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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
(title page) A Manual of North Carolina Issued by the North Carolina Historical Commission for the Use of Members of the General Assembly Session 1913
Compiled and Edited by R. D. W. Connor
E. M. Uzzell & Co. State Printers
Call Number: C917.05 N87m c.4 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
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[Title Page Image]
COMPILED AND EDITED
This volume is issued by the North Carolina Historical Commission in order to furnish to the members of the General Assembly of 1913, in convenient form, information about the State which otherwise would require much investigation in many different sources. It is also hoped that it may prove of value and service to others who desire to have in succinct form such data about North Carolina. Similar Manuals, issued in 1903, 1905, and 1907 by the Secretary of State, and in 1909 and 1911 by the North Carolina Historical Commission, have proven of very general utility and interest. Requests for copies have come not only from all over North Carolina, but from most of the States of the Union, and the demand for them has been so great that these editions have long been exhausted, and it is now extremely difficult to secure a copy.
The Historical Commission trusts that the members of the General Assembly of 1913 will find this volume of service to them in their work.
|ELIJAH L. DAUGHTRIDGE||President of the Senate||Edgecombe.|
|GEORGE W. CONNOR||Speaker of the House of Representatives||Wilson.|
|J. BRYAN GRIMES||Secretary of State||Pitt.|
|W. P. WOOD||Auditor||Randolph.|
|BENJAMIN R. LACY||Treasurer||Wake.|
|JAMES Y. JOYNER||Superintendent of Public Instruction||Guilford.|
|T. W. BICKETT||Attorney-General||Franklin.|
|JOHN P. KERR||Private Secretary||Buncombe.|
|G. A. THOMASON||Executive Clerk||Buncombe.|
|Secretary of State,||Treasurer,||Auditor,||Superintendent of Public Instruction.|
|J. BRYAN GRIMES||Secretary of State||Pitt.|
|GEORGE W. NORWOOD||Grant Clerk||Wake.|
|WILLIAM S. WILSON||Corporation Clerk||Caswell.|
|J. E. SAWYER||Clerk||Wake.|
|MISS MINNIE BAGWELL||Stenographer||Wake.|
|EDMUND B. NORVELL||Enrolling Clerk||Cherokee.|
|W. P. WOOD||Auditor||Randolph.|
|EVERARD H. BAKER||Chief Clerk||Franklin.|
|BAXTER DURHAM||Tax Clerk||Wake.|
|MRS. FANNIE W. SMITH||Pension Clerk and Stenographer||Wake.|
|BENJAMIN R. LACY||Treasurer||Wake.|
|W. F. MOODY||Chief Clerk||Mecklenburg.|
|A. H. ARRINGTON||Teller||Nash.|
|W. W. NEWMAN||Institution Clerk||Wake.|
|MISS EVA WARTERS||Stenographer||Lenoir.|
|JAMES Y. JOYNER||Superintendent of Public Instruction||Guilford.|
|E. E. SAMS||Chief Clerk||Madison.|
|A. S. BROWER||Clerk of Loan Fund||Cabarrus.|
|J. A. BIVINS||Supt. of Teacher-training and Croatan and||Stanly.|
|J. A. BIVINS||Colored Normal Schools.||Stanly.|
|N. W. WALKER||State Inspector Public High Schools||Orange.|
|L. C. BROGDEN||State Supervisor Elementary Schools||Wayne.|
|I. O. SCHAUB||Agent for Agricultural Extension||Stokes.|
|MRS. HATTIE S. GAY||Stenographer||Wayne.|
State Board of Education.--Governor, President; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secretary; Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Attorney-General.
State Board of Examiners.--JAMES Y. JOYNER, Chairman ex officio; E. E. SAMS, Secretary; H. E. AUSTIN, N. W. WALKER, W. A. GRAHAM, ZEBULON V. JUDD.
|LAURENCE W. YOUNG||Adjutant General||Buncombe.|
|GORDON SMITH||Assistant Adjutant General||Wake.|
|CAPT. RUSSELL C. LANGDON||Inspector-Instructor||U. S. A.|
|T. W. BICKETT||Attorney-General||Franklin.|
|T. H. CALVERT||Assistant Attorney-General||Wake.|
|MISS SARAH BURKHEAD||Stenographer||Columbus.|
|E. L. TRAVIS||Chairman||Halifax.|
|WILLIAM T. LEE||Commissioner||Haywood.|
|GEORGE P. PELL||Commissioner||Forsyth.|
|A. J. MAXWELL||Chief Clerk||Craven.|
|MISS E. G. RIDDICK||Assistant Clerk||Gates.|
|J. S. GRIFFIN||Assistant Clerk||Guilford.|
|MISS META ADAMS||Assistant Clerk||Haywood.|
|S. A. HUBBARD||Bank Examiner||Rockingham.|
|L. E. COVINGTON||Assistant Bank Examiner||Scotland.|
|M. L. SHIPMAN||Commissioner||Henderson.|
|GEORGE B. JUSTICE||Assistant Commissioner||Mecklenburg.|
|MISS DAISY THOMPSON||Stenographer||Wake.|
|E. M. UZZELL & Co.||State Printers||Wake.|
|EDWARDS & BROUGHTON PRINTING COMPANY||State Printers||Wake.|
|W. A. GRAHAM||Commissioner, ex officio Chairman||Lincoln.|
|H. C. CARTER||First District||Hyde.|
|K. W. BARNES||Second District||Wilson.|
|R. L. WOODARD||Third District||Pamlico.|
|I. H. KEARNEY||Fourth District||Franklin.|
|R. W. SCOTT||Fifth District||Alamance.|
|A. T. McCALLUM||Sixth District||Robeson.|
|J. P. McRAE||Seventh District||Scotland.|
|WILLIAM BLEDSOE||Eighth District||Ashe.|
|W. J. SHUFORD||Ninth District||Catawba.|
|A. CANNON||Tenth District||Henderson.|
|W. A. GRAHAM||Commissioner.|
|D. G. CONN||Stamp Clerk.|
|MISS B. W. PESCUD||Bookkeeper.|
|B. W. KILGORE||State Chemist, Director Test Farms.|
|FRANKLIN SHERMAN, JR.||Entomologist.|
|W. N. HUTT||Horticulturist.|
|H. H. BRIMLEY||Naturalist and Curator.|
|T. W. ADICKES||Assistant Curator.|
|T. B. PARKER||Farmers' Institutes.|
|W. M. ALLEN||Food Chemist.|
|W. G. CHRISMAN||Veterinarian.|
|MISS O. I. TILLMAN||Botanist.|
|J. K. PLUMMER||Assistant Chemist.|
|W. G. HAYWOOD||Fertilizer Chemist.|
|G. M. MACNIDER||Feed Chemist and Microscopist.|
|L. L. BRINKLEY||Assistant Chemist.|
|S. C. CLAPP||Nursery and Orchard Inspector.|
|S. B. SHAW||Assistant Horticulturist.|
|J. M. GRAY||Assistant Director, Farmers' Institutes.|
|O. M. CLARK||Assistant Horticulturist.|
|C. L. METCALF||Assistant Entomologist.|
|W. H. EATON||Dairyman.|
|J. L. BURGESS||Agronomist.|
|G. M. GARREN||Assistant Agronomist.|
|E. L. WORTHEN||Soil Investigations.|
|J. Q. JACKSON||Assistant Chemist.|
|S. O. PERKINS||Assistant Chemist.|
|E. W. THORNTON||Assistant Chemist.|
|C. E. BELL||Assistant Chemist.|
|A. M. FLANERY||Second Assistant Dairyman.|
|B. B. FLOWE||Second Assistant Veterinarian.|
|F. S. PUCKETT||Assistant to Director Test Farms.|
|MISS S. D. ALLEN||Assistant Botanist.|
|W. E. HEARN *||Soil Survey.|
|C. R. HUDSON *||Demonstrator.|
* Assigned by the Bureau of Soils, United States Department of Agriculture.
* Assigned by the United States Department of Agriculture.
|R. W. SCOTT, JR.||Supt. Edgecombe Test Farm||Rocky Mount.|
|F. T. MEACHAM||Supt. Iredell Test Farm||Statesville.|
|JOHN H. JEFFERIES||Supt. Pender Test Farm||Willard.|
|R. W. COLLETT||Supt. Transylvania and Buncombe Test Farms.||Swannanoa.|
|JAMES R. YOUNG||Commissioner||Vance.|
|S. W. WADE||Deputy||Carteret.|
|S. F. CAMPBELL||Chief Clerk||Harnett.|
|C. H. SMITH||Deputy and Actuary||Wake.|
|W. A. SCOTT||Deputy||Guilford.|
|A. H. YERBY||License Clerk||Wake.|
|MISS EVA B. POWELL||Bookkeeper||Wake.|
|MISS IDA MONTGOMERY||Cashier and Stenographer||Warren.|
|J. BRYAN GRIMES||Chairman||Pitt.|
|W. J. PEELE||Commissioner||Wake.|
|THOMAS M. PITTMAN||Commissioner||Vance.|
|M. C. S. NOBLE||Commissioner||Orange.|
|D. H. HILL||Commissioner||Wake.|
|R. D. W. CONNOR||Secretary||Wake.|
|LOUIS R. WILSON||Orange.|
|CHARLES LEE SMITH||Wake.|
|JAMES Y. JOYNER||Guilford.|
|MILES O. SHERRILL||Catawba.|
|MRS. SOL. WEIL||Wayne.|
MISS MINNIE W. LEATHERMAN, Secretary, Raleigh.
|Governor,||Secretary of State,||State Treasurer,||Attorney-General.|
|C. C. CHERRY||Superintendent||Edgecombe.|
|MILES O. SHERRILL||Librarian||Catawba.|
|MISS CARRIE E. BROUGHTON||Assistant Librarian||Wake.|
|Governor,||Superintendent of Public Instruction,||Secretary of State.|
|MILES O. SHERRILL,||WALTER CLARK,||JAMES Y. JOYNER,||DANIEL H. HILL.|
|WALTER CLARK||Chief Justice||Raleigh||Wake.|
|PLATT D. WALKER||Associate Justice||Charlotte||Mecklenburg.|
|GEORGE H. BROWN||Associate Justice||Washington||Beaufort.|
|WILLIAM A. HOKE||Associate Justice||Lincolnton||Lincoln.|
|W. R. Allen||Associate Justice||Goldsboro||Wayne.|
|J. L. SEAWELL||Clerk||Raleigh||Wake.|
|ROBERT H. BRADLEY||Marshal and Librarian||Raleigh||Wake.|
|ROBERT C. STRONG||Reporter||Raleigh||Wake.|
|STEPHEN C. BRAGAW||Washington||Beaufort.|
|ROBERT B. PEEBLES||Jackson||Northampton.|
|H. W. WHEDBEE||Greenville||Pitt.|
|CHARLES M. COOKE||Louisburg||Franklin.|
|OLIVER H. ALLEN||Kinston||Lenoir.|
|FRANK A. DANIELS||Goldsboro||Wayne.|
|CHATHAM CALHOUN LYON||Elizabethtown||Bladen.|
|W. J. ADAMS||Carthage||Moore.|
|HOWARD A. FOUSHEE||Durham||Durham.|
|BENJAMIN F. LONG||Statesville||Iredell.|
|HENRY P. LANE||Reidsville||Rockingham.|
|JAMES L. WEBB||Shelby||Cleveland.|
|EDWARD B. CLINE||Hickory||Catawba.|
|M. H. Justice||Rutherfordton||Rutherford.|
|GARLAND S. FERGUSON||Waynesville||Haywood.|
|J. C. B. EHRINGHAUS||Elizabeth City||Pasquotank.|
|JOHN H. KERR||Warrenton||Warren.|
|C. L. ABERNETHY||Beaufort||Carteret.|
|R. G. ALLSBROOK||Tarboro||Edgecombe.|
|HENRY E. SHAW||Kinston|
|HERBERT E. NORRIS||Raleigh|
|N. A. SINCLAIR||Fayetteville|
|A. M. STACK||Monroe|
|S. M. GATTIS||Hillsboro|
|W. C. HAMMER||Asheboro|
|S. P. GRAVES||Mount Airy|
|G. W. WILSON||Gastonia|
|FRANK A. LINNEY||Boone|
|A. H. JOHNSTON||Marion|
|R. R. REYNOLDS||Asheville|
|F. E. ALLEY||Webster|
|ELIJAH L. DAUGHTRIDGE||President||Edgecombe.|
|H. N. PHARR||President pro tem||Mecklenburg.|
|R. OTTIS SELF||Principal Clerk||Jackson.|
|R. M. PHILLIPS||Reading Clerk||Guilford.|
|W. E. HOOKS||Engrossing Clerk||Wayne.|
|W. G. Hall||Sergeant-at-Arms||Cumberland.|
|G. W. HUNTLEY||Asst. Sergeant-at-Arms||Anson.|
First District--D. C. Barnes (D.), Murfreesboro; W. T. Woodley (D.), Tyner.
Second District--George J. Studdert (D.), Washington; H. W. Stubbs (D.), Williamston.
Third District--C. G. Peebles (D.), Jackson.
Fourth District--W. E. Daniel (D.), Weldon; H. A. Gilliam (D.), Tarboro.
Fifth District--W. F. Evans (D.), Greenville.
Sixth District--T. T. Thorne (D.), Rocky Mount; Thomas M. Washington (D.), Wilson.
Seventh District--A. D. Ward (D.), New Bern; M. Leslie Davis (D.), Beaufort.
Eighth District--J. T. Hooks (D.), Fremont.
Ninth District--E. A. Hawes (D.), Atkinson.
Tenth District--Marsden Bellamy (D.), Wilmington.
Eleventh District--Dr. L. B. Evans (D.), Clarkton.
Twelfth District--George B. McLeod (D.), Lumberton.
Thirteenth District--Q. K. Nimocks (D.), Fayetteville.
Fourteenth District--O. A. Barbour (D.), Benson; George L. Peterson (D.), Clinton.
Fifteenth District--J. C. Little (D.), Raleigh.
Sixteenth District--James H. Bridgers (D.), Henderson.
Seventeenth District--J. A. Long (D.), Roxboro.
Eighteenth District--V. S. Bryant (D.), Durham; J. L. Scott, Jr. (D.), Graham.
Nineteenth District--A. D. Ivie (D.), Leaksville.
Twentieth District--F. P. Hobgood, Jr. (D.), Greensboro.
Twenty-first District--W. L. Parsons (D.), Rockingham; Hector McLean (D.), Laurinburg.
Twenty-second District--W. H. Watkins (D.), Ramseur.
Twenty-third District--R. E. Little (D.), Wadesboro; W. H. Phillips (D.), Lexington.
Twenty-fourth District--J. P. Cooke (D.), Concord; H. N. Pharr (D.), Charlotte.
Twenty-fifth District--Thomas D. Brown (D.), Salisbury, R.F.D.
Twenty-sixth District--E. B. Jones (D.), Winston.
Twenty-seventh District--John W. Hall (R.), Danbury.
Twenty-eighth District--A. T. Grant, Jr. (R.), Mocksville.
Twenty-ninth District--A. D. Watts (D.), Statesville.
Thirtieth District--W. B. Council (D.), Hickory.
Thirty-first District--O. F. Mason (D.), Gastonia.
Thirty-second District--James M. Carson (D.), Rutherfordton; T. B. Allen (D.), Fletchers, R.F.D.
Thirty-third District--Lawrence Wakefield (D.), Lenoir; Abner C. Payne (D.), Taylorsville.
Thirty-fourth District--E. S. Coffey (D.), Boone.
Thirty-fifth District--Charles B. Mashburn (R.) Marshall.
Thirty-sixth District--Zebulon Weaver (D.), Asheville.
Thirty-seventh District--William J. Hannah (D.), Waynesville.
Thirty-eighth District--S. W. Lovingood (D.), Murphy.
First District--Perquimans, Currituck, Chowan, Gates, Pasquotank, Camden, and Hertford shall elect two Senators.
Second District--Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, Beaufort, Hyde, and Pamlico shall elect two Senators.
Third District--Northampton and Bertie shall elect one Senator.
Fourth District--Halifax and Edgecombe shall elect two Senators.
Fifth District--Pitt shall elect one Senator.
Sixth District--Franklin, Nash, and Wilson shall elect two Senators.
Seventh District--Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, and Onslow shall elect two Senators.
Eighth District--Wayne shall elect one Senator.
Ninth District--Duplin and Pender shall elect one Senator.
Tenth District--New Hanover and Brunswick shall elect one Senator.
Eleventh District--Bladen and Columbus shall elect one Senator.
Twelfth District--Robeson shall elect one Senator.
Thirteenth District--Cumberland and Hoke shall elect one Senator.
Fourteenth District--Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and Sampson shall elect two Senators.
Fifteenth District--Wake shall elect one Senator.
Sixteenth District--Vance and Warren shall elect one Senator.
Seventeenth District--Granville and Person shall elect one Senator.
Eighteenth District--Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and Durham shall elect two Senators.
Nineteenth District--Rockingham shall elect one Senator.
Twentieth District--Guilford shall elect one Senator.
Twenty-first District--Chatham, Moore, Richmond, and Scotland shall elect two Senators.
Twenty-second District--Montgomery and Randolph shall elect one Senator.
Twenty-third District--Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and Union shall elect two Senators.
Twenty-fourth District--Cabarrus and Mecklenburg shall elect two Senators.
Twenty-fifth District--Rowan shall elect one Senator.
Twenty-sixth District--Forsyth shall elect one Senator.
Twenty-seventh District--Stokes and Surry shall elect one Senator.
Twenty-eighth District--Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin shall elect one Senator.
Twenty-ninth District--Iredell shall elect one Senator.
Thirtieth District--Catawba and Lincoln shall elect one Senator.
Thirty-first District--Gaston shall elect one Senator.
Thirty-second District--Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, and Rutherford shall elect two Senators.
Thirty-third District--Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, and McDowell shall elect two Senators.
Thirty-fourth District--Alleghany, Ashe, and Watauga shall elect one Senator.
Thirty-fifth District--Avery, Madison, Mitchell, and Yancey shall elect one Senator.
Thirty-sixth District--Buncombe shall elect one Senator.
Thirty-seventh District--Haywood, Jackson, Transylvania, and Swain shall elect one Senator.
Thirty-eighth District--Cherokee, Clay, Graham, and Macon shall elect one Senator.
1. The President having taken the chair at the hour to which the Senate shall have adjourned, and a quorum being present, the Journal of the preceding day shall be read, unless otherwise ordered by the Senate, to the end that any mistake may be corrected.
2. After reading and approval of the Journal, the order of business shall be as follows:
(1) Reports of Standing Committees.
(2) Reports of Select Committees.
(3) Announcement of Petitions, Bills and Resolutions.
(4) Unfinished Business of preceding day.
(5) Special Orders.
(6) General Orders: First, bills and resolutions on third reading; second, bills and resolutions on second reading; but messages from the Governor and House of Representatives, and communications and reports from State officers, and reports from the Committees on Engrossed Bills and Enrolled Bills may be received and acted on under any order of business.
3. He shall take the chair promptly at the appointed time and proceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted.
At any time during the absence of the President, the President tempore, who shall be elected, shall preside, and he is hereby vested, during such time, with all powers of the President, except that giving a casting vote in case of a tie, when he shall have voted a Senator.
4. He shall assign to Doorkeepers their respective duties and stations, and shall appoint such pages and laborers as may be authorized by the Senate, each of whom shall receive the same compensation as is now provided by law.
5. The President and Clerk of the Senate shall see that all bills shall be acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they stand upon the Calendar, unless otherwise ordered, as hereinafter provided. The Calendar shall include the numbers and titles of bills and joint resolutions which have passed the House of Representatives and have been received by the Senate for concurrence.
6. The Clerk shall certify the passage of bills by the Senate, with the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed by a vote three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may required by the Constitution and laws of the State.
7. Every Senator presenting a paper shall endorse the same; if a petition, memorial, or report to the General Assembly, with a brief statement of its subject or contents, adding his name; if a resolution, with his name; if a report of a committee, a statement of such report, with the name of the committee, and member making the same; if a bill, a statement of its title, which shall contain a brief statement of the subject or contents of the bill, with his name; and all bills, resolutions, petitions and memorials shall be delivered to the Clerk and by him handed to the President, to be by him referred, and he shall announce the titles and references of the same, which shall be entered on the Journal.
8. All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by the President or any Senator, delivered at the table and read by the President or Clerk, before the same shall be debated; but any such motion may be withdrawn by the introducer at any time before decision amendment.
9. If any question contains several distinct propositions, it shall be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator. Provided, each subdivision, if left to itself, shall form a substantive proposition.
10. When the President is putting a question, or a division by counting shall be had, no Senator shall walk out of or across the house, nor, when a Senator is speaking, pass between him and the President.
11. Every Senator wishing to speak or debate, or to present a petition or other paper, or to make a motion or report, shall rise from his seat and address the President, and shall not proceed further until recognized by him. No Senator shall speak or debate more than twice nor longer than thirty minutes on the same day on the same subject without leave of the Senate, and when two or more Senators rise at once the President shall name the Senator who is first to speak.
12. Every Senator who shall be within the bar of the Senate when the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon, unless he shall be excused by the Senate, or unless he be directly interested in the question; and the bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate Chamber.
13. When a motion to adjourn, or for recess, shall be affirmatively determined, no member or officer shall leave his place until adjournment or recess shall be declared by the President.
14. The following-named committees shall be appointed by the Lieutenant Governor:
16. The Committee on Engrossed Bills shall examine all bills, amendments and resolutions before they go out of the possession of the Senate, and make a report when they find them correctly engrossed: Provided, that when a bill is typewritten, and has no interlineations therein, and has passed the Senate without amendment, it shall be sent to the House without engrossment, unless otherwise ordered.
17. The Committee on Appropriations shall carefully examine all bills and resolutions appropriating or paying any moneys out of the State Treasury, keep an accurate record of the same and report to the Senate from time to time.
18. Every report of the committee upon a bill or resolution which shall not be considered at the time of making the same, or laid on the table by a vote of the Senate, shall stand upon the General Orders with the bill or resolution; and the report of the committee shall show that a majority of the committee were present and voted.
19. That no committee shall be composed of more than nine members, unless the Lieutenant Governor shall, without objection from the Senate, appoint a greater number on any committee.
20. Any bill or other matter may be made a Special Order for a particular day or hour by a vote of a majority of the Senators voting, and if it shall not be completed on that day it shall be returned to its place on the Calendar, unless it shall be made a Special Order for another day; and when a Special Order is under consideration it shall take precedence of any Special Order or a subsequent order for the day, but such subsequent order may be taken up immediately after the previous Special Order has been disposed of.
21. Every bill shall receive three readings previous to its being passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be the first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion shall be made by some Senator, it shall be the duty of the President to refer the subject-matter to an appropriate committee. No bill shall be amended until it shall have been twice read.
22. If, on taking the question on a bill, it shall appear that a constitutional quorum is not present, or if the bill require a vote of a
certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears that such a number is not present, the bill shall be again read and the question taken thereon; if the bill fail a second time for the want of the necessary number being present and voting, the bill shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the Calendar in its proper order.
23. When a question is before the Senate, no motion shall be received except those herein specified, which motions shall have precedence as follows, viz.:
24. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main question be put?" and, until it is decided, shall preclude all amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in the affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, resolution or other matter under consideration; but when amendments are pending, the question shall be taken up on such amendments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. However, any Senator may move the previous question and may restrict the same to an amendment or other matter then under discussion. If such question be decided in the negative, the main question shall be considered as remaining under debate.
25. When the motion for the previous question is made, and pending the second thereto by a majority, debate shall cease, and only a motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be in order, which motions shall be put as follows: Previous question; adjourn; lay on the table. After a motion for the previous question is made, pending a second thereto, any member may give notice that he desires to offer
an amendment to the bill or other matter under consideration; and after the previous question is seconded, such member shall be entitled to offer his amendment in pursuance of such notice.
26. The motions to adjourn and lay on the table shall be decided without debate, and the motion to adjourn shall always be in order when made by a Senator entitled to the floor.
27. The respective motions to postpone to a certain day, or to commit, shall preclude debate on the main question.
28. All questions relating to priority of business shall be decided without debate.
29. When the reading of a paper is called for, except petitions, and the same is objected to by any Senator, it shall be determined by the Senate without debate.
30. Any Senator requesting to be excused from voting may make, either immediately before or after the vote shall have been called, and before the result shall have been announced, a brief statement of the reasons for making such request, and the question shall then be taken without debate. Any Senator may explain his vote on any bill pending by obtaining permission of the President before the vote is put: Provided, that not more than three minutes shall be consumed in such explanation.
31. No bill or resolution on its third reading shall be acted on out of the regular order in which it stands on the Calendar, and no bill or resolution shall be acted upon on its third reading the same day on which it passed its second reading, unless so ordered by two-thirds of the Senators present.
32. No bill or resolution shall be sent from the Senate on the day of its passage, except on the last day of the session, unless otherwise ordered by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present.
33. No bill or resolution, after being laid upon the table upon motion, shall be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present.
34. No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator shall be in order in debate, unless preceded by a motion or resolution of censure.
35. When a Senator shall be called to order he shall take his seat until the President shall have determined whether he was in order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not proceed without the permission of the Senate, and every question of order shall be decided by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any Senator; and if a Senator is called to order for words spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken down in writing, that the President or Senate may be better enabled to judge of the matter.
36. When a blank is to be filled, and different sums or times shall be proposed, the question shall be first taken on the highest sum or the longest time.
37. When a question has been once put and decided, it shall be in order for any Senator who shall have voted in the majority to move a reconsideration thereof; but no motion for the reconsideration of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, message, report, amendment or motion upon which the vote was taken shall have gone out of the possession of the Senate; nor shall any motion for reconsideration be in order unless made on the same day, or the next following legislative day, on which the vote proposed to be reconsidered shall have taken place, unless the same shall be made by the Committee on Enrolled Bills for verbal or grammatical errors in the bills, when the same may be made at any time. Nor shall any question be reconsidered more than once.
38. All bills and resolutions shall take their place upon the Calendar according to their number, and shall be taken up in regular order, unless otherwise ordered.
39. No smoking shall be allowed within the Senate Chamber during the sessions.
40. Senators and visitors shall uncover their heads upon entering the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session, and shall continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber.
41. No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart the service of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer for the time he is absent without leave.
42. No person other than the executive and judicial officers of the State, members and officers of the Senate and House of Representatives, unless on invitation of the President or by a vote of the Senate, shall be permitted within the bar.
43. No rule of the Senate shall be altered, suspended or rescinded except on a two-thirds vote of the Senators present: Provided, that a majority of all the Senators elected may change the rules at any time.
44. In case a less number than a quorum of the Senate shall convene, they are authorized to send the Doorkeeper, or any other person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators present shall determine.
45. The ayes and noes may be called for on any question before the vote is taken, and if seconded by one-fifth of the Senators present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes, and the same shall be entered upon the Journal.
46. When any committee shall decide that it is advisable to employ a clerk for such committee, the chairman of the committee shall first obtain the consent of the Senate for such employment, and if the Senate shall allow the clerk as requested, he shall be appointed by the Lieutenant Governor upon the recommendation of the committee.
47. Every bill introduced into the Senate shall be printed or typewritten. Amendments need not be typewritten.
48. The Clerk of the Senate shall provide a box of sufficient size, with an opening through the top, for the reception of bills. Such box shall be kept under lock and key and shall be stationed on the Clerk's desk. The President of the Senate shall have in his charge and keeping the key to such box. All bills which are to be introduced into the Senate shall be deposited in such box before the session begins. At the proper time the President shall open the box and take therefrom the bills. Such bills shall be read by their titles, which reading shall constitute the first reading of the bill, and unless otherwise disposed of shall be referred to the proper committee. A bill may be introduced by unanimous consent at any other time during a session.
49. The Chief Engrossing Clerk of the Senate shall appoint, with the approval of the President of the Senate, as his assistants, not more than three competent stenographers and typewriters. Such stenographers and typewriters shall work under the direction and supervision of the Engrossing Clerk. They shall also make for the member of the General Assembly who introduces a bill, without extra cost, one original and two carbon copies of all bills.
50. The Journal of the Senate shall be typewritten in duplicate, original and carbon, the original to be deposited in the office of Secretary of State as the record, and the other (carbon) copy to be delivered to the State Printer.
51. That in case of adjournment without any hour being named, the Senate shall reconvene the next legislative day at 11 o'clock A. M.
52. All bills and resolutions reported unfavorably by the committee to which they were referred, and having no minority report, shall lie upon the table, but may be taken from the table and placed upon the Calendar at the request of any Senator.
53. When a bill is materially modified or the scope of its application extended or decreased, or if the county or counties to which it applies be changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Senator introducing the bill or by the committee having it in charge, or by the Engrossing Clerk, so as to indicate the full purport of the bill as amended and the county or counties to which it applies.
Agriculture--McLean, chairman; Washington, Hooks, McLeod, Brown, Studdert, Woodley, Long, Peebles, Allen, Scott, Evans of Bladen, Barnes, Daniel, Ivie, Mashburn.
Appropriations--Watts, chairman; Gilliam, Ward, Coffey, Council, Mason, Hobgood, Hannah, Little of Wake, Wakefield, Hooks, Nimocks, Bellamy, Carson, Long, Bryant, Cook, Thorne, Peterson, Evans of Pitt, Hall.
Banking and Currency--Parsons, chairman; Daniel, Thorne, Washington, Davis, McLeod, Long, Little of Anson, Pharr, Jones, Payne, Barbour, Lovingood, Weaver, Grant, Hooks.
Claims--Payne, chairman; Woodley, Peebles, Ivie, Hawes, Allen, Phillips.
Commerce--Lovingood, chairman; Barnes, Studdert, Evans of Pitt, Scott, Watkins, Mashburn.
Congressional Apportionment--Peebles, chairman; Barnes, Davis, Little of Wake, Bryant, Nimocks, McLean, Brown, Pharr, Allen.
Constitutional Amendments--Ivie, chairman; Bellamy, Ward, Stubbs, Hobgood, Jones, Wakefield, Council, Mason, Daniel, Bryant, Barbour, Davis, Nimocks, Grant.
Corporation Commission--Hobgood, chairman; Thorne, Washington, Hawes, McLeod, Peterson, Gilliam, Bridgers, Scott, Ivie, Parsons, Cook, Watkins, Little of Anson, Mashburn.
Corporations--Bryant, chairman; Weaver, Wakefield, Lovingood, Coffey, Jones, Parsons, Little of Anson, Hobgood, Cook, Bellamy, Gilliam, Ward, Nimocks, Bridgers.
Counties, Cities, and Towns--Bellamy, chairman; Washington, Gilliam, Daniel, Pharr, Weaver, Ivie, Nimocks, McLeod, Bridgers, Hooks, Watts, Carson, Payne, McLean, Barbour, Peterson, Hall.
Distribution Governor's Message--Allen, chairman; Phillips, Watts, Little of Wake, Evans of Bladen, Peterson, Hawes.
Education--Thorne, chairman; Cook, Mason, Payne, Little of Wake, Ward, Davis, McLeod, Peterson, Bryant, Council, Coffey, Wakefield, Hannah, Lovingood, Phillips, Parsons, Hall, Barbour, Hobgood.
Election Law--Mason, chairman; Stubbs, Hawes, Little of Wake, Hobgood, Jones, Peterson, McLeod, Ivie, Pharr, Watts, Coffey, Weaver, Peebles, Evans of Bladen, Council, Grant.
Engrossed Bills--Hannah, chairman; Woodley, Studdert, Peebles, Evans of Bladen, Evans of Pitt, Hall.
Enrolled Bills--Hannah, chairman; Hawes, Bridgers, Payne, Grant.
Federal Relations--Bridgers, chairman; Watts, Ward, Thorne, Jones, Wakefield, Hooks.
Finance--Cook, chairman; Long, Barnes, Woodley, Thorne, Washington, Pharr, Hooks, Bellamy, Evans of Bladen, McLeod, McLean, Scott, Parsons, Watkins, Little of Anson, Jones, Mason, Lovingood, Hannah, Grant.
Fish and Fisheries--Gilliam, chairman; Davis, Woodley, Studdert, Barnes, Stubbs, Barbour, Evans of Pitt, Peebles, Daniel, Ward, Bellamy, Nimocks.
Game Law--Woodley, chairman; Davis, Ward, Hobgood, Stubbs, Bridgers, Barbour, Brown, Allen, Hannah, Payne, Grant.
Immigration--Brown, chairman; Barbour, Watkins, Phillips, Cook, McLean, Washington.
Insane Asylums--Wakefield, chairman; Barbour, Gilliam, Little of Wake, Hooks, Little of Anson, Pharr, Peterson, Weaver, Hannah, Bellamy, Evans of Bladen, Ivie, Brown, Mashburn.
Institutions for the Blind--Little of Anson, chairman; Barnes, Studdert, Hawes, Evans of Pitt, Nimocks, Ivie, Parsons, Little of Wake, Phillips, Brown, Carson.
Institutions for the Deaf--Barnes, chairman; Scott, Payne, Davis, Evans of Bladen, Bridgers, Watkins, Hawes, Bryant, McLean, Jones, Mason, Mashburn, Coffey.
Insurance--Pharr, chairman; Barnes, Washington, Studdert, Thorne, Evans of Bladen, Little of Wake, Bellamy, Parsons, Little of Anson, Hobgood.
Internal Improvements--McLeod, chairman; Mason, Daniel, Jones, Gilliam, Pharr.
Journal--Evans of Pitt, chairman; Davis, Gilliam, Peebles, Brown.
Judicial Districts--Ward, chairman; Jones, Council, Mason, Wakefield, Little of Anson, Pharr, Stubbs, Gilliam, Barnes, Coffey, Hobgood, Davis.
Judiciary, No. 1--Council, chairman; Daniel, Pharr, Barnes, Mason, Wakefield, Ward, Ivie, Barbour, Weaver, Davis, Little of Anson, Payne, Hannah, Grant.
Judiciary, No. 2--Stubbs, chairman; Gilliam, Thorne, Jones, Bellamy, Nimocks, Bryant, Hobgood, Carson, Peebles, Evans of Pitt, Little of Wake, Bridgers, Coffey, Phillips, Mashburn, Hall.
Justices of the Peace--Coffey, chairman; Wakefield, Watts, Scott, Phillips, Gilliam, Evans of Pitt.
Legislative Apportionment--Hawes, chairman; Thorne, Gilliam, Daniel, Mason, Watts, Brown.
Library--Carson, chairman; Thorne, Barnes, Nimocks, Bryant, Payne.
Manufacturing--Long, chairman; Scott, Watkins, Parsons, Cook, Hooks, Ivie, Mason, Jones, McLean, Pharr.
Military Affairs--Phillips, chairman; Peterson, Hobgood, Weaver, Davis, Little of Wake, Bryant.
Mining--Watkins, chairman; Hooks, Hannah, Lovingood, Brown, Thorne.
Penal Institutions--Daniel, chairman; Washington, McLeod, Mason, Carson, Jones, Hawes, Evans of Bladen, Scott. Peterson, Hall.
Pensions and Soldiers' Home--Weaver, chairman; Long, Watkins, Thorne, Davis, Hooks, Little of Anson, Lovingood, Parsons.
Printing--Carson, chairman; Davis, Little of Wake, Hawes, Grant.
Privileges and Elections--Scott, chairman; Watts, Stubbs, Barnes, Weaver, Hannah, Gilliam.
Propositions and Grievances--Nimocks, chairman; Ward, Long, Bryant, Ivie, McLean, Bellamy, Coffey, Payne, Mashburn.
Public Buildings and Grounds--Little of Wake, chairman; Washington, Thorne, Hooks, Weaver.
Public Health--Evans of Bladen, chairman; Scott, Cook, Wakefield, Pharr, Phillips.
Public Roads--Washington, chairman; Phillips, Hooks, Coffey, Council, Gilliam, Bryant, Pharr, Brown, Long, Mashburn.
Railroads--Jones, chairman; Daniel, Studdert, Evans of Pitt, Washington, Ward, McLeod, Peterson, Bryant, Little of Wake, Weaver.
Rules--Davis, chairman; Pharr. Council, Watts, Bryant, Weaver.
Salaries and Fees--Barbour, chairman; Ivie, Hooks, Parsons, Hobgood.
Senate Expenditures--Peterson, chairman; Carson, Weaver, Bellamy, Hall.
Shellfish--Studdert, chairman; Stubbs, Woodley, Davis, Barnes, Peebles, Nimocks.
Trustees of the University--McLeod, chairman; Barnes, Ivie, Pharr, Bellamy, Bryant, Cook, Evans of Bladen, Barbour, Carson, Gilliam, Jones, Stubbs, Mason, Hawes.
|GEORGE W. CONNOR||Speaker||Wilson.|
|T. G. COBB||Principal Clerk||Burke.|
|ALFRED MCLEAN||Reading Clerk||Harnett.|
|M. D. KINSLAND||Engrossing Clerk||Haywood.|
|J. H. MORING||Sergeant-at-Arms||Wake.|
|E. J. JENKINS||Asst. Sergeant-at-Arms||Granville.|
Alamance--J. Elmer Long (D.), Graham.
Alexander--John C. Connally (D.), Taylorsville.
Alleghany--R. A. Doughton (D.), Sparta.
Anson--F. E. Thomas (D.), Wadesboro.
Ashe--T. C. Bowie (D.), Jefferson.
Avery--R. M. Burleson (P.), Elk Park.
Beaufort--W. C. Rodman (D.), Washington.
Bertie--John C. Britton (D.), Powellsville.
Bladen--Angus Cromartie (D.), Garland.
Brunswick--George H. Bellamy (D.), El Paso.
Buncombe--Gallatin Roberts (D.), Asheville; R. R. Williams Asheville.
Burke--John M. Mull (P.), Morganton.
Cabarrus--H. S. Williams (R.), Concord.
Caldwell--E. D. Crisp (D.), Lenoir.
Camden--D. H. Tillett (D.), Camden.
Carteret--Charles S. Wallace (D.), Morehead City.
Caswell--T. Henry Hatchett (D.), Blanch, R.F.D.
Catawba--W. B. Gaither (D.), Newton.
Chatham--Fred. W. Bynum (D.), Pittsboro.
Cherokee--A. L. Martin (R.), Murphy.
Chowan--P. H. Bell (D.), Edenton.
Clay--L. H. McClure (P.), Hayesville.
Cleveland--R. B. Miller (D.), Shelby.
Columbus--J. R. Williamson (D.), Whiteville.
Craven--Gilbert A. Whitford (D.), New Bern.
Cumberland--John T. Martin (D.), Fayetteville, R. 5.
Currituck--S. J. Payne (D.), Point Harbor.
Dare--A. H. Etheridge (D.), Manteo.
Davidson--Ivey G. Thomas (D.), Thomasville, R. 4.
Davie--J. L. Sheek (P.), Mocksville.
Duplin--W. Stokes Boney (D.), Wallace.
Durham--S. C. Brawley (D.), Durham; G. C. Stallings (D.), Durham.
Edgecombe--T. F. Cherry (D.), Rocky Mount.
Forsyth--S. J. Bennett (D.), Winston-Salem; William Porter (D.), Kernersville.
Franklin--J. A. Turner (D.), Louisburg.
Gaston--S. S. Mauney (D.), Cherryville; David P. Dellinger (D.), Gastonia.
Gates--G. D. Gatling (D.), Roduco.
Graham--R. L. Phillips (D.), Robbinsville.
Granville--William A. Devin (D.), Oxford.
Greene--L. J. H. Mewborne (D.), Snow Hill.
Guilford--E. J. Justice (D.), Greensboro; Thomas J. Gold (D.), High Point; J. R. Gordon (D.), Jamestown.
Halifax--W. T. Clements (D.), Enfield; W. P. White (D.), Hobgood.
Harnett--Ernest F. Young (D.), Dunn.
Haywood--David R. Noland (D.), Crabtree, R.F.D. 1.
Henderson--John P. Patton (D.), Flat Rock.
Hertford--J. T. Williams (D.), Harrellsville.
Hoke--Thomas McBryde (D.), Red Springs.
Hyde--John M. Clayton (D.), Engelhard.
Iredell--H. P. Grier (D.), Statesville; Thomas N. Hall (D.), Mooresville.
Jackson--M. D. Wike (D.), Cullowhee.
Johnston--L. H. Allred (D.), Smithfield; C. M. Wilson (D.), Wilson Mills.
Jones--J. K. Dixon (D.), Trenton.
Lee--A. A. F. Seawell (D.), Jonesboro.
Lenoir--E. R. Wooten (D.), Kinston.
Lincoln--Robert B. Killian (D.), Lincolnton.
Macon--J. Frank Ray (D.), Franklin.
Madison--James E. Rector (R.), Hot Springs.
Martin--Archer R. Dunning (D.), Williamston.
McDowell--P. H. Mashburn (R.), Old Fort.
Mecklenburg--W. A. Grier (D.), Charlotte; W. G. McLaughlin (D.), Charlotte; Plummer Stewart (D.), Charlotte.
Mitchell--M. L. Buchanan (R.), Bakersville.
Montgomery--Barna Allen (D.), Troy.
Moore--Henry A. Page (D.), Aberdeen.
Nash--John L. Cornwell (D.), Middlesex; Paul R. Capelle (D.), Nashville.
New Hanover--Woodus Kellum (D.), Wilmington.
Northampton--Joseph B. Stephenson (D.), Severn.
Onslow--E. M. Koonce (D.), Jacksonville.
Orange--George C. Pickard (D.), Chapel Hill.
Pamlico--Henry L. Gibbs (D.), Oriental.
Pasquotank--D. C. Perry (D.), Elizabeth City.
Pender--Joseph T. Foy (D.), Scott's Hill.
Perquimans--James S. McNider (D.), Hertford.
Person--Charles A. Whitfield (D.), Virgilina, Va., R.F.D. 1.
Pitt--Dr. B. T. Cox (D.), Winterville; D. M. Clark (D.), Greenville.
Polk--J. A. Bolick (D.), Saluda.
Randolph--Romulus R. Ross (D.), Asheboro.
Richmond--A. R. McPhail (D.), Rockingham.
Robeson--H. C. MacNair (D.), Maxton; B. F. McMillan (D.), Red Springs.
Rockingham--William I. Witty (D.), Summerfield, R.F.D.; J. T. Wall (D.), Stoneville, R.F.D.
Rowan--Walter Murphey (D.), Salisbury; P. S. Carlton (D.), Salisbury.
Rutherford--O. R. Coffield (D.), Ellenboro.
Sampson--Cyrus M. Faircloth (P.), Clinton.
Scotland--W. H. Weatherspoon (D.), Laurinburg.
Stanly--Rufus E. Austin (D.), Albemarle.
Stokes--D. V. Carroll (R.), Mizpah.
Surry--Rufus L. Haymore (R.), Mount Airy.
Swain--Gala P. Ferguson (R.), Bryson City.
Transylvania--Charles B. Deaver (R.), Brevard.
Tyrrell--Mark Majette (D.), Columbia.
Union--H. L. Price (D.), Monroe; J. C. Sikes (D.), Monroe.
Vance--Isaac J. Young (D.), Henderson, R.F.D.
Wake--E. T. Mills (D.), Apex, R.F.D.; M. A. Griffin (D.), Wendell; J. Wilbur Bunn (D.), Raleigh.
Warren--F. B. Newell (D.), Warrenton.
Washington--Charles W. Snell (R.), Mackey's Ferry.
Watauga--John W. Hodges (R.), Boone.
Wayne--E. A. Stevens (D.), Goldsboro; Fred. R. Mintz (D.), Mount Olive.
Wilkes--Linville Bumgarner (R.), Wilkesboro.
Wilson--George W. Connor (D.), Wilson.
Yadkin--Wade Reavis (R.), Hamptonville.
Yancey--Charles Hutchins (D.), Burnsville.
1. It shall be the duty of the Speaker to have the sessions of this House opened with prayer in accordance with the order of this body.
2. He shall take the chair every day at the hour fixed by the House on the preceding legislative day, shall immediately call the members to order, and, on appearance of a quorum, cause the Journal of the preceding day to be read.
3. He shall preserve order and decorum, may speak to points of order, in preference to other members, rising from his seat for that purpose, and shall decide questions of order, subject to an appeal to the House by any member, on which appeal no member shall speak more than once, unless by leave of the House.
4. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting.
5. Questions shall be put in this form, namely: "Those in favor (as the question may be) will say Aye," and after the affirmative voice has been expressed, "Those opposed will say No." Upon a call for a division, the Speaker shall count; if required, he shall appoint tellers.
6. The Speaker shall have a general direction of the hall. He shall have a right to name any member to perform the duties of the chair, but substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in case of sickness or by leave of the House.
7. All committees shall be appointed by the Speaker, unless otherwise specially ordered by the House.
8. In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other cases he may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until there is a tie, but in no case shall he be allowed to vote twice on the same question.
9. All acts, addresses and resolutions shall be signed by the Speaker, and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the House shall be under his hand and seal, attested by the Clerk.
10. In case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the galleries or lobby, the Speaker (or Chairman of the Committee of the Whole) shall have power to order the same to be cleared.
11. No persons except members of the Senate, officers and clerks of the two Houses of the General Assembly, Judges of the Supreme and Superior Courts, officers of the State, persons particularly invited by the Speaker or some member, and such gentlemen as have been members of either House of the Legislature or of a convention of the people of the State, shall be admitted within the hall of the House: Provided, that no person except members of the Senate and the officers of the two Houses of the General Assembly shall be allowed on the floor of the House or in the lobby in the rear of the Speaker's desk, unless invited by the Speaker or the House.
12. Reporters wishing to take down debates may be admitted by the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor or elsewhere, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the convenience of the House.
13. Smoking shall not be allowed in the hall, the lobbies or the galleries while the House is in session.
14. After the reading of the Journal of the preceding day, which shall stand approved without objection, the House shall proceed to business in the following order, viz.:
(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials, and papers addressed to the General Assembly or to the House. Each of these shall be placed
by the member introducing the same in a secure box prepared under the direction of the presiding officer, which shall be under his control and direction, and which shall be securely locked so as to prevent any paper being taken therefrom without unlocking the box, and the presiding officer alone shall have the key to such box; and under this order of business the presiding officer shall withdraw from the box and hand to the Clerk each such paper placed therein prior to the time this order of business is reached and shall hand each memorial or paper to the Clerk to be read to the House, and a record thereof shall be made by the Clerk on the Journal.
(2) Reports of Standing Committees.
(3) Reports of Select Committees.
These shall be placed in a box and labeled and kept in the manner directed under subsection 1 of this section, and shall be removed from the box in like manner and read to the House by the Clerk and entered upon the Journals of the House as provided in said subsection for petitions and other papers.
These shall be placed in a similar box, properly labeled, prepared and kept as in the case of resolutions, and be withdrawn by the presiding officer and handed to the Clerk and read to the House, and proper entry thereof shall be made by the Clerk on the Journals.
(6) The unfinished business of the preceding day.
(7) The consideration by the House of bills, resolutions, petitions, memorials, messages, and other papers, the Public Calendar being given precedence, in their exact numerical order, except in so far as the House or the Committee on Rules by a special rule may vary the order of the consideration of matters on the Public Calendar by setting said public matters down for consideration at a certain time as special orders: Provided, that on Mondays and Saturdays the Public-local and Private Calendars shall be given precedence over the Public Calendar, though the Public Calendar may on such days be considered after the other calendars are disposed of.
(8) Bills, resolutions, petitions, memorials, messages and other papers on the Public-local Calendar in their exact numerical order.
(9) Bills, resolutions, petitions, memorials, and other papers on the Private Calendar in their exact numerical order.
No bill, resolution, petition, memorial, message, or other paper
which is not properly on the Public Calendar shall be made a special order so long as there is any bill, resolution, petition, memorial, message, or other matter on the Public Calendar which under the rule may then be considered by the House, and no matters on the Public Calendar shall ever be displaced by and on account of the bills on the Public-local Calendar or on the Private Calendar.
15. When any member is about to speak in debate or deliver any matter to the House, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address the Speaker.
16. When the Speaker shall call a member to order, the member shall sit down, as also he shall when called to order by another member, unless the Speaker decide the point of order in his favor. By leave of the House a member called to order may clear a matter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed in debate so long as the decision stands, but by permission of the House. Any member may appeal from the decision of the Chair, and if, upon appeal, the decision be in favor of the member called to order, he may proceed; if otherwise, he shall not, except by leave of the House; and if the case, in the judgment of the House, require it, he shall be liable to its censure.
17. No member shall speak until recognized by the Chair, and when two or more members rise at the same time, the Speaker shall name the member to speak.
