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Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
of North Carolina,
for the Scholastic Years 1898-'99 to 1899-1900:

Electronic Edition.

North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction

C. H. Mebane (Charles Harden), 1862-1926

Funding from the Institute for Museum and Library Services supported the electronic publication of this title.

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First edition, 2003
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,

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(title page) Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the Scholastic Years 1898-'99 to 1899-1900
(serial title) Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the Scholastic Years ...
(running title) Biennial Report of the Superintendent Public Instruction
(caption title) Biennial Report of the Superintendent Public Instruction
North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction
530 p.
Edwards & Broughton and
E.M. Uzzell, State Printers.
Presses of Edwards & Broughton.

Call number C379 N87p 1896-1902 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
Serial Title: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the Scholastic Years ...
Insert reads: "With compliments and good wishes, C.H. Mebane, Supt. Pub. Inst. North Carolina."

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[Title Page]

Superintendent of Public Instruction
SCHOLASTIC YEARS 1898-'99 AND 1899-1900


Page 2


RALEIGH, N. C., Dec. 1, 1900.

To His Excellency DANIEL L. RUSSELL,
Governor of North Carolina.

        DEAR SIR: In accordance with Section 2540 of the Code, I have the honor to submit my Biennial Report for the scholastic years 1898-'99, and 1899-1900.

        In this report will be found recommendations such as seem to me, after careful thought and consideration, best for the advancement of the cause of public education in our State.

Very respectfully,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

Page 3

Superintendent of Public Instruction.


        The present State Board of Examiners is composed of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex officio Chairman; L. L. Hobbs, of Guilford College; M. C. S. Noble, of the University, and J. A. Campbell, of Buie's Creek Academy.

        The powers of this Board should be increased. It is my opinion that this Board should prepare all the examinations for public school teachers of the entire State. The Board should meet twice each year for this purpose, prepare the questions and send out instructions to the County Superintendents as to grading.

        We now have no uniformity of requirements. In some counties the standard of requirement for teachers is exceedingly low, and perhaps in a county near by the standard is good. We want the standard good in all the counties.

        These certificates given under the uniform examinations, should be good for one year in any county in the State, by making it the duty of the County Superintendent to endorse every such certificate presented to him by teachers from any other county, unless he has information that such teacher or teachers are morally disqualified to teach, then he shall refuse to endorse such certificates.

        In cases where it can be shown that the applicant could not, for any cause, take either of the examinations, then let

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the County Superintendent give examination and issue certificate good for one year for his county alone.

        In order to prepare for this uniform work, the County Superintendents might be authorized to renew the certificates given, or it could be made to go into effect one year after enacted into law.

        If this additional work is required of the Board, it would be well to allow a reasonable compensation to all the members except the Superintendent of Public Instruction.


        I advise that the County Board of School Directors be required to publish an itemized statement annually of the receipts and disbursements of the School Fund. The public have a perfect right to know how and for what every cent of the public fund is spent. The reports for years in the office of Superintendent Public Instruction show that thousands and thousands of dollars have been spent in the columns marked "Paid for other purposes."

        If every one of these "purposes" were published in the counties, I think it would cause the fund to be spent more wisely and more carefully than it has been in some instances in the past.

        The County Board of Directors should still be required to keep posted in every public school-house a list of the text-books adopted to be used in the schools. The name of each book should be given and the price to be paid for it by the children.

        This should be done as a matter of convenience to teachers and the children. It should be done especially as a matter of protection to parents in the purchase of books for their children. We heard of book dealers charging parents more for the books than the contract price. This could not be done if the teachers had the list published on stiff pasteboard and

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hung up in each school-house, because the parents, as well as teachers and children, would know just what the price of each book is, and could not be imposed upon by the dealer or any one else as to prices of books.

        According to Sec. 770 of The Code, the County Treasurer is ex officio the County Treasurer of the County Board of Directors, and the commission of this treasurer of the school fund is fixed by County Commissioners.

        Or, in other words, the treasurer who serves the Board of Directors has his commission of the school fund fixed by a board that has nothing to do with the school fund. This commission on the school fund should be fixed by the County Board of Directors.

        The County Board of Education is responsible for the school fund, and should have authority over the man who handles this fund more than they now have.


        It would be a wise thing to make the County Superintendent ex officio the treasurer of the public school fund of his county. He should be required to give bond to protect the fund, as is now required of the County Treasurer.

        The main reason why we should have a treasurer of the school fund, is that in some counties the Sheriff is County Treasurer as well as Sheriff, and often the school fund is mixed up with the county fund. This mixture occurs even where there are County Treasurers.

        And again, if any fund in the county is to be borrowed, or needed for something else in the county, we find that the school fund is used first, last and all the time for these emergencies. Let us have a separate officer for this school fund. Let the County Commissioners build their bridges and their roads, but let us shut them out from our public school fund.

        I believe it will save money for the schools. I know we would have less trouble in getting reports from the counties.

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        I now have letters from Treasurers of counties from which no report of the school fund was made last year, and none this year; and why? Because they say their predecessors mixed the school fund with other funds; that some of the school fund was used or borrowed for this purpose or for that purpose.

        We have only to look over the records in the office here to see how this loose management of the school fund has gone on for twenty years.

        In the name of the school children of North Carolina, I ask that we have this fund kept separate and distinct. Let us see to it that when the school year closes, that the Superintendent of Public Instruction will have a report of the school fund from every county in the State.

        Give us this separate treasurer of the school fund for the County Board of Education, and we will have no more of this borrowing and mixing of the most sacred public money that any county has.


        I simply wish to repeat here what I wrote two years ago of the County Supervisors, as the officials were called then.

        In the first place, no man should be eligible to the office of County Superintendent unless he is a graduate from some college, or if not a graduate, he shall, at least, first be required to take the examinations for life certificate, and if not competent to pass this examination he shall not be eligible to this important office.

        We have some well educated, well qualified Superintendents, men who have done faithful work and are prepared for this work; some men who are making themselves felt among their teachers and the people of their counties, but we have not ninety-seven such men, and this is what we want and must have.

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        I know that there is at least one good, strong school man to be found in every county in the State. In most of our counties there are numerous strong school men. Has North Carolina ever had ninety-six of these strongest school men for County Superintendents, for County Examiners, or for County Supervisors? If not, then why not?

        In numerous cases, of course, the best men for these places would not accept them, because of the worry and small compensation.

        In numerous cases the best men for these places have never had an opportunity to fill the positions.

        Why have not the men best qualified to fill these positions been elected in every county in North Carolina ever since we had the office of County Superintendent, of County Examiner and of County Supervisor? I am sorry to tell those of you why, who do not already know, but I will do it. Politics was the cause, and is the cause to-day.

        The public schools have been in the galling grasp of the court-house politicians for twenty years in some of the counties.

        The County Superintendent owes his election, both directly and indirectly, to the county officers. These are the masters he is supposed to serve; these are the men to whom he must render an account of his stewardship.

        Away with such. Let us break away from this court-house ring business.

        Let the Superintendent render his account to the teachers, to the children and to the parents. Yea, let him render his account to all the people of his county, not in the interest of a half-dozen men about the court-house, but in the interest and progress of public education of his entire county, regardless of any political party or power.

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        To this end I recommend that we elect the County Superintendent by the teachers and educators of the county. Let each first-grade certificate public school teacher have a vote, each life certificate teacher and each teacher in the county who is a graduate of a State chartered college.

        This will be an inducement for the public school teachers to work and study to rise from a second grade to the first grade.

        The college men and private school teachers would be a check on the Superintendent to keep him from manipulating to secure his own election, as he might possibly do if his election depended entirely upon public school teachers.

        The college men and private school teachers would thus be brought into active touch with the public schools--would have an interest in the public schools. This interest and sympathy is sadly needed, and can never be secured under our present management. In fact, at present we do not even have the respect of some private school men. Why? Because school men have not been respected in the management of our public schools, as they should have been in many instances. I believe this method of electing the Superintendent would release the schools from political influence so far as the Superintendent is concerned.

        I believe in this way a man would be elected for his educational power and influence, instead of for his political power, as is often the case under the present law.



        What man in North Carolina who does about $60,000 worth of business a year, will want a superintendent of his business

Page 9

to whom he pays only $128? This is what Wake County did last year after deducting the fees turned in for private examinations. What think ye, gentlemen of the Legislature, of the metropolitan county of North Carolina paying its County Superintendent $128?

        In Durham County, Mecklenburg and Buncombe, it is some better.


        First. Because the greater the fund, the greater the responsibility.

        Second. You can not name a salary, because in some counties the school fund is small, and the uniform salary will not be practicable.

        I advise that the compensation of the County Superintendent be made not less than one and one-half per cent, and not more than four per cent of the school fund, thus fixing a minimum and a maximum, and leaving the definite per cent between these at the discretion of the County Boards.

        We want the best brain and the best talent to be had in this work of the County Superintendent, and we must pay for it if we get it, and we may as well recognize this fact, and quit our foolishness about this public school work, in its various departments.


        The present school law is too much burdened with machinery. We have too many officers, too many that have a "little brief authority."

        I think it would be much better to have only three men in each township to have the management and control of all the public schools of said township, both the white and the colored

Page 10

schools. Either do this or abolish the Township Trustees, and have the County Board of Education apportion the funds per capita to the townships, and said Board in turn again apportion and even up length of schools in the townships, as is now required of the Township Trustees.

        It is my opinion that the plan first mentioned would be much better for the cause of public education than the latter plan.


        No man should be eligible to the office unless he can read and write, and is qualified to do ordinary business, and most important of all, he should be in favor of public education and public taxes for schools, if not, he will be an absolute failure as a school official.

        Above all, men should be selected who know something of the value of a good teacher to a community; men who will secure the services of the very best teachers, without any regard to whose sons or daughters such teachers may be; without any regard to what church such teachers may belong, and last, but by no means least, without any regard to what political party the teacher may be in sympathy with.

        I want, in the name of the public school teachers, in the name of the children, and in the cause of public education, to demand that we have the very best men that can be secured for School Committeemen in every county in this entire State.


        The Committee should not be allowed to divide the school of any one year into two terms, as is now done in some places.

        We have heard of schools where the Committee employed one teacher two months in the summer, and another teacher for two months, for the same children, in the winter.

        How can children ever make any progress, and schools be of any value to a community, when we have such management on the part of School Cmmitteemen?

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        The best teacher in the whole State could accomplish very little in two months, and then go back after a lapse of six months and teach two months or six weeks more. If the best teacher could accomplish very little by dividing the term, what can we expect from the average public school teacher, when one is employed six weeks in summer, and another, who teaches almost entirely different, is employed for two months during the winter season?


        I think we should keep the township as the unit in the county, and have funds apportioned and houses built with reference to the various townships. This can be done, even if the Township Trustees are abolished, as the duties of these officials can be performed by the County Board of Education.

        It is important that we keep the township as a unit, in order to make it an easy matter for the rural districts to have a special tax for their schools, as no territory less than this can vote a special tax, except incorporated towns and cities, by special acts of the Legislature.


        One of the most serious mistakes of the Legislature of 1899, was the repeal of the Acts of 1897, in regard to certain townships that had voted upon themselves a special tax, and entered into a contract with the State for three years.

        Instead of repealing laws whereby townships had voted special taxes, it would have been wiser to legislate to encourage and make it easier to have the special tax. The future citizen of North Carolina will look upon this as a backward step.


        The State Board of Examiners prepared a course of study for these schools, and have tried to have said course followed.

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        A great part of the work done in these normals for several years, should have been done in the Graded Schools for colored people in the towns where the normals are located. For example, the work done at Goldsboro should be done in the Graded Schools of Goldsboro, without one cent of special appropriation by the State.

        I still find that a great deal of the work done is not thorough, and is not practical. I find that the pupils have a smattering of many subjects, and do not know thoroughly and well any one subject. I find great haste to get away from arithmetic, geography, spelling and English grammar, in order to study Latin, algebra and other higher studies, for which the most of the colored teachers will never have any practical use, none whatever, especially those who teach the public schools.

        I would not for one moment find any objection to the higher studies if the lower studies are mastered first.

        If I understand the object of these so-called Normal Schools, they are intended to teach the pupils the studies required in our public schools, that the pupils shall know these subjects, and know how to impart this knowledge to their pupils.


        There is no need of the State trying to have a Normal School at Salisbury, as Livingstone College is located there.

        I advised two years ago that the number be decreased, and the efficiency increased.

        Let the money we spend in the seven schools be spent in three schools.

        Let us have the very best brain and talent to be had among the colored teachers. I do not care where they come from. If we have the men in North Carolina, why, of course, let us

Page 13

use them; if not, let us go North, South, East or West, until we find the men. The men can be found; no trouble about this.?

        Some will say, it will never do, because we can not reach so many of the colored people as we now do.

        I admit that we might not reach so large a number of pupils, but we would do something for those we reach.

        I would rather be able to send out one good, strong, well trained teacher to a whole county, than to send to this same county twenty-four poorly-trained, weak teachers, "who know not, and know not that they know not."

        This one well trained, wide-awake teacher can and will organize the teachers of his county. He will have them pursuing a course of study similar to what he has had. He will give inspiration to others to go to the Normal. In a few years we will have a class of teachers of power and ability, and in this way my saving of money would come in, because we are now spending the money and are not producing a class of strong teachers.

        Dr. J. L. Curry, General Agent of the Peabody Fund, most heartily concurs with the idea of consolidation. The following words were from him two years ago:

        "Your thoughts on Normal Schools I have read with much satisfaction. They are almost identical with what I said in my last address to the North Carolina Legislature. Normal Schools are frequently only so in name, and hence are deceptive and injurious. Three real Normal Schools for the training of colored teachers, properly located and supported, with competent and faithful instructors, would accomplish a vast good.

        "We need to get rid of incompetence in both white and colored schools, to divorce from politics and mere local selfishness, and give children the benefit of men and women who know how and what to teach.

        "All reforms meet with opposition."

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        This is a subject that interests, first, the child, as to what ideas he will have of the subject studied--will influence in no small degree his after life; second, this is of interest to parents in a two-fold sense, not only as to the effect upon his children, but also the effect upon his pocket-book.

        Many, very many, of the children, do not have the text-books they need, careless, indifferent parents is why many do not have them, and many are too poor to buy them.

        Two years ago I sent letters to the various State Superintendents in order that the members of the General Assembly might have some information on this subject, and in order that they may see how the books were adopted in the various States of the Union, and give, in the following list of States, what method was used in the respective States named, also give the opinion of the various Superintendents as to what they thought was the best plan of adopting books.

        There was a diversity of opinion as to the best plan. Different conditions in the different States readily showed that a plan might be good for one State that would not work well in another State.

        The Superintendent of Missouri seemed to realize something of the difficulty of this great question.

        In answer to the question as to what was the best plan of adoption, he said: "Please ask me something easy." Several of the Superintendents did not express an opinion at all. The following pages on this subject are the same as two years ago.

        The books cost the children of this State too much money, and why? What is the remedy? How may we furnish as good books as we now have, or better, for less money, to the parents of the poor children?

        Why mention parents of the poor children any more than parents of means? In North Carolina there are many children

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who are kept away from school because they have not the books, and their parents are too poor to buy them.

        I am aware that the inferior text-book, like a cheap piece of machinery, or an incompetent teacher, is dear at any price.

        There are, of course, different things which enter into the manufacture of text-books. The times demand the most education possible in the least time possible. The arrangement and selection of material is of very great importance.

        Our books must contain what is necessary for information, or discipline, and that which is unnecessary must be omitted.

        The subjects must have the various points arranged in their logical order, in order that these subjects may be instructive and at the same time entertaining to the young mind.

        So we conclude that the text-book writer must be a thinker, a specialist, and not a mere compiler.

        But in my opinion the cost of books is not so much the expense of the literary work and mechanical make-up of the book as the cost of putting the books on the market.

        The adoption of the text-books in North Carolina in June, 1896, cost the various text-book companies thousands of dollars.

        Who pays all this enormous expense in the end? The parents of the children, of course. Those who use the books foot the bill.

        Why not do away with all this expense of adoption and give the children the benefit of all these thousands of dollars in reduction of prices on text-books?

        Can it be done? I believe it can.

        I advise that the text-books be adopted by the State Board of Examiners, which is composed of educators, of school men.

        The law should provide that the maximum price paid should not exceed seventy-five per cent of the published list wholesale price.

        If this Board could adopt the books for the whole State, we

Page 16

ought to secure the books at sixty per cent of wholesale price, or perhaps even fifty per cent, because there would be no expense of thousands of dollars for agents, which expense, as was mentioned, comes out of the parents' pockets in the end, and this deduction of the thousands could be taken from the prices our parents pay at present for the books of their children.

        In all the mercantile business, and other business of which I have heard anything, the amount of goods bought has a great deal to do with the price to be paid by the purchaser. For example, the merchant that buys a car-load of bacon, gets a great reduction of price in comparison with the merchant that buys only a few hundred pounds.

        Applying this method of business to the purchase of books, it is reasonable to expect better terms as to cost of books from any publishing house, if said house can make sale for ninety-six counties instead of a county here and there.

        But if the General Assembly does not think it the part of wisdom to put the adoption of text-books in the hands of the State Board of Examiners, and prefers the adoption by local boards instead, then, in this case, I advise that the local boards be given all the protection and aid possible in this important duty.

        I publish, in connection with this subject, the law of the State of Ohio, which seems to me would be the best plan, if we are to continue local adoption. Certain changes can be made in the different sections to suit the conditions of our State.

        For instance, in Section 2, instead of having a Commission composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, etc., I would put the State Board of Examiners. Other changes in other sections could be easily made to suit our needs in this State.

        It will be seen from reading this law that each Board of Education shall determine, by a majority vote of all members-elect,

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which of the books so filed shall be used in the schools under its control.

        Each Board also has power to make necessary provisions and arrangements to place the books within easy reach of the pupils. Ten per cent may be added to the cost of the price to pay for handling the books. Under this law it will also be observed that the Boards pay for all the books, and the proceeds of the sale of the books are repaid into the contingent fund. There is also a provision for free text-books if the electors so direct.

        It is reported that thirty-eight leading companies have sold books under this law to the different Boards in the State. This law, at least, does not crowd out the book companies.


        SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That any publisher or publishers of school books in the United States desiring to offer school books for use by pupils in the common schools of Ohio as hereinafter provided, shall, before such books may be lawfully adopted and purchased by any school board in this State, file in the office of the state commissioner of common schools, a copy of each book proposed to be so offered, together with the published list wholesale price thereof, and no revised edition of any such book shall be used in the common schools until a copy of such revised edition shall have been filed in the office of the said commissioner, together with the published list wholesale price thereof. The said commissioner shall carefully preserve in his office all such copies of books and the prices thereof so filed.

        SEC. 2. Whenever and so often as any book and the price thereof shall be so filed in the commissioner's office as provided in Section 1, a commission consisting of the governor, the secretary of state and the state commissioner of common schools, shall immediately fix the maximum price at which such books may be sold to or purchased by boards of education as hereinafter provided, which maximum price so fixed on any book shall not exceed seventy-five per cent of the published list wholesale price thereof, and the state commissioner of common schools shall immediately notify the publisher of such book so filed, of the maximum price so fixed. If the publisher so notified, shall notify the commissioner in writing that he accepts the price so fixed, and shall agree in writing to furnish such book

Page 18

during a period of five years at the price so fixed, such written acceptance and agreement shall entitle said publisher to offer said book so filed for sale to said board of education for use by the pupils under the terms of this act.

        SEC. 3. The said commissioner shall, during the first half of the month of June, 1896, and during the first half of the month of June in each year thereafter, furnish to each board of education the names and addresses of all publishers who shall have, during the year ending on the first day of said month of June in each year, agreed in writing to furnish their publications upon the terms provided in this act. And it shall not be lawful for any board of education to adopt or cause to be used in the common schools any book whose publisher shall not have complied, as to said book, with the provisions of this act.

        SEC. 4. If any publisher who shall have agreed in writing to furnish books as provided in this act, shall fail or refuse to furnish such books adopted as herein provided to any board of education or its authorized agent upon the terms as herein provided, it shall be the duty of said board at once to notify the said commission of such failure or refusal, and the commission shall at once cause an investigation of such charge to be made, and if the same is found to be true the commissioner shall at once notify said publisher and each board of education in the state that said book shall not hereafter be adopted and purchased by boards of education; and said publisher shall forfeit and pay to the state of Ohio five hundred dollars for each failure, to be recovered in the name of the state, in an action to be brought by the attorney-general, in the court of common pleas of Franklin County, or in any other proper court or in any other place where service can be made, and the amount, when collected, shall be paid into the state treasury to the credit of the common school fund of the state.

        SEC. 5. Each board of education, on receiving the statements above mentioned from said commissioners, shall, on the third Monday in August thereafter, meet, and at such meeting, or at an adjourned meeting within two weeks after said Monday, determine, by a majority vote of all members elected, the studies to be pursued, and which of said text-books so filed shall be used in the schools under its control, but no text-books so adopted shall be changed, nor any part thereof altered or revised, nor shall any text-book be substituted therefor for five years after the date of the selection and adoption thereof without the consent of three-fourths of all the members elected, given at a regular meeting; and each board of education shall cause it to be ascertained, and at regular meetings in April and August shall determine, which, and the number of each, of said books

Page 19

the schools under its charge shall require, until the next regular meetings in April and August, and shall cause an order to be drawn for the amount in favor of the clerk of the board of education, payable out of the contingent fund; and said clerk shall at once order said books so agreed upon by the board, of the publisher, and the publisher, on receipt of such order, shall ship such books to said clerk without delay, and the clerk shall forthwith examine such books, and if found right and in accordance with said order, remit the amount to said publisher, and the board of education shall pay all charges for the transportation of such books out of the school contingent fund; but if said boards of education can, at any time, secure of the publishers books at a price less than said maximum price, it shall be his duty to do so, and may, without unnecessary delay, make effort to secure such lower price before adopting any particular text-books. Each board of education shall have power to, and shall make all necessary provisions and arrangements to place the books so purchased within easy reach of and accessible to all the pupils in their district, and for that purpose may make such contracts and take such security as they may deem necessary, for the custody, care and sale of such books and accounting for the proceeds; but not to exceed ten per cent of the cost price shall be paid therefor, and said books shall be sold to the pupils of school age in the district at the price paid the publisher, and not to exceed ten per cent therefor added, and the proceeds of such sale shall be paid into the contingent fund of such district, and whoever receives said books from the board of education for sale as aforesaid to the pupils, and fails to account honestly and fully for the same, or for the proceeds, to the board of education when required, shall be guilty of embezzlement and punished accordingly. Provided, however, boards of education may contract with local retail dealers to furnish said books at prices above specified, the said board being still responsible to the publishers for all books purchased by the said board of education, and when pupils remove from any district, and have text-books of the kind adopted in such district, and not being of the kind adopted n the district to which they remove, and wish to dispose of the same, the board of the district from which they remove, when requested, shall purchase the same at the fair value thereof, and re-sell the same as other books; and nothing in this act shall prevent the board of education from furnishing free books to pupils as provided by lwa. That for the purpose of carrying into effect the foregoing provisions of this act, and paying the expenses incident thereto, there be and is hereby appropriated out of any money in the state treasury, to the credit of the general revenue fund, not

Page 20

otherwise appropriated, the sum of five hundred dollars, to be disbursed and paid on the allowance and order of said commissioner.

        SEC. 6. This act shall take effect and be in force on and after May 5, 1896.

        Passed April 22, 1896.

        In order that the members of the General Assembly may know something of the result of the only State, California, which owns its own plant, and prints its own books, I give figures showing the amount of money spent by the State, and the prices of text-books to the children.

        In 1885 the sum of $20,000 was appropriated for compiling a series of text-books for the common schools. One hundred and fifty thousand dollars was set aside for establishing a plant, purchasing material and payment of salaries. In 1887, $165,000 was added for the purpose last mentioned.

        Other appropriations have been made from time to time to carry on the work.

        According to figures compiled by Secretary of State of California, $405,000 has been appropriated for printing text-books.

        It has been said that the State Board expects in eight years to pay, not only for the books published, but also for the plant.

        But of course the books will need revision, the plant will wear out, and the number of books sold does not reach their expectation.

        These things will greatly hinder the financial success on the part of the State.

        From an examination of the list of books it will be seen that the prices to be paid by the children are not on the side of economy so far as the parents and purchasers are concerned.

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        From all the information I have gathered on this subject, State publication seems to be the most expensive plan of adopting text-books.

        The objections we hear to State adoption are that it shuts out competition and results often in inferior books, but I think these objections would be removed if the plan first proposed were adopted and the Board have the authority to select from the latest and best books, and at the same time secure the books at seventy-five per cent of wholesale list price or less.

        It is my duty to advise on this subject, as well as on all others pertaining to the interest of the public schools, and I have done so without fear or favor.

        Personally, I would much prefer to have nothing whatever to do with text-books, because some of my predecessors, who were honorable, honest men, were severely criticised on account of the duty they were called upon to perform in connection with the adoption of books.

        I have not given a recommendation for any books or school supplies to any person or persons since I have been in the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, but have observed

Page 22

the strictest impartiality towards agents, and have tried to be courteous and pleasant to all who have called upon me.



        Have no adoption, except three counties that have uniformity. Books selected by County Boards.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? Let the teachers of County Boards select the books for the county.


        List of books is named by the State Superintendent. The Directors are limited to this list in making their adoption. Time, three years.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? The Directors of each school district shall adopt the text-books.


        The text-books are published by the State. The State owns its own plant, and publishes its own books.


        Books are adopted by local Boards.


        Text-books are selected by local Boards. State Board of Education has authority by law to prescribe text-books, but never does so.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? The most economical way of obtaining books is probably the State system.

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The effect must be extended over ten years to realize any saving to the State.


        All books are ordered by the local School Boards, through the Trustee of the State School Fund. Time, five years.


        Each County School Board adopts books for its county. Time, five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? We have only county uniformity.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? We are satisfied with our county adoption. We have never tried any other plan. State uniformity, properly guarded and honestly done, it strikes me, ought to be good.


        Each County Board of Education selects books to be used in the county. No free books.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? Allow County Boards to buy them direct from publishers and supply them to the people at cost.


        Each District Board makes the selection for its district. No change can be made oftener than four years. Free of cost to indigent pupils.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? Free textbooks purchased by the Boards for the use of the pupils.

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        Books are adopted by a Board of School Book Commissioners for five years. Free text-books to indigent pupils.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? Our plan has been very satisfactory.


        By County Board of Education.


        Adopted by a Commission appointed by the Governor. Furnished free to all.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? I would suggest that County Superintendent supply them direct to the districts.


        Books are adopted by the State Text-Book Commission for five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? State uniformity and State ownership.


        County Board of Examiners adopt books. Publishers whose books are adopted are required to give bond, in a measure, guaranteeing prices. Term of adoption five years. Each county is required to furnish indigent children $100 worth of books on certificate of the County Superintendent that such is necessary.

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        Do you have State uniformity? State uniformity is not required by law, though the same books are largely used throughout the State.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? State uniformity, giving the State Board of Education or some other central body power to contract, thus opening up a market that encourages competition.


        Books are selected by the State Board of Education once in four years, a uniform series being provided. The Board reserves the right to make changes or additions to the list.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? The plan followed in this and many other States seems to me the best of all, though it is not without disadvantage.


        Books are adopted by the Boards of each town free to all the children. Time, five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.


        Each local School Committee selects its own books, which are furnished free to the children. They remain the property of the towns and cities, however.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? We like our plan very much.

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        Books are adopted by local Boards for five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Not yet; bill passed for that purpose last winter.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? Free text-books.


        Books are adopted by a Commission composed of Superintendent of Public Instruction, the President of the University, the President of the Agricultural College, and three public school teachers actively engaged in public school work. Time, six years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan for adopting books for the common schools? Our law gives complete satisfaction. The commission plan is undoubtedly the best, provided that the members thereof are modern, up-to-date school men, who are incorruptible.


        By the local Boards, for not less than three years and not more than five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? We are well satisfied with the workings of our law, but think it should now be made compulsory on all districts.


        School Book Commission composed of State Auditor, Attorney-General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, President of State Normal School at Kirksville, and one practical

Page 27

public school teacher appointed by the Governor. Time, five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.


        Books are adopted by the Territorial Board of Education for four years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? Adoption by State Board of Education.


        Independent districts, each selects its own books from three to five years. Schools are furnished free text-books. School Boards usually handle the books.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? We think Nebraska has the best text-book law. We buy books in the market of the United States and get as good prices as are made anywhere.


        Has State adoption by State Board of Education every four years. Expect to save from forty to fifty per cent by having books distributed from the Superintendent of Public Instruction's office.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? Our system.


        Local option as to adoption of books. Books are free. Bought by School Board from publishers.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

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        Books are adopted by local Boards and the County Superintendent.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? I believe our system the best for our schools. Competition among publishers keeps the price of books down to a minimum. Conditions in our schools vary so that books suitable in one district are not as suitable as others in another district.


        Books are adopted by local Boards.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.


        Books must be endorsed and a maximum price fixed by the Commission, consisting of Governor, Secretary of State and State Commissioner of Schools, before they can be adopted by County or District Board of Education.


        Every six years the selecting of school books is made by a vote of the County Superintendents and the State Board of Examiners, composed of nine members.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? There are some objections to our mode, but it may be impossible to get a system against which no objection will be raised. I think the main objection is the Board of Adoption is too large.


        Adopted by local Boards. Free of cost to the pupils. Bought and distributed by the Boards.

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        State adoption by State Board of Education. Time not less than five years; may be as long as the State Board wishes. Last adoption was for seven years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Practically so; to all intent and purposes, yes. It is a great saving to the people.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? Single list by the State Board, allowing the books in use to be worked out gradually, all new books to be the listed books.


        The County Superintendent suggests changes, and the Directors adopt or do not adopt, as they prefer. There is no compulsion as to adoption.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? Having intelligent Directors, it is best to leave the matter to them. In this State there are three Directors for each district.


        Books adopted by State Text-Book Board, composed of State Board of Education, Superintendent of Public Instruction, President Sam Houston Normal Institute, and Attorney-General, for five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Will go into effect September 1, 1898.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? Free schools carry with them the idea of free books. I believe if the State furnishes free tuition, some plan of free books should be adopted.

Page 30


        Books are adopted by local Boards for five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? Our experience has been confined to the method now in use, and seems fairly satisfactory.


        Each town selects the books. Change as the Board desires.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for common schools? Our present system. The Town School Board of each town selects, purchases and distributes. There is not uniformity in our towns even, because some books are better adapted to certain schools than others.


        Books are adopted by the State Board of Education for five years.

        Do you have State uniformity? Yes.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? The present plan, unless the State goes into the business itself.


        A part of the list is adopted by State contract and the rest by the County School Boards.

        Do you have State uniformity? Partially.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan for adopting books for the common schools? State contract by a State Commission.

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        Books are adopted by the local Boards.

        Do you have State uniformity? No.

        What do you think the most satisfactory and economical plan of adopting books for the common schools? Our law works quite satisfactory.


        During the August campaign of 1900 we heard many glorious promises as to the education of the rising and the future generations of children of this State. Some of these pledges come from honest, sincere hearts, and the men who made those promises did so in good faith, but others were "playing to the grand stand," and were not and are not now concerned as to whether the great mass of our people are educated or not. The words of this latter class indicates that it is no longer unpopular to speak in behalf of the education of the masses, and is a sign for encouragement of the friends of public education.

        But to the former class we must look for help. Here we can find men who are willing to spend and be spent for the cause of public education, willing to give their time and their talents to do something in this great work.


        To those who want to do something I wish to have a few words within these pages. I want to answer the question in the head line: "How shall we educate?"

        We must have more money before we can ever hope to educate the great mass of our people.

        Where are we to get the money? The letters received in the following pages will show you where other States get an abundance of their public funds.

        Two years ago I sent out letters of enquiry and published replies in regard to taxes on railroads.

Page 32

        This year enquiry was made again, and in the following pages will be seen the replies from the respective States.

        Before the list of States the same comments that were made two years ago will be inserted as follows:


        In North Carolina we do not receive any taxes at all from the gross receipts or gross earnings. We have a sweeping statute on this subject. It starts out as if wonderful results would be sure to follow. It is found in Chapter 168, Section 40, Laws of 1897, and reads thus: "Every railroad, steamboat or canal company incorporated under the laws of this State, doing business in this State, shall pay to the State a tax on the corporation equal to the sum of one per centum upon the gross receipts of said company. The said tax shall be paid semi-annually, upon the first days of July and January; and for the purposes of ascertaining the amount of the same, it shall be the duty of the treasurer of said company to render the Treasurer of the State, under oath or affirmation, a statement of the amount of gross receipts of said company during the preceding six months, and if such company shall refuse or fail, for a period of thirty days after such tax becomes due, to make returns or to pay the same, the amount thereof, as near as can be ascertained by the State Treasurer, with an addition of ten per centum thereto, shall be collected for the use of the State."

        This reads well, and one might think was putting into the State Treasury from the railroads alone more than one hundred thousand dollars--which it would do, if it were not for that wise (?) proviso: "No railroad or canal company shall be liable to this tax if its property is taxed." This no doubt was prepared by some learned lawyer, who was the representative of the companies intended to be taxed. The proviso knocks the bottom out, so that we may paraphrase the whole

Page 33

section thus: "Every railroad, steamboat or canal company incorporated under the laws of the State shall be taxed one per centum upon the gross receipts of said companies, provided they are not taxed at all."

        I advise the General Assembly to impose a tax upon the gross receipts of the railroads in North Carolina for the benefit of the public schools. It can be done. It ought to be done. We find taxes upon gross earnings in fourteen States. Why not have it in North Carolina?

        The gross earnings of the railroads in this State are more than eleven million dollars. Suppose we had a law like Minnesota, taxing the roads 3 per cent on gross earnings? What a handsome sum of more than three hundred thousand dollars to give instruction and intelligence to the great army of poor boys and girls now groping in darkness, and who must, under present conditions of our educational facilities, grow into manhood and womanhood burdened with all the disadvantages of the ignorant.

        If the insurance, telegraph and the telephone companies are taxed on gross earnings in our State, and I am informed they are, then why not the railroads pay a similar tax?

        We reasonably conclude that the natural increase in railroad business for the next year or so will be equal to and even greater than the last year. At tax of 3 per cent on gross earnings next year would amount to about three hundred and sixty thousand dollars. In addition to this, let us have the same tax on gross earnings of telephone companies, telegraph companies, express companies, insurance companies, and then we will have a school fund from these sources of about four hundred thousand dollars. Think of having four hundred thousand dollars added to the school fund by the General Assembly of 1900. Remember, this tax would be annually.

        Most every one will admit that in order to increase the school terms, and in order to secure better and more efficient teachers, we must have an increase of school fund.

Page 34

        The General Assembly can not do much more than it has done in the past, so far as general taxes on property are concerned, on account of constitutional limitations. This is the only way, so far as the General Assembly is concerned, to lift our schools out of the mire, and put us on our feet. The source from which this tax would come would be one well able to bear it, in my opinion. The earnings of the companies, that is, the freights, fares, etc., come from the people.

        I do not believe in making an individual or company bear a larger per cent of any public expense just simply because such person or persons have the means. This is not what I mean, but I mean that after the railroads and companies referred to have paid their officers reasonable salaries and their stockholders reasonable incomes on their investment, then as there have been large sums of money given as a bonus to stockholders or officers, it is evident that a part of this money should go back to the people from whence it comes, for the elevation and enlightenment of such people.

        That which is of very great importance is that the railroads and corporations will have no way of evading this law. No injunction can be taken to stop this tax, if imposed by the General Assembly. As soon as the Railroad Commission reduces passenger or freight rates, then an injunction is issued at once, but if the General Assembly will have the courage to impose this tax, then Juge Simonton, nor any other Federal judge, can have anything whatever to do with the case.

        I leave the matter with the General Assembly. Here you have an opportunity to help the cause of public education. Will you do it? We shall see.

        In the following list of States it will be seen that Minnesota has an income tax of 3 per cent on gross earnings.

        The present State Democratic platform of this State demands an increase to 4 per cent.

Page 35


        The railroads in North Carolina now net five million dollars annually over and above 4 per cent on the real value of their property. These roads could stand a tax of 5 per cent on their gross earnings, which would give us $700,000 annually, and then leave them $4,300,000, to carry out of the State.

        Let us have 5 per cent on gross earnings, and give it all to the school fund.



Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In reply to yours of the 3d inst.: The only railroad in Illinois that pays taxes on its earnings is the Illinois Central Railroad, this corporation paying seven per cent to the State on its gross earnings. The tax is used for State revenue, none of it being given the public school fund. The other railroads pay taxes upon the assessed valuation of their property, the same as individuals and other corporations pay.

Yours very truly,



Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to your circular letter of the 3d inst., I beg leave to inform you that the railroads of this State pay as tax, four per cent of their gross earnings. Some of the minor railway lines, however, pay a little less where their earnings are small.

        This tax is placed in the general fund and used for all general purposes. No part of it goes to the public school fund. I enclose herewith a copy of the law, which will give you the tax in detail.

Yours very truly,

State Treasurer.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to yours of the 3d, I have to say that I may reply in the phraseology of the law as follows:

        "Every railroad company and every person operating a railroad in

Page 36

this State, except railroads operated by horse-power, shall, on or before the 10th day of February in each year, make and return to the State Treasurer in such form and upon such blanks as shall be furnished by him a true statement of the gross earnings of their respective roads for the preceding calendar year, of the number of miles of road operated by each such company or person and the gross earning per mile per annum during such year; which statement shall be verified by the oath of the secretary and treasurer of such companies or of the person so iperating such railroad."

        This tax is collected and delivered into what is known as the "General Fund" in this State, which is the general reservoir for the receipt of all odds and ends of cash coming into the Treasury that have not a specific destiny fixed in the law. Such funds are expended under laws passed with great appropriations when general fund is named as the source from which they shall be paid, and those expenditures are of great variety; no such expenditure, however, is specifically toward the interests of education, but may in general ways touch the educational system at many points.

        This comment answers your second question.

        The third question can not be answered more specifically than already stated herein.

        It may be stated in general that the "State school funds" of Wisconsin are derived from the annual income arising from the investment of funds amounting to several million dollars in the aggregate, which are accumulating under a system of sale of public lands donated to the State by the general government. Such invested funds are designed to be an "endowment," though the whole matter may be modified at the pleasure of the Legislature, though the Legislature has not heretofore interfered directly with the use of such funds, except as specified hereinbefore in interest of education.

        I might add that the latest available record shows that the receipts for common schools, including the railroad fee already alluded to, etc., was for one year, $6,747,316; for normal schools, the same year, $351,449; for the University, the same year, $456,687.

Truly yours,

State Superintendent.


        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax. Answer. Two and a half per cent.

        For what is this tax used? General purposes of the State.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? None.

Very truly,

State Treasurer.

Page 37


C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction
of North Carolina, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Your favor of September 3d addressed to the Superintendent of Public Instruction has been handed us for reply, and accordingly I advise you, that under the laws of this State the railroads pay to the State Comptroller direct, on their gross earnings from the line within the boundaries of the State and the income from investments, five mills on the dollar. They also pay on capital stock employed in the State one and one-half mills when the dividend is less than six per cent, one quarter mill on each one per cent of dividend exceeding six per cent, and one and one-half mills on appraised value of capital stock when no dividends are declared. These amounts go into the State Treasury and are used for State purposes. There is besides this a tax upon the aggregate assessed value of real and personal property of the State as equalized by the State Board of Equalization. This rate for last year was 2.49 mills, which produced, in round numbers, about $12,500,000. Of this amount a little over $4,000,000 was appropriated for school purposes. The assessment for this tax is made by the local assessors in each tax district, and the tax collected thereon with other county and town taxes. The basis of assessment of railroad property is the cost of reproduction of the property in the tax district where it is located at the time the assessment is made.

Yours very truly,

Secretary State Board Tax Commissioners.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In reply to your letter of the 3d instant, would say, electric roads are taxed 1 per cent of gross earnings and applied to general expenses of the State.

