proposal to enlarge the number of county students, the opposition was in reality to any State aid being given to the University. It may be useful to give some of the grounds of the attack.

        It was said that all the money that could be obtained should go to the support of the primary schools,--that the State should teach her children the "three R's," i. e., reading, writing, and arithmetic, and if they wished to go higher, they must do so at their own expense. Answer: In all civilized countries the people have decided against this low view of education. Trained men and women are needed as teachers for the schools, as leaders in the legislative halls, and in all professions and pursuits. And the children of the State should not be driven from our borders, to the certain weakening of State pride, nor forced into colleges where the influence may be against their religious opinions and prejudices.

        It must not be understood that all the denominational colleges took ground against public aid to the University. Guilford College, Catawba College, Elon College, Mount Pleasant College, and others, were conspicuous exceptions. The great schools like Bingham's, Horner's, Oak Ridge, stood by the University, and very many friends of the colleges, whose leaders were adversary, refused to join in the opposition.

        Another argument against the appropriation was that the University was an "Episcopalian concern" on account of the President, with two of the Professors, being members of the Protestant Episcopal Church and many of the Trustees having like affiliations. When it was shown that the Trustees were elected by the General Assembly, one-fourth every two years, and that some of the best men of the leading denominations

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were active members and participated in the choice of professors, this charge made no serious impression. The members of the church criticized were only a small minority in the Faculty and never attempted to influence the students except generally in favor of Christianity.

        Then, again, it was charged that with so large an increase of annuity the Faculty would turn the University into a "great free school," and draw away patronage from other institutions. The answer to this was that the additional funds were to be used for the establishment of new professorships and additional apparatus for instruction. The tuition money would be quite as much needed as theretofore. The question of a free University was not before the General Assembly, nor before the Trustees.

        Again, the University was sneered at because her standards of admission and grades of scholarship were said to be lower than those of Johns Hopkins University and the University of Virginia. Raise your standard, they said, to the level of these institutions and you will not compete for students with the colleges.

        To show how unintelligent was this criticism of our University it must be observed, first, that Johns Hopkins is a heavily endowed institution, whose main object is instruction of graduates from other institutions, yet even with this advantage it was found necessary to adopt an undergraduate curriculum. A sufficient number of postgraduates could not otherwise be obtained.

        In the second place, although the University of Virginia was held up as a model for imitation by North Carolina, and fears of impending ruin to the colleges were expressed, because our University might become a "big free school," at that very time students were admitted into the Virginia institution on more easy terms than into ours, and there was with them free tuition, but not with us. In other words, what was fought against vehemently had already been adopted in our sister State, and in other Southern States. What was pronounced to be a deadly poison in North Carolina, was claimed to be "good medicine" in Virginia.

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        The most elaborate attempt to prevent the General Assembly from voting an appropriation to the University was by a pamphlet by President Taylor, which endeavored to prove that the State should not give money to promote higher education. The people of the State had, however, concluded that it was certainly interested in equipping teachers with their mental furniture, that it is the duty of the State to provide for her young children--especially her poorer children--the means of making the most of their talents in pursuit of the various avocations of life, and that all should not be driven for their higher training to the denominational colleges. Moreover, it was noted that for years when the University was closed these colleges were only able to attract a few of those able to attend. It was seen to be certain that when, largely by the influence of the State University, the spirit of education should be aroused, all educational institutions would flourish. This has been the case in a marked degree and is the cause of the cessation of the feeling of jealousy and suspicion which once existed.

        I was harshly criticised for being what was called a "lobby member" when bills affecting the University were being considered. I admit the charge. I thought and feel perfectly certain that if I had not been the bills would not have passed. My electioneering was nearly altogether with the friends of the measures. They needed to be informed. The members have so many things to engage their attention that they can not keep posted on all questions. An incident will illustrate this: The University bill was called; an able Senator, an alumnus, stepped out to me in the lobby and said hastily, "What is this about?" I replied, "I furnished all the members with a printed statement, telling all about it. You will find it in your desk." "Oh! I have not had time to read it. Tell me about it." I did so and he made a good speech.

        At another time leading Trustees requested me to absent myself from the meeting of the Legislature because people said lobbying was undignified. When the University bill was read a Senator rose and said, "A professor told me that half that amount will suffice. I move to strike off one-half."

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The friends of the University knew nothing about the matter. The motion prevailed. The University lost $10,000. The motion to amend would have been easily defeated if the lobby member had been present to explain it.

        Other instances showing the importance of having the course of legislation under the watchful care of a representative of the University have been already mentioned, one when the bill to pay interest on the Land Scrip Fund was saved, the other when the defeat of the $15,000 measure was averted by a conference called by Senator Means.

        On one occasion the Superintendent of a State Asylum came to Raleigh, expressed his views to a friend of the appropriation he desired, and returned dignifiedly to his home. In a day or two he received a telegram with the doleful news that his bill had been ruinously amended and he was forced to return to Raleigh and enter on his usual lobby duties.

        These cases are given because there is much criticism of lobbying. The truth is, that if "lobby members" endeavor to carry their points by threats or bribery or treating or forming combinations, called logrolling, they are reprehensible. But if they lay information before Members, and aid the friends of measures, and win opponents, by fair arguments or removing misunderstandings, they really facilitate legislation.

        I recall an instance of lobbying which will illustrate my meaning. Miss Dorothy Dix, after traveling through the country and witnessing the horrible ways in which insane people were neglected and sometimes intentionally treated, was in 1848 interviewing members in favor of a bill to issue State bonds for building our first insane asylum, now called Hospital for the Insane. She was told that James C. Dobbin had more power in the Legislature than any other Member, but that he was secluding himself on account of the death of his wife, to whom he was extremely attached. Repairing to his hotel she eloquently and feelingly urged him to subordinate his private griefs to the relief of the unfortunate whom God had deprived of reason. He could not resist her appeal, championed her cause in a speech of rare strength, and the bill was passed. Ought such lobbyists to be greeted with censure or ridicule?

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        The opponents of the University were, as a rule, courteous to its President. There was one exception. An editor printed an article against him, accusing him of the offense of "using all the arts of a lobbyist." This last was an arrant falsehood. He never spent one cent's worth or treated to the value of a glass of lemonade or a cigar, as has been said.


        In the spring of 1885 there was a division among the students in regard to the Ball Managers. Two chiefs, Isaac H. Manning and Julius A. Little, and two sets of assistants, were chosen by their respective factions. Some Trustees belonging to churches opposed to the "modern dance," had urged the Board to prohibit it on the University grounds, not on their own account but to satisfy the scruples of large numbers in whose opinion it was injurious to morals. I took no part in the discussion, but was glad of the prohibition because I wished Smith Hall to be a real library, filled with alcoves. It was impossible to clear the floor and use it as a dance hall and have a decent library the rest of the year. It therefore seemed that although we had officers galore we could have no ball, as there was no room in Chapel Hill suitable for the purpose.

        To meet this difficulty one set of managers proposed to have their ball in Raleigh, a proceeding to which I was much opposed. I was then in Raleigh for some weeks, endeavoring to persuade the General Assembly to add $15,000 annually to our appropriation. I wrote to both sets of managers and pledged myself to provide a suitable hall, provided that they would unite and give up the Raleigh plan. They took me at my word. Isaac Hall Manning was made chief; John P. Crump, Julian A. Little, Pierre B. Cox, William R. Tucker, St. Clair Hester, John H. J. Leigh, Herbert W. Jackson, and Ellison L. Gilmer, were assistants.

        On my return to Chapel Hill I had only three months in which to carry out my promise and we worked with speed. My scheme was to procure from the Secretary of State a charter for a Gymnasium Association, the institution very

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much needing a room large enough for gymnastic exercises and for social meetings, including dancing.

        A corporation with non-liability provision was chartered, shares $10 each, the building to be erected on its own land, and to be leased to the University during such parts of the year as should be agreed on. The plan was eminently successful. The charter was obtained by Richard H. Lewis (of Raleigh), Augustus W. Graham, Peter M. Wilson, David G. Worth, Robert Bingham, John W. Fries, James Henley, Alfred D. Jones, Frank B. Dancy, Julian S. Carr. The alumni subscribed for the stock with commendable liberality, and, by borrowing a small sum, a room was secured large enough for gymnasium purposes. It had, too, a floor with planks of best heart pine, sawed across the grain, made especially for dancing, greatly superior to Smith Hall, which was so uneven as to cause frequent falls.

        The President of the Association was Dr. Richard H. Lewis, of Raleigh. Except during Commencement weeks the building was rented on easy terms to the University and the proceeds used for finishing the building and keeping it in repair. The opponents of dancing were chagrined when they saw the outcome of their opposition, but the Gymnasium Association is not a part of the University and its building is not on University land. The students who used it were those who were allowed to dance at home, countenanced by their parents. It can hardly be contended that this amusement should be prohibited by the Board of Trustees to all students everywhere.

        During President Winston's term of office, after the floor of Memorial Hall had been elevated, so that it could be used for gymnastic instruction, the Gymnasium was converted into a Commons Hall, where large numbers of students obtain their meals. Additions were made to the building by the liberality of Mrs. Baker, her son by her first husband, Harry Lake, being a student of the University. This did not hinder its being used for a ballroom, and for annual banquets.

        A full list of the subscribers to the old gymnasium (Commons Hall) will be found in the Appendix. The following were the largest: David G. Worth, Robert Bingham, Julian S.

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Carr, $100 each; Wm. L. Saunders, J. A. Henley, John W. Fries, Richard H. Lewis (of Raleigh), Eugene Morehead, Alfred D. Jones, Robert R. Bridgers, George M. Maverick, Wm. H. Maverick, $50 each; Frank B. Dancy, Bartholomew F. Moore, Junior, Frank P. Venable, Ralph H. Graves, George T. Winston, Robert B. Peebles, Walter L. Steele, John W. Graham, Donald MacRae, J. DeB. Hooper, Paul C. Cameron (for three grandsons), $30 each; Mrs. Z. B. Vance, $25; Herbert B. Battle, Thomas H. Battle, K. P. Battle, Jr., M. C. S. Noble, Frank Wood, Peter M. Wilson, Van B. Moore, John Manning, Joseph A. Holmes, Augustus W. Graham, Charles A. Cook, Joshua W. Gore, $20 each.

        Mr. Paul C. Cameron took to heart the passage of the ordinance banishing dancing from Smith Hall and interdicting it in any University building. He said that the false charge that it encouraged licentiousness was an insult to his children and grandchildren. He refused to aid in building the Gymnasium, saying that it was a "surrender to the circuit riders," meaning the preachers, who had memorialized the Trustees to prohibit the annual ball. When he came to Commencement he was taken to the Gymnasium, where he found a room one-third larger and one-third wider than the library in Smith Hall, the old dance hall. He walked over and inspected it critically. The floor was firm and smooth, whereas the old hall had a floor which imitated the billows of the ocean, on which very recently a beautiful girl had slipped and lamed herself for many months and where hurtless falls were frequent. He came up to President Battle and pulling out a roll of money said, "By blood! I believe I am glad the circuit riders ran us out of the Campus. I said I would not subscribe and I won't. But here is ten dollars for Paul Graham, ten dollars for George Graham, and ten dollars for George Collins" (his grandsons). "Here, Isaac!" calling up the Chief Ball Manager: "You haven't light enough. Here is fifteen dollars. Send to Raleigh and get some more lamps."

        Mr. Cameron was occasionally a talker in his sleep. Once when he was wrapped in slumber, pending the dance controversy, he was overheard to ejaculate with emphasis in the peculiar

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tone characteristic of somnambulists, "D--d if they shall drive me out of the Campus." It is pleasant to note that he continued to be reconciled to the new arrangement. It would have left a painful memory if he had died under the abiding sense of being wronged.

        As this was the first ball held off University grounds I give the description of it by the reporter: "The new, large and commodious Gymnasium Hall was a scene of gaiety and beauty. A bewildering mass of red, pink, blue, and white seemed floating around the ballroom, as the couples circled in and out under the delightful influence of Fasnicht's band. On, on went the dance till morning dawned, and then the merry throng began to break up to retire to sweet slumbers or to make ready to begin their journeys homeward."


        I was sitting by Governor Jarvis on the rostrum in Gerrard Hall at the Commencement of 1883. The Hall was filled to its utmost capacity, and turning our eyes to the doors and windows we could see at least one-third more of good citizens, many of whom had ridden long distances, unable to enter the Hall. I said, "Governor, if you will promise the people that next year we will have a building large enough to accommodate everybody, I will show you where the money will come from." With great applause he made the promise and at the next meeting of the Board of Trustees I pointed out a fund which could be used for this purpose. I also stated that I had known of many good men who had gone to their homes dissatisfied because they were turned off from Gerrard Hall. They had probably become angry with the institution. The Governor warmly seconded the proposal, and promised to procure the sale to the University of bricks made at the State Penitentiary on extremely favorable terms. The Board agreed to the enlargement of Gerrard Hall and appointed Mr. P. C. Cameron chairman of a committee to superintend the work. Mr. Samuel Sloan, of Philadelphia, was employed as the architect.

        About this time a movement was begun to erect a cenotaph to President Swain on the Campus, his body being in Oakwood

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Cemetery, Raleigh. A considerable sum was promised for this, on the belief that it would be similar to that of President Caldwell. Mr. Sloan proposed that a new auditorium should be erected, and that this should be the Swain monument. His suggestion was approved by all and he was directed to draw up the necessary plans. The subscriptions to the Swain monument were turned over to the new memorial.

        The cost of the building thus planned was estimated by the architect at $20,000, but he successively raised the estimate to $25,000, $30,000, and $40,000, and the final cost was about $45,000. It is evident that the architect, who died before its completion, either was ignorant of the art of estimating cost, or, which is more likely, that he designedly planned regardless of expense, trusting that the Trustees would be too proud to have an unfinished building on their hands. The Trustees relied implicitly on the chairman of the Building Committee, and on the character of the architect, which was high.

        The roof is supported by two great wooden arches one hundred and twenty-seven feet in diameter, lengthwise of the building. These were built on the ground and the raising them was a perilous task. The first attempt resulted in failure, most mortifying to the foreman because there was a large company of witnesses, including the Visiting Committee of the Trustees, and Bishop Green, of Mississippi, then on a visit to his Alma Mater. One of the arches was raised a few feet, the tackle gave way, and the ceremony was postponed.

        The next attempt was by an experienced house mover, Mr. O. R. Smith, to whom we paid $500, and was successful. As the long complicated ropes strained and pulleys creaked, and the network of heavy timbers slowly and steadily rose in the presence of interested onlookers, the scene was very exciting.

        But the question of money became pressing and it was necessary to raise more. I conceived the idea of turning the building into a general Memorial Hall, wherein should be tablets containing the facts of the lives of eminent alumni and officers of the University. I wrote with my own hand near two hundred letters in carrying out this plan. The descendants and friends of these were invited to pay an amount larger




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than the cost of preparing and inserting the tablets. The suggestion was favorably received and about $10,000 was raised, by the efforts of Professor Winston and myself, but when that was spent there was still an additional amount necessary.

        In this emergency Governor Jarvis, whose wise and patriotic utterances always had great weight, appealed to Mr. Cameron to come forward and grant a loan for the purpose. The latter generously lent the sum of $6,000 and when that was found to be too small, $2,000 additional. It was truly a generous act because nothing could be collected from the University by law and no security was required. He lived six years after this and made no demand for either principal or interest. A request, without his knowledge, to the General Assembly to repay him met with no favor. After his death in 1891 his heirs proposed to accept scholarships for the amount, $1,000 each. The Trustees agreed and the debt was thus liquidated. The interest and principal on the sum lent amounted to $10,000, so that there are ten "Cameron Scholarships," each of the group of heirs having one, and being entitled to appoint a student free of charge for tuition. Whenever the nomination of one unable to pay tuition is made it is a clear gain to the University.

        In locating the tablets, those to President Caldwell, Dr. Mitchell, and Dr. James Phillips, erected at the expense of the University, are to the right and left of President Swain's, which is above the rostrum in the centre of the space. This left one place vacant. After six years the Paul C. Cameron tablet completed the number of the niches above the rostrum.

        The tablets to the "Confederate Dead" are below that of President Swain. The names were procured by the intelligent perseverance of the Secretary-Treasurer, Colonel Saunders. They are two hundred and sixty in number and are a pathetic reminder of the ardor with which our students rushed to the front.

        The other tablets, to the number of ninety-eight, were inserted to the right and left of the rostrum, according to the dates of death of those commemorated. This rule was departed from, by accident, in two instances--that is, in the cases of

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ex-Governor Graham and Michael Hoke. These two eminent competitors for the governorship, who carried on, in 1844, one of the most hightoned canvasses ever known in the State, by two accidents have their tablets adjoining one another. Since these tablets were inserted, various others have been placed, mostly of those who have since died. Their location has been governed by convenience. Fronting the rostrum are the names of the donors of the lands on which the University is located and on the east side the names of its women benefactors. There is Cornelia Phillips Spencer, whose personal influence and eloquent pen were in prosperity and direst adversity exerted in behalf of the institution she loved. And then we have female benefactors all of the name of Mary, namely, Mary Ann Smith, Mary Elizabeth Mason, Mary Ruffin Smith, and Mary Bryan Speight. To these could be added the names of Mary Ker, the wife of Dr. David Ker, the first Professor, the first lady resident in Chapel Hill, and Mary, wife of Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight, the first lady who ever attended a Commencement.

        The officers and alumni in Memorial Hall illustrate every period of our State history, and many that of the United States. The Provisional Government of 1775-'76 is illustrated by Samuel Johnston, the Member at Large of the Provisional Council; by Archibald Maclaine of the Committee of Safety of Wilmington, and by Waightstill Avery, one of the authors of the Mecklenburg Declaration of May, 1775.

        The Constitution of 1776 and the War of the Revolution are called to mind by the three above named, of whom Avery was the first Attorney-General of the State, and with Maclaine was on the committee which reported the Constitution to the Convention. Besides these are Benjamin Hawkins, aid de camp to Washington; William Richardson Davie, William Lenior, Joseph Winston, Joseph Graham, Richard Dobbs Spaight, the elder, likewise a soldier but more famous as a Delegate to the Continental Congress, and James Kenan, a Revolutionary Colonel of Militia.

        The adoption of the Constitution of the United States is illustrated by Spaight and Davie, Members of the Convention;

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by Samuel Johnston and Benjamin Hawkins, the first Federal Senators from North Carolina; by William Lenoir, a Member of the State Conventions of 1788 and 1789, which passed upon it, and by Charles Johnson, President of the State Senate, 1790.

        The threatened French War is called to mind by Davie, appointed a General in the army proposed for waging it, and a Commissioner to France for averting it.

        The foundation of the University is illustrated by Davie, its "Father"; by Charles Johnson, who presided over the first meeting of the Board of Trustees; by William Lenoir, the first President of the Board; by Joseph Caldwell, the first President of the University; by Richard Dobbs Spaight, as Governor, present at the opening in 1795; David Stone, on the committee of location and of the first curricula; Samuel Johnston, the first named of the Charter Trustees; Archibald Maclaine, Joseph Graham, Benjamin Hawkins, James Kenan, and Bishop-elect Charles Pettigrew, all early Trustees, and by Treasurer John Haywood, who was on the committee to select the site of the University.

        The War of 1812 is commemorated by William Hawkins, Governor, and Duncan Cameron, one of his aids; by Joseph Graham appointed a General against the Creeks; by David Stone, United States Senator 1813-'14, and William Gaston, Representative in Congress 1813-'17.

        The acquisition of Florida is called to mind by William D. Mosely, Governor of the Territory.

        The inauguration of internal improvements is especially noted by Archibald D. Murphey and Rev. Dr. Joseph Caldwell, the first and most earnest advocates of canal and railroad building.