18. No member shall speak more than twice on the main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and fifteen minutes for the second speech, unless allowed to do so by affirmative vote of a majority of the members present; nor shall he speak more than once upon an amendment or motion to commit or postpone, and then not longer than ten minutes. But the House may, by consent of a majority, suspend the operation of this rule during any debate on any particular question before the House, or the Committee on Rules may bring in a special rule that shall be applicable to the debate on any bill.
19. While the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing the House, on person shall speak, stand up, walk out of or across the House, nor when a member is speaking entertain private discourse, stand up, or pass between him and the Chair.
20. No member shall vote on any question in the case when he was not present when the question was put by the Speaker, except by the consent of the House. Upon a division and count of the House on any question, no member without the bar shall be counted.
21. Every member who shall be in the hall of the House when the question is put shall give his vote, upon a call of the ayes and noes, unless the House for special reasons shall excuse him, and no application to be excused from voting or to explain a vote shall be entertained unless made before the call of the roll. The hall of the House shall include the lobbies, galleries and offices connected with the hall.
22. When a motion is made and seconded, it shall be stated by the Speaker, or if written it shall be handed to the Chair and read aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before debate.
23. Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the Speaker or any two members desire it.
24. After a motion is stated by the Speaker or read by the Clerk, it shall be deemed to be in possession of the House, but may be withdrawn before a decision or amendment, except in case of a motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a member, shall be deemed and taken to be in possession of the House, and shall not be withdrawn without leave of the House.
25. When a question is under debate no motion shall be received but to adjourn, to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone to a day certain, to commit or amend, which several motions shall have precedence in the order in which they stand arranged; and no motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone to a day certain, to commit or amend, being decided, shall be again allowed on the same day and at the same stage of the bill or proposition.
26. A motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be decided without debate, and a motion to adjourn shall always be in order, except when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a motion to adjourn shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate or some business of the House has intervened.
27. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, the same shall not be acted on again during the session, except upon a two-thirds vote.
28. Any member may call for a division of the question, when the same shall admit of it, which shall be determined by the Speaker.
29. When a motion has been once made and carried in the affirmative or negative, it shall be in order for any member of the majority to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or succeeding day, unless it may have already passed the Senate, and no motion to reconsider shall be taken from the table except by a two-thirds vote. But unless such vote has been taken by a call of the yeas and nays any member may move to reconsider.
30. When the reading of a paper is called for, which has been read in the House, and the same is objected to by any member, it shall be determined by a vote of the House.
31. Petitions, memorials and other papers addressed to the House shall be presented by the Speaker, or by a member in his place; a brief statement of the contents thereof shall be verbally made by the introducer, and shall not be debated or decided on the day of their being first read, unless the House shall direct otherwise, but shall lie on the table, to be taken up in the order they were read.
32. When the ayes and noes are called for on any question, it shall be on motion before the question is put; and if seconded by one-fifth of the members present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes; and in taking the ayes and noes, or on a call of the House, the names of the members will be taken alphabetically.
33. Decency of speech shall be observed and personal reflection carefully avoided.
34. Any member, after the expiration of the morning hour, may rise to a question of personal privilege, but if the question of personal privilege be decided against him he shall not proceed, unless the ruling of the Speaker be reversed by the House.
35. Any fifteen members, including the Speaker, shall be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members.
36. No member or officer of the House shall absent himself from the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or inability.
37. Any member may excuse himself from serving on any committee if he is a member of two standing committees.
38. If any member shall be necessarily absent on temporary business of the House when a vote is taken upon any question, upon entering the House he shall be permitted, on request, to vote, provided that the result shall not be thereby affected.
39. No standing rule or order shall be rescinded or altered without one day's notice given on the motion thereof, and to sustain such motion two-thirds of the House shall be required.
40. The members of this House shall uncover their heads upon entering the hall whilst the House is in session, and shall continue so uncovered during their continuance in the hall, except Quakers.
41. A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, except a motion to reconsider an indefinite postponement, or a motion to reconsider a motion tabling a motion to reconsider, which shall require a two-thirds vote.
42. At the commencement of the session a standing committee shall be appointed on each of the following subjects, namely:
To be appointed by the Speaker, and the first announced on each committee shall be chairman. Before any private or public-local bill shall be placed on the Calendar, it shall be considered by the Committee on Private and Public-local Bills. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Private and Public-local Bills to see that all taxes and fees required by law have been paid; and it shall be the duty of such committee to consolidate into an omnibus bill and to systematize, in so far as practicable to do so, all private and public-local bills which deal with the same subject.
43. In forming a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker shall leave the chair, and a chairman to preside in committee shall be appointed by the Speaker.
44. Upon bills submitted to a Committee of the Whole House, the bill shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again read and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered.
The body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amendments, noting the page and line, shall be duly entered by the Clerk on a separate paper, as the same shall be agreed to by the committee, and so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall again be subject to be debated and amended by sections before a question on its passage be taken.
45. The rules of proceeding in the House shall be observed in a Committee of the Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, except the rule limiting the time of speaking and the previous question.
46. In a Committee of the Whole House, a motion that the committee rise shall always be in order, except when a member is speaking, and shall be decided without debate.
47. Every bill shall be introduced by motion for leave, or by order of the House, or on the report of a committee, unless introduced in regular order during the morning hour.
48. All bills and resolutions shall be reported from the committee to which referred, with such recommendation as the committee may desire to make.
49. Every bill shall receive three several readings in the House, previous to its passage, and the Speaker shall give notice at each whether it be its first, second, or third reading.
50. Any member introducing a bill or resolution shall briefly endorse thereon the substance of the same.
51. The Speaker shall refer all bills and resolutions, upon their introduction, to the appropriate committee, unless otherwise ordered. When a public bill or resolution has been referred by the Speaker to a committee, and after it has remained with such committee for the space of five days without being reported to the House, it shall, at the option and upon the request of the member who introduced it, be recalled from such committee by order of the Speaker and by him referred to some other regular committee, which shall be indicated in the House by the introducer thereof, and the request and order recalling such bill and the reference thereof shall be entered on its Journal.
52. The Clerk of the House shall keep a separate calendar of the Public, Local, and Private bills, and shall number them in the order in which they are introduced; and all bills shall be disposed of in the order they stand upon the Calendar; but the Committee on Rules may
at any time arrange the order of precedence in which bills may be considered. No bill shall be twice read on the same day without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members.
53. All resolutions which may grant money out of the Treasury, or such as shall be of a public nature, shall be treated in all respects in a similar manner with public bills.
54. The Clerk of the House shall be deemed to continue in office until another is appointed.
55. Upon the motion of any member there shall be a call of the House, a majority of the members present assenting thereto, and upon a call of the House the names of the members shall be called over by the Clerk and the absentees noted, after which the names of the absentees shall again be called over. The doors shall then be closed and those from whom no excuse or sufficient excuses are made may, by order of those present, if fifteen in number, be taken into custody as they appear, or may be sent for and taken into custody wherever to be found by special messenger appointed for that purpose.
56. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main question be now put?" and, until it is decided, shall preclude all amendments and debates. If this question shall be decided in the affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, resolution or other matter under consideration; but when amendments are pending the question shall be taken upon such amendments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. If such question be decided in the negative, the main question shall be considered as remaining under debate: Provided, that no one shall move the previous question except the member submitting the report on the bill or other matter under consideration, and the member introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, or the member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated by the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the House at the time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to the House, or taken up for consideration.
When a motion for the previous question is made, and pending the second thereto by a majority, debate shall cease, but if any member
obtains the floor he may move to lay the matter under consideration on the table, or move an adjournment, and when both or either of these motions are pending the question shall stand:
And then upon the main question, or amendments, or the motion to postpone indefinitely, postpone to a day certain, to commit or amend, in the order of their precedence, until the main question is reached or disposed of; but after the previous question has been called by a majority, no motion, amendment or debate shall be in order.
All motions below the motion to lay on the table must be made prior to a motion for the previous question; but, pending and not after the second therefor by the majority of the House, a motion to adjourn or lay on the table, or both, are in order. This constitutes the precedence of the motion to adjourn and lay on the table over other motions, in Rule 25.
Motions stand as follows in order of precedence in Rule 26:
When the previous question is called, all motions below it fall, unless made prior to the call, and all motions above it fall after its second by a majority required. Pending the second, the motions to adjourn and lay on the table are in order, but not after a second. When in order and every motion is before the House, the question stands as follows:
The previous question covers all other motions when seconded by a majority of the House, and proceeds by regular gradation to the main question, without debate, amendment or motion, until such question is reached or disposed of.
57. All bills carrying appropriations, when reported favorably from the committee having them in charge, shall be referred to the Committee on Appropriations before reported to the House.
58. The Principal Clerk, the Engrossing Clerk, and the Doorkeeper shall appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, and by affirmative order of the House, such assistants as may be necessary to the efficient discharge of the duties of their various offices.
59. The Speaker shall appoint twelve pages to wait upon the sessions of the House, and when the pressure of business may require he may appoint three additional pages.
60. The chairmen of the Committees on the Judiciary No. 1 and No. 2, jointly; Constitutional Amendments and Propositions and Grievances, jointly; Private Bills, and Finance and Appropriations, jointly, may appoint a clerk, with the approval of the majority of said respective committees; and no other clerks of committees shall be appointed except upon motion, which shall first be referred to the Committee on Rules, and a favorable report from said committee shall not allow the appointment of additional clerks of committees unless such report be adopted by two-thirds vote of the House.
61. The chairmen and five members of the Committees on the Judiciary and the chairmen and ten members of the Committees on Education, Finance, and Agriculture shall constitute a quorum of either of said respective committees for the transaction of business.
62. The Speaker, on each Monday morning, shall appoint a committee of three members, whose duty it shall be to examine daily the Journal of the House before the hour of convening, and report after the opening of the House whether or not the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly recorded.
Agriculture--McLaughlin, chairman; White, Wall, Noland, McNair, Stevens, Whitfield, Wilson, Clayton, Price, Cherry, Miller, Griffin, Boney, Crisp, Martin of Cumberland, Ross, Mewborne, Williams of Hertford, Allred, Snell, Burleson, Bumgarner, Rector, Bellamy, Grier of Iredell, Grier of Mecklenburg.
Appropriations--Doughton, chairman; Gordon, Grier of Mecklenburg, Murphy, Majette, Cornwell, Wooten, McNair, McBryde, Martin of Cumberland, Page, Seawell, Stevens, Wallace, Wike, Wilson, Bellamy, Clark, Stephenson, Haymore, Mull, Williams of Cabarrus, Weatherspoon, Hodges.
Banks and Currency--Bowie, chairman; Mauney, McNair, Wooten, Page, Capelle, Gatling, Gold, Killian, Martin of Cherokee, Wike, Hutchins, Mintz, Turner, Doughton, Mills, Williamson, Young of Vance, Haymore, Burleson, Sheek.
Claims--Dixon, chairman; Bowie, Britton, McPhail, Killian, Connally, Mills, Stevens, Phillips, Tillett, Witty, Wooten, Haymore, Buchanan.
Constitutional Amendments--Justice, chairman; Koonce, Ray, Majette, Gaither, Stewart, Porter, Sikes, Devin, Thomas of Anson, Williamson, Clark, Bynum, Carlton, Clement, Dixon, Reavis, Mull, Page.
Corporation Commission--Seawell, chairman; Allred, Noland, White, Porter, Long, Bell, Wall, Thomas of Davidson, Patton. McNider, McLaughlin, Mauney, Mills, Martin of Cherokee, Hatchett, Etheridge, Cox, Connally, Allen, Burleson, Rector.
Corporation--Allred, chairman; Wooten, Williams of Buncombe, Dellinger, Young of Harnett, Cornwell, Gibbs, Martin of Cherokee, Mills, McNider, Thomas of Davidson, Bennett, McPhail, Perry, Britton, Williams of Cabarrus, Deaver.
Counties, Cities, Towns, and Townships--Roberts, chairman; Dixon, Griffin, Dunning, Stevens, Murphy, Tillett, Witty, McMillan, Gibbs, Hutchins, Brawley, Newell, McBryde, Britton, Bennett, Young of Vance, Bolick, McPhail, Sheek, Haymore, Buchanan, Wallace.
Courts and Judicial Districts--Weatherspoon, chairman; Kellum, Bowie, Ray, Brawley, Dunning, Stevens, Whitford, Allen, Stephenson, Long, Noland, Tillett, Haymore, Mull, Faircloth, Wallace.
Education--Majette, chairman; Seawell, Bowie, Cox, Wilson, Cromartie, Griffin, Pickard, Price, Dellinger, White, Miller, Stallings, Turner, Thomas of Anson, Mintz, Gibbs, Martin of Cherokee, Roberts, Justice, Wike, Page, Austin, Mashburn, Hodges, McClure.
Election Laws--Brawley, chairman; Kellum, Bowie, Stevens, Turner, Bynum, Carlton, Bunn, Dunning, Noland, Whitford, Hall, Gaither, Stewart, Mashburn, Deaver, Haymore, Justice.
Engrossed Bills--Noland, chairman; Austin, Bynum, Capelle, Mintz, Deaver.
Expenditures of the House--Bunn, chairman; Britton, Dellinger, Foy, Hutchins, Long, Mintz, McPhail, Perry, Bennett, Reavis, Rector, Bumgarner.
Federal Relations--Stewart, chairman; Bunn, Weatherspoon, Bynum, Wallace, Devin, Gold, Killian, Mintz, Murphy, Payne, Rodman, Mull, Reavis.
Finance--Williams of Buncombe, chairman; Doughton, Wallace, Ray, Koonce, Majette, Page, Devin, Clement, Stewart, Ross, Seawell, Sikes, Stevens, Wooten, Gordon, Kellum, Young of Harnett, Wilson, Bennett, Capelle, Mashburn, Snell, Deaver, McNair, Dellinger.
Fish and Fisheries--Wallace, chairman; Bellamy, Bell, Koonce, Payne, Gibbs, Britton, Rodman, Clayton, Bowie, Noland, White, Grier of Iredell, Whitford, Ross, Ray, Gaither, Gold, Snell, Burleson, Ferguson, Kellum, Foy, Roberts.
Game--Ross, chairman; Bellamy, Boney, Allen, Austin, Coffield, Connally, Hatchett, Mills, Payne, Mewborne, McNider, Newell, Carlton, Perry, Thomas of Davidson, Etheridge, Hodges, Bumgarner.
Health--Cox, chairman; Gordon, McMillan, Killian, Bellamy, Hall, Turner, Brawley, Cherry, Bynum, Miller, Bell, Patton, Price, Dellinger, Rodman, White, Faircloth, Rector.
Immigration--Wall, chairman; Austin, Bennett, Bolick, Foy, Coffield, Dellinger, Gatling, Miller, Patton, Pickard, Stallings, Buchanan, McClure, Ferguson, Bumgarner.
Insane Asylums--Gordon, chairman; Stevens, Dixon, Stephenson, Britton, Bunn, Foy, Pickard, Price, Witty, Wilson, Young of Vance, McNair, Mashburn, Sheek, Snell, Faircloth, Haymore, Crisp.
Institutions for the Blind--Wilson, chairman; Cox, Griffin, Killian, Mewborne, McLaughlin, Witty, Clayton, Cherry, Boney. Mauney, Austin, Bell, Connally, Hutchins, Patton, Porter, Ferguson, Carroll, Newell.
Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb--Grier of Mecklenburg, chairman; Roberts, Long, Gaither, Wallace, Miller, White, Dixon, Mintz, Majette, Koonce, Wooten, Cox, Griffin, Cromartie, Wall, Mull, Mashburn, Hodges, Carroll.
Insurance--Long, chairman; Bellamy, Turner, Dunning, Gold, Hall, Capelle, Foy, Killian, Allen, Porter, Austin, Hatchett, Williams of Hertford, Stephenson, McMillan, Miller, Gatling, Hodges, Ferguson.
Internal Improvements--Young of Harnett, chairman; Thomas of Anson, Britton, Patton, Mintz, McPhail, Wilson, Bellamy, Doughton, Williams of Buncombe, Young of Vance, Clark, Phillips, Burleson, Deaver, McClure.
Judiciary, No. 1--Wooten, chairman; Devin, Justice, Majette, Bowie, Allred, Kellum, Seawell, Williamson, Brawley, Weatherspoon, Stewart, Gibbs, Long, McNider, Williams of Buncombe, Capelle, Bennett, Hutchins, Carlton, Mull, Rector, Deaver, Reavis.
Judiciary, No. 2--Sikes, chairman; Doughton, Ray, Koonce, Murphy, Roberts, Young of Harnett, Gaither, Gold, Grier of Iredell, Thomas of Anson, Rodman, Austin, Bunn. Dellinger, Tillett, Dunning, Clark, McPhail, Bynum, Phillips, Haymore, Williams of Cabarrus, Faircloth.
Manufactures and Labor--Koonce, chairman; Seawell, Majette, Murphy, Miller, Mauney, Turner, Witty, Wooten. Devin, Page, Coffield, Killian, Brawley, McMillan, Ross, Stewart, Williamson, Wilson, Gold, Hodges, Mull, Faircloth.
Military Affairs--Rodman, chairman; Devin, Bunn, Cromartie, Hall, Mintz, Turner, Bennett, McPhail, Sikes, Wike, Payne, Newell, Allen, Faircloth.
Mines and Mining--Allen, chairman; Carlton, Coffield, Miller, Martin of Cherokee, Bowie, Dellinger, Noland, Bolick, Sheek, Williams of Cabarrus.
Oyster Interests--Gibbs, chairman; Dunning, Clayton, Bellamy, Rodman, McNider, Etheridge, Perry, Foy, Martin of Cumberland, Snell, McClure.
Penal Institutions--Grier of Iredell, chairman; Ross, Cornwell, McLaughlin, Doughton, Martin of Cumberland, Clayton, Bolick, Weatherspoon, Stephenson, Killian, Foy, Cromartie, Mauney, McBryde, Perry, Pickard, Whitfield, Etheridge, McClure, Sheek, Gordon.
Pensions--McBryde, chairman; Wall, Stallings, Bell, Grier of Mecklenburg, Koonce, Foy, Miller, Rodman, Whitfield, Mewborne, Stevens, McClure, Snell, Ross.
Private and Public-Local Bills--Kellum, chairman; Bowie, Devin, Gordon, Murphy, Allred, Roberts, Seawell, Majette, Weatherspoon, Williams of Cabarrus, Mull.
Privileges and Elections--Austin, chairman; Martin of Cherokee, Bell, Boney, Brawley, Capelle, Clement, Crisp, Etheridge, Gatling, Hall, Hatchett, Newell, Phillips, Price, Thomas of Anson, Haymore, Hodges.
Propositions and Grievances--Ray, chairman; Dellinger, Britton, Bunn, Clark, Clayton, Crisp, Foy, Gordon, Grier of Iredell, Hatchett, Hutchins, Martin of Cumberland, Mintz, McBryde, McLaughlin, McMillan, McPhail, Patton, Payne, Phillips, Thomas of Anson, Stallings, Whitfield, Young of Harnett, Bumgarner, Deaver, Ferguson, Wallace.
Public Roads and Turnpikes--Griffin, chairman; Grier of Mecklenburg, Doughton, Cherry, Murphy, Price, Hall, Mewborne, Turner, Bellamy, Wike, McNair, Killian, Coffield, Noland, Pickard, Haymore, Reavis, Sheek, Carroll.
Regulation of Public-service Corporations--Devin, chairman; Justice, Sikes, Williams of Buncombe, Kellum, White, Bolick, Coffield, Boney, Majette, Cherry, Crisp, Dellinger, Gatling, Griffin, McMillan, Porter, Stewart, Whitfield, Young of Harnett, Mashburn, Haymore, Mull, Wallace.
Regulation of Liquor Traffic--Miller, chairman; Roberts, Wallace, Grier of Mecklenburg, Cornwell, Dellinger, Bynum, Weatherspoon, Stephenson, Mills, White, Whitford, Turner, Stevens, Bolick, Buchanan, Carroll, Ferguson.
Rules--Murphy, chairman; Doughton, Justice, Majette, Allred, Haymore.
Salaries and Fees--Clement, chairman; Cornwell, Witty, Koonce, Murphy, Gordon, Gaither, Allred, Bell, Boney, Cromartie, Connally, McNider, Austin, Noland, Thomas of Davidson, Whitford, Mull, Carroll.
Enrolled Bills--Mintz, chairman; Martin of Cherokee, Austin, Bolick, Bunn, Connally, Gatling, Newell, Phillips, Rector.
Justices of the Peace--Cornwell, chairman; Bynum, Carlton, Connally, Dixon, Cromartie, Gibbs, Hatchett, Patton, Clayton, McClure, Reavis.
Library--Tillett, chairman; Pickard, Williams of Buncombe, Cromartie, Gordon, Majette, Bynum, Page, Clark, Williams of Cabarrus, Faircloth.
Printing--Turner, chairman; Mintz, Capelle, Gatling, Hatchett, Hutchins, McNider, Rector.
Public Buildings and Grounds--Bellamy, chairman; Mills, Doughton, Hall, Hutchins, Gaither, Martin of Cumberland, Miller, Whitfield, Ross, Stevens, Clement, Stallings, Faircloth, Mull.
Trustees of the University--Gold, chairman; Bowie, Williams of Buncombe, Seawell, Pickard, Clark, Kellum, Page, Thomas of Anson, Wike, Mull, Faircloth.
Revision of the Laws--Dunning, chairman; Wooten, Sikes, Williams of Buncombe, Weatherspoon, Devin, Kellum, Ray, Haymore, Rector, Deaver.
The Governor is the chief executive officer of the State. He is elected by the people for a term of four years. He receives a salary of $5,000 a year, and in addition is allowed annually $600 for traveling expenses, and a residence, with domestic servants.
Article III, section 2, of the Constitution of North Carolina prescribes the following qualifications for the Governor:
1. He must have attained the age of thirty years.
2. He must have been a citizen of the United States for five years, and a resident of North Carolina for two years next before the election.
3. No person shall be eligible for the office of Governor for more than four years in any term of eight years, unless he becomes Governor by having been Lieutenant Governor or President of the Senate.
The same qualifications apply to the office of Lieutenant Governor.
The Constitution prescribes the powers and duties of the Governor as follows:
1. To take the oath of office prescribed for the Governor.
2. To reside at the seat of government; to keep the General Assembly informed respecting the affairs of the State; and to recommend to the General Assembly such measures as he deems expedient.
3. To grant reprieves, commutations and pardons (except in cases of impeachment), and to report each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon to the General Assembly.
4. To receive reports from all officials of the Executive Department and of public institutions, and to transmit the same to the General Assembly.
5. He is commander in chief of the militia of the State, except when they are called into the service of the United States.
6. To call extra sessions of the General Assembly when he thinks necessary, by and with the advice of the Council of State.
7. To appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, all officers whose offices are established by the Constitution and whose appointments are not otherwise provided for.
8. To keep "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina," and use the same as occasion shall require.
He has no veto power, being the only Governor in the United States without such power.
In addition to these duties the following are prescribed by statute:
1. To supervise the official conduct of all executive and administrative officers, and to visit all State institutions whenever he deems such visitation necessary to inquire into their management and needs.
2. To see that all public offices are filled and their duties performed.
3. To make appointments and supply vacancies not otherwise provided for in all departments.
4. To be the sole official organ of communication between the Government of this State and other States or the Government of the United States.
5. To use the civil and military power of the State to prevent the violation of the statute against prize-fighting in North Carolina.
6. To convene the Council of State for consultation whenever he deems it necessary.
7. To appoint a Private Secretary, who shall keep a record of all public letters written by or to the Governor in books provided for that purpose.
8. To cause to be kept the following records: a register of all applications for pardon or for commutation of any sentence; an account of his official expenses, and the rewards offered by him for the apprehension of criminals, which shall be paid upon the warrant of the Auditor.
9. Under certain conditions to employ counsel for the State.
10. To appoint by proclamation one day in each year as a day of solemn and public thanksgiving to Almighty God for past blessings and of supplication for His continued kindness and care over us as a State and a Nation.
11. To procure a seal for each department of the State Government to be used in such manner as may be established by law.
In addition to the above duties, the Governor is, ex officio, chairman of the State Board of Education, of the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, of the State Board of Pensions, of the State Board of Internal Improvements, of the North Carolina Geological Board, of the Board of Trustees of the State Library, of the Board of Trustees of the University of North Carolina, and of the State Text-book Commission, of the committee to let the contract for State printing, and of the State Board of Canvassers.
The Secretary of State is at the head of the Department of State. He is elected by the people for a term of four years and receives a salary of $3,500. He is, ex officio, a member of the Council of State, of the State Board of Education, of the State Text-book Commission, of the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, and is a trustee of the Public Libraries.
The Secretary of State countersigns all commissions issued by the Governor and is charged with the custody of all statutes and joint resolutions of the Legislature, all documents which pass under the Great Seal, and of all books, records, deeds, parchments, maps and papers now deposited in his office or which may hereafter be there deposited pursuant to law.
Through the Secretary of State all corporations for business or charitable purposes under the general laws of the State are chartered. This includes mercantile, manufacturing, banking, insurance, railroad, street car, electric, steamboat, and other companies. There the certificates are recorded, annual reports of same filed, except those required by law to report to the Corporation Commission. In the last two years there have been domestic corporations filed in the office of Secretary of State on which $48,646.50 organization or dissolution taxes have been paid. In the last two years 74 banks have been incorporated and 16 railroad companies have filed articles of association or amendment with the Secretary of State. Foreign corporations, before being permitted to do business in North Carolina, are required to file copies of their charters in and make annual statements to the office of Secretary of State. One hundred and five foreign corporations have filed their charters and have been admitted to do business in the last two years.
All bills passed by the General Assembly are enrolled for ratification under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of State and shall be typewritten or written with pen and ink, in the discretion of the Secretary of State. All bills are now typewritten, which change is very much in the interest of economy and accuracy. Copyists
in the enrolling office are paid ten cents a copy-sheet for original and one carbon copy. The carbon copy is sent to the State Printer, from which copy are published the laws, resolutions, etc. An assistant to the Secretary of State prepares these laws for publication, determines which are "public," "public local," and which are "private," side-notes them and prepares the captions and indexes the laws of the session. This work has grown very much in the last few years.
The Secretary of State is charged with the work of distributing the Supreme Court Reports. The Revisal, Session Laws, Journals, Public Documents, etc.
The Secretary of State furnishes to the various precincts, counties, and boards all books, blanks, forms, and other printed matter necessary for holding elections; prepares blanks for the State Board of Canvassers and issues certificates of election to such persons as are declared elected by the State Board of Canvassers. He also keeps in his office a permanent roll of the voters of the precincts and counties who registered under the "grandfather clause" in the Constitution.
All vacant and unappropriated land in North Carolina is subject to entry by residents or citizens of the State. Almost all the vacant land in the State has been granted to individuals or is the property of the State Board of Education, but small tracts are frequently discovered and entries for same made. In the last two years 255 grants have been issued, and on this account $13,349.25 has been paid into the Treasury. The warrants, plats, and surveys and a record of grants for all lands originally granted by the Lords Proprietors, by the crown of Great Britain, or by the State of North Carolina are preserved in the office of the Secretary of State.
The General Assembly of 1909 increased the price of these lands to $1.50 an acre, and provided "that all lands entered under this act for which a grant has been obtained at the price of $1.50 an acre shall be free from all claims, title or interest now vested in the State of North Carolina or the State Board of Education."
Automobiles are now required to be licensed by the State, and 6,106 have registered, and there has been paid into the Treasury from this source for the year 1912, $16,462.00.
For the two years ending November 30, 1912, the collections made in the Secretary of State's office, paid into the State Treasury, were $128,114.51.
In the last few years the work in this office has been greatly increased, everything has been indexed and systematically filed, and the dangerous and unsightly paper boxes and files in wooden cupboards have been replaced with steel, fireproof filing-cases.
The State Treasury is one of the executive departments of the State Government. The State Treasurer is elected by the people for a term of four years. His term of office begins the first day of January next after his election and continues until his successor is elected and qualified. He receives a salary of $3,500 per annum.
The duties of the State Treasurer as prescribed by law are as follows:
1. To keep his office in the city of Raleigh and attend there between the hours of 10 o'clock A. M. and 3 o'clock P. M., except Sundays and legal holidays.
2. To receive all moneys that may be paid into the Treasury of the State; to pay interest on State bonds and all warrants legally drawn on the Treasury by the Auditor and to report to the Governor and the General Assembly the financial condition of the State, including a summary of the receipts and disbursements for each fiscal year.
3. To make a complete revenue bill to cover estimated expenses and recommend the tax rate.
4. To construe Revenue and Machinery Acts.
SUMMARY OF THE RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF PUBLIC AND EDUCATIONAL FUNDS, SHOWING BALANCES TO THE CREDIT OF EACH FUND AT THE CLOSE OF EACH OF THE FISCAL YEARS ENDING NOVEMBER 30, 1911, AND NOVEMBER 30, 1912.
|1910. Dec. 1||Balance:|
|Educational Fund||$ 10,539.25|
|1911. Nov. 30||Receipts:|
|Total receipts for 1911||$4,023,684.92|
|Overdraft from 1910||$ 12,118.87|
|Balance at end of 1911||$ 218,221.33|
|Public Fund||$ 211,369.23|
|1911. Dec. 1||Balance brought forward:|
|Public Fund||$ 211,369.23|
|Total balance||$ 218,221.33|
|1912. Nov. 30||Receipts:|
|Total receipts for 1912||$3,631,877.00|
|Balance at end of 1912||$ 290,856.22|
|Public Fund||$ 286,487.32|
The Department of the State Auditor is one of the Executive Departments of the State Government. The Auditor is elected for a term of four years by the qualified voters of the State, at the same time and places and in the same manner as members of the General Assembly are elected. His term of office begins on the first day of January next after his election and continues until his successor is elected and qualified. (Constitution of North Carolina, Article III, section 1.) His duties as prescribed by law are as follows (Revisal of 1905, section 5365):
1. To superintend the fiscal concerns of the State.
2. To report to the Governor, annually, and to the General Assembly at the beginning of each biennial session thereof, a complete statement of the funds of the State, of its revenues and of the public expenditures during the preceding fiscal year, and, as far as practicable, an account of the same down to the termination of the current calendar year, together with a detailed estimate of the expenditures to be defrayed from the treasury for the ensuing fiscal year, specifying therein each object of expenditure and distinguishing between such as are provided for by permanent or temporary appropriations, and such as must be provided for by a new statute, and suggesting the means from which such expenditures are to be defrayed.
3. To suggest plans for the improvement and management of the public revenue.
4. To keep and state all accounts in which the State is interested.
5. To examine and settle the accounts of all persons indebted to the State, and to certify the amount of balance to the Treasurer.
6. To direct and superintend the collection of all moneys due to the State.
7. To examine and liquidate the claims of all persons against the State, in cases where there is sufficient provisions of law for the payment thereof, and where there is no sufficient provision, to examine the claim and report the fact, with his opinion thereon, to the General Assembly.
8. To require all persons who have received any moneys belonging to the State, and have not accounted therefor, to settle their accounts.
9. To have the exclusive power and authority to issue all warrants for the payment of money upon the State Treasurer; and it shall be the Auditor's duty, before issuing the same, to examine the laws authorizing the payment thereof, and satisfy himself of the correctness of the accounts of persons applying for warrants; and to this end he shall have the power to administer oaths, and he shall also file in his office the voucher upon which the warrant is drawn and cite the law upon said warrant.
10. To procure from the books of the banks in which the Treasurer makes his deposits, monthly statements of the moneys received and paid on account of the Treasurer.
11. To keep an account between the State and the Treasurer, and therein charge the Treasurer with the balance in the Treasury when he came into office, and with all moneys received by him, and credit him with all warrants drawn or paid by him.
12. To examine carefully on the first Tuesday of every month, or oftener if he deems it necessary, the accounts of the debits and credits in the bank book kept by the Treasurer, and if he discovers any irregularity or deficiency therein, unless the same be rectified or explained to his satisfaction, to report the same forthwith in writing to the Governor.
13. To require, from time to time, all persons who have received moneys or securities, or have had the disposition or management of any property of the State, of which an account is kept in his office, to render statements thereof to him; and all such persons shall render such statements at such time and in such form as he shall require.
14. To require any person presenting an account for settlement to be sworn before him and to answer orally as to any facts relating to its correctness.
In addition to the above, the State Auditor is a member of the Council of State, of the State Board of Education, of the State Textbook Commission, of the State Board of Pensions, and ex officio Secretary of the Soldiers' Home. All pension matters are managed in this department; all applications for pensions examined, and all pension warrants issued to more than fifteen thousand pensioners. The Auditor keeps the accounts of the Soldiers' Home.
The first pension law was passed by the Legislature of 1885. It appropriated $30,000 annually for certain classes of disabled Confederate soldiers. This appropriation has been increased from time to time, until the annual appropriation now amounts to $400,000. Of this amount $125,000 was added by the Legislature of 1907.
To totally blind and disabled Confederate soldiers the law allows $120 each per year. That class received $13,280 in 1907.
The Soldiers' Home was organized by the Legislature of 1891 and there was expended that year $2,250. That has gradually increased from year to year until the last Legislature appropriated $15,000 for maintenance and $5,000 for building purposes, making a total of $20,000 annually.
We have now on the pension roll of North Carolina in round numbers 15,000 pensioners, an increase of about 10,000 since 1900.
The Department of Education is one of the Executive Departments of the State Government. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, head of the department, is elected by the people for a term of four years. His term begins on the first of January next after his election and continues until his successor has been elected and qualified. His salary is $3,000 per annum, and in addition he is allowed "actual traveling expenses" when engaged in the performance of his official duties.
Section XLI of the Constitution of North Carolina of 1776 is as follows: "That a school or schools be established by the Legislature, for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the masters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at low prices; and all useful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more universities."
Except for the establishment of the University of North Carolina, no attempt was made by the Legislature to carry out this injunction of the Constitution until nearly three-quarters of a century had elapsed. The first efforts were a failure, and nothing definite was accomplished until the creation of a Department of Education by the
election in 1851 of Calvin H. Wiley Superintendent of Common Schools. He entered upon the duties of his office in January, 1852, and was continued in office until October 19, 1865. The following figures tell the story of his work: Number of teachers in 1852, 800; in 1855, 2,064; in 1860, 2,286. Enrollment in the schools in 1853, 83,373; in 1855, 115,856; in 1860, 116,567. Number of schools taught in 1855, 1,905; 1860, 2,854. School fund in 1853, $192,250; in 1860, $408,566. Expenditures in 1853, $139,865; in 1860, $255,641. The schools were kept open throughout the war, and in 1863 enrolled more than 50,000 pupils. In 1865, as one of the results of the war, the office of Superintendent of Common Schools was abolished.
By the Constitution of 1868 the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction was created, and the Department of Education made one of the Constitutional Departments of the State Government. Since that time the following have filled the office: S. S. Ashley, Alexander McIver, Stephen D. Pool, John C. Scarborough, Sidney M. Finger, Charles H. Mebane, Thomas F. Toon, and James Y. Joyner.
The scope and general nature of the work of this department can be best understood from the following summary of the general powers and duties of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction:
The Superintendent is required to publish the school law, make a biennial report to the Governor, keep his office at the capital, and sign all orders for money paid out of State Treasury for educational purposes. He has general direction of the school system and the enforcement of the school law, all school officers being required to obey his instructions and his interpretation of the law. He is required to be acquainted with the educational conditions of all sections of the State, and he must also keep in touch with the educational progress of other States.
In addition to these general duties, the State Superintendent has the following duties: Supervision and control of normal department of Cullowhee High School, Rev. 1905, 4228; secretary Text-book Commission, Rev. 1905, 4057; trustee of State Library. Rev. 1905, 5069; president of board of directors State Normal and Industrial College, Rev. 1905, 4252; chairman of trustees of East Carolina Training School, Laws 1907; chairman State Board of Examiners, Laws 1907; prescribes course of study for public high schools, Laws 1907; makes rules and regulations for rural libraries, Rev. 1905, 4175; and member board of trustees of Appalachian Training School, Laws 1907.
|Balance from 1911||$ 220,139.19||$ 54,700.27||$ 274,839.46|
|Local tax, 1911-1912||509,779.27||669,987.41||1,179,766.68|
|Local tax, 1910-1911||357,271.38||655,978.63||1,013,250.01|
|Percentage of increase||42.1||2.1||15.45|
|Bonds, loans, etc., 1911-1912||105,961.00||358,125.31||464,086.31|
|Bonds, loans, etc., 1910-1911||84,695.00||167,624.21||252,319.21|
|County fund, 1911-1912||1,827,130.26||389,835.40||2,216,965.66|
|County fund, 1910-1911||1,486,451.34||354,263.20||1,840,714.54|
|Special State appropriations for elementary schools||216,429.45||216,429.45|
|Special State appropriations for public high schools||64,850.00||64,850.00|
|Private donations, State appropriations, tuitions, etc., for libraries, 1911-1912||31,976.14||39,348.87||71,325.01|
|Private donations, State appropriations, tuitions, etc., for libraries, 1910-1911||26,071.47||26,071.47|
|Total available school fund, 1911-1912||2,976,755.31||1,511,997.26||4,488,752.57|
|Total available school fund, 1910-1911||2,455,504.33||1,244,113.38||3,699,617.71|
|Percentage of increase||21.2||21.5||21.3|
|Rural funds (not included in above), 1911-1912||65,112.56||65,112.56|
|Rural funds (not included in above), 1910-1911||66,231.77||66,231.77|
|Total expenditures, 1911-1912||$2,703,990.72||$1,374,129.32||$4,078,120.04|
|Total expenditures, 1910-1911||2,235,365.12||1,189,403.13||3,424,768.25|
|Teaching and supervision, 1911-1912||1,714,147.31||813,469.43||2,527,616.74|
|Teaching and supervision, 1910-1911||1,489,167.98||747,880.15||2,237,048.13|
|Buildings and supplies, 1911-1912||519,225.83||397,037.50||916,263.33|
|Buildings and supplies, 1910-1911||439,804.67||284,589.72||724,394.39|
|Public High Schools||168,819.49||---||168,819.49|
|Loans repaid, interest, etc||171,871.82||129,123.32||300,995.14|
|Balance on hand June 30, 1912||272,933.49||137,699.04||410,632.53|
|Percentage for teaching and supervision, 1911-1912||63.39||59.2||61.6|
|Percentage for buildings and supplies, 1911-1912||18.2||28.8||22.4|
|Percentage for administration, 1911-1912||4.4||2.5||4.03|
|Total school population||624,057||137,550||762,607|
|Total average daily attendance||274,039.40||58,506.75||332,546.15|
|Total number rural schools||7,688||---||7,688|
|Total number teachers||10,024||2,090||11,914|
|Average monthly salary all teachers||$ 33.82||$ 41.15||$ 35.80|
|Average term all schools (days)||94.86||173.9||108.06|
|Total number schoolhouses||7,491||286||7,777|
|New rural schoolhouses built||356||23||379|
|Total value public school property||$4,017,254.00||$3,363,362.00||$7,380,616.00|
|Average value all schoolhouses||534.94||11,760.59||950.32|
The Attorney-General is a member of the Executive Department of the State Government. He is elected by the people for a term of four years. His term begins the first of January next after his election and continues until his successor is elected and qualified. He receives a salary of $3,000 per annum.
It is the duty of the Attorney-General:
1. To defend all actions in the Supreme Court in which the State shall be interested, or is a party; and, also, when requested by the Governor or either branch of the General Assembly, to appear for the State in any other court or tribunal in any cause or matter, civil or criminal, in which the State may be a party or interested.
2. At the request of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor, Corporation Commissioners, Insurance Commissioner, or Superintendent of Public Instruction, he shall prosecute and defend all suits relating to matters connected with their departments.
3. To represent all State institutions, including the State Prison, whenever requested so to do by the official head of any such institution.
4. To consult with and advise the solicitors, when requested by them, in all matters pertaining to the duties of their office.
5. To give, when required, his opinion upon all questions of law submitted to him by the General Assembly, or either branch thereof, or by any official of the State.
6. To pay all moneys received for debts due or penalties to the State immediately after the receipt thereof, into the Treasury.
The Attorney-General is also a member of the State Board of Education, of the State Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, of the State Board of Pensions, and of the State Text-book Commission, and is the legal adviser of the Council of State.
The judicial power of the State is vested in:
Article IV, section 3, of the Constitution of North Carolina provides that the court for the trial of impeachment shall be the Senate. A majority of the members are necessary to a quorum, and the judgment shall not extend beyond removal from, and disqualification to hold, office in North Carolina; but the party shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law. The House of Representatives solely has the power of impeaching. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators present. When the Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice presides. The following causes, or charges, are sufficient, when proven, to warrant conviction: (1) corruption in office; (2) habitual drunkenness; (3) intoxication while in the exercise of office; (4) drunkenness in any public place; (5) mental or physical incompetence to discharge the duties of office; (6) any criminal matter the conviction whereof would tend to bring the office into public contempt.
Only once in the history of the State has the High Court of Impeachment been organized for the purpose of impeaching the Governor. This was in 1870, when the House of Representative impeached Governor W. W. Holden before the Senate, for "high crimes and misdemeanors." The trial was conducted on both sides by the most eminent lawyers of the State and resulted in the conviction of the Governor and his removal from office. In 1901 similar charges of impeachment were preferred against Chief Justice David M. Furches and Associate Justice Robert M. Douglas, but both were acquitted.
The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and four associate justices elected by the qualified voters of the State for a term of eight years.
The Constitution of 1776 required the General Assembly to "appoint judges of the Supreme Courts of Law and Equity, Judges of Admiralty, and Attorney-General," who were commissioned by the Governor and held office during good behavior. Acting under this authority, the General Assembly in 1776 divided the State into six judicial districts. In 1782 a seventh district, and in 1787 an eighth district were added. Under the act of 1777 three judges, Samuel Ashe, Samuel Spencer, and James Iredell, were chosen. The judges rode the circuits separately, but sat together as an appellate court. In 1790 the eight judicial districts were divided into an eastern and a western riding, and a fourth judge was added, two being assigned to each riding. In each riding the two judges sat together as an appellate court. In 1797 the General Assembly created an extraordinary court for the purpose of trying the Secretary of State and other officials who had been discovered confederating with others in an elaborate scheme for defrauding the State by issuing fraudulent land warrants. For trial of these criminals the General Assembly deemed it expedient to create a new court to sit at Raleigh twice a year, not exceeding ten days at each term. The court was authorized to hear appeals of causes which had accumulated in the district courts. The existence of this court under the act was to expire at the close of the session of the General Assembly next after June 10, 1802, but before the expiration of this time the General Assembly continued the court for three years longer, for the purpose of hearing appeals from the district courts, and gave to it the name of "Court of Conference." By an act of 1804 the court was made a permanent Court of Record. The judges were ordered to reduce their opinions to writing and to deliver the same viva voce in open court. The next year (1805) the name of the court was changed to the Supreme Court. In 1810 the judges were authorized to elect one of their members a Chief Justice, John Louis Taylor being chosen to that office. The Supreme Court now consisted of six judges, but two continued to be a quorum, and all the judges still rode the circuits.
In 1818 an act was passed establishing the present Supreme Court and requiring it to sit in Raleigh for the hearing of appeals. The act provided for three judges to be elected by the General Assembly. John Louis Taylor, Leonard Henderson, and John Hall composed the first court. The judges elected their own Chief Justice, Taylor being continued in that office. The number of judges continued to be three until 1868, when the Constitution adopted by the convention of that year increased the number to five. The Convention of 1875 reduced it again to three, but by an amendment adopted in 1888 the number was raised to five, where it has continued until the present time. The Supreme Court holds annually two sessions of sixteen weeks, one beginning the first Monday in September, the other the first Monday in February.
The court is authorized to choose its own clerk, marshal, reporter, and other officers.
There are sixteen Superior Court judges, one for each of the sixteen circuits, or judicial districts, who are elected by the people and hold their offices for a term of eight years. The Superior Court has appellate jurisdiction of all issues of law or of fact determined by a clerk of the Superior Court or justice of the peace, and of all appeals from inferior courts for error assigned in matters of law as provided by law. In the matter of original jurisdiction the law is:
"The Superior Court shall have original jurisdiction of the civil actions whereof exclusive original jurisdiction is not given to some other court, and of all criminal actions in which the punishment may exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days; and of all such affrays as shall be committed within one mile of the place where and during the time such court is being held."
The Constitution gives to the General Assembly power to establish other courts inferior to the Supreme and Superior Courts, and to allot and distribute to them such powers and jurisdiction, within constitutional limits, as it sees fit. From the decision of these inferior courts the Legislature has power to provide a proper system of appeals.
The presiding officers and clerks of these courts are elected in such manner as the General Assembly may from time to time prescribe, and they hold their offices for a term not exceeding eight years.
The Constitution also requires the General Assembly to provide for the establishment of special courts for the trial of misdemeanors in cities and towns where the same may be necessary.
Such courts are the mayors of cities and incorporated towns. Their election or appointment is usually provided for in the charters of incorporation, the acts of the General Assembly prescribing how particular towns and cities shall be governed.
The jurisdiction of such special courts--also called in the law, inferior courts--is usually set forth in the charters.
The general law also provides that "the mayor of every city and incorporated town . . . within the corporate limits of his city or town, shall have the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace in all criminal matters arising under the laws of the State or under the ordinances of such city or town."
Justices of the peace, in their respective counties, try (1) that class of civil actions which involve demands for small debts and property of little value and (2) that class of criminal actions, called petty misdemeanors, which involve only slight punishment.
They try all cases of contract or promise to pay money where the sum demanded does not exceed two hundred dollars.
They may try certain other civil actions where the value of the property in controversy or the amount claimed for damages does not exceed fifty dollars.
They try criminal cases arising within their counties the punishment of which fixed by law cannot exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days.
The North Carolina Corporation Commission was established by an act of the General Assembly of 1899, superseding the Railroad Commission, which was established in 1891. The offices of the Commission are located in the Agricultural Building at Raleigh.
The Commission has general supervision over all railroad, telegraph, telephone, street railway, steamboat, canal, waterworks, and all other companies exercising the right of eminent domain.
It is authorized to hear and adjust complaints, to fix and revise tariffs of all railroads and all other transportation companies.
The Commission is a Board of Appraisers and Assessors for all the railroads and other corporations mentioned above.
The Commission is also a State Tax Commission, having and exercising general supervision over the tax-listers and assessing officers of the State.
In 1899 the Commission was given supervision of all State banks. Since that time there have been only two failures of State banks in which creditors lost anything, and in these two the losses were small. State banks have increased in number during the last ten years from 118 to 382, with a corresponding increase in resources. The Commission has authority to appoint Bank Examiners, whose duties are to examine the various banks of the State and report to the Commission.
The Commission has heard 4,230 complaints. These complaints consist principally of overcharges, discriminations, freight service, failure of railroad companies to provide cars for transporting freights, storage charges, petitions for depots and sidings.
The Commission is authorized to make rules for the handling of freight, and to require the building of depots, etc.
When the complaint is filed, the attention of the company complained against is called to the cause of the complaint; and if the matter be such that cannot be settled by correspondence alone, the officers of the company complained against are cited to appear. In a large majority of cases these claims are amicably settled to the entire satisfaction of the parties concerned and without cost to the complainant,
others have, however, required hearings. The records of the Commission show that many complaints and claims, aggregating thousands of dollars, have been paid to shippers. Union and other stations have been established all along the various lines of railroads.
The correspondence of the office has been voluminous--many inquiries touching taxation and matters pertaining to corporations, etc. Shippers have found that by applying to this office they can be advised of the proper freight rates and of the rules governing the transportation of freight to and from all points, and they are taking advantage of the opportunity. Much correspondence is necessary in the preparation of cases and the gathering of such statistics as are contemplated by law. All of this involves a vast amount of labor and correspondence.
In the year 1900--the year after the Commission was established--the railroad properties of the State were valued at $12,321,704; in the year 1911 the Commission assessed and valued the properties of railroads and other corporations as mentioned below at $126,052,267.
The valuations are as follows:
ASSESSMENT AND VALUATION OF RAILROAD, TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE, STREET RAILWAY, STEAMBOAT, AND OTHER PROPERTY.
|Atlantic Coast Line Railroad||947.57||339.53||$ 32,995,567|
|Norfolk Southern Railroad||492.36||84.90||6,782,305|
|Seaboard Air Line Railway||606.39||187.14||17,500,000|
|Southern Railway--owned lines||590.08||134.27||23,602,400|
|Southern Railway--leased lines, etc||773.21||149.18||23,039,296|
|Electric light and gas companies||3,303,032|
|Bridge and canal companies||151,350|
|Street railway companies||2,559,943|
|Southern Express Co.||800,000|
|Atlantic Coast Line||$ 303,477.76|
|Atlantic and North Carolina Division||15,531.67|
|Seaboard Air Line||160,094.66|
|Atlantic Coast Line||$ 8,245,726.03||$ 5,347,489.71|
|Seaboard Air Line||5,987,342.08||3,226,989.60|
The Constitution of the State (1876) provides for a Department of Agriculture, Immigration and Statistics. Under this fundamental law the General Assembly established the Department of Agriculture in 1877. (Chapter 274.)