        Steam roads, in addition to regular tax on real and personal estate, are assessed, according to mileage, for salary of Railroad Commissioner and running expenses of his office.

        The State appropriates annually the sum of $120,000 for public schools. It has also a Permanent School Fund of about $250,000.

Yours truly,

General Treasurer.

Page 38


        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax. One per cent on the value of the stock and bonds.

        For what is this tax used? General State expenses.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is give nto the public school fund of your State? No particular part is set aside for school purposes.



Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--We take pleasure in sending you under separate cover a copy of pamphlet in which you will find the earnings of the railroads in our State, and the amount of tax paid by them. This tax is turned into the general fund. You will find enclosed with the pamphlet a printed statement of the last semi-annual apportionment of the interest on the permanent school fund. All other school taxes are paid by the school districts.

Yours respectfully,

Superintendent Public Instruction.


Hon. C. H. MFBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to your letter of the 3d inst., will say that your first question can hardly be answered in a short statement, so I will refer you to Chap. 6 of the Revised Statutes of Maine, and Chap. 166 of the Public Laws of 1893, copies of which you will doubtless find in your State library.

        In addition to this, the railroads are taxed to pay the salaries and expenses of the Railroad Commissioners. The tax on franchise goes into the general fund of the State and no part of it is applied directly for public instruction.

Very respectfully yours,

State Treasurer.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Supt. Pub. Inst. of North Carolina.

        DEAR SIR:--Yours to-day. The railroads are not taxed on their earnings in this State, but on assessed valuation. The income from this is put into the general fund, and apportioned to the different funds as any other tax. A certain per cent goes into the State fund, and the rest goes into the county funds.

Page 39

        The different counties through which the railroads run put different valuations per mile upon the roads.

Very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.


        DEAR SIR:--Replying to your circular letter under date of 3d inst.: Railroads in this State are not taxed on earnings, but ad valorem.

        Amount of tax received divided among several funds and used for support general State Government. Approximately 50 per cent of taxation is devoted to school purposes. There is, also, a yearly levy of .02c on each $100 valuation of all property in this State for support of State University.

        Trusting above answers may prove satisfactory, I am,

Yours truly,

State Treasurer.



        Please inform me what percent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax.

        For what is this tax used? About 60 per cent apportioned to towns through which roads pass, and stockholders reside; 40 per cent to State.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? Towns may by vote appropriate their share to support of schools.

Very truly,

State Treasurer.



        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax. This tax is fixed by special acts of Legislature, and making it fixed amount for each year irrespective of earnings.

        For what is this tax used? Applied to the General Fund.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? None of it is applied directly to the school fund. One hundred thousand dollars of General Fund is appropriated to school purposes.

Very truly,


Page 40


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
of North Carolina.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to your inquiry of 3d inst., have to say, our State taxes the railroads 1 per cent on the gross passenger earnings and one-fourth of this tax is credited to the available school fund of the State and three-fourths to general revenue--for support of the State Government, see pages 56, 57 and 58 of Comptroller's last report, which I mail you to-day.

Yours very truly,

State Treasurer.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to your favor of September 3, beg to advise that the railroads of this State are not taxed on their gross earnings altogether. They pay on right-of-way and real estate, and it is levied by the County Auditors through which the roads run, and afterwards gone over by a Board of Equalization, consisting of the Railroad Commissioner, Attorney-General, Auditor of State and Treasurer of State.

        It is paid in to the Auditor of State and then apportioned back to the respective counties.

        They pay one-tenth of one per cent on gross earnings, known as Excise Tax. I would have no means of ascertaining what proportion of the tax went to the Public School Fund, as different counties and different cities make levies to suit their needs, up to a certain limit, which the law fixes.

        Take all the taxes paid by the railroads in this State, it amounts to three and sixty-five hundredths per cent of their gross earnings.

        Trusting I have given you the information you desire, I am

Yours respectfully,

Commissioner R. R. and T.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        MY DEAR SIR:--In reply to your letter of the 3d inst., permit me to say that the railroads are not taxed in this State on their income. The Board of Public Works, consisting of the Governor, Auditor, Attorney-General. Treasurer, and State Superintendent of Free Schools assess the railroads, placing thereon a fair valuation per

Page 41

mile for track, side-track, rolling stock and buildings. The tax derived from the railroads is used for just the same purposes for which taxes on personal property and realty are used. A tax of one mill on this constitutes the general school fund which is distributed to the various school districts of the State according to the number of school youth, and in addition to this, local or district (township) taxes for school purposes are also laid.

Sincerely yours,

State Superintendent Free Schools.


        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax. None on earnings. Pay taxes on assessed valuation.

        For what is this tax used? General purposes.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? None. The principal school tax is provided by the counties. The proceeds of the sale of territorial public lands is divided for school purposes among the counties according to the number of school children in each county. The higher educational institutions are supported by special tax levy.


        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax. Five and a half mills on valuation of property as State tax.

        For what is this tax used? Two and one-quarter mills general revenue, 2 mills school, 1 mill sinking fund, 1-4 mill pensions.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? Two mills.



        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax. Railroads are taxed on their assessed valuation, not on their earnings.

        For what is this tax used? Goes into the general revenue fund.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? None.

Very truly,

State Superintendent Public Instruction.

Page 42


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--We are in receipt of your favor of the 3d instant relative to taxes assessed against railroads, and in reply beg to say that railroads within the Commonwealth pay 8 mills on their gross receipts and 5 mills on their capital stock. The money derived from these taxes goes into the general fund and is used in the payment of appropriations and general expenses of the Commonwealth, and amounts to about $14,000,000--including the taxes received from other corporations, county officers and all other sources. The amount appropriated to the common schools amounts to $5,000,000. Has reached as high as $5,500,000. In addition to this quite a large amount is appropriated to colleges and normal schools of the State.

Yours truly,



C. H. MEBANE, Esq., Superintendent Public Instruction
of North Carolina, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Yours of September 3d, addressed to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, has been handed this Department for reply.

        Railroad and transportation companies are required under the General Revenue Act of 1891, as amended by the Act of Assembly of June 8, 1893, to pay a five mill tax upon each dollar of the actual value of its whole capital stock of all kinds. See Sec. 21 of the act as set forth on page 24 of the enclosed pamphlet. They also pay a four mill tax upon the indebtedness of the corporation as set forth in Sec. 1, page 18, of said pamphlet. They also pay an eight mill tax upon their gross earnings, semi-annually, upon the last days of June and July in each year, as contained in Sec. 23, page 12, of same pamphlet.

        The revenue thus raised by taxation, together with other taxes produced from foreign and domestic fire and life insurance companies, also those arising from personal property tax, wholesale liquor licenses and writs taxable and issued by county officers, together with revenues derived from mercantile taxes and from other sources aggregating about fifteen million ($15,000,000) dollars, is applied to the payment of the expenses of the State Government; also five million ($5,000,000) dollars of this tax so raised, is applied to the Public School Fund of the State. There is also an addition to the five million ($5,000,000) dollars, of about $1,800,000, which is

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applied to keeping up the normal schools and other educational institutions of the State.

        I will forward you an Annual Report of the Auditor-General's, from which you can see the several sources from which this tax is raised and the various ways in which it is applied.

Very truly yours,



Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The railroads of Missouri do not pay tax on earnings. The railroads pay an ad valorem tax, the same as other property. It is estimated that they are assessed at about forty per cent of the actual value as indicated by their earning capacity. The tax is used for State, county, municipal and school purposes. Railroads pay average rate of school tax in each county through which the road runs. The tax is apportioned to the several school districts in the county in proportion to the number of children therein.

        Hoping this will be satisfactory, I am,

State Superintendent.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Your favor of the 3d inst., is received. The railroads in this State do not pay any tax on their earnings. The State railroad tax is 1-2 of 1 per cent on the value of the property used exclusively for railroad purposes and, in addition thereto, a tax on the franchise. The value of the property and the amount of franchise tax is determined by the State Board of Assessors. The moneys derived from this tax are used for general State purposes, and no part of it is devoted to schools.

        We have a State school tax, which is an amount equal to $5 for each child in the State between the ages of 5 and 18 years. In addition to this tax there is an appropriation of $200,000 each year from the income of the State School Fund. This fund is composed of moneys received from the sale and rental of riparian lands belonging to the State. The administrative expenses of the schools are paid from the State Treasury.

Very truly yours,

State Superintendent.

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Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to your recent inquiry concerning our rate and method of taxing railroads, will say: We do not assess them on their earnings. Our Board of Public Works fixes a value on their property for purposes of taxation. After that, it is assessed the same as other property. Our levy for State purposes and State school purposes is 25c and 10c respectively on the $100. The property is also assessed for county and local schools, but this varies with the different localities.

Yours truly,



Hon. C. H. MERANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to yours of the 3d inst., to the State Treasurer, referred to this office for answer:

        Railroads are taxed in Tennessee only an ad valorem on the valuation fixed by the Board of Railroad Commissioners. There is no tax on their earnings. The State rate is fifty cents on the hundred dollars, fifteen cents of which goes to the schools, and the balance for general purposes.

        Trusting this is the information desired, I remain,

Very respectfully,



Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to your circular letter of September 3, concerning railroad taxation in this State and the disposal of the proceeds thereof:

        1. The State of Iowa assesses railroads and apportions the assessed value among the counties, and the counties levy the taxes according to their local needs. The rate of tax on railroads is the same as that on the property of citizens.

        2. As indicated in the foregoing, the tax is not set apart for a special use, but is used for general purposes, State and local.

        3. There is no separation of the railroad tax for the use of our school fund.

Respectfully yours,

Treasurer of State.

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C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, N. C.

        MY DEAR SIR:--Replying to your circular letter of September 3d:

        We do not assess upon earnings of railroads. Our assessment is made by valuation. The State Board determines the full value of the railroads, track and rolling stock, they then divide the total mileage into the total cost, which gives the amount per mile of valuation. This then, is certified to the county clerks by the State Auditor, and when the State Board has certified the State tax, then the County Boards levy the tax for county purposes and also school purposes in their counties, so that taxes derived from railroads are used the same as taxes derived from any other property, they simply pay their share of all State, county and school taxes, assessed upon the valuation furnished by the State Board.

Very truly,




        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax. Earnings $29,289,012. Tax $368,524 for 1897.

        For what is this tax used? Teachers' salaries.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? 1896--$369,390; 1897--$368,524.

Very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The total assessed value of all railroad property in Indiana is taxed for school purposes as follows: Eleven cents on the $100 valuation of all such property by the State; and from one cent to 35c. on the $100.00 valuation by the local corporations.

Yours very truly,

State Superintendent.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In answer to your favor of recent date, I beg to say that in this State the railroads do not pay any tax on their earnings.

        An assessment is made of this class of property the same as is done with all other property in the State, and an ad valorem tax

Page 46

of 6 mills is paid on the assessed valuation. Of this tax of 6 mills. 1 1-4 miles go to the support of the public schools.

Yours truly,



C. H. MEBANE, Esq., State Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Your communication of September 3rd is at hand. In reply to your inquiry, will state that the railroads in Colorado pay no per cent of their earnings as taxes. All trackage and railroad property, as well as franchises, are assessed and pay the regular rate of taxes levied in each county. They also pay their per cent of the school taxes, both general and special, as levied by county and district.

Yours truly,



Mr. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction
of North Carolina.

        DEAR SIR:--Your letter of September 3rd received, and would say in reply, that the tax collected from railroads of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts are based on the value of stock, and not on the earnings, and when paid, the full amount is distributed to the cities and towns where the stock is owned; consequently the State can only use the part that is held by non-residents.

        No part is given to the public schools on account of this tax.

Yours truly,



        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax: It varies according to the amount of earnings per mile--from 2 1-2 to 5 per cent of gross earnings.

        For what is this tax used? Educational purposes.

        How much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? Practically all of it. It is all used for educational purposes.



        Please inform me what per cent on earnings the railroads of your State pay as tax. Three per cent on gross earnings.

        For what is this tax use? It goes into the General Revenue Fund.

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        Howw much or what per cent of this tax is given to the public school fund of your State? None.



Mr. C. H. MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Your enquiry addressed to State Treasurer referred to me for reply.

        The railroad property in Georgia is assessed or returned under oath at its fair market value, and upon the accepted valuation an ad valorem tax is levied by State, county and municipal authorities. We do not tax the earnings, except in two instances under old charters, and these are taxed 1 per cent on net earnings.

        For 1900 the State levies upon all property, including railroads, $5.20 per $1,000 value; of this amount $2.00 per $1,000 is for school purposes levied by State and distributed to counties.

Yours truly,

Comptroller General.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Replying to your recent letter I have to say that railroads in the State are taxed like all other real property, that is, thirty cents on every hundred dollars worth of property for the support of the government, and ten cents on every hundred dollars worth of property for the support of the public schools. This is the State tax; but counties are permitted to levy exactly the same amount on all real estate for the benefit and use of the public schools, and in nearly all of the counties this is done, so that the school levy amounts to twenty cents on every hundred dollars worth of real property. Aside from this, the State makes an annual appropriation of two hundred thousand dollars from its other revenues for the support of the public schools; and the capitation tax of one dollar and a half on every male citizen who is twenty-one years old, and all the interest on the Literary Fund goes to the support of the public schools. The State makes large appropriations annually for the support of the State University, the Military Institute, the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and the three State normal schools, one of them being for the education of colored teachers only.

        There is an income tax of one per cent on earnings after the interest on indebtedness is deducted, and this brings in a good revenue from the railroads, but none of it goes to the public schools.

I am very truly yours,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

Page 48


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The railroads of Kentucky do not pay taxes on their earnings as a basis. There is a State levy of 42½ cents on the $100 worth of property, of this, 22 cents on the $100 goes into the school fund for payment of the teachers.

Very truly yours,

Superintendent Public Instruction.


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In reply to your inquiry of September 3d, will say that there is no tax upon the earnings of railroads in Florida.

        The tax is levied upon valuation, and goes into the general revenue.

        The State levies a tax for school purposes of one mill upon the valuation; counties three to five mills; and school districts, where they exist, one to three mills. Railroads pay on the assessments within the territory of taxing unit like all other property.

Yours very truly,

State Superintendent.


Mr. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In answer to your first question as to per cent of tax on earnings, would say that railroads are not assessed upon the earnings of railroads as an exclusive basis. The tax on railroads is used as all other taxable property is used--for general purposes and school fund for the public schools. Under the Constitution of our State 3 mills are levied for public school fund. In addition to the above, there is a special tax levied upon railroads and telegraph companies to pay the salaries and incidental expenses of the Railroad Commission of the State, prorated among these corporations.

Very truly yours,

State Treasurer.

Page 49


        This is one way to increase the Public School Fund. The graded schools of our towns and cities were established and are supported by a local tax.

        By local tax the strong help the weak. Local tax is one way by which the brotherhood of man is forcibly brought before the public. Men are brought to realize an interest in the rising generation. The man of means and the poor man have a common interest in the instruction of the young. It does away with the false idea that has been prevalent in the minds of many that the children of the man of means are better than the poor man's children.

        Look at our cities and towns where local tax has been the means of opening the schools alike to the poor and those of means. Here we find the children of the wealthiest men in the towns entering the same threshold with the children of the poorest men. Their little feet tread the same pathway of instruction, their little hearts are warmed around the same hearthstone, which is radiant with a glow of love and truth emanating from the soul of the faithful, conscientious teacher. Here they are taught to respect, honor and love each other. Here they learn to have an interest in each other which otherwise would be unknown. And last, but by no means least, the parents are drawn towards each other through their children, and we find unity of interest in the minds and hearts, not only of the children, but also in the minds and hearts of parents.

        We do not expect to have the same kind of schools in the rural districts as in the towns--we do not need the same, but we do need the increase in school fund, the increase in length of term. We do need more of the common interest in each other on the part of parents and teachers. We do need the money which a farmer now and then spends to send his children off to have even primary teaching done. Let the

Page 50

money these farmers spend for education be spent in the way of local tax, which will benefit not only his own children, but his neighbor's children.

        We hear farmers justly complain as to the society of their community; that they have no society which is interesting or elevating for their children. How soon all this would be changed if all the children in these rural districts had the opportunity and the advantage of a six or eight months good school. Soon we would have social circles, elevating and refining, and we would hear no more of leaving the country home in order to have the advantage of schools, and in order to have society of the refined and cultured.

        We want our parents in the country to take a broader view of this subject than many of them have had. We want more common interest in the future happiness and welfare of the children.

        We want it to be a thing of the past when a young man or a young woman who has secured an education is regarded as a person far above or apart from the masses of our young people. We want no great gulf between a college man and the man of the community.

        The more money men put into anything the more interest they have in that thing. I think we usually pay enough school tax to ease our consciences, and not enough to cause us any concern as to how it is spent and what results follow the expenditure.

        I believe there are men to-day who pay $3 public school tax and never give any special thought or consideration as to what the public schools are doing, whereas if they were paying $12 tax for this cause they would see to it that results were seen and felt from the expenditure.

        One reason then why we should have special tax for schools is to create special interest for schools.

Page 51


        I am slow to advise a compulsory attendance of our public schools under our present conditions, and especially when I remember the character of work done in some of our public schools, but when I call to mind that in many cases the children are kept from schools by careless, indifferent parents, and sometimes by lazy parents, who compel them to work in cotton mills, while their fathers sit around the stores, talk politics, and discuss the ways and means of preserving the government; when I think of these cases, I am compelled to conclude that the State ought to come to the rescue of these helpless children.

        Cases have come under my own personal observation, where children were put in the cotton mill at seven or eight years of age and kept there until they were twenty-one years of age. I recall some young men and women whom I met a few years age. They could neither read nor write, because they had been kept in the cotton mill from seven years of age. Think of it--white boys and girls being bound down by their parents and not even able to read and write when twenty-one years old in this day and generation, and yet it is true in our own State!

        I quote upon this subject the following letter that appeared in the Report of the Commission of Labor and Printing:

Hon. B. R. LACY, Commissioner of Labor and Printing,
Raleigh, N. C.

        MY DEAR SIR:--I take pleasure in complying with your request for an opinion from me upon the subject of "Compulsory Education."

        In the first place, I will say that the character of our public schools and the quality of the teaching done, taken as a whole, has been and is such that I have been slow to favor a compulsory attendance law for this State.

Page 52

        According to my Educational Report for the year 1898, the percentage of white school population in attendance on schools was only 34 7-10 per cent; of colored population, 32 3-10 per cent.

        These figures are enough to make every man in North Carolina pause and consider what is the cause and what is the remedy for this small attendance. I will mention two or three reasons from my point of view:

        First, and that which is the most alarming, is careless, indifferent parents. It is wonderful how many fathers and mothers we have in this State who do not realize the awful responsibility that rests upon them as to the future welfare of their children.

        Second--Poor teachers in the public schools. Teachers whose work and lives have had very little effect inside the school room, and no effect on society and the community at large, for the cause of public education.

        Third--Bad management on the part of school officials. Merit has had very little encouragement in so many instances. The powers that be have been more concerned for the continuance of said powers, than they have been for the progress and advancement of the schools.

        The remedy that has been and is used to reach the children in 31 States is the strong arm of the law.

        All of the New England States have compulsory attendance laws. All of the Middle Atlantic States, except Virginia, have compulsory attendance laws. All of the Central States, except Missouri, have compulsory attendance laws. All of the Rocky Mountain and Pacific States and Territories, except New Mexico, have compulsory attendance laws.

        Let each reader examine the following list of States carefully. Compare the illiteracy of those States which have a compulsory attendance law with the illiteracy of those States which have no compulsory attendance law.

Page 53


  • 1. Ohio, 5 per cent.
  • 2. Connecticut, 5 per cent.
  • 3. Nebraska, 3 per cent.
  • 4. Montana, 5 per cent.
  • 5. Wisconsin, 7 per cent.
  • 6. Minnesota, 6 per cent.
  • 7. New Hampshire, 7 per cent.
  • 8. Kentucky, 22 per cent.
  • 9. Massachusetts, 6 per cent.
  • 10. Indiana, 6 per cent
  • 11. Michigan, 6 per cent.
  • 12. New York, 6 per cent.
  • 13. Rhode Island, 10 per cent.
  • 14. Maine, 5 per cent.
  • 15. West Virginia, 14 per cent.
  • 16. Washington, 4 per cent.
  • 17. Pennsylvania, 7 per cent.
  • 18. Kansas, 4 per cent.
  • 19. Vermont, 7 per cent.
  • 20. Arizona Territory, 23 per cent.
  • 21. Idaho, 5 per cent.
  • 22. Colorado, 5 per cent.
  • 23. Illinois, 5 per cent.
  • 24. Wyoming, 3 per cent.
  • 25. Iowa, 3 per cent.
  • 26. California, 7 per cent.
  • 27. New Jersey, 6 per cent.
  • 28. North Dakota, 6 per cent.
  • 29. South Dakota, 4 per cent.
  • 30. Utah, 6 per cent,
  • 31. Nevada, 13 per cent,


  • 1. North Carolina, 36 per cent.
  • 2. South Carolina, 45 per cent.
  • 3. Alabama, 41 per cent.
  • 4. Virginia, 30 per cent.
  • 5. Georgia, 40 per cent.
  • 6. Louisiana, 46 per cent.
  • 7. Arkansas, 27 per cent.
  • 8. Tennessee, 27 per cent.
  • 9. Texas, 20 per cent.
  • 10. Mississippi, 40 per cent.
  • 11. New Mexico Territory, 45 per cent.
  • 12. Oregon, 4 per cent.
  • 13. Missouri, 9 per cent.
  • 14. Maryland, 16 per cent.
  • 15. Florida, 28 per cent.


  • 1. North Carolina, 23 per cent.
  • 2. South Carolina, 18 per cent.
  • 3. Alabama, 18 per cent.
  • 4. Virginia, 14 per cent.
  • 5. Georgia, 17 per cent.
  • 6. Louisiana, 20 per cent.
  • 7. Arkansas, 17 per cent.
  • 8. Tennessee, 18 per cent.
  • 9. Texas, 8 per cent.
  • 10. Mississippi, 12 per cent.
  • 11. Oregon, 2 per cent.
  • 12. Missouri, 7 per cent.
  • 13. Maryland, 6 per cent.
  • 14. Florida, 11 per cent.
  • 15. New Mexico Territory, 43 per cent.

Page 54

        According to this list, North Carolina has more illiterate white folks than any other save one, that of New Mexico.

        Now I ask, what are the people of North Carolina going to do about it?

        It is well to note that in the list of States having compulsory attendance laws, not a single Southern State is to be found.

        I have heard those who are opposed to compulsory education say that it is contrary to the American spirit. If this statement be true, then the American spirit is rapidly disappearing in the United States, since all the States have such laws, except fifteen, and these fifteen, bear in mind, have the most illiterate population.

        This large number of States which has enacted compulsory attendance laws shows very clearly to my mind that the way to reach the children is by legislation.

        We must have compulsory attendance in the Southern States, and especially in North Carolina, before we reach the school population, as we must do, or still be classed as the most illiterate State in the Union save one, that of New Mexico.

        I believe that it is right to force the people to pay taxes for schools, and that it is also right to force the children to receive the benefit of these taxes.

        We have about reached the point in North Carolina when most men will admit the first part of this proposition, but we must educate them up to the second part of it. The sooner we do this, the better it will be for us as a people.

        There is a great host of children in North Carolina who are just, as much slaves to their parents as any negro ever was to his master in the days of slavery. These children have some rights that will never be respected by such parents until the State says, Thus far shalt thou go and no further. The State provides for some instruction for these children, and the State should see that they shall receive the benefit, though little it be.

Page 55

        I think it would be well, perhaps, for us to have a local option law to begin with. I do not believe we could successfully enforce at once a general compulsory attendance law for the entire State, but we could take it by cities, townships and counties, just as we did the stock law a few years ago. This law was very unpopular at first. In fact, I heard of men who threatened to take their guns to oppose it in some places, but now we have the law practically throughout the entire State.

        I am very glad to note that Superintendent E. P. Moses, of the City Schools, has taken a bold stand for compulsory attendance in Raleigh. Let other city superintendents follow.

        North Carolina will have a compulsory attendance law some day, and why not begin now to act along this line? Why stand we here idle when thousands are growing up in ignorance? What, my reader, will you do about this important question?

Supt. Pub. Inst. of North Carolina.

        Since the above was written public sentiment has grown in favor of compulsory attendance. The Greensboro Telegram has published letters from numerous citizens of the various occupations in the State. The majority of them were in favor of legislation along this line.


        We as a people in North Carolina have never yet realized the importance of supervision in our Public School work. I include in these recommendations the same comments I made two years ago. These words are as true to-day as then, and we need only use Superintendent instead of Supervisor, to make these words apply to our present school officials.

        The County Superintendent is the fountain head of the public schools of the county. If he is full of zeal and energy we may expect the teachers to be wide-awake; if he is practically

Page 56

lifeless, so far as the schools are concerned we may expect dead teachers, or as nearly so as men and women can be and yet exist.

        The most important thing the General Assembly of 1901 has to do is to legislate to increase the School Fund. I have tried to show how this may be done elsewhere.

        The next act, in importance, is to legislate so that we may have a wise expenditure of this fund.

        One great hindrance to the cause of public education in North Carolina for years past, and even now, is that we do not have the funds wisely spent in so many instances.

        Where a farmer has a house to build he not only employs carpenters, but he employs one carpenter to supervise the work, to see that each man does his work well, to see that he keeps at his work and earns the wages he receives.

        We even have our Road Supervisors. We are not willing that earth and stones shall be handled without supervision.

        We must have supervision to lay stone and to place earth on our highways, we must have supervision to build our bridges, lest some harm may perchance come to the traveler. This is all right, but how strange, it seems to me, that laborers, men and women who fashion and mould the character of our future citizenship; men and women whose work, whether good or bad, will last when houses and bridges are crumbled into dust; men and women whose work will last throughout eternity itself; yet we are not only not willing for these laborers to work without supervision, but in many counties our County Boards of Education actually refuse to send out the Supervisor to even take a peep at the work that is being done in the Public Schools. What excuse do we hear for such action on the part of the County Board of Education? They say it is needless expense--better let the schools of the county have the benefit of the money than to have the Supervisor out among the schools.

Page 57

        If the Supervisor is the man he should be, we can not measure his worth to the cause of education by a few dollars and cents expended for sending him out among the schools. He will bring order and system out of confusion and chaos in many places where the teachers are young and inexperienced. He will create interest where there is no interest in the public schools. He will make peace where there is turmoil and confusion. He will infuse life and inspiration into the schools which have become dry and monotonous.

        He will be so full of zeal and enthusiasm for the work that every community into which he goes will feel the effects of his visit, not only in the school-room, but the life and noble ambition for higher and better things pointed out by him will be caught up by the children and carried into their homes, and the parents thus interested--and by and by the whole community will be aroused on the subject of schools.

        If we have not Supervisors who can do these things, then let us secure them. There are such men in every county in North Carolina.

        It gives me pleasure to say we have some Supervisors who are doing, and have done, the very things mentioned by me here. Others would do much greater things than they are, but their hands are tied by County Boards of Education.


        The four years term of my official duties as Superintendent of Public Instruction have been years full of anxiety and toil for the cause of education. The longer I was in the work, the more I was impressed with the greatness of the work and the consequences for the uplifting of the great mass of our people.

        He must, indeed, have a hard heart, who can travel the length and breadth of this great State and not be touched and moved to action when he sees the thousands of little ones who

Page 58

must live a life of ignorance, drudgery and misery, and why? Because the State is not doing her duty to make independent, happy men and women of all these and others of their offspring, soon to be a part of our State.


        We had an entirely, or practically so, new set of school officials to begin with in 1897. We had radical changes in the school laws. By the time, or even before we got the new law into complete operation, we had another Legislature to meet and make radical changes again; before this law was in full force we had a decision of the Supreme Court that caused confusion in several counties in the operation of the schools.

        I was severely criticised by certain persons on account of certain rulings and advice given.

        In reference to those and all criticisms, I wish to say that I have in all of my official acts looked over and beyond the men in office to the welfare of the children.

        I have tried to serve children of North Carolina and not any man or set of men.

        I have, no doubt, made mistakes, and have lacked the wisdom and discretion that I ought to have had in some instances, but the one thing I wish to declare to the present and the future generations of this State, is that I have not lacked honesty and nobleness of purpose.


        One of the first things I did in January, 1897, was to invite to my office the leading educators of the State. Many came. We had a pleasant conference and discussed ways and means to improve the public schools. From this time to the present I have had the support and confidence of these teachers.

        The North Carolina Teachers' Assembly has honored me

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and my work by passing resolutions of approval of my administration, and the hearty support that has been given me by public school teachers in many County Teachers' Associations is enough to gratify the ambition of any man, and is sincerely appreciated by me.


        There is no more potent factor to mould public sentiment than the press of the State. This power is greater in our State now than ever before, because our people read the newspapers more now than ever before.

        I am very grateful to the editors who have so generously aided me in reaching the great mass of people, by publishing the letters I have sent out from time to time. Popular education is more popular to-day than ever before, and the press has had no small share in making it so.


        It is a fact that the ministers of the gospel can and do reach and influence some parents with reference to their duty to their children, more than any other persons can.

        Many of these faithful men have preached the gospel of education in the pulpit and in the home, and have done much for the cause of education.

        I am grateful to these brethren for what they have done for me personally, and especially so for what they have done for the children of this State. I hope they will continue to preach the gospel of education in connection with the gospel of Jesus Christ.


        The politician is not often an independent thinker or doer. He rarely ever brings things to pass, but he is on the lookout and is near at hand when the things pass and impresses

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the public with the fact (?) that he has labored and toiled for a long time for the very thing that is about to be put into effect.

        We have reached the period in North Carolina history when the politician is a great friend (?) of public education. He speaks long and loud for the dear children.

        All of this is encouraging, because we know when the politician is in favor of public education that the people are in favor of public education.


        Since January, 1897, or during my term of office, more money has been given to colleges and more spent for school buildings and equipments than ever before during so short a period.

        From letters of enquiry received from the respective schools and colleges of the State, I find that during my term of office the handsome sum of ONE MILLION DOLLARS has been given as endowment and spent for equipments.

        Trinity College has the most remarkable increase, not only in North Carolina, but of any institution in the South. Her increase in property since June, 1897, is $335,000, in endowment $202,000.

        The following letters have been received, and the information contained in them is encouraging to all the friends of education:


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $335,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? $202,000.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 70.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Three times the States and counties are now represented among the students.

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        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $8,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since Janury, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 20.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 40.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? About $90,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in appropriation since January 1897? $12,500.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? At least 50 per cent.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? $10,000.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $10,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 8.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 10.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? No increase.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 18.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? No increase.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $5,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? $6,000.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? None. Our house has been filled to utmost capacity for twelve years.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school

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or college since January, 1897? None. We try to narrow our work to Western North Carolina, but have applications from all States.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $25.000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? None.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? Opened only last year. Forty per cent better this session.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? One-third more than last session.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? About $25,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? Scholarship, $5,000.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 18.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Bounded by Florida, Wyoming, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? Doubled.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 50.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Doubled.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $15,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? $1,000.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? About 10.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 25.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $1,000.

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        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 100.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 500.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? None in building and grounds, except repairs--a small amount.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? We have no endowment and have never had any.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? About 90.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January. 1897? I cannot estimate, but it's about the same.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $17,850.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? None.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 202.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 143 (by States and counties).


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $19.760.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? Special appropriation of $5,000 for one year.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? About 10.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? None.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $32,939.55.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? None.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 25.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 25.

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        1. What is the increase in the value of your college property since January, 1897, to the present? $2,000.

        2. What is the increase of Endowment Fund? $10,000.

        3. What is the increase in attendance since January, 1897? 15.

        4. What per cent increase in territory since January, 1897? None.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $10,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? None.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? About the same.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Practically none.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? About $5,000, including new apparatus, etc.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? $31,379.30.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? About 15.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Not much difference.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $5,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? $50.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 60.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 50.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $1,200.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 60.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 100.

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        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $2,500.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 20.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 25.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $2,500.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 50.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 300.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897? Answer: Twenty-six hundred and forty dollars.

        2. Increase in Endowment? Answer: None.

        3. Per cent of increase in attendance since January, 1897? Answer: From 48 to 81, 68 per cent.

        4. Per cent increase in territory since January, 1897? Answer: From 22 to 32 counties and from 1 to 8 States--45 per cent on counties and 800 on States.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $500.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 50.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 75.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $700.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 50.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school

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or college since January, 1897? We draw from a much larger territory.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? 25.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 33 1-3.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 50.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $200.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 15.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 200.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $200.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 10.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Not any.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? Value about the same.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? No endowment.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? About 20.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Attendance limited practically to Raleigh.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school property since January, 1897, to the present? $600, or 33 1-3 per cent.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

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        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January 1897? 125.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 50.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? 25 per cent.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? None.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 36.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 50.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? None materially.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? None.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 20.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Can't say definitely.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? No increase.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? None.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? About the same.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? Sixteen States in 1897, 17 in 1898, 18 in 1899-1900.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $2,500.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 100.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 75.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? One hundred and fifty volumes added to the library.

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        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 12.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 25.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $100 (library).

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 10.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 20.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? Eight per cent.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897 50.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 25.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? About $400.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? No Endowment Fund.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 20.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? 10.

        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? $3,000.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? None.

        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897?----.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? ----.


        1. What is the increase in the value of your school or college property since January, 1897, to the present? In actual value, about $1,000; by appropriation, more.

        2. What is the amount of increase in Endowment Fund since January, 1897? ----.

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        3. What per cent increase in attendance since January, 1897? 33 1-3.

        4. What per cent increase in territory represented by your school or college since January, 1897? About the same; it is mostly local.


        Article 9, Sec. 9, declares that "Public schools shall be maintained at least four months in every year." This is good, but Article 5, Sec. 1, conflicts with it, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina has rendered a decision in favor of the 5th article, making Sec. 3 of Article 9, of no effect.

        Let us have another amendment to the Constitution, and make it the duty of the County Commissioners to levy a tax sufficient to run the schools at least four months in each year, instead of two and a half or three months, as the term now is in some counties.


        The appropriation of one hundred thousand dollars to the public schools by the Legislature of 1899, gives hope and encouragement to the friends of public education. There have been interviews published, and various claims made as to who deserves the credit for the act appropriating the money being passed. In regard to those who have been given great credit for the act, and others who have made great claims for themselves, I have nothing to say, but want to simply state one or two facts.

        The bill to appropriate the money was prepared by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and was introduced in the Senate by Senator McIntyre, of Robeson County. These persons gave this bill time and personal attention, and used their energy and influence to secure the passage of the bill.

        This statement of facts is made here, because Senator McIntyre has not been given the credit due him by the public. What little I did in the matter is of little importance to me

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as to who gets the credit of it. I am content to rejoice over the fact that it was done.

        I recommend that the Legislature of 1901 add another HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLARS, thus making an annual appropriation of TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLARS direct to the public schools.


        It is pleasant for me to note the progress made in the graded school work during my term of office. More of these schools have been established during the last four years than in any similar period of the State's history. In short, about one-third of our graded schools have been established during this time. The following is the list of towns: High Point, Washington, Kinston, New Bern, Albemarle, Waynesville, Mount Airy, and Monroe.


        The Legislature of 1899 did well to appropriate money to erect a monument to the memory of Vance.

        The Legislature of 1901 will do well to appropriate at least $3,000 to erect a monument to the memory of Calvin W. Wiley.

        Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and other States have honored their heroes in the public school work. I use the word hero advisedly, as we have had heroes in this work as well as on the battlefield. Dr. Wiley was North Carolina's hero in this work. It is therefore proper for the State to take part in honoring his memory, by appropriating a sum of money to go towards erecting a monument in the Capitol Square at Raleigh.


        I have great sympathy and concern for the worthy young man or woman who struggles to educate himself or herself--for those who want to teach in order to make money to go to

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school or college, but I want to enter my protest on behalf of the children and the cause of public education, against boys and girls being employed as teachers unless they have lived beyond the age of mere childhood.

        I heard of one instance of a girl, not "sweet sixteen," but only thirteen years of age being employed to teach a public school.

        Public schools will not have the confidence and support of the best people so long as children are employed as teachers, and the schools employing such as teachers will naturally be failures.

        I, therefore, recommend that the Legislature make the minimum age of the public school teacher at least eighteen years. It would be better for the children and the cause of public education to make the minimum of twenty years.


        GENTLEMEN OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF 1901:--In conclusion, I wish to remind you that you have no more sacred and no more important duty than to legislate for the future welfare of the boys and girls of this State.

        I beg you that you will not do, as most Legislatures have done, that is, put off until the last of the session the school legislation, and then rush this important business through, and thereby give us laws pertaining to public schools that we would not have if more time were given to this subject.

        Railroads and corporations will have their hired lobbyists to instruct and persuade you, and try to influence you in order to have certain laws amended, repealed, or new one enacted, but the little whiteheaded boys and girls, the ragged boys and girls, and all the boys and girls whose only hope for preparation for life and its stern realities is in the public schools, these little ones will have no one to plead with you personally day after day.

        I appeal to those of you who have precious little ones in

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your own homes. I know you are anxious and will do what you can for your own flesh and blood. I know these little ones are dearer to you than your own life, and that you strive and toil that they may be prepared for life when you are gone; I ask that you let these same noble desires go out to the thousands and tens of- thousands of children whose parents can never do for them what you can do for your children. These ones are as dear to their parents as your children are to you. They have hearts and minds with possibilities as great possibly as your children, then let your voice and your influence be heard and felt in behalf of these dependent ones. Then when the history of this Legislature shall be written in years to come, it will be the grandest record that a historian ever writes of the acts of men; namely, that they did what they could to uplift humanity and to prepare the generation of their day for life, and to make it possible for future generations of their State to live the lives of pure, noble men and women.

        What my Successor may accomplish in this work will largely depend upon you. I trust that what you do will prove to be a blessing to the children and enable those who execute the law to make rapid strides of progress.

        The State Superintendent ought to have access to every nook and corner of this State. The only question with him should be as to whether he has the time to go to any place and not whether he has the means to go. How often by his presence he could remove bad feelings and bad plans on the part of officers and people, and the cause could be made to grow where it is now a standstill.

        I leave the subject with you, and trust that you may do your whole duty.

        For four years I have tried to do my duty to the children of this State, but how little, it seems to me, I have accomplished; but I shall not worry about results, if the future historian can truly write of me, "He was faithful to the trust

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imposed upon him, and did what he could for the welfare of the children." Then I am content.

Very truly yours,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

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        NOTE.--There is no better way to know the spirit and purpose of the acts of individuals than by reading the letters of the individuals, hence the following letters are published that the present and future generations may know something of the spirit and purpose of the writer.

Raleigh, . . . . .

To the County Supervisor, and Members of the
County Board of Education.

        DEAR SIRS:--I wish to call your attention to a very important matter in regard to funds due the schools on each poll in your county.

        Article 5, sec. 2 of the Constitution, is as follows: "The proceeds of the State and county capitation tax shall be applied to the purposes of education and the support of the poor, but in no one year shall more than twenty-five per cent thereof be appropriated to the latter purpose."

        It matters not what revenue acts we may have on this subject the Constitution is the supreme law and must be obeyed.

        The poll tax of course varies in the different counties, but I am informed that it has been the custom in some places to take 25 per cent of $2.00, or 50 cents, without regard to what the poll actually is, or in other words, where the poll is only $1.80, fifty cents of this has been taken from the school fund, where there should have been taken only 25 per cent, or one-fourth of $1.80, or 45 cents.

        The point I wish to emphasize is this, that no matter what the poll tax of your county may or may not be, 75 per cent of whatever is is belongs to the public school fund.

        It is very strange that the school fund seems to be so often misused, and so little concern taken for this fund in comparison with other public funds.

        I have no objection to the County Commissioners caring for poor, but let them only take 25 per cent of the poll tax as the Constitution directs for this purpose.

        I believe we would have fewer people in our county homes if we had more intelligence, so one way for the commissioners to lessen the public burden of the poor is to increase the intelligence of their people.

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        I beg you to look into this matter in your county and see that the school fund has its legal portion of the poll tax, as well as the other taxes.

