Documenting the American South Logo

Superintendent's Report of the Eastern N. C. Insane Asylum, for the Year of 1884:
Electronic Edition.

Eastern North Carolina Insane Asylum (Goldsboro, N.C.)

Funding from the Institute for Museum and Library Services supported the electronic publication of this title.

Text transcribed by Apex Data Services, Inc.
Images scanned by Don Chalfant
Text encoded by Apex Data Services, Inc. and Melissa Meeks
First edition, 2002
ca. 65K
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

No Copyright in US

Source Description:

(series) Superintendent's Report of the Eastern N.C. Insane Asylum.
(cover) Superintendent's Report of the Eastern Insane Asylum, for the Year of 1884.
(caption) Annual report of the chairman of the directors of the Eastern North Carolina Insane Asylum.
(title) Superintendent's Report of the Eastern N. C. Insane Asylum, for the Year of 1884.
Eastern North Carolina Insane Asylum (Goldsboro, N.C.)
24 p.
Goldsboro, N. C.

Call number C362.2 N87sg 1884-1890 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South.
        The text has been entered using double-keying and verified against the original.
        The text has been encoded using the recommendations for Level 4 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines.
        Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. Encountered typographical errors have been preserved, and appear in red type.
        All footnotes are inserted at the point of reference within paragraphs.
        Any hyphens occurring in line breaks have been removed, and the trailing part of a word has been joined to the preceding line.
        All quotation marks, em dashes and ampersand have been transcribed as entity references.
        All double right and left quotation marks are encoded as " and " respectively.
        All single right and left quotation marks are encoded as ' and ' respectively.
        All em dashes are encoded as --
        Indentation in lines has not been preserved.
        Running titles have not been preserved.
        Spell-check and verification made against printed text using Author/Editor (SoftQuad) and Microsoft Word spell check programs.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Languages Used:

LC Subject Headings:

Revision History:



[Cover Page Image]

Page 1


GOLDSBORO, N. C., December 20, 1884.


        DEAR SIR:--I have the honor of presenting herewith the annual report of Dr. J. D. Roberts, the Superintendent of the Eastern N. C. Insane Asylum, for the fiscal year ending December 1, 1884.

        There is nothing of any special importance to communicate beyond the fact that since the meeting of the last General Assembly the new wing for the Asylum, then under contract, has been completed and is now, and has been for sometime, occupied by patients. The Diroctors also deem it necessary to provide additional accommadation for the officers of the Institution and have decided to erect a building on the Asylum premises, in close proximity to the main building, for a residence to be occupied by the Superintendent. This building is to be built of brick and to be supplied with gas and water from the main works, at a total cost not to exceed $3,600.

        The construction of this building is made necessary, from the fact that since the completion of the new wing, the demands for additional offices, store rooms, and accommodation for the Assistant Superintendent, render the main building insufficient for the residences of both the Superintendent and Steward.

        The money for the erection of this new residence ($3,600) has been appropriated from funds on hand and originally appropriated for the maintenance of the Institution. I ask, respectfully, that the General Assembly approve of this expenditure.

        The report of Dr. Worth, State Treasurer, herewith annexed, shows the financial condition of the Asylum. I respectfully ask that an appropriation of $25,000 a year be made for the support of the Institution for the next two years. There are indications that the number of patients will gradually increase, but I think the sum named sufficient for support.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,

Chairman of Board of Directors.



[Title Page Image]

Page 3

Superintendent's Report
Eastern N. C. Insane Asylum,
Year of 1884.


Page 4

Page 5

Superintendent's Report.


        Gentlemen: The fifth annual report of the Eastern North Carolina Insane Asylum is herewith presented, for the fiscal year ending Nov. 30, 1884.

        Below is table No. 1, showing the movement of population for the year. Other tables, usually given in reports of this character, will be found in the appendix.



Number at last report, 56 54 110
Received since, 37 44 81
Total number treated, 93 98 191
Total discharges, 28 19 47
Now under treatment, 65 79 144

        The results of the year have been better than for any like period during the existence of the Institution, and are perhaps all that could be expected, considering the condition of the receptions during the last months of the preceding year, and the first months of this year.