        The great Eastern and Western agitation, leading to the Convention of 1835, is brought to mind by the names of William Gaston, David L. Swain, John Owen, Bartlett Yancey, Duncan Cameron, Willie P. Mangum, Calvin Graves, James W. Bryan, James Mebane, William B. Shepard.

        The hot controversies of Jackson's time are peculiarly commemorated.

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by James K. Polk, Bedford Brown, Willie P. Mangum, John Owen, William B. Shepard and others.

        The important period of the acquisition of Texas and the Mexican War is revived by the tablets of James K. Polk, President; William A. Graham, Governor; Michael Hoke, George E. Badger, Willie P. Mangum, Bedford Brown, Daniel M. Barringer, John M. Morehead, Burton Craige, Romulus M. Saunders, and the three brothers, William B., Charles B., and James B. Shepard.

        The internal improvement era is called up by the names of John M. Morehead, Governor; Calvin Graves, Haywood W. Guion, William A. Graham, William Waightstill Avery, Romulus M. Saunders, Jonathan Worth, John D. Hawkins, Dr. Joseph W. Hawkins, and later by William Johnston, William J. Hawkins, and R. R. Bridgers.

        The Compromises of 1850 and the period preceding the Civil War are called to mind by Graham, Badger, Morehead, W. W. Avery, R. M. Saunders, Jacob Thompson, Lewis Thompson, Patrick H. Winston, Sr.

        Secession and the Civil War are largely represented on the walls by civilians as well as soldiers, prominent in council or field. Among the civilians are Thomas Ruffin, Senior, Graham, Worth, William W. Avery, Governor Henry T. Clark, Walter F. Leak, Burton Craige, Jacob Thompson, Patrick H. Winston, Senior, Rufus L. Patterson.

        Of the military are General Bryan Grimes, General James Johnston Pettigrew, General and Governor A. M. Scales, General George B. Anderson, Colonel W. W. Avery, Colonel Clark M. Avery, Colonel Isaac E. Avery, Colonel William L. Saunders, Major Joseph A. Engelhard, Major Joseph H. Saunders, Surgeon E. Burke Haywood, Colonel John L. Bridgers, Lieutenant William Preston Mangum, and the long list of the "Confederate Dead."

        The period of Reconstruction is commemorated by Governor Jonathan Worth, Governor Tod R. Caldwell, Lewis Thompson, Patrick H. Winston, Senior, Judge Matthias E. Manly, Samuel F. Phillips.

        The Judicial history can be almost read from the tablets.

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It begins with Samuel Johnston, a Judge before the organization of the Supreme Court under the Act of 1818.

        Of the Supreme Court there are tablets to four Chief Justices, Leonard Henderson, Thomas Ruffin, Frederick Nash, and Richmond M. Pearson, and to Associate Justices William Gaston, Archibald Murphey (temporary), William H. Battle, Matthias E. Manly, Thomas Ruffin, Jr. Of the Superior Court Judges are David Stone, Samuel Johnston, Archibald D. Murphey, John R. Donnell, Willie P. Mangum, Duncan Cameron, George E. Badger, David L. Swain, James Iredell, John M. Dick, R. M. Pearson, W. H. Battle, M. E. Manly, David F. Caldwell, James W. Osborne, Jesse G. Shepherd; James Grant, of Iowa.

        Of the Federal Judges are Judge John A. Cameron, of the District Court of Florida; Thomas C. Fuller (Mexican Land Claims).

        There is a long list of Governors represented, beginning with Samuel Johnston, first named of the Provincial Council in 1775, and Governor in 1787,'90. Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., 1792-'95; William Richardson Davie, 1798; David Stone, 1808-'10; William Hawkins, 1811-'14; John Owen, 1828-'30; David L. Swain, 1832-'35; Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., 1835; John M. Morehead, 1840-'44; William A. Graham, 1844-'48; Henry T. Clark, 1861-'63; Jonathan Worth, 1866-'68; Tod R. Caldwell, 1870-'74; Alfred M. Scales, Thomas M. Holt, James K. Polk (Tennessee), W. D. Mosely (Florida).

        The National Congress, before the adoption of the Constitution, has Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., Samuel Johnston, Benjamin Hawkins, and William R. Davie.

        Senators of the United States are Samuel Johnston, Benjamin Hawkins, David Stone, Willie P. Mangum, William R. King, William A. Graham, George E. Badger, M. E. Manly, (the latter was elected but not allowed to take his seat), and Z. B. Vance.

        Representatives in Congress are Joseph Winston, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr., Alexander Mebane, David Stone, William Gaston, James S. Smith, John H. Bryan, John Owen, Bartlett Yancey, R. D. Spaight, Jr., William B. Shepard,

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Charles B. Shepard, Ebenezer Pettigrew, James K. Polk, D. M. Barringer, R. M. Saunders, Richard S. Donnell, Jacob Thompson, Walter L. Steele, and Alfred M. Scales.

        Solicitor-General of United States, Samuel F. Phillips.

        Ministers to foreign nations are William R. Davie, D. M. Barringer, R. M. Saunders, William R. King, John H. Wheeler.

        Attorney-Generals of North Carolina are Waightstill Avery, Sr., R. M. Saunders, Bartholomew F. Moore, and William A. Jenkins.

        The financial history of the State is illustrated by Thomas Ruffin and Duncan Cameron, presidents of the leading banks; by Samuel Johnston, John Haywood, and Jonathan Worth, State Treasurers, and Eugene Morehead, a bank president in recent days.

        The teachers are largely represented. There are Presidents Joseph Caldwell and David L. Swain; Professors A. D. Murphey, William Bingham the elder, William J. Bingham, and William Bingham the third, William Hooper, Elisha Mitchell, James Phillips, J. DeBerniere Hooper, Ralph H. Graves the elder, Carey D. Grandy; William M. Green, Professor in the University of North Carolina, Bishop of Mississippi and Chancellor of the University of the South; James H. Horner, Charles Phillips, A. W. Mangum, and Ralph H. Graves, the younger.

        The medical profession is honored by Simmons J. Baker, John B. Baker, James H. Dickson, James S. Smith, Joseph W. Hawkins, Frederick D. Lente, E. Burke Haywood.

        Of the legal profession many have already been named, such as the Judges and Attorneys-General. I name others who devoted themselves mainly to the practice of law: B. F. Moore, Francis L. Dancy, James W. Bryan, Haywood W. Guion, Michael Hoke, Robert Strange the elder, Patrick H. Winston, of Bertie, Richard S. Donnell, William F. Dancy. To these should be added Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks, Reporter of our Supreme Court, for a few years a lawyer.

        Authors and scientists are slimly though ably represented by Lewis von Schweinitz, botanist; Francis L. Hawks, Joseph

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Caldwell, Elisha Mitchell, David L. Swain, William A. Graham, and Haywood W. Guion; Washington C. Kerr, State Geologist, Colonel William L. Saunders, John H. Wheeler, and Mrs. C. P. Spencer.

        The great schools are represented by William Bingham, William J. Bingham, his son, and Colonel William Bingham, his grandson; Alexander Wilson, Ralph H. Graves the elder, William Hooper, J. De Berniere Hooper, and Thomas B. Slade, the pioneer of higher female education in Georgia.

        The clergy has able representation, beginning with Charles Pettigrew, first elected Bishop of North Carolina, though not consecrated. Then came William Hooper, William M. Green, Elisha Mitchell, Alexander Wilson, James Phillips, James Morrison, Francis L. Hawks, Joseph H. Saunders the elder, William Barringer, Charles Phillips, A. W. Mangum.

        Mr. Paul C. Cameron, who was a personal friend of Governor Swain and was of singularly tenacious purpose, insisted on the original plan of calling the building Swain Hall, while I and others thought this unjust to those who had contributed so largely to its erection. Colonel W. L. Saunders proposed a compromise, which was accepted, that the name should be Memorial Hall, that the tablet to President Swain should have the highest place and on it should be inscribed the following:


        BORN 1801. DIED 1868.

        MEMBER HOUSE OF COMMONS: 1824-1829.

        STATE SOLICITOR: 1827.


        GOVERNOR: 1832-1835.


        PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY: 1835-1868.




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        It is an interesting fact that the inscription on Bishop Green's tablet was written by himself and found in his drawer after his death.

        The Hall was dedicated June 3rd, 1885. The proceedings began with a hymn (adapted) read by the Rev. A. W. Mangum, D.D.

                         Almighty God! Thou only great!
                         To Thee this great house we dedicate;
                         Here shall Thy wondrous works be shown,
                         And here Thy sovereign will made known.

                         Science and revelation here
                         In perfect harmony appear,--
                         Guiding young feet along the road,
                         Thro' grace and nature up to God.

                         Help us, O Lord, with faith to lay
                         This temple at Thy feet today;
                         O, let Thy work to us appear,
                         Thy glory be exalted here.

                         Praise God from whom all blessings flow,
                         Praise Him all creatures here below,
                         Praise Him above, ye heavenly host,
                         Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

        A devout prayer was then offered by the Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips. He closed with the petition, "May the memories of Thy servants who have spread virtue and science and liberty throughout this commonwealth, be always strong in the hearts of the people, to keep them from the path of the destroyer."

        Mr. Paul C. Cameron, chairman of the Building Committee, in behalf of himself and his associates of the committee (Messrs. K. P. Battle and John Manning), then delivered an excellent address. He told of having inherited affection for the University. He paid a loving and admiring tribute to the old President, Dr. Caldwell. He warmly praised Governor Scales for his efficient aid in securing an increased annual appropriation; Governor Jarvis, then Minister to Rio Janeiro, for his active friendship and particularly for his furnishing many thousand bricks from the penitentiary on easy terms, thereby enabling us to lay the corner stone on September 25,

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1883. Credit was given to President Battle and Professor Winston for their procuring funds by the insertion of tablets in the walls. The speaker then paid a tribute to the Revolutionary fathers of the University and to President Swain, who with Caldwell guided its fortunes for seventy years. He then grouped those commemorated on the tablets. They are: One President of the United States, twelve Governors of North Carolina and one of Florida, four Justices of the Supreme Court and four Associate Justices, eleven Justices of the Superior Courts and one of the United States District Court of Florida, four members of the Revolutionary Congress before the Constitution, six United States Senators after the Constitution, fifteen members of the United States House of Representatives, three Ministers to foreign courts, four Attorneys-General of the State, two Presidents and nine Professors of the University, six distinguished chiefs of classical schools, nine officers of the Confederate States Army. Mr. Cameron added, "In mind and merit, in manly fortitude and patriotic purpose, these field marshals of North Carolina were the equals of those of the great Napoleon." To the above we can add six leading lawyers, not politicians, six eminent physicians, and of successful enlightened business men, not politicians nor in official life, eleven.

        The speaker then commemorated the donors of the site of the University and others; William Richardson Davie, the Father of the University, an officer of the Revolution, Governor and Minister to France; General William Lenoir, wounded at King's Mountain and President of the Senate; William Alexander Graham, of whom he says, "from the cradle to the grave, his was a stainless name, * * * He was a model. * * * With him the proprieties of life associated with youth or old age, seemed to attain a perfection and maturity that made it pleasant to look on at all times, even in the repose of death."

        The speaker then eulogized B. F. Moore, the great lawyer, who had given the University $5,000 by will for scholarships, He expressed his regret at the absence of a tablet to Colonel William Polk, a Revolutionary hero, President of the Board

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of Trustees in the early days of the University, "the contemporary and personal friend of Andrew Jackson, not less heroic in war, and quite as sagacious, and more successful in private life than he."

        Samuel Sloan, the architect, was likewise mentioned in terms of praise, who died from exposure to our summer sun. He also praised John Dougherty, master builder, and Captain Richards, the chief brick mason.

        Mr. Cameron continued, "Thomas Jefferson reported to the Governor, James Pleasants, in November, 1804, that there were to be instituted eight professorships, or schools, for the University of Virginia, namely: (1) Ancient Languages, (2) Modern Languages, (3) Mathematics, (4) Natural Philosophy, (5) Natural History, (6) Anatomy and Medicine, (7) Moral Philosophy, (8) Law. Our University has as extended a curriculum as this. Let us seek to make it more of the useful than the ornamental, not by wide but deep and exact learning, promising us the richest fruitage, with good material in the hands of thorough masters. * * * And from this rostrum the young leaders of this Southern land, brave in their own self-reliance, with their wing upon the wind and their eye upon the sun, upward and onward and true to the line, will seek the best aims of human life and share the richest rewards of human ambition."

        The address met with universal commendation and was regarded in the light of the last words of a loving friend of the University. He lived, however, to occupy the rostrum again, and for five years longer to grace our annual festivals.

        The building was accepted by the President of the Board of Trustees, Governor Alfred Moore Scales, whose Christian name recalls a learned Judge of the Federal Supreme Court, one of the Committee of Location in 1792. He belonged to the Class of 1847, but did not remain to graduate. He began by lauding the patriotic conduct of Mr. Cameron in lending the money ($8,000) for the completion of Memorial Hall. He then gave a most feeling and intelligent history of the services of President Swain. Among other things he mentioned an amusing tradition that when young David L. Swain entered

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the University, in 1823, some old students gathered around him and clamored for a speech. After some hesitation he gave them a discourse on the text, "Why stand ye here all the day idle?" He pressed upon them the dangers and losses of idleness. The auditors one by one slunk away, whereupon he shouted, "Go! go! in the name of our common Creator, I bid you to work in His vineyard. He promises a penny a day each and to my certain knowledge not one of you is worth half the money."

        The Governor then spoke feelingly of the tablets to the "Confederate Dead," beginning with Bishop General Leonidas Polk, saying "upon his brow all the gods had set their seals, to give assurance to the world that he was a man." He then paid a tribute to his classmate, General James Johnston Pettigrew, stating that he, John Pool, and General Matthew W. Ransom, were the three most brilliant members of the class. I fully concur with the following estimate, "I have no hesitation in saying, that in intellectual endowment and power of acquiring knowledge Pettigrew surpassed any man that I ever met. He was equally distinguished in all his classes, in his society, and on the playground."

        Dr. Eugene Grissom, chairman of the committee to prepare resolutions showing the appreciation of the Board of the valuable services rendered by Governor Thomas J. Jarvis, presented the following in substance:

        The Board gratefully acknowledged the Governor's effort throughout his term to extend the usefulness of the University. In every message he made an earnest appeal for it. His wise counsels were never lacking at any meeting of the Board or Executive Committee, or at Commencement. For the existence of Memorial Hall and lastly for efficient aid in securing the first appropriation to the University his counsels and influence were potent.

        Colonel Paul B. Means seconded the resolutions. Speaking of Governor Jarvis, he said, "Such men are always great because they are foremost among their fellows in the march of time; because they have the intellect and soul to grasp and be inspired with the genius of society and their day; because they fully comprehend their age and do not betray it; because under

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the inspiration from their God and their people, they make the revolutions of progress march onward and orderly beneath the eagles. The public life of Governor Jarvis in every station in which he stood under the great eye of the public declares him such. His gubernatorial administration in the very much that he has said and done for the great causes of education, agriculture, internal improvements and the vital interests of North Carolina, proclaim him great."

        Mr. Fabius H. Busbee then presented the formal thanks of the Board of Trustees to Mr. Cameron for his timely loan without which the Hall could not have been finished. Then was sung Mrs. Spencer's "University Ode":

                         Dear University!
                         Thy sons right loyally
                         Thy praises sing.

        The Benediction was by the Rev. Lennox B. Turnbull, of the Presbyterian Church of Durham. The presiding officer was Colonel Thomas S. Kenan, President of the Alumni Association. The music was furnished by two student organizations, the Glee Club and the Mandolin Club.

        It should be added that under the architect, Samuel Sloan, were his assistant, A. G. Bauer, the superintendent of masonry, John Richards, and the master builder, J. B. Dougherty (pronounced Dokarty). Mr. Dougherty showed a business view of things when he pointed to a vacant niche and said, "Mr. Cameron, we are saving that for your tablet." In five years the statement was verified. Mr. Dougherty warned the bystanders that it was unsafe for any one to climb the flagpole. Not knowing this Mr. William M. Walton, afterwards a Lieutenant in the United States Army, accepting an offer of five dollars, climbed the pole without cleats and adjusted the flagropes. It was pitiful that this plucky young man should lose his life from the terrible disease, tuberculosis. Two of the assistants, Bauer and Richards, in a few years died the death of suicides.

        After some years' trial the general verdict is that the acoustics of the Hall are not good. Part of the criticism

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comes from its size, but undeniably on certain benches the reverberation of the speaker's voice is painfully apparent. President Winston attempted with indifferent success to correct the evil by hanging muslin along the ceiling. He also by the advice of Rev. Mr. Wing, who gave $500 for the purpose, elevated the floor so as to be horizontal instead of declining towards the rostrum. The floor was then used for athletic purposes until the erection of the Bynum Gymnasium. This did not escape criticism as a desecration of a memorial hall, but the defense was that the University was in no condition to have a structure so costly used only one day in the year.

        One time in the year the seats in the Hall are substantially filled, 2,400 in number, and nearly one hundred more on the rostrum, the people from all the country around and from distant cities and towns attending the ceremonies of Commencement Day.

        In order to heal an apparently irreconcilable difference in regard to the election of Marshals the Trustees took action. They gave the election to the Junior class out of their own members. The certificate of the President was made conclusive evidence of the fact of membership in the class. This plan has worked well for nearly twenty years. At present there is harmony about the selection of Representatives as they are chosen by committees of the alumni after hearing the candidates deliver competitive orations. At one time they were elected by the societies with the inevitable result that the spirit of party sometimes caused men to be chosen who were not the best exponent of their culture.

        The program of the Commencement this year was slightly different in order from its predecessors, the sermon of Bishop A. W. Wilson being placed on Commencement Day.

        The dedication of Memorial Hall took place on Wednesday morning. In the afternoon the Hon. James W. Reid delivered the address before the two literary societies. He was introduced most felicitously by Mr. W. D. Pollock. His subject was "The True Glory of Young Men." He earnestly urged the cultivation

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of the intellect, moral courage, patriotism, belief in Divine revelation. Education and religion must go hand in hand to attain true success.

        At night the representatives chosen by the two societies competed for the prize. The first speaker was Malcolm McGilvary Shields on "The Rubicon is Crossed"--the dark days for the South have passed.

        Gilbert Brown Patterson's subject was "The Architect," the benefit conferred on mankind through the ages by architecture.

        Edward Fountain Strickland spoke on "The Windows that Exclude the Light," detailing some of the evils threatening the Government.

        Then James Thomas described eloquently the character of the Pilgrim Fathers.

        Walter Seaton Dunston argued vehemently in the affirmative of his subject, "Let Our Industries Be Encouraged."

        Pierre Beauregard Manning vindicated the motives of the Invisible Empire (Ku Klux).

        The judges favored Mr. Thomas.

        Commencement Day, on June 4, witnessed the coming of at least two thousand people into Memorial Hall. The sermon to the graduating class by Right Reverend A. W. Wilson, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was preached in the morning. His text was "Whether we be beside ourselves it is to God, whether we be sober it is to God." Without God's aid all our intellectual labor is worthless. The sermon was most able and searching.

        After a short intermission the ten members of the graduates entitled to speak, viz., three on account of scholarship and seven elected by competitive speaking, delivered orations.

        The first speaker was Alexander Jones Feild. His subject was "The Duty of Educated Men in a Republic." Our Government should be rescued from the aristocracy into which, to a great degree, it has fallen.

        Berrie Chandler McIver followed on the subject "Storm

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Clouds in the Highlands," giving high praise to the courage and patriotism of the wearers of the tartan.