Very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

To the Members of the County Boards of Education.

        GENTLEMEN:--I write this letter because the question has arisen in some counties as to whether the Legislature had authority to abolish the County Boards of Education as the members were elected for three years.

        I shall not attempt to decide as to the legality of this act of the Legislature, but want to inform you that it is my earnest desire that you waive any legal right that you may feel that you have in this matter for the sake of the cause of public education.

        The work of public education in North Carolina is bigger than any set of politicians or any political party. So I beg you for the sake of the great work to be done, not to throw any obstacles in the way that may in any way hinder the success of the law as enacted by the recent Legislature.

        It was reported to me that the principal qualification considered in the appointment of the County Board of Directors was that the men must be Democrats. Be this as it may. Let these men have an opportunity to prove by their works that they are for public schools as well as Democrats.

        I advise you to meet with the County Board of Directors on second Monday in April, make a full, complete report of your work since July 1, 1898, and turn over all official records, books, etc., to the County Board of Directors, in order that said Board of Directors may have as little trouble as possible to make out the annual report for the fiscal school year ending June 30, 1899.

        There have been the most pleasant official relations existing between you and myself, with very few exceptions, the memory of the exceptions will be forgotten, and that of the general rule will be cherished in the years to come.

I am yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, March 18, 1899.

To the County Supervisors.

        The manuscript of the Public School Law and notes thereon were placed in the hands of the printer on March 15th, but owing to law

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suits, injunctions, etc., I have no assurance of a definite time as to having the School Law published--hence this letter.

        The Supervisor will hold his office and discharge his official duties until the end of the school year, or until his successor, the County Superintendent of Schools, is elected and qualified.

        The County Superintendent of Schools will be elected by the County Board of Directors on the second Monday in July.

        The County Supervisor can not do any visiting of schools since the 7th of March, because there has not existed a County Board of Education since that date under whose supervision this work must have been done in order to be in accordance with law.

        The new County Board of Directors will allow the County Supervisor pay for his services actually rendered in public school work since 7th of March, such as examination of teachers, signing vouchers, etc.; such compensation as was allowed by law by the County Boards of Education.

        It would be well for the County Supervisor to meet with the County Boards of Education and County Boards of Directors on the second Monday in April and assist in every way possible to make clear and plain matters of record as to the public schools and give all the information possible, so that the school interest and work will not be injured by change of officers.

        The Township Committees will sign orders of teachers' salaries to finish up contracts made with teachers for the schools now in operation. These orders to be endorsed by the County Supervisor as heretofore.

        This, I think, is sufficient information for you until your successors are elected and qualified.

Yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, March 25, 1899.

To the County Board of Directors.

        GENTLEMEN:--I was expecting to have the Public School Law in your possession by the second Monday in April, but owing to some legal questions being raised as to the public printing, I may not be able to do so.

        In the first place, I wish to say that I shall take it for granted that you were selected for the important position you now have because you are men who have at heart the interest of the public schools of your respective counties.

        In the second place, I wish to assure you that in the person of myself

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you will find one who is willing and anxious to be a co-worker with you in improving and bettering the condition of the public schools.

        I shall advise you freely and candidly, with only one purpose in view; namely, the progress and improvement of the schools.

        I hope my official record has been such that you can and will confer freely with me at any and all times in regard to your official duties and plans pertaining to the public schools.

        I trust you may prove to be broad, liberal-minded men, that you will not cater to any social, political or religious sect or faction, but will have as your motto the following words: "Qualification and merit shall win in ..... County of North Carolina."

        If all the County Boards of Directors would adopt this motto and live up to it for the next two years, more progress will be made in the two years than at any period in our educational history.

        You have important officers to elect, namely, the County Superintendent of Schools and the Township School Trustees.

        Much depends upon the County Superintendent of Schools. In most counties, in my opinion, the man best suited and qualified for his place will not be around seeking it, but I urge you to seek the man. You want first of all an educator in the broad sense of this term. You do not want a politician, or narrow, selfish, one-sided man, but you want a man of character and genuine worth, who is respected and esteemed by your people; a man who will be, not only a leader of teachers and children, but also a leader of parents.

        I said much depends upon the County Superintendent of Schools, but perhaps even more depends upon the Township School Trustees, because these men apportion the fund to each school, elect the committee for each school in their respective townships, fix a maximum salary for the teacher, fix boundaries, etc.

        The Township Trustees have large discretion as to apportionment of school fund. The very best men in the township should be selected.

        You will organize on the second Monday in April. I have advised the County Boards of Education and the County Supervisors to meet with you then and aid you in every way possible so as to cause no confusion in records of the schools, by a change of officers.

        You will allow the County Supervisor such compensation as you think just and proper for his services since the 7th March to the end of the school year.

        You will elect the County Superintendent of Schools on the second Monday in July, and before this time you will have the School Law.

Very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

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RALEIGH, March 30, 1899.

To the County Board of Directors.

        DEAR SIRS:--Since I have sent out my first circular letter several enquiries have come as to vacancies, as to time of appointing Township Trustees, etc., so that I have taken up the various sections relating to your duties and send them to you.

        About all you will have to do on the second Monday in April is to organize and receive books, reports, and get the general condition of the public schools in your county plainly and clearly before you.

        The most important meeting you will have will be on the second Monday in July, and I trust that you will perform the important duties of that day realizing that the future manhood and womanhood of many precious boys and girls are largely dependent upon your actions.

        SEC. 13. You will hold office until the first Monday in July, In case of vacancy by death, resignation or otherwise, said vacancy shall be filled by the other members of your Board. This will make it your duty to fill a vacancy that may occur in case any one of the members of the Board does not qualify and accept the office on the second Monday in April, when you meet to organize.

        SEC. 14. The County Board of School Directors, and all other school officials, in the several counties shall obey the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and accept his construction of the school law.

        SEC. 15. You will elect a County Superintendent of Schools on the second Monday in July, who shall be at the time of his election a practical teacher, or who shall have had at least two years experience in teaching, etc. In case of vacancy, the Board of Directors will fill it.

        SEC. 16. The County Board of School Directors shall, on the second Monday in July, 1899, and biennially thereafter, appoint in each township three intelligent men as Township Trustees; in case of vacancy, the County Board of Directors will fill said vacancy.

        SEC. 17. The County Board of Directors, on the second Monday in January and the second Monday in July of each year, apportion the school fund per capita to the townships, reserving a contingent fund to pay the County Superintendent of Schools, their own per diem, etc. Inform the County Treasurer of the amount apportioned to each township, etc.

        SEC. 18. The semi-annual apportionment of public school moneys, based upon amounts actually received by County Treasurer from all sources and reported to County Board of Directors.

        SEC. 19. The County Board may set apart annually an amount not

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to exceed $50 for a teachers' institute. We ought to have a good institute in every county, even in the new county of Scotland, this summer.

        SEC. 20. You will have four regular meetings each year--on second Mondays of January, April, July and October. You have power to fix a maximum salary for first-grade teachers. Your per diem shall not exceed $2.00 and mileage as is allowed County Commissioners. Do not fix your maximum salary at $25 or $30, and thereby drive out of your county the best teachers.

        SEC. 21. You have authority to punish for contempt, disorderly conduct, etc.

Very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, May 17, 1899.

To the County Superintendent of Schools.

        DEAR SIR:--This is to inform you, and through you the young people of your county, that there will be no examination for Peabody Scholarships this year.

        There were eight vacancies, but Dr. Payne, the President of the Peabody College, has nominated persons for all these places.

        I quote from the circular of information sent out by Peabody Normal College:

        These scholarships are distributed to the several States by the General Agent, and their award to students is vested in him; but for convenience of administration this award is delegated to the State Superintendents in conjunction with the President of the College. The whole number of scholarships is now 200, distributed as follows:

        Alabama, 15; Arkansas, 17; Florida, 8; Georgia, 18; Louisiana, 13; Mississippi, 15; North Carolina, 18; South Carolina, 14; Tennessee, 33; Texas, 20; Virginia, 18; West Virginia, 11.

        1. No State can claim scholarships as a right. They are gifts from the Peabody Board of Trust, and, as such, the ratio of their distribution, as well as their amount, may be changed, or they may be withheld altogether.

        2. At the close of each College year the President will notify State Superintendents of the vacancies that are to be filled in their respective States for the ensuing College year, and send the names and standing of nonscholarship students who are deemed worthy of scholarship appointments. If the President's nominations are not acted on within two weeks after they are forwarded, his nominees will be enrolled as scholarship students.

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        3. If appointees do not report at the College promptly at the opening of the year, or do not render a satisfactory excuse for their absence, their places will be declared vacant.

        In the award of scholarships, precedence is to be given to students who have been in the College for one or more years, at their own expense, and have there given proof of their fitness for the vocation of teaching.

        The following are the persons who have been at college at their own expense and nominated by Dr. Payne for State scholarship students for the next two years: N. C. Moseley, Elkin; L. E. Merrick, Jonesville; Ethel E. Bocker, Jonesville; E. M. Hampton, Jonesville; Bessie Cheek, Whitehead; Electa Foote, Roaring River; T. K. Lisk, Morganton; D. L. Strader, Bason.

        You will observe that Jonesville has three scholarships. Location has nothing to do with obtaining a scholarship. These rules are made by the college authorities and the Superintendent of Public Instruction has no discretion in the matter.

        You will please publish these facts in your county papers in order that your people may know why we have no Peabody examination this year.

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, May 17, 1899.

To County Superintendent of Schools.

        You are hereby notified that the State Board of Examiners will furnish you or your successor in office a set of questions for teachers who may wish to stand the examination for Life Certificates. This examination will take place on the second Thursday in July. You will notify the teachers of your county, through the press or otherwise. Be sure that it is generally known, so that all who wish may have an opportunity to take the examination.

        You will conduct the examination at the Court House or some convenient place at the county seat. The questions are not to be opened until the examination begins. Examination papers are to be forwarded to this office and graded by the State Board of Examiners.

        A diploma will be issued to all successful applicants. This diploma will have the signature of each member of the State Board of Examiners and their seal upon it, and will entitle the holder thereof to teach anywhere in North Carolina without examination by the County Superintendent of Schools, subject, however, to the provisions of Section 75 of School Law.

        Questions on the following subjects will be prepared:

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        English Grammar, English Literature, History, Geography, Physical Geography, Arithmetic, Algebra, Physics, Physiology and Hygiene, Elementary Botany, Philosophy and History of Education, Civil Government and School Law.

        The following books, in addition to those adopted in the various counties are suggested as indicating the scope of the examination on the several subjects:

        Whitney's Essentials of English Grammar; Pancoast's Composition and Rhetoric; Lockwood's Lessons in English; Maury's Geography; Tau's Physical Geography; Sully's Psychology for Teachers; White's Elements of Pedagogy; Physics (Avery and Gage), Bergen's Botany; Martin's Human Body.

        Hoping that you will give this important matter your prompt attention, I am,

Yours very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, May 31, 1899.

To the County Superintendent of Schools.

        DEAR SIR:--I wish to call your attention to Section 39 of the School Law. You will see that teachers are hereafter required to be examined on Civil Government.

        I advise you to inform your teachers of this additional study, so they may inform themselves upon this subject.

        See to it that you in your examination give this important subject its proper care and consideration.

        It is not expected that we will have classes in Civil Government in many of our schools, but we do expect for our teachers to be well informed and to give the entire schools a recitation at least once a week. In this way not only the larger pupils, but the entire school may have a general knowledge of our State and National Government.

        There are numerous text-books on Civil Government. The ones most largely used in our State are, perhaps, Peterman's Elements of Civil Government (N. C. Edition), and Finger's Civil Government. Finger's Civil Government was written especially for North Carolina teachers and schools.

        It may be well for you to examine the record of books in the office of Register of Deeds of your county. If a text-book on Government was adopted in your county on the first Monday in June, 1896, this book must be used for two years by your teachers; if no book was adopted then your teachers may use whatever book they wish.

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        The text-book used is of secondary importance to you. That which is of first importance to you as Superintendent is to see that your teachers know Civil Government.

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, June 12, 1899.

To the County Superintendent of Schools.

        I have frequent enquiries as to effect of the recent decision of Judge Timberlake in the case of the Sampson County School Board, and also enquiries as to the effect this will have as to the County Boards throughout the State if said decision is sustained by the Supreme Court of North Carolina.

        I write this letter to say, in reply to the first enquiry, that the decision of the Sampson County case does not affect any County Board of Education except the County Board of Education in Sampson County. I recognize the old County Board of Education of Sampson County because the Superior Court of said county has so ordered, and I obey this order until it is passed upon or otherwise ordered by the Supreme Court.

        In all other counties where the old County Boards are contending I recognize the County Boards of Directors appointed by the General Assembly as the de facto officers and official boards until ordered otherwise by the Courts, as in the case of the Sampson County Board. I, as an executive officer, take it for granted that a statute enacted by the General Assembly is the law, and must govern myself accordingly until I am otherwise ordered by the Courts, as in the Sampson County case. Therefore you, as County Superintendent, will recognize Board of Directors as the legal board of your county until otherwise ordered by a judgment of your Court.

        In regard to the second enquiry will say, it will be time enough to answer it after the Supreme Court shall have rendered its decision. We have trouble enough to take it as it comes, without going ahead to look for it.

Very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, June 30, 1899.

To the County Superintendent.

        DEAR SIR:--You will see by referring to section 39 of the School Law of 1899, that the Theory and Practice of Teaching is not named.

        Teachers are still required to be examined upon this subject as

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heretofore. White's Elements of Pedagogy, the same book we have used, will be the text-book used for the examination on this branch of study.

        The book is to be furnished teachers for one dollar, postpaid.

Very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, September 14, 1899.

To the County Superintendent.

        DEAR SIR:--I have numerous inquiries in regard to the text-books to be used in the public schools, what prices, etc. These inquiries, strange to say, come very often from teachers who ought to be informed on questions of this kind.

        I wish you to go to the office of Register of Deeds of your county and make a copy of the contract your county has with publishers, the names of the books, together with the prices to be paid for them by the children.

        I think it would be well to have this list of books, together with prices, published on good card-board' and placed in each school-house of your county. In this way not only the teacher would know what books he is required to use, but the children would also know what they must pay for them.

        You will find that the contract provides that books shall be sold at the prices contained therein, and if merchants and book dealers are charging more than these prices, it is your duty to look after the matter and see that the publishers place the books on sale at the prices agreed to in the contract of 1896.

        You will see by referring to section 80 of the School Law the text-books now prescribed and in use in said schools shall not be changed, nor the price of the same raised prior to said date, and that the list of such books, and the price for the same as now recorded upon the minutes of the County Board of Education," etc.

        Thus you see the Legislature of 1899 virtually adopted the text-books for two years; you will so inform the public, and especially the teachers of your county.

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, November 4, 1899.

To the County Superintendent.

        I have recently received a letter from a large county, stating that not a single fine had been reported to the Clerk by the Magistrates of this county. The County Superintendent writes that several Magistrates

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were known to have collected fines, and yet not one of them has been reported, as the law requires.

        I wish for you to call on the Clerk of your county for his report of fines, as this money belongs to the school fund of the county.

        I have reason to believe that Magistrates have not done their duty in several counties in regard to fines. If, after you receive the report of fines from the Clerk, you have reason to think there has been negligence on the part of any of your Magistrates, then you should go and examine the record books of any or all of the Magistrates. Their record books are public property, and they have no right to refuse to let you see them.

        If the returns have not been made in your county, I advise you to report the matter to the Solicitor of your Judicial District. You should not only inform him, but see to it that he takes action in the matter.

        It is your duty, as you are aware, to protect the school fund in every way possible. It may not be a popular thing to be looking into the records, but I am sure you will be ready to stand up for the childrens' interest in your county, whether it is a popular thing to do or not.

Yours very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, December 13, 1899.

To Public School Officials.

        DEAR SIRS:--I send you the following official letter as to the recent decision of the Supreme Court in regard to the School Board Cases:


        I wish to call your attention, in the first place, to the statement so often sent out from this office, namely: That I would recognize the school officials appointed by the Legislature of 1899 until the Courts ordered otherwise. According to the opinion of the Attorney-General, the Supreme Court passed upon the following points, to-wit:

        1. "It held that the County Board of Education, now the Board of School Directors, created under the Act of 1897, was not abolished by chapter 732 of the Acts of 1899."

        2. "That the County Commissioners, the Clerk and Register of Deeds had, under the old law, the authority necessarily and by direct implication to fill vacancies in the Board of Education, now the Board of School Directors."

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        3. "That the old Board of Education, now the Board of School Directors, is a continuing body, at all times qualified to perform the responsible duties imposed upon it."

        4. "That the old Board of Education, now called the County Board of School Directors, are not functi officio, but still have power to perform the duties prescribed in the Act of 1899."

        5. "That vacancies in the Board of Education or School Directors, occurring since the passage of the Act of 1899, are eo instanti filled by the appointees under that Act."

        I quote again from the Attorney-General as follows: "It now becomes your duty, under the decision of the Supreme Court in the School Cases, to give effect only to section 6, chapter 108, Acts 1897, and to recognize the officers therein named and those elected by them, but in every other respect to go forward with the great school work under the Act of 1899." Again he says: "The acts of a de facto public officer are valid, so far as they concern the public or third persons, who have an interest in the things done."

        The following questions were submitted to the Attorney-General:

        First--Where the County Boards entered on their record a protest before turning the office over to the board appointed by the Legislature, but entered no suit in the Courts to test their legal rights, which is the legal board here?

        Second--Where the County Board did not enter a protest on the record book, but merely made a verbal protest and withdrew, leaving the school affairs in the hands of the board appointed by the Legislature, which is the legal board here?

        Third--Where no protest at all was made, and where the old board did not even appear at the office, and the Supervisor turned over the record, books, etc., to the board appointed by the Legislature, which is the legal board here?

        In reply to these questions, the Attorney-General gives the general rule of law as follows: "A discontinuance of the exercise of official functions in obedience to a statute which is afterward declared unconstitutional during the continuance of the term, will not effect an abandonment."

        Again he says: "I do not think the old boards can be taken to have abandoned their offices, even if no protest of any nature whatever was entered, unless you should find as a fact that such a refusal or neglect to perform the duties was wilful."

        According to this ruling it becomes my duty to recognize the old boards in every county where said boards request recognition and desire to act, and in all cases where the old boards do not care to resume the duties of the County School Board, the boards appointed

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by the Legislature will be regarded as the legal Board of School Directors as heretofore.

        All the acts of the new boards as de facto officers in accordance with the general school law of 1899 are valid.


        The Attorney-General says: "Superintendents elected by the new board, in those counties where the old board retired under your advice, are the legal ones."

        The Township Trustees and their official duties are not affected in any way by the decision of the Supreme Court.

        The District Committees and their contracts with teachers are not touched by this decision.

        Certificates issued in accordance with the general school law by the County Superintendent, who was elected by the de facto Board of Directors, are good for one year from the date of their issue.

        In short, the school system will be carried on as it now is, except as to questions that may arise relative to the rights of certain individual officers, which can only be determined when all the facts in each case are known.

        No one regrets confusion in the operation of the public schools more than myself, and I think I can safely say that no one has labored more earnestly to avoid confusion than myself.

        The time must come when the work of public education will be regarded so sacred and of such grave importance that a successful political party will not dare to tamper with its progress; if this time never comes, then the public schools will never accomplish the purpose for which they were established.

        Official duties away from Raleigh and serious illness of my mother have caused delay in issuing this letter. Again I have endeavored to get at what is law and what is right in the matters referred to in this letter. If I have failed in either or both of these efforts, the failure has been an honest one.

Yours very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, December 20, 1899.

To the Members (Both the Old and the New) of the County School
Boards of North Carolina.

        GENTLEMEN:--I send you the following correspondence, in the first place, that you may know that the individual opinions of a member of either an old or a new board, will not affect in the least degree

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the official actions of the head of this Department. While I am always glad to have your advice and suggestions as to what is best and wisest to be done in all matters pertaining to the great work of the public schools, still I wish for you and the public to know from this correspondence that I do not propose to be driven by any man or set of men to do otherwise than that which I believe to be my duty. In the second place, I wish to recall to your mind certain facts in regard to this Department which may have escaped your memory.

        After reciting the acts of the new board, all of which, of course, were known to this Department as well as the official acts of all the new boards throughout the entire State, Mr. Lawrence says:

        "And yet in the face of these facts, or ignorance of them, Mr. Mebane, you render your partisan judgment declaring the old County Board of Education as the 'legal Board of School Directors' for Hertford County.

        "In the face of these facts, or in ignorance of them, you request us to step down and turn over the reins of school government to our predecessors. We shall do no such thing. Claimants have abandoned their office, and we will not surrender to them until ousted by a judgment of the Supreme Court, or until our terms shall expire by limitation.

        "In your official letter recently published, you say, 'The time must come when the work of public education will be regarded so sacred and of such grave importance that a successful political party will not dare to tamper with its progress.'

        "The time must also come, Mr. Mebane, when partisan officials must retire from office and be relegated to the political backgrounds. The will of the people has long enough been thwarted, and so long as this practice is indulged in, there can be no material progress. The greatest curse of North Carolina to-day is the use of public office for partisan ends.

"Yours truly,


        The following is a copy of the letter sent from this Department in reply to Mr. Lawrence:

L. J. Lawrence, Esq., Murfreesboro, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In reply to your letter of the 18th will say that I wish to refer you to the following facts, to-wit: That soon after the adjournment of the Legislature last March I sent an official letter to the County Boards of Education, from which I quote the following paragraphs:

        "I shall not attempt to decide as to the legality of this act of the

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Legislature, but want to inform you that it is my earnest desire that you waive any legal right that you may feel that you have in this matter for the sake of the cause of public education.

        "The work of public education in North Carolina is bigger than any set of politicians or any political party. So I beg you for the sake of the great work to be done, not to throw any obstacles in the way that may in any way hinder the success of the law as enacted by the recent Legislature.

        "I advise you to meet with the County Board of Directors on second Monday in April, make a full, complete report of your work since July 1, 1898, and turn over all official records, books, etc., to the County Board of Directors in order that said Board of Directors may have as little trouble as possible to make out the annual report for the fiscal school year ending June 30, 1899."

        In response to this letter the County Boards of 90 counties of the State withdrew without any contest, so far as I know.

        I have used all the energies I possess to carry into full force and effect the will of the people as expressed by the Legislature in the General School Law of 1899.

        As a matter of administration, in order to avoid confusion in operating the schools, I have declared that all certificates issued in accordance with the General School Law, where there have been two County Superintendents acting in certain counties, are good for one year from the date of their issue. That all contracts with teachers must not be interfered with. That the Township Trustees and their official acts are not affected, and in every respect tried to carry into effect the law as enacted by the Legislature until action was taken in the Superior and the Supreme Courts of this State.

        The recent decisions of the Supreme Court and the instruction of the Attorney-General as to the effects of these decisions have made it my duty to recognize the old boards where said boards demand it, and I have no choice in the matter.

        I do not hesitate to say that I think it would cause much less confusion in public school affairs if the old boards would not ask to be recognized, and if they would allow the new boards to go on and finish up their year's work as they have started it.

        I can not afford to notice that part of your letter, which is personally very offensive to me, except to say that you are the one and only person out of about two million North Carolinians who has made the charge that I have used my high official position for partisan purposes.

        I leave this charge in the hands of the people of this State, and especially in the hands of the teachers who have known most of my work and who are most capable to judge of it.

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        I shall still endeavor to do my duty in accordance with law and for the best interest of the children, regardless of your views upon these questions.

Yours very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, January 6, 1900.

To County Superintendents and Members of the County Boards of

        DEAR SIRS:--Among the many questions of anxious concern that I have had to deal with, one of these has been my earnest desire to have the special appropriation of $100,000 for the public schools.

        I wrote an official letter to the State Treasurer some months ago in regard to this appropriation. I have seen him in person three or four times and urged him to make special effort to pay this money when due. He assured me on each occasion that he would gladly pay the money if he had it when due, but could never give me any assurance that he would have the money. You, no doubt, have his official letter before this time, stating that he has not the money now, but that he hopes to have it in time for the Fall term of schools.

        This money was appropriated by the Legislature for the school year, beginning July 1, 1899, and ending June 30, 1900, and we must have this money on or before June 30, for the Spring term, and not for the Fall term.

        My advice to you is, that you go ahead and apportion this special appropriation to your respective townships, keeping a strict account of the amount of the special fund given to each township, and the Township Trustees in turn to keep a strict account of how much special fund they give to each individual school. This may cause the teachers to have a small bill of $15, $20, or $25 that may not be paid promptly at the close of the schools, but can be paid as soon as the County Treasurer receives the money from the State Treasurer.

        Of course, if the State Treasurer pays the money before the schools close, then there will be no delay in paying the teachers in full at the close of their schools.

        No one regrets the failure to receive the money promptly more than myself, as I have been exceedingly anxious that the last year of my term of office should show an increase in the length of school term, as well as an improvement in the quality of work done in the school room.

Yours very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

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RALEIGH, January 4, 1900.

To the Mayor of . . . . ., N. C.

        MY DEAR SIR:--Will you please answer the following questions and return to me at your earliest convenience:

        1. What is the population of your town? .....

        2. Have you a special tax for schools? .....

        3. What is the rate of your special tax on the hundred dollars valuation of property? .....

        4. If no special tax for schools, have you ever had an election for a spectial tax? .....

        5. Any special reason why the special tax was voted down? .....

        6. Have your people ever contemplated establishing Graded Schools, which is only another name for Public Schools?.....

        7. Will you have your local newspapers to publish the following section from the General School Law of 1899? .....


        In every incorporated city or town of not less than one thousand inhabitants, in which there is not now levied a special tax for schools, upon a petition signed by one-third of the freeholders therein, the Board of Aldermen or Town Commissioners of said city or town shall, at the date of the municipal or general election, next ensuing the presentation of said petition, order an election to be held to ascertain the will of the people whether there shall be levied in such city or town a special annual tax of not more than thirty cents on the one hundred dollars valuation of property and ninety cents on the poll to supplement the public school fund in such city or town. Said election shall be held in the different election precincts or wards under the law governing municipal or general election in said cities or towns. At said election, those who are in favor of the levy and collection of said tax shall vote a ticket on which shall be printed or written the words, "For Special Tax," and those who are opposed shall vote a ticket on which shall be printed or written the words, "Against Special Tax." In case a majority of the qualified voters at said election is in favor of said tax, the same shall be annually levied and collected in such city or town in the manner prescribed for the levy and collection of other city taxes: Provided, that all moneys levied under the provisions of this section shall, upon collection, be placed to the credit of the town school committee, composed of not less than five, nor more than seven members,

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appointed by the Board of Aldermen, for said city or town, and shall be, by said committee, expended exclusively upon the public schools in said city or town: Provided, further, that there shall be but one school district in the said city or town in which there may be established one or more schools for each race, and the school committee shall apportion the money among said schools in such manner as in their judgment will equalize school facilities.

        The point I wish to impress upon you and your people is that you need not waste precious time in order to secure a special charter from the Legislature, but according to this Law you may have the special tax voted even before the Legislature meets in June.

        This closing year of the nineteenth century will go down in history as a landmark in the political history of our State for aggressive campaigns by the political parties, and it should also be marked by aggressive work for establishing schools in at least twenty-five of the rapidly growing towns of the State.

        I wish to assure you that if I can be of any service to you in establishing schools for your town, I will gladly do so.

Yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

P. S. I construe the "one thousand inhabitants" in the law quoted here to mean any town that has one thousand men, women, boys, girls, and babies, and that it is not necessary to have one thousand adult population or one thousand voters.

S. P. I.

RALEIGH, January 19, 1900.

To Private School Men and Friends Who are Interested in our Educational

        DEAR SIRS:--On February 5, 1898, I sent a letter to the denominational and private schools of the State, asking them to take space in the Official Report of this Department at a nominal cost of $1.50 per page. In response to this quite a number of these colleges and schools agreed to take space, some only a few pages, others more.

        This report has gone into every State and Territory in the United States, to nearly every public library throughout the United States, to the college libraries, and one special bound volume to the Paris Exposition, so that I think it will be of great value to the institutions as well as to the State.

        I offer you the same terms as the others had to cover cost of printing, and hope that all the schools of any prominence that were

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not represented in my former report will be represented in the next one.

        I want a short concise history of each school, and an outline of what has been done and is being done.

        Will be glad to insert cuts of the colleges and school buildings, faculties, etc.

        I ask your careful consideration of this matter and hope to have a reply at an early day as to how much space you will want.

        I desire to leave on record a history of all our schools and the work they are doing, for the good of the schools and for the good of the State, and for future generations.

        Do not put this matter off, because you think there is plenty of time. It takes a great deal of time to get the information together from the various parts of the State, hence I start out on this work at this early date.

        I shall also be very glad, if any of the "Old Schools" were overlooked in the sketches which were prepared by Dr. Battle in my last report, to have a sketch of such school or schools.

        Let no citizen wait for a personal invitation to write such a sketch, as I hereby extend a special request to anyone and all who know of any such schools, or if you can put me in communication with persons having valuable historical educational facts that should be preserved for future generations, I shall appreciate it very much.

        Just to-day I saw an interesting sketch in the Greensboro Telegram of a "Post-bellum High School."

        No doubt there are hundreds of such schools, sketches of which if not written soon will be lost forever so far as our educational history is concerned. No charges for sketches of schools not now in operation.

        I close this letter by asking the hearty co-operation of all private schools as to their history, and of all citizens in my efforts to secure valuable educational history that may be lost if not preserved in some official record like the Educational Report of this Department.

Yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, January 24, 1900.

To the County Superintendent.

        DEAR SIR:--I refer you to the following words of section 39 of the School Law, last part: "The County Superintendent or Schools shall hold his examinations publicly, and may invite competent persons to assist him in such examinations. He shall keep a copy of

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all examinations, questions, both public and private, and shall forward copies of the same to the State Superintendent upon request."

        In accordance with this law, I hereby request you to send me the set of questions used last October, and a set of questions you have used for a private examination.

        You will please make each set distinctly, so I can see at once which was the private examination and which was the public examination.

        It gives me pleasure to say that most of the County Superintendents are punctual in complying with my requests made from time to time, but some few have been somewhat remiss in this respect. I wish to refer those who have been negligent to the words of the law quoted above: "shall forward," etc.

        The reason I wish to have these questions, is, I want to see what standard of scholarship is required by the different county superintendents in the various counties throughout the State. Hoping to have a prompt response from all the counties, I am,

Yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, February 28, 1900.

To the County Superintendent.

        DEAR SIR:--This is to say to you that I have decided that the special appropriation of $100,000 is to go to the benefit of the children direct, without any shaving down by commissions for County Treasurers or other officials.

        I am quite sure the Legislature intended for this special appropriation to go direct to the children, and urge you and your County Board of Directors to see that this is done.

        If the Legislature and the people are willing to give this special fund for the special benefit of the children, then the County Treasurers can surely handle this special money without a commission.

        This letter is written in response to County Superintendents, who are making efforts to have the special fund handled without any cost to the children.

        It may be that some County Treasurers are not demanding a commission, but the cases referred to are from counties where the demand has been made.

Yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

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RALEIGH, March 12, 1900.

To the County Superintendent.

        DEAR SIR:--You will please inform the teachers of your county, through the county newspaper, or otherwise, that the next annual examination for life certificates will be held at the court-house on the second Thursday in July.

        Questions have been prepared by the State Board of Examiners upon the following subjects, to-wit: Arithmetic, Algebra, Geography, Physical Geography, Physiology, History, Civil Government, School Law, English Grammar, English Literature, Elementary Botany, Elementary Psychology, and Elementary Physics.

        These questions will be forwarded in due time to you, as they are now in the hands of the State printer.

        You will see under section 75 of School Law, that each applicant must pay in advance to you, the County Superintendent of Schools, the sum of five dollars, which must be reported to the County Board of School Directors and paid into the general school fund of the county.

        This letter is written to you because numerous inquiries are coming to this office from young teachers, who are interested; it is, therefore, well to inform the general public of your county, upon this subject at this time.

Very truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, May 24, 1900.

To the County Superintendent and Members of the Board of School

        DEAR SIRS:--I wish to refer you to section 19 of the School Law. which is as follows:

        "The County Board of School Directors of any county may annually appropriate an amount not exceeding fifty dollars out of the school funds of the county for the purpose of conducting one or more Teachers' Institutes for said county; or the County Boards of School Directors of two or more adjoining counties may appropriate an amount not exceeding fifty dollars to each county, for the purpose of conducting a Teachers' Institute for said counties, at some convenient and satisfactory point, and the public school teachers of the said county or counties are required to attend said institute, unless prevented from attending by sickness or other good cause. A County

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Teachers' Institute under this section shall be conducted by the County Superintendent of Schools, assisted by some member of the State Board of Examiners, or a member of the faculty of the normal department of the University of North Carolina, or the State Normal and Industrial College, or of the Agricultural and Mechanical College at Raleigh, or by some practical teacher appointed by said State Board of Examiners: Provided, that the local and traveling expenses of the persons thus appointed shall be paid out of the general public school fund of the county by order of the County Board of School Directors: Provided, that the Teachers' Institutes shall be held for the white race and the colored race separate and apart from each other."

        It does seem to me that the time has come for members of every County Board of School Directors to realize that they must do all they possibly can to help the teachers of their respective counties to better prepare themselves for their important work.

        So, my friends, the question of a County Institute once a year ought to be an established fact, and the only questions with you in regard to it should be: How may we have the best Institute? How may we best serve the teachers' needs of our county? How may what we do this year add to what we did last year and prepare the way for what we expect to do next year?

        Send your requests in for men as leaders in the work. Professors McIver, Joyner and Claxton, of the Normal and Industrial College, can and will serve several counties. The Agricultural and Mechanical College professors are also required to do some of this work, and if these can not supply all the demands, we have good educators whose services can be had for a small compensation. Let us have an educational awakening in County Institute work. Our public school teachers have not the means to go off to Summer Schools, but all can attend a County Institute and get new life, new zeal and new inspiration in the work.

        Will you not do this much for the teachers of your county?

Yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

RALEIGH, September 26, 1900.

To the County Superintendent.

        I still have some inqueries in regard to combining the public schools with denominational schools, and, therefore, write you in substance what I wrote the County Supervisors during the year 1898.

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        I think it best for the committee always to provide a public school lot and building.

        The spirit of all our laws seem to be against combining church and state in any way.

        When the public school is combined with a denominational school the best interest of the public school can rarely, if ever, be served.

        The public school will not have the support of all the people when united with the church school.

        The public schools are for all the people, supported by all the people, and must serve all the people by giving instruction without any regard to denominations or churches.

        The law provides for combining public schools with private, but I do not think this, in any sense, means denominational or church schools.

        Therefore, my instruction to you as County Superintendent is that you do not combine public schools with denominational schools.

        I am aware that these church schools have well prepared teachers, but, notwithstanding this, the primary object for which they are employed is to benefit the church, and in every community we find some parents who will not send their children because the school is under church influence other than their own.

        We must not have any hindrance or objections to our public schools that may be easily avoided. We must have the united support of the people in the public school work if the work is ever to be and to accomplish what it should.

Yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

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RALEIGH, . . . . .

To the County Superintendents of Schools.

        DEAR SIR:--I wish you to write me an official letter for publication in my next Educational Report. Want you to give me the condition of educational affairs in your county. Please write the situation briefly, candidly and plainly, just as it is, so that the people of the present and those of the future may know the true condition during the school year 1899 and 1900.

        Would like to have any plans or suggestions you may have for the improvement of our public schools. With such limited means as we have in this State, it is absolutely necessary to exercise the greatest wisdom and prudence in the operation of our schools. It is somewhat like a father having ten children to feed with only food enough for five, and yet he must not let one perish. Our children have not educational food enough for even one-half of them, and yet they must live--must be the future citizens of North Carolina.

        The more I see of this great work, the more awful the responsibility of those who operate the public schools appears to me. I would remind you that your responsibilities are even greater than they were a year ago, and will increase as the years go by. May you increase in wisdom and power as your work grows; may you not only grow with the work, but may you make the work grow. Remember that you are the fountain, so to speak, from which must come the life and inspiration of your teachers. See to it that you prove yourself a leader worthy of the great cause you represent.

        Hoping to have a prompt response to this letter, I am, with best wishes and kindly feelings,

Yours truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

WINDSOR, N. C., November, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent Public Instruction, Raleigh,
N. C.

        MY DEAR SIR:--In response to your request, I beg leave to say, Bertie County is not lagging in the work and interest of schools. About one year ago we held an Institute for white teachers, conducted by Prof. P. P. Claxton, of the State Normal. About sixty

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teachers were in attendance. Prof. Claxton proved himself a workman of whom we are not ashamed, and I am sure that much good was the result of his work among us.

        Bertie was one of the first counties of the State to organize a Teachers' Association (ten years ago). We keep them going. They are attended not only by the greater part of our teachers, but by large masses of our country people. Indeed, we endeavor to make these meetings the best known means of reaching the parents of our children, since we have long ago learned that an interested parentage is the best stimulus to larger attendance upon our schools. We think about two well-conducted meetings of this character, each year, would be sufficient. We consider them chiefly as educational rallies. We believe they should be in active operation in each county in the State.

        One of the most pleasant, and, we think, profitable parts of the County Superintendent's work is an annual committeeman's day. At this time census papers are given out, and all necessary instructions, interchange of opinions, etc., etc., are made, whereby the entire school work of the county is brought together and unified. The officers of the work are drawn closer together and good otherwise done. Let the first Monday in August be the day.

        Arbor Day is appointed in this county to be on Friday before Christmas, at which time the teachers, children, committeemen and patrons of the various schools are requested to meet at their respective school houses and put the grounds in nice condition; trim up existing trees, plant out needed ones, and in any other way beautify the place. The children should at the same time give some entertaining exercises.

        While the grade of our teachers is not altogether as good as we would desire, yet we believe, upon the whole, they will average well up with those of other counties. They are selected largely for their moral, as well as intellectual worth, together as to capacity and aptness to impart instruction. Teachers found to be inefficient in their work are soon set aside, or not employed again. This is done in response to our advice to committeemen.

        For the past few years we have been issuing an annual salutation, or reminder of duty, to our teachers and committee. We believe it is productive of some good.

        In comparing our annual reports for the past two years, we are much gratified to find that both the average, as to enrollment and attendance, upon our schools for the past year, were at least eight per cent better than the year before; also an encouraging increase in length of term. This we look upon as a hopeful feature.

        We encourage public school closings. It is the best way we know

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whereby to reach our people in all sections of the county to get them interested and more intimately associated with the work of the teachers. How many bright boys and girls make a start in life from the result of public recitations! Therefore, we say, give them full scope.

        It has been suggested that we not only have public closings, but also have public openings. We think it a good idea. It would bring teachers, children and parents together in the beginning of the work, thereby being calculated to hold the educational influence of the community closer together during the term. Start right and success is always assured.

        The condition of our school buildings is being much improved. Many of them are neatly painted and ceiled inside, with good desks and benches. This part of the work is especially gratifying to us.

        At present our county has quite a number of private, high, or academy schools, all of which are being well patronized. Although we believe that our people have not yet learned to appreciate the value of these "middle ground" schools," to that degree which they should.

        We have on foot a plan whereby we may be enabled to contribute one-fourth to any school which will otherwise raise three-fourths, thus lengthening out the term one month. This plan was suggested by a donation from some Northern friend. It now only remains that our people should add to and perpetuate the fund.

        During the past Spring sessions of our schools, we were impressed with the idea of inaugurating a work among the children by which a fund should be raised by all the children of the State, sufficient in amount to erect in the Capitol Square at Raleigh, a monument to the memory of that great and good man, friend of the children and apostle of public education, Calvin H. Wiley. Thus far, every school to which we have mentioned the matter has responded with a voluntary collection, averaging in amount fifty cents to each school. This simple effort has convinced us that this work is practical and possible within the next six months. There are nearly eight thousand public schools in the State, and at an average of fifty cents each would amount to about $4,000. The hundreds of private schools and academies could and would supplement this by at least $1,000 more, thus making $5,000, an amount sufficient to build the monument and statue to this worthy man, who did so much in fashioning the better part of the history of North Carolina. We repeat, this work should be done only by the children of the State. Then why not get about it and accomplish it at once, and call it a "Twentieth Century Labor of Love, by the Children?" Bertie County will pledge her fifty cents each from her one hundred and twenty schools. We propose putting this work in motion throughout the State by our

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County Superintendents, and through them to the teachers and children. It is an easy work and can be done only by the asking. It can, it must be accomplished.