Since that time, it has been fostered and enlarged by the General Assembly, and its field expanded by the enterprise, energy, and capacity of its corps of workers, until it stands to-day without a rival in efficiency in the South. This reputation comes from without more than from within the State. It is a condition that the administration may well be proud of, since the fact redounds to the credit not only of the Board of Agriculture and those engaged by it in the work, but of the whole State.
At present, the Board consists of ten members, one member from each Congressional District, who is appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate, for terms of six years; and of the Commissioner of Agriculture, who is, ex officio, a member of and chairman of the Board. All members are required by law to be practical farmers.
The Commissioner of Agriculture, who is chief executive officer of the Department, was formerly elected by the Board; but the Legislature of 1899, in order to bring the Department in closer touch with the people, especially the farmers of the State, so changed the law as to make the Commissioner an elective officer.
It is remarkable that, during all the changes of the years, the essential features of the original law have been retained, showing that the wise men who originated and developed the idea of a department for the betterment of the State's interests builded better than they knew.
The Department is charged with the following:
1. Investigations relating to the improvement of agriculture, the beneficial use of commercial fertilizers and composts, and to induce capital and labor to enter the State.
2. With investigations for the improvement of milk and beef cattle, especially with investigations relating to the diseases of cattle and other domestic animals--having power to quarantine infected animals and to regulate the transportation of stock within the State.
3. With investigations of the ravages of insects injuriously affecting market gardens, fruits, etc., and with dissemination of information essential for their abatement.
4. With investigations directed to the introduction and fostering of new agricultural industries adapted to the various soils and climate of the State.
5. With investigations relative to the subject of drainage and irrigation, and mineral and domestic sources of fertilizer, including composting, etc.
6. With the collection of information relating to the subject of farm fences, etc.
7. With the enforcement of the laws enacted for the sale of commercial fertilizers, seeds, food products, and with authority to make regulations concerning the same.
8. With the dissemination of information relative to the advantages of soil and climate, and to the natural resources and industrial opportunities offered in the State.
To these have been added:
The issuing of monthly bulletins;
Enforcement by regulations of
The Pure Food Law;
Concentrated Commercial Feeding-stuff Law;
Cotton-seed Meal Law;
Law regulating the statistics of leaf tobacco;
Law regulating the standard-weight packages of meal and flour;
Registration and sale of condimental, patented, proprietary or trade-mark stock or poultry tonics, regulators or conditioners;
The inspection of illuminating oils and fluids;
Law to prevent and punish the sale of adulterated, impure, or misbranded agricultural and vegetable seed and those lacking viability.
The propagation of fish has been undertaken by the National Government to such an extent as to render work as to migratory fish unnecessary by the Department. But the building of stone dams across the rivers in the Piedmont section in many cases--notably the Catawba
and Yadkin rivers--practically destroyed the inland movement of these fish. The Department will endeavor to have investigations made as to the practicability of restocking streams with varieties of local kinds of native fish.
The rapid spread of the "Stock Law" over the State has rendered unnecessary any action by the Board as to fences, as this is now largely local. A map showing the stock law and no stock law, quarantine and free territory in the State has recently been issued.
The Department is, to a considerable extent, a sub-legislature. The Legislature, in committing to its execution specified laws, confers upon the Board power to make regulations for this purpose, which are given the authority of law, and violation of them is made a misdemeanor, cognizable by the courts. The power to confer this authority has been tested in the courts and approved by decision of the Supreme Court. The wisdom of this action is apparent to any one giving the subject consideration. If the details were enacted by the Legislature they could only be changed by the same authority, and would have to remain as enacted for at least two years, no matter how impracticable any of them might be found in execution, while under present conditions, the Board at each session has full authority to alter existing regulations so as to answer the condition arising.
No body of the State's officers has more important duties to perform, nor do more efficient work in the same length of time.
The following statistics will show some of the results of the work of the Department.
North Carolina produced in--
|Corn||30,000,000 bushels.||34,000,000 bushels.||50,000,000 bushels.|
|Wheat||4,743,706 bushels.||3,827,045 bushels.||7,433,000 bushels.|
|Cotton||145,514 bales.||665,132 bales.||1,196,000 bales.|
The Department has arranged with the National Department for an expert in this work who will give information to the farmers concerning the drainage of creeks, cutting ditches, and laying tiles.
The Division of Veterinary Science is under the direction of Dr. W. G. Chrisman, whose services are devoted to giving information as to the care and feeding of farm animals, improvement of live stock, treatment of diseases, the gradual extermination of the tick, which is the source of the deadly Texas or splenic fever.
The Veterinarian has two assistants in the Veterinary Division and three in Dairy Demonstration and erection of silos. Serum for vaccination of hogs to prevent the spread of cholera is manufactured by this division.
Ninety-five per cent of the hogs vaccinated escaped cholera. The Department is now prepared to supply all requests for serum, and it is expected that the scourge of cholera will be much abated.
The United States and State laws concerning the eradication of the cattle tick are simply improvements on the act of the Legislature of 1795 concerning the driving of cattle from the oak to the long-leaf pine sections of the State, which was continued as a statute until the Revisal of 1905. The disease was called murrain or distemper, and its malignity known, but not for a century was the cause ascertained and direct effort made for cure and eradication.
Starting in 1899, with the crest of the Blue Ridge as the location of the quarantine line, it has been moved east to the Roanoke River in Warren County as the northern boundary, and to the Pee Dee in Anson as the southern boundary of the State. This quarantine line is established by the U. S. Agricultural Department. The movement of cattle is restricted to a few months each year and subject to inspections and regulations, while exempted territory is free from impediments. The price of cattle in the exempted section (that which is free of the tick) is thought to be one cent per pound live weight over that in the quarantined sections. The value of exemption is apparent. The stock law tends to destroy the tick, and where it has prevailed for several years, few ticks being found, the county is soon declared free.
At the suggestion of this Department, infected counties or parts of counties have been quarantined, and the clear territory has been given the benefit of exemption.
Mr. T. B. Parker is the director of the institutes. They have been greatly extended under his direction and are now held in every county in the State.
Meetings of farmers to hear matters pertaining to their vocation discussed by scientific men and also by practical farmers have met with great encouragement in the numbers attending and interest shown in the proceedings, and the beneficial results to farming in the communities where the institutes are held are very evident.
Realizing that while "A good farmer without. it is needful there be," that "A good housewife within is as needful as he," institutes for the benefit of the farmers' wives and daughters were introduced in 1907. They have been well attended and have been equally as beneficial in the advancement of agricultural conditions as have the institutes for the men; usually one joint session is held at each institute.
There were held in 1912, 235 regular farmers' institutes and 230 women's institutes, besides the round-up institute at the A. and M. College. The attendance aggregated 39,368 men and 20,268 women; total, 59,336.
Mr. B. W. Kilgore is in charge of the Division of Chemistry, which makes analyses of fertilizer, cotton-seed meal, feed and foodstuffs, soils, minerals and marls, waters, etc.
The following is the law as to deficient fertilizers (Revisal 1905, sec. 3949):
SEC. 3949. Sale of fertilizer below guaranteed quality; powers and duties of Commissioner; penalty for fraud. Whenever the Commissioner of Agriculture shall be satisfied that any fertilizer is 5 per cent below the guaranteed value in plant food, it shall be his duty to assess such deficiency against the manufacturer of the fertilizer and require that twice the value of the deficiency be made good to any person who purchases for his own use such low-grade fertilizer; and should any fertilizer fall 10 per cent below the guaranteed value in
plant food, it shall be his duty to assess three times the value of such deficiency against the manufacturer of the fertilizer and require the same to be paid to the consumer of such fertilizer; and the Commissioner may seize any fertilizer belonging to such manufacturer if the deficiency shall not be paid within thirty days after notice to such manufacturer. If the Commissioner shall be satisfied that such deficiency in plant food was due to the intention of the manufacturer of the same to defraud, then he shall assess and collect from the said manufacturer double the amount of the deficiency which he would have assessed and collected as hereinbefore provided, and pay the same over to the consumer of such fertilizer. If any manufacturer shall resist such collection or payment, the Commissioner shall immediately publish the analysis and the facts in the Bulletin and in such newspapers in the State as he may deem necessary.
By section 3950, it is unlawful to sell or offer for sale in this State any fertilizer or fertilizing material which contains hair, hoof meal, horn, leather scraps or other deleterious substances not available as food for plants, but in which such forbidden materials aid in making up the required or guaranteed analysis.
Mr. B. W. Kilgore also superintends experiments at the Test Farms.
This is conducted, like the cattle quarantine, in conjunction with the U. S. Agricultural Department, the expenses being defrayed by each Department. The object is to locate the different types of soil in the State. Upon these types it is desired to locate test farms for practical and scientific purposes. Test farms have been established in Edgecombe County, at Willard Station in Pender County, Statesville, Blantyre in Transylvania County, near Swannanoa in Buncombe County, and arrangements are on foot to establish one in the old tobacco belt at Oxford and another in the newly drained black lands of eastern North Carolina in Beaufort County. The effort is to conduct these farms for the benefit of the crops grown in each section, first on small plats and then on a large scale, showing results of different kinds and amounts of home-made and commercial fertilizers, preparation of land, cultivation and rotation of crops and demonstration work.
As it might be supposed that all children of the same parents would be exactly alike, so it might be inferred that all soils composed from decomposition of the same rocks would be identical; but this is known to be true in neither case.
By demonstration work on different fields in the same locality, or type of soil, the variations of each can be ascertained, and the manures prepared and cultivation suitable learned.
The Demonstrator of the Department, as requested or as opportunity offers, can visit localities of the State, make suggestions upon these lines, and gather statistics for promotion of the work. This bureau of the work is under the direction of Mr. T. B. Parker, of Wayne County, a successful, practical farmer. The Demonstrator is the Director of Farmers' Institutes. The National Department is doing a large amount of work along this line and there is hearty cooperation between the two departments.
Mr. E. L. Worthen has conducted the work in Soil Investigation.
In charge of W. M. Allen, Food Chemist.
The Food Law was passed by the General Assembly of 1899. It was amended in 1905 and redrafted and passed as a new act in 1907.
The law forbids the manufacture or sale of adulterated or misbranded food or beverages and charges the Department of Agriculture with its enforcement.
Inspections are made throughout the State and samples collected for analyses. The samples are examined for adulteration and the results published, showing the brand name of the article and the name and address of the manufacturer. The first report was published as the Department Bulletin for December, 1900. Since that time similar reports have been published annually.
Since the law went into effect examinations have been made of 8,161 samples of food materials.
The number of samples examined each year and the per cent of adulteration found were as follows:
There are two classes of adulterants found in food:
The use of the first is prohibited; the second can be used, provided their presence is made known to the purchaser.
Much of the food and beverages sold in the State is in the hands of unintelligent men, who can be imposed upon by shrewd and unscrupulous manufacturers. Owing to various complications the enforcement of the Food Law is far more difficult than one not familiar with the situation would think.
George M. MacNider, Feed Chemist, has conducted the analyses.
The Legislature of 1903 passed a law regulating the sale and adulteration of feeds in North Carolina. This law was amended in 1909, and is similar to the Fertilizer Law. It has for its object that all feeds sold in North Carolina shall be pure and unadulterated.
It requires the Commissioner of Agriculture to employ Feed Inspectors, whose duty it is to visit the different towns in the State, see that the law is complied with as to the branding of bags, weight of bags, and to take samples of all feeds. These samples are examined microscopically in the towns in which they are found, and if adulterated are immediately withdrawn from sale.
All samples collected are analyzed by the Feed Chemist, and the results, along with such additional information as circumstances may advise, are published in the Bulletins of the Department of Agriculture.
In enforcing the law, there are four main objects in view:
1. To stop the sale of adulterated feeds in North Carolina.
2. To educate the consumers to buy feed according to the analyses on the bags, just as he buys his fertilizer by an analysis.
3. To teach the dairymen and farmers the best way to combine their home-grown feeds with those they are compelled to buy to get the greatest benefit from the amount consumed.
4. To stimulate a desire on the part of the consumers for better feeds.
The work of this Division includes the inspection of fruit trees, which are not allowed to be sold in this State unless declared free from disease. Experts are sent to examine all nurseries for insect pests, and many commercial orchards are inspected. Directions are furnished for preparation of material for spraying, and for its application. The San José scale is being controlled in many places, and further damage prevented by directions sent from this office. Other insect pests and diseases have been prevented or cured, and much valuable information given the people of the State on matters pertaining to insects of all kinds. This Division is under the direction of Mr. Franklin Sherman, Jr., a thorough and enthusiastic worker.
Mr. W. N. Hutt supervises this Division. Its work is devoted to promoting the interests of trucking, the home and market garden, also the culture, preservation and marketing the fruits of the State.
The test farm in Pender County is used in connection with the trucking interests of the eastern part of the State. On this farm, $1,500 was realized from the sale of the lettuce raised on one and one-fourth acres of land.
The Blantyre farm in Transylvania County will be used largely to illustrate the culture, harvesting and marketing of fruit and the prevention and cure of diseases of fruit trees, and for demonstration in reforestation.
Mr. Hutt has recently held in the apple section a short series of institutes to illustrate the proper packing of fruit for shipment. Institutes on pruning, spraying, etc., were held in proper season.
For three successive years the exhibit of apples from North Carolina has taken the sweepstake prize at the exhibits at the National Horticultural Congress, and the western part of the State is now regarded as one of the most important apple-growing sections of the
Nation, both in quantity and quality. The section adjacent to Southern Pines is noted for its peaches, pears, and plums. Mr. S. B. Shaw is Assistant Horticulturist.
J. L. Burgess is the Agronomist of the Department. Under his direction experiments in plant breeding and selection are conducted upon the test farms and the farms of individuals in different sections of the State. This work is very valuable in giving information on these subjects.
Miss O. I. Tillman is Botanist of the Department. The inspection prevents the introduction of seeds of noxious weeds into the State and enables the farmer to ascertain, before purchasing, the quality of the seed as to purity and germination.
Mr. Garland Jones, Jr., Oil Chemist, has charge of this work. The quality of the oil has been kept at a good standard and the price has not been increased. When the law was enacted there were four firms transacting business in this State; at the present time there are nineteen.
The Bulletin is issued monthly, each month being devoted to a particular subject. Its value seems to be appreciated both within and without the State, as is attested by its continually increasing mailing list, which is now nearly 35,000, an increase of 8,000 in four years. Besides the regular monthly Bulletin, special papers are issued when deemed of enough importance to justify the expense.
The State Geologist had, since the establishment of his Department in 1850, collected specimens of different kinds, principally of minerals, representing the natural resources of the State. In 1879, the care of the Museum and expense of maintenance were transferred to the Department of Agriculture. A building has been erected for its occupancy, and its contents greatly increased. It is now by far the most extensive in its contents of anything of its nature south of
Philadelphia, save the National Museum at Washington, D. C. To it, more than any other source, is attributable the fine displays the State has made at International, National and State Expositions. It is the State's object-lesson, representing its resources in agriculture, timber, minerals, fishes, birds, game animals, and flora and fauna in general.
It is under the efficient management of Mr. H. H. Brimley as Curator, who has ably filled the position for fifteen years, and added much in value and number to the contents.
As articles affected by time become undesirable they are replaced. The idea is to keep the Museum constantly growing, with no chance for stagnation.
The Hall of History, so important a feature of the great State Museum, was begun in 1903, and in the time which has intervened, a collection of objects illustrating every period of the life of North Carolina, as Province, Colony, and State, has been so rapid that the number of objects considerably exceeds 5,000. The collection is particularly rich in objects of the Colonial and Revolutionary periods and that of the Civil War. The Director has made several journeys in the State, all resulting in marked additions to the collection. The gifts, in the way of paintings, photographs, etc., already exceed $1,500 in value. Many lectures have been delivered each year in the Hall of History, and this object-lesson, the finest in the South, has proved a great stimulus to historical research and popular interest in the history of North Carolina. The collection has been made by and is in charge of Col. F. A. Olds, as Director, and the objects therein are either gifts or loans. Any persons having possession of, or knowing of the location of objects which have a bearing upon North Carolina history in any way, are particularly requested to inform the Director of this fact, as objects are thoroughly protected against injury by moths or other insects and are set before the public in the most attractive way.
In charge of Elias Carr, Secretary of the Board of Agriculture.
The Legislature in 1909 repealed the act of 1907 concerning immigration. There are now no agents of the State employed in foreign countries; a few young men come from Scotland each year, and
land and immigration companies bring some people to the State each year, but no report is made to the Department; however, it coöperates with them as far as practicable.
The Department has no lands of the State for sale, and can make no contracts, warrant titles, or do any work of like nature. It can only put parties desiring to purchase property in the State in communication with citizens who have property to sell, and leave them to perfect sales, if it is found desirable.
Many letters are received from persons from the States of the Middle West requesting information as to the resources of the State, and several hundred have each year purchased homes. The Department had arranged to place exhibits at the fairs in these States, but this was abandoned when the law was repealed.
Chapter 97, Laws 1907, requires the Department to preserve a record of the leaf tobacco sold on the floors of the warehouses of the State, and publish it monthly. Each warehouse is required to furnish an account of its sales, and is guilty of a misdemeanor for failure.
The Department of Labor and Printing was established by the Legislature of 1887 as the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Under this head its activities had to do with gathering and presenting statistics of industrial conditions. A high standard was set for this work, and it has ever since been the policy of the office to improve upon its own work from year to year. The annual report is now recognized as one of the most succinct examples of statistical work issued in the United States. The matter has been boiled down, so to speak, and one chief aim has been to present the greatest possible information in the least possible space, accomplishing thereby two very desirable ends, i. e., ease of reference and convenience, and a minimum expense. Its circulation includes every State in the Union, and many foreign countries. The report is the chief medium by which the State's growth and progress is placed before the world. The number of requests for copies attests its worth.
When the public printing had become of such importance that the old practice of assumption that it would take care of itself was proven inadequate and unsatisfactory, the duty of systematizing and superintending this work was added to the duties of the office. (Chapter 373, Public Laws of 1899.) Since that time the growth of the State has been great, its progress indeed wonderful. Keeping pace with this progress, the Department of Labor and Printing shows a record of quality and economy in performance not touched by any other Commonwealth, and approached by but few.
The Commissioner, Mr. Shipman, and the assistant, Mr. Justice, place especial emphasis on their invitation to the people of the State to make use of the Department. Any questions bearing on subjects touched by the report will be gladly answered, wherever possible; correspondence cheerfully and promptly attended to.
The following quotation from the Manual of 1911 still holds:
"The handling of the public printing has been brought down to the point where figures as to specifications and cost may be given before or after performance, which information serves well where economy enters as largely into any proposition as it does into the public printing. Changes in practice are made as often as it is found that improvement can be made, and the policy of the office at the present time makes impossible any of the abuses obtaining under the arrangement in force prior to the placing of the public printing under the Department's charge.
"Before a single item of printing expense is paid for by the State, the account of the printer is examined, accompanied by an inspection of the work itself, by a man who himself knows the printing business. Every pound of paper purchased is bought by the State to fit the particular need, and is subject to the decision of the expert of the Department--himself, according to the provisions of the act, a 'practical printer.' The records of purchases of paper show a great saving along this line also.
"The work of the Department of Labor and Printing is necessarily done away from the public eye. The watchful auditing of thousands of dollars of accounts, the economical purchase of thousands of dollars of supplies, the skillful exposition and appraisement of industrial facts is not spectacular labor, but a work of the highest value and largest returns."
Prior to 1899 the supervision of insurance companies of North Carolina was in the hands of the Secretary of State, who received certain fees and was allowed $1,000 for clerical help. The Legislature of 1899 created the Insurance Department and placed the present Commissioner in charge of it. The insurance laws as set forth in the Revisal of 1905, with amendments thereto, are looked upon as the best code of insurance laws of any Southern State and are certainly admirably adapted to the conditions prevailing in this section. As revenue producers the law and Department are a success, and while the benefits accruing from a proper supervision of insurance companies in the State cannot be measured in dollars and cents, they are, in the opinion of those in a position to know, of much more value to the State and her citizens than the revenue collected.
The duties required of the Insurance Commissioner are as important and involve as much work and responsibility as those of any other department in the State Government. In addition to this, the Insurance Commissioner is taken from his office about one-third of the time by official duties. The work of the Department calls for as much clerical ability and labor as the work of any other department. No part of the work should be neglected, and it is increasing every year, and becomes of more and more value to the State and her citizens. The efficiency of the Department can only be kept up by allowing sufficient clerical force, and this will call for such help as is commensurate with, and demanded by, the development and rapid increase of the work of the Department. The Commissioner should be relieved, as far as possible, of clerical work. He is worth more to the State in discharging the other duties of his office.
Under the law it is made the duty of the Commissioner to collect all licenses, taxes and fees due the State by any company or association under the supervision of his Department.
The Secretary of State paid into the State Treasury in 1898, $84,879.28, and this was the largest amount ever reported for any one year prior to the creation of the Department.
The amounts collected since by the Insurance Commissioner and paid into the State Treasury are:
The above figures do not include the special amounts collected from insurance companies for the publication of their statements and the investigation of fires. These are special funds, and are collected and must be used only for the special objects named. The investigation of incendiary fires in the State is paid out of a fund collected of the fire insurance companies and does not cost the State one cent.
The Commissioner is paid a salary of $3,500 per annum and allowed $6,900 for clerical help, which can only be used for this purpose. During seven years of the Department the Commissioner collected and paid to the State Treasurer, of the class of fees formerly allowed the Secretary of State for his services in this behalf. as follows:
The salary of the Commissioner during these years was $2,000 per annum. So it will be seen that, taking off the salary allowed the Commissioner for seven years, there is left a balance of $69,283.50
saved to the State out of the class of fees formerly allowed the Secretary of State as his salary for looking after insurance companies.
The Legislature of 1907, seeing the necessity of additional clerical force to do the increased work in the Department, increased the force by adding an actuary, a bookkeeper and a license clerk, and placed all the clerks in the Department upon a salary. These salaries amount to $6,900 annually. The same class of fees referred to above amounted in the year 1906 to $18,006.80; in 1907 to $19,166.60; in 1908 to $23,493.90; in 1909 to $25,322.32, making a total of $85,989.02, showing, after taking off the salary of the Commissioner, even with the increase of the number of employees made necessary by the growth of the Department, that the amount of fees collected as above and paid into the State Treasury amount to about four times as much as these salaries in the Department. The collections for the same class of fees for 1910 and 1911 show an increase and make an even greater ratio of comparison. The money now collected and paid into the State Treasury of this class of fees amounts annually to over twice the whole cost of the Department.
One great benefit that has accrued from the North Carolina insurance laws and the work of the Department has been the organization of home insurance companies and the placing of considerable insurance in them, thus keeping at home much of home money spent for insurance.
In 1899 there were only six home fire companies doing business in the State. They wrote only 10 per cent of the risks and received $123,471.26, or 12 per cent of the premiums, while in 1909 there were 20 home companies which wrote $142,584,653.64 of the fire risks, and received therefor $2,326,675.02. It further appears that our home companies in 1909 not only received 22⅘ per cent--over one-fifth--of all fire premiums for insurance written in the State, but received as premiums for insurance on property outside of the State $1,460,910.30.
In 1899 there was only one home life insurance company (and that an assessment one) doing business in North Carolina, with $479.35 in assets. In 1909 there were, including assessment, twenty-five home life companies. The five legal reserve companies reported in assets $3,342,918.56. The reports of the five North Carolina home legal reserve life companies show as their receipts during 1909, $1,532,388.59, and as risks at the end of the year in insurance $36,117,030.
The North Carolina or home companies continue to show marked improvement each year, not only in the amount of business transacted, but in a steady and solid growth in financial ability and safety. It is gratifying, or should be, to every citizen of the State to know that he can not only keep his money in the State for investment by patronizing home companies, but that he is fully protected by the financial standing of the companies in so doing.
It is worthy of note that while there have been startling disclosures as to contributions by life insurance companies to political campaign funds and other graft or fraud, none has been perpetrated by the life companies domiciled in North Carolina. The insurance conditions in the State are very gratifying, and promise much in the future in aiding the industrial progress and upbuilding of the State.
The Legislature of 1905 placed all building and loan associations under the supervision of the Insurance Commissioner. There were then forty-three associations doing business in the State. There are now over 115 associations working in the State and no class of corporations is doing more in building up our cities and towns and providing homes for our citizens, especially the working classes. Associations are being organized rapidly throughout the State. The ownership of homes is very conducive to good citizenship and progress. At the close of business in 1911 one hundred associations reported in assets $8,457,559.39, and as loaned out to build or pay for homes $8,084,441.31.
The Insurance Commissioner represents the State in all its dealings with insurance companies, associations and orders. He must pass upon applications of companies under his Department and decide whether to license them, and then supervise them and see that they comply with the law and treat the citizens of the State right or revoke their license to do business in the State.
He must collect all licenses and taxes due the State by companies and associations under his Department.
He must collect reports of all fires in the State and investigate all suspicious ones and have all persons suspected of incendiarism prosecuted where the evidence justifies it. One hundred and thirty-four persons have been convicted under this law since it was passed, and served their sentences in prisons.
He must see that the laws regulating the erection and inspection of buildings are observed. Better buildings mean fewer fires and
lower fire insurance rates. Seventy-five thousand dollars annually is now saved in fire premiums by this law. He must look into all violations of the insurance law and hear all complaints made by the citizens of the State against companies under his supervision and see that the citizen is protected in his rights.
He must keep all State property insured as provided by law, and annually inspect all State institutions and buildings, with a view to the protection from fire of them and their inmates.
Since the formation of this Department in 1899 and the adoption of the present insurance laws there has been a gradual but decided improvement in the insurance conditions of the State. Better practices prevail and there is less friction between the people and this class of corporations. Contracts have been improved and rates reduced, and will, no doubt, be still further reduced under the present insurance laws and their strict enforcement, although the citizens of the State are now paying over $225,000 annually for their fire insurance less than they would pay at the rates prevailing in any other Southern State.
The Insurance Department has never had since its formation permanent or adequate quarters in which to transact its rapidly increasing business. This has always hampered the Commissioner and his force in carrying on the work, and should have been remedied before. The large business being yearly transacted demands proper and adequate files, that the business may be efficiently done, while the value and importance of the Department records and statistics are such as to demand their safe-keeping and filing for ready reference by the Department and citizens of the State.
Any further information about the Department will be furnished upon application to the Commissioner.
The North Carolina Historical Commission was created by an act of the Legislature of 1903. It consists of five members appointed by the Governor for terms of six years. They receive no salary, or per diem, but are allowed their actual expenses when attending to their official duties.
The offices of the Commission are in the State Administration Building, a new fire-proof structure erected under an act of the General Assembly of 1911.
The duties of the Commission are as follows:
1. To have collected from the files of old newspapers, court records, church records, private collections and elsewhere, historical data pertaining to the history of North Carolina and the territory included therein from the earliest times.
2. To have such material properly edited, published by the State Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the direction of the Commission.
3. To care for the proper marking and preservation of battle-fields. houses, and other places celebrated in the history of the State.
4. To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources of North Carolina.
5. To encourage the study of the history of North Carolina in the schools of the State, and to stimulate and encourage historical investigation and research among the people of the State.
6. To make a biennial report of its receipts and disbursements, its work and needs. to the Governor, to be by him transmitted to the General Assembly.
The powers of the Commission are as follows:
1. To adopt a seal for use in official business.
2. To adopt rules for its own government not inconsistent with the provisions of the law.
3. To fix a reasonable price for its publications and to devote the revenue arising from such sales to extending the work of the Commission.
4. To employ a secretary.
5. To control the expenditure of such funds as may be appropriated for its maintenance.
Following is a general summary of the work of the Historical Commission:
1. The Commission has saved from destruction, classified and filed 14,754 letters and other documents of the Executive Department, from the administration of Governor Caswell, 1777, to that of Governor Vance, 1879.
2. It has secured for the State the following private collections, numbering many thousands of valuable manuscripts: letters and papers of Gov. Zebulon B. Vance, Judge James Iredell, Gen. Bryan Grimes, Mrs. Cornelia P. Spencer, Gov. David L. Swain, Editor E. J. Hale, Dr. Calvin H. Wiley, Hon. John H. Bryan, Gov. Jonathan Worth, Col. William L. Saunders, Gov. William A. Graham, the Pettigrew family, Gov. Charles B. Aycock, Judge Archibald D. Murphey, and several smaller collections.
3. It has issued the following publications: "Public Education in North Carolina, 1790-1840: A Documentary History," 2 vols.; "The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth," 2 vols; "Literary and Historical Activities in North Carolina, 1900-1905"; "A Legislative Manual of North Carolina" for 1909, 1911, and 1913, and thirteen bulletins.
4. It recovered for the State, through the gift of the Italian Government, Canova's famous statue of Washington.
5. It has erected in the rotunda of the capitol a marble bust of William A. Graham; and obtained, without cost to the State, similar busts of Matt. W. Ransom, Samuel Johnston, and John M. Morehead.
It has assisted a large number of students in their investigations into North Carolina history, and gave information about the history of the State wherever it was possible, and has encouraged in many ways the study of our history in the schools of the State.
The State Library has become an agency of great importance in the educational development of North Carolina. The educational movement of recent years has awakened great interest in library work, and our people realize now more forcibly than ever before the value of this work. The patronage of the State Library by students in our schools and colleges and by the general public within the past two years has shown a marked growth and an increasing realization of the place of the Library in educational work. Not a day passes that students are not found in the Library, at work investigating various subjects connected with the history, industries, and general life of North Carolina, or with the great problems of the Nation, and of the world. This patronage is not confined to any particular school or race. It comes from the schools and colleges of Raleigh, of the State at large, from universities such as Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Harvard, and from students who are not connected with educational institutions at all. The practical politician studying modern problems comes along with the historian whose researches are among records centuries old.
To meet all these various needs, the Trustees are directing their efforts to the building up of a great reference library. No works of fiction, unless they be by North Carolina authors, or portray North Carolina life, are purchased. The meager appropriation is better expended, in the judgment of the Trustees, in the purchase of works of reference, history, biographies, treatises on problems of modern life, etc., etc.
All works written by a about North Carolinians, or about North Carolina, are purchased. The North Carolina collection now forms one of the most interesting and valuable features of the Library.
Another peculiarly valuable feature of the Library is the collection of bound newspapers. This now contains 2,535 volumes. There is no other such collection of North Carolina newspapers in existence. Ranging in unbroken files from 1791 to date, they contain the history of the State during the most important periods of her existence.
The Library Commission of North Carolina was created by the General Assembly of 1909, and active work was begun September 15th of the same year. The Commission consists of five members, two of whom are appointed by the North Carolina Library Association and one by the Governor; the State Librarian and the Superintendent of Public Instruction complete the membership.
The purpose of the Commission, as expressed in the law, is to "give assistance, advice, and counsel to all libraries in the State, to all communities which may propose to establish libraries, and to all persons interested, as to the best means of establishing and administering such libraries, as to the selection of books, cataloguing, maintenance, and other details of library management as may be practicable."
The following are the important lines of activity:
1. Establishment of Public Libraries. The Commission endeavors to secure the establishment of public libraries in localities able to support them, and gives advice and assistance in arousing public interest. After preliminary correspondence, communities proposing to establish libraries are visited by the secretary, and the practical details of organization explained. In many instances she classifies the books, starts the accession record and shelf-list, installs a proper charging system, and teaches the librarian how to keep the necessary records. The service is rendered without cost to the library, except that, when the secretary remains more than one day in a place, the local expense is borne by the library aided.
2. Reorganization of Old Libraries. The secretary visits libraries already established to confer with the librarian and library board regarding methods of work and plans for further development. When necessary, libraries are reorganized according to modern methods which insure best results and greatest efficiency. While much information and advice may be given by letters and circulars, personal visits are much more effective, as they invariably give new impulse to the local work and enable the secretary to become familiar with library conditions in all parts of the State.
3. Library Statistics. Every public library in the State, including free public libraries, subscription libraries, school, college and university libraries, Young Men's Christian Association, legal association,
medical association, Supreme Court and State libraries, is required by law to make an annual report to the Commission. From the data thus secured the Commission compiles an annual report of library conditions in North Carolina.
4. The North Carolina Library Bulletin. This is a pamphlet of 12 pages, published quarterly. It is sent free to every library in the State, and, upon application, to library trustees and to others interested in library extension. The first issue appeared in December, 1909. Each number contains important library articles, book lists, editorial notes, and general library news. It is intended to serve as a means of communication with each and every library, to bring the libraries into closer relation with one another, and, in general, to increase the interest in libraries throughout the State, and to improve the quality of their service to the public.
5. Debate and Study Club Libraries. In response to requests from high schools and debating societies, a number of debate libraries have been prepared and are loaned without charge except for transportation. A circular has been issued giving lists of questions upon which material is available and the rules governing the loan of libraries. These debate libraries contain books, magazine articles, copies of debates in Congress, laws, pamphlets issued by societies, briefs, and bibliographies.
Study club libraries are of a similar nature, but were equipped from funds provided by the Library Extension Department of the North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs.
6. Instruction. In addition to the instruction given in the Commission's office and on personal visits, the chairman of the Commission gives a course in library methods as a regular department of the Summer School of the State University. The course is intended for teachers in charge of school libraries. During the summer of 1911 a library school was held in Raleigh to which only persons already holding library positions were admitted. The course will be given again whenever there is a sufficient demand for it.
7. State Reports. The Commission has established a clearing house for State reports. Until this was done there was no center to which surplus reports of the various State officers could be sent and to which request from students both within and without the State could be referred. This work has not been very successful because of the failure of many of the departments to deposit reports.
8. Distribution of Library Literature. In addition to the North Carolina Library Bulletin, the following publications have been issued and distributed by the Commission:
The Public Library;
Debating: list of books for libraries, high schools, and debating societies;
Free Debate Libraries for 1912-1913.
Other library literature, including tracts of the American Library Association, book lists, building plans, etc., is sent out as required.
9. School Libraries. The development of school libraries is a special feature of the work. A close connection has been established with the schools by giving advice on the care and use of school libraries, assistance in starting the necessary records, and help in the selection and purchase of books. A bulletin on school libraries, prepared by the secretary, has been published and distributed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction to all schools in the State. Other literature on the subject is distributed by the Commission, and talks are given at teachers' meetings to arouse the interest of superintendents and teachers in building up good school libraries. A special effort is made to bring the public schools and the public libraries into close coöperation.
The personnel of the State Board of Health consists of nine members; of these, five are appointed by the Governor and four are elected by the State Medical Society. Members of the Board serve six years. The appointment and election of members, as authorized in the original act, is such that not more than four are elected and appointed during any biennial period.
If we include the $4,000 collected from water taxes, with $22,500 appropriated from the State Treasury for the use of the Board, as a part of the State's appropriation, we find that the total annual income of the State Board of Health amounts to $26,500.
Item No. 1.--The State Laboratory of Hygiene examines annually 2,250 specimens microscopically. The specimens consist of particles of expectoration from suspected consumptives, mucus from the throats of suspected diphtheria patients, blood from suspected malaria patients, blood from those suspected of having typhoid fever, and pus or matter from discharging membranes. A minimum cost of 2,250 microscopic examinations would be $3,500. One may consider this $3,500 as one dividend paid by the State Board of Health to the people of the State on the $26,500 intrusted to the Board.
Item No. 2.--Last year 2,500 samples of drinking-water were analyzed by the State Laboratory of Hygiene. The cost of an analysis of drinking-water varies from $5 to $10 in different laboratories. It would have cost the people of this State at least $12,500 to have had the samples of water analyzed at the minimum fee of $5 an analysis. The State Laboratory of Hygiene made these analyses for a total cost of $4,500, saving thereby $8,000 to the State. This is the second dividend which the State Board of Health pays upon the public's investment of $26,500 a year.
Item No. 3.--Last year 195 patients bitten by rabid animals were given the Pasteur treatment at the Laboratory of Hygiene. The efficacy of the treatment administered by our Laboratory may be judged from the fact that the average Pasteur Laboratory loses the life of one patient out of every 250 treated, while our Laboratory has treated over 500 patients without a single death. The minimum cost for which these people threatened with hydrophobia may obtain the treatment elsewhere is $65 a patient. It would have cost the 195 patients, at this figure, $12,675 to have been treated. As a matter of fact the State charged them only $600, thereby effecting a saving to the people of the State of $12,025. This is the third dividend returned to the people of the State by the State Board of Health on their investment of $26,500.
Item No. 4.--The General Assembly of 1911 gave the State Board of Health authority to contract with the manufacturers of reliable diphtheria antitoxin for a State supply of antitoxin, to be purchased from the lowest bidder, and to be distributed to the people through the State Laboratory of Hygiene and through antitoxin distributing stations in the counties, at just what it cost the State to buy it. We may say right here that the quality of all antitoxin is guaranteed by the United States Government. Antitoxin is sold in packages which are graded according to the number of units of potency per package into packages of 1,000, 3,000, and 5,000 units. The prices of these packages of antitoxin, before this arrangement on the part of the State was made, were as follows:
Under the present arrangement the same antitoxin can be purchased anywhere in North Carolina at the following prices:
The following table shows the amount of antitoxin distributed and the saving to the State for the first eight months of the operation of this new law, that is, until June 1, 1912, since which time we have not looked up the records:
|Number Packages.||Size Packages.||Former Cost.||Present Cost.||Saving.|
|1,249||1,000||$ 2,498.00||$ 624.50||$ 1,873.50|
As a matter of fact, this law is saving the State nearer $40,000 a year than $18,514.08, for just as soon as the State supply of antitoxin was available at these lower rates practically all antitoxin manufacturers
reduced their product to about the same figure, so that the purchaser does not always get the State supply, but buys the antitoxin of other manufacturers, on which he gets practically the same reduction in price as he would in buying the State antitoxin. There is probably as much antitoxin sold by other manufacturers in North Carolina as is distributed by the State. This would bring the saving on this one item to somewhere in the neighborhood of $40,000 a year, but to be consistently overconservative in computing all of these items of economy, let us put down just $18,514.08 as a fourth dividend paid by the State Board of Health to the people on their investment of $26,500.
Item No. 5.--The State Board of Health was instrumental in securing from the General Assembly of 1911 a new law for the control of smallpox. A blank form sent out to the county superintendents of health, filled out and returned to this office, where the data which had been called for were compiled, shows: That for the five years previous to the operation of the new law there was an average annual number of 7,500 cases of smallpox in the State, and that the total cost to the State of handling the disease averaged $66,000 a year; that for the first year's operation of the new law (and it has been in force but a little over a year) there were 3,300 cases of smallpox in the State and the total cost was $2,600. This $2,600, deducted from the $66,000, leaves an annual saving of $63,400, which makes the fifth dividend the State Board of Health pays on the $26,500 turned over to it.
The five items above enumerated and considered amount to an annual saving of $125,439.08 on an investment in the State's health work of only $26,500. Health work appears to be good business, and these figures bear out the saying of Emerson that "The first wealth is health."
There are other items saved to the State which space will not permit us to discuss. We shall content ourselves with mentioning only one more, viz., the saving to the municipalities of North Carolina by the law requiring plans and specifications for proposed public water supplies and sewerage systems to be submitted, examined, and approved by the State Board of Health before being adopted by the town or city. The towns and cities have by this law been safeguarded against the work of cheap engineers and contractors and against spending their money in building waterworks or sewerage systems of
little value. We know of one town that constructed a public water supply before this law was in operation, the plans of which never have been approved by the State Board of Health, and after completing the waterworks found that their plant was valueless and that they had lost something like $15,000 in the venture.
its chief end, is not the saving of dollars, but the saving of lives. The real ledger of a state board of health is kept not in dollars and cents, but in death rates. While we take great pride in the economic showing set forth in the preceding figures, be it far from us to leave even the suggestion that our conception of a board of health is an economic institution.
The real test of the value of a state board of health is shown by its influence on the State's death rate--either a reduction of a death rate higher than the average State death rate or in the maintenance of an average or lower than the average State death rate. Unfortunately, there is no State law (and this is the great need of the health work in North Carolina) requiring the registration of deaths. There is a law requiring the registration of deaths for one-sixth of the population of the State that has been in force only two years, and that carries with it insufficient appropriation to permit of its enforcement to a degree of completeness that will permit rigid conclusions based upon the deaths registered during the last two years. We believe that if we had had a registration law thoroughly enforced in this State for the past three years, we would be able to show a reduction in the death rate from which we could estimate exactly the number of lives saved and the number of days of sickness prevented. And we believe further that in that showing the State Board of Health would most impress our people with its value.
Provisions for facilitating quick and accurate diagnoses through the microscopic examinations of specimens submitted to State experts, close supervision of public water supplies and the safeguarding of the people by a monthly analysis of all public water supplies against drinking polluted water, the more easily obtainable Pasteur treatment and diphtheria antitoxin, all operate in their more important spheres of action, not to save money, but to make prevention and treatment quicker and more effective and death rates lower.
But effective as these provisions must have been in reducing death rates, the most valuable work of the Board in saving life has been the instruction of all the people through press, special literature, and sanitary addresses as to the causes of the more important preventable diseases and the way to avoid them. The past year the State Board of Health has issued 40,000 regular bulletins monthly, carrying this life-saving information to 200,000 people, or about one white family out of seven. During this same time the State Board of Health has, through the kind and valuable coöperation of the press of the State, published 270 miles of columns of newspaper health matter. Through the Rockefeller Commission the State Board of Health has paid for the treatment of something like 12,000 people infested with hookworms, and practically all the representative people of North Carolina have been reached through sanitary addresses to the various organizations in the State.
State Constitution, Article XI, sec. 7: "Beneficent provision for the poor, unfortunate and orphan being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and define the duties of a Board of Public Charities, to whom shall be intrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal institutions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon their condition, with suggestions for their improvement."
Sec. 3916, Revisal of 1905: "This Board shall, besides their own observation, avail themselves of correspondence and exchange of facts of the labors of others in these departments, and thus be able to afford the General Assembly data to guide them in future legislation for the amelioration of the condition of the people, as well as to contribute to enlighten public opinion and direct it to interests so vital to the prosperity of the State."
It has the right to inspect and report upon the management of State charitable and penal institutions, including access to all portions of the premises, and the right to examine all books and papers; to visit and inspect county and municipal institutions, jails, camps, and Homes in the same manner and to the same extent as the State institutions. It must visit, inspect and issue license to private hospitals established for the care of insane, inebriates, and feeble-minded, and can prescribe rules and regulations for licensed hospitals. It has the right to require reports from officials in charge of all public charitable and penal institutions, both State and county.
The inspections of the State institutions are made personally by the members of the Board. Local boards of visitors (volunteer workers) have been organized in the counties by the Board, who inspect the county institutions and make semiannual reports. These local boards cannot be too highly praised for the noble work which they have accomplished in many of the counties, bettering the condition of the unfortunates.
Printed circulars indicating the information desired are mailed to all boards of county commissioners annually, and to boards of visitors semiannually. Questions are sent to all State institutions annually and to licensed private hospitals twice a year. Also,
through courtesy, the private orphanages, hospitals and miscellaneous charitable bodies of the State report upon blanks sent out from the office of the Board.
An annual report is made to the Governor, and a biennial report, which the Board "shall print," is made to the General Assembly. These reports contain in detail the proceedings of this Board, the reports of the institutions, and recommendations for changes or improvements. In addition, the Secretary makes a monthly report to the Chairman, and a quarterly report to the Board at their regular meetings.
It is charged with the duty of collecting, collating, and publishing such facts as may conduce to a correct judgment of the needs of the several institutions.
Another important duty is "to avail themselves of correspondence and exchange of facts of the labors of others in these departments." With this end in view, a systematic exchange of reports with other States and countries has been maintained. The library of philanthropic books and pamphlets, numbering over 2,000, has not cost the State a cent.
For the same reason members of the Board and the Secretary have affiliated with the National Conference of Charities and Correction, the American Prison Association, and the Southern Sociological Congress, and from time to time attended the meetings of these notable bodies at their own expense. Also, without expense to the State, the Secretary has attended a session of the School of Philanthropy of New York, the meeting of the International Prison Congress at Washington, and has visited the institutions of a number of other States.
The Governor annually appoints delegates to the National Conference of Charities and Corrections and to the American Prison Association and other and similar organizations. Reports and proceedings of these and other National bodies are collected for reference.
The Board of Public Charities is an advisory board; it is nonpartisan, and its members receive no compensation. It is untrammeled and free to call the attention of those officials who have executive duties to perform in institutions or who are legally over them to any lack of proper care of the inmates. The Board represents primarily the inmate and the general public. It investigates complaints, and if necessary calls upon judges and solicitors to prosecute.
The policy of the Board has been not to criticise unless it can offer something better, some ideal towards which we may strive, which has been tried and found successful elsewhere. These ideals are embodied in the recommendations and suggestions which are made in each annual report, as the law requires. Constructive philanthropy must be the foundation-stone for the proper development of our charitable and penal systems.
The influence of the Board is seen in the gradually improved condition of the county homes and jails, new buildings for these classes having been erected in many counties; in the separation of white and black prisoners in the camps; the enforcement of the laws requiring proper apartments in the jails, and the separation of tuberculous prisoners from others, and the increased accommodations for the insane. Also its influence has been exerted in behalf of the several new State institutions which have been established since its organization, viz., the School for the White Deaf at Morganton; the Dangerous Insane Department; the Jackson Training School; the Soldiers' Home; the School for the Feeble-minded; the Epileptic Colony, and the Tuberculosis Sanatorium. The Board has taken an active part in securing the establishment of all except the Sanatorium, and has aided their subsequent growth. The State's record of the development of her charities is one to be proud of, and there is no reason why her penal institutions and care of all her prisoners should not be properly systematized so that we may feel an equal pride in the State's policy towards them. She has been one of the first States to recognize the benefit of outdoor work for prisoners and to put it into practice.
The reports of the institutions, pay-rolls, and the census of the insane are on file in the office of the Board in the Capitol, and are open to the inspection of the members of the Assembly, who are cordially invited to visit the office and make use of the data gathered there for this purpose.
The act establishing the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey was passed by the Legislature of 1905, and outlines in detail the phases of work to be carried out by this Department as follows:
(1) The examination of the mineral, forest, fishery, and other resources of the State.
(2) The examination of the geological formations of the State with reference to their economic products.
(3) The examination of the road-building materials and the best methods of utilizing same. * * This is supplemented by an act passed by the Legislature of 1909, which made a small appropriation of $5,000 annually to be used by the Highway Division of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey as follows: "The object and purpose of this appropriation shall be to enable the North Carolina Geological Board to advise with the township and county authorities in the building and improvement of the public roads, by sending to the township or county a competent road engineer who will assist them in locating their improved roads, advising them as to best road to build and how to build it, and also give advice relating to the best kind of bridge to be built in connection with the improvement of any road. The Geological Board, through the State Geologist, may make inquiries in regard to systems of road building and management throughout the United States, and make investigations and experiments in regard to the best methods of road making and the best kinds of road material, and shall disseminate such knowledge by lectures to be given in the different counties, and by preparing, publishing, and distributing bulletins and reports on the subject of road improvement, and shall also gather and tabulate information and statistics on road building in North Carolina and disseminating the same throughout the State."
* This is supplemented by an act passed by the Legislature of 1909, which made a small appropriation of $5,000 annually to be used by the Highway Division of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey as follows: "The object and purpose of this appropriation shall be to enable the North Carolina Geological Board to advise with the township and county authorities in the building and improvement of the public roads, by sending to the township or county a competent road engineer who will assist them in locating their improved roads, advising them as to best road to build and how to build it, and also give advice relating to the best kind of bridge to be built in connection with the improvement of any road. The Geological Board, through the State Geologist, may make inquiries in regard to systems of road building and management throughout the United States, and make investigations and experiments in regard to the best methods of road making and the best kinds of road material, and shall disseminate such knowledge by lectures to be given in the different counties, and by preparing, publishing, and distributing bulletins and reports on the subject of road improvement, and shall also gather and tabulate information and statistics on road building in North Carolina and disseminating the same throughout the State."
(4) The examination and classification of the soils and forests and other physical features of the State, with special reference to their bearing upon the occupation of the people.