        A. D. Ward, next on the program, was unable to speak on account of temporary sickness.

        James Alexander Bryan, soon to be a minister of the Gospel, spoke on "The Victories of Christianity." A bold, but we hope not a wild, prophecy was heralded. "Ere long Christianity will have entirely substituted arbitration for force of arms."

        Adolphus Hill Eller followed with a very practical discussion of "Higher Education in North Carolina." The State and denominational institutions must work in harmony. There is room for all.

        Ernest Preston Mangum discoursed on a grand subject, "The Trophies of a Noble Life." He contrasted the self-seeking of the wonderful genius Napoleon with the far more exceeding greatness of Washington, Lee, and Stonewall Jackson, who fought for their country and not for their own glory.

        Then came Marion Butler on "The Heroes and Conquests of Invention." The captains of industry should be recognized as greater factors in their country's greatness than has been usual.

        St. Leon Scull spoke on "The Cultivation of a National History." It is necessary in order to arouse patriotic feelings. North Carolina has been remiss in this regard.

        Jesse Felix West came next with a discourse on "The Dismemberment of Virginia." Virginia has suffered more than any other State. Justice should be done. The public debt should be fairly apportioned.

        The Valedictorian, Solomon Cohen Weill, came last. It had gone out of fashion to have a real farewell to his Faculty, classmates and other fellow students. He handled ably "National Decay and Individual Character." The ideal of the Greek was beauty; of the Roman, the soldier; of the American, the individual. We recognize no aristocracy but that of merit. To this is our strength and greatness due.

        The judges and audience favored the last speech as the best.

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        Medals and prizes were awarded as follows:

  • The CLASSICAL ORATION to B. C. McIver.
  • The WORTH PRIZE to A. D. Ward (the Philosophical oration).
  • The CHEMISTRY MEDAL to Max Jackson.
  • The LATIN PRIZE to L. P. McGehee.
  • The REPRESENTATIVE MEDAL to James Thomas.

        The Academic degrees were:

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 11
Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 9
Bachelors of Science (B.S.) 3
Bachelors of Law 2
(See Appendix.)  

        Mr. Emile Alexander de Schweinitz attained the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

        Of the graduates Butler has been United States Senator; Eller, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Democratic party. Mangum, Superintendent of Graded Schools of Wilson; Mann, Superintendent of the State's Prison; McIver, Superintendent of Schools; Monroe, very successful in the insurance business; Riddick, Professor of Civil Engineering in North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts; Weill, who died early, in the Legislature of New York; Goodman, a prominent lawyer; Hill, Superintendent of Schools; Howard, a prosperous merchant; Jackson, a prominent physician; Neal, a contractor and civil engineer; Newman, a Professor and clergyman; Ward, State Senator and able lawyer; West, a prominent lawyer and Judge; Bryan, a highly esteemed Presbyterian preacher; Scull, a prominent lawyer, and De Schweinitz, a skillful chemist under the United States and Professor in a University at Washington.

        In the afternoon Col. W. L. Steele read the report of the Visiting Committee of the Trustees. It praised the Faculty for successful management and rejoiced that the recent generous

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appropriation of the General Assembly will enable us to keep pace with the educational progress of the day.

        The General Assembly having increased the annuity to the University by $15,000, there were considerable Faculty additions and readjustments in 1885-'86. Prof. A. W. Mangum became the head of the department of Moral and Mental Science. Professor Hooper's health gave way in the fall of 1885, causing his resignation. Sol. C. Weill was Acting Professor of the Greek Language and Literature during the second term. Dr. Eben Alexander was elected to fill the vacancy. Professor Winston was relieved of German and was confined to Latin Language and Literature.

        The Trustees concluded that the best plan for apprising the public of our educational needs was to advertise the creation of the new chairs and request applicants to send in their credentials. This was done and several hundred applicants expressed their willingness to serve the University. Mr. P. B. Manning was employed to classify them for the use of the Trustees, making an abstract of the qualifications and testimonials.

        The Trustees met by adjournment in June, 1885, in the Governor's office. The number of candidates was so great that a committee was appointed, Col. W. L. Steele, chairman; Col. James S. Amis, Maj. A. M. Lewis, Chief Justice W. T. Faircloth, and President Battle, to classify the applicants with their recommendations. Of course they were necessarily obliged to form opinions as to the superiority of some over others. Hence it was charged very unjustly by friends of those who failed, that there was favoritism. The holding the session in the Senate Chamber, though perhaps necessary, had the evil effect of losing the atmosphere of secrecy and confidential deliberation, which usually prevailed in the meetings of the Board. The election was perfectly fair and the best men, in the opinion of the Board, were chosen by a decided majority.

        The new Professors were Rev. Thomas Hume, D.D., LL.D., English Language and Literature. Dr. Hume is a native of Virginia; took A.M. at the University of Virginia; was for ten years President of Norfolk Female College, and for fifteen

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years devoted himself to the successful study and teaching of the English Language. He had the strong endorsement of Dr. John A. Broadus, Prof. Noah K. Davis, Prof. Crawford Toy, of Harvard; Dr. Thomas H. Pritchard, Congressman Goode, Dr. J. L. M. Curry, and others.

        Prof. Nelson B. Henry was elected to the Chair of the Science and Art of Teaching. He graduated at a Normal College in Indiana. He had been for four years Professor of Methods of Teaching and School Management and also of English Language and Literature. He had passed through all the grades of teacher from principal of a public country school and city graded school to his present position. He had conducted Normal School institutes with ability, and was then president of the State Teachers' Association. He was associate editor of the Missouri School Journal. Private letters to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Methodist Bishop in Missouri and eight other leaders of all denominations in Missouri elicited answers strongly endorsing him. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, a native and citizen of Missouri, about forty years of age.

        Prof. Walter Dallam Toy, a native of Norfolk, Virginia, chosen to the Chair of Modern Languages, is a brother of the learned Dr. Crawford H. Toy, Professor of Oriental Languages in Harvard University. He graduated with A.M. at the University of Virginia, with highest reputation for scholarship. He is especially eminent for his knowledge of classical and especially modern languages. He spent some time in study in Germany and France, his idiom being so excellent that in Germany he was taken for a German and in France for a Frenchman. He had taught several years with marked success. He was about twenty-nine years of age.

        Dr. William B. Phillips was elected to the Chair of Agricultural Chemistry and Mining, eldest son of Dr. Charles Phillips, long Professor of Mathematics in the University of North Carolina, from which Dr. William Phillips graduated with high honor in 1877. He obtained his postgraduate degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1883. He served for several years as first assistant in the State Chemical Laboratory under Drs. Ledoux


        W. D. TOY


        R. H. WHITEHEAD


        H. H. WILLIAMS

        K. P. HARRINGTON

        W. T. PATTERSON

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and Dabney, and acted for one year as State Geologist. For three years past he had been chemist-in-chief to the Navassa Guano Company.

        Mr. James Lee Love, of Gastonia, received the Assistant Professorship of Pure Mathematics. He was one of the most able mathematicians graduated at the University since its reopening--indeed his college reputation is excelled only by Pettigrew. He was the president of the Senior Class, which showed his influence among students. After graduating at the University in 1884, he took a year's course at Johns Hopkins University. He was highly recommended among others by his Professor, one of the ablest mathematicians of the country, Ralph H. Graves, the head of the department in which he was to teach.

        George F. Atkinson was elected Assistant Professor of Natural History. He was a native of Michigan and was then pursuing special studies in Botany and Zoölogy at Cornell University, of which he was a graduate. He had taught for two years in a college in Alabama. He was strongly endorsed by Dr. Andrew D. White, President of Cornell University, Prof. Burt G. Wilder, and other eminent scientific men. They testified to his remarkable success in his specialties.

        As there was sensitiveness in some quarters in regard to religious affiliations of members of the Faculty I state that Messrs. Hume and Toy were Baptists, Mr. Henry a Methodist, Phillips and Love Presbyterians, and Atkinson a Congregationalist. But those facts were not known nor considered by the Trustees.

        As the University did not have the necessary appliances for instruction in the department of Agricultural Chemistry and Mining, and needed reinforcements in other directions, it was resolved to postpone the entrance of Dr. Phillips on his duties for a year. Likewise the election of a Professor of Natural History was postponed as there was then no eligible candidate.

        When the result of the election became known there began to flow a torrent of ill natured criticism, of a very trivial nature, mostly from those who had opposed the State appropriation. One editor complained that while four Christian

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bodies were represented in the Faculty, and his smaller denomination not at all, it had offered a good man as a candidate and he was not chosen. This preference of another must have proceeded from favoritism, the successful candidate being a son-in-law of a lady long identified with the University. President Battle was sharply criticised. The answer to this was, first, that it was impossible, as well as improper, to choose a professor to gratify a religious body, that if this rule should be adopted it would probably be at the sacrifice of efficiency; that there were many denominations whose claims were as strong as that now asking for recognition, and finally, that Mr. Love, in the opinion of the Board of Trustees as well as the Faculty, was the best man for the place. In stating facts showing this superiority President Battle did only what all college presidents habitually do and ought to do.

        Again, an ill natured attack was made on Dr. Phillips. It was charged that he was too young and not qualified for his chair, and that to remedy such disqualification, after his election, he would repair to Germany in order to supplement his ignorance.

        This was all untrue. Dr. Phillips was a graduate of eighteen years standing, older by several years than Professors Winston, Venable, Gore, Holmes, Dr. James Phillips, Dr. Elisha Mitchell, were when elected. The University of Texas, on the recommendation of the classical professors of Harvard University chose a Professor of Greek six years younger than he. Men of established reputation could not be secured for our small salaries. There is not a University in the Union which has not had professors younger than he.

        As for his qualifications his training made him peculiarly an expert in his department. He had not only taken his degree in the Scientific course, but by studying two years in Chemistry, Mining, and Geology had won the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. He then, as above said, spent several years as first assistant under Dr. Ledoux in the State Chemical Laboratory. He had for years been the chemist in charge of the Navassa works, engaged in the manufacture of fertilizers. Moreover, Dr. Phillips is a very able man, a capable teacher and lecturer,

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very ambitious to be first in his line. When he found that his services would not be needed for twelve months, it was no confession of weakness but much to his credit to be willing at his own cost and charges to spend the time under the great masters in the laboratories of Germany.

        Such attacks as these show that the authors were blinded by prejudice, as all acquainted with the practice of electing professors in universities and colleges know well. In this case the attack was especially absurd because the officers criticised were beyond all question well qualified, and a strong committee of Trustees, of which Col. Walter L. Steele was chairman, had, at the request of the Board, examined the credentials of all the candidates and unanimously recommended the selections, which met the approval of the Board.


        The Faculty, through a committee (Messrs. Battle, Manning, Winston, Graves, and W. B. Phillips), issued a circular to the alumni and friends of the University, concerning the changes consequent on the enlarged appropriation, which is here condensed:

        First, Enlargement of the Faculty from nine to fifteen.

        Second, Full undergraduate instruction in all branches of Literature, Philosophy, and Science. Continuous instruction for four years in Latin, Greek, English, Modern Languages, and Mathematics. Enlarged facilities in laboratory and field, extending over longer periods. Increased instruction in Moral Philosophy.

        Third, Special opportunities in the branches relating to Agricultural and the Mechanic Arts, in Engineering and Normal Instruction.

        Fourth, Postgraduate courses leading to degrees of Master of Arts (A.M.), Master of Philosophy (Ph.M.), and the still further advanced degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). These courses open to graduates of any institution without tuition charges. The degree of Master of Arts was no longer granted, of course, to any graduate embracing a professional career for three years, as was the rule prior to 1875.

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        Fifth, Additions to the Physical, Chemical, Mineralogical, Zoölogical, and Botanical Museums and Laboratories.

        Sixth, Memorial Hall, a grand auditorium, a testimonial to our Confederate dead and the great and good men of the University; a new gymnasium, 110 by 45 feet, has been fitted up; a new Chemical Laboratory, 70 by 30 feet, is being constructed; a Reading Room, supplied with leading periodicals, has been made free to all; the libraries of the University and of the two societies, over 20,000 volumes, have been conveniently placed in alcoves in Smith Hall and are accessible every day.

        Seventh, In addition to the Deems Fund a large tract of land, about fifteen hundred acres, the Francis Jones Smith Fund, has been devised to the University, the income to aid the deserving poor.

        Eighth, There is here a strong spirit of economy. Board from $8 to $12.50 per month. Total expenses, excluding clothing, traveling, furniture of room, pocket money, and society fees, range from $181.50 to $246 for the collegiate year, $60 to be deducted from these amounts in the case of those having free tuition. A young man now standing high as a physician, by hiring a cook to bring his meals to his room, lived on $100 a year and always appeared well dressed.

        The University claims to take its proper place in the front rank of educational institutions, and asks its friends to make this fact known and appreciated.


        A circular was likewise issued on the subject of Postgraduate Degrees. Master of Arts will be conferred on those who have taken the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and have pursued, with residence, a postgraduate course of one year in three departments. The degree of Master of Science is awarded to a graduate in the Philosophical course, and the study for one year in three departments of science. The degree of Doctor of Philosophy requires two years study in two or three departments. For these degrees approved examinations must be had and approved these submitted.

        The following detailed statement may be interesting: The

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Postgraduates in CONSTITUTIONAL LAW must study the origin and development of the unwritten English Constitution and the written Constitutions of the United States and of North Carolina, also of the Roman law. Such works as those of Hallam, Stubbs, Green, Bancroft, Curtis, Von Holst, Tucker, and the opinions of the Chief Justices and Justices of the Supreme Court are consulted.

        In POLITICAL ECONOMY will be studied such authorities as Roscher, Mill, Bagehot, McLeod, Adam Smith, Fawcett and others. It will be the effort of the President to give the student material and teach him to form his own conclusions on the great questions of Constitutional Law and Economics.

        In the CLASSIC LANGUAGES and LITERATURE, there will be three lectures a week the first and second years, and one the third, in each language. No one admitted whose undergraduate scholarship was under 85, and no honors, diplomas, or certificates to one whose postgraduate rank is below 90. The general plan is to group together such authors as will best illustrate whatever subject the class is investigating.

        ENGLISH LANGUAGE and LITERATURE: The four years undergraduate course includes work in Rhetoric, Essays and Orations, Historical Grammar and Philology, the study of Standard Authors, etc., with an elective course in Anglo-Saxon Languages and Literature. The postgraduate course may be in any one of the following groups:

  • 1. Grammar of Anglo-Saxon, Old English, Old English Mythology.
  • 2. Fourteenth Century Studies, Chaucer, etc.
  • 3. Rise and Progress of the English Drama.
  • 4. English Bible Version from the Anglo-Saxon period.
  • 5. Lyric Poetry--Burns, Shakespeare's Sonnets, etc.
  • 6. Wordsworth, Carlyle.
  • 7. American Poetry and Humor.
  • 8. The older Morte d'Arthur Literature, Malory, Tennyson.

        FRENCH. Two years course: History of French Literature, History of France, Literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Introduction to study of Historical French Grammar.

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        GERMAN. One year course. History of German Literature, History of Germany, German Literature 1760 to 1823.

        Two years course. History of German Literature, History of Germany, German Literature 1748 to present; Comparison of Luther's language with that of today.

        The student will be expected to have studied successfully the undergraduate courses in these languages and to read them on sight. In the periods designated only enough of the representatives required to understand the character of the times. The Professor will meet the students once a week.

        MATHEMATICS. The studies to be selections from such subjects as Differential Equations, Higher Algebra, Modern Geometry, Quaternions, Analytic Mechanics, etc.

        CHEMISTRY. A course of reading in Theoretical and Applied Chemistry under direction of the Professor, with weekly reviews. Students will be required to tabulate all facts with regard to certain compounds, or series of compounds, and to compile monographs and bibliographies from general chemical literature.

        Similar courses in Mineralogical and Metallurgical studies.

        In the Laboratory advanced analytical or research work, organic or inorganic, is assigned.

        NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. (1) Physics: Experimental instruction, use of apparatus, physical manipulation, physical measurements with instruments of precision. Theoretical: Method of Least Squares, study of advanced work on selected portions of Physics. (2) Mechanics and Astronomy: The study of Mechanics and Physical Astronomy with the aid of Calculus. A fair acquaintance with Differential and Integral Calculus is essential.

        GEOLOGY, BOTANY, ZOOLOGY, ETC. (1) Courses in General Geology, with the general principles of Dynamical, Structural, and Historical Geology. (2) Economic Geology, including its application to Mining, Agriculture, Architecture, etc. Special attention to the Geology of North Carolina. (3) Lithology and Field Geology, with microscopic study of rocks in geologic field.

        Botany--(1) Field and laboratory work on plants in the

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Chapel Hill region. (2) Special on special groups--especially the grasses. (3) Economic and Systematic Botany, especially the uses of plants.

        Zoölogy--Courses in General and Systematic Zoölogy, Psychology, Anatomy and Physiology of Domesticated Animals, together with Principles of Breeding and Feeding.

        Entomology--General Entomology, including the preservation of insects for the Museum. Systematic Entomology, including the identification of a number of species, representing the most important orders. Economic Entomology: The life history of insects injurious to vegetation, and remedies. Opportunities for practice in breeding insects useful to man.

        Connected with this circular was a notice that, as commanded by the Constitution, the department of the Science and Art of Teaching, in other words a Normal Department had been inaugurated.

        TEACHERS' COURSE. The Teachers' Course included the organization and management of Public Schools, the supervision of Graded and City Schools, methods of teaching the various branches, methods of cultivating the mental faculties, the history of education and educators.

        The classes will meet once a week for examinations in the following subjects: Education as a Science, The True Order of Studies, Psychology in its Bearings on Education, Philosophy of Education, American State Universities, Educational Reports, and such current educational literature as the instructor may suggest.

        SCHOOL OF LAW. In addition to the studies required for obtaining license to practice law an extension of studies was offered leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws (B.L.). The course embraced new subjects, such as the changes in the Rights of Husband and Wife, and Exemption from Execution under the Constitution of 1868, together with a more extended acquaintance of the law of Real Property, Contracts, Torts, Equity, Jurisprudence, Constitutional Limitations, and Corporations.

        SHORT COURSES. The experience of the University showed that numbers of young men from lack of time, or money, or

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previous preparation, were unable to complete one of the full four years courses of study. The Faculty grouped together in three short courses, extending over two years, such studies as are of especial importance to certain classes of men.

        I--Teacher's Course. In each spring a Teachers' Course of three months for the benefit of teachers who wish to pursue advanced work. The tuition in this course is free.

        II--Business Course. First year--Business Law (1 hour a week), English (2), Mathematics (4), Physics (2), Physiology and Hygiene (3), History (1), Biological Laboratory (2).

        Second year--Chemistry (3) or Geology and Mineralogy (3), English (1), Mathematics (4), Constitution of the United States and of North Carolina and Political Economy (3), English Literature (3), Mental and Moral Science (2).

        III--The Physicians' or Pharmacists' Course. First year--Chemistry (3), Chemical Laboratory (3), Biological Laboratory (2), English (2), Latin (4), History (1).

        Second year--Physiology, Zoölogy, and Botany (3). Industrial Chemistry (3) or Quantitative Chemical Analysis (3), Constitution of the United States and of North Carolina, Political Economy (3), English Literature (3), Latin (4), or Greek (4), or French (3), or German (3), English (1), Physics (2), Business Law (1), Mental and Moral Science (2). Those completing either of these courses are entitled to a certificate of proficiency.

        Some of the courses were of much value for several years before the increase of higher schools, where boys could be trained for the University. They were especially needed for the class of students entitled to admission under the Land Grant. When that was taken from the University they were abolished.