        In conclusion, justice compels me to say, that the attentive, earnest and laborious work of our present outgoing State Superintendent has infused life, energy and a quickened impulse in every feature of the public educational work in North Carolina. Surely his work will testify as to his fitness for the position. May his successor take up the work and carry it on with equal success.

        With best wishes for success in your future work, I am,

Yours truly,

Superintendent of Bertie County.


HICKORY, N. C., November 27, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction.

        Catawba County is making some progress along educational lines. Since July, 1899, we have organized a Teachers' Professional Library, which numbers more than forty volumes; also we have a reading circle with sixty members.

        Educational Foundations is the leading journal of this circle.

        Two Teachers' Institutes have been held, and were well attended. We have a Teachers' Association, which meets monthly, and is well attended. This Association was organized about three years ago, but has been meeting monthly only since September, 1900. No teachers' certificates are endorsed; an examination has been required each year.

        The most encouraging indication for increasing progress is the increased amount of professional literature among the teachers. This has increased about fourfold since July, 1899.

        Public education is in a fair condition in this county, but there is room for much improvement.

Very respectfully,

Superintendent of Catawba County.

NEW BERN, N. C., July 23, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE.

        DEAR SIR:--The schools of Craven County, considering their financial capacity, are good. We have an admirable body of teachers, many sent into the ranks from our best colleges and high schools, and encouraging progress is being made every year. I do not think,

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however, that such frequent changes in the school machinery is good. And I am certain that nothing can be made to take the place of many in the educational work of this land. First-class men can not be induced to give their time, talents and culture to the State without compensation. If our people want the best schools, they must pay the best prices. Having spent a few weeks of each year among the richly endowed schools of the North, I know this to be true. I have, nevertheless, the brightest hopes for our future.

Very respectfully yours,



        There has been some advancement made in this county in the qualification of the teachers and the school-houses within the last few years, but there is great want of interest in public education among the people. More than one-half of the children in the county were not in school last year. I suggest that a law should be passed prohibiting the employment of children under 12 years in cotton mills, and that will compel parents and guardians to keep all children under 15 years in school at least five years before they reach the age of 15.

        I do not believe we will ever reduce the illiteracy existing in this county or State until we have compulsory law on this subject.

Very truly,


CEDAR GROVE, Orange County, N. C., July 27, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent Public Instruction.

        DEAR SIR:--In compliance with your request, I submit the following in regard to the public schools in Orange County:

        Much more interest is now being taken in public education than ever before. Our average length of term has increased from eight weeks, in former years, to sixteen weeks, the school year just passed. Both the enrollment and average attendance have increased in like proportion. We have a very efficient corps of teachers--many very excellent ones. Houses and furniture are not so good as I could wish, but we are having built, every year, some very good houses. Ours is generally a rural population, with no cities or large towns, and consequently the grouping of a large number of children into one school is almost impossible. Yet some of the very best schools I have seen are found in these remote, isolated districts, sparsely populated, not more than fifty children of school age in the district,

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and yet having an average attendance of thirty-five or forty, and even more.

        As to legislation needed, I would recommend the discontinuance of Township Trustees. Three-fourths of the disturbances are traceable to their arbitrary rulings. They are too near, and are influenced by the local pressure always brought to bear on them. The power given to them can be more wisely exercised by the Board of Directors, who are not so apt to yield to local pressure. The local committeemen should not be allowed to have any school commence until the money to pay for it is actually to the credit of the district on the books of the Treasurer. This teaching, "on credit," causes much trouble in many ways; neither should committees employ a teacher who has not a "live" certificate in the county where he proposes to teach. Committeemen should be displaced as well as the teachers who do this. More safeguards should be thrown around the children's money in those districts where the committees contract with the principal of a high school, and especially church schools.

        Some adequate and simple provision should be made for replacing the old log houses with comfortable frame houses and modern furniture.

        The County Superintendent should be required to visit each school at least once during the term, not to make speeches on holiday occasions, but to see the school in its "every-day" garb. Advise with the teacher and patrons in a quiet way, as to the needs and best interests of the school. Much has been, and can be accomplished in this quiet way, where a speech would do no earthly good.

        As to increasing the length of term, I would submit the following:

        Have the white and negro districts separate as to territory, and separate in every other way--Districts No. 1, 2, 3, etc.--white and colored not covering the same territory. Then give each child, white and colored, say $1.00 yearly; make the school district (not township) the unit before the law, and if any school district, white or colored, will raise, by voluntary subscription, another dollar for each child in said district and pay the amount of said voluntary subscription into the hands of the County Treasurer, and take his receipt therefor, then the State Treasurer to duplicate this amount in favor of said district, let it be white or colored. This will remove the prejudice against local taxation on account of the negro, and I would almost guarantee that three-fourths of the white school districts would tax themselves in this way, and willingly, because the negro would not be in the way. The amount of 75 cents (instead of one dollar) per capita would run our schools six or seven months during the year.

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        The duties and powers of the County Boards of Directors should be more clearly defined, so that all can understand them.

        I would suggest that the State Board of Examiners furnish all questions, grade all manuscript, and issue all certificates to first-grade teachers; that general history and current events (news of the world) should be added to the list of studies, or topics, now required; that the County Superintendents submit the examinations and forward the papers; that County Superintendents furnish questions for and examine second-grade teachers, and that the salaries of such second-grade teachers shall not exceed $20.00 per month.

Yours respectfully,

County Superintendent Orange County.

JACKSONVILLE, N. C., July 28, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE.

        DEAR SIR:--In response to your request for a short official letter in regard to the public schools of Onslow County, I will say that after the Civil War it took a long time to get our schools on anything like a permanent basis, as you well know. We will begin with the condition of the schools in 1885. In 1885 there were in the county of school age 2,400 white children, with an enrollment of about 1,200, or one-half. In 1900, there are of school age 2,700, with an enrollment of 1,800, or two-thirds of the total, as against one-half in 1885. In 1885, there were only 27 public school-houses, valued at $1,700, while in 1900, there are 39 houses, valued at $2,400. In 1885, the total disbursements amounted to about $3,000 in the county, while in 1900 they amount to about $5,000. In 1885, there was only one good public record in the county, while in 1900 there are three, two of which have been established within the past two years, with a number of others that supplement their public term by from one to three months' private school.

        While the progress has not been so rapid in this county as it has perhaps been in some other sections of the State, I think it has been at least healthy.

        I believe that our teachers will compare favorably with those of any county in the State, in which there is no large town or city.

        In 1885, we had no organized systm of teaching. In 1900, every teacher in the county knows the general system upon which every school in the county is conducted or taught. (All this relates to white schools.)

        In 1885, a teacher read nothing but what he bought individually, and I know that was but little--I don't believe it would have averaged one volume per teacher in a year. In 1900, we have a good,

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though small library, which is supported in the main by teachers, at least nine-tenths of the teachers give it their support, and it is supported in part by others also than teachers. It has received $100 support in the past year, which is the first year of its existence. While the above facts all go to show, in my opinion, that the schools are doing well, considering with what they have to work, etc., they are not near what they should be. They need a broader base. If the North Carolina Legislature would vote about $500,000 a year for a few years with which to endow the public schools, say give the public schools $200,000 a year, and let the other $300,000 per year go to build, equip and endow a normal university for teachers only, and then pass a law that no one should teach in a public school except one bearing a certificate from that university that he is qualified to teach school, and let that certificate permit him to teach anywhere in the State (of course the tuition would have to be free and a part of the board also), then we may look for good teachers and better houses, and better filled houses. Then a compulsory law, if necessary, which necessity I doubt, will be in order.

Yours truly,

County Superintendent.

CONCORD, N. C., July 25, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In compliance with your request for a statement of the condition of educational affairs in this county, I would submit the following:

        The attendance is neither full nor regular. I am not prepared to suggest the best remedy for this. To me, it appears that the greatest fault in our schools is the low grading of the teachers, thereby setting a premium on inefficiency. I advocate raising the second grade about to where our first now is. Make a first grade hard to get, and pay salary enough to justify competent persons to teach a public school. To do this, it would be necessary to educate the patrons to see that a $20 horse, though a horse, is not as valuable as one worth $100. Such action would not make a teacher who now holds first, but later holds second, any worse teacher. It would merely open the door to many men and women, who to-day are kept out of the profession by having to compete with those less competent under the same grade and at a low salary.

Yours very truly,

Superintendent of Public Schools Cabarrus County.

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SWAN QUARTER, N. C., July 24, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction, Raleigh,
N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In reply to your favor of the 18th inst., I cheerfully comply with your request, and give a truthful statement as to the condition of the public schools of Hyde County.

        After the Civil War many of our best people were slow to move in the cause of public education on account of their race prejudice and contempt they had for the Union soldiers, born among us, who visited their old homes with Yankee raids and assisted in the despoilation and plunder of their neighbors' houses.

        Foolish as it may seem, the teachers were taken where they could be found and seemingly were interested in their work only to get the money there was in it, the wealthy class employing teachers to teach their children independent of the detested free schools, as they were termed.

        The public schools have done more good and the money has been more wisely and judiciously expended than the foes of public education are willing to admit, notwithstanding there are scores of thrifty homes where the heads of the family possess quite a degree of intelligence, though they only attended the neighborhood public schools.

        A great change has taken place in favor of the public schools. Hon. John C. Scarboro, Major Finger and yourself, by foot-notes in the school pamphlets and circular letters to the County Superintendent, Board of Education, and school committeemen, have had their influence for good. To-day we stand head and shoulders with most of the counties in the State as to competent teachers. Many of our teachers are college trained, and quite a number of them are young ladies, full-fledged graduates, whose fathers are the wealthier citizens, and the schools are being patronized by everybody.

        In many of the school districts we have nice houses, and all the houses are comfortable for both winter and summer schools. Private and public schools are taught in connection in many communities, and in such cases we have from six to eight-month schools.

        The greatest complaint comes from the whites, who say they pay all the taxes and the negro pays but little and gets his pro rata. I shall stand by the guns, hopeful that the dawn of the twentieth century will open our eyes to the necessity or an educated citizenship, which must come through a well-conducted system of public schools.

        Our County Board of Education are men of learning and good

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judgment, one of them a practicing lawyer, the other two successful farmers, all of whom are interested in popular education.

        In conclusion, we are in as good shape as we can reasonably hope for.

Very truly,

County Superintendent of Schools.

MANTEO, N. C., July 25, 1900.

C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction.

        DEAR SIR:--In response to your circular letter of the 18th inst., will say that the schools in Dare County are much better than ever before. By hard work and persistent efforts, we have raised our standard of teachers and teaching. The School Laws of 1899, regulating the school system, works a hardship on the various school officials of this county. We would love to have it changed so the School Trustees would not be in the way. The geography of our county is very peculiar. Dare is one of the largest counties in North Carolina, but nine-tenths of it is covered with water and uninhabited.

        I think a good plan for Dare would be to do away with every school official except the Board of Education and County Superintendent.

        Give the Superintendent charge of the teachers and the schools to a certain extent. Let him employ and discharge teachers for the various districts, audit and sign all vouchers, have a finance committee of one in each district to look after the property, and report census, etc. The Superintendent should be a practical teacher and a worker. He should be paid a salary for the six months he is engaged in having the schools taught. The money that is taken out of the school fund to pay expenses of the Board of Education will pay the Superintendent, and the board to meet twice to apportion the money for the children and transact other semi-annual business.

        A similar plan for Congressional or Judicial Districts would be best for the State. I argued this very question before the Committee on Education in 1887, and I believe it is the only key to the solution of the "starving family." This is not the full plan, but a mere sketch, and I hope to see it developed.

        With congratulations for your untiring and earnest efforts to educate the boys and girls of North Carolina, I am,

Very respectfully yours, etc.,


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WHITEVILLE, N. C., November 3, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In answer to your circular letter asking for information on the condition of educational affairs in Columbus County, I would say that the situation is encouraging, but not very encouraging.

        There has been an increase in the per capita amount received for the public schools, but this county is too thinly populated and yet too far back in material developments, to bring the schools up to what we would wish them to be. The public money gives us an average of only about two and three-fourth months of school, and there are very few districts in the county where the public money is supplemented with subscriptions. But worst of all, there are very many parents who do not give their children the benefit of such public schools as they have, perhaps one-fourth of the children in the county do not attend school.

        It seems to me that the best way to improve our public schools, is to get the people more interested in education. This, I think, could be done if there were more talks made at the various school-houses, on the subject of education. As a rule, our teachers are competent; but in some parts there is a tendency to employ the cheapest teachers, and on this account there is often money wasted on incompetent teachers. Our people need to be shown the importance of education, and they need to be shown what real education is before we can expect them to be as careful as they ought in selecting their teachers.

        I fear that this will be too late for you, but oversight is the cause of the delay, which I hope you will excuse.

Respectfully yours,

County Superintendent of Schools for Columbus County.

CROUSE, N. C., October 25, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--We organized two Teachers' Associations in Lincoln County last year, one for the white teachers, and the other for the colored. They were not as largely attended as they should have been. We are now organizing one for each township. Our plan is to extend a cordial invitation to all people to meet with us and to hold each meeting in a different district, and thus by coming in contact with the masses to excite an educational interest over the entire county.

        We held two Institutes (each one week in length) last August, one

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for the white, the other for the colored teachers; that for the white was attended by seventy teachers; that for the colored by nineteen teachers.

        In the one, the Superintendent had the assistance of Professors F.H. Curtiss, Superintendent City Schools, Mount Airy, N. C.; J. N. Hauss, City Schools, Jackson, Tenn. In the other, Miss Fannie Thompson, graduate of Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C.

        The Institute also enjoyed an instructive lecture by Hon. C. H. Mebane, State Superintendent of Public Instruction.

        They were the best attended Institutes ever held in the county, and much interest was taken in the work by the teachers of both races. There is no doubt that the eighty-nine teachers who attended the Institutes were greatly benefited and will go forth to their respective works with greater zeal and a renewed determination to teach better schools than ever before.

        The general condition of the public schools in this county is gradually improving. The enrollment and average daily attendance were larger and term longer last winter than heretofore. I feel safe in saying our corps of teachers are better qualified than ever before. Many of the small shabby houses have, in recent years, been torn down and replaced by spacious and well-built frame ones, and in a few instances by brick ones; though too many of these old, dingy buildings with inadequate supplies still exist. Under such circumstances no teacher can show results.

        There are several high schools in the county running from seven to nine months in the year. In the town of Lincolnton is a commodious brick structure, two stories high, where three teachers are employed, and many boarding students attend school.

        The school census report shows an average of seventy-six white children of school age to the district in Lincoln County; an average enrollment of forty-eight pupils; an average daily attendance of thirty-one for the entire term. Certainly this is not what it should be. And since the Constitution has been amended by requiring an educational qualification after 1908 to vote, we have every reason to believe that the average daily attendance will be largely increased. Then it is evident that many school-houses must be enlarged and at many places two teachers employed. While the present School Law favors the plan of large schools, the almost inevitable practice is to divide up and create new districts for the sake of convenience. Township Trustees should see to it that new districts are not established for the special benefit and convenience of a few influential families, but that the greatest good to the greatest number of children be the controlling motive in all the changes. We must admit, however, that the plan of small districts has the advantage of securing the

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maximum attendance, since the children must go a shorter distance through the inclement wintry weather to reach school. But as a general thing it would be attended by the unfortunate condition of small shabby houses, inadequate school supplies, and short terms.

        When we consider the fact that of the 600,000 children of school age in North Carolina, about 200,000 do not attend any school, and of the nearly 6,000 in this county, 2,000 do not attend school, we are almost forced to the conclusion that the wise thing to do is to enact a mild compulsory attendance law. These stupendous figures of illiteracy blazoned upon the pages of our statistical manuals leave a blot upon the good name of our great State, however grand her achievements in other respects. And dear, substantial Lincoln County, whose sons are famed for their soundness in legal love, and for their military bravery, tact and skill on the battle-field, must bear her full share of the stain.

        One or two good high schools in every township in the county are badly needed for the convenience of poor boys and girls, who have completed the free-school course, and are not able to leave home and pay for board and tuition. There is too great a gulf between the public schools and the high schools. Schools of higher grade need to be more plentiful and cheaper, so as to bridge over the separation. With such improvement thousands of bright pupils in the State, who annually cease to make any further efforts to procure an education when they have finished the public school course, would continue in school until they obtain a thorough education, and thus in all probability become potent factors in the upbuilding of church and State.

        In this county our supremest need is money, more money. Instead of a three-and-a-half-months' school, we should have six or seven. Let the State do her duty and the county do her's and these conditions will vanish like darkness before sunshine. The time has come for broader conscience and wider vision, larger policies and more enduring systems. The day of larger and better things should begin to dawn upon our fair State. Let the people be aroused and made to feel "in heart and nerve, and blood" the importance of educating all the children, and then we will move grandly forward.

Yours very truly,

Superintendent of Schools of Lincoln County.

DALLAS, N. C., August 30, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent.

        DEAR SIR:--In complying with your request for a statement of the conditions of our schools in Gaston County, I will say, that to a man in my position, eagerly watching the slow progress and the discouragement connected with our public schools, it is not a very inspiring

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theme to write about; and yet we have made some perceptible improvement. We have about reached the constitutional requirement of four months' term, and I am sure there is some improvement in the quality of our schools. I have tried to hold up the standard of our teachers, both intellectually and morally. In the towns and villages of the county which are, we may say, all factory towns, the factory authorities frequently supplement the schools and furnish a free school for most of the year, so I have about concluded that we do not now seriously need more schools or longer terms. Indeed I am thoroughly convinced that if we had not quite so many schools we would have a little longer term and a little better schools. The farming communities can not well use more than four months--or at least will not--and in many cases they even divide this into a winter and a summer school, in my opinion a most ruinous policy.

        The length of the term we have is sufficient to enable every child to "read, write and cipher," and when they learn well these three "R's.," we will have made good progress. I do not mean our learning should be confined to these, but it does seem to me that under our present conditions and stage of progress these, with the necessary preliminary spelling, are the essentials, and that instead of scattering over a dozen subjects we should stress more these fundamentals, leaving some of the other subjects for later introduction.

        But as I look at it, the great need of our schools is to get the children in them. The average attendance on our schools is about three-eighths of the school population. It costs about $1.17 per scholar per month to teach them, when perhaps half as many more could be just as well taught at same expense. The people are not enthusiastic over a system that so signally fails to reach so many of the children--and those are the very ones most needing it, for, as a rule those who now attend, except the colored children, would go to school and pay for it less per scholar in private schools than it is costing now.

        I think our next crusade in the cause should be just here at the very base of the system. And for years I have been urging our teachers, for the love of the children, to make missionaries of themselves and gather them in.

        A hasty statement like this I know may easily be misunderstood. I am heartily in favor of progress. I am impatient with the tardy step with which we are going and I believe in enlarging the system just as fast as our real progress permits, but th children can not be taught unless they go to the schools, nor will the people be thoroughly interested till they see the schools more nearly accomplishing their intended work. I am happy to acknowledge your courtesy, your faithful energy, and zeal in the cause, and allow me to express my regrets that, having learned so well the needs of the schools, you must leave us just when you are better than ever prepared to help us.

Yours truly,

County Superintendent Gaston County.

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HERTFORD, N. C., August 10, 1900.

C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent Public Instruction, Raleigh,
N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The condition of the schools of this (Perquimans) county for the scholastic year ending June 30,1900, was generally satisfactory.

        With few exceptions, I think as much was accomplished as could well have been done with the means and appliances at hand.

        Many of the schools were in session full four months, as required by law, and the teachers were generally efficient and alive to their work, but the attendance was not as good as I desired.

        For geographical reasons many of our school districts are small; this, of course, lessens the amount appropriated to each school and shortens the average of school term.

        I see little prospect of marked improvement in our public schools until the people agree to submit to additional taxation, and our Legislature shall have passed a law making the attendance of all children between the ages of 6 and 16 years compulsory.

        The necessity for many small school districts could be obviated by furnishing transportation for those who live too far from the school-house to walk. I think this plan merits consideration.

        There seems to be too much machinery in the present School Law; Fewer bearings would diminish friction.

        As you request that I make my letter brief, I have merely made a few suggestions.

Very respectfully,

County Superintendent.

SHELBY, N. C., August 22, 1900.

C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, N. C.

        HON. SIR:--At your request, I write you the condition of the educational affairs in Cleveland County.

        I am glad to say that all our public schools have made substantial advancement during the school year of 1899 and 1900. The instruction, as a rule, has been more thorough and practical; the average daily attendance has been the best on record, and the general interests of pupils, teachers, patrons and school officers show a decided improvement.

        So Cleveland County is educationally alive, and the present interests indicate that we are going to get liver, and that we shall never forget your proficient work and interests as State Superintendent of Public Instruction.


Superintendent Public Instruction of Cleveland County.

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CASTORIA, N. C., July 25, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        MY DEAR SIR:--In reply to yours of the 18th, would say that the greatest difficulty we have had to contend with in our public schools has been the lack of interest on the part of the parents. The widespread belief that the public schools are inefficient has tended, to a great extent, to make them so, and has rendered possible the evil of the teacher who is satisfied simply to "teach out the money."

        For the past three years we have been conducting a special crusade to eradicate this evil, believing that when the proper interest was awakened in the minds of the people the question of an increased appropriation would settle itself.

        I am glad to announce to you that our efforts have met with gratifying results in the awakened interest and the increase average attendance of our children.

        Yours in the interest of the public schools,

County Superintendent Greene County.

DANBURY, N. C., August 21, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In reply to your inquiry of the 18th ult., which was missent, I beg leave to say that, although Stokes is not in the front rank with some of her other sister counties in an educational point of view, yet the public schools are rapidly improving.

        We held an Institute last year and such deep interest was manifested that we were encouraged to hold another this summer with largely increased attendance and interest.

        I am striving to raise the standard of scholarship in this county.

        Quite a number of school-houses are in course of construction, nearly all of which are of a better class of buildings than formerly.

        For the past year the general enrollment of pupils was far greater than ever before, while the average attendance increased sixteen and two-thirds per cent. Taking all things into consideration, I think the sentiment in favor of public schools has been strengthened and the schools generally are in a more prosperous condition than ever before. The provisions in our School Law for the township as a unit, and for Township, Trustees, operate against us in this county.

        Our townships are very irregular and intersected by one large river, numerous large creeks and mountains. It works quite a hardship to many of our children in nearly all portions of the county to be controlled by township lines.

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        And further, my experience with the various Boards of Trustees has not been very flattering in many instances. They, receiving no pecuniary compensation for their services, are in many instances so negligent and slow to act as to impede the progress of the schools in their townships.

        I am of the opinion that the Board of School Directors would do that service with much more satisfaction to all. I am,

Very respectfully, your humble servant,

Superintendent School, Stokes County.

WASHINGTON, N. C., August 10, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE.

        DEAR SIR:--Your letter of July 18th, with the request that I write you an official letter for publication in your Educational Report, would have received earlier attention, but for my absence from home.

        The condition of educational affairs in Beaufort County is, I think, upon the whole, encouraging. I am sure that the interest manifested in public schools is greater than in former years; that the teachers are better prepared, and that the work done by them is not only of a better grade, more thorough and systematic, but that their work is being more highly appreciated, and that the public schools have greatly increased in public estimation.

        One of the greatest hindrances to the success of our schools is the inability, or the unwillingness, of some patrons to supply their children with text-books, and the disposition on the part of some District School Committees not to teach out the whole term apportioned in one continued term, but to stop the schools whenever the children are needed for farm work, and teach out the balance of their apportionment at another time. I have done all in my power to prevent this waste of public money, and this injury to the children of the county. I have been connected with public schools for many years, and realize the responsibility of which you speak as resting upon the County Superintendent of Schools.

        Permit me to say, sir, that, in my humble opinion, you deserve the sincere thanks, not only of the children, but of all friends of education, for your able, wise and faithful efforts to advance the interests of a great cause. I believe, sir, that since the day you became Superintendent of Public Instruction, you have discharged not only most courteously, but faithfully and impartially, the responsibilities and duties of your high office.

        With best wishes and my high regard, I am,

Yours truly,

County Superintendent of Schools, Beaufort County.

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MARSHALL, N. C., August 3, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Your letter of recent date, asking me to contribute something for publication in your next annual report, relative to the condition of the public schools of my county, (Madison), and to offer any suggestions that might be toward the betterment of the public school system of the State, is duly received.

        The public schools in this county are not so good as they are in some other counties in the State that are wealthier. Madison is a mountainous county; the districts are forced to be unequal in size, and the terms of school unequal in length. The county is not wealthy. It is at present very heavily taxed for other purposes, and our school fund is small.

        There are eighty-three schools in the county, numbering 8,143 children. The apportionment this year is 80 cents per capita. There were 69 schools taught last year, averaging 3 1-2 months each. They enrolled 4,841, and made an average attendance of 2,745.

        In a number of the districts the school terms are made longer by private subscription.

        The trouble with the schools in my county is the fact that there is too little money apportioned to the districts and the attendance is too abnormal. It takes money to command the best talent to teach. To accomplish what should be accomplished by the public school system we must have a compulsory system of attendance. I sincerely hope we may have some legislation along this line in the near future.

        I think the present office of Township Trustee should be abolished, for the reason that this office makes too many school officers, and the fewer officers there are the more harmonious will the workings of the public school system be. There are also other objections.

        I am in favor of a special tax being levied by the State to furnish text-books free to the children.

        I think there should be a law forcing teachers to attend Teachers' Institutes and Teachers' Normals. The chief examination for teachers should be given in May, and not July, as it is at present. A teacher's certificate should be forfeited if they did not attend the Institutes held after the examination. After some of these modifications in the School Law, then the Legislature should let it alone and let it rest awhile at least.

        With kindest regards to you for the able services you have rendered the State as Superintendent of the Public School work, and with best wishes for your future success, your health and your happiness, I am,

Very sincerely yours,

Superintendent of Schools, Madison County.

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RUTHERFORDTON, N. C., August 9, 1900.

        HON. SIR:--Complying with your request of recent date, the following facts relative to school matters in Rutherford County are submitted:

        Ours was one of the few counties of the State in which there was a contest between the rival Boards of School Directors.

        The new board, elected by the Legislature of 1899, pursuant to instructions issued by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, met in the town of Rutherfordton on the second Monday in April, of that year; went before M. O. Dickerson, C. S. C., and were duly qualified, according to law. After organizing by the election of C. W. Watkins, Chairman, a formal demand was made on the old Board for the office, together with all the books, papers, and other property belonging thereto. This demand was met by the old Board by a prompt, but respectful, refusal to surrender any school property in their possession to the new Board. These proceedings soon became known to the public, and rumors, with or without foundation in fact, were rife; and, as is common in such cases, they were augmented as they flew, much to the injury of our school interests. So matters stood, when on the first Monday in July the two Boards again met, and each approved the annual reports of the County Supervisor, and of the Treasurer of the School Board, for the preceding school year.

        It was at the regular meeting of the Boards on the second Monday in July that it became apparent that the Boards could never hope to agreeably settle the differences existing between them.

        The old Board met in the office; the new, in the court-house. The old Board elected a Superintendent and thirty-nine Trustees; the new elected a Superintendent and a like number of Trustees. These were all different men. The Trustees of the two Boards subsequently met, and, with a few exceptions, elected two sets of Committeemen for each of the schools. The county now presented the anomaly of a dual set of school officers, from the highest to the lowest. Later, it developed that, in some of the districts, two teachers had been employed by partisan Committeemen. Possession of the school property was considered of prime importance. In a few instances the school buildings were locked by both parties; in others the law was invoked, or personal violence was threatened as a last resort. One school house was burnt, and the prospect was growing from bad to worse.

        These conditions demanded prompt action. With a view to determine the legal status of the opposing School Boards, application was made by the new Board through their attorney, Hon. M. H. Justice, on or about the 7th of August, to his Honor, Judge Oliver H. Allen,

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at Newton, for a temporary restraining order which was promptly granted, and some days later served on the officers of the old Board. A final hearing on this temporary injunction was for various reasons postponed, from time to time, until the first week in November, when his Honor Judge T. A. McNeill, after hearing all the evidence in the case, and carefully considering the law, made the order permanent. The old Board, through their attorneys, Messrs. McBrayer and Eaves, appealed to the Supreme Court. The opinion of this Court reversed, late in November, the ruling of the courts below. The old Board under this decision again took charge of the office. This case did not affect in any way the status of any school officer in the county outside of the Boards of School Directors. The cases of the Superintendents, Trustees and committees, were referred to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, who, after a long and painstaking investigation, decided, December 23, that the officers of the new Board were the de facto school officers. This decision did not prevent those aggrieved from bringing action in the Superior Court for the recovery of any de jure rights to which they were entitled. No appeals, however, were taken from these rulings, and for the remainder of the school year no further trouble has occurred.

        On the first of July last the new Board again assumed their duties. Confusion and uncertainty are no longer disturbing factors; the elimination of partisan feelings and prejudices has restored confidence; the transition from the unknown to the known has opened up the way for more earnest efforts to advance the interests of the schools; parents and teachers alike are cooperating with one another as never before to advance the interests of the generations now living and yet unborn.

        Two Institutes--one for each race--have been recently held and largely attended. The County Teachers' Association has been recently reorganized, and promises to be very helpful in fostering educational advancement throughout our entire country.

        It may be that, after all, the difficulties through which we have so recently passed are the precursors of an educational awakening such as we have never before known. The teachers of this county may not be better than others, but I feel assured that so long as they live and work for the children here their moral and intellectual wants will be abundantly supplied. Thanks are due the pulpit and the press of the county for many helpful words of encouragement. With such environments as obtain almost everywhere in our midst, I can hopefully point in the near future to an era of educational awakening in this county that will with its brilliancy totally obscure everything done in the past.


County Superintendent.

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BURGAW, N. C., August 7, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintndent of Public Instruction.

        MY DEAR SIR:--Replying to yours of recent date, would say that, in the matter of education, we are "making haste slowly." In some directions there has been considerable improvement of late years, while in others "retrogade" is the word. The majority of our people, realizing that the little pittance received from the State will never educate their children, have set to work to do it themselves by supplementing the State funds and extending the school terms--by a more careful selection of text-books--by a better attendance, and especially by employing a better grade of teachers, and in many sections, school houses are being greatly improved. I believe they would gladly submit to a higher rate of taxation for school purposes, but there is a respectable minority who are getting more careless, as the years go by, of sending to school. The County Superintendent of Schools visits the schools, counsels the teachers, encourages the pupils by little talks to them, and lectures the patrons upon the subject of schools, and I must say that he feels greatly encouraged in his work. I would recommend a return to the township system of two years ago, as the District plan has multiplied quarrels one hundred per cent over the Township system. I would recommend that the Districts be allowed to tax themselves, as this does away with the negro bugaboo--or helping the negro. The State should purchase the text-books by wholesale and supply the children at cost. The Superintendent of Health should visit the schools every two years and report their sanitary condition and water supply to the Board of School Directors, and make such suggestions as he may deem pertinent. The school funds from the several counties should be paid into the State Treasury and apportioned to the several counties according to school population--thus letting the more wealthy counties share with the poorer ones, as the more wealthy townships share with the less favored ones.

With great respect,

Superintendent of Schools Pender County.

CURRITUCK, N. C., August 3, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent of Schools, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--In compliance with your request I'll try to give you an insight on the condition of educational affairs in Currituck for the year from July 1, 1899, to June 30, 1900, and to do so I am compelled to go back some years in order that you may compare the

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present with the past. It is known by you that I succeeded my predecessor, Dr. Ritter, as Supervisor of Schools, in July, 1899, it being the first month of the past school year, and in August next I came in custody of the books of record and some other documents pertaining to that office. To inform myself of school affairs, I at once set about examining these records. I found apportionments made and school district accounts kept up till 1895, but during this year it appeared the accounts collapsed. After this, apportionments were made, but how and when the schools were taught the records fail to tell, yet I know some and perhaps all the schools were taught in these years, from 1895 to 1898. When I say year 1898 or 1899, I mean precisely what it says--from January 1 to December 31 following, which constituted a Currituck school year, under the supervision of both Dr. Pitts and Dr. Ritter, let reports say what they may to State Superintendent every July.

        When Dr. Ritter, in 1898, succeeded Dr. Pitts as Supervisor, he opened township accounts for that year and in January, 1899, opened others for that year--running from January to January as aforesaid. When vouchers were presented for countersigning to Supervisor, the date of signing, the name of the holder and the amount named therein was entered in the township account, but no noting by what school it was issued, its number or color. These accounts would cover parts of two separate school years in Wake County, perhaps, but one whole school year in Currituck. Besides this inaccurate way of keeping yearly accounts, I found a teacher's voucher that was given for services in one township placed to the account of another township, also vouchers for two years teaching put to one year's apportionment, and the vouchers from a district for a certain school year, part would be put to one year and part to another, etc. Sheriffs of Currituck have, generally, had from one September to another to make settlement, the school funds are paid to Treasurer from time to time in this period, and as one school year counts from January to January, you can see some parts of two years taxes coming into Treasurer's hands during one Currituck school year. Now, the Treasurer has not heretofore been keeping each year's school fund separate and to itself, but a steady stream of receipts from Sheriff and other sources put in his book with little or no information from what source the items were derived. Now, let me take these books of both Treasurer and Supervisor, together with the records of Board of Education in the past, where one can't find a plain statement of Treasurer settlement of school funds for any year, and you'll find a brain-splitter in trying to straighten

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out the past so as to start aright now, and for the future. The Treasurer don't know where he stands relative to the school funds of the past. His book has been submitted to the Board of Directors, that employed good counsel and good accountants to help sift the matter, and after poring over Treasurer's book, comparing it with finance records of the county and the books of the Board of Directors, it was deemed impossible to make a correct statement, on account of the mass of confusion that thwarted every step. It has been found, however, that by the failure of our Sheriff one year in the past three, that there has been as much or more money paid out for school purposes than has been paid in, and the Treasurer is left to untangle his web and show up. Two leaves have been torn from his book. These leaves might show something--Treasurer says they were important. One of them has lately come to life, ah!

        Besides all the above-named entanglements, the school funds from year to year have been misapplied by Treasurer, that is, funds of 1898 in liquidating claims that should have been paid in 1897-- of 1899 applied to claims of 1898, etc. This has been going on from year to year. This mode of procedure I have stopped since I became Supervisor.

        After I was duly elected and recognized by the State Superintendent consternation was depicted on Bell and those he could at once call to his aid. Now Bell can't write a line for publication, and there is no doubt in my mind that he was the cause of those inflammatory and invective letters written by Dr. Ritter to and about the State Superintendent doing his moral as well as lawful duty in the premises. Dr. Ritter by so doing got himself in a hole (his friends say he lost his head). Then came Bell's letter of extrication--that fawning and palliating letter to the State Superintendent so full of errors and misleadings. He tried to impress the State Superintendent that there was no unfriendliness, to his knowledge, that existed between himself and Ansell. This insinuation and intimation was a gross error and falsehood and no one knows it better than Bell. I could tell you how the influence of a government office was brought to bear against me on that memorable 10th of July, 1899, but it don't belong here. Now, with the light before you, I will try and give you a statement of school affairs for the year 1899 and 1900, that you desire. After viewing the school premises in the past as above set out, I was determined to try to make a change. I found the schools of the past year in full blast. I countersigned vouchers for the year 1898 and 1899, about $1,500. I saw the Sheriff the Treasurer and Board of Directors in the fall of 1899, and insisted that the school funds for the year 1899 and 1900, should be

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collected promptly, and that the Treasurer should apply it to the schools and schools expenses of that year only.

        The Sheriff, if he didn't settle by 31st December, 1899, he did soon thereafter, to his great credit. Sheriff Flora collected from property, polls and liquor license tax, the whole amount charged against him--$4,261.48, less his commissions of $213.07--$4,048.41. The Treasurer received the net amount so collected--$4,048.41 plus $20.45 fines, plus $206.63 from the State--total $4,275.49. Of this amount $3,790.44 was apportioned to schools vouchers during the year signed $3,275.46, and perhaps all paid. It leaves for schools not taught in the year but being now taught $514.98. When the schools for the year are finished, the expenses of Board Directors and Treasurer's commissions, etc., are deducted, there will be about $200 to go to this year's school fund.

        Last January I insisted that the apportionment made then should be taught out before June 30 next, and not in the fall following, as has been the custom heretofore. All but three responded and went at it, but before many of them had taught out, crop time came on and not one-fifth of the pupils attending, the schools were stopped. Now, I am suggesting a plan to relieve this trouble. Those that will teach in the wrong fall, I suggest that they commence their school for this year, 1900 and 1901, say next November or December. While they may not know precisely the amounts coming to their schools, it can be approximated very closely from the past year, and before their schools are taught out they will know the precise amounts, and it will be in Treasurer's hands for payment. This will stop a world of trouble I'm sure. What do you think of it? The school year 1898 and 1899, over half the schools were taught the next year or last fall. The schools of 1899 and 1900, not one-seventh failed to be taught in the proper time, and I'm sure this year they will all be taught in due season. So you see there has been great improvement in the collecting and the paying out of funds--the observing of the school year--the manner of keeping school accounts, for I've even got the Treasurer on his work in that respect. The school-houses in our county are generally poor affairs, small and dilapidated, not furnished and equipped--many uncomfortable. I'm suggesting relief for this. The teachers and teaching are about the same as years past. I am going to try, if I can, to get the committees to go with me on that line. The most of these committeemen are selfish, ignorant, and will not work. Will not even furnish a small account book to note the business proceedings that come before them. They actually call on me to furnish a book that 25 cents would buy. Not only do I furnish deeds for them when called on, but I have to write them. So I can't say much of our schools. They are something like an

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old Virginia rail fence grown up with weeds. I'll try to have it improved.

Yours very respectfully,

County Superintendent.

MORGANTON, N. C., July 30, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction, Raleigh,
N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Your letter of July 18, asking for an official letter setting forth the condition of educational affairs in Burke County, has been received, and will try and give the situation as I see it, and as reports show.

        All reports for the year ending June 30, 1900, show an advance along all lines. Yet we are only beginning to realize that the only hope for our children is in the public schools. All of our Trustees and committeemen do not do their whole duty. They have not got into the idea of combining small schools and making fewer but stronger and better schools. Until we can reduce the number of our schools at least one-third, our progress is going to be slow. We have tried to keep the standard of teachers up to the very best that can be had. We indorse from no other county, neither do we give private examination.

        I believe I can safely say that we are on the forward move on educational lines in Burke County.

        As to latter part of your letter I will say that I believe that the County Superintendent should be a bonded officer and be Treasurer of the school fund, without extra pay. I think it would be more convenient to the teacher.

        I would further suggest that only two examinations be held in each school year--the first week in July and January, and that private examinations be forbidden. This is the case with all other professions in the State. I believe that a Teacher's Institute should be held in each county every year, and all teachers should be required to attend or not allowed to teach.

Very truly,

Superintendent of Burke County.

SPARTA, N. C., July 30, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE.

        DEAR SIR:--The schools of Alleghany County are better than one year ago, but not what they ought to be. The greatest drawback is

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the small salary paid to teachers. They do not feel that they can afford to attend our summer schools and normals. Our teachers want to keep apace with the improved ideas and methods of teaching, but they have not the means.

        Another drawback is the disposition of committeemen to take the man that will do and no more. Hence the cheap man is ahead, and his work is correspondingly cheap. The sentiment against such things is increasing, and we hope to overcome it entirely.

        But the trend is upward and onward, and at no distant day our schools will not be a whit behind the best.

        Our school buildings are not generally comfortable, but there is a marked improvement in this. The old houses one by one are giving way and better ones are taking their places. I hope ere long to see a neat, comfortable house in each community.