        An examination of the tables will show condition of discharges, cause of death, residence in hospital, form of insanity of the receptions, duration of the disease, occupation, etc. Of the receptions 30 were acute and 51 were chronic. The form of insanity was Maniacal in 48, Melancholic in 14, Dementia in 11, and Delusions and Imbecility in 1 each. *

        * The forms of insanity here given are taken from the applications, and are entered just as given, without any attempt to properly classify each case. Delusions are really a symptom of a large per cent. of all cases of insanity.

One patient was 80 years old, of low vitality very weak and feeble when received, and died in less than
Page 6

three months. Another 83 years old, is still here. Six or eight came in an almost exhausted condition, three of whom were not able to sit up. Only one of these recovered. Several had been insane for periods ranging from five to twenty years. Four were second admissions, one of whom had been discharged as much improved and three as cured. Of this years receptions sixteen have been discharged as cured, one as improved, four as unimproved, six died, and fifty-four are still under treatment, 25 to 30 per cent. of whom show some improvement. Seven were sixty years old and over. One is home on probation. Two were discharged on bond.


        The per centage of cures for the year, on the number of admissions, compares very favorably with the results obtained in other institutions, being some over 32 per cent. The average residence in the Asylum of the cured cases for the year, is a fraction over six months. This would have been much smaller (5 months) but for one patient, who was discharged as cured after a residence of over four years. No other patient, discharged as cured, was in the Asylum as long as one year. No case has been received and discharged more than once during the year. It is to be regretted that the friends of patients, and in many instances, the authorities in charge, wait so long before availing themselves of the benefits of the Asylum. It seems that they consider it a duty to keep the patient at home as long as possible, and when they can no longer take care of him, turn him over to the Asylum. If a patient is to be sent to the Asylum at all, the earlier it is done, after the onset of the disease, the better it is for both patient and those in chage. Valuable time in the treatment of insanity is often lost by carelessness or negligence in thus delaying. I have already, in previous reports, called attention to this

Page 7

subject and can do nothing more than still urge, hat patients be sent to the Asylum as early as possible.


        The number of deaths for the year is 14, a fraction over 7 per cent. on the whole number treated. This is much smaller than ever before, but is still in excess of the death rate of other institutions. Only one patient died from an acute affection, all the others dying from diseases generally considered incurable. Six of those dying were in the Asylum less than three months. One had received injuries prior to his admission, from which he died in 36 hours. (entered as 2 days). Another was unable to sit up, and died in two weeks. Another bent the window guards, and jumped from a third story window, in an attempt to escape, and died from the shock in three hours. He had been here less than one month A fourth was admitted with Bright's Disease and lived six weeks. Another died in less than 3 months after admission, from old age. We have been spared any serious illness of an epidemic character, and with the exception of a few cases of consumption, can report the general health of the household as good.


        I have this year received patients as rapidly as applications have been made, except in a few instances, there was a delay on account of irregularities in the papers, or where the patient was not a suitable one to be admitted under the law. In the beginning of the year the register showed 110 patients. This number was gradually increased to 152 which was the highest number on the register at any one time, and even then, several were home on probation, so that we have not at any one time 150 patients in the house. Our present number is 144. The daily average for

Page 8

the year is 133 28. Our capacity is 160, so we have not yet had the house full. While I would increase the number, if necessary, it is by no means desirable to fill the house up, as a few extra beds for changing patients from one ward to another, or for receiving acute cases without delay in making room for them, are almost a necessity.

        In my last report, I congratulated the Board on having room for the colored insane of the State for several years to come. Taking the information from the different counties then at my command, together with this year's receptions, I was not far from correct in my calculations. Since then I have been examining the tables of the tenth (1880) Census reports, and if they are to be relied on, I was premature in my congratulations. According to the Census, we had in North Carolina in 1880, 450 colored insane, which must now reach 500, considering the great increase there is in this disease. From a calculation of the statistics of colored insane in the United States in 1870 and in 1880 we find the per centage of increase to be 238.

        At this rate it will be but a few years before larger accommodations will be needed for them. Of this there is no present necessity, but it would be well for us to accept the inevitable, so as to govern ourselves with this view in end, viz: that this institution will have to be enlarged in the future. It is not intended to recommend here that steps should be taken for enlarging. The State, at present. has a large burden in providing for the white insane, 1,100 of whom, according to the Census reports, are without Asylum treatment.