(5) The examination of the streams and water-powers of the State, with special reference to their development in manufacturing enterprises and the preservation of the sources of these streams through the protection of the forests.
(6) The examination of the water supplies of the State, with special reference to sinking deep artesian wells.
(7) The preparation of reports regarding these investigations.
As will be seen from the above outline, the work of this Department is varied and extensive, and in many respects touches the diverse interests of every section of North Carolina, with their varied climatic and topographical conditions.
To carry on all the lines of work outlined as being the objects of the Geological Survey at one time would be an impossibility with
the present small annual appropriation allotted for doing this work; but the State Geologist, with the advice and consent of the Geological Board, undertakes and carries out such of these investigations as seem to be most urgent and as can be accomplished with the said appropriation, supplemented by the heartiest coöperation on the part of the various Federal bureaus, such as the United States Office of Public Roads, the United States Geological Survey, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the United States Forest Service, the National Association of Audubon Societies, and the various State associations, such as the North Carolina Good Roads Association, the North Carolina Drainage Association, the North Carolina Forestry Association, and the North Carolina Fisheries Association.
The Survey not only examines into the present conditions of these various natural resources, but, when there seems to be a crying need for the conservation and perpetuation of certain of our resources, such as forestry and the commercial fisheries, it seeks to give this information such publicity as will bring the citizens of the State to realize the great necessity of conserving and perpetuating the wealth with which Nature has so abundantly endowed our State. No attempt is made on the part of the Survey to cloak any adverse conditions, but an effort is made to reveal the true state of affairs, with the idea that by making a correct diagnosis a cure can the sooner be reached. It is believed by those familiar with the work of this Department that many of the great economic problems of the present and the future are involved in its work. Every effort has been made to educate and arouse the people of the State to the importance of proper methods of conservation of not only our so-called natural resources, but of our time, labor, and money in the construction of better roads. Such educational work is carried on by means of addresses, bulletins, newspaper articles, conventions, demonstration work, etc.
Below is given in some detail the work of the Survey under different headings.
The work of the Highway Division of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey has grown so enormously during the past few years, owing to the widespread interest which has been awakened
throughout the State in this phase of advancement, that the State Geologist is unable to meet all the demands for addresses, engineering assistance, etc., that come in. Wherever conditions permit, counties and townships are urged to employ a competent road engineer. Frequently the financial condition of the county or township and the amount of work in such county or township are not sufficient to warrant the employment of a first-class highway engineer all the year round. Hence the Geological Survey is advocating a sufficient appropriation on the part of the State to warrant the State's furnishing engineering assistance to counties in connection with the location, construction, and maintenance of their roads.
In order to arrive at some definite conclusions as to the status of the road work in the State, data have been collected in coöperation with the United States Office of Public Roads, which are incorporated in a report lately published. These data show that we now have in North Carolina 48,235 miles of public road, of which there are 1,175 miles of macadam, 1,502 miles of sand-clay, 683 miles of gravel, and 89½ miles of specially surfaced road, making a total of 3,449½ miles of improved road in the State. Of this improved road, 1,092½ miles was built during 1911 and 491 miles of dirt road was graded. There was raised by special tax for road purposes during 1911 $1,116,266, either by township or county tax. About one-eighth of this tax was used in paying interest on bond issues and the balance expended on the roads. During 1911 and a portion of 1912, nineteen counties voted $632,000 in bonds for road purposes. Thirteen of these issues were township bond issues. To give in detail all the data contained in this report would give too much length to an article, and the following are the conclusions reached after a review of this matter:
That North Carolina is yearly spending a direct tax of $1,466,354; a labor tax equivalent to $916,003 (including free and convict labor); making a total of $2,383,157 on her roads in maintenance and the construction of new roads.
That the present system of maintenance results in nothing of permanent value, and seldom affords temporary relief from bad road conditions; so that the enormous expenditure for this purpose is practically thrown away.
That the present system of bad roads at a low estimate is annually costing the people of the State over $12,000,000 in increased cost of haulage over the cost of hauling a similar load over an improved road.
That the most glaring defect in our present system of road construction and maintenance is the class of road officials employed, i. e., placing the work of road construction, maintenance, and the handling of road funds in the hands of men untrained for this kind of work.
That the most efficient aid which a State can render its counties is by furnishing road engineering assistance to the counties. The use of a State engineer in county work would insure to the county the proper location of its roads and expenditure of its funds regardless of petty local politics or influence.
That the State could very soon check this terrific drain on its citizens by the annual expenditure of from $50,000 to $100,000 for the maintenance of a State Highway Department, which would furnish engineers for highway location, construction, bridge construction, etc.
That with the privilege of such aid the counties will be encouraged to issue bonds or raise money in other ways to construct good roads through their borders.
It is felt by those connected with the Survey that in spite of the present large mileage of unimproved roads and the inadequate methods of demonstration in connection with the expenditure of the road funds, that there has still been a steady advance in the good roads work of North Carolina, particularly in the wealthier and more progressive counties. The strongest evidence of this is the number of counties and townships which have employed competent engineers to take charge of their road work. The Geological Survey feels that it cannot advocate too strenuously the abandonment of the old haphazard methods of road location, construction, and maintenance, and the adoption of scientific, businesslike, and systematic methods for every county in the State and for the State as a whole.
One feature in the road work which has arisen in the past two years has been the idea of intercounty and interstate roads. The Legislature of 1911 designated two highways, one to be known as the Central Highway, beginning at the seacoast and traversing the entire length of the State to the Tennessee line, crossing nineteen
counties; and another to be known as the Charlotte-Wilmington Highway, which traverses the southern tier of counties. In establishing these highways, the State Geologist was directed to designate the routes.
Other intercounty highways of interest to the State at large and which have begun to be built within the last two or three years are:
The Crest of the Blue Ridge Highway, which follows along, as its name suggests, the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains, and which when completed will open a section of country to tourists whose scenery is second to none east of the Rockies.
The Triangular Highway, running from Pinehurst to Raleigh, Raleigh to High Point, and High Point to Pinehurst. This highway is now pretty well completed, with the exception of some few links.
The building of these highways, extending from county to county and from State to State, marks an era of liberality on the part of the various counties and sections of the State which has heretofore not been felt in any public work. By making it possible for one section of the State to have a good road to another section will undoubtedly bring about a closer bond of citizenship than has ever existed in our State.
One of the major undertakings of the Survey during the past several years has been in connection with the reclaiming of swamp lands in the eastern part of the State and overflowed lands in the piedmont and mountain sections. The Legislature of 1909 passed an act (chapter 442, Public Laws of 1909), which was amended by the Legislature of 1911, to promote the drainage of wet, swamp, and overflowed lands. Through the operations of this act it has been possible to inaugurate a system of drainage not only in eastern North Carolina (where the swamp lands are so abundant and so inimical to health and agriculture), but also of the wet and overflowed lands in the piedmont and mountain sections of the State. There are approximately 4,505 square miles, or 2,883,000 acres, in eastern North Carolina, together with hundreds of thousands of acres of wet and overflowed lands in other portions of the State, which without drainage are not only of no value to their sections, but are a positive menace. Realizing this, it will readily appear that the State would reap an inestimable advantage
from the reclamation of these swamp lands and the conservation of this wonderfully rich soil for agricultural purposes.
The progress of the drainage work since the passage of this act has not only been surprising, but extremely gratifying. Fifty-odd drainage districts have been established, or are in process of organization, embracing over 700,000 acres of swamp and overflowed land. In one district where the drainage is an accomplished fact, the land before it was drained was worth barely $3 an acre, the cost of draining was not over $6 an acre, and the owners now are refusing $100 per acre. This drainage work has been inaugurated, fostered, and supervised by the Geological Survey, which has done everything in its power to encourage drainage projects which were after a preliminary examination considered feasible by a competent drainage engineer.
When it is realized that one-sixth of North Carolina's wealth is in her forests, and that this per cent is rapidly being diminished by their devastation due to forest fires, ruthless cutting of timber, the pasturage of hogs and cattle (and the consequent killing out of the young growth), it is felt by those who have studied these conditions very carefully that this is one of the most vital questions in the State. The Geological Survey has continued to make a careful study of the forest conditions of the State, having made an inventory of the forest resources of Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Swain, Macon, Jackson, Haywood, Transylvania, Henderson, Buncombe, Madison, Yancey, Mitchell, Watauga, Ashe, Alleghany, Polk, Rutherford, McDowell, Burke, Caldwell, Wilkes, Alexander, Cleveland, Catawba, Mecklenburg, Cabarrus, Iredell, Rowan, Davie, Yadkin, Davidson, Forsyth, Stokes, Lincoln, Surry, and Gaston counties. In making this study the following points were covered:
(1) A map of the portion of the State studied, showing the distribution of the forests.
(2) The percentage of forest lands in each county, together with its comparative value for agriculture, for the protection of timber, and as a protection for streams.
(3) The percentage and location of the principal forest types, together with their approximate stand of timber per acre of different species.
(4) The percentage and location of second-growth pole stand, and the age, where possible.
(5) Data for ascertaining the most practicable methods of managing the second-growth stands of the different types.
(6) A study of the most practicable methods of managing the differest forest types to produce as nearly as possible the special kinds and amount of timber required by the industries.
(7) A study of the various methods of lumbering to determine the changes, if any, which may be recommended to improve the condition of the forest and to prevent unnecessary waste.
(8) A study of the allied industries, such as farming, stock raising, and mining, in their relation to forests, in order that the relative importance of each may be determined.
(9) The damage, costs, frequency, and effects of forest fires, with the object of working out some practical system of fire protection.
(10) The practicability of planting in forest trees abandoned fields or other waste lands, with the object of preventing erosion and producing timber.
The Survey has also made a close statistical study of the damage annually incurred by the State in forest fires, and this data has been published in reports. The conclusion of this study is that we need (1) better laws to control the individual; (2) stricter regulations controlling railroads or other companies or individuals using spark-producing machines; and (3) some State system of properly enforcing these laws, and an adequate appropriation to meet the needs of the State.
As such a large part of North Carolina's wealth is invested in timber land and wood-using industries, and realizing the growing shortage in the supply suitable for the use of these wood-using industries, and the consequent gradual modification in the requirements fixed by these consumers, and recognizing the value both to the producers and the consumers of timber of a more intimate knowledge of local market conditions, the Survey has made a statistical study of the wood-using industries of the State. The wood-using industries can be divided into three classes: (1) those taking timber in the log and by the usual operation of the sawmill converting it into rough lumber; (2) those manufacturing directly from the log a finished product, which cannot be changed by any further process of manufacture,
such as staves, excelsior, shingles, veneer boxes, or mine rollers; and (3) those using rough lumber and by the application of skilled labor and the aid of wood-using machinery converting it into such finished products as furniture, etc.
The Survey has also undertaken the examination of timber areas for individuals and companies, with the idea of devising some plan for their practicing scientific management so as to insure a perpetual supply on such lands. Examinations have been made of watersheds belonging to municipalities, in regard to their protection from fire and contamination. Investigations have been made in regard to reforestation of abandoned farm lands and cut-over lands.
The influences of the forests are so far-reaching as to make their protection a vital question not only when considering the future supply of timber, but when it is taken into account that the perpetuation of our water-powers are dependent directly upon the preservation of the forests along the headwaters of the streams.
One natural resource of great importance, particularly to eastern North Carolina, is our commercial fisheries. The Survey has undertaken to investigate, and, if possible, to find a remedy for the adverse conditions which appear to be operating to the destruction of our commercial fishes. During the past several years reports have been constantly coming in showing that the fish have been growing scarcer each year, and that some sort of State protection is necessary if many of our edible fish are to be saved from total extinction. The Survey has made every effort to bring such conditions to the attention of the people of the State and to make them realize that this great natural resource belongs to the State as a whole, and not to any one section, and that by proper protection the industry can be made to yield larger returns to the State. The Geological Survey, in coöperation with other departments, has held a number of fish conventions, published literature, and made investigations with an eye to solving this most important problem. A convention held in New Bern, December, 1911, was attended by delegates from all the fishing counties of the State, and was most unanimous in its advocacy of State protection and of the State Fish Commission having jurisdiction over every county in the State.
But little purely geological work has been done by the Survey in the past two years, owing to the amount of time and money required by other phases of work which, for the time being, seemed more important. The volume on the Coastal Plain deposits, including the report on the Artesian Water Supply of the Coastal Plain, has been carried through the press and is practically ready for distribution. Further studies have been pursued in connection with the Coastal Plain Geology and Paleontology, which will be incorporated into volumes relating to the Eocene and Miocene of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina.
Statistics relating to the production of the various minerals and ores of the State were collected in coöperation with the United States Geological Survey and published each year by the State Survey. Many mineral specimens are constantly being received at the office, tested and reported on. The majority of these specimens are of no value whatever, but occasionally one is sent in which is of value either commercially or as a matter of scientific interest.
Owing to a ruling of the United States Geological Survey that the Federal Survey would no longer coöperate in the making of traverse maps, but would coöperate in the preparation of topographic maps, it has not been possible for the Survey to arrange any plans by which further areas could be mapped. A geographical map of the whole State has been prepared, in coöperation with the United States Geological Survey, and published by the State Survey. This is believed to be the most accurate geographical map of the State yet published.
It would be of great service, not only in connection with soil work, agricultural work, road work, mining, and other industries, to have topographic maps of all the counties of the State, but it would be of inestimable value to private individuals and corporations to be able to secure such maps to assist them in their undertakings. A special appropriation by the Legislature would therefore be most timely for continuing this work.
By B. C. BECKWITH, Member of the Board, Raleigh, N. C.
The State Board of Internal Improvements was created and made a body corporate by chapter 982, Acts of the General Assembly of North Carolina, 1819. In 1836 the board was made to consist of the Governor of the State, president ex officio, and two commissioners to be biennially appointed by the Governor with the advice of the Council of State.
Chapter 101 of the Revisal of 1905 provides that the two commissioners be now appointed biennially by the Governor with "the advice of the Senate." The private secretary of the Governor is secretary ex officio of the board, which meets in the Governor's office, or at any other place in the State as it may see fit.
The Board has charge of all the State's interest in all railroads, canals, and other works of internal improvement; and the Legislature of 1905 added, "also all public institutions in which the State has an interest, excepting the higher educational institutions that are not also charitable."
The board shall biennially report to the General Assembly the condition of all public or State institutions and buildings in their charge, railroads, roads, and other works of internal improvements in which
the State has an interest; shall suggest such improvements, enlargements, or extensions of such works as they shall deem proper, and such new works of similar nature as shall seem to them to be demanded by the growth of trade or the general prosperity of the State; the amount, condition, and character of the State's interest in railroads, roads, and other works of internal improvements in which the State has stock or whose bonds she holds as security; the condition of such roads or other corporate bodies and State institutions in detail, financial condition, receipts and disbursements, etc.
The board may require of the president or chief officer of any railroad or other works of public improvement or any public institution in which the State has an interest, a written report, under oath, of the affairs of his company or institution for the year, and a failure on part of such chief officer of any public institution or company in which the State has an interest to make a true report is made a misdemeanor, punishable by fine or imprisonment.
Provision is also made for the appointment of a special auditor to audit the accounts and books of all institutions, corporate bodies and State departments whenever the Governor and the board may deem it necessary.
When the board, as it is authorized to do, is making an investigation of the affairs of any public institution or company in which the State has an interest or the official conduct of any official thereof, if any person shall refuse to obey any summons of, or shall refuse to answer any question when requested so to do, by a member of the board, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may be fined and imprisoned. And upon report of the board, the Governor may suspend or remove from office any of said officials, if in the opinion of the board and the Governor the interest of the State demands it.
The Legislature of 1909 amended chapter 101 of the Revisal so that whenever the General Assembly shall direct or authorize directly or indirectly the erection or alteration of any building or buildings at any State institution, charitable, educational, or penal, the Board of Internal Improvements shall let the same out by contract, and take from the contractor a bond with sufficient security payable to the State in such sum as the board may deem sufficient, with the condition that he will faithfully perform his contract according to plans or specifications
agreed upon. And chapter 101 of the Revisal was also amended by the Legislature of 1911, providing that no corporation, company, or institution in which the State has an interest shall lease, mortgage, or otherwise encumber its property except by and with the consent of the Board of Internal Improvements and the Council of State.
The strength of the North Carolina National Guard is as follows:
The National Guard of North Carolina is divided into organizations as follows: The general staff corps; three regiments of infantry of twelve companies and band each; a coast artillery corps of six companies; a naval brigade of six divisions; two hospital corps detachments of twelve men each, one ambulance company, one field hospital and two troops of cavalry.
The annual appropriation by the State for the maintenance of the organized militia is $27,000. This amount is expended principally in paying armory rent and in paying 25 cents per drill to enlisted men for as many as two drills per month, provided they comply with certain rules and regulations.
The brigade and regimental commanders are each allowed $150 per year for expenses, and the commanding officer of the Coast Artillery Corps is allowed $75 per year for expenses. The pay, transportation, and subsistence of the North Carolina National Guard while in camp of instruction is paid by the United States Government, and all equipment is furnished by the Federal Government.
Every member of the organized militia of North Carolina is, in accordance with section 4897, Revisal of 1905, as amended by chapter 316, Public Laws of 1907, and United States Statutes, Act of January 21, 1903, required to serve his term of enlistment in upholding the civil authority of the State or Nation, or going to war for the United
States if called upon by the President. It seems to be the fixed policy of our Government to maintain a well organized, well disciplined, and efficient militia in the several States at a nominal cost, thereby obviating the necessity for a large regular army. During this year the National Government paid all the expenses of the encampment of the First and Second regiments at Camp Glenn and the joint seacoast defense exercises of the Coast Artillery Corps at Fort Caswell, N. C., and all of the expenses of the Third Regiment in the joint maneuvers at Anniston, Ala. The National Government is also furnishing two ships for the use of the North Carolina Naval Militia, without expense to the State. The U. S. S. Elfrida and the torpedo boat Foote are assigned for this purpose and are now at New Bern, the headquarters of the Naval Militia.
The Adjutant General is chief of staff and is in control of the military department of the State, and is subordinate only to the Governor in matters pertaining to said department. Through the office of Adjutant General is handled all reports and records of the military establishment, and all orders pertaining to the militia are issued by the Adjutant General. In his office is kept a record of all the commissioned officers and enlisted men of the Guard. All military textbooks and blank forms and orders from the War Department are handled through the Adjutant General's office. An annual report to the Governor, covering a detailed statement of the work and expenditures for the year, is required by law from the Adjutant General. Inquiries of the record of service of soldiers in any of the wars in which our troops have ever been engaged are answered through the Adjutant General's office. The work in this office is increasing rapidly each year, for while the United States Government is spending much more on the militia than ever before, more is required, and as all the business with the War Department is handled through the Adjutant General's office, the volume of work of necessity increases.
During the past year there has been assigned to the North Carolina National Guard an officer of the United States Army, whose duty it is to visit regularly the different organizations of the Guard for the purpose of giving instruction and making inspection. His services have proven of great value.
There are now two troops of cavalry in the North Carolina National Guard, these being the first in the history of the Guard. They are Troop A at Lincolnton and Troop B at Asheville.
In May, 1912, a camp of instruction for officers of the National Guard was held at Raleigh. This is the first time that such a school has been held in this State. The instructors were Regular Army officers detailed by the War Department.
Rifle ranges have been established at many of the company stations, and for the past two years rifle practice and competition have been held on the ranges at Raleigh, Goldsboro, and Asheville.
In 1911 the State was represented in the National Matches at Camp Perry, Ohio, by a rifle team which made a higher score and took a higher stand than any of the teams our State has had at the National Matches.
Twenty-two officers of the North Carolina National Guard attended the maneuvers of the Regular Army near San Antonio, Texas, for periods of two weeks each exclusive of time consumed in travel. These officers gained much valuable information which will be helpful to them in handling troops in the field.
* Died in office, 1910.
* Died in office, 1912.
This institution was founded by an act of the General Assembly, ratified the 12th day of April, A. D. 1869, entitled "An Act to Provide for the Erection of a Penitentiary." Reference is made to the act cited, and also to the Report of the Commission to Erect a Penitentiary, Document No. 18, Legislative Documents, 1868-70.
The Prison building is a magnificent brick structure, erected upon granite foundation. The Prison wall is of granite, and is twenty feet in height and six feet broad at the top, and its base is said to extend sixteen feet below the surface. The building and wall are estimated to have cost the State more than a million and a quarter dollars.
The institution is situated about one mile west of the Capitol on the extension of Morgan Street and near Hillsboro Road.
The affairs of the Prison are administered by a board of five directors, appointed by the Governor.
The Dangerous Insane Department is maintained within the $5,000 per year appropriated by the Legislature out of the State Prison earnings. The Legislature of 1909 appropriated $5,000 for improvements, and new wards, new kitchen, bathrooms and a hall on two floors have been added and they are now more comfortable than ever before and all are kept in that department, and not kept in the Prison cells, as heretofore.
The University of North Carolina is located at Chapel Hill. Its charter was granted in 1789; the corner-stone of the first building was laid in 1793 and it was opened for students in 1795. The campus of 48 acres and about 550 acres of forest contiguous to it were given by the citizens of Orange County. Its first buildings were also given by friends of the University, the Legislature granting a loan of $10,000 in 1793, which was afterwards converted into a gift, and making the first direct appropriation for a building in 1905, when $50,000 was given for a chemical laboratory.
The State made no appropriation for the maintenance of the University for the first eighty years of its existence. In 1875 the interest from the Land Scrip Fund ($7,500) was paid over to the University, and withdrawn in 1887. In 1881 the annual sum of $5,000 was appropriated for the maintenance and support of the University. This annual appropriation is now $87,000.
In 1861-65 and the following Reconstruction Period the University was stripped of its funds, landed property, and much of its equipment. From 1871 to 1875 its doors were closed. It was reopened in 1875 with practically nothing but empty halls and the contributions of its friends amounting to about $20,000 for the purchase of new equipment.
Its property now consists of
|Campus--48 acres, and woodland 550 acres||$ 70,000|
|Buildings--25, and 3 faculty houses||690,000|
|Equipment--books, apparatus, furniture, etc.||210,000|
|Its endowment, including loan funds, amounts to||216,000|
The income of the University was derived from the following sources for the year 1911-12:
|State appropriation||$ 87,000|
The University comprises the following departments: Collegiate, applied science, teachers' training, graduate, law, medicine and pharmacy. There are thirty-two professors, thirteen associate professors, twelve instructors, twenty-nine assistants. A number of the assistants help in the laboratories and library and do no actual teaching. The number of students for the session 1911-12 was 796. In addition, there were 463 teachers in attendance upon the summer school. Of the students attending the regular session, 753 were from North Carolina. As the University has been cramped for equipment and accommodations, no special effort has been made to attract students from outside the State.
The parents of the students represent all professions, creeds, and parties in the State. The leading professions represented are: farmers, 255; merchants, 126; lawyers, 65; physicians, 52; manufacturers, 42; ministers, 33; teachers, 23. The leading churches are: Methodist, 235; Baptists, 188; Presbyterians, 150; Episcopalians, 113. All but nine of the counties in the State were represented, and five of these were represented in the previous session.
Over one-half of the students earn or borrow, in part or in whole, the money for their education. Some forty of them earn their bread by waiting at table. Few of the families from which these students come are able to stand the strain of the support of a son at college without stringent economy or even many sacrifices. About one-half of the graduates start out as teachers.
There is a splendid spirit of democracy about the institution which opens the doors of achievement to all alike and places attainment upon merit alone. It is emphatically a place "where wealth is no prejudice and poverty is no shame."
The State has not been able to equip the University fully for its work. It should, if possible, be placed on a footing which would enable it to meet every proper demand made upon it for the education of the youth of North Carolina. Unless such provision is made the University must suffer and the State still more.
|Acres of land owned||598|
|Value of buildings, equipment, and land||$970,000|
|Number of volumes in library||60,000|
|Number of students||796|
|Number of faculty||86|
|Income from State||$ 87,000|
|Income from students||57,000|
|DAVID L. SWAIN||1835-1868.|
|KEMP P. BATTLE||1876-1891.|
|GEORGE T. WINSTON||1891-1896.|
|EDWIN A. ALDERMAN||1896-1900.|
|FRANCIS P. VENABLE||1900-|
During the years in which North Carolina was slowly emerging from the economic havoc wrought by Civil War and Reconstruction, some farsighted men began to see the necessity of rearing industrially equipped men. They felt keenly the need of competent men to build and direct new industries, and to restore the land which had been impoverished by slave labor. They recognized that men capable of doing what was needed would have to be educated in industrial schools and technical colleges. This recognition came slowly, because the Southern people up to that period had been wedded to classical education.
The first organized body to take steps for the establishment of an industrial institution in North Carolina was the Watauga Club. This club, composed of bright young men, explained its mission by declaring that it was "an association in the city of Raleigh designed to find out and make known information on practical subjects that will be of public use." In 1885 this club presented to the Legislature the following memorial:
"We respectfully memorialize your honorable body:
"First. To establish an industrial school in North Carolina which shall be a training place for young men who wish to acquire skill in the wealth-producing arts and sciences.
"Second. To establish this school in Raleigh in connection with the State Agricultural Department.
"Third. To make provision for the erection of suitable buildings and for their equipment and maintenance.
(Signed) ARTHUR WINSLOW, Chairman;
W. J. PEELE,
WALTER H. PAGE."
This memorial quickened general interest in the proposed school, and several bills looking to its foundation were introduced in the Legislature of 1885. On March 7th, one of these bills, introduced by Hon. Augustus Leazar of Iredell County, became a law. This law provided that the Board of Agriculture should seek proposals from the cities and towns of the State, and that the school should be placed in the town offering most inducements. The Board of Agriculture finally accepted an offer from the city of Raleigh.
Meantime, the ideas of the advocates of the school had been somewhat broadened as to the character of the proposed institution. They saw that Congress was about to supplement the original land grant by an additional appropriation for agricultural and mechanical colleges in each State. The originators of the conception then sought the aid of progressive farmers in order to change the school into an Agricultural and Mechanical College. Col. L. L. Polk, the editor of the newly-established Progressive Farmer, threw the weight of his paper heartily into the new idea. Meetings were held in various places, and two very large meetings in Raleigh considered the proposition. As a result, the school already provided for was by action of the Legislature of 1887 changed into an Agricultural and Mechanical College, and the Land Scrip Fund was given the newly formed institution. In addition, the law directed that any surplus from the Department of Agriculture should go into the treasury of the college. Mr. R. Stanhope Pullen, one of Raleigh's most broad-minded citizens, gave the institution eighty-three acres of land in a beautiful suburb of Raleigh. The first building was completed in 1889 and the doors of the college were opened for students in October, 1889. Seventy-two students, representing thirty-seven counties, were enrolled the first year. The faculty consisted of six full professors and two assistants.
From this small beginning in 1889, the college has grown to be the second in size in students and faculty among the colleges for men in the State.
The college confines its curriculum entirely to technical and industrial education. No general or academic courses are offered.
The courses of study are as follows:
First, AGRICULTURE, including under this general term Horticulture, Trucking, Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Veterinary Science.
Second, ENGINEERING. This course includes Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, and Mining Engineering. The equipment for field and for laboratory work in these courses makes them very practical.
Third, TEXTILE INDUSTRY. Students in Textiles have an entire mill building for their use. In addition to carding, spinning, weaving and designing, they have a thoroughly practical course in dyeing and in the chemistry of dyes.
Fourth, INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY. A four-year course in Industrial Chemistry.
In all these courses, mathematics, English, physics and chemistry are required.
For young men who have not time or means to spend four years in college, and yet who want to fit themselves as far as possible for industrial employments, short courses of one and two years are offered in Agriculture, and two years in Mechanic Arts and Textiles.
|Number of buildings||22|
|Number of acres of land||485|
|Value of buildings and equipment||$605,281.00|
|Value of land||$ 70,310.00|
|Number of volumes in library||7,280|
|Number of students||619|
|Number of faculty||55|
|State appropriation per annum||$ 80,000.00|
|ALEXANDER Q. HOLLADAY||1889-1899.|
|GEORGE TAYLOE WINSTON||1899-1908.|
|D. H. HILL||1908-|
The North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College was established by an act of the General Assembly of 1891. The purpose for which the institution was created, as stated in section 5 of the act establishing it, is as follows:
"The object of this institution shall be (1) to give young women such education as shall fit them for teaching; (2) to give instruction to young women in drawing, telegraphy, typewriting, stenography, and such other industrial arts as may be suitable to their sex and conducive to their support and usefulness. Tuition shall be free to those who signify their intention to teach upon such conditions as may be prescribed by the board of directors."
In 1892 the institution began with $50,000 donated by the city of Greensboro and ten acres of land, the gift of Mr. R. S. Pullen, Mr. R. T. Gray, Mr. E. P. Wharton, and others, and with an annual appropriation of $10,000 from the State. In addition to the State appropriation and tuition fees, the institution received during the first years about $3,000 annually from the Peabody Fund and for three years received $2,500 annually from the General Education Board. It also received about $11,000 from the faculty and students, and a small amount from Mr. George Foster Peabody, and a library building from Mr. Andrew Carnegie. The plant is now worth more than $600,000, the annual State appropriation is $87,000, and the loan and scholarship funds received from various sources in the State and out of it now amount to $21,000. The faculty numbers 65, and there were enrolled during the past session 586 students and during the summer session 416 students. Total, 1,002.
The chief mission of the institution lies in furnishing the public school system of the State well-equipped teachers who are capable of rendering the State intelligent and useful service. It provides regular degree courses, whose admission requirements, curriculum of instruction, and standards of scholarship are in keeping with the requirements of our best Southern colleges for men and women. A preparatory department conducted by the regular college faculty is maintained for those students who do not have access to good preparatory
schools. The institution does not receive, however, as students any who have not completed the course of instruction offered in the home school.
Special industrial and commercial courses are open to those who do not have free tuition and are not under contract to teach. Provision is also made for teachers who may wish to take brief courses in pedagogy and in the subjects taught in the public schools. For those who cannot remain longer, a one-year course is offered. For various reasons a number of ambitious teachers are not able to avail themselves of the one-year course, and to meet the demands of these a regular summer session has been inaugurated. The advantages of the institution are thus open to every worthy young white woman who has availed herself of the opportunities offered in the public schools of the State.
The patronage of the institution has justified the wisdom of the founders. During the twenty years of its life, beginning October, 1892, and closing with the session of May, 1912, the college has had an average enrollment of 476 students. These students have come from all the 100 counties of the State, and in their political and religious faith, their financial condition, their professional and social life, their intellectual ability and previous educational opportunities, are representative of the people of North Carolina. Of the 5,363 young women who have sought the help and strength thus provided, more than 80 per cent received their training in the rural public schools, one-third defrayed their own expenses, and two-thirds, according to their own written statement, would not have attended any other North Carolina college. In brief, one of the strongest forces of the college, and a prime source of its usefulness, has been the representative character of its patronage. This coming together of all classes from all sections of the State necessarily results in creating an atmosphere of wholesome democracy and equal opportunity. The spirit of the State college for women is, therefore, what the spirit of every State college should be, and, as a result, its representatives acquire that larger sympathy, that breadth of vision, and that intelligent insight into the needs of their State that no text-books or lectures or mere academic training can ever hope to give.
Some indication of the serviceableness of the college is suggested by what has been said of the scope and character of its patronage.
It has, since its establishment, been an open door of opportunity for the white women of North Carolina. Through it the State has added to its resources over 5,300 educated women, who have taught lessons of patriotism and right living to at least 200,000 North Carolina children. Two-thirds of all the students enrolled and nine-tenths of all who graduate become teachers in North Carolina. No large movement for the uplift of the State has failed to have support from its faculty and students, and to-day there is not a county in the State where representatives of the college are not to be found actively engaged in public service.
The special purpose of the State Normal and Industrial College in organizing the Summer Session was to offer the advantages of its instruction to those women in the State whose occupation during other months of the year prevent their attendance upon the regular session. In the selection and arrangement of its summer courses the college has in view the needs of the following classes:
1st. Teachers wishing special work in the principles and methods of teaching (Primary, Grammar, and High School), with opportunities for practice and observation work under experienced supervisors.
2d. Teachers desiring advanced or collegiate courses in Philosophy, Science, Psychology, and the History of Education.
3d. Teachers of special subjects, such as Agriculture, Domestic Science, Vocal Music, Drawing, and Manual Arts.
4th. High-school teachers who desire advanced or extra work along the line of their specialities with free use of good department libraries and well-equipped laboratories.
5th. College students who wish to earn advanced credit or to remove conditions.
6th. Students preparing for college.
7th. Mothers, wives, and home-makers who feel the need of practical help in such subjects as food and food values, cookery, kitchen conveniences, home nursing, sanitation, and household decoration.
In the first summer session, which was held during 1912, there were enrolled in the various departments 416 students.
Enrolled during the regular session, 586 students.
Enrolled during the summer session, 416 students.
Total enrollment in college during the session 1911-1912, 1,002 students.
Pupils enrolled in Training School, 319.
Total enrollment in all departments of college during the session of 1911-1912, 1,321.
The influence and benefits of the college have been shared by every section of North Carolina. The following table gives the number of matriculates by different counties during the past twenty years:
|Number of buildings used||13|
|Number of acres of land||100|
|Value of buildings and land||$650,000|
|Number of volumes in library||7,000|
|Number of pupils in training school||380|
|Number of students in college, regular session||586|
|Number of students in college, summer session||416|
|Total number of students enrolled during sessions 1911-1912||1,002|
|Number of faculty||65|
|Number of matriculates since college was established||5,363|
|Number of graduates since college was established||597|
|Annual State appropriation (maintenance)||$ 87,000|
|CHARLES D. McIVER||1891-1906.|
|JULIUS I. FOUST, Dean||1906-1907.|
|JULIUS I. FOUST||1907-|
The Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School is a State coeducational institution for the training of teachers. It has a fine history, having prepared more than six hundred teachers for public school work and having furnished ten county superintendents to the State. The school was chartered in 1891, and in 1905 became a State institution.
The prospects were never brighter than at present. A new and well-equipped dormitory for young ladies has recently been erected and other buildings are in contemplation. The school owns and operates private steam heating and electric lighting plants and is installing an excellent gravity system that will supply the institution with an abundance of pure water.
The organization of the school embraces the following departments: Graded School, Normal, Industrial, Practice School, Music, Art, Expression.
|Number of buildings||7|
|Number acres of land||27.5|
|Number of faculty||10|
|Value of buildings and land||$ 42,000|
|Annual appropriation||$ 10,000|
|R. L. MADISON||1888-1912.|
|A. C. REYNOLDS||1912-|
The Appalachian Training School for Teachers was established by act of the Legislature of 1903. The school is located at Boone, Watauga County, North Carolina, in the midst of North Carolina's unsurpassed mountain scenery. It is the center of education for the northwestern section of North Carolina, embracing some of the best of her mountainous counties. It draws its patronage from twenty-five counties.
The institution makes no pretensions to being a college. It is a normal school, and its mission is to give a high-school and professional education to hundreds of young people who cannot go elsewhere.
During the year 1911-1912 there were 388 students in the school. It supplies a large proportion of the public school teachers for the surrounding counties, and has had a marked influence upon the improvement of scholarship and professional training of these teachers. In addition to this, the school has opened a way to the State University and the State Normal College to a large number of students who otherwise would not have entered those institutions.
The first appropriation made by the Legislature was $2,000 for maintenance, voted by the Legislature of 1903. The Legislature of 1907 increased this to $4,000, and made an additional appropriation of $10,000 for the enlargement of the plant. In 1909 the Legislature appropriated $6,000 a year for maintenance, and $8,000 per year for general improvements. The Legislature of 1911 appropriated $10,000 per annum for maintenance, and $10,000 for improvements.
|Number of buildings||6|
|Number of acres of land owned||450|
|Value of buildings and equipment||$ 80,000|
|Value of the land||$ 15,000|
|Number of students||388|
|Number of faculty||12|
|Income from State appropriation for maintenance per annum||$ 10,000|
|B. B. DOUGHERTY||1903-|
The East Carolina Teachers Training School was established by act of the General Assembly of 1907. The school is located at Greenville. The site contains 50 acres of land, a large part of which is natural forest.
Six buildings have been erected: two dormitories with a capacity for 194 students; an administration building containing the offices, auditorium, and classrooms; a building for the kitchen and dining-room (this building contains storerooms for supplies and a refrigerating plant); an infirmary, and a building containing the power plant and laundry.
The buildings and equipment are modern in every sense and are valued at $200,000. The town of Greenville and county of Pitt voted $100,000 in bonds for this school, and the State has made an appropriation of $45,000 for buildings and equipment. These buildings, for lack of funds, have not yet been thoroughly equipped, but enough equipment has been installed to enable the school to do efficient work. The equipment installed is of the best type procurable.
Section 3 of the charter reads: "That the said school shall be maintained by the State for the purpose of giving to young white men and women such education and training as shall fit and qualify them to teach in the public schools of North Carolina." This clearly sets forth the purpose of this school. To those students who agree to teach there is no charge for tuition. Out of an enrollment of 595 during the past school year, there were only five students who paid tuition. This shows that the management of the school is adhering rigidly to the purpose of the school as stated in its charter.
The school first opened its doors for students October 5, 1909. During the past three years, including the summer terms, there have been enrolled 1,612 students.
|Number of buildings||6|
|Number of acres||50|
|Value of buildings and grounds||$200,000|
|Number of students 1911-1912||595|
|Annual appropriation||$ 45,000|
|Other income||$ 1,159|
|ROBERT H. WRIGHT||1909-|
*The State schools for blind white children and for the blind and deaf negro children, though separate institutions, in separate buildings located in different parts of the city, are under the same supervision.--ED.
This institution was established by act of the General Assembly passed January 12, 1845, while Hon. W. A. Graham was Governor of North Carolina. On the first day of May following the school opened with seven pupils, which number increased to seventeen during the session. The first appropriation amounted to $5,000 annually. Two years later it was made $10,000. W. D. Cooke, of Virginia, was elected first principal, and for some years the school was conducted in a building on Hillsboro Street, rented for the purpose.
On April 14, 1849, the corner-stone of the present main building on Caswell Square, was laid by the Grand Lodge of Masons. At first deaf children only were received, but later blind children were also admitted.
In 1868 a department for the education of the negro deaf and blind children of the State was established on Bloodworth Street, in the southeastern part of the city. This has grown to be the largest and best equipped school for the negro deaf and blind in the South.
In 1894 the white deaf children were removed to their elegant new school at Morganton. The old school continued to grow until there were 186 pupils actually present in both departments, and the annual appropriation was $40,000. It has now grown to be the largest of its kind in America, and North Carolina has the proud distinction of doing more for its deaf and blind children, in proportion to its population, than any State in the Union. And yet this is done at a smaller pro rata expense than in any other State, save one. During these fourteen years the old main building has been greatly enlarged, a new slate roof has replaced the old tin one, modern plumbing takes the place of that formerly used.
The old chapel building has been remodeled and enlarged, the main floor converted into a dining hall, and the upper story into a music hall with sixteen well-equipped practice rooms and a band room. This is also furnished with a new slate roof.
The auditorium building furnishes dormitories for the boys, with all modern conveniences, and a good auditorium.
Four years ago a very neat and convenient library was constructed, which is entirely fireproof, at a cost of $5,000, and a new pipe organ was also installed, one of the very best in the South.
Four years ago the General Assembly made provision for renewing the heating plant and installing a hot-water plant instead of steam. At the same time provision was made for ten new pianos; for paving the basement floors and the sidewalks around the premises; for outdoor gymnasium; metal ceilings for all the rooms in the main buildings and for sick wards at the colored school.
The industrial building furnishes room for the broom, mattress, and cane-seating departments of the school. Similar buildings are at the colored department.
During the past few years the kitchen has been covered with slate, the laundry enlarged nearly 50 per cent and covered with slate; the basement rooms of the main building and the boiler house have been furnished with cement floors; sick wards have been provided in the fourth story of the girls' building with modern conveniences, to be used in case of contagious or infectious diseases; plumbing has been put into the rooms used for ordinary sickness, and neat covered-ways connecting all the principal buildings have been constructed so as to protect the students while passing from one building to another during inclement weather.
The increased attendance has made it necessary to increase the appropriation for maintenance, and the Legislature has made additions from time to time until the annual income is now $72,500.
This is equivalent to only about $175 per child--an amount far less than that used in any school for the blind in the United States. Fifteen years ago the allowance per child was more than $214. With the increased cost of living, one can readily see how cramped must be the financial condition.
A distinguished visitor to the State said recently in a public address made at the annual meeting of the State Association of the Blind held at Fayetteville: "Your school for the blind at Raleigh . . . needs, and should have, more funds. In many respects it is the best of the forty State schools for the blind in this country. It has more pupils than any other State. It fits more of them for independence than any other school. Between 80 and 90 per cent of the pupils of your school for the blind become self-supporting. No other State makes such a showing, and no other of the forty schools has so little
money provided for the pupils as your State school. The money spent in your State school for the blind is the best investment your State ever made. Through its influence doubtless many blind are now self-supporting, useful and happy citizens of your State, who otherwise would be dependent on their family or friends, or be inmates of almshouses at the expense of the State.
"When I asked Dr. Fraser, the great educator of the blind, at Halifax (Nova Scotia), after his recent visit to the schools for the blind of this country, which he considered the best, he replied that none was better than the school at Raleigh, and that he could not understand how such a school could be run for such a small amount of money. . . . I am sure, when your people realize your needs and the great work you are doing, they will come liberally to your aid."
The school is now seriously handicapped for lack of room and of funds. The present quarters are entirely too circumscribed. There is no room for exercise grounds, and if any children need exercise, it is the blind; nor is there any place for additional buildings. The overcrowded condition of the buildings demands serious attention. His Excellency, the Governor, recommended in his message to the last General Assembly two years ago the purchase of 100 acres in the suburbs of the city upon which to erect new buildings upon the cottage system. This suggestion was emphasized by the State Board of Internal Improvements, the State Board of Health, and the Board of Charities.
No steps were taken, however, and the condition is much worse than formerly, on account of the greatly increased attendance. The situation is well-nigh alarming. It is hoped that relief will soon be at hand. Is it not deplorable that an institution doing such good work should be hindered for lack of funds?
The literary work of the school may be well understood when it is known that the course of study pursued is modeled after the report made by the "Committee of Ten" appointed by the General Government several years ago, and covers a thorough course in kindergarten, primary, grammar, and high-school work, as good as that done in the very best schools in the State.
One naturally wants to know what comes of all this. In general terms 85 per cent of the graduates of the school are self-supporting,
and a good many of them have accumulated a good competency. Time and space will not permit a detailed statement. Let a few suffice. The musical directors of Salemburg Academy and of Anniston (Alabama) Seminary are graduates of our school, and both totally blind. A member of the Board of County Commissioners of Pamlico County, a member of the Board of Education, and one of the most influential citizens, is a graduate of our school, and totally blind. A substantial merchant and mill man of Glass is another; a very successful farmer of Alexander County is another; until recently one of the leading teachers in Caldwell County was another. Another is a successful church organist in Wilmington; the principal of one of the high schools in Union County is another; one is a successful merchant in West Virginia; one a newsdealer in New Bern; one a bandmaster and music teacher in Winston-Salem. There are many more of the graduates who are filling honorable positions as public-school teachers, music teachers, piano tuners, bandmasters, merchants, etc., etc.--men and women who are a credit to the State and an honor to the school.
The handicraft exhibits made at the State Fair for the past few years have not only received universal praise, but have been awarded the first premium over all schools exhibiting, and a gold medal for each of these years is in the hands of the Principal. The band of the school also makes music at the Fair each year.
A still greater honor was bestowed upon the school when the Jamestown Exposition authorities selected the North Carolina School for the Blind, out of all the schools for the blind in America, to make a live exhibit at the Exposition. Both departments of this school made exhibits, for which a gold medal was awarded each department, and these medals are now in the possession of the management of the school.
Some of our students have passed the examinations required by the best colleges in our State, and have taken their degrees from them. Only recently one young man, totally blind, took his A. B. degree at our State University with honor, after which he went to Harvard, from which he graduated with high distinction. The Boston papers have several times written him up as a "wonderful blind man." He has since taken his doctor's degree from Chicago University, and holds license to practice law from the University of Tennessee.
|Number of buildings||7|
|Number of acres of land||42|
|Value of buildings and equipment||$200,000|
|Value of land||$20,000|
|Number of volumes in library (ink print)||1,500|
|Number of volumes in library (Tactile print)||5,000|
|Number of students||219|
|Number of faculty||23|
|State appropriation (including both Depts.)||$ 72,500|
|Income from other sources||None|
|W. D. COOKE||1845-1860.|
|WILLEY J. PALMER||1860-1869.|
|S. F. TOMLINSON||1871-1873.|
|HEZEKIAH A. GUDGER||1877-1883.|
|WILLIAM J. YOUNG||1883-1896.|
|FREDERICK R. PLACE||June, 1896-September, 1896.|
|JOHN E. RAY||1896-|
|Number of buildings||4|
|Value of buildings and equipment||$ 75,000|
|Number of volumes in library (ink print)||500|
|Number of volumes in library (Tactile print)||1,500|
|Number of students||195|
|Number of faculty||17|
E. McK. GOODWIN, Superintendent, Morganton.
In 1845 this State first attempted the education of her deaf and dumb children, being the ninth State in the Union to undertake the education of this class of children. The first year seven pupils were admitted. Soon thereafter the blind children of the State were provided for under the same management, and the institution became the
Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. Both classes were admitted into the institution at Raleigh till the Legislature of 1891 were made to realize that there was only a small part of either class being educated, for up to that time only about 25 per cent were being even partially educated.
In 1891 the General Assembly passed an act creating and establishing the North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb for the white race only, and located it at Morganton. The school was opened for the reception of pupils in 1894. All the white deaf children then in school at Raleigh were admitted to the new school, which had very limited support then. There were only 102 present the first year, but as soon as the Legislature made provision, the school admitted 162, and the attendance has increased steadily till 262 were admitted last year. But there are still, perhaps, 33 per cent of the eligible deaf children not in school, and there are many adult deaf in North Carolina now entirely uneducated. It is a significant fact, however, that this State has the largest attendance in proportion to her population of any Southern State, and, indeed, compares favorably with the Northern States in this respect.
The statute prescribes the public school course of the State, and allows high school work for those who want to go to college.
In addition to the regular school work, we have four industrial departments, for the boys, where they are given, as far as possible, the knowledge of handicraft in the elementary branches. The four departments for the boys are farming and gardening, woodwork and carpentry, typesetting and printing, and shoemaking. The girls are taught general domestic work, including cooking, plain sewing and dressmaking. Primary handicraft is taught to the small children.
America leads the world in her provision for the education of the deaf. From 1817, when the first school was established in America, till about 1868, all the schools used the French system, which is the manual or sign method; but in 1868, the German or oral method was introduced, and while the progress has been slow, the proportion has constantly increased till at present about 75 per cent of all the deaf children in the United States, now in school, are being taught by the oral method. Many of these children learn to speak and read speech of others, sufficiently to become invaluable to themselves and to the great convenience of the members of their families. But even if
their speech is not natural nor good, the written language of the orally taught deaf is more natural and smoother in expression than that of the deaf taught manually.
The North Carolina School has two departments to meet the demands, and is known in the profession as a combined school. Our orally taught pupils become as adept "sign makers" as the manually taught. They acquire the manual language by association with those who sign and spell on their fingers. The orally taught get all the manually taught get, and also what speech and speech-reading they get from the system, beyond what those manually taught even claim to get. Some of the largest and best schools for the deaf in America are "pure oral" schools.
The North Carolina School has prepared a number of students for Gallaudet College, where they have graduated with distinction. Many of our former students have done well in the race of life, making a good living and good citizens.
Our school plant is worth at least $350,000, and our greatest needs to-day are a hospital building and an adequate boiler-house and industrial equipments. The school from its creation has had a broad and liberal-minded board of directors of practical business men. The present board is composed of Prof. M. H. Holt, president; A. C. Miller, J. L. Scott, Jr., Dr. I. P. Jeter, A. L. James, W. R. Whitson, and Dr. J. H. Mock. E. McK. Goodwin has been superintendent since its establishment.
The school has now a staff of twenty-four regular grade teachers and an educational principal, a supervising teacher in Goodwin Hall, our new primary school, and four industrial teachers.
About 800 pupils have been enrolled since opening in 1894.
|Number of buildings||4|
|Number of acres of land||327|
|Value of buildings and equipment||$350,000|
|Value of land||$ 15,000|
|Number of volumes in library||3,100|
|Number of faculty (including one principal)||30|
|State appropriation||$ 55,000|
|Income from other sources||$ 3,700|
The Stonewall Jackson Manual Training and Industrial School was established a few years ago as the result of the labors of many public-spirited citizens who had advocated such an institution for a number of years, and particularly as the result of the unceasing efforts of the King's Daughters.