        The wise and opportune suggestions of our State Superintendent have been a factor for good in our school work.



UNAKA, N. C., July 30, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent.

        DEAR SIR:--In reply to your letter of recent date, win say that the public schools of Cherokee County are in a reasonably good condition. The average length of term for the present year will be longer than any previous year. The educational interest is taking on a gradual, but a permanent growth. The amount of money in our county is so limited that it becomes necessary to study every available plan to best utilize this money to the greatest good to the greatest number; but we meet our opponents in this as well as in other avocations of life. We find that almost every patron would like to have the school kept near his own door, but this we all know can not be done, but it has caused no little trouble and expense in trying to meet the demands of so many patrons, hence the great number of school districts with a small amount of money to each, and in many instances, a sorry, poorly paid teacher, hence a sorry school. We consider the best way out of this trouble is to consolidate districts where it can be done without too much inconvenience thereby increasing the means as well as the children which gives in almost very case a longer term, a better teacher, and consequently a better interest. There are six townships in the county, and we are trying to consolidate the districts so as to have at least one central school in each township, which will have a longer term and allow all that can attend this central school do so where they can

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consistently, which is sure in every case to create a greater educational interest. We have three central schools in the county that are prospering. Some of these schools will be able to give the young men and women who are getting well advanced, such stimulation as will soon cause several to get certificates, whereby they can teach, all of which has its good effects. We are studying this important subject with due consideration, realizing fully the fact that we should have a permanent educational interest established which can only be effected by degrees. So with pleasure, I conclude this letter, realizing from the pleasant letter that I have received from you that I have a cooperating leader and brother in the great and glorious work of educating the children of the Old North State. I trust that every County Superintendent and educator in the State may feel the weight of the grave responsibility resting upon him in this glorious work.

Fraternally yours,

Chairman Board Education.

W. K. JOHNSON, Secretary.

BRYSON CITY, N. C., July 27, 1900.

Superintendent MEBANE, Raleigh, N. C.

        MY DEAR SIR:--It gives me pleasure to respond to your circular letter of July 18, 1900, in which you ask for information regarding the condition of educational affairs in Swain County.

        1. I have been serving as County Superintendent since July, 1899, and immediately after entering upon the duties of my office, I had provisions made for an Institute for our teachers for a term of three weeks, in which there was an attendance of 37 teachers.

        I am glad to say that it was often referred to by teachers and all who witnessed its working, as being the best Institute Swain County ever had. I was ably assisted by Prof. Louis C. Perry, who is a worthy young man.

        2. Our force of teachers have been faithful in their work, and by their aid and economy used by Board of School Directors, we were able to lengthen the school term last year about one-third month, and we will still be able to do better things the present school year. The length of school term for 1898 was three and a quarter months, for 1899, three and one-eighth months, and for the year 1900, the term will be at least four and a quarter months in every district in the county in which there are 65 students.

        3. It is my constant aim to raise the standard of education, and to this end I try to make my examinations from time to time more rigid. The effect of this is to reduce the number of teachers--some

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failing to stand the examination, but the more progressive teachers are looking ahead and with the ambition to keep abreast with the progress of education and with the forward movement of all things else. In my mind, the future is looking for young men and women who are alive to the things of to-day instead of living twenty-five years in the past, who are growing mentally instead of declining, who invent plans of success instead of imitating plans and methods of the past.

        I have great admiration for the old retired teacher and those who ought to retire. I praise him for the valuable services rendered and that under such unfavorable conditions, but higher education and the fastness of the times demand that these retire and give place for others who are more competent, and such as the progress of the times demand.

        Let me say that my conviction along lines to which I have referred, and having put them in effect, have reduced the number of teachers to an insufficiency to supply all our schools for this county.

        But I find, to my delight, that the quality of education and instruction given are getting better, the committeemen are becoming more particular about the selection of teachers, they consult the Superintendent personally about teachers, and are very anxious to accept none only those he recommends as being competent, both in point of education and good morals.

        4. Our school officers are working harmoniously and the plan of our school supervision is in the main commendable, as I see it, with the following exceptions: I am sincere in the opinion that section 16 of the school law, providing for a Board of Township Trustees is not a necessity, and adds but very little, if anything, to the good of our school supervision.

        tI will not be in order for me to discuss the objections this time, but it makes our work more complicated, and most all the work this Board does is done through the direction of the County Board, and the people are naturally inclined to go to the County Superintendent and County Board with all their grievances. I think too much machinery about anything is a mistake.

        5. The main trouble in connection with our school system is, we can't get the people to send as they should. I wish they could be induced to make proper use of the wonderful opportunities they have. I am convinced of the fact that if the human family is under obligations to do their duty in one thing they are in all things.

        When God gave man his children, he did it that he might raise them up in such a way as to be most useful to their country, and glorify Him. To this end they must be educated, and I for one shall

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always be found raising my voice in North Carolina in favor or some kind of compulsory law that will require parents to send their children to school.

        6. Now, Mr. Superntendent, I will close, and in doing so I, with all my teaching force in Swain County, wish to thank and praise you for the honorable and high-toned way in which you have administered the affairs of education in North Carolina during your term of office. We feel sure that we relate a fact when saying that no one whom you have succeeded in your office has ever been looked upon with more honor and respect than yourself. I am

Sincerely yours,

Superintendent Swain County, N. C.

STRAW, N. C., August 25, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--I have been doing all in my power to raise the standard of education in my county, and am pleased to say that some progress has been made in the last year. Directly after taking charge of the office of County Superintendent in July, 1899, I called the teachers of the county together, and organized a Teacher's Association. There had been such an organization in the county before, but for want of something to keep up the interest in such meetings the attendance soon became so small that the plan was abandoned. Heeding the lessons of the past I began casting about for some incentive, and decided to make an effort to establish a circulating teachers' library, and began to solicit subscriptions for that purpose. We opened the library in May with 25 volumes. We have now 90 books, and expect to add more in the near future. This plan has succeeded beyond our expectations, the attendance upon these meetings has steadily increased.

        The most of our teachers sadly need a course of professional reading, and a little money judiciously expended would be productive of much good. Our Association meets every other month with the exception of July, and a teacher takes a book at one meeting, keeping it till the next.

        I have also adopted the plan of having the teachers hold written examinations each month in their schools, and report to me the results. I find this helpful. It has been a custom here to have only one set of examination papers during the year for applicants for teachers' certificates, with the result that before the end of the year quite a knowledge of the questions would get abroad and a number

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of certificates would be granted to unworthy applicants. I resolved to avoid this trouble, and have changed my examination questions at each regular examination. I have also a new set of private examination questions each quarter. I am satisfied that the adoption of this plan has done much towards weeding out inefficient teachers. I also refuse to duplicate or extend certificates. On the whole, I think the outlook encouraging from an educational standpoint, and that our people are slowly but surely becoming awakened to a sense of their duty along the line of education, and with the proper management and the cooperation of all the friends of education, we see no reason why in the near future we should not rank alongside our sister States in the race for a higher and a grander education for the great common people.

Most truly,

Superintendent Public Instruction of Wilkes Co.


        White children in the county outside of Raleigh Township, 6,828; colored children, 5,478; white children enrolled, 4,405, being about 65 per cent; colored children enrolled, 4,305, being about 78 1-2 per cent. White children in Raleigh Township, 2,915; colored children, 3,310; white children enrolled, 1,511, being about 51 1-2 per cent; colored children enrolled, 1,418, being about 42.2-3 per cent. White children in the entire county, 9,743; colored children, 8,788; white children enrolled 5,916, being about 61 per cent; colored children enrolled, 5,723, being about 65 per cent. The average length of schools outside of Raleigh Township was: White race 87 1-2 days, colored race 88 3-4 days; in Raleigh Township, both races, 160 days; average length in the entire county, 92 days; average attendance outside of Raleigh Township, white race, 2,838; colored race, 2,540; average attendance in Raleigh Township, white race, 1,001; colored race, 844; average attendance in the entire county, white race, 3,839; colored race, 3,384. Number of schools in the entire county, white race, 103; colored race, 73; average price of teachers, white race. males, $32.25; females, $28.50; colored race, males, $29.00; females, $22.50.


        A large majority of the teachers have been faithful and efficient. They are the forces that have made the schools in Wake County a success. The gratitude of every heart in the county should go out to them; for theirs is large work for little pay. Of the white teachers outside of Raleigh Township twenty-five were graduates of the best colleges in the State.

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        The Township School Trustees have shown commendable zeal in their efforts, for men who receive no pay. The committeemen have generally been very faithful. Some of them, however, of the colored race, are incompetent, not being able to read and write. It is quite a mistake for the trustees to appoint anyone as committeeman who can not read and write.


        The members of the board have put forth faithful efforts to give the people of the county efficient schools. None have assisted the Superintendent in his arduous duties more than they. The Treasurer and the Attorney of the board have neglected no duties in their branches of the school work.


        Under the limited time given in the School Law to do the work, it has been impossible to visit more than about sixty schools. The law should be so changed as to make it possible to visit every school in the county each year. Nothing generates more enthusiasm in the school room than an expected visit from the Superintendent.


        When it is taken into consideration that the enrollment in the county, outside of Raleigh Township, was 747 more than it was last year, and that the average term in the county was 92 days, and the school fund has to its credit, left over from the scholastic year, $8,763.13, which, if it had been used, would have increased the term about ten days, who will say that the educational future of the county is not brightening?

        The old-time prejudice against public education has given way year by year until now there is no force of opposition able to hold in check the progress that is being made. Other educational forces are standing side by side with the public schools. For the white race in Wake County, there are eight academies, making terms of from eight to nine months. There are two male and three female colleges, with faculties equal to the best. For the colored race there are three colleges doing good work.

        If you eliminate from the census roll of the white race in the county outside of Raleigh Township those who have completed their education, and those who are in colleges and other schools, you will find, from the best estimate that can be made, only about 4 per cent of the children whose educational wants are not being cared

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for; and outside of Raleigh Township, you will find of the white race, between the ages of 8 and 21 years, according to the best estimate, only about 5 per cent who can not read and write. Thus it may be seen that the educational outlook in the county is indicative of a bright future.

        With gratitude to God for His blessings upon the educational work of the year, and an earnest desire that He will continue them in the future, we enter upon the duties or the new scholastic year with renewed zeal.

Very respectfully,

Superintendent of Schools.

Raleigh, N. C., July 9, 1900.

WALLACE, N. C., July 26, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE.

        DEAR SIR:--At your request I will try to set before you the condition of educational affairs in Duplin County. In the first place, we have very few well-equipped teachers. For some reason, there has not been an Institute held in the county for several years, and consequently the teachers have had no opportunity for professional training. In the second place, the pay of teachers is so little that many of the best teachers have quit the business. I know of one good teacher who gets only $13 per month and boards herself.

        In the third place, we have very poor school houses, badly located, and many without suitable seatings and desks.

        These are a few of the evils under which we are laboring and the cause of all the trouble is the ignorance of the people and consequent want of interest in education.

        I would suggest a few changes in the School Law: First, make the holding of Institutes obligatory; second, fix the minimum as well as the maximum salary of teachers; third, raise the fee for private examination to at least $2 in order to induce the teachers to attend the public examinations; fourth, require the people to build and equip the school houses themselves. Lastly, compulsory education is surely bound to come before the children of our beloved State are educated.

        I hope you will excuse these crude remarks, as I am very much pressed for time this morning.

Yours truly,

County Superintendent.

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PLYMOUTH, N. C., July 24, 1900.

Supt. C. H. Mebane, Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--Yours of the 18th inst. received, and contents noted. In reply will say that the public schools have been better for the past year than they have ever been in the history of Washington County.

        There was a time when the people talked against the public schools, and said they were a curse to the country. That time has passed and now our people speak well of them, and say that they are a blessing and that we should have longer terms. We have very nearly five months public school in this county. I believe we have brought about this change in the schools by not allowing incompetent teachers to teach. A teacher must know a subject in order to teach it successfully. A teacher certainly can not teach what he does not know. So when a teacher applies to us for a certificate he must know how to teach the common school studies successfully, otherwise he goes under. This is what has done the work for our schools for the past twelve months, and it will continue to do it as long as I have anything to do with them.

        You have been a great help to me in my work, for which I am very thankful indeed.

        For facts and figures in regard to the public schools of our county, I refer you to my annual report.

Very truly yours,


DAY BOOK, N. C., August 9, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh,
N. C.

        In reply to your letter of a feg days ago, our public schools are short, and I hardly know what would be the best means to resort to in order to revive them. We have a very good grade of teachers in our county, but owing to the short terms it keeps the majority of the students in the background.

        I have done all that was in my power to get the special school tax levied by the County Board of Commissioners, but owing to the hgih taxes in the county and the indebtedness of the county, they failed to levy the tax. Our schools are some better than usually, the people are taking more interest in education than they have heretofore.

        My whole might is in education, and I aim to do all I can for the cause. Any suggestion that I may receive as to how to stimulate or

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increase a greater interest in the people of my county, would be highly appreciated by me.


County Superintendent.


Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Elon College Rev. W. W. Staley, D. D., Elon College 100
Thompson's School J. A. W. Thompson, Graham 50
Burlington Academy F. P. Fonville 60
Hiddenite High School A. F. Sharpe, Hiddenite 40
Taylorsville Classical Institute Rev. J. A. White, Taylorsville 100
Sparta Institute S. W. Brown, Sparta 60
Whitted Academy E. Jeff. Wagoner, Whitted 50
Laurel Branch Academy J. H. Tilley, Laurel Branch 60
Piney Creek Academy George Roup, Piney Creek 45
Pee Dee Baptist Institute W. J. Ferrell, Wadesboro 90
Anson Institute D. A. McGregor, Wadesboro 40
Polkton High School A. J. Bolin, Polkton 100
Morven Academy Thomas W. Troxell, Morven 95
Peachland High School B. H. Griffin, Peachland 35
White Store Academy J. W. Swittenburg, White Store 27
Cedar Hill Academy W. F. McCanless, Cedar Hill 35
Ansonville High School Frank Willis, Ansonville 35
Sutherland Seminary L. M. Farthing, Sutherland 40
Beaver Creek Academy -- ----, Beaver Creek --
Lansing Academy J. E. Parsons, Lansing 35
Ashe Co. Acad. and Bus. College F. M. Watenpaugh, Solitude 60
Creston Academy Miss DeEtte Benham, Creston 35
Jefferson Academy Miss Maud Bower, Jefferson 50
Trinity School Rev. N. C. Hughes, Chocowinity 60
Pantego Academy Mr. Holton, Pantego 45
Carolina Institute Rev. D. L. Davis, Mineola 50

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Windsor Academy R. G. Kittrel, Windsor 60
Rosefield Academy Mrs. M. F. Gilliam, Windsor 30
Aulander Academy H. M. Early, Aulander 125
Coleraine Academy J. D. Hufham, Jr., Coleraine 35
Roxobel Academy J. E. Tyler, Roxobel 25
Clarkton Academy I. M. McKennon, Clarkton 70
White Oak Academy W. W. Woodhouse, Winnie 85
Bladenboro Academy M. Shepherd, Bladenboro 35
Shallotte Preparatory Geo. Leonard, Shallotte --
Southport Institute Professor Dalyrimple, Southport --
Southport--private Miss Lydie Fountain, Southport --
Southport--private Miss L. I. Devane, Southport --
Gay's Chapel Irene Simpson, Leland --
Collegiate Institute W. H. Boone, Fairview 75
Hominy Valley Institute O. F. Thompson, Candler 85
Weaverville College Rev. Geo. F. Kirby, Weaverville 80
Leicester High School A. C. Reynolds, Leicester 70
Normal and Collegiate Institute Rev. T. Lawrence, D. D., Asheville 350
Asheville Industrial School Miss Flor. Stephenson, Asheville 100
The Farm School Rev. Sum. Baskerville, Asheville 120
The Bingham School Col. Robt. Bingham, Asheville 120
The Asheville College for Women A. A. Jones, Asheville --
The Skyland Institute Miss ---- Dickey, Asheville --
School for Girls Miss H. A. Champion, Asheville --
Amherst Academy W. M. Moore, Cora 35
Patton's School R. L. Patton, Morganton 40
Morganton Male Academy W. N. Parker, Morganton 30
Miss Dickson's School Miss Mary Dickson, Morganton 25
Mrs. Marbert's School Mrs. W. R. Marbert, Morganton 25
Penelope Academy C. M. Murchison, Penelope 30
Rutherford College W. E. Abernethy, Rutherford Col 25
N. C. College Rev. M. G. G. Scherrer, Mount Pleasant --
Mount Amosua Female Seminary H. N. Miller, Mount Pleasant --
Georgeville Academy E. H. Griffin, Georgeville --
Poplar Tent Academy W. W. Morris, Concord --
Faucette Academy E. W. Faucette, Lenoir 40
Granite Academy A. C. Sherrill, Granite 30
Patterson Academy Prof. I. H. McNeill, Patterson 40
Kirkwood Academy Miss Emma Rankin, Lenoir 20
Globe Academy Job Cook, Globe 30

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Old Trap M. B. Burgess, Old Trap --
Oak Ridge L. V. Owen, Riddle --
Belcross Academy Miss Kate Harris, Belcross --
Shiloh Academy C. B. Garrett, Shiloh --
Academy G. W. Mewborn, Atlantic 120
Graham's Academy Rev. Leviston, Marshalburg 60
Beaufort High School Mrs. Speight, Beaufort 80
Beaufort High School Emma Manson, Beaufort 40
Straits Mrs. Cora Davis, Straits 20
High School J. F. Brinson, Morehead City 100
Lenoir College Rev. R. A. Yoder, Hickory 130
Claremont Female College Prof. S. P. Hatton, Hickory 125
St. Paul's Seminary Rev. J. H. Wannamacher, Hickory 40
Select School for Girls Mrs. J. B. Beard, Hickory 35
Concordia College Rev. J. A. Romoser, Conover 120
Catawba College C. H. Mebane, Newton 130
Catawba High School Prof. G. P. Jones, Catawba 75
Grady's Academy Rev. J. A. Cromer, Newton 80
Private School Miss Mattie Cochrane, Newton 35
Mt. Vernon Springs Associational School E. L. Womble, Mt. Vernon Springs 60
Siler City Institute J. L. Griffin, Siler City 60
Goldston Academy Professor Clegg, Goldston 40
Merry Oaks High School J. T. Cobb, Merry Oaks 40
Pittsboro Academy D. K. McRae, Pittsboro 70
Moncure Academy Miss Ada Wade, Moncure 20
Murphy S. E. Manney, Murphy 200
Belview R. A. Sentell, Cobbs 150
Unaka W. K. Johnson, Unaka 175
Marble T. E. Sadd, Marble 165
Orgruta J. W. Rose, Orgruta 100
Hangingdog J. V. Parker, Hangingdog 100
Ranger R. L. Chastain, Ranger 108
Grape Creek E. E. Hedden, Grape Creek 132
Friendship R. L. Stiles, Friendship 140
Andrews O. C. Huskins, Andrews 170
Hiawassee J. L. McNabb. Hiawassee 100
Peachtree N. Z. Deweese, Peachtree 100
Long Ridge Ebbert Bates, Long Ridge 96
Beaverdam R. S. Nicholson, Beaverdam 95
Tomotla Maggie Moore, Tomotla 70

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Edenton Academy Professor Kittrell, Edenton 125
Grover School Robt. L. Howell, Grover 125
King's School P. D. Borron, Kings Mountain 200
Patterson Springs School S. R. Anthony, Patterson Springs 150
Boiling Springs School B. H. Budger, Metal 160
Belwood School J. M. Downum, Belwood 125
Fallston School E. A. Griffin, Jr, Fallston 100
Cleveland Mills School W. D. Bunn, Cleveland Mills 150
Coinjock Miss Minnie Hall, Coinjock 12
Coinjock Miss Lula Owens, Coinjock 6
Manteo Academy Miss Susie Epps, Manteo 35
Skyco Academy Miss Mellie Pender, Skyco 25
Wanchese Academy G. T. Farnell and wife, Wanchese 60
Yadkin College W. T. Totten, Yadkin College 35
Lexington Seminary W. B. Dove, Lexington 80
Denton Academy I. A. Stone, Denton 50
Holly Grove C. S. Hileman, Ilex 40
Reeds Academy T. C. L. Sink, Reeds 35
Thomasville College H. W. Reinhart, Thomasville 25
Cana Academy C. H. Utley, Cana 45
Hodge's Business College J. D. Hodges, Augusta 15
Friends Academy Miss Darden, Augusta 25
Sunny Side Seminary Miss M. VanEaton, Mocksville 40
Advance High School C. M. Sheets, Advance 65
Clement Institute D. L. McBride, Wallace 40
Warsaw High School Miss Stella Middleton, Warsaw 50
James Sprunt Institute Rev. Mr. Lancaster, Kenansville 40
Grady School Henry A. Grady, Turkey 35
East Durham School H. B. Craven, East Durham 200
Fayetteville Road Miss Maggie Holloway, Durham 20
Geer School Miss Ida Thompson, Durham 35
Pearl Mill Mrs. C. C. Warren, Durham 40
Duke's Chapel Mrs. W. G. Gates, Durham 30
Lyon's School Miss Marie Parker, Durham 15

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Chalk Level Mr. M.S. Couch, Durham 15
West Durham J. T. Henry, West Durham 225
Reservoir M. S. Barbee, West Durham 30
White's Cross-Roads J. E. F. Massey, Durham 30
Proctor's W. C. Couch, Durham 30
Glenn's S. M. Suit, Durham 25
Belvin's Quarter T. M. Hall, Gorman 20
Factory School T. M. Watson, Willardville 30
Silvan School Miss Corinna Herndon, Galveston 25
North Lebanon Mrs. L. Barnes, South Lowell 15
South Lebanon Miss Annie Smith, Hillsboro 30
Union School Mrs. N. E. Roberson, Durham 15
South Lowell School Mrs. Lucy Leathers, South Lowell 18
Rougemont School Miss Kate Russell, Rougemont 35
Umbra Mrs. T. A. Parham, Umbra 20
Hampton School Miss L. Winston, Hampton 25
Hunt's Old Field School Mrs. J. W. Umstead, Umbra 20
Tilley School Pervis Tilley, Flat River 12
Staysville Miss Grace Mangum, Flat River 9
Willardville Miss Sophie Langston, West Durham 25
Bahama J. B. Bowling, Red Mountain 20
Bethesda School A. M. Carpenter, East Durham 30
Sharon School Miss Loula Bailey, Dayton 20
Hall's School R. B. Nichols, Dayton 25
Cedar Grove School Mrs. S. M. Suitt, Gorman 25
Holloway School H. E. Perry, Gorman 20
Cedar Fork School T. H. Barbee, Morrisville 30
Lawes School Miss Laura L. Breeze, Nelson 25
Patrick Henry Institute W. S. Lockhart, Durham 35
Barbee's SchooI Miss Sallie Vickers, Durham 30
New Hope School W. L. Cates, Durham 35
Duke's School Miss Rosa Lee, Durham 10
Eagles Academy J. F. Webb, Crisp 60
Hill Academy W. A. Bridgers, Hill 30
Hartsease Academy Miss Mary Beatty, Hartsease 24
University School Rocky Mount 125
Whitaker's Academy Rev. A. J. Moore, Whitakers 35
Tarboro Female Academy Prof. Dock. Brown, Tarboro 36
Tarboro Male Academy F. T. Wilkinson, Tarboro 36
Bethania Academy Prof. A. I. Butner, Bathania 25
Kernersville Academy Kernersville 50
Rural Hall Academy Rev. Sutton, Rural Hall 25
Boys' School Prof. Brower and Leon Cash, Salem 100
Cedar Rock Academy T. H. King, Cedar Rock 65
Mapleville Academy Miss Sallie L. Best, Mapleville 50
Classical Institute (Vacant), Franklinton 65

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Youngsville Academy L. H. Allred, Youngsville 56
Louisburg High School Jno. Allen, I ouisburg 30
Female College Matthew Davis, Louisburg 90
St. Mary's College Rt. Rev. Leo Haid, O. S. B., Belmont --
Gaston Female College S. A. Wolf, A. M., Dallas --
Cherryville Collegiate Institute W. T. R. Bell, Cherryville --
All Healing Institute Kings Mountain --
Gaston Institute Reid & Hall, Gastonia --
Oakland Institute Professor Separk, Gastonia --
Lowell High School Prof. A. W. Loury, Lowell --
Belmont Academy Lowell --
Horner Military J. C. Horner, Oxford 125
Oxford Female Seminary F. P. Hobgood, Sr., Oxford 125
Francis Hilliard School Miss Margaret Hilliard, Oxford 40
Mrs. A. A. Hick's School Oxford 25
Miss Bettie Jordan's Prim. School Oxford 20
Creedmoor High School S. P. Buchanan 50
Knap of Reeds Academy Prin.-- Roberts 40
Oak Ridge Institute J. A. and M. H. Holt, Oak Ridge 250
Whitsett Institute W. T. Whitsett, Whitsett 200
McLeonsville Academy Chas. Cobb, McLeonsville 75
Greensboro Graded Schools G. A. Grimsley, Greensboro 1000
High Point Graded Schools Geo. H. Crowell, High Point 700
Roanoke Institute J. A. Jones, Weldon --
Vine Hill Male Academy D. M. Prince, Scotland Neck --
Vine Hill Female Academy Miss Lena Smith, Scotland Neck --
Littleton School Littleton --
Buie's Creek Rev. J. A. Campbell, Buie's Creek 225
Dunn Profs. Ezzell & Jackson, Dunn 175
Hector's Creek Prof. H. T. Smith 35
Linden Prof. W. E. Phifer, Linden 25
Waynesville Graded School -- Allen, Waynesville 300
Glyde High School W. H. Ackerman, Clyde 150
Canton Academy R. H. McDowell, Canton 100
Bethel Academy W. H. Phillips, Sonoma 75
Shady Grove High School A. J. Garnen & C. M. Carpenter, Jonathans 100

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Hendersonville High School Prof. R. H. Griffith 125
Fruitland Institute A. I. Justice, Fruitland 225
Mills River Academy J. W. Morgan, Mills River 75
Sladesville High School Miss Sallie Betts, Sladesville 29
Swan Quarter High School Miss L. D. Parker, Swan Quarter 45
Fairfield Academy Prof. Bob Carter, Fairfield 65
Statesville Female College J. B. Burwell, Statesville 100
Statesville Male Academy J. H. Hill, Statesville (limited) 40
Mooresville Academy C. L. Grey, Mooresville 100
Mooresville District School Forrest Rocket, Mooresville 100
Cool Spring Academy John F. Mitchell, Cool Spring 75
Harmony High School A. W. George, Harmony 75
Troutman High School E. D. Beaty, Troutman 75
Trenton High School W. H. Rhodes, Trenton 80
Polloksville High School A. H. White, Polloksville 50
Sylva Training School Z. J. Edge, Sylva 50
Cullowhee High School R. L. Madison, Painter 100
Presbyterian School A. W. White, Dillsboro 52
Dr. Lewis' School Dr. R. H. Lewis, Kinston 50
LaGrange High School Newbold Brothers, LaGrange 75
Piedmont Seminary Miss Kate Shipp, Lincolnton 60
Ridge Academy J. E. Hoover, Henry --
Denver High School Denver --
Lowesville High School Lowesville --
---- Iron Station --
---- Triangle --
Franklin High School Prof. M. D. Billings, Franklin 80
Elijay High School W. R. Rickman, Higdonville 40
Highlands High School Miss Ethie Vickery, Highlands 30
St. Agnes' School Miss M. A. Hosner, Franklin 52

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Mars Hill College R. L. Moore, Mars Hill 300
Bell Institute Prof. Johnson, Barnard 200
Marshall Academy E. E. Allen, Marshall 150
Madison Seminary A. C. Tate, Marshall 150
Hot Springs Institute Miss Philps, Hot Springs 200
Robersonville Academy S. W. Outerbridge, Robersonville 40
Hamilton Academy G. E. Petty, Hamilton 50
Everetts Academy Mary P. Coffield, Everetts 35
Williamston Academy Prof. Wilson, Williamston --
Jamesville Academy R. J. Peel, Jamesville 65
Marion Institute J. E. Guy, Marion 50
Primary School Mrs. W. B. Ratliff, Marion 25
Kindergarten School Mrs. J. McNaughton, Marion 12
Sister Ella's School Old Fort 25
"Dixie" J. A. McQueen, Dixie 120
Shopton Prof. Sandifer, Shopton 100
Pineville Eugene Williamson, Pineville 150
Ebenezer H. C. Reid, Griffith's 55
Sharon G. T. Thompson, Cottonwood 100
Sardis R. C. Betts, Sardis 50
Ardrey's Miss Mary Rankin, Ardrey's 60
Matthews W. A. Long, Matthews 120
Mint Hill O. C. Hamilton, Mint Hill 180
Hickory Grove A. G. Randolph, Madge 85
Newell's Webb McAulay, Newell's 100
Derita R. H. Lafferty, Derita 120
Paw Creek C. F. Alexander, Sandifer 100
Huntersville R. J. Cochrane, Huntersville 130
Davidson Archibald Curry, Davidson 160
Bethel J. C. Fichte, Davidson 100
Prudden School Miss Blair, Elk Park 40
Aaron Seminary Prof. N. S. Ridenour, Montezuma 50
Yellow Mt. Academy Prof. Randolph, Plum Tree 40
Bowman Academy A. Masters, Bakersville 70
Pineola School C. Daniel, Saginaw 25
Troy High School D. W. Cochran, Troy 80
Mt. Gilead School R. H. Skeen, Mt. Gilead 65
Star High School E. Lee Fox, Star 50
Pekin High School W. B. Cochran, Pekin 35
Lovejoy Academy W. H. Reynolds, Queen 35
Candor Miss Mo tee McIntyre, Candor 40

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Carthage Institute W. P. M. Currie, Carthage 80
Broadway M. A. McLeod, Broadway 75
James Maske C. V. Brooks, Lemon Springs 50
Jonesboro School A. Arrington, Jonesboro 60
Sanford School D. L. Ellis, Sanford 75
University School W. V. Boyle, Rocky Mount 200
Stanhope Academy E. L. Crocker, Stanhope --
Carolina Institute C. S. Brame, Nashville --
Springhope Academy C. S. Ball, Springhope --
Cape Fear Academy Washington Catlett, Wilmington 40
The Emanuel Kindergarten Miss F. L. Bonitz, Wilmington 28
Kindergarten School Miss M. L. Gibson, Wilmington 9
St. Paul's Academy E. O. Counts, Wilmington 70
Academy of the Incarnation under Sisters of Mercy Sister M. Charles, Wilmington 92
Seaboard and Roanoke Institute C. W. Harris, Seaboard 50
Severn High School J. W. Fleetwood, Severn 60
Aurora Academy Miss Lola Stanley, Eagletown 70
Woodland High School N. W. Brittan, Woodland 45
Olney Academy Miss Bertha White, George 50
Lasker High School L. L. Lassiter, Lasker 100
Richlands High School W. M. Thompson, Richlands 45
Catharine Lake High School J. C. Little, Catharine Lake 40
Belgrade Academy F. C. Henderson, Belgrade 40
Wm. Bingham School Preston L. Gray, Mebane 50
Chapel Hill High School J. W. Cannada, Chapel Hill 150
Caldwell Institute Prof. ---- Candler, Caldwell Institute 60
Miss Heartt's School Miss Alice Heartt, Hillsboro 50
Hickory Grove High School B. T. Hodge, Border 30
Rock Spring High School Rev. ---- Bostwick, Rock Spring 100
Grantsboro Academy B. B. Lane, Grantsboro 40
Reelsboro Academy Miss Barrington, Reelsboro 25
Oriental High School Miss Lovie Rich, Oriental 25
Maribel High School Miss Mary Swan, Maribel 25
Vandemere M. and F. Institute Miss Stewart, Vandemere 20
Pamlico M. and F. Institute W. Underhill, Bayboro 90

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Atlantic Col. Institute S. L. Sheep, Elizabeth City 180
Private School I. N. Tillett, Elizabeth City 25
Private School Mrs. Maggie Blount, Elizabeth City 20
Burgaw High School Rev. McGeachy, Burgaw 50
Maple Hill Mr. Nobles, Maple Hill 55
Rocky Point High School Mrs. A. P. Rountree, Rocky Point 40
Columbia High School Bettie Herring, Daughton 45
Black's School Maggie Williams, Ashton 45
Atkinson School Maggie Johnson, Atkinson 40
Colvin School Maggie Holland, Atkinson 30
Belvidere Academy Misses White, Belvidere 30
Woodville School Miss Sallie Grant, Woodville 25
Perquimans Academy S. T. Liles, Hertford 50
New Hope School Miss Tennille, New Hope 20
Winfall School W. G. Gaither, Winfall 40
Roxboro Institute W. A. Bradsher, Roxboro 80
Bethel Hill Institute J. A. Beam, Bethel Hill 100
Mt. Tirzah Institute Professor Webb, Mt. Tirzah 60
Male Academy W. H. Ragsdale, Greenville 60
Male and Female Academy Z. D. McWhorter, Bethel 60
Carolina College Professor Manning, Ayden 100
Free Will College Professor Peaden, Ayden 75
Winterville Academy J. L. Jackson, Winterville 80
Grifton Academy ---- ----, Grifton 40
Select Female School Miss Howell, Greenville 25
Female Academy L. L. Hargrove, Greenville 50
Columbus Industrial Institute Rev. A. S. Beaman, Columbus 75
Saluda Seminary Miss Fidelia Sheldon, Saluda 55
Farmer Institute J. L. and W. C. Bost, Farmer 75
Ramseur High School D. M. Weatherly, Ramseur 150
Liberty Normal College L. C. Amick, Liberty 175
Shiloh Academy J. R. Miller, Moffitt 50
Mount Olivet Academy W. H. Mann, Erect 60
Why Not Academy J. P. Burroughs, Why Not 80
Trinity High School J. F. Heitman, Trinity 100

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Rockingham Academy G. R. King, Rockingham 100
Roberdel Academy W. T. Robinson, Roberdell 75
Laurinburg Academy W. G. Quackenbush, Laurinburg 90
Mineral Springs Academy ----Criddlebough, Ellerbe 50
Parson's Academy W. O. Rudisill, Covington 50
Gibson Academy C. D. Koonce, Gibson 65
Gibson High School F. P. Wyche, Gibson 65
Rowland High School T. C. Easterling, Rowland 87
Lumber Bridge High School J. A. McArthur, Jr., Lumber Bridge 86
Parkton High School R. E. Reckenbaker, Parkton 84
Back Swamp High School L. R. Varser, Grady 64
Bloomingdale High School W. R. Surles, Sterling 70
St. Paul's High School R. J. Dew, St. Paul's 75
Robeson Institute John Duckett, Lumberton 106
Ashpole Institute G. E. Lineberry, Ashpole 113
Red Springs Seminary C. G. Vardell, Red Springs 262
Madison High School J. M. Weatherly, Madison --
Leaksville Practical High School B. W. Wray, Leaksville --
Spray High School W. P. White, Spray --
Salisbury Female Academy Miss Josephine Coit, Salisbury 60
China Grove Academy Prof. P. E. Wright, China Grove 200
Enochville High School Prof. F. B. Brown, Enochville 125
Crescent Academy Rev. J. L. M. Lyerly, Crescent 150
Cleveland Academy C. R. Owen, Cleveland 100
Sunshine Institute D. M. Stallings, Sunshine 75
Round Hill Academy Rev. D. J. Hunt, Union Mills 90
Forest City Academy Forest City 110
Ellenboro Academy Miss M. Livingston, Ellenboro 75
Henrietta Academy J. M. Smith, Henrietta 120
Caroleen Academy Miss Bessie Hoyle, Caroleen 125
Rutherfordton Academy Misses Smith and Hoyle, Rutherfordton 85
Uree Academy Rev. Z. T. Whiteside, Uree --
Clinton High School W. A. Hobbs, Clinton 50
Westover High School Mr. Smith, Ora 50
Oakhurst High School W. A. Harper, Chance 77
Salem High School F. A. Wooten, Salemburg 100
Sandling High School L. M. Hobbs, Clinton 50
Well's Chapel W. H. Holland, Bland 60
Harrell's Store High School C. E. Howard, Harrell's Store 50

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Snow Hill D. B. Ray, Taylor's Bridge 60
Beulah High School Street Brewer, Clinton 75
Clement High School C. M. McIntosh, Clement 60
Turkey High School B. F. Grady, Turkey 40
Maple Grove J. M. Raga, Timothy 50
Palmerville Academy E. F. Eddins, Palmerville 100
Norwood Academy Professor Kirk, Norwood 100
Big Lick Academy C. J. Black, Big Lick 150
New London Academy F. J. Dunn, New London --
Sandy Ridge S. W. Hall, Sandy Ridge 50
Danbury Academy W. B. Harris, Danbury 65
Mount View M. T. Chitton, Mizpah 50
Westfield Academy A. G. Royal, Westfield 40
Germanton Academy C. C. Boyles. Germanton 40
Wainut Cove W. H. Albright, Walnut Cove 50
Pilot Mt. Academy ---- Flynt, Pilot Mountain 65
Siloam High School Allen and Cendiff, Siloam --
Jas. L. Robinson Institute S. B. Parris and L. Lee Marr, Bryson City 90
Whittier Morrison E. Muriam, Whittier 65
Epworth F. Taylor, Brevard 65
Broad Valley Institute J. N. Bradly, Penrose 75
Mt. Moriah High School I. T. Newton, Jeptha 60
Mrs. McCluken's School Mrs. Eva McCluken, Brevard 40
Columbia Academy J. Cahoon Rickard, Columbia 30
The Hicks School Miss Della Hicks, Columbia 31
Monroe High School W. C. McAllister, Monroe --
Union Institute O. C. Hamilton, Unionville --
Wingate Academy M. B. Dry, Wingate --
Marshville Academy Plummer Stewart, Monroe --
Cary E. L. Middleton, Cary 100
Morrisville H. M. Cates, Morrisville 40
Green Level G. M. Beavers, Ewing 50

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Holly Springs W. L. Norris, Holly Springs 50
Wendell A. R. Flowers, Wendell 75
Wakefield A. A. Pippin, Wakefield 120
Mt. Moriah W. H. Penny, Auburn 50
Warrenton High School John Graham, Warrenton 80
Miss Lucy Hawkins's School Miss Lucy Hawkins, Warrenton 40
Miss Lou Brown's School Miss Lou Brown, Warrenton 15
Warren Plains Academy Miss Edna Allen, Warren Plains 30
Wise High School Miss Sallie Allen, Wise 30
Miss Nettie Tosh's School Miss Nettie Tosh, Macon 15
L. F. College Rev. J. M. Rhodes, Littleton 75
L. H. School Rev. A. Cree, Littleton 30
Churchill School Miss Betsie Rodwell, Churchill 25
Inez School Mrs. Kate A. Williams, Inez 25
Creswell Academy Professor Sherrill, Creswell 30
Plymouth Academy B. F. Hassell, Jr., Plymouth 120
New River Academy Prof. W. M. Fraucum, Sands 30
Cove Creek Academy S. J. Rogers, Amantha 50
Skyland Institute Blowing Rock 75
Watauga Academy D. D. Dougherty and B. B. Dougherty, Boone 60
Mt. Olive High School W. L. Nicholson, Mt. Olive 40
Seven Springs Academy Miss Alice Ivy, Seven Springs 35
Fremont Academy A. R. Morgan, Fremont 80
Yadkin Valley Academy M. L. Matthews, Wilkesboro 100
N. Wilkesboro High School R. E. L. Plummer, North Wilkesboro --
Ronda High School E. J. Johnson, Ronda --
Moravian Falls Academy W. S. Surratt, Moravian Falls --
Trap Hill Institute J. L. Turner, Trap Hill --
Kinsey Seminary Joseph Kinsey, Wilson 100
Elm City Academy James W. Hayes, Elm City 125
Yadkinville Normal Z. H. Dixon, Yadkinville 100
East Bend Professor Honeycut, East Bend 75
Cross-Roads Church W. B. Royall, Cross-Roads Church 60
Yadkin Valley Institute R. B. Horn, Boonville 100
Lone Hickory Academy Professor Minor, Footville 20
Jonesville Academy Professor Smith, Jonesville 60

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Name of School. Principal and Post-office. Est. Attendance.
Mountain City College J. W. Kennedy and L. B. Abernathy, Bald Creek 60
Burnsville Academy Chas. Hubbard, Burnsville 100
Zion Will. M. Peterson, Green Mountain 75
Micaville J. B. Nangle, Micaville 90
Pensacola Jas. Harthins, Pensacola 85
Low Gap Mary T. Gould, Pensacola 40
Peterson's Chapel S. A. Franklin, Day Book 60
Bee Log Sam. Hensley, Bee Log 80
Upper Egypt J. B. Hensley, Bee Log 84
Upper Jack's Creek D. M. Ray, Cane River 45
Fair View Will. W. Horton, Green Mountain 54
Ivy Gap E. J. Angel, Ivy Gap 43
Bank's Creek Henry Benson, Cane River 38
New Dale J. E. Robinson, Micaville 42
Double Island L. P. Deyton, Elmere 65
Gibbs Bell Young, Ceilo 42
Elk Shoal M. C. Honeycutt, Cane River 72
Mountain City College E. W. Elliot, Bald Creek --
Burnsville Academy C. R. Hubbard, Burnsville --
Peterson W. N. Peterson, Day Book --
Blue Rock Academy Josephine English, Flinty --

Page 144


        The following circular of information, giving rules and regulations concerning the Peabody scholarships, was distributed by Hon. J. L. M. Curry, LL. D., general agent of the Peabody Education Fund:


        The rules and regulations concerning Peabody scholarships are set forth in the following Circular of Information, issued by the General Agent of the Peabody Education Fund:

        I. The intent of the Peabody Board of Trust in establishing these scholarships in the Normal College is to affect public education in the South through a high grade of professionally educated teachers.