        I have, during the year, pushed forward a few of the many needed improvements. The importance and utility of this work will be at once recognized by those acquainted with our necessities. Much more remains yet to be done. and I will continue work of this character if it meets the

Page 9

approval of the Board. A new milk house has been built, well arranged and neatly fitted up, which is a great convenience to the housekeeping department. Another improvement, much appreciated by all, is the covered passage way between the centre building and the kitchen. The foundations are on eight inch brick walls, all wood work under the floor covered with pitch, first three feet made of ceiling and balance latticed, covered with tin, the whole well finished up and painted a sombre color.

        Two open work, or latticed, summer houses have been built in the female court yard. The Steward has had a new buggy house built, a main building 18×20 with a shed on either side, giving us room for storing up all tools and farming implements out of the weather. I purchased, and had set out, near 75 fruit trees, most of them peach, of which fruit we were in much want. I also put out some small fruits. These were set out during the continued dry weather, and though every care was taken with them by an experienced man in such matters, and they have been kept watered, fears are entertained as to their living. Work has been continued on the hill, by grading, hauling on manure, and sowing down the front in blue grass. Several walks and flower beds were laid off and planted out in the spring, but owing to the stiff clay soil, but few have grow as well as I could wish. The old pit used last winter for storing our flowers, has been enlarged and covered with glass and is now denominated the "green-house" This was necessary on account of the increase in our stock of flowers. Even now we have not room for all and many are in the wards, much to the gratification of the patients When I placed them in the wards I was fearful that the patients would break them up, but much to my surprise, not a single flower has been injured, though the patients have had free access to them for two months.

        Work was commenced on the road leading from the new entrance, but has been suspended, awaiting the exact location of the Superintendent's residence.

        Balance due on contract for heating house has been paid this year amounting to $2,13200.

Page 10

        The sum of $3,600 has been drawn and placed to the credit of the building committee, for the purpose of building the Superintendent's residence.

        On the farm 800 yards of new fence has been built, and 400 yards overhauled and thoroughly repaired. The total cost of these improvements including repairs and amount for residence is $7,115.13. Most of this work was done by our regular force. A gardener was employed two weeks in the spring, and an extra carpenter for six weeks during the summer. A painter, at low wages, has been employed for two or three months in painting milk house, passage, assistant physician's office and bed room, glacing windows and other odd jobs of like character.


        In addition to our ordinary repairs we have had this year some very costly ones of an unusual or extra nature. Early in the year it was found that our main sewer was stopped up. A leak, or rather several leaks were made in the ravine where the sewer was not so deep under the ground, which soon became very offensive. A break was made at this point in order to carry off the refuse more rapidly, and to see if the obstruction could be removed. The exact location could not be ascertained. though it was in the section going through the hill near the river. All efforts to clear it proving unsuccessful, by direction of the Executive committee, work was commenced on it, to take it up. A close calculation showed that it would be cheaper to change the sewer and run an entire new one to the river by a less direct route, than to dig out the old one through the hill. This was accordingly done, and at the same time connection was made at the tanks in the attic with pipes in such a manner as to carry off all rain water falling on the roof (except what is wanted to fill our cisterns) through the sewer. Connection is also made for flushing the sewer from our steam pump, which is done twice a week in dry weather. The whole cost of this work was $412,13.

Page 11

        The small boiler, supplying our force pump, gave out in the summer and had to be repaired at a cost of $194.00.


        Under this head your attention is directed to some suggestions made in my last annual report. At that time I considered some protection against fire the most important; I still so consider it, and would urge upon the Board the necessity for immediate action. While we take all precautions against fire, still we are not secure. This house is very inflamable for a brick building, and were a fire once started it would be impossible to stay its progress with the means at hand. If we had even a stand pipe, leading from the tank, with hose enough to reach across the wards, it would be some protection.