The legislative act creating the board of trustees and providing for its conduct was passed at the session of 1907. The institution opened January 12, 1909, with provision for 30 boys. The capacity was soon increased to 60 and will be increased to 90 early in the year 1913. J. P. Cook, Concord, N. C., is chairman of the board of trustees. Walter Thompson is superintendent. Value of buildings and grounds, $65,000. Appropriation for maintenance, $15,000. Appropriation for permanent improvements, $10,000. Acres in farm, 290.
|Acres of land||290|
|Value of buildings and equipment||$ 40,100|
|Value of land||$ 10,000|
|State appropriation--Maintenance||$ 10,000|
|Permanent improvements||$ 10,000|
The State maintains three normal schools for the training of negro teachers, and one for the training of teachers for the Indians of Robeson County. The normal schools for the negroes are located at Fayetteville, Elizabeth City, and Winston-Salem; the school for the Indians of Robeson County is located at Pembroke.
The first superintendent of these schools was Charles L. Coon, elected in 1904. In January, 1907, he was succeeded by John Duckett, who died November 16, 1908. J. A. Bivins has been superintendent since January, 1909.
Most of the negro teachers in the sections where these schools are located have received their training in these schools. Industrial training, especially in domestic science, is required in all of them. In the Slater School at Winston-Salem shop and farm work are taught. At Fayetteville shop and farm work are also taught to a limited extent. These industrial features are not as successful as they should be, owing to lack of funds. The salaries of the teachers of domestic science in these schools are paid out of the Slater Fund, for which purpose the trustees of this fund appropriate $1,200 annually.
There has been a gradual expansion in the plants and equipment of these schools, as well as a satisfactory increase in attendance. In addition to the new dormitory erected at Fayetteville two years ago, costing $10,000, a handsome new dormitory was erected also at Elizabeth City at a cost, for building and equipment, of about $20,000. The remainder of the debt on the Slater property at Winston-Salem, originally $12,000, was paid off two years ago. Since the erection of the dormitory at Elizabeth City, the school has moved into its new quarters in the suburbs of the city. The Normal School building, which was erected in 1908, had remained unoccupied for lack of dormitory facilities, while the school continued to be taught in the old and very inadequate structure within the corporate limits of the city. The school at Winston-Salem will erect a dormitory next year.
The trustees of the Indian Normal School at Pembroke by deed, made and executed in the year 1911, conveyed the title and ownership
of their property to the State Board of Education. This property had formerly belonged to the trustees of the Croatan Normal School, as it was then styled. Preparations are being made to erect a dormitory at this school costing about $4,000, toward which amount the General Assembly of 1911 appropriated $2,000.
|Number of buildings||3|
|Number of acres of land||39|
|Value of buildings||$ 20,000|
|Value of land||$ 2,500|
|Number of students (primary)||63|
|Number of students (preparatory)||92|
|Number of students (normal)||131|
|Number of faculty||8|
|State appropriation (maintenance)||$ 3,500|
|State appropriation (buildings)||$ 1,500|
|From Slater Fund||$ 1,000|
|Income from sale of Woodard land||$ 2,500|
|Number of buildings||3|
|Number of acres of land||18|
|Value of buildings||$ 35,000|
|Value of land||$ 3,500|
|Number of students (primary)||65|
|Number of students (preparatory)||112|
|Number of students (normal)||339|
|Number of faculty||9|
|State appropriation (maintenance)||$ 3,450|
|State appropriation (building)||$ 18,500|
|From Slater Fund||$ 450|
|From tuition, etc.||$ 474.38|
|Number of buildings||2|
|Number of acres of land||17|
|Value of buildings||$18,000.00|
|Value of land||$ 1,000.00|
|Number of volumes in library||1,000|
|Number of students (primary)||160|
|Number of students (preparatory)||35|
|Number of students (normal)||184|
|Number of faculty||10|
|State appropriation (maintenance)||$ 4,250.00|
|From Slater Fund||$ 700.00|
|Special State appropriation for building||$ 1,000.00|
|From tuition, incidental fees, etc.||$ 466.60|
|Number of buildings||1|
|Number of acres of land||10|
|Value of building||$ 3,000|
|Value of land||$ 500|
|Number of students (primary)||85|
|Intermediate and normal||77|
|Number of faculty||3|
|State appropriation (maintenance)||$ 2,250|
|State appropriation, special (for building)||$ 2,000|
|CHARLES L. COON||1904-1907.|
|J. A. BIVINS||1908-|
The Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored Race was established by an act of the General Assembly of North Carolina, ratified March 9, 1891. The leading object of the institution is declared by the act to be instruction in practical agriculture, the mechanic arts, and such branches of learning as relate thereto.
The management and control of the college and the care and preservation of all its property is vested in a board of trustees, consisting of fifteen members, who are elected by the General Assembly, or appointed by the Governor, for a term of six years.
The trustees, by the act of the Legislature, have power to prescribe rules for the management and preservation of good order and morals at the college; to elect the president, instructors, and as many other officers and servants as they shall deem necessary; have charge of the disbursements of the funds, and have general and entire supervision of the establishment and maintenance of the college.
The financial support of the college for the payment of salaries and purchase of apparatus and equipment is derived, for the most part, from the United States, under an act of Congress, known as the "Morrill Act," passed August 20, 1890. This act makes an annual appropriation for each State and Territory for the endowment and support of colleges for the benefit of agriculture and mechanic arts, to be applied "only to instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English language and the various branches of mathematics, physical, natural, and economic sciences, with special reference to their application in the industries of life and to the facilities of such instruction."
The college also receives an appropriation from the State for general maintenance, which cannot be provided for under the laws governing the use of Federal appropriations.
The citizens of Greensboro donated fourteen acres of land and $11,000, to be used in construction of buildings. In 1893 this was supplemented by an appropriation of $10,000 by the General Assembly. The main building, one of the finest school edifices in North Carolina, was completed in 1893, and the school opened in the fall of that year.
Every negro who will observe the splendid record of success and of usefulness which the graduates almost without exception are making must naturally feel grateful to the "Old North State" for the excellent work that this Commonwealth is doing for the uplift of its negro citizens. Every intelligent citizen, black or white, who will note the substantial interest and splendid support that this institution is receiving from every State official and from the representatives of the people in every Legislature, must admire the wise and liberal treatment North Carolina is giving for the maintenance of helpful institutions for her negro citizens, and ever appreciate the excellent results that are being accomplished. It is certain no negro can study the important work of this institution and its influence for the advancement of all people without feeling a stronger sense of obligation to his State that he should strive to be a better, truer, and more patriotic citizen of the great State of North Carolina.
The institution is located in the eastern part of the city of Greensboro, about one mile from the railway station, upon an elevated tract of about 25 acres of land. About a mile from the college the institution has a farm of 103½ acres, most of which is under cultivation.
The college has four modern brick buildings, two barns, a small dairy building, two small greenhouses, a piggery, and a few smaller buildings.
The college has outgrown its facilities for instruction in mechanic arts. The present equipment, which is the original, with very few additions, is wearing out and in some cases obsolete. The influence of this department is far-reaching, as is evidenced by the work of the graduates. Among the graduates of this institution are some of the best and most progressive mechanics in North Carolina. There are substantial evidences of their work in Raleigh. St. Agnes Hospital is probably the most conspicuous. This building was erected by J. W. Holmes, a graduate of the A. and M. College. He is superintendent of industries at St. Augustine's School, Raleigh. The Tupper Memorial Building at Shaw University was designed and built by G. A. Edwards, a graduate of the A. and M. College. G. A. Edwards is in charge of the mechanical department at Shaw. There is a large demand for graduates in mechanics from this institution to organize and take charge of the mechanical courses in the schools of the State, showing that the other institutions are using the mechanical department of the A. and M. College as a model. The superintendent and
manager of the Durham Textile Mills, C. C. Amey, is a graduate of this institution. The negroes of the State are appreciating better every day the advantages of this school as a trade school, and this is due to the success of the trade students.
The A. and M. College, in order to keep its standard of instruction and usefulness, will have to increase its equipment for instruction in the trades. The efficiency of the mechanical department of the A. and M. College would be greatly increased if provisions were made for a thorough overhauling of such machines and tools as are now in that department and the addition of a few new machines and tools to meet the greatly increased demands for instruction.
For instruction in agriculture, the college has no building and practically no facilities, yet the college has made greater advancement and has achieved greater success along this than any other line. The best evidence of the value of the instruction in agriculture as given at the A. and M. College is found in the success of its graduates. W. T. Johnson, a graduate, is running a very successful farm near Greensboro, and is doing a thriving dairy business in the city. One graduate in Cumberland County is clearing over $1,000 a year on his farm; a graduate of the class of 1908, who is operating his own farm in Cumberland County, has recently organized a dairy company in Fayetteville which is doing a thriving business. Another graduate of the class of 1907, who has been running his own farm of 100 acres in Chatham County, has recently been appointed farm demonstrator by the U. S. Department of Agriculture for Guilford County. In a civil service examination held last year to secure eligibles for the appointment of a teacher of agriculture at the Carlisle Indian School, one of our graduates stood the highest and received the appointment. A number of our graduates are employed in dairy industries. A member of the class of 1910 is employed by the Rennie Dairy Company, of Richmond, Va., as buttermaker. This company churns over 1,000 gallons of cream daily. A graduate of the class of 1907 is employed as head teacher at the Voorhees Normal and Industrial School in South Carolina; one is superintendent of a 1,200-acre farm at the Brick School, Edgecombe County; another is running his own farm in Alamance County; a graduate of the class of 1902 is florist at Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; another has charge of the orchards, and still another is in charge of the live-stock department at that famous institution.
Several graduates are teaching in agricultural schools. One is in charge of the agricultural department of the Colored A. and M. College of West Virginia, and one of the graduates of the class of 1909 is teaching in the State Normal School at Fayetteville, N. C. Until recently one of our graduates had charge of the agricultural department in the State Normal School for negroes at Frankfort, Ky. A number of our graduates are farming and teaching rural schools during the winter months. A graduate in Halifax County is one of the few colored teachers who has succeeded in establishing a rural library in connection with his school.
The number of students in the agricultural department has increased fivefold in the past five years, which goes to show that the thoughtful colored boy is recognizing the fact that farming offers better inducements than any other line of industry, and he is, therefore, seeking training to that end.
All of the graduates of last year's class were from the agricultural department. These students come directly from the farm for the purpose of getting instruction in the modern methods of farming in order to produce maximum crops at a minimum cost. It is a business proposition to them, pure and simple. They are seeking an education in order to increase their productive capacity. Every time the A. and M. College increases the productive capacity of a student, it increases the productive capacity of the State, and thereby increases the wealth of the State to that extent. Therefore, every dollar expended by the State in increasing the productive capacity of its colored citizens is a business proposition in the present sense.
In order that the A. and M. College may meet the demands made upon it for instruction in agriculture, it is necessary that a building and equipment be provided for this purpose similar to that already provided by the State for instruction in the mechanic arts. Money invested by the State for this purpose will, in course of time, revert to the State in the form of taxes from increased agricultural development.
|Number of buildings||7|
|Number of acres of land owned||128½|
|Value of buildings and equipment||$ 102,572|
|Value of land||$ 27,000|
|Number of volumes in the library||1,494|
|Number of students (incomplete)||315|
|Number of faculty||19|
|Income from State appropriation||$ 12,500|
|Income from Federal appropriation||14,850|
|JOHN O. CROSBY||1892-1896.|
|JAMES B. DUDLEY||1896-|
The State Hospital at Raleigh is situated one mile directly southwest of the city of Raleigh, just over the city's boundary line. The house was erected on the apex of the watershed between Walnut Creek on the south and Rocky Branch on the north and is drained in the best natural sanitary manner possible.
Every one knows that this institution was built for the unfortunate of North Carolina by the unceasing and persistent efforts of Miss Dorothy Dix, who appeared before the Legislature in 1848, and by the effective help and eloquent plea of the Hon. James C. Dobbin, of Fayetteville, the passage of the bill was secured by a vote of a hundred and one yeas and ten nays.
The act provided for the appointment of six commissioners--Honorables John M. Morehead, of Guilford; Calvin Graves, of Caswell; T. N. Cameron, of Cumberland; G. W. Mordecai, of Wake; C. L. Hinton, of Wake, and G. O. Watson, of Johnston--to select and purchase a tract of land upon which to erect a building for the purpose of providing for the insane. These commissioners did their work without compensation, and that they did it well is manifested by the elegant and substantial structure upon this site.
In 1856 the building was near enough to completion for the first board of directors to instruct Dr. E. C. Fisher to order in 40 patients, Dr. Fisher having been elected superintendent by the board. Dr. Fisher held this office until July 7, 1868, when he was superseded by Dr. Eugene Grissom. Dr. Grissom held the office until succeeded by Dr. William K. Wood, of Halifax County, who remained in office but a short while, and was succeeded by Dr. George L. Kirby, who died of pneumonia in February, 1901. Dr. James McKee was elected the following March as his successor. He died in office in 1912 and was succeeded by Dr. J. L. Picot.
The Legislatures have gradually awakened to the necessity of providing for the insane. The Legislature of 1904 gave the Hospital $40,000, and with it a more commodious fireproof building was erected, with a capacity of 80 additional female patients. The Legislature of 1907 enacted a law providing for a Hospital Commission, and gave them $500,000 to add to the building and erect upon the
grounds such structures as would be conducive to the comfort and restoration of the health of the insane. A storehouse was the first building put up by the commission, at a cost of $4,200; then a carpenter shop at a cost of $3,800. Next an annex for 100 men, at a cost of $48,265. Out of the $500,000 appropriation the Legislature required them to pay for the Grimes land, 1,136 acres, at a cost of $53,500.
In 1908 the commission disbursed the following amounts: In February, $11,405,75 for heating, plumbing, sewer pipes, sewers, and an addition to complete storeroom; in October, 1908, one building for women, $21,900; three groups of buildings, making nine, at $14,813 apiece, one of these groups being for male convalescent patients, and the other two male and female epileptic, respectively, and with the cost of sewer and pipe connection with the A. and M. College, costing $500, aggregating $66,919.
|Number of buildings||15|
|Number of acres of land||1,311|
|Number of patients||1,114|
|Number of attendants||58|
The State Hospital at Morganton was founded in 1875, but was not regularly opened for the reception of patients until 1883. At the time of its opening, it had a capacity of about 225 patients. Completion of the north wing brought the capacity up to 420 beds. From time to time buildings have been added until the entire plant now comprises ten buildings for patients, with a total capacity of approximately 1,250 beds. The present population, including those away on parol, is 1,309. The demand for admission is far in excess of the capacity of the house, and more than one-third of those applying have to be rejected for lack of room. The hospital is in sore need of increased capacity and better facilities for the treatment of acute cases. The annual appropriation for support during the past two years has been $195,000, which, with strict economy, has been sufficient.
|Number of buildings||10|
|Number of acres of land||900|
|Number of inmates||1,309|
|Number of attendants||90|
|Annual appropriation||$ 195,000|
|DR. P. L. MURPHY||1882-1907.|
|DR. JOHN MCCAMPBELL||1907-|
This institution was opened for the reception of patients August 1, 1880. The number of patients received since its beginning is 3,973, number discharged 3,183, number of patients remaining on roll 790.
|Number of buildings||13|
|Number of acres of land||690|
|Value of buildings and equipment||$ 270,000|
|Value of land||$ 27,000|
|Number of inmates||790|
|Number of attendants||52|
|State appropriation per annum||$85,000.00|
|Income from other sources (estimated)||3,500|
|W. H. MOORE||1880-1882.|
|J. D. ROBERTS||1882-1888.|
|J. F. MILLER||1888-1906.|
|W. W. FAISON||1906-|
* This is the same statement that appeared in the Manual of 1911. I regret that I have been unable to secure from the Superintendent a revised statement for the present Manual.--ED.
The North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis was authorized by an act of the General Assembly of 1907. For this purpose the General Assembly appropriated the sum of $15,000 for construction and $5,000 annual maintenance. The sum of $7,750 was expended for land amounting to 950 acres. Three buildings were begun in 1908, consisting of one two-story pavilion, 46 × 68, which would accommodate about 35 patients when completed, a kitchen and dining-room, dining-room to accommodate 20 patients, and one three-room cottage for help to live in. A part of this tract of land consists of a farm with an eight-room farmhouse; there are about 60 acres in cultivation.
The General Assembly of 1909 appropriated $30,000 to continue the work of construction and increased the annual maintenance to $7,500. This enabled the institution to install power plant, to furnish lights and pump water--a complete water system; plenty pure fresh water is furnished from two deep wells, one of these wells being 225 feet and the other 245 feet; plumbing in all the buildings, a complete sewer system; finish the buildings begun with the first appropriation, and erect the following new buildings: One two-story pavilion to accommodate about 20 patients; one large club-house for amusement of such patients as can take exercise; one fourteen-room nurses' building, superintendent's cottage, four-room cottage for colored help, four-room cottage for electrician at power plant, fumigating-room and crematory. A large kitchen and dining-hall to accommodate 100 patients are in course of construction, with funds in hand to pay for same. Also, repairs on farmhouse, for the fencing of 300 acres of land, including farm and 200 acres in park; 50 acres have been parked; and development of farm, and a dairy. Three hundred and twenty-five acres of land were purchased with the last appropriation for $1,200, making in all 1,275 acres of land.
|Value of buildings and equipment||$ 35,000|
|Number of acres||1,275|
|Value of land||$ 18,000|
|Number of patients||30|
|Annual appropriation||$ 7,750|
|DR. J. E. BROOKS||term, two years.|
According to the Constitution of North Carolina, Article II, section 9, the North Carolina School for the Feeble-minded was authorized by an act of the General Assembly of 1911 by a State bond issue of $60,000 to begin the work.
On account of the limited amount of bonds issued, the trustees decided to ask communities to make bids for the location of said school. After a spirited contest between several communities the county of Lenoir, through a committee of seventeen of its representative citizens, raised a considerable amount of money and bought 847 acres of land and donated it to the school, together with free electric lights from the power plant at Kinston for a period of five years. The board of trustees later bought 49 acres of land, making a total of 895 acres of land. On this land there are a number of good farm buildings which can be used to good advantage by the institution. The value of the gift is not less than $25,000, which does not include a side-track 3,000 feet long, from the railroad to the powerhouse, which the Norfolk and Southern Railway Company donated; estimated cost of building $5,000; making a total valuation of the property donated $30,000.
On this property is flowing artesian water. The land is part of the old Richard Caswell grant, near where his remains lie, located a mile and a quarter from Kinston, on the Norfolk and Southern Railroad at Hines Junction, and on the Central Highway that leads from Beaufort to Waynesville.
The buildings are on a semi-circular plan, 2,000 feet from the highway, on a hill facing the south, the railroad, and the highway, and present a commanding appearance. There will be four substantial and permanent buildings in the first group. The main building will contain a dining-room, a matron's office, and eight sleeping rooms. The kitchen is located in the rear of this building and is connected to it by a covered walkway. There will be a dormitory on each side of the central building, one for boys and one for girls, to accommodate about sixty-five each.
The superintendent already has in hand six times as many applications for admission as the institution will accommodate. This institution takes a class that no other institution in the State cares for, namely, imbeciles, idiots, backward and feeble-minded children. This institution is a part of the State's great system of public education.
In the year 1872 the Oxford Orphan Asylum was established by the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Order of Masons of North Carolina.
It was the first institution of its character established in the State and one of the first in the South.
This property was originally the old St. John's College, and was established in 1855 by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina for educational purposes. After being tried for a number of years and proving a failure financially, the Grand Lodge in 1872 decided to turn the property into a home for the orphan children of the State.
This was accomplished largely through the instrumentality of John H. Mills, who offered the resolution at the meeting of the Grand Lodge and worked for its adoption without very great encouragement. It was, therefore, quite fitting that he should have been chosen to be the first superintendent of the orphanage.
The purpose of the institution is to provide a temporary home and training school for the homeless boys and girls of the State.
The conditions of admission of the white children of North Caroline are: That they are really destitute and homeless; that they are of sound mind and body; and they are not under six years of age or over twelve.
The benefits of Oxford Orphan Asylum have never been restricted to the children of Masons alone. Only about one-eighth or 12½ per cent of its children had fathers who were Masons.
About 2,850 children have received the care and training of the institution since 1872.
The institution is providing the necessities of life for these children, the opportunity to acquire an English education, industrial training in cottages, kitchen, sewing-room, laundry, shoeshop, printing office, telegraphy and typewriting, woodworking shop, dairy, and on farm. Each child is in school at least the half of each school day during the school term of nine months. Moral and religious instruction is prominent in the work.
In recognition of the services of the Oxford Orphan Asylum, its value to our Commonwealth in its work, the State of North Carolina appropriates $10,000 annually to aid in its maintenance and extension.
Annually a report of the operations of the institution is made to the Governor of the State and to the State Board of Public Charities.
At the request of the Grand Lodge of Masons, the State of North Carolina is represented by three members on the board of directors of the Orphanage. These are appointed by the Governor of the State.
|Number of buildings||24|
|Number of acres of land||242|
|Value of land, buildings, and equipment||$150,000.00|
|Number of volumes in library||1,800|
|Number of children in institution (Sept. 1, 1912)||320|
|Number of officers and teachers||35|
|Annual income (State appropriation)||$ 10,000.00|
|Annual income (other sources)||22,300.00|
|Annual per capita cost||83.60|
|J. H. MILLS||Served 11 years.|
|B. F. DIXON||Served 7 years.|
|JUNIUS T. HARRIS||Served 3 months.|
|W. S. BLACK||Served 3 years.|
|N. M. LAWRENCE||Served 4 years.|
|W. J. HICKS||Served 12 years.|
|R. L. BROWN||Served since 1910.|
* This article was prepared for The Manual by Capt. W. F. Drake.
So far as can be ascertained from the records on file in the office of the Soldiers' Home, a home for indigent Confederate soldiers was first established in a rented house at the corner of Polk and Blood-worth streets, in the city of Raleigh, and declared to be opened on October 15, 1890, with five inmates. W. C. Stronach, under the auspices of the Daughters of the Confederacy, acted as superintendent, and looked after the personal comforts of the men.
The General Assembly of 1891, chapter 60, Private Laws, incorporated Gen. Robert F. Hoke, Col. William L. Saunders, Col. A. B. Andrews, Capt. S. A. Ashe, Gen. Rufus Barringer, Gen. A. M. Scales, Gen. Robert B. Vance, Gen. Thomas L. Clingman, Gen. W. P. Roberts, Gen. Julian S. Carr, Capt. Thomas J. Jarvis, Col. W. P. Wood, Gen. Matt W. Ransom and other members of the Confederate Veterans' Association, under the name and style of "The Soldiers' Home Association," and conferred upon this association the usual corporate powers. The act gave to the Soldiers' Home Association a tract of land near the eastern section of the city of Raleigh, known as Camp Russell, to be used for the purposes of a Soldiers' Home, and, if it should cease to be so used, to revert to and belong to the State. The same act appropriated $3,000 for the maintenance of the Soldiers' Home and the support of its inmates. Section 6 of the act is as follows:
"The directors shall cause to be kept a minute-book of the home, in which full entries shall be kept concerning memorable incidents in the lives of its inmates. They shall also take steps to form a museum of Confederate relics and to perpetuate such historical records of the Confederate soldiers of North Carolina as they shall find it practicable to do."
The act was ratified February 14, 1901.
On April 27, 1891, the number of inmates of the Soldiers' Home having increased to 9, they were removed to an old building at Camp Russell which had been fitted up for the purposes of the home. Miss Mary Williams was appointed matron and served in that capacity until February 15, 1893, when Capt. J. H. Fuller was made resident
superintendent. On February 1, 1898, Superintendent Fuller resigned. Feebleness of age and the increase in number of inmates had made the duties too arduous for one of his strength.
Capt. R. H. Brooks was elected to succeed Captain Fuller, and served until his death on June 14, 1910. The number of inmates continued to increase during his term, and the necessity for new and larger buildings became urgent. A dormitory was built to accommodate 70 inmates, and furnished by liberal donations from the Daughters of the Confederacy and others. A large hospital was built, medical attention given, nurses employed, water, sewerage, and electric lights provided and the grounds made attractive. Such heavy expense exceeded the appropriation made by the State, and at the close of Captain Brooks' term the books showed the home to be in arrears to the extent of $6,000; but all felt confident that the Legislature would provide for the deficiency.
The present superintendent, Capt. W. S. Lineberry, was elected to succeed Captain Brooks, and entered upon his duties July 20, 1910.
An appropriation of $30,000 was made by the Legislature of 1911 for the support of the home, and a further appropriation of $3,500 for the construction of an additional building of ten rooms, which has been completed and is now occupied. The home is now out of debt; the buildings bright with new paint; the grounds ornamented with trees and shrubbery, and the walks clean. The old comrades are, as a rule, contented. The fare is good, the rooms comfortable, the regulations reasonable, and an air of cheerfulness pervades. All this has come from the humble beginning of October, 1890.
|MISS MARY WILLIAMS||1891-1893.|
|CAPT. J. H. FULLER||1893-1898.|
|CAPT. R. H. BROOKS||1898-1910.|
|CAPT. W. S. LINEBERRY||1910-|
|Number inmates received||986|
|Number now in Home||135|
* The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to Capt. S. A. Ashe for the historical data contained in this sketch.
The greatest of all enterprises so far attempted by the State of North Carolina in the nature of a public or internal improvement was the building of the North Carolina Railroad from Goldsboro by way of Raleigh, Greensboro and Salisbury, to Charlotte.
Considering the experimental state of railroading at that time, the dread of public or private indebtedness, and the limited resources, the movement was a monumental enterprise--and one in advance of anything attempted by almost any other State in the Union. The success, however, which has crowned the labors and sacrifices of our fathers has established beyond all question that their wisdom was equal to, or superior to, any displayed before or since their day.
In 1833, the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company and the Wilmington and Raleigh, afterwards known as the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad Company, were chartered, and later these roads were built. In 1848 the former was in the hands of the State, and was in a bankrupt condition for the want of patronage. It was necessary to give it some connection, or to extend it. At the session of November, 1848, the western counties urged a charter for a road from Charlotte to Danville, asking no State aid; but the eastern members opposed that project. The finances of the State were in such an impoverished condition that it was generally deemed impracticable for the State to give any considerable aid to any railroad; but William S. Ashe, the Democratic Senator from New Hanover, introduced a bill to construct a road from Goldsboro to Charlotte, under the name of the North Carolina Railroad, and appropriating two millions of dollars for that purpose, on condition, however, that private parties could subscribe one million, and to secure the payment of the State bonds when issued, a lien was given on the State's stock.
When the western men brought up the Charlotte and Danville bill in the House, Stanley and other eastern men opposed it so bitterly that it could not pass, and then in a dramatic scene, the friends of internal improvement agreed to send to the Senate and take the Ashe bill from the files and offer it as a substitute. After a great and
prolonged struggle the bill passed the House of Commons. In the Senate it failed by an adverse majority of one; but the Senator from Cumberland was led to support it by passing the bill for the State to build the plank road from Fayetteville to Salem; and then the vote in the Senate was a tie. Speaker Graves, who had up to that moment maintained an impenetrable silence as to the measure, broke the tie in favor of building the road by State aid; and the measure was passed. Speaker Graves was never again elected to any office by the vote of his people.
To secure the needed one million of private stock, Speaker Graves, Governor Morehead, and Mr. William Boylan made great exertions, and by their efforts, aided by Joseph Caldwell, Governor W. A. Graham, Paul C. Cameron, and others, the necessary stock was eventually raised. On January 29, 1856, the railroad was ready for passage of trains from Goldsboro to Charlotte, and charters had been granted for two other roads--from Goldsboro to Morehead City, and from Salisbury to the Tennessee line.
By act, ratified 14th of February, 1855, the General Assembly increased the capital stock to $4,000,000, and subscribed for the State the whole of the added capital. From that time till now the State has owned three-fourths, and individuals one-fourth of this road.
The first president of the company was Governor John M. Morehead, to whom so much was due for securing the subscription of the private stock, and under his direction the road was constructed. His successors were Charles F. Fisher, of Rowan; Paul C. Cameron, Josiah Turner, Jr., of Orange, and William A. Smith, of Johnston. During the administration of Mr. Smith the road was, on the 11th day of September, 1871, leased to the Richmond and Danville Railroad Company for thirty years, at a rental of 6 per cent per annum. The subsequent presidents of the company have been: Thomas M. Holt, Lee S. Overman, S. B. Alexander, J. F. Kornegay, R. M. Norment, J. L. Armstrong, H. G. Chatham, Charles M. Stedman, and Bennehan Cameron.
On the 16th day of August, 1895, in view of the approaching termination of the lease, the property was leased to the Southern Railway Company for a term of ninety-nine years, at an annual rental of 6½ per cent for six years and 7 per cent for the remaining ninety-three years, and the stock of the company was selling at $186 per share until the panic of 1907.
On the readjustment of the debt of the State, the State renewed the bonds issued for the purchase of the North Carolina Railroad stock, pledging the original lien on the stock for the payment of the debt.
Col. Peter B. Ruffin, for more than thirty years, was the faithful and efficient secretary and treasurer of the company.
The secretaries of the company in the order of their election and service are as follows: Cyrus P. Mendenhall, Julius B. Ramsey, R. M. Mills, F. A. Stagg, J. A. McCauley, W. F. Thornburg, P. B. Ruffin, H. B. Worth, Spencer B. Adams, D. H. McLean, and A. H. Eller.
The State, as is well known, has continued to own its $3,000,000 of the original capital stock, and has acquired two (2) additional shares, thus giving it 30,002 shares at par value, amounting to $3,000,200, which, however, at the recent market value aggregates $5,580,372. And it is confidently believed that if the State desired to part with a controlling interest in the company, its stock would command a much greater price, and those who have watched the constant advance in the price of this stock expect it to go to $200 per share at an early day.
Under the lease of 1871 to the Richmond and Danville Railroad Company, the company could not have claimed the betterments made by the lessee; but under the present lease the company is not only amply secured by bond for the prompt payment of its lease money and organization expenses, to wit, $143,000 on the first day of January and July of each year, but upon the termination of said lease for any cause, the company acquires the betterments made thereon.
In addition to the railroad and rolling stock leased to the Southern Railway Company, the company still owns valuable lands in and about Company Shops, now known as the city of Burlington.
When the Board of Directors, appointed by Governor Aycock, took charge of the company's affairs, there was a floating indebtedness of $10,000. The May balance, 1912, of the present secretary and treasurer shows that said indebtedness has been paid and a special dividend of ½ of 1 per cent, amounting to $20,000, and the company has to its credit in the bank the sum of $21,128.64, all of which, except a small balance, is drawing 4 per cent interest. Again on August 1, 1912, an extra ½ of 1 per cent dividend, amounting to $20,000 was paid. Promptly upon the payment of the lease money on the first of January
and July in each year, the directors declare a dividend and the secretary and treasurer pays to the State Treasurer immediately $105,000, and like dividend is paid to the private stockholders on the first day of February and August of each year. The present Board of Directors, as appointed by Governor Kitchin on the part of the State, are given below. The State's proxy is Jo. M. Reese; the expert is John W. Thompson, and the company's attorney is Frank R. McNinch.
A true sketch of this company would be incomplete without calling attention to the long and invaluable services of Gen. R. F. Hoke as director. His experience and great knowledge of affairs, and lifelong devotion to the best interest of the company, entitle him to the gratitude of the State, as well as the private stockholders. His death on July 3, 1912, was deeply and universally lamented.
The question is sometimes asked why the organization of the North Carolina Railroad Company is kept up, and what particular functions it performs.
This company, as some people think, does not belong to the State of North Carolina. It is a quasi-public corporation like all other railroad companies, in which the State owns three-fourths of the stock. It is managed practically as any private corporation would be managed, the principal difference being that the Governor has the appointment of eight of the directors, while the private stockholders have the election of four of the directors.
The organization is maintained for the purpose of enforcing the terms of the lease to the Southern Railway Company, and, in case of the termination of that lease for any cause, to resume the operation of the road.
It is required to see that the bonds given for the prompt payment of the rent, and also the bond to maintain the rolling stock in good condition, are kept in force. It receives the rent money of $280,000 per year, payable semiannually, and declares a dividend and pays the same to the stockholders of record. It transfers stock like other corporations.
In leasing its property to the Southern Railway Company it reserved its office building, which is the residence of the secretary and treasurer, containing its vault and records, at Burlington, N. C. It owns certain real estate in and about the city of Burlington, which is sold by its land committee from time to time.
The secretary and treasurer is required to give a bond in the sum of
$50,000 and his books and accounts are audited by a finance committee at stated times. It is required to file a report annually with the State Corporation Commission and one with the Interstate Commerce Commission as other railroad companies must do. It also reports its income for Federal taxation like other corporations. Its stock is the most valuable holding that the State of North Carolina has amongst its assets, and whether it will be the policy of the State to hold its stock perpetually or to dispose of the same, is a matter for the legislatures of the future.
Presidents--John M. Morehead, Guilford; Charles F. Fisher, Rowan; Paul C. Cameron, Orange; Josiah Turner, Jr., Orange; William A. Smith, Johnston; Thomas M. Holt, Alamance; Lee S. Overman, Rowan; S. B. Alexander, Mecklenburg; J. F. Kornegay, Wayne; R. M. Norment, Robeson; J. L. Armstrong, New Hanover; Hugh G. Chatham, Surry; Charles M. Stedman, Guilford, and Bennehan Cameron, Durham.
Secretaries--Cyrus P. Mendenhall, Julius B. Ramsey, R. M. Mills, F. A. Stagg, J. A. McCauley, W. F. Thornburg, Peter B. Ruffin, H. B. Worth, Spencer B. Adams, Dan H. McLean, A. H. Eller.
Appointed by Governor W. W. Kitchin, on the part of the State--A. E. Smith, R. L. Holt, N. B. McCanless, J. D. Elliott, T. S. Fleshman, J. W. Graham, S. C. Penn, C. C. Hargrove.
Elected by the Private Stockholders--Bennehan Cameron, W. E. Holt, Hugh McRae, and Alexander Webb.
The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad was chartered by the General Assembly of North Carolina in 1852, duration of the charter being ninety-nine years. The charter was amended in 1854 and 1855. Work on the railroad was begun shortly afterwards, and pushed to completion from Goldsboro to a point on the seacoast now known as Morehead City, a distance of 95 miles, in 1858.
Not having the necessary data at hand, I state from memory, and from information gained from other sources, the names of the different presidents of the railroad company, in the order of their service from the beginning up to the time when the railroad was leased to the Howland Improvement Company, during the administration of Hon. C. B. Aycock as Governor of North Carolina, on September 1, 1904, as follows: John D. Whitford, Charles R. Thomas, John D. Whitford, E. R. Stanley, R. W. King, L. W. Humphrey, John Hughes, John D. Whitford, Washington Bryan, W. S. Chadwick, Robert Hancock, D. W. Patrick, James A. Bryan.
The road was capitalized at $1,800,000; the par value of the stock was fixed at $100 per share. The State of North Carolina owns 12,666 shares of the stock. The county of Craven owns 1,293 shares, the county of Lenoir owns 500 shares, the county of Pamlico owns 202 shares. The balance of the stock of the road is owned by private individuals. The equipment of the road was by no means complete when the War Between the States began, 1861, and by reason of the fact that a good portion of the road was under the control of the Federal arms from the fall of New Bern in 1862 to the close of the war in 1865, the road when turned over to its rightful owners was little more, if any, than a burden to carry, which was in part the cause of no returns to the stockholders on their investments for thirty-four years after the road was constructed. Prior to the lease of the road to the Howland Improvement Company dividends were declared on the capital stock as follows:
|September, 1892||2 per cent.|
|August, 1893||2 per cent.|
|September, 1894||2 per cent.|
|September, 1896||2 per cent.|
|February, 1897||1 per cent.|
|October, 1897||1 per cent.|
|June, 1898||1 per cent.|
|December, 1898||1 per cent.|
|September, 1899||2 per cent.|
During the administration of the Hon. T. J. Jarvis, Governor of North Carolina, the railroad was leased to W. J. Best, who had control and operated same for a short time only, and then turned it back to its rightful owner.
There is an outstanding bonded indebtedness against the road of $325,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per annum, the interest payable semiannually. Bonds for same were issued in 1887 and will mature in 1917. During the last year of the presidency of James A. Bryan, two suits were instituted in the Federal Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina for the appointment of receivers of the road--first by K. S. Finch of New York, and the second by John P. Cuyler of New Jersey. Receivers were appointed in both cases, but relief was granted by higher courts. Since the execution of the lease of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad to the Howland Improvement Company the following named gentlemen have served as president of the company in the order of their service, viz.: Jesse W. Grainger, Samuel W. Ferribee, and L. P. Tapp. Dividends on the capital stock since the execution of the lease have been declared as follows:
|December, 1904||1 per cent.|
|August, 1905||1 ½ per cent.|
|February, 1906||1 per cent.|
|July, 1906||1 ½ per cent.|
|February, 1907||1 ¼ per cent.|
|July, 1907||1 ½ per cent.|
|January, 1908||1 ½ per cent.|
|August, 1908||1 ½ per cent.|
|January, 1909||1 ½ per cent.|
|July, 1909||1 ½ per cent.|
|January, 1910||1 ½ per cent.|
|July, 1910||1 ½ per cent.|
|January, 1911||1 ½ per cent.|
|July, 1911||1 ½ per cent.|
|January, 1912||1 ½ per cent.|
|July, 1912||1 ½ per cent.|
The vast amount of unsettled business in which the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company was in any way interested at the time the Howland Improvement Company, "lessees," assumed control of the railroad, was very largely adjusted during the first two years. The expiration of the third year of the lease found only a small amount of difference to be looked after, which in time was settled. Suit was brought in the Superior Court of Craven County in 1906, to annual the lease to the Howland Improvement Company, resulting in a decision upholding the lease, which decision was affirmed by the Supreme Court.
The contract for lease with the Howland Improvement Company terminates in ninety-one years and four months from the date of its execution, and the stipulations contained in same have, up to the last meeting of the stockholders of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company, in 1912, been largely complied with, as will be seen from the annual reports to the stockholders' meeting of the president, treasurer, and expert of the lessor company. The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad has, with some other short lines in Eastern North Carolina, been merged into and now forms part of the Norfolk Southern Railway system.
The North Carolina Agricultural Society, which operates the State Fair annually at Raleigh in the third week of October, was chartered by special act of the Legislature more than a half century ago, "to provide a place for the holding of annual fairs, in order that the citizens may be encouraged by exhibitions, premiums, and other means to develop and improve the productions of agriculture, and every species of native industry; and to this end, and for these great and valuable purposes, and to no other, shall the corporation apply all the funds which by any means it may acquire."
No capital stock was provided for in that charter. Various public-spirited citizens of the State loaned to the society a sum of money sufficient to purchase grounds and erect buildings for the purposes of an annual fair, taking therefor the bonds of the society. The real property, pledged to secure this bonded debt, is held in trust. The bonded debt was originally $26,500, but was reduced in 1905 to $22,600, and refunded for twenty years at 5 per cent, instead of 6 per cent, the former rate. These bonds are now generally held at par value.
Any profits made in the operation of the fair go into a surplus fund, which is spent in permanent improvements of all kinds at the fair grounds, for increased premiums, and other betterments that go toward making the fair more and more complete.
The present fair grounds are just west of the city of Raleigh, at the terminus of the electric street-car line. They were purchased about thirty-six years ago, and cover more than 60 acres of land, in one of the most desirable sections of Raleigh's suburbs. The society has a number of large buildings on these grounds, some of which were erected at the time this site was acquired. The others have been put up within the last few years.
The new grandstand was built a half dozen years ago with a seating capacity of about 2,000. This is a very substantial structure, with a metal roof, and is now in excellent condition. Last year its seating capacity was considerably enlarged by the addition of bleachers reaching from the front of the stand down almost to the racetrack fence, and extending almost the width of the grandstand.
Several years ago a shed, covered with a metal roof, 48 × 200 feet, was put up for the accommodation of the exhibitors of large farm machinery. It proved a great boon to these exhibitors, and is much appreciated by the general public.
In 1910 a modern reinforced concrete building, 60 × 150 feet, was erected especially for the use of exhibitors of agricultural and horticultural products. This is a very handsome addition to the equipment of the grounds, being up-to-date in its appearance, and well arranged and convenient in its appointments.
The following year another building of the same size, also of modern fireproof construction, was built for the housing of poultry. It harmonizes perfectly as to architecture with the agricultural building just spoken of, and in its arrangement and lighting facilities offers all the advantages which the best experience of years has brought into use in such buildings.
Among other recent improvements might be mentioned the widening three times of the midway within the last dozen years, to afford room for the ever-increasing crowds, and the macadamizing of this thoroughfare; the overhauling, and remodeling of the Arts and Crafts building, known as Floral Hall; the addition of about one hundred new box stalls for the accommodation of exhibit and race horses; the wiring of the buildings for electric lights; the extension of the city water pipes into the grounds, and the consequent providing of running water throughout.
The auditing committee of the society, in their report last year, took occasion to state that after a brief but comprehensive review of the expenditures on the fair grounds since January, 1900, they found that the present management had paid out, in round figures, nearly $30,000 for permanent improvements. In this connection the auditing committee also found that during that period about $13,000 had been paid out for past-due coupons, bonds paid and canceled, unpaid debts, and premiums due from former fairs.
Altogether, it may be said in the most conservative terms that the fair has grown from modest beginnings, until in recent years, just as the Old North State is taking her proper place among the foremost Commonwealths of the Union, her State Fair is taking rank with the leading institutions of its kind in the country. Moreover, it has been gaining more and more the enthusiastic support, coöperation, and advice of men in all industries of the State, a thing that is absolutely necessary for the making of a larger and a greater fair.
It is the intention of the management to continue to put up new permanent buildings as fast as the profits from the fairs will permit, or the public policy of the State towards her agricultural and industrial interests as expressed at the State Fair will make possible, finally replacing all of the old wooden structures with buildings that are adapted to the rapidly increasing needs of the more and more representative exhibits that are year by year demanding in tones less and less mistakable larger and better accommodations.
Some definite idea of the tremendous growth of the fair during the last few years may be gathered from the fact that in one year the number of solid car-loads of exhibits jumped from 42 to 83, and the number of separate entries from 1,201 in 1909 went to 3,501 in 1910, and 4,136 in 1911.
As to attendance, no other occasion in North Carolina draws anything like the throngs that visit the "Great State Fair" at the Capital City each year. The railroads for years have been putting on special rates and extra trains to handle the crowds.
Keeping pace with the most modern methods of stimulating the efforts to produce better and better crops of all kinds, the management during the last few years has instituted the corn contest feature for boys, cotton contests for men and boys, the tomato contest for girls, and still more and larger prizes for county and individual exhibits and agricultural products.
The list of great National live-stock associations offering their special premiums at the State Fair keeps growing longer as the years go by, and in the case of one of the most prominent of these associations the North Carolina State Fair is honored among only four Southern fairs. It is thus apparent that the State Fair is recognized as one of the greatest gathering points for pure-bred live stock in the South.
For years the management has been working away from the big midway and little exhibit condition of a fair back to the fundamental purpose of its existence, the competition of the best to make better, until the executive committee, upon the recommendation of the secretary, resolved unanimously that all questionable shows and doubtful games be absolutely forbidden in the grounds, and so gave a clear field to the best shows in the country offering legitimate amusement as well as educational features, and reached far toward the final rung of the climax, the ideal State Fair, which shall be the meeting place of agriculture and industry, a delightful outing for all the members of the family, a summer school for the men and women and boys and girls, the best short course in agriculture in the State, a great industrial exchange, a university of experience and experiment, an annual advertisement of the greatness of a great State.
On the morning of June 21, 1831, the State Capitol of North Carolina was destroyed by fire. Though the public records of the State were saved, the State Library, containing many valuable books and manuscripts, was lost.
The citizens of Raleigh naturally bemoaned the destruction of the building, but Governor Stokes did not regard it as a great loss. In his opinion there were some mitigating circumstances. In his message to the General Assembly, when it met the following November, he said that the calamity was not so great, because the old Statehouse, built in 1794, was almost ready to tumble down of its own accord, and that perhaps many valuable lives had been saved by its being destroyed by fire instead of tumbling down on the Legislature while in session.
At once Senator Seawell, of Wake, brought forward a bill providing for the erection of a new Capitol on the site of the old one. At the same time a similar bill was introduced in the House of Commons. As there was a strong sentiment in the State favorable to the removal of the capital from Raleigh to Fayetteville, these two bills to rebuild at Raleigh met with vigorous opposition. Accordingly Senator Seawell's bill was quickly disposed of. Senator Wilson, of Edgecombe, moved to table it, and it was tabled. The House bill was longer discussed. The discussion was prolonged for two days, but on a yea and nay vote the bill failed, 65 to 68. The Assembly of 1831 refused to rebuild.
A year passed, and the ruins of the old Statehouse still marked the site of the former Capitol. But the Constitution, or rather the Ordinance, of 1789 located the capital at Raleigh, and the Legislature had no power to move it. It was even questioned with great seriousness whether the Assembly could hold its sessions in the Governor's Mansion, at the end of Fayetteville Street, as that was outside of the limits of the town. To move the capital a convention was necessary, and a majority of the Legislature was not favorable to a convention.
At the session of November, 1832, the Assembly, by a vote of 35 to 28 in the Senate and 73 to 60 in the House, resolved to rebuild on the old site, and $50,000 was appropriated for the purpose.
William Boylan, Duncan Cameron, Henry Seawell, Romulus M. Saunders and William S. Mhoon were appointed commissioners to have the work done. The commissioners, with $50,000 at their command, did not dally. The rubbish was cleared away, the excavations made and the foundations were laid. On July 4, 1833, the cornerstone was set in place. Up to that time W. S. Drummond was the superintendent and chief architect, and he was one of the principal persons in the ceremony of laying the corner-stone.
After the foundations were laid the work progressed more slowly, and it was so expensive that the appropriation was exhausted. The Legislature at its next session appropriated $75,000 more. To do the stone and finer work, many skilled artisans had been brought from Scotland and other countries. Part of the work was conducted under the supervision of W. S. Drummond and another part under Colonel Thomas Bragg, but these arrangements did not prove satisfactory,
and a year later, in September, 1834, Mr. I. Theil Town, of New York, acting for the commissioners, contracted with David Paton to come to Raleigh and superintend the work.
Mr. Paton was an architect who had come from Scotland the year before. He was then thirty-three years of age. He was the son of John Paton, of Edinburgh, who was an extensive builder in that city and vicinity and who had built the greater part of the new town and constructed the famous Dean Bridge across the water of Leith, and he ranked high in his profession. Having received a liberal education at the University of Edinburgh, David Paton took up the profession of his father and was regularly bred as an architect and builder under his father and under Sir John Sloan, R. A., professor of architecture to the Royal Academy of London. He soon demonstrated his capacity. When he first came to Raleigh the cost of overseeing the work on the Capitol was $25 a day. He reduced that cost to $9. Twenty-eight stonecutters were paid $81 a day. This he reduced to $56. He made a saving in these two items alone of $42 a day. He found himself to be not merely the supervisor of the work, but the superintendent; not merely the superintendent, but the book-keeper and paymaster. He had every detail of the work on his shoulders. And, then, he had to make the working drawings. He was the builder, the architect, the designer.
Both the commissioners and the architect had large ideas. The former were wise enough to expend the original $50,000, which the General Assembly expected would complete the structure, on its foundation. Their work being severely criticised, they resigned, January 1, 1835. Their successors were: Beverly Daniel, chairman, Samuel F. Patterson, Charles Manly, and Alfred Jones. The Legislature was compelled to make appropriations for the work, from time to time. The following is a table of the several appropriations made:
|Session of 1832-33||$ 50,000.00|
|Session of 1833-34||75,000.00|
|Session of 1834-35||75,000.00|
|Session of 1835||75,000.00|
|Session of 1836-37||120,000.00|
|Session of 1838-39||105,300.00|
|Session of 1840-41||31,374.46|
It must be remembered that the stone with which the building was erected was the property of the State. Had the State been compelled to purchase this material, the cost of the Capitol would have been considerably increased.
The following is a description of the Capitol, written by David Paton, the architect:
"The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 140 feet from east to west. The whole height is 97½ feet in the center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes are 5 feet 2½ inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking course, is continued around the building, 12 feet high.
"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Grecian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes.