        1. The realization of this intent implies, on the part of teachers, high moral aims; natural aptness to teach; an education of the liberal type; a knowledge of the history, theory, and art of education, and the pursuit of teaching as a vocation.

        II. A Peabody scholarship is worth $100 a year and the student's railroad ticket from his home to Nashville and return by the most direct route, and is good for two years. The college year consists of eight months, beginning on the first Wednesday in October and closing on the last Wednesday in May; and scholarship students receive $12.50 each month of the college years.

        1. No payment will be made except for time of actual attendance.

        2. Scholarships will be withdrawn from students who allow bills for board to go unpaid.

        3. Scholarships will be forfeited for partial or irregular attendance.

        4. So far as possible, railroad tickets will be sent to students before leaving their homes; but students who do not receive tickets will be repaid their railroad fare within one month after entrance, and return tickets will be issued just previous to the close of the session in May. Students who leave the college before the close of the term will not be paid their return fare. Railroad tickets to Nashville will be furnished only twice on the same scholarship.

        III. These scholarships are distributed to the several States by the General Agent, and their award to students is vested in him; but for convenience of administration this award is delegated to the State

Page 145

Superintendents in conjunction with the President of the college. The whole number of scholarships is now 192, distributed as follows:

        Alabama, 13; Arkansas, 17; Florida, 8; Georgia, 18; Louisiana, 13; Mississippi, 13; North Carolina, 18; South Carolina, 13; Tennessee, 33; Texas, 18; Virginia, 18; West Virginia, 10.

        1. No State can claim scholarships as a right. They are gifts from the Peabody Board of Trust, and, as such, the ratio of their distribution, as well as their amount, may be changed, or they may be withheld altogether.

        2. At the close of each college year the President will notify State Superintendents of the vacancies that are to be filled in their respective States for the ensuing college year, and send the names and standing of non-scholarship students who are deemed worthy of scholarship appointments. If the President's nominations are not acted on within two weeks after they are forwarded, his nominees will be enrolled as scholarship students.

        3. If appointees do not report at the college promptly at the opening of the year, or do not render a satisfactory excuse for their absence, their places will be declared vacant.

        IV. In the award of scholarships precedence is to be given to students who have been in the college for one or more years, at their own expense, and have there given proof of their fitness for the vocation of teaching.

        1. In case there are more vacancies than can be filled in the manner just stated, resort should be made to competitive examination.

        2. When State Superintendents can not conduct these competitive examinations in person, they should be careful to delegate this duty to competent hands.

        3. Only two years of scholarship aid will be given to the same student.

        V. For the purpose of securing to all applicants a uniform basis of competition, the questions for examination will be prepared by the President of the College, and sent to the State Superintendents for distribution to the examiners whom they may appoint.

        1. The next competitive examination will be held on July 19 and 20, 1900.

        2. These questions, with specific instructions for their use, should be sent to the examiners in sealed envelopes, which are not to be opened till the hour for examination.

        3. Each competitor should be required to return the lists of printed questions to the examiners as soon as the answers have been written.

        VI. The qualifications for becoming a competitor for a scholarship are as follows: The applicant must not be less than seventeen years

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of age, nor more than thirty; of irreproachable moral character; in good health; with no physical defects, eccentricities, or habits which would interfere with success in teaching; and must make a pledge of intent to teach for at least two years after graduation.

        1. The task of the examiners will be simplified by making a preliminary examination, as suggested above. Good health is an indispensable qualification. Any candidate who has any chronic affection, such as weak lungs or weak eyes, should be rejected at once.

        2. The use of tobacco in any form is a disqualification for a scholarship.

        3. If it should appear that a candidate intends to use his scholarship chiefly as a means of securing an education, or of ultimately preparing himself for some profession other than teaching, he should not be allowed to compete.

        4. Persons of sluggish or indolent temperament, of slovenly habits, or of vicious disposition should be rejected at once.

        5. When a choice must be made between a young man and a young woman whose examination papers are of equal merit, the young man should be preferred. This is not intended to discriminate against young women, as such, but it is thought that young men will be more likely to continue the vocation of teaching.

        6. As fitness for teaching involves other qualities besides scholarship, students will be excused from attendance when it becomes apparent that they have habits or elements of character incompatible with the teacher's office.

        VII. The minimum literary qualifications required of all students matriculating for a degree are as follows:

        A. English studies--1. English Grammar. 2. English Composition. Short essays based on the prescribed reading of the year, will be required, which are intended to test the applicant's ability to organize matter and to write idiomatic English. The books prescribed for examination in 1900 are: Scott's Ivanhoe, Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America, and Shakespeare's As You Like It.

        B. United States History.

        C. Geography, complete.

        D. Mathematics--1. Arithmetic, complete. 2. Elementary Algebra, complete. 3. Geometry, two books (Wentworth's).

        E. Latin--Beginner's Latin Book, Collar's Gate to Caesar, or equivalents.

        1. In the main, the examinations should be written; but certain intellectual qualities can best be tested in the oral way.

        2. The ability to think and reason is of more importance than mere attainment of facts and rules. General intelligence and brightness may offset some deficiencies in mere book learning.

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        3. Good breeding, politeness, and a pleasant manner should be counted in a candidate's favor.

        VIII. A scholarship is good for any two consecutive years--that is, for Freshman and Sophomore, for Sophomore and Junior, for Junior and Senior, or for Senior and Post-graduate.

        1. When scholarship students reach the college they will not be re-examined for admission.

        2. As the number of scholarships is small, compared with the number of competitors, it will often happen that some of those who miss the prize are competent to enter the Freshman Class of the college. When persons of this class desire to enter the college, they will, on application, receive from their State Superintendent a special certificate, which will admit them to the college without further examination. This certificate has no money value.

        3. Students who have gained admittance to the college have the privilege of being examined for advanced standing.

        4. The completion of the Sophomore Course entitles the student to the degree of Licentiate of Instruction (L.I.); of the Senior Course to the degree A. B., B. S., or B. L.; and of the Post-graduate Course to the degree of A. M., M. S., or M. L.

        5. Every member of the college is required to pay an incidental fee of $10 a year.

        IX. The pledge required of scholarship students shall be prescribed by the General Agent, and shall be uniform for all the States.

General Agent,
Washington, D. C.

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Oct. 9 Check of Dr. J. L. M. Curry $1,300.00
Feb. 9 Check of Dr. J. L. M. Curry 1,000.00
Feb. 24 Check of Dr. J. L. M. Curry 1,650.00
April 30 Check of Dr. J. L. M. Curry 250.00
May 19 Check of Dr. J. L. M. Curry 250.00
  Total receipts 4,450.00
Nov. E. J. Forney, Treasurer, Greensboro 800.00
  W. A. Blair, Treasurer, Winston 200.00
  John H. Small, Treasurer, Washington 100.00
  J. B. Leigh, Treasurer, Elizabeth City 100.00
  H. W. Lilly, Treasurer, Fayetteville 100.00
Feb. 9 J. B. Leigh, Treasurer, Elizabeth City 200.00
  H. W. Lilly, Treasurer, Fayetteville 200.00
  A. Mayo, Treasurer, Washington 100.00
  W. A. Blair, Treasurer, Winston 100.00
  W. H. Ward, Treasurer, Plymouth 100.00
  W. T. Hollowell, Treasurer, Goldsboro 100.00
  B. W. Ballard, Treasurer, Franklinton 100.00
13 A. G. Trotter, Treasurer, Mt. Airy 100.00
28 E. J. Forney, Treasurer, Greensboro 700.00
  W. A. Blair, Treasurer, Winston 300.00
  Fred N. Tate, Treasurer, High Point 100.00
  W. M. Watson, Treasurer, New Bern 200.00
Mar. 1 George W. Coble, Treasurer, Waynesville 150.00
7 N. B. Moore, Treasurer, Kinston 200.00
  E. J. Forney, Treasurer, Greensboro 250.00
22 E. J. Forney, Treasurer, Greensboro 250.00
  Total disbursements 4,450.00

Page 149


July 21 Check from Dr. J. L. M. Curry $600.00
Aug. 27 P. W. Moore, Elizabeth City 100.00
27 S. G. Atkins, Winston 100.00
28 S. G. Atkins, for Washington 100.00
Sept. 12 E. E. Smith, Fayetteville 100.00
14 Thomas R. Foust, New Bern 100.00
14 Balance on hand 100.00
  Total 600.00


        Under the rules and regulations North Carolina now has nineteen scholarships worth $100 per annum for two years, and travelling expenses to and from Nashville.

        The scholarship students are appointed by the State Superintendent under regulations made by the Peabody Normal College.

        Examinations are prepared by the College and sent to the State Superintendent.

        The examinations have been conducted by the County Superintendents and sent to the State Superintendent.

        The State Superintendent has no choice in the matter, and when competitive examinations are held, he appoints students solely upon the merits of the papers sent in by applicants.

        The location of the applicants has nothing whatever to do with securing a scholarship.

        The following is the list of those receiving appointment of scholarships at Nashville for the year 1899:

        A. C. Hunt, Rusk, N. C.; David A. Mitchell, Net, N. C.; W. B. Mebane, Elon College, N. C.; Adolphus Weisner, Williamsburg, N. C.; C. M. Eddins, Rowland, N. C.

        For the year 1900, Dr. W. H. Payne, President of the

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Peabody Normal College, nominated the following non-scholarship students, in accordance with Article III, paragraph 2, of the Circular of Information:

        Verona Kirk, Palmersville, N. C.; L. E. Messick, Boonville, N. C.; C. F. Owen, Dellwood, N. C.; Stella M. Ray, Asheville, N. C.; R. V. Reeves, Lee, N. C.; Lucille Harrison, Greensboro, N. C.

        These persons were appointed as nominated by President Payne.

        This left only one vacancy to be filled by competitive examination. This was awarded to W. T. Perkins, Orion, N. C.

        The Peabody Fund is given to the State by Dr. J. L. M. Curry, General Agent of the Fund.

        The State Superintendent receives and disburses this fund according to the advice and direction of the General Agent.

        Dr. Curry confers with the State Superintendent as to where and how the fund shall be used to accomplish the greatest good for the cause of education in general and for the training of teachers especially.

        The State Superintendent receives no compensation for his services in connection with this fund and gives no bond.

        The statement of receipts shows what amount of money has been received for the last two years, and the disbursements show for what purpose and where it was spent.

        The vouchers are on file in the office of Superintendent for each item of expenditures.

        George Peabody is leaving "foot prints" within the borders of North Carolina. He was one of the greatest friends the South has ever had. North Carolina ought to hasten to join with the other Southern States to erect a statute of George Peabody in the capitol at Washington. A man who gave his money to help the helpless people of this Southland must not and will not be forgotten. Many young men and women will honor and bless his memory. His name and good deeds for our people should be more and more known among the great

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mass of our people. Would that we had more such noble men who can and will help the rising generations to be men and women.

        I am personally and officially very grateful to Dr. Curry, the General Agent, for what he has done for us. He has had a deep and abiding interest in all our educational affairs during my term of office. He has given me the most hearty cooperation in my efforts to do the best I could with this, to me and to every true citizen, most sacred fund.

        He has advised me wisely and well, and will do likewise for my successor in office.

        I shall always feel that it was good for me to have been brought in touch wtih his great heart and the great work which he is doing.

        I have done the best I could under the circumstances. The results are not what I would like for them to have been in some instances, but are better than two years ago.

        I hope this fun during the years to come may do more than it has in the past. It ought to do more good each year, and will if properly managed.

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  • Alamance. . . . .$1,332.28
  • Alexander. . . . .712.15
  • Alleghany. . . . .461.05
  • Anson. . . . .1,204.28
  • Ashe. . . . . 1,074.61
  • Beaufort. . . . .1,176.15
  • Bertie. . . . .1,138.86
  • Bladen. . . . .996.54
  • Brunswick. . . . .689.78
  • Buncombe. . . . .2,252.50
  • Burke. . . . .902.12
  • Cabarrus. . . . .1,126.14
  • Caldwell. . . . .850.29
  • Camden. . . . .284.35
  • Carteret. . . . . 580.25
  • Caswell. . . . .736.01
  • Catawba. . . . .1,322.57
  • Chatham. . . . .1,328.64
  • Cherokee. . . . .669.17
  • Chowan. . . . .515.78
  • Clay. . . . .374.67
  • Cleveland. . . . . 1,485.36
  • Columbus. . . . .1,209.66
  • Craven. . . . .1,150.52
  • Cumberland. . . . .1,739.84
  • Currituck. . . . .205.37
  • Dare. . . . 224.01
  • Davidson. . . . .1,277.10
  • Davie. . . . .597.47
  • Duplin. . . . . 1,168.28
  • Durham. . . . . 1,242.55
  • Edgecombe. . . . . 1,341.22
  • Forsyth. . . . .1,701.64
  • Franklin. . . . .1,229.21
  • Gaston. . . . . 1,393.81
  • Gates. . . . .576.25
  • Graham. . . . .249.02
  • Granville. . . . .1,259.07
  • Greene. . . . .593.08
    Page 153

  • Guilford. . . . .$1,844.42
  • Halifax. . . . .1,666.03
  • Harnett. . . . .881.84
  • Haywood. . . . . 954.57
  • Henderson. . . . .811.18
  • Hertford. . . . .835.28
  • Hyde. . . .505.46
  • Iredell. . . . .1,489.15
  • Jackson. . . . .652.93
  • Johnston. . . . .1,698.44
  • Jones. . . . .421.63
  • Lenoir. . . . .904.98
  • Lincoln. . . . .825.26
  • Macon. . . . .676.72
  • Madison. . . . .1,208.27
  • Martin. . . . .834.66
  • McDowell. . . . .669.90
  • Mecklenburg. . . . .2,737.74
  • Mitchell. . . . . 911.81
  • Montgomery. . . . .690.52
  • Moore. . . . .1,242.68
  • Nash. . . . .1,356.81
  • New Hanover. . . . .1,153.10
  • Northampton. . . . .1,196.75
  • Onslow. . . . .613.42
  • Orange. . . . .706.43
  • Pamlico. . . . .448.16
  • Pasquotank. . . . .660.51
  • Pender. . . . .735.84
  • Perquimans. . . . .541.37
  • Person. . . . . 897.71
  • Pitt. . . . .1,564.30
  • Polk. . . . .78.44
  • Randolph. . . . .1,511.56
  • Richmond. . . . .1,540.66
  • Robeson. . . . .1,988.84
  • Rockingham. . . . .1,580.67
  • Rowan. . . . .1,500.49
  • Rutherford. . . . .1,317.55
  • Sampson. . . . .1,487.16
  • Stanly. . . . .941.82
  • Stokes. . . . .1,159.31
  • Surry. . . . .1,449.42
  • Swain. . . . .442.86
    Page 154

  • Transylvania. . . . .$ 363.29
  • Tyrrell. . . . .231.72
  • Union. . . . .1,539.29
  • Vance. . . . .789.64
  • Wake. . . . .2,785.94
  • Warren. . . . .1,058.98
  • Washington. . . . .552.87
  • Watauga. . . . .753.87
  • Wayne. . . . .1,616.75
  • Wilkes. . . . 1,628.11
  • Wilson. . . . .1,220.69
  • Yadkin. . . . .800.09
  • Yancey. . . . .650.95
  • Total. . . . .$100,000


Summary of Receipts for 1899 and 1900.

  1899. 1900.
General poll tax $303,313.21 $339,265.68
General property tax 433,836.44 454.452.99
General property tax, local acts 15,781.35 3,067.79
Fines, forfeitures and penalties 14,413.15 16,682.43
Liquor license 71,122.36 75,518.58
Auctioneers 1,435,00 5.00
Estrays 21.13 28.22
State Treasurer 8,975.89 90,379.73
Other sources 56,275.36 38,743.19
Total $905,173.89 $1,018,143.61


  1899. 1900.
Paid white teachers $520,415.00 $535,192.39
Paid colored teachers 216,491.82 214,001.56
Paid Croatans 1,426.85 . . . . .
Paid houses and sites (white) 42,237.58 31,217.96
Paid houses and sites (colored) 15,162.04 9,493.58
Paid County Superintendents 21,175.25 21,421.74
Paid Institutes (white) 1,556.42 864.77
Paid Institutes (colored) 688.01 336.49
Paid Treasurer's commission 18,444.21 19,236.49
Paid mileage, per diem, Board of Education 6,477.21 5,527.01

Page 155

  1899. 1900.
Paid expenses Board of Directors 1,991.91 3,967.72
Paid City Schools 46,356.57 62,606.49
Paid other purposes 40,744.41 46,451.26
Total $932,077.28 $950,317.47


  White. Colored. Total.
For 1899 408,787 198,600 607,387
For 1900 439,431 220,198 659,629


  White. Colored. Total.
For 1899 263,217 127,399 390,616
For 1900 270,447 130,005 400,452


  White. Colored.
For 1899 64 4-10 64 2-10
For 1900 61 5-10 59 1-10


  White. Colored. Total.
For 1899 140,162 67,148 207,310
For 1900 142,413 64,505 206,918


  White. Colored.
For 1899 34 3-10 33 8-10
For 1900 61 5-10 59 1-10


  White. Colored.
For 1899 53 3-10 52 8-10
For 1900 52 7-10 49 6-10

Page 156


  White. Colored.
For 1899 14 3-50 weeks or 70 days. 12 41-50 weeks or 64 days.
For 1900 14 33-50 weeks or 73 days. 13 3-50 weeks or 65 days.


For 1899, white males $26.33
For 1899, white females 23.65
For 1899, colored males 22.53
For 1899, colored females 19.70
For 1900, white males 26.18
For 1900, white females 23.41
For 1900, colored males 21.14
For 1900, colored females 19.82


For 1899, white 826,662.00
For 1899, colored 267,143.00
Total $1,093,805.00
For 1900, whites $ 839,269.00
For 1900, colored 258,295.00
Total $1,097,564.00


For 1899, white 4,676
For 1899, colored 2,108
Total 6,784
For 1900, white 4,798
For 1900, colored 2,120
Total 6,918


For 1899, white 5,172
For 1899, colored 2,395
Total 7,567

Page 157

For 1900, white 5,047
For 1900, colored 2,344
Total 7,391


For 1899, white 5,443
For 1899, colored 2,515
Total 7,958
For 1900, white 5,422
For 1900, colored 2,488
Total 7,910


Receipts for 1884 $ 580,311.60
Receipts for 1885 631,904.38
Receipts for 1886 670,671.79
Receipts for 1887 647,407.81
Receipts for 1888 670,944.73
Receipts for 1889 (8 months) 612,151.31
Receipts for 1890 721,756.38
Receipts for 1891 714,966.27
Receipts for 1892 775,449.63
Receipts for 1893 751,608.11
Receipts for 1894 777,079.29
Receipts for 1895 825,988.84
Receipts for 1896 824,238.08
Receipts for 1897 822,757.09
Receipts for 1898 988,409.11
Receipts for 1899 896,531.96
Receipts for 1900 1,031,327.94



  White. Colored. Total.
For 1884 321,561 193,843 515,404
For 1885 330,890 199,237 530,127
For 1886 338,059 209,249 547,308
For 1887 353,481 212,789 566,270
For 1888 363,982 216,837 580,819

Page 158

  White. Colored. Total.
For 1889--Not taken.      
For 1890 370,144 216,524 586,668
For 1891 380,718 213,859 594,577
For 1892 386,560 211,696 588,256
For 1893 399,753 218,788 618,541
For 1894 389,709 212,191 601,900
For 1895 403,812 217,437 621,249
For 1896 420,809 223,376 634,185
For 1897 412,143 211,519 623,662
For 1898 415,262 213,218 628,480
For 1899 408,787 263,217 672,004
For 1900 439,431 220,198 659,629


  White. Colored. Total.
For 1884 170,925 113,391 284,316
For 1885 185,225 112,941 298,166
For 1886 188,036 117,562 305,598
For 1887 202,134 123,145 325,279
For 1888 211,498 125,884 337, [printing error]
For 1889      
For 1890 205,844 116,689 322,533
For 1891 214,908 115,812 330,720
For 1892 215,919 119,441 335,358
For 1893 232,560 124,398 356,958
For 1894 235,486 323,899 359,385
For 1895 245,413 128,150 373,563
For 1896 231,059 117,551 348, [printing error]
For 1897 222,252 331,404 353, [printing error]
For 1898 261,223 138,152 399,375
For 1899 260,217 127,399 390,616
For 1900 270,447 130,005 400,452


  White. Colored. Total.
For 1884 106,316 66,679 172,995
For 1885 115,092 70,486 185,578
For 1886 117,121 68,585 185,706
For 1887 124,653 71,466 196,119
For 1888 133,427 75,230 208,657
For 1889      
For 1890 134,108 68,992 203,912
For 1891 120,747 71,016 201,863
For 1892 133,001 66,746 198,747
For 1893 142,362 74,417 216,779

Page 159

  White. Colored. Total.
For 1894 149,046 71,246 220,250
For 1895 136,954 70,461 207,415
For 1896 137,115 67,088 204,203
For 1897 110,677 58,548 169,225
For 1898 144,346 68,894 213,240
For 1899 140,162 67,148 207,310
For 1900 142,413 64,505 206,918


  White. Colored.
For 1884 11.50 11.75
For 1885 12 11.75
For 1886 11.75 12
For 1887 12 12
For 1888 12.80 12.30
For 1889    
For 1890 11.85 11.81
For 1891 12.14 11.91
For 1892 12.66 12.15
For 1893 12.81 12
For 1894 12.85 12.12
For 1895 12.45 11.83
For 1896 12.42 11.75
For 1897 11.73 10.86
For 1898 14.06 12.79
For 1899 14.06 12.82
For 1900 14.66 13.07


  Males. Females.
For 1886 $26.23 $23.77
For 1887 25.10 23.30
For 1888 25.68 22.82
For 1890 25.80 22.95
For 1891 25.03 23.11
For 1892 26.20 25.72
For 1893 26.46 23.37
For 1894 25.53 23.08
For 1895 24.87 22.39
For 1896 24.75 21.64
For 1897 23.21 20.81

Page 160

  Males. Females.
For 1898 24.66 22.96
For 1899 26.33 23.65
For 1900 26.18 23.41


  Males. Females.
For 1886 24.69 20.36
For 1887 24.10 19.60
For 1888 22.67 20.45
For 1890 22.72 20.36
For 1891 22.23 18.45
For 1892 23.33 20.14
For 1893 23.33 21.28
For 1894 23.08 19.27
For 1895 23.14 20.91
For 1896 26.70 20.96
For 1897 21.54 18.25
For 1898 21.64 19.85
For 1899 22.53 19.70
For 1900 21.14 19.82


1888--For whites 3,779
1888--For colored 1,766
Total in 1888 5,545
1890--For whites 3,973
1890--For colored 1,820
Total in 1890 5,793
1891--For whites 4,034
1891--For colored 1,779
Total in 1891 5,813
1892--For whites 4,168
1892--For colored 1,992
Total in 1892 6,160
1893--For whites 4,271
1893--For colored (five counties not reporting) 1,942
Total in 1893 6,213

Page 161

1894--For whites 4,356
1894--For colored (three counties not reporting) 2,010
Total in 1894 3,366
1895--For whites 4,372
1895--For colored 2,213
Total for 1895 6,585
1896--For whites 4,875
1896--For colored 2.374
Total for 1896 7,249
1899--For whites 4,678
1899--For colored 2,108
Total for 1899 6,786
1900--For whites 4,798
1900--For colored 2,120
Total for 1900 6,918


1888--For whites 4,438
1888--For colored 2,317
Total in 1888 6,755
1890--For whites 4,508
1890--For colored 2,327
Total in 1890 6,835
1891--For whites 4,574
1891--For colored 2,260
Total in 1891 6,834
1892--For whites 4,603
1892--For colored 2,376
Total 1892 6,979
1893--Whites 4,599
1893--Colored 2,219
Total in 1893 6,818

Page 162

1894--For whites 4,811
1894--For colored 2,296
Total in 1894 7,107
1895--For whites 4,372
1895--For colored 2,213
Total in 1895 6,585
1896--For whites 4,877
1896--For colored 2,374
Total in 1896 7,251
1897--For whites 4,368
1897--For colored 2,037
Total in 1897 6,405
1898--For whites 4,279
1898--For colored 2,042
Total in 1898 6,321
1899--For whites 5,172
1899--For colored 2,395
Total in 1899 7,567
1900--For whites 5,047
1900--For colored 2,344
Total in 1900 7,391


1888--For whites 4,763
1888--For colored 2,031
Total in 1888 6,794
1890--For whites 4,893
1890--For colored 2,289
Total in 1890 7,182
1891--For whites 4,926
1891--For colored 2,302
Total in 1891 7,228

Page 163

1892--For whites 5,168
1892--For colored 2,387
Total in 1892 7,555
1893--For whites (four counties not reporting) 4,937
1893--For colored (four counties not reporting) 2,296
Total in 1893 7,233
1894--For whites (three counties not reporting) 5,123
1894--For colored (three counties not reporting) 2,424
Total in 1894 7,547
1895--For whites 4,484
1895--For colored 2,290
Total in 1895 6,774
1896--For whites 5,157
1896--For colored 2,404
Total in 1896 7,561
1897--For whites 5,247
1897--For colored 2,540
Total in 1897 7,787
1898--For whites 5,083
1898--For colored 2,403
Total in 1898 7,486
1899--For whites 5,443
1899--For colored 2,515
Total in 1899 7,958
1900--For whites 5,422
1900--For colored 2,488
Total in 1900 7,910

Page 164


May 18, 1899.

To the Local Board of Managers of the
Normal Department of Cullowhee High School.

        GENTLEMEN:--The following constitutes our report for the session 1898-'99:

        Seventy students from seven counties held appointments in the department the past year.

        The work of the session was, in some respects, not satisfactory, but the higher classes did fairly well, though part of the students labored under some disadvantages. The graduating class numbered thirteen, representing six counties.

        We recommend that the appropriations for periodicals be continued, and that increased facilities be provided for the "practice" teaching feature of the professional course.

        The prospects for the department are bright. Its influence is widening; its work is being endorsed by high authorities; its teachers are sought for--eagerly in many cases--and they rarely disappoint; it is demonstrating rapidly that its mission is one of incalculable value to the State.

        Respectfully submitting this for your consideration, and according our obligations for your kindnesses within the year, we remain,

Obediently yours,

Principal of Cullowhee High School.

Teacher in Charge of Normal Department.

May 19, 1900.

To the Local Board of Managers of the
Normal Department of Cullowhee High School.

        GENTLEMEN:--The following is respectfully submitted as our report for the scholastic year 1899-1900:

        The number of those holding appointments in the department the past session is seventy-six, representing seven counties. The senior class consisted of seventeen, eleven of which completed satisfactorily the course.

        The year's work has been of most gratifying character, largely because an unusually excellent class of young people predominated in

Page 165

the student-body; also, through the liberal provisions made by the Local Board, we have had better facilities for doing acceptable work in both academic and professional subjects; especially has this been the case in natural science and in pedagogy. We feel justified in saying that we believe our work in geography and physics equal to that done in any other secondary school in the State; while the "model" classes in primary reading and primary arithmetic, and the professional lectures constituted the best work of the kind ever accomplished here, and were in accord fully with the latest approved pedagogical ideas.

        Last October, this institution, upon invitation of Superintendent Mebane, made an exhibit at the State Fair. Our display was installed too late to admit of our competing for any premiums, but the Raleigh Post pronounced it one of the most unique exhibits at the Fair. Work from the Normal classical and fine arts departments was shown.

        Our course of study is gradually being lengthened and strengthened, and our standard is steadily being raised. Elementary Latin will be added to the academic requirements next session.

        Before the meeting of the next General Assembly, we shall doubtless make some recommendations looking to the enlargement of the department's work, and the increase of its facilities for serving more fully in this section of the State the purposes for which the department was created.

        Thanking those in authority for their sympathy, encouragement, co-operation, and intelligent management, we remain, with respect and esteem,

Your obedient servants,

Principal of Cullowhee High School.

Teacher in Charge of Normal Department.

PAINTER, N. C., December 15, 1900.

To the Local Board of Managers of the
Normal Department of Cullowhee High School.

        GENTLEMEN:--We beg leave to submit, as a partial report for the session 1900-'01, the following:

        The number of those holding appointments at this date are sixty-five, more than forty-five representing eight counties being now in attendance. The remainder of the eighty who are allowed scholarships will attend in the Spring term. Most of those who are expected to enroll next term have been teaching this Fall.

        This department has furnished to eleven or twelve counties of

Page 166

the State more than two hundred public school teachers, nearly every one of whom has taught in the rural districts, and but few of whom have failed to give satisfaction. The demand for our graduates is greater than we can supply. Every student who has been graduated from this department, up to last May, has taught in the public schools since graduation, from one to six years. All of last May's graduating class have taught this Fall except two, who are now pursuing higher studies here and purpose teaching next year.

        The work of the department is a unique and very necessary one. It does not conflict with the work being done by the State Normal and Industrial College, nor the Department of Pedagogy at the State University. Their work is of much higher order; is under the ablest management and instruction, and is indispensable. They prepare very largely the teachers of our academies, city schools, and some of our colleges. Our sphere, while an humbler one, most largely affects the great body of public school children outside of the towns. Our specific work is to prepare teachers for the rural and village elementary school, and there is no other State institution, so far as we know, that is doing this to any appreciable extent. As to educators, such as Dr. Winston, Prof. Moses, Supt. Mebane, and Prof. Claxton, who have come in contact with our work, will, as they have already done, testify in words of high commendation. There is much talk of doing more for the elementary schools by increasing the taxes and the direct appropriations. This is well. But these elementary schools, after they receive their increase of money, must have specially-prepared teachers, or the money will procure scant returns. Therefore, it is just as necessary that normal instruction of teachers be provided for, as that the term or the rural public school should be lengthened. "As is the teacher, so is the school."

        Our present course of study is divided into academic and professional work. The academic provides instruction in spelling and defining, arithmetic, grammar, composition, English literature, elementary algebra, United States history, North Carolina history, Civil government, political and physical geography, psychology and hygiene, elementary physics, and elementary Latin. The professional provides instruction in theory and practice of teaching, principles of education, history of education, psychology applied to teaching, besides practice teaching, lectures and professional reading. This course should, next session, be strengthened by the addition of special training in reading, writing, drawing, and vocal music. Hitherto, the instruction in reading and writing has been incidental, but hereafter should be taught as separate branches, and given as careful attention as spelling or geography. We presume it is unnecessary for us to indicate why a teacher should understand drawing and vocal music. The practice teaching thus far has been confined to

Page 167

primary reading and arithmetic. This work should, as soon as possible, be expanded into a "model school," affording the young teachers practice and observation in best methods.

        In view of the fact that the department is growing so rapidly, its field widening, and its scope enlarging, the demands made upon it, that it may fully serve the purpose of its establishment, are such as to render it absolutely necessary that we should have a more liberal appropriation, more commodious quarters, and better equipment and facilities. With small means and under limited conditions, we have done a work in the past seven and one-half years, which we feel would justify more liberal provisions. Our faculty and accommodations will be taxed to their utmost next term, on account of the increased attendance, which promises to exceed 200.

        Last October, this institution made an exhibit at the State Fair and won every premium for which it competed--five first premiums, aggregating fifty dollars in value. The geography work done by students of the Normal department attracted much attention, and was pronounced one of the most extraordinary and attractive exhibits at the Fair.

        Congratulating the authorities upon what has been accomplished in the past, and upon the present gratifying condition and encouraging outlook, we respectfully subscribe ourselves,

Your humble servants,

Principal of Cullowhee High School.

Teacher in Charge of Normal Department.


        (Facts Regarding a Few of Our Graduates.)

        W. Galloway, attorney at law, Brevard, Transylvania County.

        Mrs. Lena Smith Wallace, assistant primary teacher, Government Indian School, South Dakota, near Naper, Neb.

        Miss Ida Smith, firm of J. M. Rigdon & Co., merchants, Painter, N. C.

        C. A. Wallace, primary teacher, Government Indian School, near Naper, Neb.

        W. D. Wike, teacher in charge Normal Department, Cullowhee High School.

        J. N. Wilson. County Superintendent of Schools, Webster, Jackson County.

        M. Parker, United States Deputy Collector, Revenue Service, Western North Carolina.

        A. C. Wike, principal of San Saba School, San Saba, Texas.

Page 168

        J. U. Gibbs, principal of Whittier High School, Swain County.

        F. E. Alley, Clerk of Superior Court, Jackson County.

        J. N. Moody, County Superintendent of Schools, Robbinsville, Graham County.

        Mrs. Nancy Wilson Brown, primary teacher, Cullowhee High School, 1898-1900.

        J. K. Henderson, ministerial student, Wake Forest College.

        T. C. Henderson, principal of Croatan Indian Normal School, Pates, Robeson County.

        T. B. Davis, ministerial student, Wake Forest College.

        J. Robt. Long, Register of Deeds, Jackson County.

        W. L. Henson, intermediate teacher, Cullowhee High School.

        D. D. Hooper, student, Wake Forest College.

        J. E. Triplett, principal of Stoneville Collegiate Institute, Rockingham County.

        Miss Nellie Smith, primary teacher, Whittier High School, Swain County.

        J. H. Painter, merchant, Tuckaseigee, Jackson County.

        S. B. Parris, principal Robinson Institute, Bryson City, Swain County.

        Judson Corn, ex-County Supervisor, Brevard, Transylvania County.

        R. D. Sisk, attorney at law, Franklin, Macon County.

        N. A. Davis, salesman, Boise City, Idaho.

        T. F. Reynolds, physician, Sandy Mush, Buncombe County.

        Miss Maggie Raby, principal of Glenville School. 1899-1900, Jackson County.

        Miss Sonora Robinson, typewriter for firm of Robinson Bros., Booksellers, Charlotte.

        B. H. Hughes, merchant, Deets, Jackson County.

        J. A. Zachary, firm of Zachary & Son, Seedsman, Cashiers, Jackson County.

        H. C. Shearer, medical student, Knoxville (Tenn.) Medical College.

        Miss Laura B. Coward, primary teacher-elect, Cullowhee High School.

        F. M. Brown, student A. and M. College, Raleigh.

        A. G. Pless, student, Richmond (Va.) Medical College.

        R. L. Colvard, medical student, Knoxville (Tenn.) Medical College.

        Ten of these are receiving for services from fifty to eighty dollars per month.

Page 169


        J. D. COWARD, Treasurer,
In account with Normal Dept. Cullowhee High School.

Sept. 2 Balance on hand $29.90
5 Auditor's warrant 1,000.00
Jan. 11 Auditor's warrant 1,000.00
  Total receipts 2,029.90
June 16 Disbursements as per account filed with Superintendent Public Instruction 1,930.00
16 Balance on hand 99.90
  Total 2,029.90
Sept. 14 Auditor's warrant 1,000.00
Jan. 14 Auditor's warrant 1,000.00
  Balance brought forward 99.90
  Total 2,099.90
Aug. 13 Disbursements as per account filed with Superintendent Public Instruction 2,004.75
  Balance on hand 95.15
  Total 2,099.90

Page 170



Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--I beg to submit to you my annual report for the school year 1899-1900:

        The work of this year has been gratifying, and the year as a whole has been full of encouragement. You know that the Normal School here has a co-operative relation with the Slater Industrial School. The advantage of this co-operation has been very apparent during this year, the students having been given a larger scope of training, including manual and industrial training for the boys, and training in the domestic arts for the girls. This co-operation has enabled us to strengthen the Normal course by some academic work as provided by the Slater School. The total enrollment has been 263--117 males, and 146 females.

        There were seventeen graduates this year from the Normal course prescribed by the State Board of Examiners, and three graduates from the Slater academic course. This academic course offers an opportunity to those who intend making teaching a life work to extend their training. Most of the graduates from the Normal course will return for the three years' additional work provided in the academic department. The demand for our graduates is large, and we have difficulty in holding them until they are thoroughly prepared.

        The interest in the Slater Industrial and State Normal School is ever widening. Among the students enrolled the past school year, 27 counties of North Carolina were represented, and the inquiries about the terms of admission are ever increasing. It may not be out of place to note that we had students also from Virginia, Alabama, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Zulu Land, South Africa. There have been several notable incidents of progress the past year, the chief among them being the proposal of Mr. R. J. Reynolds, of Winston, to donate $5,000 to the Institution for a nurse-training school, if a like amount could be raised by the Institution itself. I am glad to inform you that nearly the full amount has been raised, and to assure you that the full amount will be raised within the time given. We are still working toward the three ends suggested in one of our former reports to you, viz:

        1. Giving the students a thorough knowledge of the common school branches, including all the subjects usually taught in our public schools.

        2. Acquainting them with the main facts of the science, art, and history of education.

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        3. Illustrating before the Normal classes the principles thus learned by actual contact with class-room work, sometimes the students observing and sometimes teaching under criticism.

        This work is, as it were, rounded up in our Peabody Summer School of Methods, which is now held regularly every summer, beginning on the third Wednesday in June. A large number of our Normal and Academic students either remain or return for the Summer School, but the teachers from Forsyth and adjoinnig counties, for the most part, make up the attendance.

        In the Summer School of 1899, 70 teachers from 12 counties were enrolled; and in the Summer School recently held there were 83 teachers enrolled from 13 counties. Several special instructors are provided in the Summer School, and work of an especially high order is done. From an extended and careful observation through the State, I am convinced that better trained teachers are among the principal needs of the colored public schools of the State. Perhaps it may be fair to say that money is the chief need, but it is my opinion that thoroughly trained and consecrated teachers--teachers who know how, and have the disposition to throw themselves into this work--can do much to off-set the lack of money. Such teachers would inspire the people to make up by private contributions the amount necessary to extend the school term much beyond its usual length; and such teachers it is the effort and work of the Slater Industrial and State Normal to prepare.

        The ordinary facilities for instruction in our school have been improved, our class-room accommodations being well up to the best standard. The library has received additions; and the literary and religious societies of the Institution were never in so healthy a condition. The general influence of the school for developing strong character in the pupils is decidedly noteworthy. In a faculty of 12 instructors, all are earnest Christian men and women, and it is expected and required of all that his or her influence shall be such as to lead the boys and girls up into an honest and honorable manhood and womanhood.