        Attention was called last year to the crowded condition of the centre building and arrangements are now being made to relieve that condition by building a Superintendent's residence on the hill near the Asylum. While a residence any where, and of any kind will be acceptable, as it will give us more room in the executive department, yet I see many reasons for making a change, both in the proposed location and size of the house. The location is too near the Asylum. It may not be for several years to come, but an enlargement of this institution will eventually be necessary, and then the dwelling may be in the way. It will be more disagreeable to the Superintendent's family, than living in the centre building, as the noise, profanity, vulgarity, etc. can be better heard. The lady members and the children of my family will be more exposed to the view, and to the remarks of the patients, than at present. A private family needs a back yard; in this case the only back yard available will be between the Asylum and the house, in full view and speaking distance (only 30 or 40 yards) of the windows of the male patients. With a family of girl children to raise, this is, in my case, a very serious drawback to the location. A one story house 40×75 is proposed,

Page 12

which will not, in my opinion, contrast very well with the Asylum building. The size of the hill where the house will go is too small. The back end will have to be put on made ground, and will come out beyond the edge of the hill. The only advantages of the location are, first, its nearness, and second, ability to connect with the water and gas supply of the Asylum. The first is not very forcible, considering the disadvantages of being too near. The second are desirable, but are by no means essential, and can be dispensed with. I would prefer having it on the hill to our north, on the Dortch place. This can be purchased (20 acres) for the amount necessary to furnish the proposed house with gas and water

        Sec. 2, chap. 156, Laws of 1883 gives the Board the right, to purchase property for the use of the institution, and nothing is said of the distance, or indeed of where the Superintendent shall reside. If the Board cannot see its way clear to purchase the Dortch hill for this purpose, I would suggest that the house be placed facing the N. C. R. R., and to the south of the apple orchard. Either of these places is much more desirable than the proposed location.

        A blacksmith shop is much needed. Our Engineer can do much of the work now sent off, if he had the tools. Our present carpenter shop is too small, and I think it would be advisable to build a larger carpenter shop and a blacksmith shop together. The present shop can well be utilized for storage of articles to be mended, lumber, etc.

        We are deficient in out houses for employees. Both Carpenter and Engineer are men of family, with no house on the premises for them to live in. Permission is asked to build one for the Engineer, at least, who is very anxious to get his family nearer him. A two roomed house, stack chimney, with an "L"--for cooking room, would answer for the present.


        A matter referred to in my last report, was a change in

Page 13

the stairways of the female wing, making an arrangement similar to the stairways of the male wing. In this connection, too, I would suggest dividing the wards by a partition at the closets, giving us more wards and a better classification. It would entail some expense in fitting up dining rooms, a dumb waiter, dish sinks, water supply, etc. One or two extra attendants might too, be needed, but the advantages of a better classification are worth all the extra expense.

        Your attention is called to the insecure condition of our window guards, which are often broken by the patients for the purpose of escaping. The exact number getting out that way is not now known; most of them were retaken at once, a few gave us much trouble and expense, and one made good his escape. One bent his guards and jumped from a third story window, sustaining injuries from which he died in a few hours. Protection against breaking the glass is also wanted for the windows of the first wards, and a few on the third wards; inside wire guards, of a close mesh, hung on hinges, so as to be able to get to the windows, are needed. This will also have a tendency to keep noisy patients out of the windows.


        We have had more elopements this year than ever before in the history of the institution. Several minor matters contribute to cause this. First, our patients have learned that the guards can be broken and several have escaped in that way. Again, I have risked more this year in taking patients out to work, and kept more out with less watching. I made an effort to reduce the amount of restraint used, and believing that employment was essential to this end, have tried to keep as many at work as possible. Two of those escaped were so near well that no effort was made to retake them. They had already been promised a trip home, and they were discharged--one as cured, and the other as much improved. Two others are still out, but as

Page 14

I hear from them occasionally, and they are both at work, supporting themselves and families, I have made no entry of them on my books. The proper officers have been notified to return them, and they will do so, should the patients become troublesome.


        Having no chapel for religious exercises, I have permitted many to go over to the city to attend church on pleasant days, from five to ten going under the care of an attendant. This they have enjoyed very much as they have the long neighborhood walks, and walks to the city allowed them. Our female patients have enjoyed the flower yard more than ever before Most of the work done on the flower yard and lawn was by the patients, sometimes under the care of an attendant but often alone. I have several times, with good results, trusted real violent patients out to walk, under proper care, of course. A source of much pleasure to many is a kettle drum purchased in the summer.