"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appropriated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size--the one containing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet--the two committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet, and four closets; also, the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with columns and antæ, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric.
"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber, two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square feet; of two committee rooms, each containing an area of 231 feet; of four presses and the passages, stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet.
"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and antæ of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, and the plan of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theater and the columns and antæ in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva Polias, and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis of Athens, near the above-named Parthenon.
"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Supreme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet; also, two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These lobbies, as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed to finish the Court and Library in the florid Gothic style."
In the summer of 1840 the work was finished. The Assembly had, in December, 1832, appropriated $50,000 for the building. Mr. Boylan, Judge Cameron and State Treasurer Mhoon and their associates spent that sum in the foundation. They proposed to have a Capitol worthy of the State. At every subsequent session the Assembly made additional appropriations. There was some caviling, and the commissioners resigned; but the Legislature and the new commissioners took no step backwards. Year by year they pressed on the work as it had been begun, until at last, after more than seven years, the sum of $531,674.46 was expended. As large as that sum was for the time, when the State was so poor and when the entire taxes for all State purposes reached less than $100,000, yet the people were satisfied. The building had been erected with rigorous economy, and it was an object of great pride to the people. Indeed, never was money better expended than in the erection of this noble Capitol.
Speaking of this structure, Samuel A. Ashe, in an address on David Paton, delivered in 1909, says:
"Not seventy years have passed since the completion of this building, yet it has undying memories. It was finished the year Henry Clay was set aside and his place as the Whig leader given to General Harrison. Four years later Clay spoke from the western portico; but, like Webster and Calhoun, the prize of the presidency was denied him. The voices of other men of large mould also have been heard within this Capitol. Here, too, our great jurists--Gaston, Ruffin, Pearson and their associates--held their sessions and brought
renown to North Carolina. Here Badger, Mangum. Dobbin, and scores of men known to fame held high debates. Here was brought forth in great travail our system of internal improvements, and of education, ramifying the State, disseminating enlightenment and opening the pathways to prosperous, contented and happy homes for our people.
"Here Ellis and Clark and the mighty Vance directed the affairs of State in the trying days of war and suffering and desolation, the glories mingled with pain and sorrow, and fading away in heart-rending defeat; but through it all the women and men, alike heroes, worthy the poets' loftiest strains. Then, when the people were still bowed in anguish, Carolinians turned their faces to the future, and, with resolution and intelligence, themselves modified their laws and institutions to meet the new conditions; but in vain, for these mute walls are witnesses of the saturnalia of Reconstruction still awaiting some Dante to portray the scenes with realistic power. Yet the dark cloud had its silver lining, and the courageous devotion of Jarvis, John Graham and their Spartan band adds historic interest to that time of fearful storm.
"Later, here was the scene of the great State trial, the impeachment of the Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth and the contest between the intellectual giants of that generation, Governor Graham and Bragg and Merrimon, contesting with Smith and Coningland and Richard Badger.
"And these walls have witnessed the reversal of that State policy forced on an unwilling people by the mailed hand of the conquering power, and the full restoration of Anglo-Saxon control. Never in history has a people been so clearly and effectually vindicated as those gallant souls of North Carolina, who, emulating the constancy of Hamilcar, swore their children to undying opposition to those who would destroy their civilization. Let the oppressed of future ages gaze on the scene and take courage. Already hallowed are the memories that these chambers evoke. What grand occasions yet await them! We may not lift the veil of the future, but experience warms us that history constantly repeats itself, and as the web woven by destiny unrolls itself there will yet occur within these enduring walls occasions of surpassing magnitude affecting the weal and woe of our posterity."
Mindful of the fact that only a little more than a generation ago the State Capitol of North Carolina was destroyed by fire, entailing the loss of many valuable records and papers, for some years prior to the convening of the 1911 session of the General Assembly the demand had been insistent for a safer housing of several departments of the State Government at Raleigh, notably the books and records of the North Carolina Historical Commission, which has now grown to be one of the most important branches of work at the seat of government.
Early in the session a movement was started for the building of a State administration building at the capital, and after numerous conferences and compromises of differences as to the amount that should be appropriated for that purpose, a bill was at length unanimously passed by both houses, appropriating the sum of $250,000 for this purpose and conferring upon the Governor the appointment of a State Building Commission for the consummation of this worthy undertaking. Soon after the adjournment of the Legislature Governor W. W. Kitchin named as the members of the Commission, Ashley Horne of Clayton, William E. Springer of Wilmington, Julian S. Carr of Durham, W. L. Parsons of Rockingham, A. S. Rascoe of Windsor, J. A. Long of Roxboro, and J. Elwood Cox of High Point, men of affairs and recognized business ability in the State.
The State Building Commission held its first meeting in the office of the State Auditor at 12:30 P. M., May 9, 1911, and organized by the election of Ashley Horne of Clayton as chairman, and William E. Springer of Wilmington as secretary. Following organization, a conference was held with the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Attorney-General. It was stated as the purpose of the General Assembly to provide ample room for the Supreme Court, all valuable State records, the State Library, offices for the Attorney-General, and several of the other State departments. The grounds were carefully gone over, the situation canvassed, and a subcommittee composed of Chairman Horne, Secretary Springer, and Commissioner Cox, was appointed to go further into the matter of a building and site.
At a subsequent meeting, on May 19, 1911, the committee reported that it had secured an option on three sites, and recommended the purchase of the Grimes tract for $45,000. This recommendation was accepted by the Commission as a whole, and on June 6, 1911, plans as prepared by P. Thornton Marye, of Atlanta, were accepted after hearing a number of others and after several conferences. These plans were later reviewed by Glenn Brown, of Washington, D. C., another expert in building construction, and were declared eminently proper and in order in every respect. The plans call for a modern fireproof building four stories in height and admirably adapted to the purpose to which it will be put.
On November 1, 1911, the Commission met again in Raleigh, after proposals had been invited for the building, and after considering a number of bids for the construction, the contract was at length awarded to the John T. Wilson Company, of Richmond, Va., at a cost of $188,000, the building to be completed and ready for occupancy by January 19, 1913.
How well the State Building Commission has wrought is attested by the splendid building which now stands opposite the Capitol grounds and which will be occupied by the several departments of government as agreed upon after the numerous conferences of the Commission since the building has been under way.
The following act, entitled "An Act to Provide for the Celebration of North Carolina Day in the Public Schools," is chapter 164 of the Public Laws of 1901:
The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:
SECTION 1. That the 12th day of October in each and every year, to be called "North Carolina Day," may be devoted, by appropriate exercises in the public schools of the State, to the consideration of some topic or topics of our State history, to be selected by the Superintendent of Public Instruction: Provided, that if the said day shall fall on Saturday or Sunday, then the celebration shall occur on the Monday next following: Provided further, that if the said day shall fall at a time when any such schools may not be in session, the celebration
may be held within one month from the beginning of the term, unless the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall designate some other time.
SEC. 2. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification.
In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 9th day of February, A. D. 1901.
October 12th, the date selected for North Carolina Day, is the anniversary of the laying of the corner-stone of the University of North Carolina, October 12, 1793. In accordance with the provisions of this act, the Superintendent of Public Instruction has had prepared and distributed to the schools of the State each year a program of exercises devoted to the study of some phase of North Carolina history.
Since the creation of North Carolina Day the following subjects have been studied each year (back numbers of the programs can be secured from the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, N. C.):
We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union, and the existence of our civil, political and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him for the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do for the more certain security thereof, and for the better government of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution:
That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, and that the relations of this State to the Union and Government of the United States, and those of the people of this State to the rest of the American people, may be defined and affirmed, we do declare:
SECTION 1. That we hold it to be self-evident that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of happiness.
SEC. 2. That all political power is vested in, and derived from, the people; all government of right originates from the people, is founded upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole.
SEC. 3. That the people of this State have the inherent, sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution and form of government whenever it may be necessary for their safety and happiness; but every such right should be exercised in pursuance of law, and consistently with the Constitution of the United States.
SEC. 4. That this State shall ever remain a member of the American Union; that the people thereof are a part of the American Nation; that there is no right on the part of the State to secede, and
that all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve said Union, or to sever said Nation, ought to be resisted with the whole power of the State.
SEC. 5. That every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance to the Constitution and Government of the United States, and that no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding force.
SEC. 6. The State shall never assume or pay, or authorize the collection of any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; nor shall the General Assembly assume or pay, or authorize the collection of any tax to pay, either directly or indirectly, expressed or implied, any debt or bond incurred, or issued, by authority of the Convention of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, nor any debt or bond incurred or issued by the Legislature of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, at its special session of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, or at its regular sessions of the years one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight and one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine and one thousand eight hundred and seventy, except the bonds issued to fund the interest on the old debt of the State, unless the proposing to pay the same shall have first been submitted to the people and by them ratified by the vote of a majority of all the qualified voters of the State, at a regular election held for that purpose.
SEC. 7. No man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration of public services.
SEC. 8. The legislative, executive and supreme judicial powers of the government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other.
SEC. 9. All power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised.
SEC. 10. All elections ought to be free.
SEC. 11. In all criminal prosecutions, every man has the right to be informed of the accusation against him and to confront the accusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for
his defense, and not to be compelled to give evidence against himself or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the defense, unless found guilty.
SEC. 12. No person shall be put to answer any criminal charge, except as hereinafter allowed, but by indictment, presentment, or impeachment.
SEC. 13. No person shall be convicted of any crime but by the unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open court. The Legislature may, however, provide other means of trial for petty misdemeanors, with the right of appeal.
SEC. 14. Excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted.
SEC. 15. General warrants, whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the act committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offense is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and ought not to be granted.
SEC. 16. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, except in cases of fraud.
SEC. 17. No person ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in any manner deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by the law of the land.
SEC. 18. Every person restrained of his liberty is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the same, if unlawful; and such remedy ought not to be denied or delayed.
SEC. 19. In all controversies at law respecting property, the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable.
SEC. 20. The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and therefore ought never to be restrained, but every individual shall be held responsible for the abuse of the same.
SEC. 21. The privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended.
SEC. 22. As political rights and privileges are not dependent upon, or modified by, property, therefore no property qualification ought to affect the right to vote or hold office.
SEC. 23. The people of the State ought not to be taxed, or made subject to the payment of any impost or duty, without the consent of themselves, or their representatives in General Assembly, freely given.
SEC. 24. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up, and the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. Nothing herein contained shall justify the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or prevent the Legislature from enacting penal statutes against said practice.
SEC. 25. The people have a right to assemble together to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the Legislature for redress of grievances. But secret political societies are dangerous to the liberties of a free people, and should not be tolerated.
SEC. 26. All men have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and no human authority should, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience.
SEC. 27. The people have the right to the privilege of education, and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right.
SEC. 28. For redress of grievances, and for amending and strengthening the laws, elections should be often held.
SEC. 29. A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.
SEC. 30. No hereditary emoluments, privileges or honors ought to be granted or conferred in this State.
SEC. 31. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free State, and ought not to be allowed.
SEC. 32. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; wherefore no ex post facto law ought to be made. No law taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done, ought to be passed.
SEC. 33. Slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than for crime, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be and are hereby forever prohibited within the State.
SEC. 34. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and remain as they now are.
SEC. 35. All courts shall be open; and every person for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay.
SEC. 36. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but in a manner prescribed by the law.
SEC. 37. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not herein delegated remain with the people.
SECTION 1. The legislative authority shall be vested in two distinct branches, both dependent on the people, to wit, a Senate and House of Representatives.
SEC. 2. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet biennially on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January next after their election; and, when assembled, shall be denominated the General Assembly. Neither house shall proceed upon public business unless a majority of all the members are actually present.
SEC. 3. The Senate shall be composed of fifty Senators, biennially chosen by ballot.
SEC. 4. The Senate Districts shall be so altered by the General Assembly, at the first session after the return of every enumeration by order of Congress, that each Senate District shall contain, as near as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding aliens and Indians not taxed, and shall remain unaltered until the return of another enumeration, and shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; and no county shall be divided in the formation of a Senate District, unless such county shall be equitably entitled to two or more Senators.
SEC. 5. The House of Representatives shall be composed of one hundred and twenty Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot, to be elected by the counties respectively, according to their population, and each county shall have at least one representative in the House
of Representatives, although it may not contain the requisite ratio of representation. This apportionment shall be made by the General Assembly at the respective times and periods when the Districts of the Senate are hereinbefore directed to be laid off.
SEC. 6. In making the apportionment in the House of Representatives, the ratio of representation shall be ascertained by dividing the amount of the population of the State, exclusive of that comprehended within those counties which do not severally contain the one hundred and twentieth part of the population of the State, by the number of Representatives, less the number assigned to such counties; and in ascertaining the number of the population of the State, aliens and Indians not taxed shall not be included. To each county containing the said ratio and not twice the said ratio, there shall be assigned one Representative; to each county containing two but not three times the said ratio, there shall be assigned two Representatives, and so on progressively, and then the remaining Representatives shall be assigned severally to the counties having the largest fractions.
SEC. 7. Each member of the Senate shall no be less than twenty-five years of age, shall have resided in the State as a citizen two years, and shall have usually resided in the district for which he is chosen one year immediately preceding his election.
SEC. 8. Each member of the House of Representatives shall be a qualified elector of the State, and shall have resided in the county for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election.
SEC. 9. In the election of all officers whose appointment shall be conferred upon the General Assembly by the Constitution, the vote shall be viva voce.
SEC. 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to pass general laws regulating divorce and alimony, but shall not have power to grant a divorce or secure alimony in any individual case.
SEC. 11. The General Assembly shall not have power to pass any private law to alter the name of any person, or to legitimate any person not born in lawful wedlock, or to restore to the rights of citizenship any person convicted of an infamous crime, but shall have power to pass general laws regulating the same.
SEC. 12. The General Assembly shall not pass any private law, unless it shall be made to appear that thirty days' notice of application to pass such a law shall have been given, under such direction and in such manner as shall be provided by law.
SEC. 13. If vacancies shall occur in the General Assembly by death, resignation or otherwise, writs of election shall be issued by the Governor under such regulations as may be prescribed by law.
SEC. 14. No law shall be passed to raise money on the credit of the State, or to pledge the faith of the State, directly or indirectly, for the payment of any debt, or to impose any tax upon the people of the State, or allow the counties, cities or towns to do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three several times in each house of the General Assembly and passed three several readings, which readings shall have been on three different days, and agreed to by each house, respectively, and unless the yeas and nays on the second and third readings of the bill shall have been entered on the journal.
SEC. 15. The General Assembly shall regulate entails in such manner as to prevent perpetuities.
SEC. 16. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which shall be printed and made public immediately after the adjournment of the General Assembly.
SEC. 17. Any member of either house may dissent from and protest against any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public, or any individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journal.
SEC. 18. The House of Representatives shall choose their own Speaker and other officers.
SEC. 19. The Lieutenant Governor shall preside in the Senate, but shall have no note unless it may be equally divided.
SEC. 20. The Senate shall choose its other officers and also a Speaker (pro tempore) in the absence of the Lieutenant Governor, or when he shall exercise the office of Governor.
SEC. 21. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact."
SEC. 22. Each house shall be judge of the qualifications and election of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment from day to day, prepare bills to be passed into laws; and the two houses may also jointly adjourn to any future day or other place.
SEC. 23. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall be read three times in each house before they pass into laws, and shall be signed by the presiding officers of both houses.
SEC. 24. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking his seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of North Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives.
SEC. 25. The terms of office for Senators and members of the House of Representatives shall commence at the time of their election.
SEC. 26. Upon motion made and seconded in either house by one-fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall be taken and entered upon the journals.
SEC. 27. The election for members of the General Assembly shall be held for the respective districts and counties, at the places were they are now held, or may be directed hereafter to be held, in such manner as may be prescribed by law, on the first Thursday in August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and every two years thereafter. But the General Assembly may change the time of holding the elections.
SEC. 28. The members of the General Assembly for the term for which they have been elected shall receive as compensation for their services the sum of four dollars per day for each day of their session, for a period not exceeding sixty days; and should they remain longer in session they shall serve without compensation. They shall also be entitled to receive ten cents per mile, both while coming to the seat of government and while returning home, the said distance to be computed by the nearest line or route of public travel. The compensation of the presiding officers of the two houses shall be six dollars per day and mileage. Should an extra session of the General Assembly be called, the members and presiding officers shall receive a like rate of compensation for a period not exceeding twenty days.
SECTION 1. The Executive Department shall consist of a Governor, in whom shall be vested the supreme executive power of the State; a Lieutenant Governor, a Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer,
a Superintendent of Public Instruction, and an Attorney-General, who shall be elected for a term of four years by the qualified electors of the State, at the same time and places and in the same manner as members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall commence on the first day of January next after their election, and continue until their successors are elected and qualified: Provided, that the officers first elected shall assume the duties of their office ten days after the approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States, and shall hold their offices four years from and after the first day of January.
SEC. 2. No person shall be eligible as Governor or Lieutenant Governor unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, shall have been a citizen of the United States five years, and shall have been a resident of this State for two years next before the election; nor shall the person elected to either of these two offices be eligible to the same office more than four years in any term of eight years, unless the office shall have been cast upon him as Lieutenant Governor or President of the Senate.
SEC. 3. The return of every election for officers of the Executive Department shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government by the returning officers, directed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall open and publish the same in the presence of a majority of the members of both houses of the General Assembly. The person having the highest number of votes respectively shall be declared duly elected; but if two or more be equal and highest in votes for the same office, the one of them shall be chosen by joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly. Contested elections shall be determined by a joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
SEC. 4. The Governor, before entering upon the duties of his office, shall, in the presence of the members of both branches of the General Assembly, or before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States, and of the State of North Carolina, and that he will faithfully perform the duties appertaining to the office of Governor, to which he has been elected.
SEC. 5. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this State, and he shall, from time to time, give the General Assembly
information of the affairs of the State, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient.
SEC. 6. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of impeachment), upon such conditions as he may think proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. He shall biennially communicate to the General Assembly each case of reprieve, commutation, or pardon granted, stating the name of each convict, the crime for which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, the date of the commutation, pardon, or reprieve and the reasons therefor.
SEC. 7. The officers of the Executive Department and of the public institutions of the State shall, at least five days previous to each regular session of the General Assembly, severally report to the Governor, who shall transmit such reports with his message to the General Assembly; and the Governor may, at any time, require information in writing from the officers in the Executive Department upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
SEC. 8. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the militia of the State, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States.
SEC. 9. The Governor shall have power, on extraordinary occasion, by and with the advice of the Council of State, to convene the General Assembly in extra session by his proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus convened.
SEC. 10. The Governor shall nominate and, by and with the advice and consent of a majority of the Senators-elect, appoint all officers whose offices are established by this Constitution and whose appointments are not otherwise provided for.
SEC. 11. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided. He shall, whilst acting as President of the Senate, receive for his services the same pay which shall, for the same period, be allowed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and he shall receive no other compensation except when he is acting as Governor.
SEC. 12. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his failure to qualify, his absence from the State, his inability to discharge the
duties of his office, or, in case the office of Governor shall in anywise become vacant, the powers, duties and emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor until the disability shall cease or a new Governor shall be elected and qualified. In every case in which the Lieutenant Governor shall be unable to preside over the Senate, the Senators shall elect one of their own number President of their body; and the powers, duties and emoluments of the office of Governor shall devolve upon him whenever the Lieutenant Governor shall, for any reason, be prevented from discharging the duties of such office as above provided, and he shall continue as acting Governor until the disabilities are removed, or a new Governor or Lieutenant Governor shall be elected and qualified. Whenever, during the recess of the General Assembly, it shall become necessary for the President of the Senate to administer the government, the Secretary of State shall convene the Senate, that they may select such President.
SEC. 13. The respective duties of the Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Attorney-General shall be prescribed by law. If the office of any of said officers shall be vacated by death, resignation or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another until the disability be removed or his successor be elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the first general election that occurs more than thirty days after the vacancy has taken place, and the person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder of the unexpired term fixed in the first section of this article.
SEC. 14. The Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Superintendent of Public Instruction shall constitute, ex officio, the Council of State, who shall advise the Governor in the execution of his office, any three of whom shall constitute a quorum. Their advice and proceedings in this capacity shall be entered in a journal to be kept for this purpose exclusively, and signed by the members present, from any part of which any member may enter his dissent; and such journal shall be placed before the General Assembly when called for by either house. The Attorney-General shall be, ex officio, the legal adviser of the Executive Department.
SEC. 15. The officers mentioned in this article shall, at stated periods, receive for their services a compensation to be established
by law, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the time for which they shall have been elected, and the said officers shall receive no other emolument or allowance whatever.
SEC. 16. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be called "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina." All grants and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The Great Seal of the State," signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary of State.
SEC. 17. The General Assembly shall establish a Department of Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics, under such regulations as may best promote the agricultural interests of the State, and shall enact laws for the adequate protection and encouragement of sheep husbandry.
SECTION 1. The distinctions between actions at law and suits in equity, and the forms of all such actions and suits, shall be abolished; and there shall be in this State but one form of action for the enforcement or protection of private rights or the redress of private wrongs, which shall be denominated a civil action; and every action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party against a person charged with a public offense, for the punishment of the same, shall be termed a criminal action. Feigned issues shall also be abolished, and the fact at issue tried by order of court before a jury.
SEC. 2. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in a Court for the Trial of Impeachments, a Supreme Court, Superior Courts, Courts of Justice of the Peace, and such other courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be established by law.
SEC. 3. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the Senate. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a quorum, and the judgment shall not extend beyond removal from, and disqualification to hold, office in this State; but the party shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law.
SEC. 4. The House of Representatives solely shall have the power of impeaching. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators present. When the Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice shall preside.
SEC. 5. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason or attainder shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture.
SEC. 6. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices.
SEC. 7. The terms of the Supreme Court shall be held in the city of Raleigh, as now, unless otherwise provided by the General Assembly.
SEC. 8. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review, upon appeal, any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or legal inference. And the jurisdiction of said court over "issues of fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the same exercised by it before the adoption of the Constitution of one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, and the court shall have the power to issue any remedial writs necessary to give it a general supervision and control over the proceedings of the inferior courts.
SEC. 9. The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction to hear claims against the State, but its decisions shall be merely recommendatory; no process in the nature of execution shall issue thereon; they shall be reported to the next session of the General Assembly for its action.
SEC. 10. The State shall be divided into nine judicial districts, for each of which a Judge shall be chosen; and there shall be held a Superior Court in each county at least twice in each year, to continue for such time in each county as may be prescribed by law. But the General Assembly may reduce or increase the number of districts.
SEC. 11. Every Judge of the Superior Court shall reside in the district for which he is elected. The Judges shall preside in the courts of the different districts successively, but no Judge shall hold the courts in the same district oftener than once in four years;
but in case of the protracted illness of the Judge assigned to preside in any district, or of any other unavoidable accident to him, by reason of which he shall be unable to preside, the Governor may require any Judge to hold one or more specified terms in said district, in lieu of the Judge assigned to hold the courts of the said district.
SEC. 12. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive the Judicial Department of any power or jurisdiction which rightfully pertains to it as a coördinate department of the Government; but the General Assembly shall allot and distribute that portion of this power and jurisdiction which does not pertain to the Supreme Court among the other courts prescribed in this Constitution or which may be established by law, in such manner as it may deem best; provide, also, a proper system of appeals, and regulate by law, when necessary, the methods of proceeding, in the exercise of their powers, of all the courts below the Supreme Court, so far as the same may be done without conflict with other provisions of this Constitution.
SEC. 13. In all issues of fact, joined in any court, the parties may waive the right to have the same determined by a jury, in which case the finding of the Judge upon the facts shall have the force and effect of a verdict by a jury.
SEC. 14. The General Assembly shall provide for the establishment of special courts, for the trial of misdemeanors, in cities and towns where the same may be necessary.
SEC. 15. The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the Court, and shall hold his office for eight years.
SEC. 16. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be elected by the qualified voters thereof, at the time and in the manner prescribed by law for the election of members of the General Assembly.
SEC. 17. Clerks of the Superior Courts shall hold their offices for four years.
SEC. 18. The General Assembly shall prescribe and regulate the fees, salaries and emoluments of all officers provided for in this article; but the salaries of the Judges shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
SEC. 19. The laws of North Carolina, not repugnant to this Constitution, or the Constitution and laws of the United States, shall be in force until lawfully altered.
SEC. 20. Actions at law, and suits in equity, pending when this Constitution shall go into effect, shall be transferred to the courts having jurisdiction thereof, without prejudice by reason of the change; and all such actions and suits commenced before, and pending at the adoption by the General Assembly of the rules of practice and procedure herein provided for, shall be heard and determined according to the practice now in use, unless otherwise provided for by said rules.
SEC. 21. The Justices of the Supreme Court shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State, as is provided for the election of members of the General Assembly. They shall hold their offices for eight years. The Judges of the Superior Courts, elected at the first election under this amendment, shall be elected in like manner as is provided for Justices of the Supreme Court, and shall hold their offices for eight years. The General Assembly may, from time to time, provide by law that the Judges of the Superior Courts, chosen at succeeding elections, instead of being elected by the voters of the whole State, as is herein provided for, shall be elected by the voters of their respective districts.
SEC. 22. The Superior Courts shall be at all times open for the transaction of all business within their jurisdiction, except the trial of issues of fact requiring a jury.
SEC. 23. A Solicitor shall be elected for each judicial district by the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of the General Assembly, who shall hold office for the term of four years, and prosecute on behalf of the State, in all criminal actions in the Superior Courts, and advise the officers of justice in his district.
SEC. 24. In each county a sheriff and coroner shall be elected by the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of the General Assembly, and shall hold their offices for two years. In each township there shall be a constable elected in like manner by the voters thereof, who shall hold his office for two years. When there is no coroner in a county, the Clerk of the Superior Court for the county may appoint one for special cases. In case of a vacancy
existing for any cause in any of the offices created by this section, the commissioners of the county may appoint to such office for the unexpired term.
SEC. 25. All vacancies occurring in the offices provided for by this article of the Constitution shall be filled by the appointment of the Governor, unless otherwise provided for, and the appointees shall hold their places until the next regular election for members of the General Assembly, when elections shall be held to fill such offices. If any person, elected or appointed to any of said offices, shall neglect and fail to qualify, such offices shall be appointed to, held and filled as provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All incumbents of said office shall hold until their successors are qualified.
SEC. 26. The officers elected at the first election held under this Constitution shall hold their offices for the terms prescribed for them respectively, next ensuing after the next regular election for members of the General Assembly. But their terms shall begin upon the approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States.
SEC. 27. The several justices of the peace shall have jurisdiction, under such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, of civil actions, founded on contract, wherein the sum demanded shall not exceed two hundred dollars, and wherein the title to real estate shall not be in controversy; and of all criminal matters arising within their counties where the punishment cannot exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days. And the General Assembly may give to justices of the peace jurisdiction of other civil actions wherein the value of the property in controversy does not exceed fifty dollars. When an issue of fact shall be joined before a justice, on demand of either party thereto, he shall cause a jury of six men to be summoned, who shall try the same. The party against whom judgment shall be rendered in any civil action may appeal to the Superior Court from the same. In all cases of a criminal nature, the party against whom judgment is given may appeal to the Superior Court, where the matter shall be heard anew. In all cases brought before a justice, he shall make a record of the proceedings and file same with the Clerk of the Superior Court for his county.
SEC. 28. When the office of justice of the peace shall become vacant otherwise than by expiration of the term, and in case of a failure
by the voters of any district to elect, the Clerk of the Superior Court for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term.
SEC. 29. In case the office of Clerk of a Superior Court for a county shall become vacant otherwise than by the expiration of the term, and in case of a failure by the people to elect, the Judge of the Superior Court for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy until an election can be regularly held.
SEC. 30. In case the General Assembly shall establish other courts inferior to the Supreme Court, the presiding officers and clerks thereof shall be elected in such manner as the General Assembly may from time to time prescribe, and they shall hold their offices for a term not exceeding eight years.
SEC. 31. Any Judge of the Supreme Court, or of the Superior Courts, and the presiding officers of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be established by law, may be removed from office for mental or physical inability, upon a concurrent resolution of two-thirds of both houses of the General Assembly. The Judge or presiding officer, against whom the General Assembly may be about to proceed, shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at least twenty days before the day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act thereon.
SEC. 32. Any Clerk of the Supreme Court, or of the Superior Courts, or of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be established by law, may be removed from office for mental or physical inability; the Clerk of the Supreme Court by the Judges of said Court, the Clerks of the Superior Courts by the Judge riding the district, and the clerks of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be established by law by the presiding officers of said courts. The clerk against whom proceedings are instituted shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at least ten days before the day appointed to act thereon, and the clerk shall be entitled to an appeal to the next term of the Superior Court, and thence to the Supreme Court as provided in other cases of appeals.
SEC. 33. The amendments made to the Constitution of North Carolina by this Convention shall not have the effect to vacate any office or term of office now existing under the Constitution of the State
and filled or held by virtue of any election or appointment under the said Constitution and the laws of the State made in pursuance thereof.
SECTION 1. The General Assembly shall levy a capitation tax on every male inhabitant in the State over twenty-one and under fifty years of age, which shall be equal on each to the tax on property valued at three hundred dollars in cash. The commissioners of the several counties may exempt from capitation tax in special cases, on account of poverty and infirmity, and the State and county capitation tax combined shall never exceed two dollars on the head.
SEC. 2. The proceeds of the State and county capitation tax shall be applied to the purposes of education and the support of the poor, but in no one year shall more than twenty-five per cent thereof be appropriated to the latter purpose.
SEC. 3. Laws shall be passed taxing, by a uniform rule, all moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint-stock companies, or otherwise; and, also, all real and personal property, according to its true value in money. The General Assembly may also tax trades, professions, franchises, and incomes: Provided, that no income shall be taxed when the property from which the income is derived is taxed.
SEC. 4. Until the bonds of the State shall be at par, the General Assembly shall have no power to contract any new debt or pecuniary obligation in behalf of the State, except to supply a casual deficit, or for suppressing invasions or insurrections, unless it shall in the same bill levy a special tax to pay the interest annually. And the General Assembly shall have no power to give or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association or corporation, except to aid in the completion of such railroads as may be unfinished at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or in which the State has a direct pecuniary interest, unless the subject be submitted to a direct vote of the people of the State, and be approved by the majority of those who shall vote thereon.
SEC. 5. Property belonging to the State, or to municipal corporations, shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may exempt cemeteries and property held for educational, scientific, literary, charitable or religious purposes; also wearing apparel, arms
for muster, household and kitchen furniture, the mechanical and agricultural implements of mechanics and farmers, libraries and scientific instruments, or any other personal property, to a value not exceeding three hundred dollars.
SEC. 6. The taxes levied by the commissioners of the several counties for county purposes shall be levied in like manner with the State taxes, and shall never exceed the double of the State tax, except for a special purpose, and with the special approval of the General Assembly.
SEC. 7. Every act of the General Assembly levying a tax shall state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be applied to no other purpose.
SECTION 1. Every male person born in the United States, and every male person who has been naturalized, twenty-one years of age, and possessing the qualifications set out in this article, shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people in the State, except as herein otherwise provided.
SEC. 2. He shall have resided in the State of North Carolina for two years, in the county six months, and in the precinct, ward or other election district in which he offers to vote, four months next preceding the election: Provided, that removal from one precinct, ward, or other election district, to another in the same county, shall not operate to deprive any person of the right to vote in the precinct, ward or other election district from which he has removed until four months after such removal. No person who has been convicted, or who has confessed his guilt in open court upon indictment, of any crime, the punishment of which now is or may hereafter be imprisonment in the State's Prison, shall be permitted to vote unless the said person shall be first restored to citizenship in the manner prescribed by law.
SEC. 3. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time a legally registered voter as herein prescribed and in the manner hereafter provided by law, and the General Assembly of North Carolina shall enact general registration laws to carry into effect the provisions of this article.
SEC. 4. Every person presenting himself for registration shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the English language; and before he shall be entitled to vote he shall have paid, on or before the first day of May of the year in which he proposes to vote, his poll tax for the previous year as prescribed by Article V, section 1, of the Constitution. But no male person who was on January 1, 1867, or at any time prior thereto, entitled to vote under the laws of any State in the United States wherein he then resided, and no lineal descendant of any such person, shall be denied the right to register and vote at any election in this State by reason of his failure to possess the educational qualifications herein prescribed: Provided, he shall have registered in accordance with the terms of this section prior to December 1, 1908. The General Assembly shall provide for the registration of all persons entitled to vote without the educational qualifications herein prescribed, and shall, on or before November 1, 1908, provide for the making of a permanent record of such registration, and all persons so registered shall forever thereafter have the right to vote in all elections by the people in this State, unless disqualified under section 2 of this article: Provided, such person shall have paid his poll tax as above required.
SEC. 5. That this amendment to the Constitution is presented and adopted as one indivisible plan for the regulation of the suffrage, with the intent and purpose to so connect the different parts and to make them so dependent upon each other that the whole shall stand or fall together.
SEC. 6. All elections by the people shall be by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce.
SEC. 7. Every voter in North Carolina, except as in this article disqualified, shall be eligible to office, but before entering upon the duties of the office he shall take and subscribe the following oath:
"I, . . . . . . . . . . . ., do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States and the Constitution and laws of North Carolina not inconsistent therewith, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of my office as . . . . . . . . . . . . So help me, God."
SEC. 8. The following classes of persons shall be disqualified for office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty God.
Second, all persons who shall have been convicted or confessed their guilt on indictment pending, and whether sentenced or not, or under judgment suspended, of any treason or felony, or of any other crime for which the punishment may be imprisonment in the penitentiary, since becoming citizens of the United States, or of corruption or malpractice in office, unless such person shall be restored to the rights of citizenship in a manner prescribed by law.
SEC. 9. That this amendment to the Constitution shall go into effect on the first day of July, nineteen hundred and two, if a majority of votes cast at the next general election shall be cast in favor of this suffrage amendment.
SECTION 1. In each county there shall be elected biennially by the qualified voters thereof, as provided for the election of members of the General Assembly, the following officers: A treasurer, register of deeds, surveyor, and five commissioners.
SEC. 2. It shall be the duty of the commissioners to exercise a general supervision and control of the penal and charitable institutions, schools, roads, bridges, levying of taxes, and finances of the county, as may be prescribed by law. The register of deeds shall be, ex officio, clerk of the board of commissioners.
SEC. 3. It shall be the duty of the commissioners first elected in each county to divide the same into convenient districts, and to report the same to the General Assembly before the first day of January, 1869.
SEC. 4. Upon the approval of the reports provided for in the foregoing section by the General Assembly, the said districts shall have corporate powers for the necessary purposes of local government, and shall be known as townships.
SEC. 5. In each township there shall be biennially elected by the qualified voters thereof a clerk and two justices of the peace, who shall constitute a board of trustees, and shall, under the supervision of the county commissioners, have control of the taxes and finances, roads and bridges of the townships, as may be prescribed by law. The General Assembly may provide for the election of a larger number of the justices of the peace in cities and towns and in those
townships in which cities and towns are situated. In every township there shall also be biennially elected a school committee, consisting of three persons, whose duties shall be prescribed by law.
SEC. 6. The township board of trustees shall assess the taxable property of their townships and make returns to the county commissioners for revision, as may be prescribed by law. The clerk shall be, ex officio, treasurer of the township.
SEC. 7. No county, city, town or other municipal corporation shall contract any debt, pledge its faith or loan its credit, nor shall any tax be levied or collected by any officers of the same except for the necessary expenses thereof, unless by a vote of the majority of the qualified voters therein.
SEC. 8. No money shall be drawn from any county or township treasury except by authority of law.
SEC. 9. All taxes levied by any county, city, town or township shall be uniform and ad valorem upon all property in the same, except property exempted by this Constitution.
SEC. 10. The county officers first elected under the provisions of this article shall enter upon their duties ten days after the approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States.
SEC. 11. The Governor shall appoint a sufficient number of justices of the peace in each county, who shall hold their places until sections four, five and six of this article shall have been carried into effect.
SEC. 12. All charters, ordinances and provisions relating to municipal corporations shall remain in force until legally changed, unless inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution.
SEC. 13. No county, city, town or other municipal corporation shall assume to pay, nor shall any tax be levied or collected for the payment of any debt, or the interest upon any debt, contracted directly or indirectly in aid or support of the rebellion.
SEC. 14. The General Assembly shall have full power by statute to modify, change or abrogate any and all of the provisions of this article and substitute others in their place, except sections seven, nine and thirteen.
SECTION 1. Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be created by special act except for municipal purposes and in cases where, in the judgment of the Legislature, the object of the corporation cannot be attained under the general laws. All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this section may be altered from time to time or repealed.
SEC. 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liabilities of the corporations and other means as may be prescribed by law.
SEC. 3. The term corporation, as used in this article, shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having any of the powers and privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts in like cases as natural persons.
SEC. 4. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide for the organization of cities, towns and incorporated villages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses in assessment and in contracting debts by such municipal corporations.
SECTION 1. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.
SEC. 2. The General Assembly, at its first session under this Constitution, shall provide by taxation and otherwise for a general and uniform system of public schools, wherein tuition shall be free of charge to all the children of the State between the ages of six and twenty-one years. And the children of the white race and the children of the colored race shall be taught in separate public schools; but there shall be no discrimination in favor of or to the prejudice of either race.
SEC. 3. Each county of the State shall be divided into a convenient number of districts, in which one or more public schools shall be maintained at least four months in every year; and if the commissioners of any county shall fail to comply with the aforesaid requirements of this section they shall be liable to indictment.
SEC. 4. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this State and not otherwise appropriated by this State or the United States, also all moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property now belonging to any State fund for purposes of education, also the net proceeds of all sales of the swamp lands belonging to the State, and all other grants, gifts, or devises that have been or hereafter may be made to the State and not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms of the grant, gift, or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury, and, together with so much of the ordinary revenue of the State as may be by law set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated for establishing and maintaining in this State a system of free public schools and for no other uses or purposes whatsoever.
SEC. 5. All moneys, stocks, bonds and other property belonging to a county school fund, also the net proceeds from the sale of estrays, also the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal or military laws of the State, and all moneys which shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, shall belong to and remain in the several counties, and shall be faithfully appropriated for establishing and maintaining free public schools in the several counties in this State: Provided, that the amount collected in each county shall be annually reported to the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
SEC. 6. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for the election of trustees of the University of North Carolina, in whom, when chosen, shall be vested all the privileges, rights, franchises and endowments thereof in anywise granted to or conferred upon the trustees of said University; and the General Assembly may make such provisions, laws and regulations from time to time as may be necessary and expedient for the maintenance and management of said University.
SEC. 7. The General Assembly shall provide that the benefits of the University, as far as practicable, be extended to the youth of the State free of expense for tuition; also that all the property which has heretofore accrued to the State or shall hereafter accrue from escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the estates of deceased persons, shall be appropriated to the use of the University.
SEC. 8. The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Attorney-General shall constitute a State Board of Education.
SEC. 9. The Governor shall be president and the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be secretary of the Board of Education.
SEC. 10. The Board of Education shall succeed to all the powers and trusts of the president and directors of the literary fund of North Carolina, and shall have full power to legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to free public schools and the educational fund of the State; but all acts, rules and regulations of said board may be altered, amended or repealed by the General Assembly, and when so altered, amended or repealed they shall not be reënacted by the board.
SEC. 11. The first session of the Board of Education shall be held at the capital of the State within fifteen days after the organization of the State Government under this Constitution; the time of future meetings may be determined by the board.
SEC. 12. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.
SEC. 13. The contingent expenses of the board shall be provided by the General Assembly.
SEC. 14. As soon as practicable after the adoption of this Constitution the General Assembly shall establish and maintain in connection with the University a department of agriculture, of mechanics, of mining and of normal instruction.
SEC. 15. The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact that every child of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the public schools during the period between the ages of six and eighteen years for a term of not less than sixteen months, unless educated by other means.
SECTION 1. The personal property of any resident of this State to the value of five hundred dollars, to be selected by such resident, shall be and is hereby exempted from sale under execution or other final process of any court issued for the collection of any debt.
SEC. 2. Every homestead, and the dwellings and buildings used therewith, not exceeding in value one thousand dollars, to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lien thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in a city, town or village, with the dwellings and buildings used thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of one thousand dollars, shall be exempt from sale under execution or other final process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes or for payment of obligations contracted for the purchase of said premises.
SEC. 3. The homestead, after the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority of his children or any one of them.
SEC. 4. The provisions of sections one and two of this article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises.
SEC. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow but no children, the same shall be exempt from the debts of her husband, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit during her widowhood, unless she be the owner of a homestead in her own right.
SEC. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this State acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed, and, with the written assent of her husband, conveyed by her as if she were unmarried.
SEC. 7. The husband may insure his own life for the sole use and benefit of his wife and children, and in case of the death of the husband the amount thus insured shall be paid over to the wife and
children, or to the guardian if under age, for her or their own use, free from all the claims of the representatives of her husband or any of his creditors.
SEC. 8. Nothing contained in the foregoing sections of this article shall operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing of the same by deed; but no deed made by the owner of a homestead shall be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of his wife, signified on her private examination according to law.
SECTION 1. The following punishments only shall be known to the laws of this State, viz., death, imprisonment with or without hard labor, fines, removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State. The foregoing provision for imprisonment with hard labor shall be construed to authorize the employment of such convict labor on public works or highways, or other labor for public benefit, and the farming out thereof, where and in such manner as may be provided by law; but no convict shall be farmed out who has been sentenced on a charge of murder, manslaughter, rape, attempt to commit rape, or arson: Provided, that no convict whose labor may be farmed out shall be punished for any failure of duty as a laborer except by a responsible officer of the State; but the convicts so farmed out shall be at all times under the supervision and control, as to their government and discipline, of the penitentiary board or some officer of the State.
SEC. 2. The object of punishment being not only to satisfy justice, but also to reform the offender, and thus prevent crime, murder, arson, burglary, and rape, and these only may be punishable with death, if the General Assembly shall so enact.
SEC. 3. The General Assembly shall, at its first meeting, make provision for the erection and conduct of a State's prison or penitentiary at some central and accessible point within the State.
SEC. 4. The General Assembly may provide for the erection of a house of correction, where vagrants and persons guilty of misdemeanors shall be restrained and usefully employed.
SEC. 5. A house or houses of refuge may be established whenever the public interests may require it, for the correction and instruction of other classes of offenders.
SEC. 6. It shall be required by competent legislation that the structure and superintendence of penal institutions of the State, the county jails and city police prisons secure the health and comfort of the prisoners, and that male and female prisoners be never confined in the same room or cell.
SEC. 7. Beneficent provisions for the poor, the unfortunate and orphan being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and define the duties of a board of public charities, to whom shall be entrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal State institutions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon their condition, with suggestions for their improvement.
SEC. 8. There shall also, as soon as practicable, be measures devised by the State for the establishment of one or more orphan houses, where destitute orphans may be cared for, educated, and taught some business or trade.
SEC. 9. It shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as practicable, to devise means for the education of idiots and inebriates.
SEC. 10. The General Assembly may provide that the indigent deaf-mute, blind, and insane of the State shall be cared for at the charge of the State.
SEC. 11. It shall be steadily kept in view by the Legislature and the Board of Public Charities, that all penal and charitable institutions should be made as nearly self-supporting as is consistent with the purposes of their creation.
SECTION 1. All able-bodied male citizens of the State of North Carolina, between the ages of twenty-one and forty years, who are citizens of the United States, shall be liable to do duty in the militia: Provided, that all persons who may be averse to bearing arms, from religious scruples, shall be exempt thereform.
SEC. 2. The General Assembly shall provide for the organizing, arming, equipping and discipline of the militia, and for paying the same when called into active service.
SEC. 3. The Governor shall be commander in chief, and shall have power to call out the militia to execute the law, suppress riots or insurrection, and to repel invasion.
SEC. 4. The General Assembly shall have power to make such exemptions as may be deemed necessary, and enact laws that may be expedient for the government of the militia.
SECTION 1. No convention of the people of this State shall ever be called by the General Assembly, unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly, and except the proposition, Convention, or No Convention, be first submitted to the qualified voters of the whole State, at the next general election in a manner to be prescribed by law. And should a majority of the votes cast be in favor of said convention, it shall assemble on such day as may be prescribed by the General Assembly.
SEC. 2. No part of the Constitution of this State shall be altered unless a bill to alter the same shall have been agreed to by three-fifths of each house of the General Assembly. And the amendment or amendments so agreed to shall be submitted at the next general election to the qualified voters of the whole State, in such a manner as may be prescribed by law. And in the event of their adoption by a majority of the votes cast, such amendment or amendments shall become part of the Constitution of the State.
SECTION 1. All indictments which shall have been found, or may hereafter be found, for any crime or offense committed before this Constitution takes effect, may be proceeded upon in the proper courts, but no punishment shall be inflicted which is forbidden by this Constitution.
SEC. 2. No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, or assist in the same as a second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, or agree to go out of the State to fight a duel, shall hold any office in this State.
SEC. 3. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and an accurate account of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be annually published.
SEC. 4. The General Assembly shall provide, by proper legislation, for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on the subject-matter of their labor.
SEC. 5. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers of this State, whether heretofore elected or appointed by the Governor, shall hold their positions only until other appointments are made by the Governor, or, if the officers are elective, until their successors shall have been chosen and duly qualified according to the provisions of this Constitution.
SEC. 6. The seat of government of this State shall remain at the city of Raleigh.
SEC. 7. No person who shall hold any office or place of trust or profit under the United States, or any department thereof, or under this State, or under any other State or Government, shall hold or exercise any other office or place of trust or profit under the authority of this State, or be eligible to a seat in either house of the General Assembly: Provided, that nothing herein contained shall extend to officers in the militia, justices of the peace, commissioners of public charities, or commissioners for special purposes.
SEC. 8. All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and white person of negro descent to the third generation, inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited.
|Counties.||Woodrow Wilson (Democrat).||William H. Taft (Republican).||Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive).||Eugene V. Debs (Socialist).||___.Chafin (Prohibitionist).|
|Counties.||Locke Craig (Democrat).||Thomas Settle (Republican).||Iredell Meares (Progressive).||H. E. Hodges (Socialist).|
|Counties.||John H. Small.||Marshall D. Leggitt.|
|Counties.||Claude Kitchin.||Thomas B. Brown.||A. J. Connor.|
|Counties.||John M. Faison.||James T. Kennedy.||Rodolph Duffy.|
|Counties.||Edward W. Pou.||John F. Mitchell.||F. M. Simmons.||H. B. Pearce.||J. M. Hilliard.|
|Counties.||Charles M. Stedman.||C. W. Curry.||George R. Greene.||David H. Blair.|
|Counties.||Hannibal L. Godwin.||Thomas A. Norment.|
|Counties.||Robert N. Page.||R. Don Laws.||W. C. Wilcox.||Jesse Fry.||J. N. Powell.|
|Counties.||Robert L. Doughton.||George D. B. Reynolds||W. H. Jenkins.||E. P. Deal.|
|Counties.||Edwin Y. Webb.||D. B. Paul.||J. A. Smith.||John Paul.||John W. Smith.|
|Counties.||James M. Gudger, Jr.||R. Hilliard Station.||James B. White.||--.Pearson.|
LOCKE CRAIG, Democrat, Governor of North Carolina, was born in Bertie County, N. C., August 16, 1860. Son of Andrew Murdock and Rebecca (Gilliam) Craig. Attended Horner's Military School, 1875-1876. A.B., cum laude University of North Carolina, 1880. Represented the Philanthropic Society as one of Commencement orators. Attended the University Law School, 1882. Lawyer. County Attorney; Corporation Counsel for City of Asheville; District Elector, 1892; Elector for State at Large, 1896; Representative in General Assembly, 1899 and 1900. Elected Governor in 1912. Mason; Knight of Pythias; Woodmen of the World; Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist. Married Miss Annie Burgin, November 18, 1891. Three children, all boys. Address: Official, Raleigh; home, Asheville, N. C.
J. BRYAN GRIMES, Democrat, of Pitt County, was born in Raleigh, N. C., June 3, 1868. Son of Bryan and Charlotte Emily (Bryan) Grimes. Educated at private schools; Raleigh Male Academy; Trinity School (Chocowinity, N. C.); Lynch's High School (High Point, N. C.); University of North Carolina; Bryant & Stratton Business College (Baltimore, Md.). Planter. Member of State Farmers' Alliance. Member of North Carolina Agricultural Society. Member State Board of Agriculture, 1899-1900. Was elected Secretary of State in 1900, reëlected in 1904, 1908, and 1912. Term expires 1916. Ex-President Tobacco Growers' Association of North Carolina. Chairman North Carolina Historical Commission. Member State Literary and Historical Association. President of the North Carolina Society of Sons of the Revolution. Member Executive Committee, Trustees University of North Carolina; member of the Farmers' Coöperative and Educational Union. Aide-de-camp on staff of Governor Elias Carr, with rank of Colonel. Fraternal orders: Masons,
Knights of Pythias, Jr. O. U. A. M. Episcopalian. Married, November 14, 1894, Miss Mary Octavia Laughinghouse; February 3, 1904, Miss Elizabeth Forest Laughinghouse. Address: Raleigh, N. C.