        A special effort is being made to perfect the work of the Model School, and it is hoped that next year a kindergarten may be opened as a further illustration of the proper handling of little children. We were both pleased and gratified to have a visit during the year from Prof. L. L. Hobbs, representing the State Board of Examiners. We were glad to welcome him and give him the freedom of the Institution. He also had an opportunity to confer with the Local Board of Managers in a meeting called especially in appreciation of Prof. Hobbs's visit.

        Permit me, Mr. Superintendent, to thank you for your aid and

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cordial sympathy in the prosecution of this work. It is proper that I should also call attention to the unabating interest and work of the Local Board of Managers in connection with the growth of the school. I trust it will not be considered invidious if I refer especially to Mr. H. E. Fries, the chairman, and Mr. W. A. Blair, the secretary and treasurer. These gentlemen, in my opinion, have not only been faithful to duty as public servants, but have manifested also a large spirit of philanthropy in their devotion to the welfare of this Institution. I must not fail to recognize our special debt of gratitude to Dr. J. L. M. Curry, agent of the Peabody Fund, not only for the benefaction through him from that fund, but also for the assurance of his continued interest in the school. The citizens of the community have been always prompt and aggressive to prove their sympathy with the school, and their interest in its success. They have demonstrated this both by their presence and by their contributions of money. I forward herewith the report of the treasurer.

Most respectfully yours,


        W. A. Blair, Secretary and Treasurer, in account with Local Board of Directors, State Normal School, Winston-Salem, N. C., to June 1, 1900.

To State appropriation for Normal School $1,857.14
To State appropriation for benefit of the Slater Industrial School, on condition that it raise a like amount 1,000.00
To Peabody appropriation 600.00
Total $3,457.14
By disbursements, as per account filed with Supt. Public Instruction $3,435.94
By balance on hand 21.20
Total $3,457.14

(Signed) WM. A. BLAIR,
Secretary and Treasurer.

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ELIZABETH CITY, N. C., June 8, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh. N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The ninth annual report of the Elizabeth City State Normal School is hereby submitted, upon the approval of the Local Board of Managers, for your consideration. It is hoped that the facts herein succinctly presented are sufficient to give you ideas of the character of the work done during the session, 1899-1900, and the general condition of the school.

        The session began its work at 8:45 a. m., September 4, 1899, under a clear and auspicious sky that hovered over us until the school closed on June 1, 1900, a term of thirty-eight weeks.

        The entire session has been prominently marked by faithful work and good results in all the classes. Our time-table regularly extends from 8:45 a. m., to 4:30 p. m., with an eighty-minute recess at mid-day. Often during the Spring term, the principal was compelled to remain in the school-room at work until 5 p. m., or afterward. The daily attendance throughout the session was the best in the history of the school. We have favorably impressed our students with the great fact that satisfactory progress does not only depend upon faithful and conscientious application to study, but also upon regular school attendance. We believe that this school is slowly, but surely and substantially, benefitting the people for whom it was established.

        For the past session the following counties have representation: Pacquotank, Camden, Perquimans, Currituck, Pamlico, Dare, Northampton, Bertie, Chowan, Martin, Washington, Wayne, Tyrrell, Pitt, Norfolk (Va.), Hyde, Jones, Onslow, Craven, Halifax, Gates, and Lenoir. The total number of counties is 22.

        The enrollment of students is as follows: First year class, 79; second year class, 31; third year class, 34. Total number of students for the year is 144. For 1898-1899, the enrollment stands: 137 students and 18 counties. With us strictness, seasoned with thorough work, fairness, justice and pleasantness, has wrought advantageous results that are more telling each year.

        Two assistant teachers were employed: Mr. Josnua R. Fleming and Miss Anna M. Brochies. They were faithful in the discharge of their duties. Another assistant, for a part of the next school session, at least, would enable the principal to make such visitations in all the rooms as would be quite helpful to the class work, the supervision of the school, and enhance the successfulness of the Institution.

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        The course of study prepared by the State Board of Examiners, in 1899, has worked charmingly. It supplies a deficiency in the Normal Schools that has stood too long. Another year added would be beneficial to the schools.

        The entire session has been harmonious and productive of excellent results. Our students appreciate the advantages which the State offers them through this school. Patrons were more manifest in their interest and welfare for the school than ever. The Trustees of the Normal School property have transferred the property to the State Board of Education for the purpose of having the Elizabeth City State Normal School conducted in said building, as long as the school shall remain in this town. Hence, the property virtually belongs to the State for Normal School purposes.

        The deportment, general and private, of our student body for the session has been quite commendable. There was none of that lawlessness that is characteristic in some schools. In fact, nothing of a disgraceful nature occurred to mar the character and beauty of the school. The moral and helpful influence of the school is evidencing itself both in the daily life of the students and in the character and life of the people among whom the students and teachers have intercourse. These facts are substantiated by the best citizens of both races.

        The fact that we are required to qualify teachers for the public schools of the State is never entirely dismissed from our minds. Reports made by Supervisors of Public Schools and committeemen, respecting teaching done by our students, are encouraging. Sixty-five of the enrollment for 1899-1900 are eligible to teach in the public schools. About fifty of this number have been licensed to teach, and have done good service in the school-room as teachers. There is no special arrangement for industrial training. But we make some opportunities in order to impress upon our students the necessity and dignity of honest manual labor.

        A gracious and benign Providence has guided and wonderfully blessed us throughout the session. Death has made no visitation among us during the school year. We had only one serious case of pneumonia.

        The school receives a hearty and cordial reception from the white people of the town and community. It gives me pleasure to say, sir, to my knowledge, no person of consideration, has offered a criticism upon the school during its nine years' existence that needed any attention from those who are interested in its growth, development, and prosperity.

        In order to spiritualize, strengthen and help the inner life of the school, the principal invited Revs. A. L. Newby and W. L. Clayton, of Elizabeth City, to make a series of ten-minute "Bible Talks" immediately

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after chapel exercises. The talks were made on March 28th and 29th, and on April 3d, 4th and 5th. The talks were quite helpful to student life.

        On April 13th, the school was delighted to have the distinguished presence of Prof. S. L. Sheep, president of the Atlantic Collegiate Institute, chairman of the Local Board of Managers or the Normal, and Supervisor of Public Schools for Pasquotank County, accompanied by Prof. Colton, of the Atlantic Collegiate Institute. Prof. Sheep has done much effective service for the advancement of this Institution.


  • North Carolina Journal of Education.
  • 1. Essentials of Method (De Garmo).
  • 2. Practical Lessons in Psychology (Krahn).
  • 3. History of Education (Painter).
  • 4. White's Elements of Pedagogy.
  • 5. Grimm's Tales, selected, 2 volumes.
  • 6. Robinson Crusoe.
  • 7. Black Beauty.
  • 8. Fiske's History of the United States.
  • 9. Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
  • 10. Fifteen Decisive Battles (Creasy).
  • 11. Dickens' Child's History of England.
  • 12. Church's Stories from Homer.
  • 13. About Men and Things (C. S. Henry, DD.).
  • 14. Arabian Knights' Entertainments.
  • 15. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin.
  • 16. Bright Boys.
  • 17. Education (Spencer).
  • 18. Ethics of the Dust.
  • 19. Eating and Drinking.
  • 20. Essays (Bacon).
  • 21. Famous Leaders Among Women.
  • 22. Heroes and Hero Worship.
  • 23. History of Education (Compayre).
  • 24. Health Chats.
  • 25. Horace Mann.
  • 26. Life of Abraham Lincoln.
  • 27. Letters to a Daughter.
  • 28. Making of Manhood.
  • 29. Notes for Boys.
  • 30. Poor Boys Who Became Famous.
    Page 176

  • 31. Stories of Great Men.
  • 32. Stories of Industry, 2 volumes.
  • 33. Sesame and Lilies.
  • 34. The Story of the Iliad.
  • 35. Tales From Shakespeare.
  • 36. Tales of Troy.
  • 37. Ten Selections from the Sketch Book.
  • 38. Young People's Problems.

        Besides the books herein named, there are in the State Normal School Library about 100 miscellaneous volumes, including periodicals and declamation books.

        The commencement exercises were well attended by patrons and friends. The influence of the exercises upon the community characterized the moral training and discipline which the pupils have received.

        Commencement sermon was preached by Rev. M. W. D. Norman, president of Roanoke Institute, Elizabeth City. His subject: "The Only Condition of True Success." The scripture from which the subject was taken is: "But seek ye first the Kingdom of God and His righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you." Matt. 6:33.

        The outlines of the discourse are:

        "1. The disadvantages of seeking temporal blessings first."

        "2. The necessity of seeking first spiritual blessings."

        "3. Some reasons for avoiding anxiety, or anxiously seeking temporal things."

        "4. The character of the object which we are called to seek first."

        The sermon was practical, logical, helpful, eloquent, and highly seasoned with common sense. It revived us all.

        The graduating exercises were conducted in the Corner-Stone Baptist Church, Friday evening, June 1st. Thirteen (13) young men and women were graduated. The annual address, including the address to the graduating class, was delivered by Rev. R. C. Beaman. pastor of the white Methodist Church, of this city. His subject was: "The Foundations of Character." He is a profound thinker. The address was of the highest order. It was evidently contemplative, platonic and eminently conceived. It contained wholesome food, not only for the "thirteen" who were standing in the gateway of life, but for those who had experienced the reality of life, including its various phases; for, notwithstanding its comprehensiveness, ti was clear, instructive, animating, and inspiring. The distinguished divine showed that a right and proper conception of personal responsibility is essential to a correct sense and understanding of the value and worth of character.

        The diplomas were awarded by Hon. J. B. Leigh, treasurer of the

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Local Board of Managers. and a member of the General Assembly of North Carolina. His speech was very appropriate, scholarly and fitting for the occasion. It was pregnant with wholesome advice and wisdom for the class of young men and women.

        The prizes were presented to the successful competitors by Prof. J. W. Robinson, principal of Roanoke Institute. The R. J. Mitchell prize, for best essay, Miss A. L. Brinn, of Perquimans; principal's prize for best oration, J. Frank Pierce, of Bertie; Messrs. Ehringhaus Bro. & Co.'s prize for second best oration, J. Braxton Lewis, of Pasquotank; Messrs. McCabe and Grice's prize for best recital, Miss Louise M. Brown, of Jones; the P. W. Melick prize for best oration, by second-year pupil, Thomas S. Cooper, of Bertie, and principal's prize for best essay, by second-year pupil, Miss Amanda M. Hill. of Tyrrell.

        The local interest and prosperity of the Normal have had vigilant and helpful supervision from the Local Board of Managers. Their patience and solicitude for the success and permanence of the school seem inexhaustible. To them the principal is sensibly indebted for much of the success that has attended his efforts, and hereby offers his profound thanks and gratitude.

        To you, Honorable Charles H. Mebane, whose indefatigable labors have infused an educational impetus throughout the "Old North State" for better and longer public schools for all the children, more efficient teachers and well-equipped Normal Schools and excellently-conducted Summer Normal Institutes, am I personally and sincerely grateful. Your replies to inquiries pertaining to the advancement of the school here have always been characterized by promptness, efficiency and encouragement, consequently the school has steadily increased in efficiency, power and influence for the training of teachers and the moral and manly uplift of the negro race. For all of which, I heartily thank you.

Sincerely submitted.



ELIZABETH CITY, N. C., June 22, 1899.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh. N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--I am profoundly grateful to Him who guides and shapes human affairs for this opportunity of submitting my seventh annual report of the State Colored Normal School at Elizabeth City for your consideration.

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        The following facts for the past session obtain: The session opened on the morning of September 12, 1898, with an enrollment of sixty-five (65) pupils in the Normal Department, and forty-four (44) in Model School, the former representing eight (8) counties. The school was in session for thirty-six consecutive weeks, closing May 26, 1899.

        One hundred and thirty-seven (137) young men and women matriculated to be educated and trained as teachers. They represent the following counties: Pasquotank, Perquimans, Currituck, Camden, Dare, Chowan, Bertie, Gates, Craven, Onslow, Pamlico, Jones. Martin, Tyrrell, Hyde, Washington, Pitt, and Norfolk (Va.).

        Forty-eight (48) were enrolled in the Model School. They were classified as follows: Fourth grade, 15; third grade, 8; second grade, 12; first grade, 13. In this Practice school, the various grades of work done in our public schools were demonstrated, according to the most widely approved methods, before the senior class. They also taught in the Practice school a number of periods each day, putting into practice what they had learned by theory.

        Twelve of our students have first-grade teachers' certificates; sixteen have been granted second-grades, while others preferred not to teach until the course of study was completed, although they were members of the same class.

        The daily attendance fully justified the Local Board of Managers in their employment of three assistant teachers at moderate salaries for the entire session. In fact, the daily average attendance has never been better. This increase in attendance is due to a deeper interest and a more comprehensive meaning of the term education.

        Our student body, in the main, is honest, mannerly, respectful, studious, cleanly, obedient, peaceable and loyal to the school. These characteristics are taught far more by example than by precept. A teacher should be a model citizen, since he is to mould the character of the children.

        The chief aim of the school, namely, to educate and train teachers for the public schools of our race, has been well kept in mind. In view of that fact, we have placed greater stress on the study and proper use of English as used in the United States. As a consequence, our advanced students speak and write the English language more correctly than ever before.

        I conceive it to be my duty to incorporate into this report, this fact: The Elizabeth City State Colored Normal School serves a dual purpose, since it aids in refining, purifying and elevating our people in the entire community. Manifestations of this improvement may be observed in public; in the churches, and in the homes.

        The respectful and considerate class of colored people manifest a

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becoming interest in what the State is doing to educate and train the young men and women of the race.

        The general health of the school was excellent throughout the session. However, the school was vaccinated, and the wide spread of small-pox in the Eastern counties prevented a larger matriculation of students for the session.

        I take great pleasure in acknowledging the official visit made by yourself and Prof. M. C. S. Noble, members of the State Board of Examiners. The occasion was one of inspiration, pleasure and profit to us--students and teachers.

        Persons of wisdom and ability maintain that the commencement exercises of the Normal were highly commendable, evidencing much research and careful study.

        The commencement sermon was preached by Rev. W. A. Byrd, of New Bern, N. C. He chose for his subject, "True Greatness." The discourse was well adapted to the occasion. It was logical and well delivered.

        The annual address was delivered by Hon. J. C. Dancy, Wilmington, N. C. He spoke on "Lessons of the Life of Dr. J. C. Price." The portrayal was beautiful, pleasing and masterful.

        The address to the graduating class was very happily made by Dr. W. S. Penick, pastor of the First Baptist Church (white), Elizabeth City, N. C. Subject: "A Diploma and What to Do With It." The address was a scholarly effort. It was quite helpful to us all. During the delivery the large audience was very attentive.

        Diplomas were presented in a most graceful manner to the followful students by Dr. Penick: Miss A. L. Trafton, Camden; Miss M. E. McDonald, Pasquotank; Walter S. Roach, Pasquotank; Miss Catharine Jenkins, Gates; Miss L. C. Fleming, Pasquotank; Miss C. E. Stallings, Gates, and Isaiah Williams, Camden.

        The enrollment of the senior class for the session was nineteen (19). Twelve failed to complete the course of study. Some of these have pledged their attendance for 1899-1900.

        Prof. S. L. Sheep, Hon. J. B. Leigh, and Dr. J. H. White, members of the Local Board of Managers, witnessed the final exercises. Their presence added much to the occasion. Timely and fitting talks were made by the former two.

        The official supervision of the Board of Managers has always been of the highest order, and exceedingly encouraging to the principal in his efforts to do efficient work. The school owes much of its usefulness to the wisdom and counsel of the Local Board of Managers, and, to each member thereof, I extend many thanks; for, without the active interest and support which the board has given me, I would have toiled in vain.

Obediently yours,


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        J. B. Leigh, Treasurer, in account with Elizabeth City Colored Normal School.


Sept. 6th, amount received from S. L. Sheep, former Treas $689.27
Nov. 4th, check received from Supt. Pub. Inst., Peabody Fund 100.00
Oct. 28th, check received from Supt. Pub. Inst., State Fund 500.00
Dec. 11th, check received from Supt. Pub. Inst., State Fund 500.00
Feb. 10th, check received from C. H. Mebane, Peabody Fund 200.00
Feb. 14th, State warrant 875.14
Total receipts $2,846.41


Aug. 13th, amount of disbursements, as per vouchers filed with Supt. Pub. Inst. $1,956.24
Aug. 13th, balance on hand 890.17
Total $2,846.41


FAYETTEVILLE, N. C., May 18, 1900.

To the Local Board of Managers, State Colored Normal School,
Fayetteville, N. C.

        GENTLEMEN, SIRS:--I beg, respectfully, to submit for your consideration the following brief statement of the work done in the school during the session, beginning September 4, 1899, and ending May 16, 1900.

        During the session 174 applications were made for admission. Of these, 63 were found to be under 16 years of age and were rejected, and 25 others of those applying failed to make the required per cent on examination. Therefore, 86 were admitted upon examination, and enrolled--29 males and 57 females, from 28 towns, or post-offices, in the counties of Anson, Bladen, Cumberland, Harnett, Martin, Montgomery, Moore, New Hanover, Richmond, Robeson, Sampson, Scotland and Wayne. Thirty-seven of the students hold certificates as teachers, and thirty-four have taught. Four students were assigned to the third-year class; forty, to the second, and forty-two to the first.

        Hitherto, the course has comprised six years, but by direction of the State Board of Examiners, the preparatory classes--a three-year course--have been discontinued. The course now comprises only three years, and consists of three classes. When, therefore,

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the enrollment of the session just closed is compared with that of any of the preceding sessions--taking into account only the three most advanced classes of such sessions--it will be seen to be the largest in the history of the school. Numbers, however, have, by no means, been the object sought, or the end in view. Our aim has been thoroughness in the common school branches, because in these the students were deficient. A student can not be taught the best method of teaching a subject when he has only an imperfect knowledge of it. Nevertheless, we accomplished some satisfactory professional work with the third year or senior class, during the session, using as text-books for this purpose "Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching," Parker's "Talks on Teaching," and White's "School Management."

        We have endeavored to enlarge upon and emphasize the professional training by lectures, accompanied by diagrams and black-board outlines, on the history of education, with Quick's "Educational Reformers," as a basis. We have made it a point to make haste with all necessary deliberation, by requiring those who graduated, to take a course so full and thorough as to guarantee the best possible preparation when they leave us.

        This may be illustrated by the fact, that, out of a class of fourteen, who were members of the middle class of the previous session, and, therefore, came up in course for the senior or graduating class this year, only four of them, after examination, were admitted to said class; and of these, only three were graduated.

        It is to be hoped that the time has come when a beginning may be made to extend the area of the school's usefulness. Plans of cooperation with the Normal School here, with a view of broadening its sphere of operation and practical usefulness, are now under advisement by friends of the institution, and will be, it is hoped, submitted in a short time for the consideration of the Local Board of Managers.

        During the session several lectures on practical subjects were given by prominent educators. Among the visitors to the school whose presence inspired and encouraged the students and teachers, were Rev. J. A. Campbell, of the State Board of Examiners; Mr. Z. B. Newton, supervisor of Cumberland County public schools; the chairman and gentlemen of the Local Board of Managers; Dr. J. A. Savage, Principal of the State Normal, Franklinton; Prof. A. B. Vincent, Rev. M. G. Christmas, Dr. G. L. Blackwell, Rev. R. S. Rives, and city pastors.

        The students have been, in the main, courteous and diligent; the instructors have been untiring in their eoffrts to faithfully perform their duty.

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        The closing exercises took place May 11th-16th, and consisted in a literary programme executed by the students, and an admirable address by Rev. Wm. M. Jackson, on the evening of the 11th; annual sermon at the A. M. E. Church on Sabbath the 13th, by Rev. J. W. Murph; examination of classes on Monday and Tuesday, the 14th and 15th, and the commencement on the evening of the 16th, at the A. M E. Z. Metropolitan Church, where it was estimated that a thousand persons, consisting of many of the best citizens of both races, were present, and were well entertained both by the exercises of the students and the annual address by Rev. T. W. Thurston.

        I desire here, to record my sincere gratitude to the Local Board of Managers, under whose wise and efficient management the school is destined to achieve better results than ever before, for the counsel given to and confidence reposed in me by them.




        H. W. LILLY, Treasurer,
In account with Fayetteville State (Col.) Normal School.

Mar. 30 Received from Superintendent Mebane, warrant $500.00
Apr. 8 Peabody fund 50.00
12 State warrant 857.14
  Total 1,407.14
  Total disbursements to March 17, 1899 673.18
May 15 Balance on hand 733.96
  Total 1,407.14
16 To balance on hand 733.96
Oct. 23 amount received Superintendent Mebane, State warrant 500.00
Nov. 6 Peabody fund 100.00
Dec. 14 warrant 500.00
Feb. 10 Peabody fund 200.00
14 State warrant 857.14
  Total 2,891.10
Apr. 17 Total disbursements 1,816.65
May 17 Balance on hand 1,074.45
  Total 2,891.10

Page 183


(Held at Fayetteville, N. C.)

JULY 2-12, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--I beg, respectfully, to submit to you the following report of the Institute for Colored Teachers, which began at the Normal School building, in Fayetteville, July 2, and closed July 12, 1900.

        There were enrolled 159 teachers, and those looking forward to become teachers, from 14 different counties and 27 post-offices, or towns. Of the attendants, there were 53 males and 106 females. Of these, 87 held first grade teacher's certificates, and 34 held second grade. There were, therefore, 121 actual teachers in attendance.

        The instruction was confined to the best methods of teaching the branches required by law to be taught in the public schools of the State.

        The instructors were E. E. Smith, principal State Normal, Fayetteville; C. Dillard, principal graded school, Goldsboro; W. G. Pearson, principal graded, Durham; J. W. Byrd, principal preparatory, Smithfield; W. H. Jackson, principal parochial, Fayetteville; E. Evan, H. J. Praleau, and E. J. Council.

        The following educators were present, and addressed the teachers during the session of the Institute: County Superintendent of Schools for Cumberland County, Z. B. Newton; S. G. Atkins, principal State Normal, Winston; H. E. Hagans, principal State Normal, Goldsboro.

        The instructors were capable and faithful, the teachers were earnest and zealous, and every session of the Institute was full of interest.

        With this report, I send itemized statement of expenses incurred in the work of the Institute; also, copy of resolutions passed by the teachers just before the last session of the Institute closed.

Very obediently,

Superintendent Institute.

Fayetteville, N. C., July 14, 1900.

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(Held at Normal School Building, Fayetteville, N. C.)

JULY 2-11, 1900.

To the Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent Public Instruction.

        DEAR SIR:--After an earnest canvass for more than two weeks, the Institute opened, as above, at 9 o'clock a. m., July 2, with an enrollment of 82. Both the interest and attendance increased daily, throughout, until the session closed on the 11th, when the enrollment was 159 teachers, including those looking forward to become teachers, from 14 different counties.

        Among those enrolled were 53 males, and 106 females; of these attendants, 87 held first grade teachers' certificates, and 34 held second grade.

        The instruction was confined to the latest and best approved methods in the branches required by law to be taught in the public schools of the State.

        The superintendent of the Institute was fortunate in securing as instructors, Professors C. Dillard, Goldsboro; W. G. Pearson, Durham; J. W. Byrd and G. L. Beckwith, Smithfield; H. J. Praleau, Washington, D. C.; W. M. Jackson and E. Evans, Fayetteville.

        Thoughtful and instructive addresses were delivered to the members of the Institute, by Z. B. Newton, Esq., Superintendent Cumberland County Public Schools; Professors S. G. Atkins, Winston; H. E. Hagans, Goldsboro; G. H. Williams, Brunswick, Ga.; T. W. Thurston, Superintendent Ashley and Baily Silk Mills; Rev. R. S. Rive, D.D., Wilson; Rt. Rev. Benj. F. Lee, D.D., Ohio, and others.

        Great interest was manifested by the teachers. All seemed earnest in an effort to become more efficient. The department of each was most exemplary, and all expressed gratefulness for the advantages which the Institute afforded.

        In conclusion, I beg, respectfully, to express grateful acknowledgment to County Superintendent Z. B. Newton; also, to the chairman and members of the Local Board of Managers of the State Colored Normal School of Fayetteville, for their kind consideration and encouragement, which served not only to inspire the teachers, but without which the Institute could not have succeeded.

        I beg also to express sincere gratitude to State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Hon. C. H. Mebane, for his continued and untiring zeal to foster and promote public schools, and to provide for them better qualified teachers; and through him, I desire to tender heartfelt thanks to Dr. J. L. M. Curry, for making the Institute a possibility.

Page 185

        Subjoined, please find statement of the disbursement of the funds provided for conducting the Institute.

Very obediently,


Fayetteville, N. C.

PLYMOUTH, N. C., June 12, 1899,

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--I take pleasure in submitting to you the report of the eighteenth session of the Plymouth State Colored Normal School. This session opened on September 5, 1898, continued ten months, and closed June 9, 1899. There were 167 pupils enrolled--44 males and 123 females--14 counties were represented. One young lady finished the prescribed course, and received a certificate of graduation. More than twenty teachers were sent out this session to teach in the rural districts. We were more particular in carrying out the law, both as to age and qualification, thus greatly reducing the local enrollment, while the foreign attendance was increased. Our foreign enrollment was greater than ever, and hence a great increase in average attendance, and far better results obtained. Greater stress was laid on the literary branches, than ever before. Each teacher put forth more arduous efforts to eclipse his former labors. Lectures on moral and intellectual subjects were delivered by the teachers throughout the session. Among the many visitors to our school, who delivered lectures, the most prominent were: Revs. M. W. D. Norman, A. M., President of Baptist Roanoke Institute, Elizabeth City, N. C.; G. S. Dickerman, New Haven, Conn., and T. M. Plyler, pastor M. E. Church, South, Plymouth, N. C. We were also graced with a visit by State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Hon. C. H. Mebane. The students as gladly welcomed him as the faculty, his being the first visit from any State officer for a number of years. The lectures of these distinguished gentlemen were practical and logical, and made a profound impression upon both faculty and students. The work of the Sewing Department met every expectation. Better results were obtained this session than from the previous one. Much work from the city was given the pupils, and thus it grew in favor with the patrons of the school. Nothing has so strengthened the popularity and usefulness of the school as this department. Its benefits to the colored people are far reaching. Many a humble home in eastern Carolina to-day has some member able to make in part the garments necessary for that home, which would be compelled to be carried to that of another but for the instruction received in the Sewing Department of the Plymouth

Page 186

State Normal School. Not only were ninety per cent of the garments worn by the students made by them, but the lady graduate made her handsome graduation dress.

        Although the Plymouth Normal had been established seventeen years, yet there were but few of its over two thousand pupils who could perform on a musical instrument. To meet this urgent necessity, an instrument was purchased, and a proficient music teacher employed to give the students instruction in instrumental as well as vocal music. This department met the hearty approval of all. The results have been satisfactory in every way. The closing exercises were unusually good. Prof. N. C. Bruce, Dean of the College Department, of Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C., delivered the annual address, subject: "New Look," to a large and appreciative audience. It was a lucid, logical, and eloquent presentation of facts, and telling in effect. Prof. P. W. Moore, A. M., Principal of the Elizabeth City State Normal School, in a very happy style, presented the diploma to the graduate. Rev. S. P. Knight, Edenton, N. C., in his graceful manner, presented the prizes to the successful contestants. Much credit is due Mrs. E. J. Dance, Prof. R. R. Cartwright, Miss J. F. Beebe, and Prof. J. C. Cordon, for the success of the school. I feel profoundly grateful to Hon. C. H. Mebane, Dr. J. L. M. Curry, the Local Board of Managers, our white friends, and patrons, for their encouragement and support.

Your humble servant,


PLYMOUTH, N. C., July 16, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, State Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        HONORED SIR:--I beg leave to submit our annual report, covering the scholastic year of 1899-1900. Our session opened September 4, 1899, and closed June 8, 1900, making a term of ten months. There were enrolled 66 pupils, from the following counties: Beaufort 1, Bertie 9, Bladen 1, Gates 5, Halifax 1, Martin 17, Pitt 4, Washington 27, Whitford, Pa., 1. We employed three teachers: Messrs. J. W. McDonald, C. M. Eppes, and Mrs. Emma J. Dance. Each teacher sought to do efficient work. All students passed an entrance examination, and furnished a certificate of good character. Owing largely to the exclusion of the younger pupils, our discipline was never better. The industrial feature, to the regret of all our patrons, was dropped this session. The negro parent fully realizes the great importance and need of industrial training for their sons and daughters. They are coming more and more to realize that they must be skilled artisans. During the year the literary societies have been

Page 187

at their best. Ladies and gentlemen who were capable of instructing our people, visited us during the session, and delivered some strong lectures. Prominent among our white friends were Prof. M. C. S. Noble, of the State University, at Chapel Hill, N. C., a member of the State Board of Examiners; Prof. B. F. Hassell, Supervisor of the Common Schools of Washington County, and Hon. Thos. J. Jarvis, one of the founders of the State Colored Normal Schools. Mr. Jarvis delivered our annual oration. Prominent among our colored friends, were, Professors S. N. Vass, Secretary of the National Board of Home Missions, of the Baptist Church; W. H. Green, of the Elizabeth City Roanoke Institute; H. W. Wilson, H. H. Tate, W. F. Fonville, Mrs. S. E. Eppes, and Mrs. W. F. Dancy. Greater efforts than ever before, were put forth to reach our people, and thus improve their condition along all phases of racial development. To this end, we held a ten days' Teacher's Institute and Negro Conference. Sixty teachers from various counties attended the Institute. The phonetic methods of reading and spelling, and the Grube method of teaching numbers, which have not been fully understood by our rural teachers, were strongly emphasized. The two sessions of the Negro Conference were also largely attended by the old as well as the young. Every phase of condition of our people in this section was represented. Live topics, of great importance and interest to our people, were discussed from every point of view. Much good was accomplished. Special mention should be given Mrs. S. E. Eppes, Mrs. E. J. Dance, Mrs. W. F. Dancy, Mrs. L. W. Perry, and Prof. C. M. Eppes, for their untiring efforts in helping the Superintendent to make the Institute and Conference a glorious success. We wish especially to express our deep gratitude to the Local Board of Directors, Hon. C. H. Mebane, State Superintendent of Public Instruction; Prof. M. C. S. Noble, of the State Board of Examiners, and Hon. T. J. Jarvis, for the interest they have manifested in our school work. Humbly submitted.

Yours truly,


Page 188


        DR. W. H. WARD, Treasurer,
In account with Colored Normal School, Plymouth, N. C.

Apr. 10 From Superintendent Public Instruction $857.15
May 6 F. M. Bunch 60.33
Oct. 26 State warrant 500.00
Dec. 15 State warrant 500.00
Feb. 14 Check, Peabody fund 100.00
14 Check, State Treasurer 857.15
  Total 2,874.63
Aug. 27 To amount paid out 2,678.93
27 Balance on hand 195.70
  Total 2,874.63

GOLDSBORO, N. C., May, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The State Normal School, of Goldsboro, closed its eighteenth annual session on the 11th inst.

        The success that has attended every feature of the school work under the new regulations, has surpassed the expectations of all interested parties.

        The school, under the present rules and regulations, seems to meet the demand of those for whom it has been established, with some exceptions.

        The total enrollment during the year, was one hundred and one students, representing thirteen counties, and many towns in the State.

        The average attendance during the session has been good--about sixty.

        The deportment of students has been excellent.

        The teachers have shown a disposition to do their duty.

        The members of the Local Board have done everything they possibly could to aid the teachers in their work.

        The Board has carefully watched the management of the school, and has given encouragement in every way.

        The initiatory steps have been taken to provide a good, well selected library for the Normal, which is proving very beneficial to the student body.

Page 189

        We have endeavored to carry out in every detail, the rules and regulations, as given us by the State Board of Examiners.

        There were only three members of the senior class to graduate. Two of the members of the graduating class have been teaching, in the public schools of this and adjoining counties, for several years.

        Many of our students are active teachers, and others are preparing to enter the profession.

        To fulfill the purpose for which this school was set apart, is the paramount object of the faculty and the Local Board of Managers. I am,

Very respectfully yours,

Principal State Normal School.


        W. T. HOLLOWELL, Treasurer,
In account with Goldsboro Normal School.

1899. Received from J. E. Robinson, former Treasurer $520.31
  As per account filed with C. H. Mebane, Superintendent Public Instruction 312.40
  Balance on hand 207.91
July 27 Received of J. E. Robinson 520.31
Oct. 19 C. H. Mebane 500.00
Dec. 12 C. H. Mebane 500.00
Feb. 10 Peabody fund 100.00
14 C. H. Mebane, warrant 857.14
  Total receipts 2,477.45
June 18 Amount paid out, as per vouchers No. 1 to 70 2,056.24
  Balance on hand 421.21

Page 190


Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh. N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--You have already received suggestive reports of the work of the Institute recently held for colored teachers, at Winston, Goldsboro, and Plymouth, but I desire to submit a report a little more elaborate, and setting forth more in detail the work done. These Institutes were held, on the average, ten days. At Winston there were 70 persons enrolled, 68 of whom were actual teachers. These came from 12 counties of this section of the State, and included representatives of some of the graded schools.

        The colored teachers, in most of the counties of western North Carolina, are not numerous, but it is already practically certain that this attendance will be greatly increased next year.

        The teachers of this Institute boarded and lodged, for the most part, in the buildings of the State Industrial and State Normal.

        This added much to the soundness of the work, as the teachers were always at hand, and thus evening, as well as day sessions, could be held successfully. At Goldsboro, 181 persons were enrolled, 167 of whom were actual teachers. These came from 19 different counties, and represented all the principal towns and graded schools of eastern North Carolina. At Plymouth, there were 138 persons enrolled, 115 of whom were actual teachers, representing 17 different counties, and coming from the most remote school districts of the tide-water section of the State.

        At Winston, the fact that the teachers lodged in the school buildings, made it easy for all to be prompt and regular, at all recitations and lectures. Although the same conditions did not obtain at Goldsboro and Plymouth, it is worthy of note that the utmost promptness and regularity characterized the teachers.

        In all these summer schools there was manifest, in a marked degree, the professional spirit.

        The teachers seemed to have their faces toward the rising sun. There was no pessimism, but a hearty, hopeful optimism, and I was thrilled with delight, more than once, to note a spontaneous resolve, that meant more than a mere resolution, on the part of the teachers, as a body, to become better prepared, and to treat teaching as a sacred profession, demanding nothing less than the best from all who are engaged in it. It may be noted that in these three Institutes nearly 400 persons connected with educational work were

Page 191

reached, about 90 per cent of whom are actual teachers, and representing 58 counties of the State.

        It is safe to say, also, that 95 per cent of these are public school teachers, and that 80 per cent of them came from the rural public schools.

        Your humble servant may say, that he never observed a more determined purpose to use well the time than was apparent the six weeks during which these Institutes were held. Permit me, Mr. Mebane, without alluding to my own humble part in the work, to say that the instruction given was of a high order. I had the expert assistance of Professors J. W. Woody, F. M. Kennedy, P. P. Claxton, and W. G. Pearson, and Rev. O. Faduma, and Miss Anna D. Bell; and was ably assisted, locally, by Messrs. J. H. Michael, A. W. Leboo, and C. G. O'Kelly, at Winston; by Mr. W. F. Fonville, Rev. C. Dillard, and Mrs. S. E. Eppes, at Goldsboro, and by Messrs. J. W. McDonald, L. R. Randolph, and P. W. Moore, at Plymouth. The splendid address of Prof W. T. Whitsett, at Goldsboro, was also a feature.

        It may readily be seen that the inducements were such as to warrant the large interest which these Institutes aroused among the colored people of the State.

        In the work of these Institutes it was not forgotten by the instructors and teachers that they were enjoying a benefaction from the Peabody Fund, through Dr. Curry and Superintendent Mebane, in the interest of the improvement and education of the colored people of the State, and the conviction was often expressed that these Institutes would mark the beginning of a new era educationally for the colored people in our State. A fact which may serve to demonstrate the teachers' appreciation of this benefaction is the effort put forth by them to add to the means for the support of the Institutes. At Winston, $30 was raised; at Goldsboro, $20; at Plymouth, $20.45. At Winston and Goldsboro the amount was spent in connection with special local expenses, and at Plymouth it was consolidated with the regular Normal Fund and disbursed as a part of it. These supplementary amounts were raised mainly by public concerts, and it will not be invidious to mention here, Prof. C. G. O'Kelly, Professor of Music in the Slater School, who took a leading and industrious part in the public concerts of all these Institutes.

        It is my candid opinion that a repetition of this Institute effort, if begun in time, will enable us next year to reach not less than 1,000 colored teachers and educational workers. It may be possible the next year to enlist the interest of the counties to the extent of securing small appropriations from them as supplementary to the Peabody contribution, and it may be good policy to let a certain

Page 192

Institute to be held for certain counties. If provisions can be made early, for the next Institutes, it will be possible to make them an extraordinary success.

        Having held many County Institutes, I am inclined to believe, that the Institutes held under the direction of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, have a decided advantage over the County Institutes. It would, in my opinion, pay the counties to cooperate with you, and require their teachers to attend these special Institutes.

        I am glad, at all times, to contribute to the education of the people in any way in my power, and feel very grateful to you, Mr. Mebane, for the opportunity I have had this summer to do something in that direction. I beg to be

Your obedient servant,



FRANKLINTON, N. C., July 17, 1900.

To the Honorable Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Raleigh. N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The Principal of the State Normal School at Franklinton, N. C., begs leave to make the following report for the years 1898, 1899 and 1900:

        The school enrollment has increased from 279, in 1898, to over 300, in 1900. Of this number, 65 were under 12 years old, and were formed into our Model Classes, for practical work. Thirty-five were under 16 years old, and constituted our Primary Classes. More than 200 were over 16 years old, and as there is no age limit above 16 years, we admitted many considerably over 21 years old.

        We require pupils to secure first grade certificates before they are admitted to our Senior Class.

        The Local Board decided to raise the curriculum of the school, and gave the pupils the State examination, devised by the Board, for life certificates. Several made over 86 per cent of that examination; only one made over 90 per cent, and was admitted to the Senior Class. According to our rigid rule, only 126 made an average of 70 per cent and over. These were admitted to the Normal classes proper. There are three divisions in this department, and the studies of each cover one year, with a required average of 80 per cent, to advance to the next higher grade, before Senior Class.

        These pupils come from all the adjacent counties, and all the counties bordering the S. A. L. Railroad, in North Carolina.

        We endeavor to make our pupils thorough.

Page 192a




Page 193

        Further, we emphasize the industrial features of our school work in particular.

        Friends gave us an adjacent farm for school purposes, sufficiently large to raise all of our vegetables and cereals for our Boarding Department. This increases our school property $5,000 over last report. We do all of our shoe work, carpentering, cooking, laundering, and farming. Our girls are eagerly sought and welcomed to the homes of the rich, in this and other States, and their services command good prices. We have breakfast at 7 a. m.; inspection at 8; school proper begins at 8.30, and continues until 2 p. m. One-half hour is then given for dinner, and the rest of the day is spent in our varied schools of industry.

        The white people are in sympathy with every effort to advance the negro in intelligence and virtue.

        The Local Board has an active personal interest and pride in the school.

        Prof. M. C. S. Noble, of the State Board of Examiners, made us twice sad last April. His coming was so unexpected, but his stay, friendly aid, and sympathy, at once put us at ease, and his departure was no less sad than his coming. Several distinguished visitors honored us with their presence and advice. Among them, Mrs. F. D. Palmer, of Illinois, the lady who gave us the farm; Professor Post and wife, of New York; Dr. Blood of Pennsylvania; Captain Ashe, of Raleigh; Professor Williams, of the D., D. and Blind school, and Professor Vick, of Wilson.

        We collected from all sources $6,000, and after practicing the most rigid economy, we find ourselves in debt over $300.

        The fund granted us by the State, is gladly received and used; but it is rather small for the growing necessities of the negro. We sorely need the money to pay a teacher in Industrial Drawing. We should establish a course of lectures on the Science of Government, the Philosophy of History, the Pressing Needs of the Negro and Prerequisites to Teach. Two hundred dollars will cover such a course.