        The steam heating apparatus which was under way at the date of my last report, has been completed. As first finished up it did not heat the house, and we suffered with cold several times through the winter. Additional radiators have been put in and it yet remains to be seen whether it will heat the house to 70 degrees in a cold weather test. From indications so far, I do not think it will, as the force of the steam in the boiler backs water into the distant radiators and prevents a free circulation of steam.


        In my last report I alluded to the only suicide of the year and referred to an opinion I had expressed, in regard

Page 15

to suicides in the negro. I still see no reason to change that opinion, viz: that suicides are not as common with the negro as with the white. We have not had this year, even an attempt to commit suicide. Of 191 patients treated the past year, it has been necessary to force only one to eat, and even in this case, the necessity was not urgent. I have noticed this, as another, in my opinion, peculiarity of the colored insane, viz: that there is not as much necessity for forcing food as in the white race.

        I still have trouble in obtaining and keeping good attendants, especially female. In the spring, remunerative employment can be obtained by the women on the truck farms, and in the fall cotton picking offers an inducement which they are unable to withstand. I have a fair corps of male attendants now, most of whom seem disposed to remain with us. The condition of our male department is better than ever before.

        The Battery asked for in my last report was bought and set up in the summer. I have not yet used it much, but think it was of material benefit to the mental condition of one patient, who commenced to improve and made a good recovery under its use.

        We received, last spring, a donation of odd numbers of Magazines from Messrs. Griffin Bros., of Goldsboro. They were much appreciated by the patients, especially the pictures.


        Our per capita expense for the year is smaller than for two or three years past. Our daily average for the year is 133.28 for current expenses we have used $21,142.55, giving an annual per capita cost of $158.61. In addition to this we have expended in the permanent improvements before mentioned, together with the extra repairs, the sum of $7,115.13.

        There is every reason to believe that the number of patients will be larger next year, and we will need all the

Page 16

money we carry over, and the same appropriation for the next two years that we have used the last two. I would therefore suggest that the appropriation bill of two years ago remain as it is, so far as this institution is concerned.


        In the matron's department we continue to work our female patients in the sewing room under Miss Kennedy's direction. Mrs. Smith reports nearly a thousand pieces of clothing made during the year, and 1,700 mended. Fifteen patch work quilts, many of them of unique design, (crazy quilts) made of homespun, have been made during the year.

        We now have in the clothing room over 50 bolts of different goods to be made into clothing, sheets, spreads, etc., with a good supply of articles--clothing, shoes, socks, hats, blankets, etc.--ready to be issued as needed. We work from five to ten patients and run one sewing machine constantly. Another machine will be needed soon, as our present one is very much worn from heavy sewing.

        Mrs. Smith has made 1,800 gallons of soap during the year.


        Our farm did hardly as well as usual this year. The Steward reports 80 barrels corn, 6,000 pounds of fodder, 50 bushels of peas gathered, and 3,000 pounds of oats. We now have 37 hogs for butchering and estimate their weight at 4,000 pounds. We lost 75 hogs from the cholera in the Spring. We now have 60 hogs for another year, including sows, shoats and pigs. An accurate account of the vegetables has not been kept, and the value of our kitchen garden can hardly be estimated. The orchard again gave us apples in abundance.

        The cows bought in the winter have done well through the year. They, with their calves, took several premiums at the Fair of the "Eastern Carolina Fair and Stock Association" in November. One of the cows is disposed to go dry early, and, as she is now worth as much for beef as her original cost, I shall so use her and purchase another for milk. A fine bull calf I shall also sell, as I wish to cross with the Jersey blood, and he is not thorough-bred.

Page 17


        NOTE.--As this report goes to the General Assembly I make the following extracts from report of 1883, giving further information of the workings of the institution.