        In this year, 1885, the Faculty passed a law that all students except Medical and Law students, graduate and special students, and such as should be specially excused by the Faculty, should join the societies. Non-members not allowed to room in

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the University building except by special permission. If a member should resign from a society or be expelled, the case will be considered by the Faculty. It should be remembered that they have no right to delegate to the societies, or any other body, the right to dismiss a student. This is a judicial function. The Representatives and Marshals must be taken from the society members. Two Representatives for Commencement debate to be chosen from each society by a committee of the Faculty.

        In the same year, on the petition of Alpha Tau Omega, Kappa Alpha and Phi Kappa Sigma, the Faculty recommended and the Trustees granted the admission of all fraternities or Greek Letter societies on condition that they would provide the Faculty with the names of their members and would pledge themselves not to use intoxicating liquors at any banquet given at Chapel Hill.

        This last provision is in accordance with the settled policy of the University for three-quarters of a century to enforce temperance in the University and in the village of Chapel Hill. The law provided that no such liquors could be sold at first for two miles and after 1876 four miles from the corporate limits. In its early years "grog shops" were licensed to carry on business in the village. They were found to be the sources of dissipation, rowdyism, and mischief.

        A similar law exists with regard to theatrical performances and circuses and similar caterers to amusement, but the Faculty or the President has the power to allow them. The knowledge of the difficulty of obtaining this permission, coupled with the want of a suitable hall, and the fact that Chapel Hill is not on the main line of travel, keeps away most of these performances. So few are willing to overcome these disadvantages that the two societies and the Faculty unite through a joint committee in giving a guaranty to six entertainments annually, offering them the use of Gerrard Hall. Of course only those supposed to be of value in cultivating the intellectual or artistic taste of the students are invited. The societies, in consideration of such guaranty, have their members admitted without charge.

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        In 1885 died Washington Caruthers Kerr, State Geologist and Lecturer on Geology in the University. He graduated here in 1850, sharing the first honor with two others. He then took a course under Agassiz and others at Harvard, and was Professor of Geology at Davidson College. He was appointed State Geologist in 1864, and made important publications in regard to the mineral and other resources of the State. He was a man of decided talent, energy and probity. His successor, Joseph A. Holmes, delivered an address at Chapel Hill, reviewing his life and work. His University training was by the generosity of the Dialectic Society and when the University was reorganized in 1875 he made a handsome donation to its treasury.


        In November of this year (1885) died a notable benefactor of the University, Mary Ruffin Smith. She was daughter of James S. Smith, M.D., who was an able physician and had represented his county (Orange) in the General Assembly and the Convention of 1835, and was for two terms a Representative in Congress of the United States. He was long a Trustee of the University, and an active one. Her mother was daughter of Lieutenant Francis Jones of the Revolution. She had two brothers, who died before her, unmarried, and she inherited their property. She never married.

        After some minor bequests to her former household slaves, she devised the bulk of her fortune to the Protestant Episcopal Church in North Carolina, and a plantation of about fifteen hundred acres in Chatham County to the University to further the education of indigent students. She appointed President Battle executor.

        Miss Smith was one of the best of her sex. Of modest, unassuming manners, of superior intellect, of wide information, especially in medical botany, of deep piety, of boundless charity in deed and word, she tenderly nursed with patience and skill the dying sickness of mother, father, two brothers, and a devoted friend, her girlhood's teacher, Miss Maria Spear, and died the last of her race.

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        It is a coincidence that she was akin to two other female benefactors of the University, Mary Ann Smith and Mary Elizabeth (Morgan) Mason, but these latter were not akin to one another.

        On Christmas morning was burned the dwelling house built by Mrs. Wm. Hooper, born Helen Hogg, on a site a few feet to the east of that now occupied by the new house of President Venable. She had settled in Chapel Hill in order to educate her boys, and soon afterwards married President Caldwell. He changed his residence from the President's house to the residence of his bride and occupied it until his death in 1835. As the arrangement of the rooms was unsuitable for little children, President Swain chose the house next to the Episcopal Church, now (1912) occupied by Dr. Bain, and the Caldwell mansion was assigned to Prof. W. M. Green. When he accepted the bishopric of Mississippi in 1849 President Swain adopted it as the President's house. Here he entertained three Presidents, Polk, Buchanan, and Johnson, the last two having slept under his roof. During the Pool administration it was occupied by Professor Patrick. On the revival in 1875 the Chairman of the Faculty, Dr. Phillips, succeeded to the occupancy. On his retirement Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper adopted it as his residence until his resignation when it was assigned to Rev. Dr. Hume. He moved into it with his family the day before Christmas. A quantity of goods boxes, straw and other combustible material was accumulated in an outhouse about ten feet from the main building and the negligence of a young negro servant girl set them in flames. It was about dinner time and the neighbors quickly gathered to fight the fire. But there was in Chapel Hill no fire engine. There was no hook and ladder company to tear down the outhouse, which was built of heartpine. Buckets of water proved insufficient to retard the spread of the flames, although there was no wind blowing, and soon the historic edifice was in ashes.

        Until 1876 the square was undivided and there was no street along its eastern border. In that year a short street bearing the name of Caldwell was laid off and accepted by the

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town commissioners and soon afterwards a lot next to it sold to James Lee Love, then Associate Professor of Mathematics. He built a residence on it and when he removed to Harvard University, it was purchased by Dr. Richard H. Whitehead, and on his removal to the University of Virginia, was sold to Mr. H. H. Patterson. In 1909 the handsome President's house was built on the western three-fourths of the lot.


        The students, Faculty, and villagers were greatly edified by hearing from Governor Vance his far-famed lecture on the "Scattered Nation." It was one of the ablest and most interesting ever heard from our rostrum. An incident connected with his "Scattered Nation" address is interesting. A number of Hebrews, charmed with it, had combined to give him a handsome gold-headed cane, suitably engraved. While he was at dinner at Greensboro, the cane, left in the car, was stolen. Some time afterwards a Jew of New York purchased and returned it.

        Judge A. S. Merrimon, who had been elected to the Senate over Vance by a coalition of Republicans and a handful of Democrats, took umbrage at the remark of the student introducing Vance. The introducer expressed the hope that this election would be reversed. The Senator complained to President Battle because he did not rebuke the taking sides at a literary gathering, but the President did not think that the enthusiastic utterance of a student should be publicly noticed, although the remark was plainly "out of order."

        The students were not satisfied with the polished lecture, but called on Vance tumultuously at his lodgings at President Battle's residence. In bringing him out President Battle remarked that he claimed the Governor as his own by right of "first discovery"--that in 1848, during his first visit to Asheville he shook hands with a young man full of wit and humor. On closer acquaintance he discovered a remarkable familiarity with the Bible, Shakespeare, and Scott's novels. He reported to his friends that there was a young man beyond the Blue Ridge who would certainly become famous. He was the first

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man who had predicted away from his mountain fastnesses the success of Zebulon Baird Vance. The Governor answered the call on him by a speech of unparalleled humor, wit, and eloquence.

        In 1886 there was a difficulty in regard to teaching History, Dr. Mangum's health requiring him to give up this part of his work. The result was that part was undertaken by President Battle and the rest assumed by Professors in the several departments.

        In the same year Dr. Thomas W. Harris resigned his Professorship of Anatomy and Materia Medica and removed with his family to Durham. He did not long survive, dying almost in the prime of life. He had distinguished himself as a Captain of Cavalry in the Confederate Army, was a man of highest character and purpose, of strong intellect, of large acquisition in the realm of his profession, trained in this country and in Paris. As a citizen and as a physician he was deeply lamented.


        In this year (1886) occurred a case of hazing, notable because of the three engaged in it two had left the institution and received their letters of honorable dismission. These letters were ordered to be recalled and the sentence of dismission was passed upon the student who was still subject to the authority of the Faculty.

        In addition to the laws of the societies against hazing, which have been mentioned, the Senior Class passed a resolution to use their influence against it, bearing especially on the injury to the University by frightening off the timid. The Sophs, not to be outdone, agreed to refrain from the custom, but in language showing that in their judgment it was not wrong. They said, "We blot from our speech, and from the book of our remembrance, all preconceived ideas of blacking, trotting, bull riding, and spanking, and we submit ourselves wholly to the Faculty's fatherly guidance.

        "Second. That we exert ourselves to create sentiments of

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pity and affection for all youths who may come among us and we sympathize with those who rule over us.

        "Third. We will expel from our class, and treat with every indignity known to us, any one who shall hereafter use the word, the odious word, 'Fresh.'

        "Fourth. That we address new students as 'the gentlemen who recently arrived on the Hill,' that we treat them as friends and brothers, that we solve their problems, write their essays, loan them our textbooks, and endeavor in every way to make their stay in college one of continual happiness and uninterrupted bliss."

        The persistence of the practice of hazing is difficult to understand by those who know that it is injurious to the reputation of the University, and diminishes its patronage, besides seriously detracting from the character of the participants as gentlemen. The argument is given for it in an editorial of the University Magazine, with the premise that a few of the old alumni also defend the practice:

        "Hazing, in professional phraseology, may be a relic of barbarism and of a ruder age, but it also has a good side," says the editor. "We say, after a four years' experience as Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, and Senior, that judicious hazing serves to inculcate respect for college discipline. When a boy enters college he is without restraint, no longer fearing the rod, or if he be from a military school the guardroom, and reasonable hazing teaches him that his deportment must be in accord with the new world in which he has entered.

        "Again, if a Freshman meets with naught but courtesy, he attributes it to a lack of spirit in the older students, or to superiority in himself. The effect of the stipulation between the societies abolishing hazing three years before, made the subsequent Freshmen classes intolerably conceited and cheeky.

        "A boy entering college is like a cockerel beginning to crow. He is considered brilliant at home. What better remedy for his arrogance than to force him to trot half a mile or make a speech to jeering auditors?

        "Hazing, then, is what a new student expects; it limits his admiration of himself; it keeps him in his room at night at

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his studies; it keeps quiet in the building in study hours; it secures respect for the laws of the University and of the societies; it makes better students and makes them more respectful to professors, and teaches them to have regard to public sentiment.

        "Look at the infants in the University. Fathers allowed them to leave the nursery because hazing was abolished. They are not of the age or experience to resist temptation. If hazing had been feared they would have been kept at home longer.

        "What student does not recall with pleasure those 'Fresh treats' of the olden time, when the air was thick with watermelon rinds, and village, campus, and surrounding hills echoed with the shouts of fleeing Fresh and pursuing Soph? What more harmless fun and more replete with incidents for happy recollection in after years?

        "We recall our Freshman experience with genuine pleasure. We are rather proud of it for the rich fund of anecdote it left us. Terrific falls from the back of the cow, which had reached her end of a rope tied to a tree; trotting barefoot over gravel walks, with an escort of three; pulled from the bed by the heel at midnight, and compelled to recite 'Mary had a little lamb,' have no terrors for us now, but carry us back to our first cup at the Pierian spring and furnish us with materials for stories more real and wonderful than usually fall to the lot of alumni of our Alma Mater."

        These reasons have very little relation to the facts of college life. Surely if a new student shows, in the language of cant, "bumptiousness," the older students could "take him down" by dignity of manner or quiet sarcasm, rather than descend to the level of the blacking brush. Moreover every one knows that the hazing is not inflicted for reformation of offenders. Like the rain it falls on good and bad indifferently. Indeed the victims are often inoffensive and well-behaved. One of the most brutal features of the practice is the frequency with which some quiet young man is tormented merely because of his known nonresistance, his want of friends among upper classmen, or the accessibility of his room. The statement that the absence of hazing induces parents to send to the

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University immature children is totally without foundation--is absurd. No application of philosophical whitewash can explain away or excuse this crime against the University.

        First, It is wrong because it is a breach of University law. Obedience to law is a sacred duty.

        Second, It is wrong because it is at night by disguised men. It is "sneaking." How can a gentleman engage in it?

        Third, It is wrong because it is cowardly. Many assail one.

        Fourth, It is violative of the rights of others. It not only infringes the golden rule, but it is a crime against the State and should be punished as such. It is an assault and battery--punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both.

        Fifth, It is an unauthorized obstruction of the time of another and therefore a plain act of dishonesty, of the same nature as taking his books or money.

        Sixth, It is in the highest degree ungentlemanly. A true gentleman treats his neighbors with courtesy and kindness. He endeavors to diffuse happiness around him. The hazers treat their juniors with rudeness and study to add to their discomfort.

        Seventh, The true gentleman is especially kind to strangers and those unfamiliar with their surroundings. The hazers unfeelingly and purposely select newcomers as victims of their diabolical annoyances.

        Eighth, The hazers are stabbing the University by injuring its patronage. Other institutions boast that hazing does not exist in their walls and divert students from us.

        Ninth, The intentional stabbing of their Alma Mater is all the more inexcusable as the payments by the students are less than half the reimbursement for the expenditures in their favor.

        Tenth, It is difficult to suppose that beneficiaries proper, who receive the benefits of the University freely, should be so lost to all sense of decency and honor as to break her laws established by the legal guardians, and inflict serious injury on the institution which is their benefactor. If such there be, which God forbid, they are guilty of base ingratitude as well as crime.

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        In January and February, 1886, President Battle was unexpectedly involved in a controversy which some thought would injure the University, but which he could not avoid. The General Assembly authorized the establishment of an Industrial School on the following plan: "The Board of Agriculture is ordered to seek proposals for the establishment of an Industrial School, and when any city or town shall donate in lands, buildings, machinery, or other materials, or money, an amount adequate in the judgment of the said Board for the establishment of such Industrial School, it shall be their duty to locate the same at such place. And if there be more than one city or town making such proposal, it shall be the duty of the Board to locate it at the place offering the greatest inducement."

        The character of the school was set forth in another section. "Instruction shall be provided in this school in wood working, mining, metallurgy, practical agriculture, and such other branches of industrial education as may be deemed expedient."

        The second section enacts that "the Board of Agriculture shall direct the organization and equipment, and shall manage and control the same in conjunction with the Board of three Directors, appointed by the Board of Aldermen of the city or town whose proposal is accepted."

        The fourth section directs that "the Board of Agriculture shall apply to the establishment and maintenance of said school such part of their fund as is not required to conduct the regular work of their department, provided that not more than $5,000 of their funds shall be applied to the establishment of the school in any one year."

        The scheme seemed to the President to be substantially as follows: Five thousand dollars annually is the interest on $83.333.33 and the proposal of the State was: "If the city or town shall subscribe a sufficient amount to establish such a

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school as is described above, the agent of the State shall set apart $83,333.33, i. e., $5,000 a year, and give the subscribing city an equal share in the management. This is fair if the donation is adequate, i. e., substantially and in good faith, to the establishment of the school, and shall approach in value that offered by the State, but grossly unfair if the offer is only one-tenth in amount or other small sum. The State, owning nine-tenths, would share in the management with its partner owning one-tenth. The State has never given away its funds as recklessly as this. She has always placed the management of its funds in the charge of its own officers. The Asylum, the University, and all other State institutions are examples of this.

        As directed by law the Board of Agriculture advertised for proposals. Special notices were sent to the Mayors and Commissioners of all the leading towns and cities in the State. On opening the bids it was found that Charlotte subscribed $5,000 and a site; Kinston $10,000 conditionally and a site; Raleigh $5,000, an acre of ground in the northern part of the city as a site, and the exposition building on the fair grounds. This building was not lathed and plastered, had a felt covering, and was at least two miles from the aforesaid acre. It could only be utilized by tearing it down and using the material for the erection of a new building. The sanguine friends of Raleigh estimated the value at $3,000. This was probably excessive, but conceding it the offer of Raleigh did not exceed $8,000. The authorities of the fair grounds also agreed that a part of their land might be used for experimental purposes, but that did not add to the value of the donation.

        After reading these proposals Governor Scales, President Battle and others, two-thirds of the Board, voted that the act had not been complied with, that neither of the three towns had offered an amount "adequate to the establishment of the school." The question was postponed for three months and new proposals were invited.

        This decision caused much criticism in Raleigh. It was expected to capture an important public institution, beginning with $5,000 a year, probably to be largely increased hereafter, to have an equal voice in the management, for

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$6,000 or $7,000, i. e., $300 or $400 a year. A target was looked for and President Battle selected, although Governor Scales led off in opposition to the immediate location and Battle only followed. An able and ordinarily fair writer for the press charged that Battle was solely responsible for the defeat of this most useful measure. He of course answered the attack, declared his friendship for the school, and gave the reason for his vote, that Raleigh had not earned the location. Then certain Raleigh editors joined in the criticism of President Battle's course, followed by an ex-Judge of the Supreme Court and by an able metropolitan lawyer. Battle was kept busy for some time answering these attacks. He was satisfied with the outcome. His construction of the act was sustained by the Attorney-General (Davidson).

        At the next meeting of the Board, three months only after the adversary vote was given, which an adversary mistakenly said was for "indefinite continuance," the question was again taken up and, owing to the pressure from without, a majority of the Board accepted the offer. Finding that the proffered acre was not eligible as a site they proceeded to purchase two or three acres in or near the northwest corner of the city. The purchase money was about one-half of the donation, $5,000, which the Board voted to be "adequate to the establishment of the school." Here the matter rested until the success of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, when the Industrial School was merged in the College. Thus ended the strange experiment of establishing a woodworking-mining-metallurgy-practical-agricultural-and-other-branches Industrial School on $5,000 and a lot of second hand lumber, the State appropriation being only for maintenance. The promised acre in Raleigh is not added to the $5,000 because it was given only as a site, and found not to be eligible. The other site, being remote from that of the college, was sold.


        John DeBerniere Hooper, Professor of Greek, passed out of life on January 23, 1886. He was a remarkable man. His father was Archibald Maclaine Hooper, son of George

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Hooper, who was a brother of William Hooper, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His mother was a descendant of a noble Huguenot family, the DeBernieres. His grandmother was daughter of the sturdy patriot, Archibald Maclaine.

        Professor Hooper graduated with first honor in the Class of 1831 and then was successively Tutor, teacher in the Episcopal School at Raleigh, and Tutor again in the University; then in 1836-'38 and 1843-'48 Professor of French, and 1838-'48, of Latin.

        In 1848 he left the University and took charge of a school for boys in Warren County, then was principal of a school for girls in Fayetteville, then in Wilson. On the reorganization in 1875 he was elected Professor of Greek and French and taught these languages until 1885, when he was confined to Greek. His health failing, he resigned the same year, and serenely awaited the end.

        Professor DeBerniere Hooper, as he was usually called, was singularly pure and steadfast in his principles, mild in manner but firm as the everlasting granite, modest but of winning courtesy, an unswerving and undoubting member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, content with the old dogmas, unshaken by modern theories. As a scholar he was accurate and widely read, but unambitious to exploit himself or illumine the world. He never wrote or published a book or pamphlet but no draft was ever made on his store of learning that was not honored. His teaching could not be said to arouse enthusiasm, but was exhaustive and accurate. He was noted for his felicitous use of the English language but always refused to make addresses, even when tendered the great compliment of delivering the Annual Address at Commencement.

        Professor Hooper had, in his highest Greek class, a student of Hebrew lineage who had remarkable talent--Solomon C. Weill. At the request of the Faculty he took charge of Professor Hooper's classes most acceptably until the arrival of Dr. Alexander. He subsequently made a brilliant beginning at the bar in Wilmington, removed to New York City, where he was

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soon elected to the Legislature and was accidentally killed by a street car.

        The annual convention of the Young Men's Christian Association was held in 1886 in Chapel Hill, March 11th to 14th. It was very successful. Rev. Dr. A. W. Mangum conducted the religious exercises of the opening. There was an address of welcome by Rev. Thomas Hume, D.D., which was responded to by G. M. Smithdeal. Mr. L. D. Wishard, of the International Committee, made a general talk in Gerrard Hall on the work of the Association. At the close he sang most feelingly the "Mother's Goodbye to Her Boy."