BENJAMIN R. LACY, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Raleigh, N. C., June 19, 1854. Son of Rev. Drury and Mary Richie (Rice) Lacy. Educated at Preparatory School of R. H. Graves (Graham, N. C.), 1868; Bingham School (Mebane, N. C.), 1869-1870. Fifteen years a locomotive engineer. Member of Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. Delegate to three Grand Conventions of B. of L. E. Alderman of City of Raleigh. State Commissioner of Labor and Printing for six years. Elected State Treasurer in 1900; reëlected in 1904, 1908, 1912. Term expires 1916. Mason, Odd Fellow, Jr. O. U. A. M. Presbyterian, deacon. Married, June 27, 1882, Miss Mary Burwell, Seven children: Address: Raleigh, N. C.
WILLIAM PENN WOOD, Democrat, of Randolph County, was born at Ashboro, N. C., May 2, 1843. Son of Penuel and Calista (Birkhead) Wood. Educated in common schools of Randolph County, 1850-1861. Merchant. Member Randolph Business Men's Club. Town Treasurer, 1880-1888; County Treasurer, 1890-1894. Represented Randolph and Moore counties in State Senate, 1901; Representative in General Assembly from Randolph County, 1905, 1907. Nominated State Auditor in October, 1910, by the Democratic State Executive Committee, to fill vacancy caused by the death of Dr. B. F. Dixon, and was elected in the general election in November, 1910; reëlected 1912. Term expires 1916. Sergeant in Confederate Army. Fraternal orders: Knights of Pythias, Mason, Royal Arch Mason, I. O. O. F., Jr. O. U. A. M. Methodist. Steward since 1866. Married, September 4, 1872, Miss Etta Gunter. Three children. Address: Raleigh, N. C.
JAMES YADKIN JOYNER, Democrat, of Guilford County, was born in Davidson County, N. C., August 7, 1862, and reared in Lenoir County. Son of John and Sallie A. (Wooten) Joyner. Educated at La Grange Academy; University of North Carolina, Ph. B., 1881; LL.D. (University of North Carolina). Principal of La Grange Academy, 1881-1883; County Superintendent of Schools of Lenoir County, 1882-1883; teacher in graded schools at Winston, N. C., 1884-85; lawyer in Goldsboro, N. C., 1886-1889; Chairman of Wayne County Board of Education, 1887-1889; Superintendent of Goldsboro Graded Schools, 1889-1893; President North Carolina Teachers' Assembly; member of the Rockefeller Sanitation Commission; Professor of English Language and Literature at the State Normal and Industrial College of North Carolina, 1893-1902; Chairman of Sub-text-book Commission of North Carolina, 1901; appointed by Governor Aycock Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina February, 1902, to fill unexpired term made vacant by the death of Gen. T. F. Toon; elected at general election, November, 1902; reëlected 1904, 1908, 1912. Term expires 1916. Secretary of the Association of State Superintendents of the Southern States, 1903-1907; president, 1907-1912. President National Educational Association, 1910. Member of the Board of Aldermen of Greensboro, N. C., 1899-1902. Married at La Grange, December, 1887, Miss Effie E. Rouse. Two children. Baptist. Address: Raleigh, N. C.
THOMAS W. BICKETT, Democrat, of Franklin County, was born at Monroe, N. C., February 28, 1869. Son of T. W. and Mary A. (Covington) Bickett. Educated at Wake Forest College, A.B., 1890. Studied law at University of North Carolina, 1892-1893. Lawyer. Representative in General Assembly, 1907. In 1908, elected Attorney-General of North Carolina, and reëlected in 1912. Term expires 1916. Mason. Episcopalian. Married Miss Fannie Yarborough, November 29, 1898. One child. Home address: Louisburg, N. C.; official address: Raleigh, N. C.
WILLIAM A. GRAHAM, Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born December 26, 1839, at Hillsboro, N. C. Son of William A. and Susan (Washington) Graham. Educated at private schools, 1847-1848; Caldwell Institute (Hillsboro, N. C.); Union Academy (Washington, D. C.); University of North Carolina, 1856-1859; Princeton College, A. B., 1860. Farmer. President North Carolina Farmers' Alliance two terms; State Senator, 1874-1875, 1879; Representative, 1905. Member of North Carolina Board of Agriculture, 1899-1908. Elected Commissioner of Agriculture in 1908, and reëlected in 1912. Term expires 1916. Captain Co. K, 2d N. C. Cavalry, C. S. A. Major and Assistant Adjutant General of North Carolina State Troops. Baptist. Moderator of South Fork Association. Thirty years Chairman of Executive Committee. President Baptist State Convention. Author: Gen. Joseph Graham and His Revolutionary Papers; History of South Fork Association; Life and Services of Gen. William L. Davidson; Battle of Ramsaur's Mill; History of Second Regiment North Carolina Cavalry, and North Carolina Adjutant General's Department (North Carolina Regiments, 1861-1865, Walter Clark, Editor). Married Miss Julia R. Lane, June 9, 1864. Eleven children. Address: Raleigh, N. C.
M. L. SHIPMAN, Democrat, of Henderson County, was born at Bowman's Bluff, Henderson County, December 31, 1866. Son of F. M. and Martha A. (Dawson) Shipman. Educated in public schools and private high schools. Editor. Teacher. Superintendent Public Instruction Transylvania County, 1892-1895. Twice First Vice President, twice Historian, and once President North Carolina Press Association. Member National Editorial Association. Chairman Henderson County Democratic Executive Committee, 1898-1906; Chairman Senatorial and Congressional District committees; member State Democratic Executive Committee; Calendar Clerk, State Senate, 1899-1905; Assistant Commissioner of Labor and Printing, 1905-1908. Elected Commissioner of Labor and Printing, 1908-1912. Term expires 1916.
Second Vice President International Association of Labor Commissioners and Chairman of the Executive Committee. Fraternal Orders: Odd Fellows (Deputy Grand Master), Knights of Pythias (Past Chancellor), Royal Arcanum, Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist; clerk of North Carolina Association, 1902. Married Miss Lula Osborne, of Brevard, July 12, 1896. Three children. Address: Raleigh, N. C.
JAMES R. YOUNG, Democrat, of Vance County, was born February 13, 1853, in Granville County, N. C. Son of Dr. P. W. and Jane Eliza (Cooper) Young. Educated at Horner's Military School (Oxford, N. C.); Hampden-Sidney College (Va.). Insurance agent. Clerk Vance County Superior Court, 1881-1890. State Insurance Commissioner since 1899. Fraternal orders: Masons, Elks, Odd Fellows. Presbyterian. Elder. Married Miss Virginia Nichols. Address: Raleigh, N. C.
MILES OSBORNE SHERRILL, Democrat, of Catawba County, was born at Sherill's Ford on the Catawba River in Catawba County, N. C., July 26, 1841. Son of Hiram and Sarah Sherrill. Was educated in the common schools, Rhehobeth Academy, 1859, and at Taylorsville, N. C., in 1860 and 1861. Volunteered in the Catawba Rifles, 1861. Was elected Judge of Probate and Clerk of the Superior Court of Catawba County in 1868 and served for fourteen years. Representative in General Assembly 1882 and 1883, and State Senator 1885, 1893. Cashier in the Collector's office under Hon. C. Dowd, and also under Hon. Kerr Craige, during Cleveland's administrations. Served in the Confederate army from the beginning of the war until he lost a leg at Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May, 1864, and spent the remaining months of the war in prison. Past Grand Master of I. O. O. F. Methodist. Many times a delegate to annual conferences, also to General Conference. Married Miss Sarah R. Bost in May, 1867. Seven children.
WALTER CLARK, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Halifax County, N. C., August 19, 1846. Son of David and Anna M. (Thorne) Clark. Graduated from University of North Carolina, 1864. Lieutenant Colonel, C. S. A. Admitted to the Bar, 1868. Judge of Superior Court, 1885-1889. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 1889-1902. Chief Justice since January 1, 1903. Frequent contributor to periodical literature. Author: Clark's Annotated Code of Civil Procedure. Translator from the French: Constant's Memoirs of Napoleon (3 vols.). Editor: The State Records of North Carolina (16 vols.); The North Carolina Regiments, 1861-1865 (5 vols.); Reprints of North Carolina Supreme Court Reports, with annotations (132 vols.). President North Carolina Literary and Historical Association; Trustee of Trinity College. LL.D. (University of N. C.). Methodist. Married Miss Susan W., daughter of William A. Graham, January 28, 1874. Address: Raleigh, N. C.
PLATT D. WALKER, Democrat, of Mecklenburg County, was born in Wilmington, N. C. Son of Thomas D. and Mary Vance (Dickinson) Walker. Educated at George W. Jewett's School, Wilmington, and James H. Horner's School, Oxford, N. C.; University of North Carolina, Class of 1869. Finished collegiate course at University of Virginia and studied law there under Prof. John B. Minor and Prof. Southall, receiving LL.B. diploma in 1869. Obtained his license to practice law at June Term, 1870, of Supreme Court; admitted to the Bar of North Carolina and settled at Rockingham, 1870, and practiced law with the late Hon. Walter L. Steele, afterwards member of Congress. Representative from Richmond County in General Assembly of North Carolina, 1874-1875. Removed to Charlotte, 1876, and entered into partnership with the late Hon. Clement Dowd (afterwards
member of Congress) for the practice of the law, and in November, 1880, with Hon. Armistead Burwell, afterwards Justice of the Supreme Court, and in 1892 with E. T. Cansler, Esq. Has been Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina since January 1, 1903. First President of the North Carolina Bar Association, 1899. Trustee of the University of North Carolina. Director of the Highland Park Manufacturing Company of Charlotte. LL.D. (Davidson College, 1903) and LL.D. (University of North Carolina, 1908). Episcopalian. Married Miss Nettie Settle Covington, June 5, 1878, at Reidsville, N. C.; Miss Alma Locke Mordecai, June 8, 1910. Residence, Charlotte, N. C. Office, Raleigh, N. C.
GEORGE H. BROWN, Democrat, of Beaufort County, was born in Washington, N. C., May 3, 1850. Son of Sylvester T. and Elizabeth (Bonner) Brown. Educated at Horner's Military School (Oxford, N. C.). Studied law and was admitted to the Bar, and engaged in the practice at Washington, N. C., from 1872 to 1889. Judge of the Superior Court of North Carolina, 1889-1904. Elected Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 1904; reëlected, 1912. Term expires, 1920. On December 17, 1874, was married to Mrs. Laura Ellison. Residence: Washington, N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C.
WILLIAM A. HOKE, Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born at Lincolnton, N. C., October 25, 1851. Son of Col. John Franklin and Catherine Wilson (Alexander) Hoke. Educated at private schools. Studied law under Chief Justice Richmond Pearson, at Richmond Hill, N. C. Admitted to Bar, 1872. Practiced law at Shelby and Lincolnton, N. C., until 1891. Representative in Legislature of North Carolina in 1889. Judge of the Superior Court, 1891-1904. Elected Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina 1904; reëlected 1912. Term expires 1920. Member Society of the Cincinnati.
Episcopalian. At Lincolnton, December 16, 1897, married to Miss Mary McBee. Residence: Lincolnton, N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C.
WILLIAM REYNOLDS ALLEN, Democrat, of Wayne County, was born at Kenansville, North Carolina, March 26, 1860. Son of William A. and Maria Goodwin (Hicks) Allen. Educated at R. W. Millard's and Samuel Clement's schools, Kenansville, 1868-1876, and at Trinity College, 1876-1877. Studied law under his father. Lawyer. Representative from Wayne County in General Assembly 1893, 1899, 1901. Chairman Board of Education Wayne County. Judge Superior Court, 1894-1895; 1903-1911. Elected Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, 1910. Methodist. Has been member Board of Stewards and now Trustee Methodist Orphanage. Married, November 3, 1886, Miss Mattie M. Moore. Five children. Address: Goldsboro, N. C.
F. M. SIMMONS, Democrat, of Trenton (R. F. D.), Jones County, was born January 20, 1854, in the county of Jones, N. C. Graduated at Trinity College with the degree of A.B., in June, 1873; was admitted to the Bar in 1875, and has practiced the profession of law since then. In 1886 was elected a member of the Fiftieth Congress from the Second Congressional District of North Carolina. In 1893 was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for the Fourth Collection District of North Carolina, and served in that office during the term of Mr. Cleveland. In the campaigns of 1892, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1904, and 1906, was Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of the State. Received the degree of LL.D. from Trinity College, N. C., June, 1901. He was elected to the United States Senate to succeed Marion Butler, Populist, for the term beginning March 4, 1901, and reëlected in 1907, and again in 1913, having been chosen in the Democratic Primary, November 5, 1912, over two opponents, Governor W. W. Kitchin and Chief Justice Walter Clark. His term of service will expire March 3, 1919.
LEE SLATER OVERMAN, Democrat, of Salisbury, was born January 3, 1854, in Salisbury, Rowan County. Graduated Trinity College, North Carolina, with the degree of A.B., June, 1874; the degree of M.A. was conferred upon him two years later; taught school two years; was Private Secretary to Governor Z. B. Vance in 1877-1878, and Private Secretary to Governor Thomas J. Jarvis in 1879. Began the practice of law in his native town in 1880; has had a leading practice; was five times a member of the Legislature, sessions of 1883, 1885, 1887, 1893, and 1899; was the choice of the Democratic caucus for Speaker in 1887, and was defeated by one vote, through a combination of Independents and Republicans; was the unanimous choice of his party and elected Speaker of the House of Representatives,
session of 1893; was President of the North Carolina Railroad Company in 1894; was the choice of the Democratic caucus for United States Senator in 1895, and was defeated in open session by Hon. Jeter C. Pritchard, through a combination of Republicans and Populists; was chairman of Democratic State Convention, 1900, 1910; has been for ten years a member of the Board of Trustees of the State University; is also a Trustee of Trinity College; was chosen Presidential Elector for the State at large in 1900. Married Miss Mary P., the eldest daughter of United States Senator, afterwards Chief Justice, A. S. Merrimon, October 31, 1878. Was elected to the United States Senate to succeed Jeter C. Pritchard, Republican, for the term beginning March 4, 1903. His first term expired March 3, 1909. The unanimous choice of the Democratic caucus, he was reëlected January 19, 1909, for a second term.
(First District.--Counties: Beaufort, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Martin, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Pitt, Tyrrell and Washington--14 counties.)
JOHN HUMPHREY SMALL, Democrat, of Beaufort County, was born in Washington, N. C. Educated in the schools of Washington, and at Trinity College, North Carolina. Is a lawyer in active practice. Left college in 1876 and taught school from 1876 to 1880. Licensed to practice law in January, 1881. Elected Reading Clerk of the State Senate in 1881. Elected Superintendent of Public Instruction of Beaufort County in the latter part of 1881. Elected and continued to serve as Solicitor of the Inferior Court of Beaufort County from 1882 to 1885. Proprietor and editor of the Washington Gazette from 1883 to 1886. Attorney of the Board of Commissioners of Beaufort County from 1888 to 1896. A member of the City Council from May, 1887, to May, 1890, and for one year, during that period, was Mayor of Washington. Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of the First Congressional District in 1888. Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of Beaufort County from 1889 to 1898.
Democratic Presidential Elector in the First Congressional District in 1896. Has been for several years, and is now, Chairman of the Public School Committee of Washington. Elected to the Fifty-sixth, Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, and Sixty-third Congresses. Address: Washington, N. C.
(Second District.--Counties: Bertie, Edgecombe, Greene, Halifax, Lenoir, Northampton, Warren, and Wilson--8 counties.)
CLAUDE KITCHIN, Democrat, of Halifax County, was born in Halifax County, N. C., near Scotland Neck, March 24, 1869. Graduated from Wake Forest College, June, 1888, and was married to Miss Kate Mills, November 13th of the same year. Admitted to the Bar September, 1890, and has since been engaged in the practice of the law at Scotland Neck. Elected to Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, and Sixty-third Congresses. Address: Scotland Neck, N. C.
(Third District.--Counties: Carteret, Craven, Duplin, Jones, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, Sampson, and Wayne--9 counties.)
JOHN MILLER FAISON, Democrat, of Faison, was born near Faison, N. C., April 17, 1862; attended Faison Male Academy and lived on farm in early life; graduated in B.S. course at Davidson College, North Carolina, in 1883, and studied medicine at University of Virginia and received M.D. diploma; then attended post-graduate medical course at New York Polyclinic in 1885, and was licensed to practice medicine in North Carolina in 1885, and became a member of the North Carolina Medical Society; has practiced medicine and surgery and farmed at Faison, N. C., since; has for many years taken an active interest in politics and other public questions; has been a member of the County Democratic Executive Committee; member of the North Carolina Jamestown Exposition Commission; was married to Miss Eliza F. DeVane, of Clinton, N. C. in December, 1887, who, with their six children, is now living. Elected to the Sixty-second and Sixty-third Congresses.
(Fourth District.--Counties: Chatham, Franklin, Johnston, Nash, Vance, and Wake--6 counties.)
EDWARD WILLIAM POU, Democrat, of Johnston County, was born at Tuskegee, Ala., September 9, 1863. Presidential Elector in 1888. Elected Solicitor of the Fourth Judicial District of North Carolina in 1890, 1894, and 1898. Elected to the Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth. Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, and Sixty-third Congresses. Address: Smithfield, N. C.
(Fifth District.--Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Forsyth, Granville, Guilford, Orange, Person, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry--11 counties.)
CHARLES MANLY STEDMAN, Democrat, of Greensboro, was born January 29, 1841, in Pittsboro, Chatham County; moved with his father's family to Fayetteville when he was 12 years of age. Prepared for college at the Pittsboro Academy, and at the Donaldson Academy in Fayetteville. Graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1861. In response to the call for volunteers, he left the University before the commencement exercises and volunteered as a private in the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Company, which was in the first North Carolina (or Bethel) Regiment. Upon the disbanding of this regiment, he joined a company from Chatham County; was lieutenant, then captain, and afterwards its major. This company belonged to the Forty-fourth North Carolina Regiment. He served with Lee's Army during the entire war; was three times wounded, and surrendered at Appomattox. He is one of the twelve soldiers who were engaged in the battle at Bethel and who surrendered with Lee at Appomattox. At the close of the Civil War he returned to Chatham County, where he taught school for a year; while there he studied law under Hon. John Manning and procured his license to practice. Married Miss Catherine de Rosset Wright, January 8, 1866. In 1867 he moved to Wilmington, where he practiced law for many years; he was a member of the firm of Wright & Stedman. Delegate to the Democratic National Convention, 1880. Elected Lieutenant Governor, 1884. In 1898 he moved to Greensboro and formed a
copartnership with A. Wayland Cooke, under the firm name of Stedman & Cooke. Since residing in Greensboro he has served as president of the North Carolina Bar Association. In 1909 he was appointed by Governor Kitchin a director of the North Carolina Railroad Company, representing the State's interest, and was afterwards elected its president. For many years he was trustee of the University of North Carolina. He is a director of the Guilford Battle Ground Company; was elected to the Sixty-second and Sixty-third Congresses.
(Sixth District.--Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, Harnett, New Hanover, and Robeson--7 counties.)
HANNIBAL LAFAYETTE GODWIN, Democrat, of Harnett County, was born November 3, 1873, on a farm near Dunn, in Harnett County, N. C. Educated in the schools of Dunn and at Trinity College, Durham, N. C. Read law at the University of North Carolina and was admitted to the Bar in September, 1896. Married Miss Mattie Barnes, December 23, 1896. Member of the State Senate of the North Carolina Legislature in 1903. Elected in 1904 Democratic Presidential Elector for the Sixth Congressional District of North Carolina. Member of the State Democratic Executive Committee from 1904 to 1906. Elected to the Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, and Sixty-third Congresses. Address: Dunn, N. C.
(Seventh District.--Counties: Anson, Davidson, Davie, Hoke, Lee, Montgomery, Moore, Randolph, Richmond, Scotland, Union, Wilkes, and Yadkin--13 counties.)
ROBERT NEWTON PAGE, Democrat, of Montgomery County, was born at Cary, Wake County, N. C., October 26, 1859. Educated at Cary High School and Bingham Military School. Moved to Moore County in 1880, and has been for more than twenty years actively engaged in the lumber business. Has been treasurer of the Aberdeen and Ashboro Railroad Company since 1890. Moved to Montgomery County in 1897. Elected from that county to the Legislature of 1901. Married,
in 1888, to Miss Flora Shaw, of Moore County, and has four children. Elected to the Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, and Sixty-third Congresses. Address: Biscoe, N. C.
(Eighth District.--Counties: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Cabarrus, Caldwell, Iredell, Rowan, Stanly, and Watauga--9 counties.)
ROBERT L. DOUGHTON, Democrat, Laurel Springs, N. C., was born at Laurel Springs, N. C., November 7, 1863; was educated in the public schools and at Laurel Springs and Sparta High Schools; is a farmer and stock raiser; was appointed a member of the Board of Agriculture in 1903; elected to the State Senate from the Thirty-fifth District of North Carolina in 1908; served as a director of the State Prison from 1909 to 1911; elected to the Sixty-second and Sixty-third Congresses.
(Ninth District--Counties: Avery, Burke, Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, Madison, Mecklenburg, Mitchell, and Yancey--10 counties.)
EDWIN YATES WEBB, Democrat, of Cleveland County, was born in Shelby, N. C., May 23, 1872. Attended Shelby Military Institute; graduated at Wake Forest College, 1893. Studied law at University of North Carolina. Received license from the Supreme Court to practice, in February, 1894. Took post-graduate course in law at University of Virginia, 1896. Began practice of law February, 1894, forming partnership with his brother, J. L. Webb, then Solicitor of the Twelfth Judicial District, which partnership existed until December, 1904, when it was dissolved by the appointment of his brother to the Superior Court Judgeship. Elected State Senator in 1900. Temporary Chairman of the State Democratic Convention in 1900. Chairman of the Senatorial District in 1896. Chairman of the County Democratic Executive Committee, 1898-1902. Married Miss Willie Simmons, daughter of Dr. W. G. Simmons, of Wake Forest, N. C., November 15, 1894. Elected to the Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, and Sixty-third Congresses. Address: Shelby, N. C.
(Tenth District.--Counties: Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Polk, Rutherford, Swain, Transylvania--13 counties.)
JAMES M. GUDGER, JR., Democrat, of Asheville, is a lawyer by profession; married Miss Katie M. Hawkins of Hendersonville; educated at Emory and Henry, Virginia; elected to the State Senate in 1900; was Solicitor of the Fifteenth District; elected to the Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixty-second, and Sixty-third Congresses.
ELIJAH LONGSTREET DAUGHTRIDGE, Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina, was born near Rocky Mount, N. C., January 17, 1863. Son of William M. and Dellah (Williford) Daughtridge. Attended Bingham School, 1881-1882. Farmer. President of Daughtridge Supply Company; President Planters Oil and Fertilizer Company, and director in other companies. Alderman and Vice Recorder of Rocky Mount, 1910-1911; County Commissioner, 1898-1900; Member Legislature from Edgecombe County, 1901 and 1903; Member State Board of Agriculture and Board of Trustees A. and M. College, 1901 and 1902; President State Fair Association, 1906 and 1907; Member and Treasurer of North Carolina Jamestown Commission, 1907; Treasurer Rocky Mount Road Commission, 1907-1913. Lieutenant and Captain in local military company, 1896 and 1897. Methodist. Married Miss Mary W. Odom in 1883. Seven children, five sons and two daughters. Address: Rocky Mount, N. C.
ROBERT OTTIS SELF, Democrat, was born at Webster, N. C., July 2, 1884. Son of Dr. William and Octavia (Cowan) Self. Educated at Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School, 1897-1902. Superintendent of Public Instruction of Jackson County, 1909-1911. Calendar Clerk of the State Senate, 1905, 1907, 1908 (special session), 1909. Principal Clerk of the Senate, 1911. Mason, Odd Fellow, K. of P. Baptist.
(First District.--Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, Hertford, Pasquotank, Perquimans. Two Senators.)
DAVID COLLIN BARNES, Democrat, Senator from the First District, was born at Murfreesboro, N. C., November 26, 1875. Son of David Alexander and Bettie (Vaughan) Barnes. Educated at Murfreesboro schools and at Horner Military School; University Law School, 1895-1896. Lawyer and banker. President People Bank, Murfreesboro, since 1904. Representative in the General Assembly from Hertford County, 1909. State Senator, 1911. Fraternal order: Kappa Alpha (college fraternity). Master American George Lodge, No. 17, A. F. and A. M. Address: Murfreesboro, N. C.
(First District.--Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, Hertford, Pasquotank, Perquimans. Two Senators.)
WILLIAM THOMAS WOODLEY, Democrat, Senator from the First District, was born in Chowan County in 1873. Son of W. T. and Mary Isabella (Parker) Woodley. A.B. of Guilford College, 1894; A.B. of the University of North Carolina, 1896. President of Debating Society at Guilford College, and commencement orator at University of North Carolina. Farmer and real estate agent. Member House of Representatives, 1903. Modern Woodmen of America. Camp Lecturer, 1912. Episcopalian. Taught school several years. Delegate to State Democratic Convention, 1912. Married Miss Margaret Pretlow in 1905. One son. Address: Tyner, N. C.
(Second District.--Counties: Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, Beaufort, Hyde, Pamlico. Two Senators.)
HARRY W. STUBBS, Democrat, Senator from the Second District. Lawyer. State Senator, 1889, 1905, 1907, 1913. Representative, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1909, 1911. Address: Williamston, N. C.
(Second District.--Counties: Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, Beaufort, Hyde, Pamlico. Two Senators.)
GEORGE J. STUDDERT, Democrat, Senator from the Second District, was born in Clare County, Ireland, October 26, 1857. Son of Jonas and Margaret (Ayers) Studdert. Attended National schools of Ireland. Farmer and life insurance solicitor. Mayor of Washington three terms, 1900-3. Deputy Sheriff in Edgecombe County for several years. Member of the Chamber of Commerce of Washington for several years. Justice of the Peace several years. Registrar of Second Ward, Washington, and judge of election for twenty years. Mason for more than twenty years. Protestant. Married Miss Lyda Carter, March, 1900. Six children, four boys and two girls. Address: Washington, N. C.
(Third District.--Counties: Northampton and Bertie. One Senator.)
CALVERT GOOSLEY PEEBLES, Democrat, Senator from the Third District, was born at Jackson, N. C., September 13, 1870. Son of William Wallace and Margaret Rebecca (Goosley) Peebles. Educated at Bingham School, 1884-5; Davis School, La Grange, N. C., 1886-89. B.L. of the University of North Carolina, 1890-91. Editor of the Hellenian, 1891. Lawyer. Mayor of Jackson, 1893 and 1894. Town Commissioner several years; member of Board of Education for Northampton County, 1901-2; member Phi Gamma Delta Fraternity, and member of Jr. O. U. A. M. Episcopalian; Vestryman since 1892. Married Miss Julia Southall Bowen, June, 1908. Two sons. Address: Jackson, N. C.
(Fourth District.--Halifax and Edgecombe. Two Senators.)
HENRY AUGUSTUS GILLIAM, Democrat, Senator from the Fourth District, was born in Edenton, N. C., September 7, 1870. Son of Henry Augustus and Hannah (Clements) Gilliam. Educated at Horner's Military School, 1881-1883; Tarboro Male Academy, 1883-1886;
University of North Carolina, 1886-1889. Studied law at the University of North Carolina, 1891-92. Lawyer. Chairman Democratic County Executive Committee, 1896. Member State Central Executive Committee, 1900-1912. Representative from Edgecombe County, 1899. County Attorney for Edgecombe, 1908-12. Trustee of University of North Carolina, 1908-1913. Episcopalian. Address: Tarboro, N. C.
(Fourth District.--Counties: Edgecombe and Halifax. Two Senators.)
WALTER EUGENE DANIEL, Democrat, Senator from the Fourth District, was born at Weldon, N. C., August 14, 1859. Son of R. W. and Narcissa A. (Allen) Daniel. Received his academic education in the preparatory schools of Weldon. M.A. of Wake Forest College, 1878. Marshal, anniversary, 1876; first debater, Euzelian Society, anniversary, 1877; orator, Euzelian Society, anniversary, 1878; valedictorian, Class of 1878. Attended law school of Judge George V. Strong, 1879-80. Admitted to bar, 1880. Attorney at law and banker. President of Bank of Weldon since August, 1892. Director Weldon Cotton Manufacturing Company since 1899; Director Shaw Cotton Mills since 1907. Solicitor Inferior Court of Halifax County, 1883-87; attorney for Board of Commissioners for Halifax County, 1890-94; Solicitor, Second Judicial District, 1894-1906, three terms; member State Senate, 1907, and chairman of Judiciary Committee of that body. Baptist. Superintendent of Sunday-school; deacon; trustee of Wake Forest College. Married Miss Jeannette E. Snead, 1888. Eight children, six boys and two girls. Address: Weldon, N. C.
(Fifth District.--County, Pitt. One Senator.)
WILLIAM FRANKLIN EVANS, Democrat, Senator from the Fifth District, was born in Greenville, N. C., February 25, 1883. Son of W. F. and Anne M. (Sermons) Evans. Educated in the public schools of Greenville, 1889-1892; Goldsboro graded schools, 1892-1899. Attorney
at law. Member of Royal Arcanum, Odd Fellows; Grand Conductor of Grand Lodge, I. O. O. F., 1908-9; now Grand Warden, I. O. O. F. Address delivered before Alumni Association, I. O. O. F., and published in the North Carolina Odd Fellow, 1912. Married Miss Eva Glenn Allen, March, 1904. Two sons. Address: Greenville, N. C.
(Sixth District.--Counties: Franklin, Nash, Wilson. Two Senators.)
T. T. THORNE, Democrat, Senator from the Sixth District, was born August 9, 1867. Son of T. T. and Mary D. Thorne. Educated at Whitaker's Academy, and Harvey's School, Petersburg, Va. Lawyer. Mayor of Rocky Mount for two years, and served on Board of Aldermen for twelve years; member Board of Trustees of Rocky Mount Sunday-school Association. State Senator, 1907, 1911, 1913. Fraternal orders: Mason, Pythian, Jr. O. U. A. M. Formerly Junior Warden in Masonic Order. Has been through all chairs in Pythian and Jr. O. U. A. M. Methodist; trustee; steward. Married, in 1892, Miss Louise C. Fountain. Three children. Address: Rocky Mount, N. C.
(Sixth District.--Counties: Franklin, Nash, Wilson. Two Senators.)
THOMAS M. WASHINGTON, Democrat, Senator from the Sixth District, was born in Granville County, N. C., April 16, 1862. Son of M. C. and Nancy (Jones) Washington. Received his academic education from local schools in his home town, 1874; Knap of Reeds Academy, 1875-76; Caldwell Institute. Farmer. Vice president Farmers Cotton Oil Company. President Wilson Ice and Fuel Company. President Wilson Live-stock Company. Register of Deeds of Granville County, 1884-86. Member House of Representatives, 1907. Delegate National Convention at Denver, 1908. Captain Wilson Military Company. Odd Fellow, Elk, Mason. Married Miss Nettie E. Ellis, July 4, 1901. Address: Wilson, N. C.
(Seventh District.--Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, Lenoir and Onslow. Two Senators.)
MARION LESLIE DAVIS, Democrat, Senator from the Seventh District, was born at Beaufort, N. C., August 9, 1879. Son of John D. and Narcissa Elizabeth (Webb) Davis. Educated at Beaufort High School; Wake Forest College, A.B., 1905. President Y. M. C. A., 1904; senior speaker, 1905; commencement orator, 1905; College Glee Club, 1903-1906; orchestra, 1904-1906; senior critic, Phi. Society. 1904-1905; assistant keeper of rolls, 1903-1905; assistant, History Department, 1905-1906; member Philomathesian Society; chief marshal (Phi. Society), anniversary, 1904. LL.B. Wake Forest, 1906. Licensed attorney August 27, 1906. Lawyer. Alderman of Beaufort, 1901-1903; City Clerk, 1903; Town Attorney, 1907-1909; County Attorney, 1907-1910. County Attorney, 1912, and reëlected for next two years. Trustee Beaufort Graded Schools and secretary of same from organization in 1909 until day before election, 1910. Representative in General Assembly from Carteret County, 1907; State Senator, 1911, and reëlected Session 1913 by 6,713 majority, Fraternal orders: Mason, Master Franklin Lodge, No. 109; I. O. O. F.; Grand Guardian, N. C. Grand Lodge, 1910-1911; Supervisor, Fifth District, since May, 1910; Woodman of the World; member Committee on Law, Supreme Knights of Harmony. Baptist. Deacon since 1901; clerk; chairman Board of Trustees; superintendent Sunday-school for eight years; teacher Baraca Class since 1906; vice moderator, Neuse-Atlantic Association, 1908-1909; moderator of same since November, 1909. President Wake Forest College Alumni Association, 1910-11. Member Third Judicial Executive Committee, 1908-10, and 1912, and secretary of same, 1908-1910. Address: Beaufort, N. C.
(Seventh District.--Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, Onslow. Two Senators.)
ALFRED DECATUR WARD, Democrat, Senator from the Seventh District, was born near Rose Hill, Duplin County, N. C., December 25,
1859. Son of William Robinson and Keziah Jane (Johnson) Ward. Educated at Wallace High School, 1874-1877; Rockfish Academy, 1880-1881; and University of North Carolina. Ph.B., 1885; University Law School, 1886. Attorney at law. Member and vice president North Carolina Bar Association. Delegate to American Bar Association. Mayor of Kenansville, 1888-92; member House of Representatives, 1893. Chairman Craven County Board of Education, 1899-1903. Chairman of Board of Trustees Chowan County Farmlife School, 1912. President local University Alumni Association at New Bern, 1911-12. Member Royal Arcanum. Baptist; deacon; first vice president Baptist State Convention, 1907; president Board of Trustees Wake Forest College, 1907-9. Married Miss Carolina Virginia Farrior, October 22, 1899. Two sons and two daughters. Address: New Bern, N. C.
(Eighth District.--County: Wayne. One Senator.)
J. T. HOOKS, Democrat, Senator from the Eighth District. Address: Fremont, N. C.
(Ninth District.--Counties: Duplin and Pender. One Senator.)
EDMUND A. HAWES, JR., Democrat, of Pender County, was born at Atkinson, N. C., December 8, 1880. Son of Edmund A. and Virginia E. (Russ) Hawes. Educated at Whitsett Institute, 1897-1899; University of North Carolina, A.B., 1903. Merchant. President Pender Telephone Company. Director of Bank of Atkinson. Cotton buyer. Representative from Pender County in General Assembly, 1905. State Senator from Tenth District, 1909. Renominated for Senate in 1912 without opposition. Episcopalian. Delivered the oration on occasion of erection of monument in memory of the women of the Revolution at Moore's Creek Bridge, August 17, 1907. Address: Atkinson, N. C.
(Tenth District.--Counties: Brunswick and New Hanover. One Senator.)
MARSDEN BELLAMY, Democrat, Senator from the Tenth District, was born at Wilmington, N. C. December 4, 1878. Son of Marsden and Harriet (Harllee) Bellamy. Received his academic education in the Cape Fear Academy, Wilmington, N. C., up to 1804. Attended Horner's Military School. Oxford, N. C., 1894-95. Graduated, magna cum laude, from the University of North Carolina in 1899 with the degree of A.B. Editor in chief of The Tar Heel. Studied law at University Summer School during summer of 1900. Attorney at law. City Attorney of Wilmington, 1905-9; County Attorney, 1909 to 1913; chairman of Democratic Executive Committee of New Hanover County, 1910-12. Mason, Jr. O. U. A. M., Red Man. B. P. O. E. Presbyterian. Married Miss Sue Clark, November, 1906. Two children, one son and one daughter. Address: Wilmington. N. C.
(Eleventh District.--Counties: Bladen and Brunswick. One Senator.)
LESLIE BALLARD EVANS, Democrat, Senator from the Eleventh District, was born at Fayetteville, N. C., February 25, 1869. Son of Jonathan and Douglas (Wright) Evans. Educated in private schools of Prof. J. E. Kelly, Moore County, and Prof. Quakenbush, Laurinburg, N. C. A.B. of the University of North Carolina, 1896. M.D. of the College of Medicine, Richmond, Va., 1900. Physician. President Bank of Bladen. Address: Clarkton, N. C.
(Twelfth District.--County: Robeson. One Senator.)
GEORGE B. McLEOD, Democrat, Senator from the Twelfth District. Address: Lumberton, N. C.
(Thirteenth District.--Counties: Cumberland and Hoke. One Senator.)
Q. K. NIMOCKS, Democrat, Senator from the Thirteenth District. Lawyer. State Senator, 1909. Address: Fayetteville, N. C.
(Fourteenth District.--Counties: Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Sampson. Two Senators.)
GEORGE LANGDON PETERSON, Democrat, Senator from the Fourteenth District, was born March 7, 1877. Son of J. Franklin and Mary Elizabeth (Purvis) Peterson. Educated in the public schools of Clinton. Received his college education at North Carolina A. and M. College, 1893-1895. Received essayist medal, Pullen Literary Society, 1895. Merchant. Secretary of Clinton Merchants' Association. Alderman of Clinton, 1898 and 1912. Enlisted private Sampson Light Infantry; served as sergeant, captain, and paymaster general N. C. N. G., rank of colonel, 1904-1908, Mason, 1898, and has held all offices, including Worshipful Master, served as secretary ten years. Member of Knights of Pythias and Woodmen of the World. Delivered an address in 1912 on the History of the W. O. W. in North Carolina. Married Miss Nettle Chesnutt. Two daughters. Address: Clinton, N. C.
(Fourteenth District.--Counties: Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Sampson. Two Senators.)
O. A. BARBOUR, Democrat, Senator from the Fourteenth District. State Senator, 1911. Address: Benson, N. C.
(Fifteenth District.--County: Wake. One Senator.)
JAMES CRAWFORD LITTLE, Democrat, Senator from the Fifteenth District, was born in Union County, N. C., October 22, 1877. Son of
George M. and Serena K. (Brooks) Little. Received his academic education at Union Institute, 1891-2; Marshall Academy, 1894-5; Bingham School at Asheville, 1896-7; graduated at Wake Forest College, 1902. One of the three debaters representing Wake Forest in annual debate against Trinity at Raleigh, 1901. Studied law at Wake Forest Law School. Lawyer. Member of North Carolina Bar Association and American Bar Association. Member of Senate in the first Legislature of Oklahoma, 1907-8. Mason. William Hill Lodge, Raleigh, N. C. Married Miss Alena Marsh, January 3, 1912. Address: Raleigh, N. C.
(Sixteenth District.--Counties: Vance and Warren, One Senator.)
JAMES HARVEY BRIDGERS, Democrat, Senator from the Sixteenth District, was born in Northampton County, N. C. Son of Junius A. and Carolina V. (Stephenson) Bridgers. Educated at Seaboard Academy, 1878-1882, and Wake Forest College, 1882-1883. Studied law at the University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Member National Electric Light Association. New England Waterworks Association, North Carolina Bar Association. Mayor of Henderson, 1892-1893. First lieutenant, North Carolina National Guard. A. F. and A. M. Methodist; steward, district steward; treasurer Joint Board of Finance, North Carolina Conference. Married Miss Tucker Massenburg in 1898. Address: Henderson, N. C.
(Seventeenth District.--Counties: Person and Granville, One Senator.)
JAMES A. LONG, Democrat, of Person County, was born in Person County, May 23, 1841. Son of Ratliff and Mary (Walters) Long. Educated in the common schools. Farmer. President of the Peoples Bank of Roxboro. President Roxboro Cotton Mills (two mills). Owner Loch Lily Roller Flour and Grist Mills, Sawmills and Planing Mills. Member House of Representatives from Person County,
1885; State Senator, 1889, 1901, 1905, and 1909. In the Civil War, was first sergeant Company H, 24th N. C. Regiment, C. S. A. Major on the staff of Gen. Julian S. Carr, United Confederate Veterans. Appointed by Governor Kitchin a member of the State Building Commission to supervise the erection of the State Administration Building provided for by the Legislature of 1911. Selected by Col. Ashley Horne as a member of the committee to supervise the erection of the monument to the North Carolina Women of the Confederacy, presented by Colonel Horne to the State, to be erected in Capitol Square, Raleigh. Methodist. Trustee of Trinity College. Chairman Board of Trustees Greensboro Female College. Trustee Methodist Orphanage. Married, 1882, Miss Laura R. Thompson. Three children. Address: Roxboro, N. C.
(Eighteenth District.--Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Orange. Two Senators.)
JOHN L. SCOTT, JR., Democrat, of Alamance County, was born at Graham, N. C. Son of James S. and Margaret Elizabeth (Donnell) Scott. Educated at Graham High School, 1870-1875; Horner and Graves Academy (Hillsboro, N. C.), 1875-1877; Davidson College, A.B., 1881. Commencement marshal, representative speaker at commencement. President Phi. Society. Cotton manufacturer. President National Bank of Alamance, Graham. Director State Deaf and Dumb School, Morganton. Trustee Davidson College, 1892-1907. President Graham Country Club. State Senator from Nineteenth District, 1909. Fraternal orders: A. F. and A. M., K. of P., G. C., 1902-1903; Supreme representative, 1908-1915. Presbyterian Elder. Married, January 9, 1884, Miss Fannie L. Brady. Six children. Address: Graham, N. C.
(Eighteenth District.--Counties: Caswell, Alamance, Orange, Durham. Two Senators.)
VICTOR S. BRYANT, Democrat. Senator from the Eighteenth District. Lawyer. Address: Durham, N. C.
(Nineteenth District.--County: Rockingham. One Senator.)
ALLAN DENNY IVIE, Democrat, Senator from the Nineteenth District, was born in Patrick County, Va., May 3, 1873. Son of William Sterling and Sallie (Scales) Ivie. Educated at Oak Ridge Institute, 1896-1898, and at the University of North Carolina. President of Y. M. C. A.; chosen by Di. Society as orator on Washington's birthday celebration, 1902. President of Law Class, University of North Carolina, 1902. Lawyer and farmer. Methodist. Steward. Fraternal orders: Jr. O. U. A. M., K. of P. A member of the North Carolina Senate, 1911. Married Miss Annie McKinney, October 11, 1905. Three sons. Address: Leaksville, N. C.
(Twentieth District.--County: Guilford. One Senator.)
FRANKLIN P. HOBGOOD, JR., Democrat, was born in Granville County, December 17, 1872. Son of Franklin P. and Mary Anne Royal Hobgood. Educated at Horner Military School; Wake Forest College, A.B., 1893; valedictorian; George Washington University, LL.B., 1898. Lawyer. Senator from Guilford County in the General Assembly of 1911. Junior Grand Warden, Grand Lodge of North Carolina, A. F. and A. M. Baptist. Married October 9, 1907, Miss Lucy McGee Glenn. Address: Greensboro, N. C.
(Twenty-first District.--Counties: Chatham, Moore, Richmond, Scotland. Two Senators.)
WALTER LEAK PARSONS, Democrat, Senator from Twenty-first District, was born at Camden, S. C., December 15, 1858. Son of Hilliard Crawford and Frances Cornelia Leak. Received his academic education at the school of Rev. J. E. Morrison in Anson County, 1870-72. Received his collegiate education at Wofford College, Spartanburg,
S. C., 1873-76. Received first debater's prize ever given at this college. Banker. Was licensed to practice law in 1881. Instrumental in organizing Bank of Pee Dee, of which he was cashier until 1907; since that time he has been its president. Member of the Academy of Political Science of New York City. Member of the National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. Member House of Representatives, 1887, 1907. Was permanent chairman State Democratic Convention at Charlotte in 1908. Appointed by Governor Kitchin as member of committee to erect State Administration Building at Raleigh, 1911. Methodist. Married Miss Mary Wall Leak in 1882. Seven children, three boys and four girls. Address: Rockingham, N. C.
(Twenty-first District.--Counties: Chatham, Moore, Richmond, Scotland. Two Senators.)
HECTOR McLEAN, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-first District. Representative from Richmond County, 1899; from Scotland County, 1901. State Senator, 1905. Address: Laurinburg, N. C.
(Twenty-second District.--Counties: Montgomery and Randolph. One Senator.)
WILLIAM HENRY WATKINS, Democrat, Senator from Twenty-second District, was born at Norwood, Stanly County, N. C., January 5, 1839. Son of Culpepper and Ann Marshall (Tomlinson) Watkins. Attended Jonesville High School, 1858-59. Cotton manufacturer. Sheriff of Montgomery County, 1874-78. State Senator, 1905. Member Board of Education of Randolph County, 1897-99. In Civil War from beginning to end, Army of Northern Virginia. Mason. Methodist. Married Miss Louisa Eunice Smitherman, March 17, 1868. Five children, three sons and two daughters. Address: Ramseur, N. C.
(Twenty-third District.--Counties: Anson, Davidson, Stanly, Union. Two Senators.)
WADE HAMPTON PHILLIPS, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-third District, was born at Yadkin College, N. C., July 7, 1879. Son of H. T. and Linnie (Robbins) Phillips. Received his academic education at Yadkin College, N. C., 1889-90. B.S. of Erskine College, Due West, S. C., 1900. Law School of the University of North Carolina, summer of 1904. Lawyer. Chairman Davidson County Democratic Committee, 1906-1910. Deputy Superior Court Clerk, Davidson County, 1900-4. Captain Lexington Rifles, Company A, Third Infantry, North Carolina National Guard. Married Miss Ora Huckabee. Address: Lexington, N. C.
(Twenty-third District.--Counties: Anson, Davidson, Stanly, Union. Two Senators.)
ROBERT EUGENE LITTLE, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-third District, was born at Ansonville, N. C., November 21, 1852. Son of William and Sarah (Ledbetter) Little. Received academic education in public schools. A.B. of Davidson College, 1873. B.L. of Columbia College Law School, 1879. Chief Justice Pearson's Law School, 1877. Director First National Bank of Wadesboro since 1895 and vice president since 1902. Counsel for the Board of County Commissioners, 1895-1908. Chairman Democratic Executive Committee of Anson County, 1891-99. Member of State Democratic Executive Committee, 1888. Delegate to the Democratic National Convention, 1888. State Senator, 1889, 1893. Address: Wadesboro, N. C.
(Twenty-fourth District.--Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. Two Senators.)
HENRY N. PHARR, Democrat, of Mecklenburg County, was born October 26, 1865, at Statesville, N. C. Son of Walter W. and Emily S. (Neal) Pharr. Educated in schools of Mecklenburg County; Davidson
College, A.B., 1887. Studied law at University of North Carolina, 1889. Lawyer. State Senator from Twenty-fifth District, 1903, 1907, 1909, 1911. Presbyterian. Married Miss Bettie Yates, 1896. Widower since 1899. One child. Address: Charlotte, N. C.
(Twenty-fourth District.--Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. Two Senators.)
JAMES P. COOK, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-fourth District, was born at Mount Pleasant, N. C., January 12, 1863. Son of Matthew and Mary (Costner) Cook. Received his academic education from private teachers. A.B. of North Carolina College, Lutheran Synod's institution, 1885; and A.M., 1888. Editor. President of the first State organization of County Superintendents, 1889. Received premium at State Fair Association for the best county sketch, 1890. Established and conducted the first daily paper in Concord, N. C. Appointed by Governor Glenn, 1907. member Board of Trustees Stonewall Jackson Training School, and by them made chairman. Secretary of Concord Chamber of Commerce, 1888-9. Elected County Superintendent of Schools of Cabarrus, 1886, and served until 1900; since then chairman of County Board of Education. Member of North Carolina Press Association, State and National Building and Loan Associations. Member of State Democratic Executive Committee, Congressional Democratic Executive Committee, and chairman of the Cabarrus County Democratic Executive Committee. Lutheran; deacon. Delivered the following addresses: "Uplift Work," before the State Convention of King's Daughters, at Rockingham, N. C., 1910; "The State," annual oration before Press Association at Lenoir, 1911; "Small Things in Action," National Building and Loan Association, Atlantic City, N. J., 1912. Married Miss Margaret J. Norfleet, October, 1892. Address: Concord, N. C.
(Twenty-fifth District.--County: Rowan. One Senator.)