        With all these extra expenses added in, the Board of Directors can then flatter itself on having built and equipped the cheapest institution of the kind in the United States, so far as I have been able to ascertain. I mean, of course to the number of patients accommodated. We are now equipped for treating 160 patients or soon will be--have one hundred and seventy acres of land, barns, stables, out houses, stock, &c., sufficient for cultivating the farm, an imposing building supplied with the necessary water and heating arrangements, furnished in a comfortable manner, all at a per capita cost of $437.50. In this calculation I have added an amount sufficient to cover the expense of contemplated improvements. I find that the average cost of the construction of 80 Asylums in the United States (14 private) to be $1,253.50 for each patient. While we do not make the grand display and gigantic proportions of other Asylums, and do not have all the facilities and comforts of most of them, still, for results achieved in the construction of this institution, I think the Directors can safely challenge comparison with any in the land.


        The completion of our new wing gives us increased facilities for treating patients. We will soon be able to accommodate 160 patients. The new wing was received from the contractor in the Spring, but could not be used immediately, as it was thought best to take advantage of the occasion to place the patients in the new department, and thoroughly overhaul and repair the water supply in the old wing. This was done under direction of the Executive Committee: new closets supplied with better traps than the old ones were put in, new pipe in many places, and all put in good repair. The cost of this work with a few other minor repairs, amounted to $516.68. Special attention was given to the better ventilation of the sewers, and in addition to the change in closets, securing a better trap and better connections with sinks, a ventilating pipe connected with the sewer, was run through the roof. All these measures tend to give us freedom from unpleasant emanations. The time consumed in these repairs brought us well into the summer, and the failure of the contractor to furnish us with the iron bedsteads, delayed our opening until August. During the summer I had the gas machine overhauled and altered some, resulting in a saving of 50 per cent. in the cost of lights.

        In this connection I would suggest that a change be made in the river supply pipe. As at present arranged much sand is raised which cuts the valves of the engine, settles in the pipes, &c. The sediment in the pipes was one of the prime factors in making it necessary to put in new pipe,

Page 18


        In addition to the improvements already noticed, we have this year built a small carpenter's shop, two new court yards, or exercise grounds, larger and better arranged than the old ones; a brick boiler house with drying (laundry) room above, and run 750 yards of new plank fence. The cost of all these comes from our regular living expenses, and is not included in the $8,000 before mentioned.

        Early in the year the Executive Committee decided to make some permanent improvements on the hill to prevent its washing. Much work was done on the hill in grading and preparing it for brick gutters and terra cotta drain pipes, to be placed on the edge of the hill. Two sets of stone steps were put up, and we have used in all the improvements made 125,000 brick, 90 barrels of cement and 50 barrels of lime. On account of the funds appropriated for the purpose running low, the original plans were not completed. I have worked on them to some extent with what force I could use from among the patients, but the work is not yet completed. In this connection it is proposed to make a change in the visitor's entrance and approach to the building, so that all vehicles will go round the hill and stop between the flower yard and stone steps, instead of coming on top the hill and driving so near the patient's windows as at present. The advantages of this are many, while the only disadvantage is a little more walking (up the front steps) for visitors. By this we avoid coming up at the back of the premises, with all its disagreeable sights. A large number of visitors never see or know really which is the front.


        Under the head of needs we can well mention the crowded condition of the officer's apartments and Executive rooms. An examination is solicited, confidently believing that you will agree with me as to the necessity for better accommodations in this department. Two plans have already been discussed, but not, I think, in a full Board meeting. The first was the building of a Superintendent's residence, on the ungraded part of the hill, and this was abandoned on account of the law requiring the Superintendent to reside in the institution, and the want of a special appropriation for the purpose. This difficulty is now obviated, as the law of 1883 does not require it, and if the Board see fit to pursue this course, no legal impediments are in the way.

        The other plan was to build additional store-rooms, so that the ones in the main, or centre building, now used as such, might be converted into offices. This would partially relieve us, as it would give two more rooms, which could be used as a parlor and a reception room. As it is, we have neither parlor or reception room for any class of visitors, white or colored, and, whether visiting our private families or the institution, visitors must be entertained in the Superintendent's or Assistant Physician's office.