        Prof. J. W. Gore was made permanent President; K. A. McLeod, of Davidson College, First Vice-President; D. P. Coleman, of Bingham School, Second Vice-President; Rev. W. D. Akers, of Asheville, Secretary, with Mr. Stephen B. Weeks, of the University, Assistant Secretary. Reports from the several organizations in the State were read. The Boys' Work was discussed by Mr. W. H. G. Belt, of Baltimore.

        At the evening meeting in Gerrard Hall the singing was led by Messrs. Garrett, Akers, Smith, and Harris. The address was delivered by Mr. E. W. Watkins, of New York, who showed the marvelous growth of the International work since the organization of the Association, June 4, 1844, in London. Dr. Hume, President, Professor Gore, Secretary, and S. B. Weeks, Treasurer, were elected officers of the Executive Committee of twelve members. The Convention then, in Gerrard Hall, heard an able address by Col. Robert Bingham on the "Armor of God."

        In the afternoon and night the exercises were conducted by E. L. Harris and L. D. Wishard. There was a large congregation to hear Mr. Wishard's talk on "Bible Training Classes."

        The Sunday meetings were uncommonly interesting. At 8:30 o'clock Mr. Wishard spoke on "The Power of the Holy Spirit." At eleven Mr. E. W. Watkins, of the Methodist Church, spoke of the growth of the influence of the Bible. In the afternoon Mr. Watkins addressed the citizens of Chapel Hill in the Baptist Church, and in the Y. M. C. A. Hall Mr.

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Wishard earnestly pressed the irrefutable claims of Christ on young men.

        At night, there being no service in the village, Mr. Wishard conducted the services in Gerrard Hall, speaking of missions and their claims.

        The students generally were greatly interested and additions were made to the membership. The members experienced an awakening and their enthusiasm was kindled.


        In 1886, March 18, the two literary societies came to an understanding with the Faculty whereby their libraries were united to that of the University. The vote was nearly unanimous in the Philanthropic, and forty-two to thirty in the Dialectic Society. The minority with justice thought that the movement would diminish the prestige of the societies, but the argument in favor of the move prevailed--that the doors of the library should be open every day, that the books would be in one room, that money would not be wasted in the purchase of duplicates. There were very many duplicates. Wherever possible these were sold or exchanged. Where this could not be done those remaining over were given to schools and other institutions. The official title of the joint Library to be "Library of the University of North Carolina endowed by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies."

        The following rules were agreed on. The library was to be open three hours every work day except Saturdays, five hours on Saturday, and afterwards on Sunday also.

        The books were to be borrowed under society rules. The University paid the expenses and $200 per annum to buy books, each society giving $150 for this purpose, the books to be selected by committees of each of the parties. Each society could withdraw on giving six months' notice and retake its own books at its own expense. Each society to elect a Librarian and to pay him $75 a year. Fines for violating rules to go to the societies.

        Professor Winston, to whom is due the chief credit for the movement, as chairman of a committee, met the representatives

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of the societies in carrying the project into effect. It was agreed that the society books should be kept separate so far as possible. It was reported that the library, after discarding duplicates and depositing in another room books not of general utility, without new alcoves, would hold 20,000 volumes.

        The consolidation of the libraries has proved of signal advantage to all branches of the University, especially to students seeking information throwing light on queries under debate. Prof. James Lee Love was representative for the University in the transfer of books. Wm. J. Battle acted for the Dialectic Society and Claude F. Smith for the Philanthropic. The partition between two rooms at the end of the Library Building (Smith Hall) was knocked down and the larger apartment thus made was converted into a reading room in which the leading magazines and newspapers were kept for use of students and Faculty.

        Mr. Love was paid a small salary and received a special vote of thanks by the Faculty for his arduous services. The substantial benefits of the change made the arguments for it irresistible. The keeping the library open for consultation all day and every day, instead of an hour or two once or twice a week, as had been the custom, the systematization so as to buy no duplicates, the having a Professor on the purchasing committee, were reasons for removal which overbalanced those against it.

        In order to conciliate society pride the Dialectic books were placed on the south side and the Philanthropic on the north. Of course this could hardly be kept up indefinitely, and is ignored in the new Library Building, the gift of Andrew Carnegie. The benefits derived from the union of the Libraries have been found so great that all dissatisfaction has ceased.

        There has been a marked increase year by year. The number borrowed of the old University Library did not amount to one hundred annually. No effort was made to make it useful or agreeable to the students. A different policy has been adopted since the consolidation. An annual appropriation is expended under the direction of a committee of the Faculty, and valuable donations have been received.

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        The following statistics show the immediate value of the consolidation:



Number of books borrowed of the Philanthropic Library 1,900
Number of books borrowed of the Dialectic Library 1,759
Total borrowed in one year 3,657



Number borrowed of the consolidated Library 4,761
First year's increase 1,102


        Dr. Stephen B. Weeks was the Historian of the Class of 1886. The Class Day was on April 30th. The speech of Dr. Weeks was remarkably well done and had the luminous style which he has shown since in many an historical production. Here is his account of an institution, since forbidden by the Faculty: "Then came that relic of barbarism, known in College slang as the 'Fresh treat,' more properly called 'the Freshman's Re-treat.' It was held in the New West Building. The Fresh were invited to 'walk up and help themselves' to the luscious melons. They walked up and were helped. They did not walk away. Their gait was something faster than a run. In five minutes there was not a Freshman to be seen. They had taken to themselves wings and were seeking rest.

        "What a throng of sweet memories come floating back as we turn and pause and turn again. How memory swells at our breast and turns the past to pain, when we remember that this is our last meeting. Well has the poet-priest written,

                         'When hands are linked,
                         That dread to part,
                         And heart is met by throbbing heart,
                         Oh bitter, bitter is the smart
                         Of them that bid farewell.' "

        The class during its four years' course had one hundred and four members and graduated twenty-six. There were fifteen

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Di's and nine Phi's, two belonging to neither society. Six came in as Sophomores and two as Juniors. One died after he left the University--George Wimberly Arrington.

        The Class Poem was by Wm. A. Self. I give a few lines as specimens of the whole. The poet in wandering through our forests finds in a rocky cave an old hermit--a former student--who disappeared from Chapel Hill ninety years before. He tells how he was carried off and condemned to live in solitude.

                         'Twas in the Old East, as it now is called,
                         A youth, half dreaming, by his chimney fire
                         Sat reading some dark legend of the times
                         When our brave forefathers with dauntless hand
                         Beat back the red man and the howling beast
                         Into their wooded thickets and their caves.
                         He was aroused by hearing all at once
                         The sounding of his name in accents quaint--
                         So muffled, so unearthly did it seem,
                         That he scarce knew that it was his own name--
                         But he arose and left his quiet room. * * * * * *

                         And no one ever knew where he had gone.
                         No one has ever dreamed of how those fiends,
                         Lawless and conscienceless, bore him away,
                         And made him swear by all the universe,
                         That if they spared his life he would consent
                         To dwell in a dingy, dusky cave. * * * * * *

                         But life is not a sadness, even to him.
                         Fate had decreed that as a sweet solace
                         Unto his soul, a strange power, supernal,
                         Should be--to gain full knowledge of the world
                         Through blessed spirits--they whose wingèd thoughts
                         Float on the whispering breezes--on the winds
                         Which sigh and moan at midnight. * * * * * *

                         My stringed companion then he took
                         From off the granite floor. A look
                         Of joy was on his face, and much
                         I wondered. Then with such a touch--
                         With such perfection of chord and tone--
                         He drew the notes of "Home, Sweet Home,"
                         That well I knew that no mortal hand
                         Did e'er such wondrous power command.
                         I looked around. No longer shone
                         The dim light, and the spirit was gone.

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        The Commencement of 1886 was a bright and happy one. The devotional exercises were conducted by Prof. N. B. Henry. President Battle gave a history of the University since 1875, when the exercises were resumed. Tuesday night was given up to the two literary societies, short addresses being made by old members, and diplomas and prize medals presented.

        Wednesday morning witnessed the address before the two societies by Hon. Augustus Van Wyck, Judge of the Supreme Court of New York, and afterwards as Democratic candidate for Governor, coming near defeating Roosevelt for that high office. Judge Van Wyck left the University as an honor graduate in 1864 and at once joined the army. He has always been a loyal son to his Alma Master and captivated the audience by his tribute to her and to her sons. His eulogy of President Swain was peculiarly hearty and happy. He was strong and exhaustive in urging the points that popular education and free agency are the rock foundation of the best government. "Let our motto be Intellectual Culture and Liberty." The arguments and illustrations used to enforce this great truth were eloquent and cogent.

        The Alumni Association held a business meeting after the address and elected Mr. Paul C. Cameron as President, William L. Saunders, Secretary, and Edward B. Engelhard, Treasurer. It was resolved to hold a meeting in Raleigh in January or February of the following year, with an orator chosen by the Executive Committee, but this order was subsequently repealed.

        In the afternoon the Baccalaureate Sermon was preached by Rev. Charles H. Hall, D.D., of Brooklyn, N. Y. Prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. Thomas E. Skinner, of the Class of 1847, and a hymn sung. Dr. Hall then gave his text, "Why

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stand ye here all the day idle?" The reporter described the sermon as "great in its subject matter, great in its directness and simplicity, great in its practical application, great in its unaffected delivery, great in the eloquence of its diction, great in everything that goes to make up a great sermon." The auditors concurred with this estimate.

        His topic was education, such as qualifies a person for the duties of life. He touched upon country and climate as affecting mind and body, and predicted that Western North Carolina would ere long be the nursery of high mental and moral culture. He concluded with a picture of a "party standing at the grave of Dr. Mitchell on the highest peak of the Black Mountain at nightfall to witness the beauty of the rising moon. The majestic Roan in its grandeur looming up in the distance; Old Craggy with its rugged sides, crouching to the left, and in the rear Guyot's Peak, Hairy Bear, and other subordinate peaks dotting the foreground. The evening breeze was sighing a mournful dirge through the waving boughs of the fir trees, while all at once the plaintive requiem ceased and all was a calm and ominous hush. And presently a sound, or sounds, from the superincumbent elements were heard, whence no one could tell--a weird sound. Look in this or the other direction, no one could tell whence it proceeded. It was the commingling and hum of the rivulets descending the dell, with the roar of the cataract pouring its water into the baptismal font, whence the spirit of Dr. Mitchell took its flight to heaven."

        The speeches of the society representatives at night were unusually fine. The first was by Claudius Dockery, of Richmond County, on "The South." Then came Jacob C. Johnson, of Pitt County, on "The Fourth Estate"--the Press. Then William E. Edmundson, of Morganton, on "National Education." He was followed by Albert M. Simmons, of Hyde County, on the "Truths of Fiction." William S. Wilkinson, of Tarboro, spoke on "Utopia," and then came Samuel E. Gidney, of Shelby, on "Industrial Education in the South." The Representative Medal was won by Mr. Dockery. Messrs. Dockery,

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Edmundson and Gidney were Di's, and Johnson, Simmons and Wilkinson Phi's.

        Thursday was Commencement Day. Memorial Hall was filled with visitors while the Campus to the south of it was covered with the vehicles of the good people of the country. Those were the days of many speakers, of all graduates who wished to air their oratorical powers, some being ambitious to compete for the Mangum medal. There was an advantage in this. The fathers and mothers, aunts, uncles, and cousins, and the inevitable sweethearts, were in the audience listening delightedly to their rising kinsmen. Their intensely interested faces were goodly to look on. There were eleven speakers in the morning. They were:

  • Joseph John Jenkins, Jr., of Chatham County, on "National Songs."
  • Charles Taylor Grandy, Camden County, on "Home Rule and National Unity in America."
  • Pierre B. Manning, Gates County, on "Prohibition or Public Sentiment in America."
  • Frank Dixon, Shelby, "The Labor Problem."
  • Malcolm M. Shields, Carthage, "Misplaced Garlands."
  • Luther B. Grandy, Oxford, on "American Humor."
  • Walter S. Dunston, Creswell, "Literature and Public Life."
  • Frank M. Little, Wadesboro, "Destiny and Duty."
  • John F. Schenck, Cleveland Mills, "Three Great Waves."
  • Wm. A. Self, Newton, on "Emerson."
  • Wm. H. Carroll, Magnolia, "American Influence in Foreign Nations."

        In the afternoon the first speaker was Stephen B. Weeks of Elizabeth City. His subject was "Cedant Arma Togoe." This was the oration awarded to the student who made the highest average next to the Valedictorian. The speech was not in Latin, the day for Latin, Greek, and French speeches having passed away.

        The next speaker was James Thomas, New Bern, on the "Citizen's True Ideal." He was followed by Samuel Spencer Jackson, Pittsboro, on "Circumstance." Oliver Clegg Bynum, on "The Heroic Instinct"; Edward B. Cline, Hickory, "The

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Drama and National Life." N. H. D. Wilson, Greensboro, "The Cost of Culture." Mr. Wilson was the Valedictorian, having attained the highest average during a four years' course. He departed from the old fashioned valedictory, and closed his oration on culture with a few words of exhortation to his classmates, of thanks to the Faculty and of farewell to his fellow students.

        The Mangum medal was awarded to Mr. Schenck.

        The speakers in the afternoon were at a great disadvantage. A storm was raging, owners of vehicles were rushing from the hall to care for their teams, wagons were rattling, while squalling babies added to the tumult.

        The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was conferred on a learned lawyer of Oxford, Marcus V. Lanier, and on two eminent botanists of South Carolina, A. W. Chapman and Henry W. Ravenel.

        The degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred upon Rev. John R. Brooks, of Wilson; Rev. Luther McKinnon, President of Davidson College; Rev. John L. Carroll, of Asheville, a graduate of 1863, and Rev. Daniel A. Long, President of Antioch College, Ohio, student of 1886-'87.

        The following degrees were conferred:

Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) 15
Bachelor of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 7
Bachelor of Science (B.S.) 3
Bachelor of Laws (B.L.) 1
Total graduating class 26
(See names in Appendix.)  

        The following graduates of 1886 presented these which were approved but not publicly read: Lewis J. Battle, Raleigh, "Landlordism in America"; Pierre Bayard Cox, Raleigh, "The Critic's Relation to Literary Progress"; Herbert Worth Jackson, Asheboro, "The Crisis at Hastings"; John Motley Morehead, Kinston, "Political Education"; George L. Patrick, Kinston, "Man and Nature"; Henry W. Rice, Raleigh, "A Needless War"; Kirby S. Uzzell, Seven Springs, "The New South"; Robert Lee Uzzell, Seven Springs, "A Cavalier Poet."

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        After passing an examination on a prescribed course and submitting an approved thesis the degree of Master of Arts was won by Ernest Preston Mangum, an A.B. graduate of 1885. The subject of his thesis was "The Feudal System."


  • In CHEMISTRY--D. S. Carraway.
  • In MATHEMATICS--R. T. Burwell and William S. Wilkinson.
  • In GREEK--H. H. Ransom and M. M. Shields.
  • In NATURAL PHILOSOPHY--E. B. Cline and F. M. Little.
  • In PHARMACY--J. W. Beasom.


  • Messrs. Gulick, Simmons and Weeks were present at every rollcall at Prayers and lectures during the year.


  • VALEDICTORY ORATION, as the best in the class--Nathan Hunt, Daniel Wilson, Jr.
  • CLASSICAL ORATION--Stephen Beauregard Weeks.
  • MANGUM MEDAL (FOR ORATORY)--John Frank Schenck.

        The Chief Marshal was from the Philanthropic Society, Claude F. Smith, of Pitt. His associates were Benjamin F. Tyson, Greenville; Malvern H. Palmer, of Warren; Francis M. Harper, Kinston, and Archibald Braswell, of Edgecombe, Philanthropics; Wm. H. McDonald, Raleigh; Henry F. Shaffner, Salem; George W. Bethel, Danville, Virginia, and Benjamin E. Kell, of Mecklenburg, Dialectics.

        The Ball Managers were John C. Engelhard, Chief; J. W. Atkinson, Jr., Robert L. Holt, E. B. Borden, and L. M. Bourne.

        The class has been, as a rule, very successful in life. A few have crossed the dark waters. Arrington died at home before graduation and after graduation P. B. Cox, L. B. Grandy, F. M. Little, P. B. Manning, G. L. Patrick, H. W. Rice, and K. S. Uzzell. John M. Morehead and Gilbert B. Patterson became Representatives in Congress; Dr. Weeks has published historical volumes of great merit; Battle is a skilled physician in Washington City; Cline is a Superior Court Judge; Herbert Jackson a trusted and safe financier; S. S. Jackson stands high

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in insurance circles; Jenkins is a highly regarded bank president; Schenck is a manufacturer; Shields, Thomas, Dixon, and Wilson are prominent preachers; Self, Wright, and Carroll able lawyers.


        The Faculty from time to time attacked the difficult question of cleanliness in the rooms and about the buildings. They resolved to have the highest standard of neatness and purity. It is needless to say that this could not be attained until the inauguration of waterworks. Water closets were introduced in 1887. An important step towards securing good results was a course of lectures twice a week on Hygiene. It was resolved to heat the chapel (Gerrard Hall) when used for preaching or other purposes. The custom of attending on these occasions in all kinds of weather, good or bad, hot or cold, which had been handed down from the opening in 1795, was not in accordance with modern ideas.

        The great earthquake, so destructive to Charleston August 31, 1886, was distinctly felt at Chapel Hill. Some windows were violently rattled and bottles were moved on the shelves of the Chemical Laboratory, but no damage was done. Some students in the New East Building perceived, or thought they perceived the walls threateningly shaking and fled to a safe locality. One, who had a pistol in his room, aroused from sleep suddenly by the clamor, secured his weapon and dared the fancied robber to invade his apartment.

        In 1886 the custom was begun of the Faculty choosing a preacher once a month to deliver a sermon on Sunday night in Gerrard Hall, the University paying his expenses. Of course care was taken to invite men from the leading denominations of Christians. The plan has been very successful. Not only has there been a succession of able and hightoned men with strong and instructive discourses, but the University has been made known to influential, representative men, not previously personally cognizant of its workings. The marked diminution of hostility to it has been in part due to this policy.

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        The University Day exercises of 1886 were held at night. A most interesting historical address was delivered by Mr. Edwin Anderson Alderman. He was specially eloquent and touching in his description of the extinct town of Brunswick and of the notable men who once made its habitations famous for hospitality.

        In 1886 was begun the policy of leasing land on Franklin Street and its continuation eastward to officers of the University for residences. The Circuit Court of the United States had decided, as has been narrated, that, as this is a State University, such property as is essential to its existence could not be alienated. The court laid off about 600 acres in one body, including the Campus and three residences of Professors, as inalienable. Believing that, although this land could not be sold in fee, leases for years could be made, a valuable parcel was granted to Mr. James Lee Love for fifty years on payment of a moderate annual rent. It was stipulated that at the end of that time the lease should be renewable, but if not, the Trustees should have the option to buy the tenements at an appraised value, but if they should not wish to do this the lessee might remove the buildings. The object was to provide that the land should not go permanently from the University. Subsequently a similar lease was made to Dr. Charles Baskerville and Dr. Francis K. Ball. Later the lawyer on the Executive Committee advised that sales could be made practically in fee, and under this advice parcels were sold to Dr. George Howe, Dr. Joseph H. Pratt, Dr. A. W. Wheeler, and Mr. Geo. F. McKie, and the fee of the Love, Baskerville, and Ball lots was also sold. Afterwards a lot on Caldwell Street was sold to Mr. Edward K. Graham. On the same principle the authorities of the new Methodist Church were authorized to make brick for the building out of University land, and a lot on Pittsboro Street was sold for the village school.