THOMAS D. BROWN, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-fifth District. Address: Salisbury, N. C., R. F. D.
(Twenty-sixth District.--County: Forsyth. One Senator.)
ERASTUS B. JONES, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-sixth District. Lawyer. State Senator, 1893. Judge Superior Court, 1903-1909. Address: Winston-Salem, N. C.
(Twenty-seventh District.--Counties: Stokes and Surry. One Senator.)
JOHN W. HALL, Republican, Senator from the Twenty-seventh District, was born in Yadkin County, near East Bend, N. C., July 24, 1880. Son of James H. and Carrie E. (Hamer) Hall. Educated at Pinnacle High School, 1893-98; Yadkin Valley Institute, 1897-1902; Wake Forest College, 1895-1897. Attorney at law. Baptist. Married Miss Sarah Blanche Pepper, February, 1911. Address: Danbury, N. C.
(Twenty-eighth District.--Counties: Davie, Wilkes. Yadkin. One Senator.)
A. T. GRANT, Republican, Senator from the Twenty-eighth District. Studied law at University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Representative from Davie County, 1903, 1905, 1907, 1909. Address: Mocksville, N. C.
(Twenty-ninth District.--County: Iredell. One Senator.)
A. D. WATTS, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-ninth District, was born in Iredell County, N. C., March 12, 1867. Son of Thomas A. and Margaret (Morrison) Watts. Educated in the public schools of Iredell County, Bingham Military School, and Davidson College. Politician. Member House of Representatives, 1901 and 1903. Member
of Democratic State Committee since 1896. Delegate to Democratic National Convention at Kansas City, 1900. Clerk to Senator Simmons, 1901-1912. Mason. Address: Statesville, N. C.
(Thirtieth District.--Counties: Catawba and Lincoln. One Senator.)
WILLIAM B. COUNCIL, Democrat, Senator from the Thirtieth District. Lawyer. Representative from Watauga County, 1899. Judge of Superior Court, 1900-1910. Address: Hickory, N. C.
(Thirty-first District.--County: Gaston. One Senator.)
OSCAR F. MASON, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-first District, was born at Dallas, Gaston County, N. C., July 8, 1865. Son of Lawson A. and Catherine (Lineberger) Mason. Educated in the public schools and at Dallas High School. Attended Col. George N. Folk's Law School at Yadkin Valley. Lawyer. Admitted to the bar in 1888. Member of North Carolina Bar Association; one of its vice presidents several times; served on various committees. Representative in General Assembly, 1901; State Senator, 1899, 1905, and 1907. Member Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; master of Gaston Lodge, No. 263, several times. Lutheran. Married Miss Fannie Durham. June 24, 1890. Ten children, four sons and six daughters. Address: Gastonia, N. C.
(Thirty-second District.--Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, Rutherford. Two Senators.)
THOMAS B. ALLEN, Democrat, Senator from Thirty-second District, was born at Mills River, N. C., December 8, 1864. Son of R. I. and Mary I. (Carson) Allen. Educated at Mills River Academy. Farmer. Presbyterian. Married Miss Ella Jones, February, 1891. Nine children, two sons and seven daughters. Address: Hendersonville, N. C.
(Thirty-second District.--Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, Rutherford. Two Senators.)
JAMES M. CARSON, Democrat, Senator Thirty-second District. Educated at University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Address: Rutherfordton, N. C.
(Thirty-third District.--Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, McDowell. Two Senators.)
LAWRENCE WAKEFIELD, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-third District, was born in Lenoir, N. C., November 7, 1854. Son of Robert R. and Louisa R. (Ballew) Wakefield. Attended Davenport College, 1864-1866; Finly High School, 1868-1872. Studied at Colonel Folk's Law School, 1880-81. Lawyer. Mayor of Lenoir, 1892-3. Address: Lenoir, N. C.
(Thirty-third District.--Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, McDowell. Two Senators.)
ABNER CLINTON PAYNE, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-third District, was born in Caldwell County, N. C., August 7, 1871. Son of Waller L. and Mary Elizabeth (Downs) Payne. Educated at Taylorsville Collegiate Institute, 1893-96. Studied law at Trinity College Law School, 1909-11. Attorney at law. Secretary and treasurer of the Taylorsville Cotton Mill Company, 1907-1909. Mayor of Taylorsville, 1901-1905; Alderman and Treasurer, 1905-1909. Elected Mayor in May, 1909; resigned in May, 1909. Mason, Worshipful Master, 1909-1910, 1911-1913. Jr. O. U. A. M., Corresponding Secretary, 1897-1900; Councilor, 1900-1901. Odd Fellow. Woodman of the World. Married Miss Grace Sloan, August, 1898. Two children, one son and one daughter. Address: Taylorsville, N. C.
(Thirty-fourth, District.--Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Watauga. One Senator.)
E. S. COFFEY, Democrat, Senator from Thirty-fourth District. Address: Boone, N. C.
(Thirty-fifth District.--Counties: Avery, Madison, Mitchell, Yancey. One Senator.)
CHARLES B. MASHBURN, Republican, Senator from the Thirty-fifth District, was born in McDowell County. Son of Charles and Jane (Finley) Mashburn. Educated in the public schools, at Burnsville Academy, and at Mars Hill College. Lawyer. Representative from Madison County, 1893. Mayor of Marshall three years. Republican nominee for Solicitor of the Twelfth Judicial District in 1898, and Republican nominee for Judge of the Superior Court of the Fifteenth Judicial District, 1902. In 1910 was nominated for Solicitor of the Fifteenth Judicial District. Delegate to the Republican National Convention at Chicago, 1904. Baptist. Trustee of Mars Hill College. Address: Marshall, N. C.
(Thirty-sixth District.--County: Buncombe. One Senator.)
ZEBULON WEAVER, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-sixth District. Educated at the University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Representative from Buncombe County, 1907, 1909. Address: Asheville, N. C.
(Thirty-seventh District.--Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Transylvania, Swain. One Senator.)
WILLIAM JOHNSON HANNAH, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-seventh District, was born in Cataloochee, N. C., August, 1867. Son of John J. and Martha Ann (Simmons) Hannah. Educated in the
public schools of Cataloochee, at Waynesville and Bethel Academies, and Wake Forest College. Studied law at the University of North Carolina, 1897. Attorney at law. Admitted to the bar, 1897. Member North Carolina Bar Association. Taught school for seven years; County Treasurer for two terms, 1894-98. Enlisted in Company C. Fourth Regiment, N. C. N. G., 1898. Commissioned as captain of Company H, First N. C. Volunteers, 1898. Served during the Spanish-American War; appointed Judge Advocate General with the rank of Colonel of North Carolina by Governor Aycock. Member I. O. O. F.; Noble Grand, Chief Patriot, Grand Guardian, and Grand Herald of the State of North Carolina; member Royal Areanum; member Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist. Compiled "The Code of Waynesville." Has delivered addresses before schools and Sunday-schools; also made political, temperance, and fraternal speeches. Married Miss Josephine Tucker, 1899. One son. Address: Waynesville, N. C.
(Thirty-eighth District.--Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Macon. One Senator.)
S. W. LOVINGOOD, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-eighth District, was born in Cherokee County, February, 1865. Son of Samuel and Mahala Lovingood. Educated in public schools. Manufacturer, Secretary and manager of the Woodworking Company, Murphy, N. C., secretary Murphy Light and Power Company; director of the Commercial and Savings Bank. Elected County Surveyor, 1886; Superintendent of Public Schools, 1888; Government stamper, 1894; Mayor of Murphy, 1896; Clerk Superior Court, 1898; Register of Deeds, 1906; taught school occasionally, 1885-1893. Member of I. O. O. F. since 1887; has held every position, including Noble Grand, 1889. Address: Murphy, N. C.
GEORGE WHITFIELD CONNOR, Democrat, of Wilson County, was born in Wilson, N. C., October 24, 1872. Son of H. G. and Kate (Whitfield) Connor. Educated at Wilson Graded Schools; University of North Carolina, A.B., 1892. Editor of University Magazine; won Representatives' Medal, 1891, and Debaters' Medal, 1892. Lawyer. Sigma Alpha Epsilon (college fraternity). Chairman Board of Education of Wilson County, 1905-1908. Representative in the General Assembly from Wilson County, 1909, 1911, 1913. Fraternal order: Knights of Pythias. Married Miss Bessie Hadley. Four children, two living. Address: Wilson, N. C.
THEODORE G. COBB, Democrat, of Burke County, was born May 9, 1867, at Newton, N. C. Son of R. A. and Matilda (Falls) Cobb. Educated at private schools of Morganton, 1875-1881. Editor. Alderman of town of Morganton. Mayor, 1903-1904. Chief Clerk of House, 1909 and 1911. Fraternal orders: Knights of Pythias, Odd Fellows, Jr. O. U. A. M. (State Councilor Junior Order, 1906). Historian North Carolina Press Association, 1907-1908. Historical address before the North Carolina Press Association at Charlotte, 1908. Married Miss Martha Ella Kincaid, December 14, 1887. Six children. Address: Morganton, N. C.
JACOB ELMER LONG, Democrat, Representative from Alamance County, was born in Yanceyville, N. C., July 31, 1880. Son of Jacob Alson and Esta Teague Long. Educated at Graham College, 1888-1890;
Elon College, 1891-1895; Horner Military School, 1896-1898; University of North Carolina, 1900-1903. President Franklin Literary Society (Horner); President Order of Sphinx (U. N. C.). Graduated in law, University of North Carolina, 1903. Lawyer. Chairman Township Executive Committee; elected Chairman of Democratic Congressional Executive Committee, Fifth District, 1912. Private Secretary of Hon. Charles M. Stedman, member of Congress from Fifth North Carolina District. Representative in the General Assembly, 1911. Fraternal orders: Sigma Nu Fraternity (college); Omega Tau Legal Fraternity (college); Order of Sphinx (college). Presbyterian. Married, November 10, 1909, Miss Lessie Ermine Peay. Address: Graham, N. C.
JOHN C. CONNALLY, Republican, Representative from Alexander County. Address: Taylorsville, N. C.
RUFUS A. DOUGHTON, Democrat, of Alleghany County, was born in Alleghany County, N. C., January 10, 1857. Son of J. Horton and Rebecca (Jones) Doughton. Educated at Independence (Va.) High School, 1876-1877; University of North Carolina. Studied law at University of North Carolina, 1880. Lawyer, farmer and banker. President of Bank of Sparta. Attorney for the North Carolina Railroad. Representative from Alleghany County, in the General Assembly, 1887, 1889, 1891, 1909, and 1911. Lieutenant Governor, 1893-1897. Speaker of the House, 1891. Fraternal order: Masons. Methodist. Married, January 3, 1883, Miss Sue B. Parks. Two children. Address: Sparta, N. C.
FRANCIS EDGAR THOMAS, Democrat, Representative from Anson County, was born at Diamond Hill, Anson County, N. C., December 25, 1871. Son of John Williams and Susan (Liles) Thomas. Received
his academic education in the public schools of the community and later attended Polkton High School. Wake Forest College, LL.B., 1902. Attended the University of North Carolina Law School. Admitted to the bar in 1907. Baptist. Married Miss Lucy Hawkins, 1910. One son. Address: Wadesboro, N. C.
THOMAS C. BOWIE, Democrat, of Ashe County, was born in Louisiana, July 27, 1876. Son of John R. and Frances (Calloway) Bowie. Educated at Moravian Falls, 1892; Trap Hill, 1893; Booneville, 1894; Mars Hill College, 1894; University of North Carolina, Ph.B., 1899. Received Declaimer's Medal; W. P. Mangum Medal. Intercollegiate Debater against University of Georgia. Studied law at Yale University, 1900. Lawyer. Presidential Elector, 1904. Representative in the General Assembly from Ashe County, 1909. Fraternal orders: Masons, Odd Fellows. Episcopalian. Married, May 8, 1906, Miss Jean Davis. One child. Address: Jefferson, N. C.
ROBERT M. BURLESON, Republican, Representative from Avery County, was born at Plumtree, N. C., February 28, 1871. Son of C. W. and Olive (English) Burleson. Educated in the public schools. Merchant and farmer. President of Mitchell County Bank since 1911. Member of Board of County Commissioners, 1909-10. Mason. Presbyterian; elder. Married Miss Ora English. Four children, two sons and two daughters. Address: Spruce Pine, N. C.
WILEY CROOM RODMAN, Democrat, Representative from Beaufort County, was born at Washington, N. C., May 28, 1879. Son of William Blount and Lucilla Dudley (Croom) Rodman. Attended Trinity School, of Chocowinity, N. C., 1893-95; University of North Carolina,
1895-1896; United States Military Academy, 1899-1901; studied law at the University of North Carolina, 1901. Attorney at law. Former County Attorney and County Chairman; member State Democratic Executive Committee; member Congressional Executive Committee, First District; member Judicial Executive Committee, First District; chairman Senatorial Executive Committee, Second District; School Trustee of Washington, N. C. Colonel, Second Regiment, North Carolina National Guard. Mason and Elk. Member of Gorgon's Head, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Omega Nu Epsilon, and Pi Sigma fraternities. Episcopalian. Married Miss Theodora Grimes in 1902. Two daughters and son. Address: Washington, N. C.
JOHN C. BRITTON, Democrat, Representative from Bertie County. Address: Powellsville, N. C.
ANGUS CROMARTIE, Democrat, Representative from Bladen County, was born in Bladen County, June, 1874. Son of Luther and Julia (Clark) Cromartie. Received his academic education at Ingold Academy and his collegiate education at Davidson College. Farmer at Garland, N. C. Superintendent of Public Instruction of Bladen County, 1902-1912. Member of the Knights of Pythias. Presbyterian. Married Miss Annie Belle Black, December 23, 1903. Four children, two sons and two daughters. Address: Garland, N. C.
GEORGE H. BELLAMY, Democrat, Representative from Brunswick County. State Senator, 1903, 1907, 1911. Representative from Brunswick County, 1893. Address: El Paso, N. C.
ROBERT RANSOM WILLIAMS, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe County, was born at Newton, N. C., April 21, 1883. Son of
F. M. and Fannie Ransom Williams. Educated at Catawba College, 1889-1898; University of North Carolina, A.B., 1902. Commencement orator, intercollegiate debater with University of Georgia and Johns Hopkins University; member Varsity football team; managing editor Tar Heel. Studied law at University of North Carolina, Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Association. Superintendent Public Instruction of Catawba County, 1904-1906. Representative in the General Assembly of 1911. Fraternal orders: Masons; Knights of Pythias; Jr. O. U. A. M.; Past Chancellor, Pisgah Lodge, No. 32, K. of P., July, 1910; chairman Board of Trustees and Past State Representative, Asheville Lodge, No. 6, Jr. O. U. A. M. Presbyterian. Address: Asheville, N. C.
GALLATIN ROBERTS, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe County, was born at Flat Creek, N. C., October 26, 1878. Son of J. R. and Mary Elizabeth (Buckner) Roberts. Educated at Weaverville College, 1895-1896; Washington College, Tenn., 1897; King College, Tenn., 1898-1899. Annual debater at King College, 1898-1899. Wake Forest College, Law Department, 1902-1903. Lawyer. County Attorney, Buncombe County, 1907-1908. Attorney for the Board of Education of Buncombe County, 1911-1912. Elected to the Legislature 1910 by a majority of 800. In May, 1912, was renominated without opposition, and elected by a majority of 1,400. Fraternal orders: I. O. O. F., since 1902. Presbyterian. Married, January 19, 1907, Miss Mary Altha Sams. One child. Taught school six years before practicing law. Address: Asheville, N. C.
JOHN M. MULL, Progressive, Representative from Burke County, was born in Burke County in 1873. Son of P. P. and Emaline (Mull) Mull. A.B. of Rutherford College, 1896. Studied law under Judge A. C. Avery, 1896. Lawyer. Postmaster of Morganton, 1904-1908. Methodist. Teacher of Baraca Class. Married Miss Ida Alexander. Four children, two sons and two daughters. Address: Morganton, N. C.
HIETTE SINCLAIR WILLIAMS, Republican, of Cabarrus County, was born at East Bend, N. C., March 3, 1872. Son of J. F. and Sarah L. (Paterson) Williams. Educated at Union High School, 1899-1902; Guilford College, B.S., 1905. Studied law at Wake Forest Law School. Admitted to the bar, 1899. Attorney for Board of Commissioners of Cabarrus County. President Guilford College Alumni Association, 1908. Representative in General Assembly from Yadkin County, 1899, and from Cabarrus County, 1909. Quaker. Married, September 25, 1907, Miss Ethel Reavis. One child. Address: Concord, N. C.
EDMUND DEAN CRISP, Democrat, Representative from Caldwell County, was born in Caldwell County, November 5, 1850. Son of John and Allie (Green) Crisp. Educated in the common schools of the county. Minister of the gospel. Has been in the ministry about thirty-five years. Baptist. Married Miss Chaney Louisa Hayes, July 18, 1878. Seven children, five sons and two daughters. Address: Lenoir, N. C.
DURANT HOWARD TILLETT, Democrat, Representative from Camden County, N. C., was born April 25, 1883, near Shiloh in Camden County. Son of Gideon Marchant and Bettie Ferebee (Sanderlin) Tillett. Attended Whitsett Institute, 1902-4, and Wake Forest College, 1907-8. Was president of Senior Class of Whitsett Institute and commencement orator at commencements of 1903 and 1904. Athenian debater, 1903. Attended Wake Forest Law School, summer session of 1909. Attorney at law. Representative in General Assembly, 1907. Member I. O. O. F.; Right Supporter of the Noble Grand of Shiloh Lodge, 1905; Vice Grand, 1906; Noble Grand, 1906; represented Shiloh in the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, 1907 and 1909. Baptist; Superintendent Sunday-school, 1906-8. Has delivered Masonic and educational addresses. Address: Camden, N. C.
CHARLES SLOVER WALLACE, Democrat, of Carteret County, was born at Portsmouth, N. C., December 2, 1864. Son of Robert and Sally Ann (Willis) Wallace, Manufacturer of ice and wholesale dealer in fish and oysters. President of ice company. President Marine Bank, President Morehead City Telephone Company, President Morehead City Hospital Company. Member and director of Chamber of Commerce (Morehead City). Mayor of Morehead City, 1896-1908. Representative in General Assembly from Carteret County, 1909 and 1911. Fraternal orders: Masons, Odd Fellows (Noble Grand), K. of P., N. H. Methodist. Superintendent of Sunday-school and trustee, 1887-1912. Married, December 18, 1890, Miss Nina G. Webb. Three children. Address: Morehead City, N. C.
THOMAS HENRY HATCHETT, Democrat, Representative from Caswell County, was born in that county, July 16, 1865. Son of Thomas Henry and Elizabeth (Owen) Hatchett. Attended the public schools of Caswell County. Farmer. Mason; Jr. O. U. A. M.; Farmers' Union; Master Masonic Lodge, A. F. and A. M., 1911; Councilor Jr. O. U. A. M., 1911. Methodist. Superintendent of Sunday-school; steward, 1888-1909. Married Miss Virginia Owen. Four children, two sons and two daughters. Address: Blanch, N. C.
WILLIAM BOST GAITHER, Democrat, Representative from Catawba County, was born at Newton, N. C., December 4, 1864. Son of David B. and Mary (Bost) Gaither. Educated at Catawba High School and Catawba College. Lawyer. Admitted to the bar in 1896. Instrumental in organizing B. and L. Association in Newton in 1904. Its attorney since organization. Commissioner of Newton, 1891; Postmaster at Newton for four years, under Cleveland; Mayor of Newton, 1898-9, 1903-7. Representative in the General Assembly, 1901; County Attorney eight years, and City Attorney several years; instrumental
in establishing graded schools at Newton, and served on board of trustees for several years. Mason and Worshipful Master of Catawba Lodge, No. 248; Secretary, Worshipful Master for five years prior to present term; was for one year Master of Maiden Lodge, No. 592. Presbyterian. Superintendent of Sunday-school. Delivered addresses before Y. M. C. A., on "Early Settlers of Catawba County," etc. Married Miss Genevieve Wilfong on November 18, 1891. Seven children, two boys and five girls. Address: Newton, N. C.
FREDERICK WILLIAMSON BYNUM, Democrat, Representative from Chatham County, was born at Pittsboro, N. C., January 30, 1882. Son of Alvis Jesse and Mary Susan (Headen) Bynum. Received his academic education in the schools of Pittsboro till 1898; Oak Ridge Institute, 1899; University of North Carolina, 1899-1901; A.B. of Trinity College, 1902-1904; University Law School, 1905. Lawyer. Mayor of Pittsboro two terms. Chairman Democratic Executive Committee, 1908-12. Mason, Secretary of Lodge; Jr. O. U. A. M., Councilor. Methodist. Address: Pittsboro, N. C.
A. L. MARTIN, Republican, Representative from Cherokee County. Address: Murphy, N. C.
P. H. BELL, Democrat, Representative from Chowan County. Address: Edenton, N. C.
LUCIUS H. McCLURE, Progressive, Representative from Clay County, was born in Clay County, April 2, 1844. Son of George and Mary M. (Howard) McClure. Educated in the public schools. Farmer.
Postmaster at Twine, N. C., 1878. Member of Company D, 25th North Carolina Regiment, C. S. A. Reënlisted in Company F, 65th North Carolina Regiment, C. S. A. Methodist. Married Miss Clara E. Kincaid, February, 1867. Seven children, three sons and four daughters. Address: Hayesville, N. C.
ROBERT BURTON MILLER, Democrat, Representative from Cleveland County, was born at Shelby, January 29, 1852. Son of W. J. T. and Elizabeth (Frelenwider) Miller. Educated at the Shelby High School, 1859-71. Farmer and real estate agent. President of the Belmont Cotton Mills, 1888. Secretary-treasurer of the Laurel, afterwards the Lauraglenn Cotton Mills; member of the committee of the Cotton Manufacturers' Association that secured the adoption of a resolution for the establishment of the Textile Department of the A. and M. College; advocated and framed resolutions pertaining to the "open door" policy for promoting the sale of cotton mill products in China. Chairman of the Prohibition campaign committee of Cleveland County, 1881. Canvassed the county for local school tax, 1898. Delivered the memorial address at Shelby, and a speech at Kings Mountain, in interest of the celebration of the battle of Kings Mountain, 1880. Commissioned as Major in State Militia, 1878. Member of the Masonic Lodge, the Farmers' Union, and Regent of the Royal Arcanum. Has delivered Masonic speeches, also speeches in the interest of farming and Sunday-school work. Methodist; steward, trustee, and teacher twenty-five years; member Quarterly District and Annual conferences: member of the Methodist South-Atlantic Missionary Convention: represented church at the Laymen's Missionary Movement Convention. In 1898 became editor of the Shelby Aurora. Married Miss Laura Glenn McCants, October, 1885. Two daughters. Address: Shelby, N. C.
JULIUS ROBERT WILLIAMSON. Democrat, Representative from Columbus County, was born near Cerro Gordo, N. C., December 25, 1869. Son of H. D. and Sarah (Davis) Williamson. Received his education
at Fair Bluff, N. C., Ashpole, N. C., Davis School at LaGrange, N. C. Lawyer. Was president of the Turpentine Operative Association, 1899 and 1900. Delegate to Democratic National Convention, Denver, Col., 1908. Mason. Baptist; for six years was moderator of Cape Fear-Columbus Association; deacon; superintendent of Sunday-school. Married Miss Williamson, Three children, one daughter and two sons. Address: Whiteville, N. C.
G. A. WHITFORD, Democrat, Representative from Craven County. Address: New Bern, N. C.
JOHN T. MARTIN, Democrat, Representative from Cumberland County. Address: Fayetteville, N. C. R. F. D. 5.
SAMUEL JARVIS PAYNE, Democrat, Representative from Currituck County, was born in Dare County, N. C., 1857. Son of Ebenezer W. and Mary (Perkins) Payne. Educated in private school. Farmer. Was surfman in Live-saving Service, 1883-89; keeper, 1889-1893; member Mutual Benefit Association; Treasurer, 1901-3. Mason and Odd Fellow. Disciple of Christ. Teacher in Lord's Day School since 1895. Married Miss Malissa Parker, 1879. Eight children, three sons and five daughters. Married Mrs. Virginia Crank in 1902, three children, two girls and one boy. Address: Point Harbor, N. C.
AUGUSTUS H. ETHERIDGE, Democrat, Representative from Dare County, was born on Roanoke Island, July 5, 1860. Son of A. D. and Fannie (Baum) Etheridge. Educated in public schools, 1866-1878
1878. Farmer. Sheriff of Dare County, 1899-1906 and 1910-1912. Served in the United States Life-saving Service for ten years. A. F. and A. M. Married Miss Roxana Etheridge, January, 1888. Three children, one son and two daughters. Address: Manteo, N. C.
IVEY GREENE THOMAS, Democrat, Representative from Davidson County, was born in Davidson County, N. C., August 29, 1875. Son of David and Matilda J. (Andrews) Thomas. Educated at Trinity High School in Randolph County, 1891-4. Teacher and farmer. Justice of peace, 1906-1912. Member of the Farmers' Union. Business agent of Liberty Local, No. 914, in 1911, and president in 1912. Member of Jr. O. U. A. M., Council No. 219, at Thomasville, N. C. Methodist. Sunday-school teacher, steward, and superintendent. Married Miss Ella Lee, 1898. Eight children, four boys and four girls. Address: Thomasville, N. C., R. F. D.
JAMES L. SHEEK, Republican, Representative from Davie County, was born at Smith Grove, Davie County, N. C., December 1, 1866. Son of Daniel S. and Martha (Williams) Sheek. Educated in public schools. Sheriff of Davie County, 1898-1910. Mason. Methodist. Married Miss Rena Kimbrough in 1889. One son. Address: Mocksville, N. C.
WILLIAM STOKES BONEY, Democrat, Representative from Duplin County, was born in Duplin County, February 9, 1860. Son of James W. and Mary P. (Wells) Boney. Received his elementary education at Clements High School, Wallace, N. C. Presbyterian. Married Miss Emma C. Boney in 1897. Four children, three boys and one girl. Address: Wallace, N. C.
SUMTER COE BRAWLEY, Democrat, Representative from Durham County, was born in Mooresville, N. C., April, 1878. Son of Hiram A. and Susan A. (Mayhew) Brawley. Educated at Mooresville High School and Business College at Charlotte, 1900. Studied law at the University of North Carolina, 1905. Lawyer. Member of Durham County Democratic Executive Committee, 1906-1912. Chairman of Durham County Democratic Executive Committee, 1908-1910. Member Ninth Judicial Committee, 1906, and Fifth Congressional District Democratic Committee, 1908, and member of State Democratic Executive Committee, 1912. Member of Knights of Pythias; B. P. O. E., C. C. of K. of P., 1906. Presbyterian. Married Miss Margaret Burkett, October, 1907. Three sons. Address: Durham, N. C.
GEORGE C. STALLINGS, Democrat, Representative from Durham County, was born in Wake County in 1847. Son of Isaac W. and DeLacy (Broadwell) Stallings. Farmer. Member of Board of Education of Durham County for six years. Baptist. Deacon for forty years. Married Miss Margaret Nichols in 1875. Ten children, seven sons and three daughters. Address: Durham, N. C.
THOMAS FRANKLIN CHERRY, Democrat, Representative from Edgecombe County, was born in Edgecombe County, January 8, 1866. Son of T. Thaddeus and Margaret (Killebrew) Cherry. Received his academic education in private schools of Tarboro, Tarboro Male Academy, 1881-82, and Bingham Military School, 1883-1884. Farmer. Was justice of the peace for fourteen years. Superintendent of Edgecombe County roads, 1901-3. Master Mason for twenty-two years, also Royal Arch Mason. Secretary of Farmers' Alliance for several years. Methodist. Steward for twenty years. Superintendent of Sunday-school for twelve years. Married Miss Lucy G. Cherry, June, 1901. Address: Rocky Mount, N. C.
SILAS J. BENNETT, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth County, was born in Surry County, N. C., August 21, 1874. Son of William and Arenia (Boyles) Bennett. Received his preparatory education at Pinnacle High School and his collegiate education at Wake Forest College, where he studied law. President of law class, 1911. Admitted to the bar, 1912. Member Jr. O. U. A. M. and I. O. O. F. Has filled all chairs. Baptist. Married Miss Lula Haley in 1896. One son. Address: Winston-Salem, N. C.
WILLIAM PORTER, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth. Address: Kernersville, N. C.
JAMES ARCHIBALD TURNER, Democrat, Representative from Franklin County, was born at Raleigh, N. C., April 4, 1875. Son of Henry C. and Katherine (Black) Turner. Educated at the Oxford public schools and Oxford High School. Real estate and insurance agent. Secretary and treasurer of the Eastern Realty and Trust Company, Louisburg, N. C.; supervisor for the State of North Carolina for the Hartford Life Insurance Company. Secretary of the Democratic County Executive Committee. Member of Board of Aldermen, 1910; Mayor. Member of Company D, Third Infantry, N. C. N. G. Mason since 1894. Methodist. Trustee and steward. Married Miss Emily Burta Harris, November, 1897. Five children, four girls and a boy. Address: Louisburg, N. C.
SAMUEL SYLVANUS MAUNEY, Democrat, Representative from Gaston County, N. C., was born in Cleveland County, N. C., October 11, 1851. Son of David and Fannie (Carpenter) Mauney. Received his academic education in the public schools in the 60's. Attended Catawba College, 1872-73. Banker, manufacturer, farmer. President Cherryville Manufacturing Company, 1900-1904; president Vivian
Cotton Mills since 1897; president First National Bank of Cherryville, 1904; director of Cherryville Manufacturing Company, Gaston Manufacturing Company, First National Bank of Kings Mountain, N. C. Public school teacher, 1873-1883; trustee of Lenoir College. Hickory, N. C., since 1904; chairman of Board of Trustees, Cherryville Graded Schools since 1907; Mayor of Cherryville, 1903. Lutheran; deacon, 1890-1907; elder since 1907; Sunday-school teacher and treasurer since 1890. Married Miss Margaret Rudisill, September 1, 1875. Eight children, four girls and four boys. Address: Cherryville, N. C.
DAVID P. DELLINGER, Democrat, Representative from Gaston County, was born near Cherryville, N. C. Son of John C. and Barbara (Glenn) Dellinger. Received his preparatory education under Sylvanus Erwin and at the Normal Institute, 1893-1896. A.B. of Rutherford College, 1898. Represented Newtonia Literary Society in Annual Declamation Contest, 1897. Studied law at Rutherford College, 1898-99, and at the University of North Carolina, 1900. Lawyer. Mayor of Cherryville, 1900-2. Member of General Assembly. 1909. Mason, Royal Arch Mason, K. of P., D. O. K. K. Baptist. Superintendent Sunday-school, 1903, 1906, 1907-9. Treasurer of South Fork Baptist Association. Delivered alumni address at commencement, 1912, Rutherford College. Married Miss Grace Abernathy, July, 1903. One daughter. Address: Gastonia, N. C.
GLADSTONE DAUGHTRY GATLING, Democrat, Representative from Gates County, was born in Gates County, April 27, 1880. Son of Riddick and Penina (Willey) Gatling. Received his academic education at Reynoldson, Gates County, N. C., 1888-1894. Merchant and farmer. Justice of the peace, 1908-1912. Member of Gatesville Lodge, A. F. and A. M., No. 126; Worshipful Master, 1912; delegate to the Grand Lodge in Raleigh, 1906. Episcopalian; Senior Warden, 1911-1912. Address: Roduco, N. C.
ROBERT LEE PHILLIPS, Democrat, Representative from Graham County, was born in 1879. Son of Mrs. Martha Ann Phillips. Educated in the Robbinsville public schools, and at the University of North Carolina, where he studied law. Lawyer. Private in Third United States Cavalry; served in Philippine War from 1899-1901. Member of Jr. O. U. A. M. Married Miss Sallie Rogers. Two children, one girl and one boy. Address: Robbinsville, N. C.
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS DEVIN, Democrat, Representative from Granville County, was born in Granville County, July 12, 1871. Son of Robert I. and Mary Transou Devin. Educated at Horner Military School, 1883-1886; Wake Forest College, 1886-1889. Vice president Literary Society; marshal; member baseball and football teams; K. A. Greek Letter Fraternity. University Law School, 1892-1893. Ghimghoul Society. Lawyer. Member Granville Commercial Club; member Board Graded School Trustees, Oxford, 1901; Mayor of Oxford, 1903-1909; member Board Town Commissioners, 1909-1910; chairman County Democratic Executive Committee, 1910; chairman County Board Elections, 1906-1908. Representative in the General Assembly, 1911. Captain Company E, Third Infantry, N. C. N. G., 1901-1906. Fraternal order: I. O. O. F., 1900. Baptist; member missionary committee, deacon. Delivered number of addresses on Layman's Missionary Movement during 1910-1911. Married. November 29, 1899, Miss Virginia Bernard. One child. Address: Oxford, N. C.
LEVI J. H. MEWBORN, Democrat, Representative from Greene County, was born in Greene County, August 31, 1842. Son of Parrott and Mary (Aldridge) Mewborn. Educated in the public schools. Farmer. Justice of the peace for twenty years; member of the Board of Education for sixteen years. Secretary and treasurer of
the Greene County branch of the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Association. Served in the Civil War as a private. Primitive Baptist; served as clerk since 1883, as deacon since 1906, and as clerk of the Contentnea Primitive Baptist Association from 1885-1908. Married Miss Ruth C. Whitted, July 4, 1866. Eleven children, five sons and six daughters. Address: Snow Hill, N. C.
THOMAS JACKSON GOLD, Democrat, Representative from Guilford County, was born in Shelby, N. C., April 11, 1879. Son of W. F. and Margaret (Elliott) Gold. Received his academic education at Piedmont High School, Lawnsdale, N. C., 1899. Wake Forest College. Ph.B. of University of North Carolina, 1903. Was Washington's birthday orator, business manager of the Tar Heel, commencement orator, member Athletic Advisory Committee, 1903. Won Freshman medal for oratory and debating, 1900. Studied at Law School of University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Member of Manufacturers' Club of High Point. Member Industrial Club of High Point. Judge Recorder's Court of city of High Point, 1911-1912. Mason (Blue Lodge and Royal Arch). Junior Order United American Mechanics. Elks. Red Men. Baptist. Married Miss Nina Wheeler, April 24, 1907. Two sons. Address: High Point, N. C.
EDWARD J. JUSTICE, Democrat, Representative from Guilford County. Lawyer. State Senator, 1903. Representative from McDowell County, 1899; from Guilford County, and Speaker, 1907. Address: Greensboro. N. C.
JAMES RUFUS GORDON, Democrat, of Guilford County, was born at Jamestown, N. C., February 23, 1857. Son of James J. and Elizabeth (Mills) Gordon. Educated in common schools of Guilford
County. M.D. of Baltimore Medical College. Physician. Member of Guilford County Medical Society and North Carolina State Medical Society. Representative from Guilford County in General Assembly, 1905, 1907, 1909. Fraternal order: Jr. O. U. A. M., Past Councilor. Methodist; trustee and steward. Married, 1884, Miss Mary E. Idol; 1894, Miss Lizzie Henley. Six children. Address: Jamestown, N. C.
WALTER THOMAS CLEMENT, Democrat, Representative from Halifax County, was born in Granville County, N. C. Son of Thomas D. and Mary Elizabeth Clement. Attended Horner's Military School, Oxford, N. C. Tobacco dealer at Enfield, N. C. Mayor of Scotland Neck, 1900-1901; Mayor Enfield, 1905-1912; member General Assembly, 1911. Presbyterian. Married Miss Elizabeth Whitaker in 1904. Two children. Address: Enfield, N. C.
W. P. WHITE, Democrat, Representative from Halifax. Representative from Halifax, 1899, 1901, 1903. Address: Hobgood, N. C.
ERNEST FOSTER YOUNG, Democrat, Representative from Harnett County, was born in Dinwiddie County, Va., March 22, 1870. Son of John T. S. and Mary E. (Foster) Young. Educated in public schools of Wilson and at Wilson Collegiate Institute. Lawyer. Chairman of Board of County Commissioners of Harnett County, 1898-1904. Member Knights of Pythias and I. O. O. F. Methodist Married Miss Alma Fleming, November 26, 1890. Two children, one son and one daughter. Address: Dunn, N. C.
DAVID R. NOLAND, Democrat, Representative from Haywood. Address: Crabtree, R. F. D. 1.
JOHN P. PATTON, Democrat, Representative from Henderson County, was born in that county. Son of Aaron F. and Rozilla (Garven) Patton. Attended Newton Academy, Asheville, N. C., 1871-73. Merchant. For three years was chairman of Board of Education of Henderson County. Baptist; deacon for fifteen years. Married Miss Sue C. Barnett in 1881. Four children, two boys and two girls. Address: Flat Rock, N. C.
JOHN THOMAS WILLIAMS, Democrat, Representative from Hertford County, was born in Bertie County, February 27, 1851. Son of Benjamin B. and Elizabeth (Harrell) Williams. Educated in public schools. Farmer, merchant, and banker. President Bank of Ahoskie since its organization; trustee of Chowan College, Murfreesboro, and member of the Executive Committee. County Commissioner; chairman of County Board of Education, 1911-12. Member I. O. O. F. Baptist. Married Miss Addie C. McDade, October, 1878; five daughters. Address: Harrellsville, N. C.
THOMAS McBRYDE, Democrat, Representative from Hoke County, was born in Robeson County in 1842. Son of Malcolm and Mary (Gilchrist) McBryde. University of North Carolina, 1856-57. Farmer. County Commissioner, 1888-92. Chairman Democratic Executive Committee, 1894-96. State Senator from Robeson County, 1903. Commissioned officer in Confederate Army, 1861-65, rank of major on General London's staff of U. C. V., 1903. Presbyterian. Married Miss Mary McDuffie, 1882. Six children, three sons and three daughters. Address: Red Springs. N. C.
JOHN MONROE CLAYTON, Democrat, Representative from Hyde County, was born at Engelhard, N. C., October 18, 1851. Son of William P. and Susan Jane (Henry) Clayton. Educated at Amity Academy, Lake Landing, N. C. Farmer. Chairman of Board of Shellfish Commissioners. Member of Masonic Lodge, Farmers' Union, United Sons of Hyde County. Junior and Senior Warden of Masonic Lodge, and president of Farmers' Union and of United Sons of Hyde County. Methodist. Married Miss Mary R. Midyette. Address: Engelhard, N. C.
THOMAS NEWBERRY HALL, Democrat, Representative from Iredell County, was born in Rowan County, May 4, 1869. Son of Newberry F. and Martha E. (Shuford) Hall. Educated in the county schools of Rowan. Druggist at Mooresville, N. C. Member K. of P.; I. O. H.; W. O. W., and Royal Arcanum. Chancellor commander, K. of P., 1896, reëlected six times; served as prelate of lodge for several years past; financier of I. O. H. for the last sixteen years; clerk of W. O. W. for fifteen years; collector for Royal Arcanum for eight years. Presbyterian. Elder since 1902. Married Miss Lucy Abernathy, 1893. Two children, one son and one daughter. Address: Mooresville, N. C.
HARRY PERCY GRIER, Democrat, Representative from Iredell County, was born at Yorkville, S. C., March 20, 1871. Son of William L. and Mary (Barron) Grier. Received his academic education in Statesville. Read law with Major Harvey Bingham of Statesville, and was licensed to practice in South Carolina at September Term, 1893. Lawyer. Chairman County Board of Elections from creation of office until elected Mayor in 1907. Member of Democratic Congressional Committee for past ten years. Associate Reformed Presbyterian. Deacon. Married Miss Marietta Leinster on October 10, 1905. Three sons. Address: Statesville, N. C.
WILLIAM DALLAS WIKE, Democrat, Representative from Jackson County, was born in Jackson County, December 18, 1867. Son of David M. and Alice (Norton) Wike. Attended Cullowhee High School, and graduated therein 1893. Took teachers' training course of study in Howard Payne College (Tex.). Taught school nine years. Lumberman and merchant at Cullowhee. Was member of County Board of Examiners for teachers in McCullough County, Texas, in 1894. Member of the County Board of Elections, 1900. Methodist; steward. Married Miss Emma J. Hampton in 1896. Seven children, all girls. Address: Cullowhee, N. C.
CHARLES MARSHALL WILSON, Democrat, Representative from Johnston County, was born in Warrenton, N. C., May 14, 1858. Son of John M. and Susan G. (Bobbitt) Wilson. Received his academic education in Selma, 1873-1876, and Bingham Military School, Mebane. N. C., 1879-78. Manufacturer, farmer, and merchant. President of Johnston Agricultural Society, 1911-12. Chairman Board County Commissioners, 1898-1906. Chairman Johnston County Finance Committee and has been for fourteen years. State Senator, 1907. Member Selma Lodge, 320, A. F. and A. M.; Junior Warden, 1907. Jr. O. U. A. M. President Johnston County branch Farmers' Educational and Coöperative Union of America, 1911. Christian Disciple; deacon. Married Miss Nova K. Uzzle. Three children, two sons and one daughter. Address: Wilsons Mills, N. C.
LINVILLE H. ALLRED, Democrat, Representative from Johnston County, was born at Charlotte, N. C., June 14, 1876. Son of Rev. B. C. and Sallie J. (Rives) Allred. Educated at Holly Springs High School, 1890-1896; Trinity College; Wake Forest Law School; licensed by Supreme Court, 1903. Lawyer. Member of North Carolina Bar Association; Mayor of Youngsville about four years; Superintendent
Youngsville High School; at present Town Attorney of Selma. Representative from Johnston County, 1911. Fraternal orders: Odd Fellow (Past Grand at present); Jr. O. U. A. M., Smithfield, N. C.; recipient of all degrees in York Rite Masonry, from Master Mason to Shrine; has served as Master of Blue Lodge, now High Priest of Royal Arch Chapter, at Selma; for past three years District Deputy Grand Master, Twelfth Masonic District, North Carolina. Married, December 23, 1908, Miss Myrtle May. One child. Address: Selma, N. C.
JACKSON K. DIXON, Democrat, Representative from Jones County, was born at Tuckahoe, N. C., January 27, 1878. Son of F. M. and Susan E. Dixon. Educated in public schools in township; Trenton High School two years. Merchant and farmer. Mayor of Trenton; Register of Deeds, Jones County. Representative from Jones County, 1911. Fraternal orders: Mason; Woodman of the World (has been clerk in Woodman Camp, Trenton, N. C.). Member Christian Church, and clerk in same. Married, January 13, 1902, Miss Mamie B. Gerock. Three children. Address: Trenton, N. C.
AARON ASHLEY FLOWERS SEAWELL, Democrat, Representative from Lee County, was born in Moore County, October 30, 1864. Son of A. A. F. and Jeannette L. (Buie) Seawell. Attended the Jonesboro High School, 1879-1880. Ph.B. of the University of North Carolina, 1889. Studied law at the University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Represented Moore County in the General Assembly, 1901; Senator from the Twenty-second District, 1907. A. F. and A. M.; Jr. O. U. A. M. Presbyterian; elder since 1896. Married Miss Bertha Smith in 1905. One daughter and three sons. Address: Jonesboro, N. C.
EMMETT R. WOOTEN, Democrat, of Lenoir County, was born at Fort Barnwell, Craven County, N. C., November 2, 1878. Son of John C.
and Mary (Cobb) Wooten. Educated at private school in Kinston, Wake Forest College, University of North Carolina. Studied law under Judge A. C. Avery and at University Law School. Admitted to the bar, 1900. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Association. Attorney for the city of Kinston, 1904, 1905, 1906. County Attorney, 1903-1904. Trustee of University of North Carolina; member of special committee appointed by Governor to visit and report to Governor and board of trustees on affairs and condition of University. Representative in General Assembly from Lenoir County, 1909, 1911. Fraternal orders: Kappa Alpha (college fraternity), Odd Fellows, Camp of Odd Fellows, Junior Order United American Mechanics. Married, April 20, 1904, Miss Nannie Cox. Two children. Address: Kinston, N. C.
ROBERT BENJAMIN KILLIAN, Democrat, Representative from Lincoln County, was born in Catawba County, N. C., September 15, 1856. Son of Ephraim Killian and Mary (Killian) Killian. Attended Rural District School; Woodlawn Business School; Catawba College, Newton; Conover College, Newton; Louisville (Ky.) Medical College, 1885, M.D.; post-graduate course, New York Post-graduate Hospital School, 1887-88 and 1891-92. Physician and farmer. Member Lincoln County Medical Society. Lutheran; elder since 1908. Married Miss Ella Rhodes in 1892. One son and one daughter. Address: Lincolnton, N. C., R.F.D.
J. FRANK RAY, Democrat, Representative from Macon County, was born in Macon County, N. C., in 1856. Son of John and Nancy (Sumner) Ray. Educated in free schools of the county and at Franklin Academy. Lawyer. Representative in General Assembly 1881, 1883, 1891, 1893, 1895, 1897, 1899, 1911, and 1913. In the session of 1895 he was nominated for Speaker by the Democratic minority of the House and was defeated by the Fusionists by a very small vote. State Senator, 1897. Trustee of N. C. A. and M. College many years. Baptist in principle. Poet. Married, in 1889, Miss Josephine Fouts, Five children. Address: Franklin, N. C.
JAMES ENOCH RECTOR, Republican, Representative from Madison County, was born in Tennessee, December 21, 1882. Son of Andrew Jackson and Mary Elizabeth (Perkins) Rector. Educated in the public schools, Dorland Institute at Hot Springs, 1899, and Tusculum College. Studied law under J. J. Britt, Asheville, N. C. Admitted to bar, 1909. Lawyer. Secretary of Merchants' Association; president of S. P. C. A. Member of Jr. O. U. A. M. Has been secretary and was recently made vice councilor. Methodist; steward; superintendent of Sunday-school. Address: Hot Springs, N. C.
ARCHER R. DUNNING, Democrat, Representative from Martin County, was born in Aulander, October 2, 1877. Son of W. J. and Roxana (Rice) Dunning. Received his academic education at the High School of Aulander, until 1896. M.A. of Wake Forest College, 1900. President Eu. Society; salutatorian, Class 1900; Senior speaker, 1900; commencement speaker, 1900; represented Wake Forest College in debate with Trinity, 1900. Manager Baseball Team. Lawyer. Mayor of Robersonville, 1905-6; vice president and general counsel for Bank of Jamesville since 1911. President Lotus Club, Williamston, N. C. Noble in Oasis Temple, Charlotte; St. John's Commandery, No. 10, New Bern; Canaho Chapter, 12, Royal Arch; Stonewall, 296, A. F. and A. M. Robersonville; B. P. O. E., No. 822, Worthington, N. C.; Jr. O. U. A. M. City Attorney of Robersonville, 1904-5. Baptist. Married Miss Alice Grimes. Address: Williamston, N. C.
PINCKNEY H. MASHBURN, Republican, Representative from McDowell County, was born at Old Fort, N. C. Son of William and Martha (Grant) Mashburn. Received his academic education at Greenville High School. Merchant. Sheriff of McDowell County, 1903-1911. State Senator, 1911. Member of Masonic Lodge, of which he is the secretary. Married Miss Mamie Sanderlin, February 5, 1899. One child. Address: Old Fort, N. C.
PLUMMER STEWART, Democrat, Representive from Mecklenburg. Studied law at University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Address: Charlotte, N. C.
W. G. McLAUGHLIN, Democrat, Representative from Mecklenburg County, 1909, 1911. Farmer. Address: Charlotte, N. C.
WILLIAM A. GRIER, Democrat, Representative from Mecklenburg County, was born in Mecklenburg County, N. C., November 27, 1850. Son of T. P. and G. (Strong) Grier. Educated in common schools of Mecklenburg County. Farmer. Representative in General Assembly from Mecklenburg County, 1907, 1909, 1911. Presbyterian; elder; superintendent of Sunday-school. Married, November 8, 1877, Miss Belle Crawford. Five children. Lived in Gaston County, 1877-1892. Elected by Prohibition Association of Gaston County to push bill through Legislature of 1891 prohibiting sale of liquor in said county, and succeeded in getting the bill passed. Address: Charlotte, N. C., R.F.D. 3.
MARION L. BUCHANAN, Republican, Representative from Mitchell County, was born at Bakersville, N. C., January 16, 1872. Son of George A. and Louise (McKinney) Buchanan. Educated in public and private schools of Bakersville. Farmer. Taught school several years. Justice of the peace, 1898. Elected to State Senate, 1900. Elected Clerk of the Superior Court of Mitchell County, 1906; held office for four years. Appointed Deputy Clerk of Superior Court, 1910. Baptist; deacon. Married Miss Emma Byrd, November, 1903. Four children, two sons and two daughters. Address: Bakersville, N. C.