        The question of expenditures is always an interesting one in reports of asylums, and it is to be feared that in the attempt to curtail the operating expenses of an institution, the main object, viz: the amelioration of the afflicted, is sometimes lost sight of. While a due regard for an economical

Page 19

administration should be held, it is not just to the afflicted class that for the sake of a small per capita outlay, they should be denied expenditures for their better care and treatment. Through the kindness of Mr. Dewey, the auditor, I am able to give the amount expended for all purposes this year, building new wing excepted. The Treasurer's report has not been received, but will probably be sent in time for publication. The furniture and improvement funds did not pass through my hands, consequently are not in the Steward's account. The whole amount is $22,144.38. Of this, the improvement fund is $2,889.54; furniture account, $1,071.68; boiler house, $600 (estimated); part payment on steam heating, $2,000, making a total of $6,561.22, which taken from the whole amount expended leaves $15,583.16, as the legitimate sum of our living expenses, including salaries. director's expenses, insurance, clerk and auditor's wages, repairs, etc. Our daily average attendance for the year has been 93, which will give a per capita expense for the eleven months of $162.18. Calculating for a whole year, this is larger by $15.25 than it was last year. In this connection it will be well to notice some facts calculated to increase our living expenses. First, employing an assistant physician early in the year, in the expectation of having the new wing opened in a short while. Extra attendants were also kept, in order to have them trained for the work when they should be needed. The reasons for the delay in opening has already been given. Our force has also been increased by a female night watch and another assistant cook (female) for a few months. The wages of the matron, seamstress and chief cook were increased the first of the year. The sum of $516.58, expended in repairs of water supply of wing, is an extra and should not be included in our living expenses These sums amount to something over $1,600, which would, if taken from our year's account, bring our per capita cost to less than last year.


        The farm has, as heretofore, been under the supervision of Mr. Smith. He has raised this year 100 barrels of corn, 5,000 pounds of fodder, 500 bushels of oats, 50 bushels of peas, 800 bushels of potatoes and now has 115 head of hogs, 35 of which we will slaughter this winter. We estimate the pork to be obtained at 4,500 pounds. Our orchard did well, giving us apples in abundance through the whole summer. Our garden furnished us fresh vegetables all the season. The steward's account of our year's expenses accompanies this report.


        Appended will be found the Treasurers report for the two past years, giving us a balance to our credit of $14,688.79. This is subject to two deductions only one of which is given. The October bills paid by Mr. Dewey during November were not sent to the Treasurer until after the first of December, the close of the fiscal year. The November bills, amounting to $5,304.31, are still in the hands of the Auditor.

Page 20

These two months expenses amount to $5,917.57, which, deducted from the balance as given by the Treasurer, leaves us at the beginning of the fiscal year with the sum of $7,771.22 to our credit. This seems a large balance to carry over, when we consider the prevalent idea of economy in the expenditure of public moneys. It looks as if the last Legislature gave us more than we need. A partial explanation is given in another place in the fact that when the sum of $25,000 per annum was asked for, the new wing was expected to be opened in a very short while, giving us sixty or seventy additional patients. There was a delay of six months in the opening of the new wing, with a corresponding reduction in our expected expenses. Had the additional patients been received at the beginning of the first year we would not have had the money to spend on permanent improvements. As it is, we have used over six thousand dollars in the improvements With our present number under treatment, (increased already by three from the 1st to the 11th inst,) and our expected increase, the sum of $25,000 per annum will be barely sufficient for our needs. An expenditure not often considered by the general reader is incurred in a rapid movement of population such as should be in this Institution. I hold that we should receive only the acute curable cases, leaving the harmless and incurable ones in the care of counties or friends. Most of the patients received are but indifferently clothed, and new clothing is to be given them on arrival. Again, when patients are discharged we generally furnish them with good clothing. These look to be small matters, but the sum total in the reception and discharge of patients for a year is considerable.

        If further improvements of a permanent character are contemplated for the next two years, it might be well to ask a special appropriation for that purpose, leaving the $25,000 for current expenses.


December 11, 1884.