        On Thanksgiving Day the first of the series of gymnastic contests was held. While Dr. Venable called out the contestants, five students were appointed as judges. On the horizontal bar John W. Atkinson and E. P. Mangum competed,

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the winner being Atkinson. On the parallel bars, John W. Atkinson won over R. L. Smith. On the ladders E. P. Mangum won over John W. Atkinson, R. L. Smith, and Geo. L. Patrick. In wielding Indian clubs R. S. Woodson was defeated by J. D. Hedrick. The contest on swings showed exceptionally daring feats. There were six entries, L. M. Bourne being adjudged the best. The half mile race was run by Hedrick and Patrick, Patrick being the winner. The next event was the "fools' race" between J. H. Baker (very small and therefore called the "giant"), R. L. Cooper (a giant in height and therefore called the "runt"), and Wm. R. ("Buck") Tucker, dressed in tights. Next came the "tug of war" between nine on one side and eight on the other. The victory was to the "heaviest battalion," the larger number. In the running high jump Patrick made four feet four inches and was declared victor, Smith falling not far behind him. The last run was one-tenth of a mile dash. Patrick made it in twenty-two seconds, Hedrick in twenty-one.

        The mode of spending Christmas vacation by the students who remained on the Hill depended on the taste of the participants. In 1886 there was an enjoyable time, especially as there were six or eight visiting ladies. The weather more nearly resembled spring than winter, with no ice, or sleet, or snow. The turkeys were fat, the confections and cake delicious, the presents appropriate, the boys gallant, the girls lovely. The first event was a grand bonfire by President Battle in Battle Park, the flames rising above the tall trees and giving peculiar weird effects in the forest. In the midst a group of wild looking young men rushed with a whoop through the undergrowth, reminding one of the stories of painted Indians assailing a peaceful company. After they had gazed at the flames for a season, the red light reflected curiously from their eyes and rosy cheeks, a shriek was heard and they disappeared as they had come. The next night the "boys" got up a bonfire of their own. Brushwood, kerosene barrels, goods boxes, were piled high on the athletic field, saturated with oil and ignited. When the flames were at their height, rockets

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and Roman candles enlivened the scene, while the students joined in gay impromptu dances, found in no Terpsichorean annals.

        Then at the dwelling of Mrs. Thompson a masquerade party was held the last night of the old year. The ladies wore sheets enveloping the body, pillow slips covering the face and tied in a knot over the top of the head, and white stockings over their shoes. The gentlemen were similarly dressed, so that mistakes were numerous and amusing.

        A mock court trial was had in order to banish dull care. President Battle presided. H. W. Rice was sheriff, Claudius Dockery clerk; Riddle, assisted by Edmund Alexander and W. Reece, appeared for the State; Sol. Weill and C. Johnston for the defendants. R. L. Cooper and G. B. Patterson were the defendants, charged with making hideous noises with a brass band on the night of December 31st. They pleaded not guilty, of course. The witnesses were Professor Gore, on the theory of music; Dr. Kluttz, as a medical expert on the effects of horrible noises on the human system; Professor Atkinson, who was then courting the lady whom he afterwards married, on the effects of a baneful serenade, when the lover is "popping the question"; another witness told of the removal of an opossum from the Zoölogical Garden of the University, probably by the defendants. The lawyers then made their speeches. Those for the defense admitted the presence of the prisoners in the noise but claimed that there was no "criminal intent," that the intent was to please the ladies. They were found guilty and fined a penny and costs. The audience was well pleased with the efforts of the young disciples of Themis.

        As a rule the students behaved at their boarding houses as gentlemen should. People who came in contact with them praised them highly. Occasionally one would forget himself. We had a stalwart landlady as strong as a man. Once a student jocularly threw a biscuit at another; she deliberately walked to his seat, gave him a box on the ear, and ordered him to leave the room; he obeyed, but afterwards begged her pardon and was readmitted. The same lady applied to Professor Winston,

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whom on account of the disparity of their ages she called by his Christian name, to write for her a letter of recommendation for the position of postmistress. With great gravity he wrote the President to the effect that the dignity of the United States demanded that decency and order should be observed in public offices, and that he knew of no one more capable of excluding violence and bad conduct than this lady, with much more of similar import, but not a word showing her capacity for the office. He read to her what he had written. She was immensely pleased. She did not see that he was laughing at her. Looking at him with admiring eyes, with coy deprecation, she said, "Now! George, you know I ain't all that." Thus George got out of his difficulty with flying colors. She was the identical lady whom he escorted to the ball supper twenty years before, one hundred and ninety pounds protected by one hundred pounds!

        In 1886 there was at the University a remarkable case of kleptomania, or at any rate of wholesale stealing. I call the thief Latro, though he was not a latro but a fur. He was an elderly student, probably thirty years old. Although his last residence was in a distant State, he was a native of North Carolina, and brought a certificate from the commissioners of the county in which he lived until past maturity that his character was good and that he was entitled to free tuition. He stated that he had accumulated some hundreds of dollars by teaching and that he would pursue an elective course, as long as he had funds with which to board and clothe himself.

        For three years his conduct seemed exemplary and he was called by the students "Father Latro." He read good books--at any rate he accumulated them--by borrowing or purloining from the library or individuals. The studies he elected were of a philosophical or political nature. His class standing was good but he stood no examinations, stating that he was not an applicant for a degree. His attendance on religious duties was frequent and devout. He attached himself to the Presbyterian Church, becoming a regular communicant. This did not prevent his attendance on other churches. He gained

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credit for extraordinary piety by asking the Baptist minister for his benefit to change the evening of his prayer meeting, so as not to conflict with other religious duties. Finding a vacant room in the Old East near his own he made it into a rough closet into which he never permitted any one to look.

        The first suspicion of his honesty came from his helping himself to peaches near the wall of a Professor at night. A student gave a bogus alarm and Latro tumbled from the wall, gaining a sprained ankle in the effort to escape from threatened pistol balls. One of the students wrote for the University Magazine a neat poetical narrative of this episode:

                         But yesterday I surveyed him well,
                         A meekness in his deep gray eyes did dwell;
                         A gentle innocence did around him play,
                         His cheeks did yield to modest blushes' sway. * * * * *

                         Thought I, sooner would the rose be foul,
                         The nightingale sing like the owl,
                         The swan adorn his wings with mud,
                         The fig tree full with thistles bud,
                         Than that this model man would do
                         A thing 'twould prove his looks untrue.

                         This morning vacant was his seat;
                         Not in chapel nor on the street.
                         "Where is L.? Where can he be?"
                         Was asked by many curiously. * * * *

                         I saw his noble brow cast down,
                         On that bright face I saw a frown. * * * *

                         A conscience hurt, an ankle sprained,
                         A good "rep" lost, a bad "rep" gained.
                         "What cruel fate, if fates there be,
                         Hath heaped this injury on thee?"
                         "I blush to tell the tale," quoth he,
                         "For all the blame doth lie on me.
                         Ask that little imp of evil,
                         That little grandson of the devil,
                         That whispered in my ear the thought,
                         'Peaches stolen are better than bought.'
                         Ask of the tree, the high peach tree,

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                         Whose luscious fruit so tempted me. * * * *

                         Ask of the ground, hard stony ground,
                         Where my impression may be found. * * * *

                         These will tell you better than I,
                         How, and when, and where, and why,
                         I was so afflicted by
                         This terrible calamity."

        This incident, however, did not ruin his character, as many students have a liberal definition of larceny as applied to fruit, especially growing in a Professor's garden. But soon a more grievous matter was made known. Twelve months before a Professor had lost a coat. A man who has once brushed a coat is apt to know it intimately henceforth and forever. And it so happened that the Professor's waiter saw the lamented garment on the person of the philosophical Latro. About the same time a student from a distant county lost all the money he had provided to enable him to graduate, over sixty dollars. It was stolen from his room. The loss was ruinous. It excited him greatly, but left him reason enough to argue that the man who had stolen a coat could also appropriate money. With fire in his eye he burst upon Latro and recovered his funds.

        The news coming to the President he asked two members of the Faculty to accompany him to Latro's room, make him disgorge all stolen articles and let him run away. They declined to go without a search warrant and a constable. One who had lost goods was easily induced to swear out a warrant. The search was begun during the dinner hour. Latro made no resistance. If the matter had not been so serious, if the sight of a student of this great University held for larceny had not been so pathetic and horrifying, it would have been ludicrous. In a few minutes the students came flocking in to claim their lost property, like the birds in the fable claiming their feathers. One found an overcoat, long lamented, three others pounced upon much prized watches which had mysteriously disappeared, and so came owners of umbrellas, shoes, pants, notebooks, pens, coats, vests, and other articles used by students,

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many of no value to the thief, besides books of the University and Professors. There were secured from him some sums of money besides the sixty dollars above mentioned. The Mayor, not having jurisdiction over cases of larceny, bound him over to the Superior Court in a bond of one hundred and twenty-five dollars, which he promptly paid in money to the Mayor. Forty dollars of the amount the latter lost out of his pocket, which led to the unsupported story that Latro abstracted it. This is improbable. There being no other charges against him, he was allowed to leave. As he was very uneasy for fear of punishment by the students, the President procured a policeman to escort him to the railroad station. He preferred to walk two miles from the station and board the cars there. His slinking away under the escort of an officer of the law was a sad sight.

        The President was blamed, even by certain newspapers, for not taking steps for having him sent to the penitentiary. His reply was that the University should not prosecute students confided to her charge, except in extreme cases for offenses against herself, that every opportunity was given to those injured, and that it was not for her interest to have one of her sons in the State's Prison. The University had her own punishment and that would be promptly inflicted. This punishment was expulsion, which requires the ratification of the Trustees.

        To show that the President's position was right, when the case came before the Trustees two of the best lawyers averred that Latro, in a jury trial, would have been acquitted on the plea of insanity or kleptomania. The Trustees, however, voted his expulsion and ordered his name to be stricken from the roll. To support the theory of kleptomania, it should be noted that many articles stolen were utterly valueless, like old ball tickets, and he had two vacations, with very few living in the dormitories, when he might have shipped his stealings to a distant market for sale.

        He wrote to the Presbyterian minister, Rev. Mr. Wilhelm, an account of his fall. A year or two before the discovery he saw Mr. Woodward's watch on his table, the room empty and

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the door open. The tempter entered into his head and suggested, "How uneven is the distribution of things in this world. Here I am barely able to live, while before me is a gold watch owned by a man so abounding in riches that he carelessly left this valuable article to be picked up by the first passerby. Then, too, I am desirous of marrying and have found a girl willing to marry me, but lack the means. After reflection of an hour I took the watch, hid it in a hollow stump until matters quieted down, then finding myself unsuspected, I brought it to my room. The security that I enjoyed led me to take other things and so I went down to ruin."

        He further stated that after leaving Chapel Hill he was so overwhelmed with remorse that his one idea was to get as far as possible from the scene of his crime. He remembered passing through Cincinnati and St. Louis, no other cities. Finding himself in Nebraska he realized that his clothing was too thin for the latitude and that his money was nearly spent, so he bought a ticket to Memphis. In Arkansas, while the train stopped at a sawmill station, he alighted in order to stretch his limbs. He was so abstracted by his mental torment that he allowed the train to leave him. He hired himself to the lumberman for a week to begin on Monday, that being Saturday. Next day he went to his landlady to borrow a Bible. She searched her trunk and found one at the bottom, stating that it reposed there unopened for six months after she moved out from New England. Walking to the river bank, in a secluded place, he spent the Lord's day reading His Holy Word and writing to his pastor on the back of an advertising poster. He added that his future movements would be such that none who then knew him would be able to trace him.

        One of our graduates traveling through a distant city two or three years afterwards, thought that he recognized Latro, pick in hand, working on the street. He says that he spoke to him and is confident that it was the champion thief of the University of North Carolina. Later the news came that he died suddenly in bed in a North Carolina town, to which he had come as a traveler. About $500 was found on his person, not a large sum to accumulate in eighteen years.

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        After the appropriation to the University was increased to $20,000 annually, the yearly Normal School appropriation of $2,000 being diverted to four other places in the State, there was a determined effort to induce the General Assembly of 1887 to repeal or reduce the amount. Certain friends of the denominational colleges renewed the charge that means were placed in the hands of the University Trustees to establish a "big free school" and draw away all the patronage of the colleges. They clamored that the people in their impoverished state could not afford so great an addition to the taxes; that all money which could be spared should be devoted to lengthening the term of the public schools; that a State institution was necessarily irreligious, some said godless. An effort was made to force the candidates for the Legislature to pledge themselves for repeal or modification. In some few counties this move met with success.

        At the same time a formidable crusade was made, mainly by the eloquence of Colonel Leonidas L. Polk, former Commissioner of Agriculture, to take from the University the $7,500 Land Grant and give it to a new institution organized for the more practical education of the sons of farmers and mechanics than could be given at the University. Colonel Polk was possessed of a style of speaking very acceptable to his hearers and he had plausible ground for a new move. It was generally known that many States had concluded that cattle breeding, garden and orchard culture and the like could not well be gained in institutions like Harvard, Princeton, the Universities of North Carolina and Virginia, and had established separate colleges. Of course in his speeches he minimized unjustly the laboratory work of the University, but there was enough truth in his position to make the movement irresistible.

        In order to bring pressure on the Legislature a public meeting of farmers was called, composed of all whose chief income was from the soil, the call being issued by the Board of

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Agriculture, of which President Battle was a member ex officio, that is, as president of the institution holding the Land Grant. The Board requested Governor Scales and him to explain to the Convention its policy, its work in the past and intentions in the future. They did so, and were accorded a respectful hearing, with one ill-mannered interruption by a delegate, although it was evident that the friends of Colonel Polk were present by concert, and were in the majority. Later in the meeting President Battle was allowed to answer some strictures on the scientific teaching at the University. It was evident, however, that the members had come together with a prejudgment in favor of a separate institution, and that at Raleigh.

        An adjourned meeting was held in the City Hall. President Battle was fully persuaded that the movement would be successful and that ultimately it would be best for the University to surrender the fund rather than have an endless wrangle on the subject. At his instance his friends induced the Convention to ask the General Assembly to appropriate $7,500 a year to replace what was taken away. This, however, did not obtain the approval of the law makers.

        What made the new movement so readily successful was the fact that a citizen of Raleigh offered land for the establishment of the Agricultural and Mechanical College and the Board of Agriculture, by means of the tax on fertilizers, had ample funds to aid in the erection of buildings. Moreover the necessary bricks and labor were ordered to be furnished by the Penitentiary free of charge, the cost of which was not perceived by the taxpayer. Of course large sums have been appropriated since from the public treasury to the new institution, but in 1887 Members of the Legislature did not foresee this, nor was it revealed to them by those who were pushing the measure.

        After the passage of the bill reducing our income from the State from $27,500 to $20,000 the warfare on the University by no means ceased. A bill was offered in the House to reduce the appropriation to $12,500. A motion by Mr. R. A. Doughton, of Alleghany, to lay it on the table failed by a decided vote

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and the question was postponed till next day. Mr. Doughton spent the evening in interviewing some of the more liberal members of the opposition. He also reminded the leaders among the colored Members that the University Members had supported bills in which they were interested. The result was that the renewal of the motion to table was triumphantly carried by a flattering majority.

        The county student obligation was repealed, thus ending a twelve-year strife with the friends of the colleges. The University, however, was required to grant tuition to those afflicted with bodily infirmity, to ministers, candidates for the ministry, and sons of ministers, and to those preparing to be teachers, and accept secured notes from the truly indigent. Then the kind heart of the legislators was shown, validating the usage of the University, by the proviso that no indigent worthy youth should be denied admittance in consequence of inability to pay or give security. As has been shown in part and will be hereafter more fully, benefactors of the University and of the poor have provided free tuition for as many needy students as are likely to show themselves worthy of it.

        The tabling of the bill, aimed to reduce our appropriation, by a decisive majority in the House of Representatives was very important, although the Senate would have killed it by a much larger proportionate majority. The agitation against the University would have been stimulated to renewed exertion if the popular branch of the General Assembly had recorded its condemnation. As it was, the question of further reduction was never dangerously discussed afterwards.

        The attitude of Colonel Polk was clearly shown by his exultation at the creation of the Agricultural and Mechanical College. He was overheard saying to a friend in the lobby, "Now we will let Battle alone!" He kept his promise. It was not long before death claimed him. It is not thought that he had special animosity against the University, although in the heat of oratory he may have criticised harshly its practical interpretation of the Land Grant Act. In the opinion of many, if not most, judicious persons he was right in the contention that the Land Grant college should be

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separate. President Battle was and is of this opinion, but to the best of his ability he carried out the will of his Trustees in endeavoring to retain the fund. His task was a delicate one, but he managed to keep his reputation as a man of truth, although in his heart convinced that the University could never satisfy the demand for hand work and keep up its reputation for theoretical training. The difficult position in which he was placed rendered this the most unhappy time of his presidency. Although he had cause for gratulation that the determined effort to reduce the appropriation to $12,500 signally failed, in such manner as to cause all further attacks to be harmless, yet the diversion of the $7,500 Land Grant gave the appearance of defeat and caused the loss of two full professors and one associate professor.

        Governor Jarvis once, when the Board of Agriculture was assembling, complimented President Battle on his power of persuasion. A very influential Member remarked dryly, "He will need all his powers to prevent the cutting down of that $20,000. The people are dead against it." Mr. James Cheek, of Orange, when asked about the prospects, himself of course being for the University, said, "They are going to beat you." Then he waved his arm toward the eastern half of the House (Representatives), "All these men are against you." In truth, although we lost the Land Grant, the University came out of the conflict victorious. There is no doubt, however, that when the General Assembly first met, the mind of a large majority of the House at least was set on cutting down the appropriation to $12,500, if not less.

        What was the effect of the legislation in regard to the University? The loss of $7,500 a year was a serious matter but it had its compensations. (a) It relieved us of the charge that we were defrauding the farmers and mechanics, thereby creating much odium against us. (b) It enabled us to avoid the scandal of having a low standard of admission, which was necessary for those intending to pursue the "branches of learning relating to agriculture and mechanic arts." Our critics used this to support the charge that we did not have a true

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University. (c) It enabled us to develop the institution along the lines of the most approved universities--Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Princeton, without being embarrassed by the constant demand to build stables and work shops, buy prize cattle and modern machinery. (d) It relieved us of the almost impossible task of governing in harmony bodies of students of diverse training, modes of work, aims in life. (e) It left us in secure possession of $20,000 a year by way of a compromise--a wonderful gain when it is remembered that the State had never granted any annuity until 1881, and then only $5,000. Increase of the annuity was bound to come, when the good work of the University became known.

        In order to counteract the notion that the University was seriously crippled, Governor A. M. Scales, as Chairman of the Board of Trustees, and Secretary of State Wm. L. Saunders, as Secretary-Treasurer of the University, issued a circular to the people of the State. A few extracts follow:

        "It had been demonstrated by experience that there was little demand among our people for instruction in certain departments of the University, notwithstanding their importance and the efficiency and the real worth manifested by the professors in charge, and it was evidently the desire of the Legislature that certain other studies be taught at the Agricultural and Mechanical College instead of at the University. Hence in the readjustment of the work of the University the authorities have omitted the following special branches of study: Pedagogics, Ornithology, Metallurgy, Mining Engineering, Feeding and Breeding of Animals, and Practical Horticulture.

        "No diminution nor change has been made in any of the regular courses of study. * * * There are fifteen Professors and assistants.

        "A course of study extending through two years has been arranged for the special benefit of students who are unable to complete a full course; and a special course of three months is offered, each spring, to teachers who desire to extend their education.

        "The general studies of special benefit to farmers, merchants, manufacturers, and other business men have been

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grouped into a short course of two years for the benefit of students who are unable to complete a full course."

        President Battle likewise issued circulars, one giving in detail these shorter courses, another a four-page circular of information concerning the general work of the institution. As his office of member of the Board of Agriculture was on account of his being president of the institution holding the Land Grant, of course his membership expired with the transfer of the fund to the new college. On this result he greatly rejoiced, because of the suspicions and even open accusations that his votes in the Board of Agriculture were influenced by his desire to help the University. As a matter of fact it is absolutely certain that the part of the work of the Board at Chapel Hill under his immediate supervision, by Drs. Ledoux and Dabney, the Agricultural Experiment Station, was conducted with energy, wisdom and economy. Its removal to Raleigh in 1881 was for the convenience of having the work of the Board in the building which was the home of the department.


        President Battle's report made to the Trustees in 1887 was deemed by them of such importance that they ordered it printed and widely distributed. A synopsis of it follows:

        The President attributes the small number of students, being about the same as in 1886, a little over two hundred, to the failure of crops for three successive years, to the discontinuance of instruction in primary Latin and Greek, which had been adopted for the benefit of the Agricultural and Mechanical students, and to the persistent agitation for the partial repeal of the appropriation, making the growth of the University a matter of doubt.

        The behavior of the students has been on the whole excellent. Their refraining from threats of lynch law to average the killing of a fellow student by a negro is emphatic evidence of their respect for law.

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        Attention is then called to the increase of the Faculty and extension of the courses of instruction, and additions to the Chemical, Physical, Mineralogical, Zoölogical, and Botanical Laboratories, as well as to the museums. A Reading Room, supplied with the leading periodicals, has been thrown open for the students. A combination of the libraries of the two societies with that of the University has been effected, making a total of over 20,000 volumes, accessible every day. The Mitchell Society gives opportunity for original scientific research; the Shakespeare Club stimulates the study of English Literature, and the Historical Society the investigation into North Carolina history.

        In spite of financial depression the University has obtained an attendance of over two hundred students, larger than it had from its opening in 1795 to 1851. It has educated over five hundred poor boys and furnished hundreds of teachers. It is the parent of the Summer Normal School and led to the inauguration of graded schools in many of our towns. It has saved the State hundreds of thousands of dollars.

        The appropriation, $20,000, calls for a property tax of only five or six cents on the $1,000 value.

        For some years prior to 1861 the University brought into the State from abroad about one hundred and eighty students each year, who spent at least $100,000 annually. It kept from going into other States for higher education students who would have carried out $150,000 annually, and would have returned with a notable loss of State pride. The University of Virginia, on account of its famed law and medical schools, attracts from other States one hundred and forty-seven students each year, spending at least $90,000 annually. Princeton brings into New Jersey three hundred and fifty-eight extra-State students, spending $250,000; Yale into Connecticut seven hundred and forty-four students, spending about $600,000; Harvard into Massachusetts seven hundred and ninety-one, spending about $600,000. These figures have been largely increased since 1877. While we may not regain all our Southern patronage because of the superiority of the universities of Southern States to those prior to the Civil War, yet, if our University is allowed

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to build up a reputation for scholarship and high moral training, which it will do if properly supported, it will undoubtedly attract foreign patronage, as do the institutions named.

        Moreover, persons with large fortunes are never generous to decaying institutions. They wish to connect their names with the prosperous. Already about $60,000 have been added from private sources to the property of the State at Chapel Hill.

        Dr. Battle then quotes the Land Grant Act of 1862 and the State Act of 1867, donating the scrip to the University, and shows that it has been faithfully complied with. The interest under these laws is to be used not for farm experiments nor building barns and silos, not for erecting workshops or purchase of stock and machinery, but for teaching (1) the classics, (2) scientific studies generally, (3) military tactics, (4) branches relating to Agriculture, (5) branches relating to the Mechanic Arts: that is, not ploughing and hoeing, nor planing and sawing, but the scientific principles leading to the trades, not the trades themselves. After the student has mastered the branches of learning leading to all the pursuits of life then let him on farm or in workshop, as in a great polytechnic school, learn the skill of hand and practical details of his chosen business. This construction is that put upon the Act by Commissioner of Education, Hon. John Eaton, and by Senator Justin S. Morrill, who drew and championed the Act of 1862.*

        * The Trustees of our Agricultural and Mechanical College found themselves totally unable to do more with $7,500 a year than theoretical teaching, and have obtained from the State and the Board of Agriculture many tens of thousands of dollars to erect buildings and supply equipment for their practical work. Not a dollar was given the University for such purposes.

        The University Trustees acted with conspicuous good faith in regard to this matter. As has been said, they sent President Battle to leading Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges north of us, and on his return adopted the program which has been described. This program he explained at all the Agricultural Fairs in this State and during court weeks in as many as eighteen counties. In answer to the State Grange he replied, explaining the action adopted to carry out the will of Congress and the General Assembly. He sent copies of this letter to every member of the latter body. He afterwards, on the invitation of leading Members of the Assembly, delivered an address unfolding our construction of the Act. No adverse criticism was ever made by any legislator or officer.

        The Board of Trustees of the South Carolina College reported to the General Assembly the number of hours devoted to the study of the branches relating to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts by the colleges of Kansas, Michigan, and Mississippi,

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viz., General Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Agricultural Chemistry, Botany, Physiology, Zoölogy, Entomology, Anatomy, Geology, Mineralogy, Physics, Meteorology, Mechanics, Horticulture, Economic Entomology, Agriculture, Political Economy, Business Law. These colleges were chosen because they were not connected with any other institution and are regarded as being successful. Yet the University of North Carolina had 1,840 hours for each session devoted to the foregoing studies, while Kansas had 1,115, Michigan 1,463, and Mississippi 1,295. North Carolina gave nearly fifty per cent more instruction in Agricultural and Mechanical branches each year than Mississippi, about twenty-five per cent more than Michigan, about sixty per cent more than Kansas.

        The University has been able to give signal benefit to poor young men. We have at least one hundred with hands brown with toil--some cooking for themselves, others hiring their own cooks but furnishing their own provisions, some having county appointments free of tuition, others giving notes--with threadbare clothes, in the coldest weather without greatcoats, hovering over scanty fires, but with the flames of noble resolution burning in their breasts. There is one whose left arm was withered in infancy, who left his mother's roof at twenty years of age as a farm laborer at six dollars per month, then taught an humble school and, hearing of the kindness of the University to the poor, made his way to Chapel Hill. He was entitled to free tuition from bodily infirmity. Amid great privations he spent a few months in hard study. When the spring sun rose he started on his travels on foot on the thankless, but most honorable, business of a book agent. He returned in the fall with his hard earned gains. He is still at his studies, supporting himself by vacation work. He authorized his name to be given, L. W. Lynch, of Rutherford.

        Another case is that of a young man of Burke County, W. G. Randall, whose graduating speech at the University met with unusual applause. Bishop Lyman, being struck with the merit of his drawings, procured admission for him in the New

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York Academy of Design. He won rapid promition and was appointed instructor of drawing in a city school.

        Dr. Winston told the Teachers' Assembly at Black Mountain that an honored teacher then present, Mr. Bonner, of Beaufort, had lived at Chapel Hill on four dollars per month. Mr. Bonner arose and said, "I am sorry to correct my former teacher, but he is mistaken. I lived on three dollars and forty cents a month."

        Mr. Turlington, an excellent citizen of Johnston County, father of the Johnston County Superintendent of Schools, who was then one of our students, came to President Battle one Saturday afternoon when the sun was about two hours high and said, "I have come by private conveyance to get a teacher for our school at Elevation. I must start home by sunset. You must get me a teacher." Dr. Battle took him to the Methodist Church where a very worthy student was sweeping out the church, of which he was sexton. He said, "I can not go, as I wish to graduate, but perhaps you can get Bonner." "Where can Bonner be found?" "This being Saturday afternoon, you will probably find him at work in the Chemical Laboratory." So it proved, and in five minutes a bargain was struck and on Monday Bonner was on his way to his new field of labor. This young man, thus at work at a time usually given up to sport, was the teacher who interrupted Dr. Winston at the Teachers' Assembly.

        The student who on Saturday afternoon, instead of shouting on the baseball ground, was sweeping out the Methodist Church, was William A. Betts, who a year or two after graduation repaid his Deems' Fund loan with interest and added a sum, large for a young preacher, to help other borrowers. He is now an honored preacher in the Methodist Church in Florida.

        In order to show that neither party nor poverty are hindrances at the University President Battle states that once, on visiting the Dialectic Society, of the seven officers in sight the president and four others were Republicans, although the Democrats were in a large majority.

        When the Land Scrip Act of 1862 was passed twenty-four

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States donated their share to universities and colleges already in existence, as North Carolina did. Fourteen States established separate institutions but either States, counties, towns or individuals gave large sums as conditions precedent. A few instances are given: Alabama gave $75,000, Arkansas $170,000 Iowa $500,000, Kentucky $110,000, Maryland $100,000, Massachusetts $656,000, Texas $212,000, Virginia $100,000, and North Carolina gave nothing except the site of the University, not a dollar for equipment. And yet we were blamed for not giving practical instruction in farming and mechanics!

        The Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College is held up as an instance of great success, and justly so, but not on the lines of the University. An inspection of their catalogues shows that the majority of its students are boys and girls pursuing ordinary school studies. Of the remainder, more than half are Freshmen whose studies are far lower than those of the corresponding class in our University. The tuition is free except to nonresidents, and they pay only twenty-five dollars yearly. The college allows the students eight cents an hour for their work, the State thus paying much of their board. The Legislature, as stated, gave the college $207,000 for buying lands, erecting buildings, etc., and pays the college $30,000 per annum and all receipts of the farm.

        Again, it was mentioned in a newspaper to the disadvantage of this institution that the University of Arkansas had much larger numbers. An inspection of the catalogue shows that there had been counted the upper classes of the graded school of Fayetteville, about twenty girls studying what was called "art," residents of the town, and about two hundred negro medical students in a college over a hundred miles away. There were but one hundred and twenty-five real students in the list.

        If this institution had adopted similar standards and pursued similar policies it could have boasted of numbers. No reflection is intended. The college is doing a useful and valuable work, but is not doing the work of the University of North Carolina. This University is doing a most useful and valuable work but it ought not to confine itself to agricultural and mechanical teaching.

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        The Commencement of 1887, after the non-public society meetings on Tuesday night, was ushered in by the address of Hon. John Goode, of Norfolk, Virginia, chosen by the Philanthropic Society. He was introduced by one of the members, Robert F. Burwell. Mr. Goode spoke eloquently of the greatness of the age. Daniel Webster said that he lived longer than Methuselah, because he had seen more. What immense progress since Webster died! While emphasizing our loyalty to the Union, we should be proud of our past. Have no sympathy with those who would exalt the "New South," as it is flippantly called, by detracting from the just fame of the old South.

        The orator was strong in his praise of Industrial Education. "The achievements of the inventor are permanent. * * * They flow on in a perennial and an undying stream, and influence the most distant posterity. The humblest millwright has done more than all the kings that lie in the catacombs of Egypt. The invention of the reaper is more a blessing to mankind than the achievements of the warriors." He also pressed the importance of high character in public and private life.

        The Baccalaureate Sermon was preached by Rev. Joseph R. Wilson, D.D., Professor of Theology of the Southwestern Presbyterian University at Clarksville, Tennessee, father of Dr. Woodrow Wilson, late President of Princeton University. It was a sermon "full of meat," the subject being "True Greatness." He drew a picture of the truly great man. The greatest man is he whose reliance on truth is most unfaltering. No life is the highest that conveys no blessings to other lives. Christ is the king and kinsman, the benefactor and brother of all. The preacher knew a man in the mountains of Virginia who lived for others, totally unselfish, Godlike. Contrast his life with that of Lord Byron, brilliant but vicious, egotistical. Lasting greatness is only goodness.

        On Wednesday night the representatives of the societies delivered original speeches. Lee Crowell's subject was "The Utility of Beauty"; Hansen M. Murphy spoke on "Leadership in America"; Logan Douglass Howell on "The Spirit of the Age"; Junius R. Parker on "Rebounds"; O. D. Batchelor on

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"The Reformer"; and John A. Hendricks on "The Death Penalty."

        The Representative Medal, given by the two societies, was awarded by a committee to Mr. Batchelor.

        The Trustees had met in the afternoon. They decided to give an assistant to Professors Hume and Winston, to teach some of the lower classes and to correct exercises, to be appointed by the Professor in charge and the President.

        Of the Visiting Committee Messrs. J. L. Stewart, J. S. Carr, and William H. Chadbourn were present, but made no official report at that time.


        Nearly all of Thursday was occupied by the speeches of graduates. The program runs: "The Mystery of Nature," by D. Tate Wilson; "Russia's Position in Europe," by W. S. Wilkinson; "Bismarck," by H. F. Shaffner; "The Merit System Versus Spoils," by W. H. McDonald; "The Ideal Teacher and His Social Influence," by Claude F. Smith; "Our Social Dangers and Their Remedies," by A. M. Simmons; "American Citizenship," by Claudius Dockery, the Philosophical Oration; "Progress in Conservatism," by Louis M. Bourne; "Individuality," by J. F. McIver; "The Influence of Ideals," by Richard N. Hackett; "The Slavery of Freedom," by Robert G. Grissom, the Scientific Oration; "The Failure of Republics," by W. H. McNeill; "The Foreign Element in American Life," by Jacob C. Johnson; "The Makers of Our State," by Vernon W. Long; "The Transition Period," by Henry R. Starbuck; "The Scientific Spirit," by Lucius P. McGehee; "Our Best Inheritance," by Haywood Parker.

        Of the above Mr. Starbuck was absent on account of the death of his father. Besides these, five candidates for the Bachelor's degree were allowed to submit theses without speaking, viz., Joseph H. Baker, Jr., on "Ancient Speculations in Natural Science"; Robert T. Burwell on "Hear the Other Side"; Joseph A. Morris on "Petrovich in America"; James McGuire on "The Rights of Labor and of Capital"; and William R. Tucker on "The Spirit of British Eloquence."

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        Lucius Polk McGehee was declared to be Valedictorian, attaining an average in all his studies of over ninety-five. Claudius Dockery attained the highest general average in the Ph.B. course, which was above ninety, and was voted the Philosophical Oration. Robert G. Grissom attained the highest general average in the Scientific course, which was above ninety, and was voted the Scientific Oration.

        For the degree of Master of Arts, Samuel B. Turrentine passed the requisite studies and submitted an approved thesis on "Affiliation of Roman and Greek History." Stephen Beauregard Weeks also fulfilled the requirements and presented a treatise on the "Chester Mysteries."

        Herbert Bemerton Battle attained the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). His subject was "Agricultural Chemistry and Geology."

        The Mangum Medal for Oratory was awarded to Louis M. Bourne, his subject being, as said, "Progress in Conservatism." The ideal standard of government can only be reached through liberal conservatism. Our recent war was the result of extreme Southern conservatism, not the result of rashness.

        The Bachelor of Arts graduates were in number thirteen, the Bachelor of Philosophy graduates were eight, there was one Bachelor of Science, a total of twenty-two.

        Bourne, Burwell, Johnson, Long, McDonald, McIver, Morris, Parker, Shaffner, Simmons, Smith, Starbuck, Wilkinson, and Wilson graduated cum laude. Dockery and Grissom magna cum laude, and McGehee maxima cum laude. Medals and prizes were won as follows:

  • MATHEMATICAL PRIZE--William M. Little.
  • GREEK PRIZE--William James Battle.
  • CHEMISTRY MEDAL--Robert Gilliam Grissom.
  • WORTH PRIZE--Lucius Polk McGehee.
  • MAGAZINE MEDAL--M. W. Egerton.

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  • In MATHEMATICS to William Myers Little, Lucius Polk McGehee, Delonza Tate Wilson.
  • In LATIN to Lucius Polk McGehee.
  • In CHEMISTRY to Robert Gilliam Grissom, Henry Fries Shaffner.
  • In NATURAL PHILOSOPHY to Robert Turnbull Burwell, Claudius Dockery, Robert Gilliam Grissom, Lucius Polk McGehee.

        Some of the graduates of 1887 have achieved notable success in life. Bourne has a large practice as a lawyer in Asheville, as has his partner, Parker. McGehee has written a law book of great merit, and was co-editor of a Law Encyclopædia. He is an able Professor of Law in this University, and Dean of the department. Morris is a skillful physician; Grissom an able man of business; Simmons lost his eyesight, but continued his law practice and published a book of merit; Smith stands high as an Episcopal clergyman; Starbuck has been a much esteemed Judge, and is an able lawyer; Wilkinson is a successful insurance agent; Burwell a prosperous man in New Orleans; Dockery is United States Marshal; Shaffner, cashier of a bank and trust company.

        The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was granted to Rev. John Backus, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and Rev. L. C. Vass, of New Bern, eminent divines, the first of the Baptist and the second of the Presbyterian Church.

        The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was granted to Hon. Joseph J. Davis, a Judge of the Supreme Court of the State; to Morris H. Henry, M.D., an eminent physician of New York; to the Right Reverend Theodore B. Lyman, Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in North Carolina, and to Hunter McGuire, distinguished surgeon, of Richmond, Virginia.

        William M. Little was Chief Marshal.

        The Ball was pronounced to be the best conducted and most orderly of any on record. The credit for this was given to the tact and firmness of the chief manager, Frank M. Parker, Jr.

        In 1886-'87 the changes in the Faculty were few. Eben Alexander, Ph.D., a graduate of Yale, Professor of Greek and Chairman of the Faculty of the University of Tennessee, became

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Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. James Lee Love, in addition to his other duties, became Librarian and Secretary of the Faculty. Professor Gore retained the Registrarship. Joseph A. Morris and John F. McIver were Student Librarians.

EVENTS OF 1887-'88.

        An effort was made to place the University Magazine on a safe basis, the subscription list having dwindled to insignificance. The cause of this was in part irregular management, sometimes whole issues not being distributed. The new plan was to make the journal independent of subscriptions. There were two editors, from each of the literary societies, and two from the Faculty, who were to be chiefs of staff. The societies and the University were to receive one hundred copies each gratis. The University and the societies contributed to the cost $100 each. There were to be six issues per annum and the price was one dollar a copy.

        On University Day, October 12th, there was a scholarly historical address on the career of William Richardson Davie, the Father of the University, by Hon. Alfred D. Jones, of the Class of 1878. He dwelt especially on the services rendered by Davie in casting the vote of North Carolina, then one of the large States, to give the small States equal weight in the Senate. He was likewise a signal benefactor to his country in 1798, as one of the Commissioners to France, in averting a war with that country.

        President Battle followed by reading to the audience the last letter written by Davie before repairing to his home in South Carolina. It was his parting advice to the Trustees of the University in regard to its management and contains many wise precepts. He was especially severe in commenting on the "uppishness," (to use a word of modern coinage), of young men under age adopting the slang engendered by the French Revolutionary times, and prating about the rights of man, the inalienable right of resistance to tyranny, and such "bigoty" phrases.

        Mr. Jones' career after the triumph of this day was brief and

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deplorable. After being appointed Consul to Shanghai in 1893 it was his sad fate to die in that distant city before actively entering on his duties. The State lost an excellent citizen and the University a cherished son. He was a descendant of one of the early Trustees and Senators of Wake, Nathaniel Jones, of "White Plains," and of Daniel W. Courts, A.B., 1823, long State Treasurer. His father, Wesley Jones, was United States Marshal and State Senator and Commoner, while he himself was a leader in the Legislature.

        Col. Alfred Moore Waddell, by invitation, in October read an interesting paper before the Mitchell Society on the probable settlement of our coasts by the Norsemen prior to the sailing of Columbus. His essay was bright and plausible and his delivery graceful and in excellent taste.