Page 21



Discharged cured 16 10 26
Discharged improved 1 0 1
Discharged unimproved 2 4 6
Died 9 5 14
Total 28 19 47



Appoplexy 1 0 1
Exhaustion 1 1 2
Wounds received prior to admission 1 0 1
Pulmonary Congestion 0 1 1
Brights Disease 0 1 1
Debility from Old Age 1 0 1
General Debility 1 0 1
Pneumonia 0 1 1
Consumption 1 0 1
Shock from Injuries 1 0 1
Pulmonary Hemorrhage 0 1 1
Chronic Diarrhoea 2 0 2
Total 9 5 14



Mania 19 29 48
Melancholia 6 8 14
Dementia 10 5 15
Delusions 1 1 2
Imbecility 1 0 1
Hallucinations 0 1 1
Total 37 44 81

        NOTE.--This table is taken directly from the register, and gives the entry as made at the time of a patient's reception, from the application. No effort is made to further subdivide the classification.

Page 22



Unknown 5 21 26
Religion and Religious Excitement 4 3 7
Epilepsy 7 1 8
Domestic trouble 2 3 5
Death of wife 2 0 2
Hereditary 0 1 1
Masturbation 1 0 1
Blow on head 0 1 1
Uterine trouble 0 4 4
Sunstroke or extreme heat 1 1 2
Brain disease 1 0 1
Destitution 1 1 2
Jealousy 2 0 2
Superstition 0 2 2
Financial troubles 1 0 1
Grief 0 1 1
Intemperance (drunkenness and excessive drink) 3 0 3
Protracted illness 3 0 3
Disappointment in love 0 1 1
Cerebral Congestion 0 1 1
Puerperal 0 1 1
Exposure 1 0 1
Seq: to typhoid fever 1 0 1
Hard study 0 1 1
Deranged Menses 0 1 1
Paralysis 1 0 1
Syphilis 1 0 1
Total 37 44 81



Less than one month 2 1 3
One to six months 2 10 12
Six to twelve months 7 8 15
One to two years 5 7 12
Two to three years 4 5 9
Four to five years 4 6 10
Five to ten years 7 2 9
Over ten years 6 5 11
Totals 37 44 81

Page 23



Between 15 and 20 years old 3 2 5
Between 20 and 25 years old 9 6 15
Between 25 and 30 years old 3 6 9
Between 30 and 35 years old 3 8 11
Between 35 and 40 years old 2 7 9
Between 40 and 45 years old 7 5 12
Between 45 and 50 years old 3 1 4
Between 50 and 55 years old 3 2 5
Between 55 and 60 years old 1 2 3
Over 60 years old 3 5 8
Totals 37 44 81



None 3 4 7
Laborers (all classes) 21 8 29
House wife, or house work 0 15 15
Farmers and farmers wives 8 2 10
Laundresses 0 5 5
Cooks 0 4 4
Carpenters 1 0 1
Student 0 1 1
Turpentine hand 1 0 1
Blacksmith (helper) 1 0 1
Servant 0 1 1
Seamstresses 0 3 3
Preacher 1 0 1
Miller 1 0 1
House maid 0 1 1
Totals 37 44 81



Single 16 9 25
Married 18 30 48
Widowed 3 5 8
Totals 37 44 81

Page 24



Pants 52
Shirts 130
Drawers 120
Dresses 102
Bed Ticks 145
Chemise 90
Quilt Linings 8
Pillow Cases 6
Pillow Ticks 10
Sheets 38
Aprons 47
Shrouds 3
Towels 4
Sleeves 23
Restraints 6
Waists 5
Skirts 66
Spreads 93
Window Curtains 8
Suspenders 39
Total 995

Treasurer's Report.


        Gentlemen: I herewith submit a report of the receipts and disbursements of the Eastern North Carolina Insane Asylum from January 1, 1883, to January 1, 1884, and from January 1, 1884, to December 1, 1884.

I had on hand to the credit of the Institution January 1st, 1883   $ 5,220 22
I have received from the State Treasurer as appropriation for the years 1884 and 1885   50,000 00
    $55,220 22
I paid out on vouchers during 1883 $ 19,172 67  
I paid out from January 1, 1884, to December 1, 1884 21,358 76  
Balance in my hands to credit of Institution December 1, 1884   $ 14,688 79

        This balance of $14,688.79 is subject to a deduction of $1,613.26 which was paid in December on account of October vouchers. The bills for November had not been received at the closing of this report.

Respectfully submitted,

Treasurer ex-officio.

Raleigh, N. C., Dec. 9, 1884.