        Later Colonel Waddell read in his usual charming manner a paper on Shakespeare's knowledge of law as shown in numberless passages. Although some may conclude that the great poet knew of law about as much as any intelligent man in our days can pick up from the newspaper accounts of court proceedings, serving on juries, and conversation with members of the bar, we were forced to admit the skill with which the speaker handled his authorities.

        On the 22d of February, 1888, Henry Johnston, of Tarboro, delivered the oration. It won for him the reputation of a large brain and rare literary powers.

        Professor Toy having been severely injured by a fall from a runaway horse, Mr. Hans Schmidt-Wartenburg was elected to take temporary charge of French and German. He proved to be remarkably well versed in the studies of his department and very acceptable to his classes. There was general regret that the state of our finances did not justify us in retaining him by the offer of another chair.

        The thanks of the Faculty were voted to Dr. Wm. B. Phillips for rearranging and relabelling the Vienna collection of minerals, and for his generously adding to the collection from his private hoards.

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        The Senior Class of 1888 held its Class Day exercises on April 24. At the opening of the fall term of the preceding year there was a meeting for organization. Wm. Myers Little was chosen President, Malvern Hill Palmer, Secretary, and Francis Marion Harper, Treasurer. Gold headed canes and silk hats were adopted, the class cup decided upon, and a committee appointed to procure a class tree. Mr. W. J. Armfield, president of the National Bank of High Point, saved the committee the trouble of investigation by presenting to the class a Norway spruce (Picea Excelsa). The donor's letter was gracefully expressed. Two sentences are quoted. "This species of tree illustrates an excellent type by which to fashion your career in life. A broad base, with wide extending, symmetrical branches, towering majestically, its foliage ever fresh and green and flourishing, when nurtured 'neath sunny skies, or where nature presents herself in more rugged and repellant form." A vote of thanks was given to the donor. It is sad to note that this tree, beginning its Chapel Hill life under such auspices, lingered for several years and then succumbed to its natural enemies.

        At one o'clock on the 24th, the class, with the President and Marshal in front, entered Memorial Hall to a spirited march rendered by the Raleigh String Band. This program interspersed with music was duly rendered:

  • I. Oration by Oliver D. Batchelor.
  • II. History by William James Battle.
  • III. Poem by Charles G. Foust.
  • IV. Prophecies by St. Clair Hester.
  • V. Address by President William M. Little.

        An anecdote told by the historian, W. J. Battle, and a few statements from his history may be of interest. Professor Winston gave the class an extended written entrance examination in Latin. One of his questions was, "What are the principal parts of capio? Ditto, tango?" One bright youth wrote capio, capere, cepi, captum. Ditto, dittare, dittavi, dittatum.

        In the Freshman year the class numbered eighty. Of these all but thirteen left during their course, but six were added after the first year, so that there were nineteen graduates.

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        Of the class there were ten Dialectics and nine Philanthropics. In church preferences there were eleven Methodists, five Episcopalians, one Presbyterian, one Disciple, and one undecided. One minister, five lawyers, two physicians, two journalists, two teachers, one banker, one chemist, one farmer, and four undecided made up the future professions of the class. The ages of the members ranged from seventeen to twenty-six; the weight from one hundred and twenty-eight to one hundred and eighty-five pounds. Of those who left the University before graduation eleven were teachers. The rest were doing well. Several of those who left joined lower classes.

        The class poem, by Charles G. Foust, had real merit. It was the story of a girl in Randolph County, Naomi Wise, who was enamored of Nathan Lewis, betrayed under promise of immediate marriage, and drowned by her lover in Deep River. He was pursued, carried to Naomi's side and, losing his reason, killed himself. An extract is given:

                         With measured step he neared her side;
                         His brow grew swarthy, wild his eye.
                         As down he bent and stroked her brow,
                         Swift furies around him closed
                         And laughed with murderous glee.
                         A deep black scowl, a maniac's howl,
                         His earthly end shall be.

                         Down, down the side of the chasm wide,
                         He took the awful leap.
                         But ne'er was drowned the maniac sound
                         Of that last piercing shriek;
                         The cry long rings on whirling winds,
                         Then dies into a moan,
                         To tell that crime in every clime
                         Has only death for its own.

        The prophecies by St. Clair Hester were droll and piquant. They were intended to amuse the students and succeeded admirably.

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        The President in his speech called attention to the opportunities and responsibilities of his classmates:

                         We are living, we are dwelling,
                         In a grand and awful time,
                         In an age or ages telling--
                         To be living is sublime.
Our opportunities have been greater than are those of the majority. May we all meet them fairly and honestly--in view of our responsibility to ourselves, to our country and our God.

        The exercises closed with a beautiful ode by Mrs. C. P. Spencer, written expressly for the class, to the tune of "Annie Laurie."

                         Fair shines the rosy morning,
                         And fairer omens wait
                         To bless with cheerful warning
                         The boys of "eighty-eight."

                         All hail to eighty-eight,
                         And hail our festal day,
                         Whose memories, sweet and tender.
                         Will fill our hearts for aye.

                         This gray old haunt of sages,
                         With generous, open door,
                         And bright, illumined pages,
                         Will know us soon no more.

                         Will see us here no more.
                         But for many and many a day,
                         May her light be brightly burning,
                         And her name renowned for aye.

                         Brothers! we part tomorrow,
                         Each to his duty's call,
                         Each to the joy or sorrow
                         Our Father sends to all.

                         Whate'er He sends to all,
                         Let naught the march delay;
                         The path grows clear and clearer
                         That leads us home for aye.

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                         Clasp hands, dear friends, at parting,
                         In Faith and Hope and Love;
                         Press back the teardrop starting,
                         Adieu to Hill and Grove.

                         Adieu to Hill and Grove,
                         Where yet we fain would stay,
                         Where our sweetest thoughts will linger
                         And our love remains for aye.

        After the class exercises came an amusing presentation of bogus medals, such as the "Ugly Man's," the "Dude's," the recipients selected generally on the principle of lucus a non lucendo, though sometimes real sarcasm was intended. All was taken in good humor.

        At night there was a dance in the Gymnasium, at which were present many of the belles of the State.


        The Commencement of 1888 was the ninety-second. The weather was lovely and the attendance was very good. The number of alumni at the society meetings was unusually large.

        On Wednesday morning Chief Justice Walter Clark delivered the Annual Address, having been chosen by the Philanthropic Society. Since then he has been elected Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of this State. He gave counsel of inestimable value, describing the great possibilities before young men and their corresponding duties. He then mentioned some of the great questions which must be rightly solved or our civilization will be destroyed--the accumulation of enormous wealth, the immense power that this wealth gives, the formation of trusts and the nullifying the laws of supply and demand, the control of elections, the creation of communists and anarchists. But the Judge believed that the people would find a remedy.

        In closing he exhorted the young men to imitate the great men of the University. One class has four in consecutive order, Pettigrew, Pool, Ransom, and Scales. The alumni are a long array of men worthy to be revered and followed. "By faithful, complete and perfect performance of duty, you can be useful

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in your day and generation and shall conquer from the eternal silence something that shall last and which will speak for you when your lips are dumb--the memory and influence of a life nobly spent in the faithful performance of duty."

        After the address the Alumni Association was called together by Hon. P. C. Cameron, who gave way to the new President, Col. Walter L. Steele. Mr. Josephus Daniels was elected Secretary, Mr. Robert G. Grissom, Treasurer, and five vice-presidents were chosen. Committees were appointed to arrange for reunions at the charter centennial in 1889, and to effect local organizations throughout the country, wherever the alumni were sufficiently numerous.

        The sermon of Rev. Dr. Wayland Hoyt, pastor of the Memorial Baptist Church of Philadelphia, was in the afternoon. The text was "Have Salt in Yourselves," and the sermon was filled with sound instruction, eloquently and feelingly conveyed. His theme was "The Right Uses of the Salt of Culture." "To win great success continuous and religious work through life is necessary. True culture is Godward."

        The exercises of Wednesday night were, as usual, interesting, being original speeches by representatives chosen by the societies locally known as the "Representative speaking." Their names and subjects are as follows: "Grido di Dolore," by George S. Wills; "Poetry and Progress," by John S. Hill; "Truth in History," by W. T. Whitsett; "North Carolina's Need of a History," by S. M. Blount; "Art in Relation to Character," by Hunter L. Harris; "The Status of Southern Women," by Thomas A. Cox; "Life Out of Death," by M. W. Egerton, and "Heroism," by Daniel J. Currie. Messrs. Wills, Blount, Harris, and Cox were Philanthropics, the others Dialectics. The committee of alumni awarded the medal to Mr. Egerton.

        Thursday was the great day. It was Commencement proper. The citizens of the county came in numbers so great that their horses and vehicles covered the part of the Campus south of Memorial Hall. At ten o'clock a long procession of officers, alumni, students, and eminent visitors marched to the Chapel,

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uncovering their heads as they passed the Caldwell Monument. Then came music by the band and the opening prayer. Original speeches by the graduates followed. Eugene Morehead Armfield spoke on "Southern Literature"; Henry Watson Lewis on "Faith and Freedom"; Thomas J. Eskridge on "Rome in America"; William E. Headen on "The Cost of Culture"; Francis M. Harper on "The Revolution of Thought," this being the Philosophical Oration; Robert Lee Smith on "The Crisis of English Freedom"; Hayne Davis on "The Idol of Our Age"; William James Battle on "The Early Settlers of North Carolina--a Vindication," this being the Classical Oration; St. Clair Hester on "Religious Liberalism"; Charles G. Foust on "The Failure of Success"; W. J. B. Dail on "The Balance Sheet of North Carolina"; Oliver Douglas Batchelor on "Social Ideals"; Malvern Hill Palmer on "The Citizen of the World"; William Myers Little (Valedictorian) on "The Young Man's Problem"; E. P. Withers on "The Coming Revolution."

        The following theses were submitted but not read publicly: A. Braswell, Jr., on "North Carolina--Her Material Advantages"; Luther Bell Edwards on "The Netherlands and Their Leader"; Maxcy L. John on "The Danger of an Unrestricted Press"; Benoni Thorp on "Raleigh and American Colonization." There was one thesis by a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Stephen Beauregard Weeks, on "The Maid of France and Schiller Versus Shakespeare."

        The committee on the speaking awarded the Mangum Medal to Mr. Batchelor. They also especially commended St. Clair Hester, E. P. Withers, F. M. Harper, and T. J. Eskridge.

        The names of those obtaining Degrees in Course may be found in the Appendix.

Bachelors of Arts (A.B.) 9
Bachelors of Philosophy (Ph.B.) 6
Bachelors of Science (B.S.) 4
Bachelor of Law 1
Total 20

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        The members of this class have had a good average of success. Armfield died in 1909, after having been a thriving banker, and after giving $5,000 to the University for scholarships; Batchelor is a successful lawyer in Virginia; Battle is Dean of the University of Texas and Professor of Greek; Davis has been secretary of the American Branch of the International Arbitration Tribunal, and is a lawyer in New York; Edwards is a Superintendent of Graded Schools of repute; Foust is a thriving lumberman in Texas; Harper is Superintendent of the Graded Schools of Raleigh, very prominent as an educator; John is a successful lawyer; Smith was a prominent teacher, has been in the Legislature from Stanly, and is now a lawyer; Withers has a high reputation as a lawyer and Assemblyman in Virginia; Dail is a teacher; Eskridge is a Methodist minister in Tennessee; Drew an able lawyer in Florida; Hester is rector of one of the principal Episcopal Churches in Brooklyn, New York; Headen a leading physician in Beaufort; H. W. Lewis a successful lawyer and business man in New Jersey; Little has been Consul to a Central American city and is a lawyer of repute. Thorp and Palmer died early.

        The Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) was conferred on Theodore B. Kingsbury, alumnus of 1848, editor of the Wilmington Star and afterwards of the Messenger, an author and an accomplished scholar; on Bishop E. R. Hendricks of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Judge Robert P. Dick, late of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, then Judge of the United States District Court, a graduate of 1841.

        The degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) was conferred on Rev. Samuel Rothrock, of the Lutheran Church.

        In the Bachelor of Arts course W. M. Little graduated maxima cum laude. Those magna cum laude were O. D. Batchelor, W. J. Battle, and Hayne Davis. Those cum laude were E. M. Armfield, L. B. Edwards, St. Clair Hester, H. W. Lewis, and W. E. Headen. Those in the Bachelor of Philosophy course were F. M. Harper and E. P. Withers magna cum laude; Charles G. Foust, Malvern H. Palmer, and Robert L. Smith cum laude. Those obtaining Bachelor of Science

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(B.S.) were A. Braswell, Jr., W. J. B. Dail, Thomas J. Eskridge, and Benoni Thorp, all cum laude. There was one Bachelor of Laws (B.L.), Frank Drew.

        Special mention was made of Robert Lee Uzzell, who had pursued a two years postgraduate course in English and the Modern Languages. The Worth prize went to E. P. Withers; the Greek prize to G. P. Howell; the Mathematical prize to Alexander McIver, Jr.; the Chemistry medal to Benoni Thorp; the prize for an essay on Education in North Carolina to John S. Hill; the winners of the Mangum and Representative medals have been mentioned.

        Special Certificates were granted as follows:

  • LATIN--E. M. Armfield, Wm. J. Battle, Hayne Davis, L. D. Howell, W. S. Roberson, T. W. Valentine, C. A. Webb.
  • GREEK--W. J. Battle, St. Clair Hester, C. A. Webb.
  • ENGLISH--St. Clair Hester.
  • CHEMISTRY--Benoni Thorp.
  • NATURAL PHILOSOPHY--T. J. Eskridge, W. M. Little.
  • NORMAL COURSE--W. T. Whitsett.


  • VALEDICTORY ORATION--William Myers Little.
  • CLASSICAL ORATION--William James Battle.
  • PHILOSOPHICAL ORATION--Francis Marion Harper.
  • LATIN PRIZE--George Pierce Howell.
  • GREEK PRIZE--Alexander McIver, Jr.
  • MATHEMATICAL MEDAL--Daniel Johnson Currie.
  • CHEMISTRY MEDAL--Benoni Thorp.
  • WORTH PRIZE--Eugene Percival Withers.
  • REPRESENTATIVE MEDAL--Montraville Walker Egerton.
  • MANGUM MEDAL--Oliver Douglas Batchelor.

        At the private meeting of the two societies in the Philanthropic Hall the debater's medal was won by Logan D. Howell, the essayist's by H. G. Wood, the declaimer's by Shepard Bryan. In the Dialectic the debater's medal was won by E. P. Withers, the essayist's by D. J. Currie, and the declaimer's by J. Spottswood Taylor.

        In 1887-'88 Professor Love's title was changed to Associate

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Professor. Claudius Dockery, Ph.B., was made the Instructor in Latin, and Stephen B. Weeks, A.M., Instructor in English. Victor S. Bryant and St. Clair Hester were Society Librarians.


        On April 10, 1889, occurred a death full of pathos. Rev. Charles Phillips, D.D., LL.D., ten years before, as has been told, felt that it was his duty to resign active work in the University, and was made Professor Emeritus. When his father, Dr. James Phillips, came from Harlem in New York to fill the Chair of Mathematics, Charles was a boy four years old. He grew up under the shadow of the University and graduated one of the first honor men of his class in 1841. Many of his friends regretted that he did not confine his studies to Mathematics. He would have become a renowned specialist in that line. While none of his sons inherited his mathematical talent and taste, one, Dr. Wm. B. Phillips, is Director of the University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, another, Rev. Dr. Alexander L. Phillips, is General Agent of the Presbyterian Church, South, for the conduct of Sunday Schools. Dr. Charles Phillips' sister, Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer, attained much reputation as a writer of letters and lyrics, and his brother, Samuel Field Phillips, was one of the ablest lawyers of the country and was for twelve years Solicitor-General of the United States. His father, Rev. Dr. James Phillips, long Professor of Mathematics in this University, has already been described. One of his daughters, Mrs. Lucy Phillips Russell, has been Dean of the Presbyterian College (for girls) at Charlotte. He is buried in the chapel Hill Cemetery. A marble slab in the Presbyterian Church commemorates his successful labors in procuring its erection.


        The Commencement of 1889 is distinguished as being the centennial of the granting of the charter. Messrs. John Manning, Geo. T. Winston, and J. W. Gore were a committee of the Faculty to make the proper arrangements. In order to

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insure a full attendance it was promised that the occasion would not be used for bringing pressure on the alumni for pecuniary donations. It was thought that the revival of affectionate feelings towards Alma Mater and towards one another would bring the institution more abundant returns than could be attained from pockets or check books. Besides there are sensitive natures, of great influence in their neighborhoods but poor in purse, who are mortified in gatherings when others are showering gifts while they must hold their hands. The committee were complimented on the thoroughness and good taste of their arrangements.

        The Baccalaureate Sermon was by Bishop W. W. Duncan, of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The text was Matthew 20:20-28. Seldom do such sermons have as true, practical, godly wisdom as his. At night he preached in the new Methodist Church. There was a debt of $800 on the building. A subscription was taken up, the amount raised, and the church dedicated.

        The Class Day exercises of 1889 were held in Memorial Hall, June 4th. Logan Douglass Howell was President; Herbert Clement, Secretary-Treasurer; Charles Aurelius Webb, Orator; George Stockton Wills, Historian; Hunter Lee Harris, Poet; Mills Robert Eure, Prophet; Lacy Legrand Little, Marshal.

        Addresses were made by President, Orator, Historian, Poet, and Prophet.

        The class song was sung to the tune of "In the Gloaming." It was the composition of Hunter Lee Harris, who shortly afterwards lost his life by drowning. Among its younger alumni the University has lost none more promising than was he.

                         Comrades, as we stand together
                         Here to take a last farewell,
                         Hope may spring and live forever,
                         Parting now comes like a knell.
                         Oft in fair and cloudy weather,
                         At the call of book or bell,
                         Have we toiled or lounged together--
                         Ah, the tale is hard to tell!

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                         Well! four years is quite a season,
                         But how quickly it has passed!
                         Life is short, ah! that's the reason
                         Why eternity's so vast.
                         Now the slow revolving cycle
                         Once hath reached the hundred line,
                         There we've climbed to write the title
                         Of our class of eighty-nine.

                         College joys are ours no longer;
                         College trials, too, are o'er,
                         And our hearts should be the stronger
                         For the days that are no more.
                         If it be when hours are golden
                         We have oft unfaithful been,
                         It should all the more embolden
                         Us to labor and to win.

                         Comrades! in the great Hereafter,
                         When our youth has gone before,
                         Let the echo of its laughter
                         Thrill us ever more and more.
                         And from youth to old age growing,
                         Grow we, too, in sweet content,
                         May we reap the faithful sowing
                         Of a true life truly spent.

        The oration by Webb was on "Modern Development." It showed eloquence and praiseworthy scoring of the feverish haste to be rich. One sentence is given: "Hence, while we are Simon-like bending over, digging in the earth, let us once in a while straighten up to the full stature of our manhood and give the noble and better part of us a glimpse skyward, so that the soul that is within us may feel that through the glimmering sheen of the midnight heavens, spangled over with stars, there is a divine suggestion that we live a life that is not all dross and towards which we should sometimes strive."

        Wills, the Historian, recorded some facts of much interest. Fifty-three Freshmen were registered in 1885. The next year forty-three returned and ten new students took the place of those who remained at home. In the Junior year only twenty-seven out of fifty-three Sophomores returned, but three new men came in, making thirty Juniors. Only twenty out of

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a total registration of sixty-eight are graduates. Of these eleven are Dialectics and eight Philanthropics; one belonging to neither society. There are eight Methodists, five Presbyterians, five Baptists, one Episcopalian, and one Friend. The average age is twenty-two and two-fifths years