        This school is happily located in the midst of an industrious, conservative, negro population, of over 80,000. It is held in very high esteem, and is well patronized. We have a large plant, and are in position to do much for the uplifting of the negroes of eastern North Carolina.

  • Number of teachers, 12.
  • Number of pupils, 300.
  • Length of term, 8 months.
  • Average attendance, 194.
  • Number of counties represented, 41.

Page 194

        In behalf of my race, I return thanks to the Legislature of North Carolina, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the State Board of Education, the Local Board of Managers, and friends, for the hearty support the school has received in years gone by, and solicit the continuance of the same.



        B. W. BALLARD, Secretary and Treasurer,
In account with the Colored Normal School at Franklinton, N. C.

Mar. 11 To amount received of T. H. Whitaker $33.57
11 State warrant 500.00
Apr. 12 State warrant 107.14
May 30 Balance 1.99
  Total 642.70
30 Paid teachers, March, April and May 585.00
30 account B. W. B. & Co., order of Board 11.25
30 B. W. Ballard, Treasurer, order of Board 40.00
30 R. C. Gully, printing, order of Board 6.45
  Total 642.70
July 1 To balance due B. W. Ballard, Treasurer 1.99
Sept. 25 State warrant 500.00
Nov. 9 State warrant 500.00
Feb. 2 Peabody fund, C. H. Mebane 100.00
13 State warrant 857.14
  Total 1,957.14
1899. Amount of disbursements, as per vouchers filed with Superintendent Public Instruction 1,785.68
May 31 Balance on hand 171.46
  Total 1,957.14

Page 195


ELIZABETH CITY, N. C., August 29, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh, N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The second annual Summer Normal School for negro teachers of eastern North Carolina, was conducted in the State Normal School building at Elizabeth City, N. C., from August 13 to 24, 1900, a session of ten days.

        I have conducted Teacher's Institutes in which the enrollment for the week was smaller than the enrollment of the Summer Normal, for the first day. The attendance was excellent throughout the ten days' session. The hundred and twelve (112) teachers in attendance upon the various sessions of the Summer Normal School represent the following territory, in counties: Pasquotank, Camden, Perquimans, Currituck, Dare, Martin, Northampton, Hertford, Bertie, Hyrrell, Onslow, Chowan, Gates, Hyde, and Norfolk (Va.)--fifteen in all.

        These teachers, with exceedingly few exceptions, came to the Summer Normal with a great purpose. They evidenced this to be a fact by the earnestness with which they entered into the work of the school. Their interest in the lectures, methods and discussions was not abated by time nor the intensely hot weather. They were anxious to learn the best methods that would enable them to do better work as teachers in their various fields of labor.

        The instructors and lecturers entered into their work with such zest, efficiency, and up-to-dateness, that the teachers most heartily received them as they were presented, in the persons of Prof. S. L. Sheep, President Atlantic Collegiate Institute, Elizabeth City, N. C., and Supervisor of Schools for Pasquotank County; Mr. J. R. Fleming, State Normal School, and Principal J. W. Robinson, Roanoke Institute, Elizabeth City. President Sheep is an experienced educator, who so magnetizes his pupils that they fail not to be benefitted. He did us faithful service. Mr. Fleming and Mr. Robinson are good teachers. They labored zealously and piontedly.

        The methods used by all were not overdrawn by newness, nor were they hackneyed by age. They were practical, suggestive, helpful and professional. In no other way could Dr. Curry and yourself have appropriated $100 of Peabody money to greater advantage. In less than six months, more than 3,000 boys and girls will receive impulse, life, character, push, energy, love, and good-will, from the teachers who attended the Summer Normal School at this place.

        Some of our best citizens attended the sessions regularly. They

Page 196

were highly pleased, and much benefitted. They learned something of the teacher's responsibility, and of their duty as patrons of the schools.

        At different times, special lectures were delivered by Doctors H. T. Aydlett and G. W. Cardwell, Principal W. M. Hinton, and Rev. L. E. Fairley.

        The minds and hearts of the teachers, as well as the public, had been thoroughly prepared for what they should receive on the last day of the session, which should be the finishing touches and clinching nails in the form of "An Educational Address," by Hon. C. H. Mebane, Superintendent Public Instruction. No one was in the least disappointed. Everybody was highly helped, benefited, and animated. In point of fact, the audience, on the occasion, was one of the most intellectual, respectful, attentive, and appreciative, that has ever assembled in this town among our people. The address was wise and just, in policy and scope, instructive, practical, and helpful, in manner and presentation, and encouraging in character and thought. I believe it has done much toward rooting permanently right ideas of honest labor, habits of integrity, habits of economy, and in helping to grasp the right conception of education. High and worthy ideals of mental, moral and industrial fitness were presented the teachers for imitation.

        The teachers have returned to their homes and schools with clearer and more definite ideas of methods of teaching primary subjects, with more love and greater enthusiasm for their profession, with better notions of good citizenship and its responsibility, and with a deep and appreciative sense of gratitude for you, Dr. J. L. M. Curry, and the State Board of Education, for the Summer Normal School held at this place, which has resulted in unmeasured benefit to the teachers, school committeemen, and other citizens, who attended the sessions.

        The teachers' concert was held in the State Normal School Chapel, Friday evening, August 24. Excellently prepared papers were read by three of the lady teachers. The two recitals were meritorious, and the music was excellent. Another interesting feature of the programme for the evening, was the discussion of the following query, by four young men:

        "Resolved, That the responsibility of preparing children for good citizenship rests more upon teachers than upon parents."

        I thank you and Dr. Curry for the opportunity of associating my fellow-teachers as instructor and superintendent of the work at this place.

Faithfully submitted,


Page 197


SALISBURY, May 25, 1900

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh. N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--The State Normal School at Salisbury, over which I have the honor to preside, closed its nineteenth annual session on the 4th day of May, 1900.

        The attendance was less than in some former years, due, I think, to some etxent, to a misunderstanding on the part of some of our former students and patrons regarding the purpose and scope of the new course prescribed by the State Board for the Colored Normal Schools; but principally to small-pox, which became epedemic in the neighborhood of the school during the early part of the first term, and the district continued to be troubled with the disease for nearly six months.

        Early in December, Prof. W. R. Conners, whose vaccination had failed, took confluent small-pox, and a little later two students, whose vaccination had partially failed, had verioloid.

        Had it not been for the fact that those already in attendance felt, by reason of their vaccination and isolation, a degree of immunity from small-pox, the school would have suspended altogether. As it was, the attendance in the school during the year did not, at any time, fall below thirty. In the preparatory department the attendance was somewhat larger.

        This department was conducted as a pay-school, and hence its students are not reckoned in our enrollment, although some of its pupils are teachers in the State public schools.

        The attendance of the school has nearly always doubled itself after the Christmas holidays; but during the past year not more than half a dozen persons entered school after Christmas. Nevertheless, while the number was not so great as in previous years, the percentage of attendance was larger and the work done of a better quality. At the beginning there was much complaining, but after the first two months students not only became satisfied, but delighted, with the change in the course of instruction.

        You will see from the accompanying report of Prof. Conners that there were enrolled 46 students--20 males, and 26 females--the average age being a little more than 21 years. There were eleven counties represented, namely: Buncombe, Cabarrus, Davidson, Davie, Gaston, Iredell, Mecklenburg, Randolph, Richmond, Rowan, and Stanly. There were applicants from Union, Lincoln, South Carolina, and one from New York. The three from Union became frightened at small-pox and left on the next train; one from Lincoln, and the

Page 198

one from Iredell, failed to pass and went elsewhere; the one from New York was under age, and went to Livingstone College.

        The Philosophian Lyceum held its anniversary on the 2d of May. The exercises were largely attended and highly enjoyed by the immense audience present. On the 3d, our commencement took place at the Dixonville Baptist Church. There were four graduates, each of which read an interesting essay. The essays were well written and splendidly rendered. Prof. C. L. Coon, Superintendent of Salisbury Graded Schools, and a member of our Board of Directors, delivered the annual address. Capt. Ramsay presented the diplomas, and Dr. Rumple, and others, made remarks. The exercises were interesting and highly enjoyed throughout.

Yours very respectfully,



DR. J. RUMPLE, Treasurer,
In account with State Normal School, Salisbury, N. C.

1898. To balance from last report, June 1 $45.26
  warrant from Superintendent Mebane, September 21 500.00
  November 26 500.00
Jan. 21 Warrant (Superintendent Mebane) 657.15
Ap. 35 Warrant (Superintendent Mebane) 100.00
  Total 1,802.41
  Total expenditures 1,796.17
  Balance on hand 6.24
  To balance from year 1898-'99 6.24
Sept. 14 To amount received (Superintendent Mebane) 500.00
Dec. 18 To amount received (Superintendent Mebane) 500.00
Feb. 5 To amount received (Superintendent Mebane) 757.15
  Total receipts 1,763.39
  Total disbursements 1,669.53
May 22 Balance on hand 93.86

Page 199


NEW BERN, N. C., September 10, 1900.

Hon. C. H. MEBANE, Superintendent Public Instruction,
Raleigh. N. C.

        DEAR SIR:--For the Colored Normal, which has just closed here, I beg to make the following report:

        There were enrolled in said Normal one hundred and one (101) teachers. The following counties were represented: Craven, Jones, Wayne, Forsyth, Wilson, Wake, and Wayne.

        The time, as you know, which we had for advertising was quite limited, and I think the attendance and number of counties represented could have been increased had we had more time. The work, in my opinion, was well done, and I hope good was accomplished.

        I can furnish you the original roll signed by each teacher if you desire it.

        The one hundred dollars which you apportioned for the Colored Normal here. I have used as follows:

Expenses of canvassing, advertising, and incidentals $ 11.90
Supt. J. I. Foust, expenses and services 15.00
Principal W. A. Byrd (colored), services 15.00
W. G. Avant (colored). services 10.00
Principal C. Dillard (colored), services and expenses 8.10
Thos. R. Foust, superintending and instructing 40.00

        Thanking you for helping out the educational interests here, I am,

Yours very truly,



        The present State Board of Examiners is composed of the following persons:

        C. H. Mebane, ex-officio President; L. L. Hobbs, M. C. S. Noble, and J. A. Campbell.

        In accordance with section 75, of the General School Law, the following persons have been granted life certificates:



W. S. Surratt. . . . . Boomer, N. C.
W. M. Peterson. . . . . Burnsville, N. C.
E. J. Johnson. . . . . Ronda, N. C.
G. M. Garren. . . . . Buena Vista, N. C.
J. T. Gay. . . . . St. John, N. C.

Page 200


FOR 1900.

A. E. Woltz. . . . . Dobson, N. C.
Dovie Mendenhall. . . . . Kimesville, N. C.
Allen Gentry. . . . . Elkin, N. C.
O. F. Thompson. . . . . Candler, N. C.
Pearl Rodman. . . . . Monroe, N. C.
Mabel W. Culbreth. . . . . Clinton, N. C.
A. C. Tate. . . . . Marshall, N. C.



        1. Draw an outline map of North Carolina. Locate your county.

        2. (a) Name and locate on above map five places named after foreign cities, counties, or towns. (b) Name five places named after prominent North Carolinians.

        3. Name five counties, with capitals, in each of the three divisions of North Carolina.

        4. Name five conditions affecting climate.

        5. Name and locate the capitals of five leading countries of Europe.

        6. What form of government has each of the following countries: Mexico, Spain, Japan, and China?

        7. Name and locate the principal river and mountain chains of each of the continents.

        8. Name the ten largest cities in the United States in the order of their size.

        9. Give the physical divisions of the United States and their relative areas.

        10. Name and locate five capes, five peninsulas, five sounds, and five bays.


        1. Give a short sketch of the oldest permanent settlement made in the United States by (a) Spain. (b) Holland. (c) England.

        2. (a) Name all the wars in which the United States has been engaged, with dates of each. (b) Give principal causes and results of each.

        3. (a) Name one great orator, (b) one philosopher, (c) one distinguished theologian of colonial times, with short sketch of each.

        4. What was the Monroe Doctrine?

        5. Describe fully one battle of the Civil War fought in North Carolina.

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        6. Mention ten important events in North Carolina history, giving date of each.

        7. Give a sketch of first attempts of settlement in North Carolina.

        8. Give a short history of public education in North Carolina.


        1. (a) Define fraction; (b) give the rule for the multiplication of decimals and show how you would derive the rule for a class; (c) if 14 barrels of corn are produced on 3 1-2 acres of land, what is the average per acre? Give the analysis in full and tell what the "3 1-2" represents in the arithmetical process through which the "answer" is found, i. e., if "14" is the dividend and represents barrels of corn, what is the "3 1-2," and what does it represent?

        2. The height of the obelisk at Central Park is 70 feet, the base is 8 feet square. How far is it from the apex to a point on the ground 40 feet from the middle point of one side of the base and on a line running at right angles to that point? Illustrate by drawing.

        3. A., B. and C. buy a house. A. pays $2,000. B. pays 40 per cent more than A., and C. pays the remainder of the price paid. The investment pays 10 per cent, and C.'s share is $120.00, what was the cost of the house?

        4. A man was offered $3,875.00 in cash for a farm, or $4,236.00 1-4 cash, 1-4 at the end of a year, 1-4 at the end of two years, and 1-4 at the end of three years. He accepted the latter offer. Did he gain or lose by so doing, money being worth 6 per cent?

        5. The signal service reports 2 1-2 inches of rainfall in 24 hours. If a cubic foot of water weigh 1,000 ounces, what was the weight of the rain that fell on one acre of land?

        6. If 15 oxen or 20 horses eat 9 tons of hay in 12 weeks, how much will 12 oxen, or 28 horses require in 21 weeks?

        7. A note dated January 1, 1897, for $12,574.00, at 6 per cent, had the full endorsements: April 1st, $950.00; July 1st, $1,500.00; October 1, 1897, $4,000.00; February 1, 1898, $2,500.00; how much is due at the present?

        8. If I sell goods at 10 per cent profit on nine months' credit, what is my real profit per cent if money is worth 8 per cent?

        9. A man sold two pieces of land for $350.00, each gaining thereby 16 2-3 per cent on one, and losing 16 2-3 per cent on the other. Find the gain or loss per cent on the original investment.

        10. Find the difference between the bank discount and the true discount on a note for $1,874.00, dated today, and due March 15, 1899, with interest at 6 per cent.

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        1. What was the general effect on education in Europe of the downfall of Constantinople in 1453?

        2. Why did the Reformation in the sixteenth century bring with it new ideas of popular education?

        3. Mention one work of Martin Luther that had a wide-reaching educational effect, and show why this was so.

        4. Mention two or more prominent educational reformers of each of the following countries in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries: England, France, Germany.

        5. Give some account of Comerius and his work, and state two or more fundamental truths told by him.

        6. Give some account of the humanistic movement in the eighteenth century, and contrast it with realism in education as represented by Rousseau; and show what effect this movement had on the curriculum of the English Universities and of the American Universities and Colleges.

        7. Give some account of the life and work of Pestalozzi, and state some of the principles in education maintained by him.

        8. Explain what is meant by the inductive method in education.

        9. Mention any benefits to be derived by teachers from childstudy.

        10. Give the psychological basis of teaching young pupils habits of accurate observation.

        Answer any five of the above.


        1. What is known as the "Theory of Copernicus?"

        2. Describe the different motions of the earth.

        3. Give evidences of the internal heat of the earth.

        4. Compare the general features of the continental relief of North America and South America.

        5. What is the difference between oceanic and continental islands?

        6. Tell some of the properties of water.

        7. Tell something of the erosion, transportation and deposit of rivers.

        8. What is the cause of the (1) waves of (2) the tides of the sea?

        9. Give the causes and offices of winds.

        10. Tell about the "Trade Winds," their causes and effects. Answer any eight of these.

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        (1) Who compose the State Board of Education, and what are the principal duties of this board?

        (2) Is the office of Superintendent Public Instruction a sinecure, if not, why not?

        (3) Name the Public School officers of the counties under the present school law?

        (4) Give the principal duties of the County Superintendent of Schools, and give two or three characteristics of the man who should fill such position.

        (5) Give the duties of the Township Trustees, and your idea as to what kind of men should be chosen for these positions.

        (6) (a) How is the County Superintendent elected? (b) The Township Trustees? (c) The School Committee?

        (7) From what sources do we derive our public school fund?

        (8) Do we have a uniform length of school term in the various counties of the State, if not, why not?

        (9) Name the duties of the State Board of Examiners under the present school law?

        (10) What are the teachers' duties after teaching before he can receive his salary? (b) How may a Chart Agent have his order cashed under the present law?


        1. Define germination of a seed, and give the requirements for it.

        2. Distinguish roots and underground stems, and give three functions of the former.

        3. What, botanically speaking, is a strawberry, a fig, a blackberry, a grape, a walnut?

        4. Distinguish bulbs and buds.

        5. Give the parts of a typical flower and the uses of each part.

        6. Describe the different forms of leaf venation.

        7. Give at least three ways in which plants may reproduce themselves.

        8. In what way are insects of much use to plant life?

        9. Give the different kinds of cell formation.

        Answer any five of the above.


        "All hail, Columbus, discoverer, dreamer, hero and apostle. We here, of every race and country, recognize the horizon which bounded his vision and the infinite scope of his genius. The voice of gratitude

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and praise for all blessings which have been showered upon mankind by his adventure is limited to no language, but is uttered in every tongue. Neither marble nor brass can fitly form his statue. Continents are his monuments and unnumbered millions, passed, present and to come, who enjoy in their liberties and their happiness the fruits of his faith, will reverently guard and preserve, from century to century, his name and fame."--Chauncey M. Depew.

        The first six questions below refer to the above selection.

        1. Point out all the clauses, state what kind and name the office of each in the sentence.

        2. Select an example of each part of speech found in the selection.

        3. Give mode, tense, and voice of each of the verbs

        4. Write the plural of all nouns and parse in full those words printed in italics.

        5. Select all nouns and pronouns found in the objective case.

        6. Classify the verbs as (a) transitive or intransitive, (b) regular or irregular, giving your reason for such classification.

        7. How would you teach English Grammar to beginners during their first term?

        8. Write a sentence containing a noun in the possessive case; a personal pronoun in the first person, plural; a relative pronoun in the objective form; and a verb in the passive, indicative, present.

        9. Write sentences of the following kinds: (a) A compound declarative sentence, each of its parts being complex; one containing a relative clause, the other containing an adverbial clause denoting time; (b) a simple declarative sentence with a verb in the potential, present; (c) a complex interrogative sentence containing an adverbial clause denoting place; (d) a compound imperative sentence; (e) a simple sentence containing two singular subjects connected by "or."

        10. Write a letter of not less than two hundred words, giving a description of your county, paying attention to the beginning of the letter, its ending, address, punctuation, and correct grammatical expression.


        1. Write of the influence of literature on language and of the influence of language on literature.

        2. Why is a study of Dryden a suitable introduction to the literature of the eighteenth century?

        3. Give a list with brief characterizations of Samuel Johnson's most important writings.

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        4. Give an outline of Milton's life and some account of one of his important productions.

        5. Write on Shakespeare's "Delineation of Character."

        6. Give some account of Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; also, something of the author--his place among historians of his time.

        7. Sketch the growth of periodical literature down to end of the year 1710.

        8. Mention a leading American writer of the nineteenth century, and give some account of his life and literary work.

        9. Who is your favorite author? Discuss merits of same.

        Answer any five of the above.


        1. Tell why multiplying a "minus by a minus" gives a plus.

        2. A farmer has a cow and three times as many sheep, less 8. How many animals does he own?



[Examination in Algebra]

        6. If A. gives B, $5 of his money, B. will have twice as much money as A. has left; but if B. gives A. $5 of his money, A. will have three times as much as B. has left. How much money has each?

        7. Find the highest common divisor, or factor, of the following:

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        1. What are the principal functions of our town and city governments?

        2. (a) Explain the method of amending the Constitution of the United States; (b) method of amending Constitution of North Carolina.

        3. State in full the method of electing a President of the United States.

        4. What is a county? Name the county officers and give their principal duties.

        5. What is taxation? Why are taxes levied? Illustrate the difference between a direct and an indirect tax.

        6. What is the legislative branch of the United States Government?

        7. Name the departments of our State Government, and give a brief outline of the functions of each department.


        1. Trace the circulation of the blood, beginning at the left ventricle.

        2. Name the digestive fluids, giving the use of each.

        3. Distinguish between digestion and absorption.

        4. In what way does air purify the blood when it is taken into the lungs?

        5. State the functions of the liver.

        6. Name the essential parts of the eye.

        7. What three classes of food are required by the body?

        8. How are the muscle fibres of the stomach arranged?

        9. Describe reflex action and state its value.


        1. Distinguish between mass and weight.

        2. State the law of universal gravitation.

        3. Two men carry a weight of 100 pounds suspended from a pole 12 feet long. Where must the weight be attached in order that one man may bear 3-4 of the weight, each man being at an end of the pole? Why?

        4. What is the limit to which water may be raised by a suctionpump, and why?

        5. Define and explain distillation.

        6. Why can water exist at the freezing point either as a liquid, or as a solid?

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        7. What is declination of a magnetic needle? What is dip?

        8. Why is 1 degree Centigrade equivalent to 9-5 of a degree Fahrenheit?

        9. What is a dynamo?

        10. Define color, and name the primary colors.

        Answer any eight of these.


        1. Name 6 prominent rivers in America; tell where they reach the ocean, and give the name of one city on the banks, or at the mouth of each.

        2. Name 6 tributaries of the Mississippi, telling where and from what direction they enter it.

        3. Give a brief outline of the more important facts you would emphasize in teaching North America.

        4. What geographical conditions contribute to the growth of cities?

        5. Bound North Carolina, and name the capital city of each State.

        6. What would you regard as the three greatest essentials of good geography teaching?

        7. Name and locate any three cities of Europe. For what is each noted, both historically and commercially?

        8. Give a short outline for teaching the geography of the county in which you live, and state whether you do or do not teach it. If you do not teach it, give your reason.

        9. Name 4 rivers which have their sources in the Himalaya Mountains.

        10. What is the most valuable product of Alaska, Puerto Rico, Luzon, and Hawaiian Islands?


        1. What is the cost of 5 bu., 3 pk. and 7 qts. of clover seed, at $4.85 per bushel?

        2. Bought 15 cwt. 22 lb. of rice at $4.25 a cwt., and 6 cwt. 36 lb. of pearl barley at $5.60 a cwt. What would be gained by selling the whole at 6 1-4 cents a pound?

        3. If A. can do a piece of work in 7 days which A. and B. can do in 5 days, in how many days will B. do the same work?

        4. A merchant sells shoes at $3.60 a pair and gains thereby 20 per cent. At what price a pair must he sell them to lose 15 per cent?

        5. I agreed to lend a man $900.00 for 6 years and 3 months at 6

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per cent. What sum lent for 2 years and 4 months at 10 per cent would yield as much?

        6. How much will it cost to carpet a room 20 feet square, waste included, if I use carpet 3-4 yd. wide at $1.37 1-2 a yard?

        7. If to a certain number you add its half, its third and 104 you will have 4 times the number; what is the number?

        8. I bought a farm for $1,250.00 and sold it at 20 per cent profit; sold two city lots for $1,250.00, gaining 25 per cent on one and losing 20 per cent on the other; bought a half interest in a store for $1,250.00 and soon sold it at a loss of 20 per cent. How much did I gain or lose by the several transactions?

        9. Define division, and show how you would explain to a class of beginners the division of 1-3 by 1-2.

        10. Show how you would explain subtraction to a class of beginners by using the following examples: In a pasture there are 7 cows and 9 sheep; how many more sheep than cows? A farmer had 10 head of cattle, 4 of which he sold to a butcher; how many did he have left? Mr. A. has 9 horses and B. has 4 horses; how many more horses has A. than B.?


        "If you would succeed up to the limit of your possibilities, hold constantly to the belief that you are success organized, and that you will be successful, no matter what opposes. Never allow a shadow of doubt to enter your mind that the Creator intended you to win in life's battle. Regard every suggestion that your life may be a failure, that you are not made like those who succeed, and that success is not for you, as a traitor, and expel it from your mind as you would a thief from your house."

        The first four questions refer to the above quotation.

        1. Analyze each sentence, giving kind in respect to form and meaning, subject, predicate, etc.

        2. Point out each dependent clause, naming kind, subject, predicate, and office in the sentence.

        3. Parse in full each word in italics.

        4. Give plurals of all nouns found in singular and principal parts of all verbs.

        5. Write a sentence containing at least six parts of speech, the subject being modified by a relative clause and the predicate by an adverbial clause, one or more verbs being in the passive voice. Point out parts of speech used.

        6. Write a sentence containing compound subject, using three kinds of pronouns, two kinds of adjectives, and an adverb in the comparative degree.

Page 209

        7. Analyze or diagram the sentences you have just written.

        8. Write a letter, to a friend in Newark, N. J., containing at least two hundred words, describing the pleasure you experience in teaching; paying attention to heading and conclusion, punctuation, paragraphing, spelling, and correct grammatical expression.


        1. Define government, and point out the difference between a Monarchy and a Republic, and the difference between a Republic and a pure Democracy.

        2. Name the three departments of our State Government, and tell how each is constituted.

        3. Enumerate the several Courts in our State, and tell how the Judges in these several Courts are elected, and how Jurors are selected.

        4. What is the process by which a bill is introduced into the Legislature and enacted as a law?

        5. Explain our method of electing United States Senators, and the President of the United States.


        1. Give some account of the life and literary work of two prominent American prose writers of the nineteenth century.

        2. Mention four of our greatest American poets, and give some account of the poems that would give them such a place in our literature.

        3. Write 150 words on the English stage and the English drama before the time of Shakespeare.

        4. When was the Elizabethan Age, and why so called? Mention the most prominent writers of this time, giving an account of the work of some particular one.

        5. Write of Shakespeare as the most prominent figure in the Elizabethan Age, and give an account of two of his plays that you have read.

        6. Discuss Tennyson as a representative poet of this century.

        7. Give a short sketch of the life of George Eliot, with particular reference to her place in literature as an English novelist.

        8. Write a paper of not less than two hundred words on one of these topics: (1) Influence of the press on American life; (2) Influence of the American novel.

        9. Name the author of these:

        Sartor Resartus; Imperfect Sympathies; Confessions of an Opium-Eater;

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The English Mail Coach; Apologia pro Sua Vita; Essay on Warren Hastings; Across the Plains; Culture and Anarchy; Middlemarch; Treasure Island.

        10. To what extent do you believe composition should be taught in our public schools, in connection with a course in literature? What are the best methods for conducting such a course?

        Answer six of the above, the tenth being one of the six.


        1. What is the three-fold classification usually made of psychic states?

        2. Give the ground for such division.

        3. Treat briefly of each class.

        4. What proof have we that the body and mind are closely related?

        5. What use should be made by teachers of this relationship?

        6. Mention some reasons, growing out of psychology, why teachers should extend care to the bodily needs of children.


        1. Give the origin of the Gulf Stream.

        2. What are geysers, and where are some of the most noted?

        3. What is the theory as to the condition of the interior of the earth?

        4. What is the relation of earthquakes to volcanoes?

        5. What are alluvial plains? Give illustrations.

        6. Upon what does the formation of mountains depend?

        7. Describe the physical features of Asia.

        8. What are continental islands, and why are they so named?

        9. What is an intermittent spring? Give an illustrative drawing.

        10. Explain the formation of deltas, and name some of the more important ones.


        1. In subtracting +9 from +2, why do you change the sign of 9? Give the reason as well as the rule.



[Algebra Exam Questions]

        At the time of marriage, a man was twice as old as his wife;

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but after they had lived together 18 years, his age was to hers as 3 to 2. Find their ages at marriage.



[Algebra Exam Questions]

        5. Divide 36 into 3 parts such that 1-2 of the first, 1-3 of the second, and 1-4 of the third are all equal to each other.

        9. At what time between 3 and 4 o'clock will the hands be together, be at right angles, and point in opposite directions?

        What practical value do you think there is in Algebra for a student who will not attend college?


        1. Name (a) three Spanish, (b) three French, and (c) three English explorers, and tell what each accomplished.

        2. Name the causes and results of the French and Indian war; and mention three distinguished generals on each side.

        3. What was the ordinance of 1787?

        4. What amendments were made to our State Constitution in 1835, and what effect did these amendments have on our State Government?

        5. Explain the alien and sedition laws.

        6. Name the principal events of Andrew Jackson's Administration.

        7. Name the causes that led to the Civil war.

        8. Give a brief biographical sketch of four distinguished North Carolinians.

        9. Mention the causes of our recent war with Spain.

        10. State briefly the causes that led to the present war in South Africa.

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        1. Give the functions of (a) the bones, (b) muscles.

        2. Name the organs and give the use of each, (a) of digestion, (b) respiration, (c) of criculation.

        3. How many kinds of muscles? Explain each.

        4. Give a description of the skin.

        5. State the laws of health in regard to (a) digestion, (b) muscle, (c) skin, (d) bone.

        6. Name the effects of alcohol, tobacco and opium, on (a) the physical, (b) mental powers of man.

        7. Give a description of the nervous system.


        1. Give information on the following questions relating to school officials: (a) How are school committees chosen? (b) What are their duties? (c) Their term of office? (d) How are Township Trustees chosen? (e) Their duties, and term of office? (f) How are the County Boards of Directors chosen? (g) Their duties, and term of office? (h) How are County Superintendents chosen? (i) Their duties?

        2. Give information on the following questions relating to the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction: (a) How chosen? (b) Salary? (c) Term of office? (d) General duties?

        3. What are the duties of the State Board of Education, and how is the Board chosen?

        4. What are the duties of the State Board of Examiners?

        5. What is the rate of general State tax for education in North Carolina?

        6. Why can not County Commissioners levy sufficient tax to run 4-months' school in their respective counties without a vote for special tax on the part of the people?

        7. How can a town of one thousand inhabitants or more inaugurate graded schools without a special act of the Legislature?

        8. Which was the first town in North Carolina to vote a special tax for schools?

        9. How many towns now have a special tax for schools? Name them.

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        1. Define embryo, bulb, tuber, creeper, and parasite.

        2. Give the different stages of plant life.

        3. Why is it beneficial to a tree to get rid of its leaves in the fall?

        4. Explain cross-fertilization, and give at least two ways in which it is brought about.

        5. Where does a plant store food for its use the next season?

        6. Name the parts of a complete flower.

        7. Define the terms: Imperfect, incomplete, irregular, neutral, cohesion, and adhesion, as applied to flowers.

        8. On examining a cross-section of a stem, what can you decide as to the kind of leaf venation, the number of parts of each whorl of its flower, and the number of cotyledons belonging to it?

        9. What do you understand is the fruit of a plant?

        10. What plants furnish man with clothing, and what parts of the plants are used for it?


        1. Why does either shaking or beating a carpet free it of dust?

        2. If a falling body acquire a velocity of 32 feet in one second, what will be its velocity at the end of two seconds, and why?

        3. A rod 10 foot long is supported at a point 4 feet from one end; if 6 pounds is hung at this end, how many pounds must be hung at the other end to cause the rod to balance about the point of support?

        4. Why must the centre of gravity of a surface bounded by a parallelogram be at the intersection of the median lines?

        5. A cubical vessel is filled with water; compare the pressure on one side with the pressure on the bottom (pressure due to weight of water).

        6. How do we recognize and distinguish between the three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gaseous)?

        7. Give two or three examples which prove that the atmosphere exerts pressure in all directions.

        8. How does a thermometer measure temperatures? What are the fixed "points" on any thermometric scale?

        9. Explain how the ice on a pond of water can become thicker after the first thin surface of ice forms.

        10. Why will a pound of ice lower the temperature of a gallon of water more than a pound of water at the temperature of ice?

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        .....has passed the examination prescribed by this Board, and in testimony thereof this first-grade life certificate is granted _____ is therefore entitled, without further examination, to teach in the public schools of any county in the State, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 108, Section 3, of the Laws of 1897.


Supt. Public Instruction.




State Board of Examiners.

Raleigh, N. C., .....189..

        The following law was enacted by the Legislature or 1897 in regard to life certificates:

        "The State Board of School Examiners shall have power to grant first-grade life certificates, which may be used in any county in the State, and shall furnish to the public, through the several County Supervisors, at least one month before the regular annual county examination of teachers, full information as to the nature and character of the requirements for such first-grade life certificates; it shall annually prepare and furnish to the several County Supervisors a set of examination questions covering subjects required by law to be taught in the public schools of the State, which shall be submitted at the regular annual county examination of teachers in July to all applicants for a first-grade life certificate, under such rules and regulations as the State Board of School Examiners may prescribe. The State Board of School Examiners shall examine and grade the papers of all applicants for a first-grade life certificate, and shall issue said certificate to such applicants as are properly qualified and justly entitled thereto, and all examination papers of applicants to whom first-grade life certificates shall have been granted under this act shall be kept on file in the office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Provided, that each applicant for a first-grade life certificate shall pay in advance to the County Supervisor the sum of five dollars, which shall be reported to the County Board of Education, and paid into the general school fund of the county: Provided further, that every first-grade life certificate, to continue valid and operative, shall be renewed by the State Board of School Examiners every five years, and before such Board

Page 215

shall renew said certificate it shall be accompanied with an affidavit of the teacher holding said certificate that he or she has been actually engaged in teaching school since receiving said certificate, or since its last renewal, and no charge shall be made for such renewal."

Page 216


County. Superintendent. Post-office. County Board of Directors. Post-office.
Alamance Rev. W. S. Long Elon College P. H. Fleming Burlington.
      Jas. I. White Graham.
      J. O. Atkinson Elon College.
Alexander A. Frank Sharpe Hiddenite A. A. Hill Taylorsville.
      J. J. Hendren Vashti.
      J. C. Bell Avilla.
Alleghany Rev. Sam. W. Brown Sparta E. Leff Wagoner Whitehead.
      D. F. Parsons Nulin.
      C. M. Crouse Edwards X Roads.
Anson William D. Redfearn Ansonville W. C. Hardison Wadesboro.
      L. L. Little Ansonville.
      W. F. Crump Polkton.
Ashe J. W. Jones Clifton G. L. Park Jefferson.
      W. H. Jones Sutherland.
      M. M. Blivins Blivins.
Beaufort Rev. Nathaniel Harding Washington E. W. Myers Washington.
      Alexander Hudnell Aurora.
      J. A. H. Tankard Yeatesville.
Bertie R. W. Askew Windsor A. S. Rascoe Windsor.
      P. T. Perry Merry Hill.
      John L. Harrington Lewiston.
Bladen J. D. Currie Clarkton W. I. Shaw Klondyke.
      J. N. Kelley Clarkton.
      S. N. Ferguson Bladenboro.
Brunswick R. Vance Leonard Shallotte George Leonard Shallotte.
      A. C. Meares Calabash.
      Jno. N. Bennett Winnabow.
Buncombe S. F. Venable Asheville M. J. Bearden Asheville.
      Geo. W. Whitson Asheville.
      J. H. Sams Mars Hill.
Burke Herbert O. Houk Morganton J. A. Lockey Morganton.
      J. T. McGinney Linville Store.
      E. H. Tilley Cora.
Cabarrus W. B. Stickley Concord Rev. C. B. Miller Concord.
      W. W. Morris Concord.
      D. J. Little Bost's Mill.

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County. Superintendent. Post-office. County Board of Directors. Post-office.
Caldwell Prof. E. B. Phillips Lenoir P. G. Moore Granite Falls.
      M. L. Greer King's Creek.
      I. W. Moore Collettsville.
Camden Chas. H. Spencer South Mills G. H. Riggs South Mills.
      W. G. Ferebee Belcross.
      J. H. Morrisell Shiloh.
Carteret Capt. Joseph Pigott Straits C. N. Mason Harlowe.
      W. R. Springle Beaufort.
      Josiah Daniels Roe.
Caswell A. E. Henderson Yanceyville Walter N. Harralson Yanceyville.
      John F. Walters Blanch.
      Robt. L. Mitchell Ridgeville.
Catawba A. P. Whisenhunt Hickory P. A. Hoyle Newton.
      S. T. Wilfong Newton.
      J. A. Sherrill Sherrill's Ford.
Chatham A. T. Holleman Ascend J. M. Griffin Pittsboro.
      J. M. Edwards Richmond.
      Ostian Perry Pluck.
Cherokee W. K. Johnson Unaka J. W. Blackwell Unaka.
      P. E. Nelson Pastell.
      David Cobb Cobb's.
Chowan R. H. Willis Edenton A. T. Bush Edenton.
      J. E. Coffield Cisco.
      J. E. Twine Amboy.
Clay T. H. Nancock Hayesville G. W. Sanderson Hayesville.
      I. H. Chambers Warne.
Cleveland J. A. Anthony Shelby D. S. Lovelace Boiling Springs.
      T. D. Falls Fallston.
      H. P. Allison Kings Mountain.
Columbus L. W. Stanly Vineland H. H. Holton Lake Waccamaw.
      L. W. Stanly Vineland.
      Rev. J. A. Smith Fair Bluff.
Craven Dr. Jno. S. Long New Bern A. D. Ward New Bern.
      Daniel Lane Bellair.
      Joseph Kinsey Fort Barnwell.
Cumberland Z. B. Newton Fayetteville J. W. McLauchlin Raeford.
      W. J. Smith Godwin.
      I. A. Murchison Fayetteville.
Currituck H. B. Ansell Basco J. E. C. Bell Shawboro.
      E. D. Bowden Knotts Island.
      J. F. Summerell Harbinger.
Dare Dr. E. P. Gates Manteo C. J. Dough Manteo.
      I. H. Scarborough, Jr Avon.
      R. G. Hooper Slumpy Point.

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County. Superintendent. Post-office. County Board of Directors. Post-office.
Davidson P. L. Ledford Thomasville W. S. Owen Yadkin College.
      L. H. Kircher McKee.
      P. L. Ledford Thomasville.
Davie C. M. Sheets Advance Isaac Roberts Nestor.
      N. A. Peebles Yadkin College.
      E. E. Hunt Mocksville.
Duplin Samuel W. Clement Wallace W. H. Grady Albertsons.
      W. B. Sutherland Rose Hill.
      O. P. Middleton Warsaw.
Durham Chas. Wesley Massey Durham Chas. E. Turner Durham.
      R. G. Russell South Lowell.
      Jno. W. Umstead Umbra.
Edgecombe F.S. Wilkinson Tarboro Jas. R. Gaskill Tarboro.
      W. T. Braswell Whitakers.
      J. T. Howard Conetoe.
Forsyth A. P. Davis Winston D. P. Mast Winston.
      E. W. Hauser Vienna.
      J. W. Pinnix Kernersville.
Franklin R. B. White Franklinton J. H. Uzzle Mapleville.
      L. N. Williams Centreville.
      J. C. Winston Franklinton.
Gaston L. M. Hoffman Dallas F. P. Hall Belmont.
      Thomas Wilson Gastonia.
      Robert Connell Lucia.
Gates Jno. R. Walton Gatesville L. L. Smith Gatesville.
      Jno. S. Felton Gatesville.
      T. W. Costen, Sr Sunbury.
Graham J. W. Moody Robbinsville Wm. H. Garrison Yellow Creek.
      H. P. Hyde Robbinsville.
      J. C. Edwards Stekoah.
Granville A. Baker Oxford F. W. Hancock Oxford.
      Graham B. Royster Oak Hill.
      James H. Webb Stem.
Greene F. L. Carr Snow Hill L. V. Morril Snow Hill.
      L. J. H. Mewborne Jason.
      W. A. Darden Ormondsville.
Guilford J. R. Wharton Greensboro J. Allen Holt Oak Ridge.
      W. F. Alderman Greensboro.
      W. T. Whitsett Whitsett.

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County. Superintendent. Post-office. County Board of Directors. Post-office.
Halifax Col. A. Prescott Halifax J. M. Grizzard Halifax.
      W. A. Dunn Scotland Neck.
      A. S. Harrison Enfield.
Harnett Rev. J. S. Black Linden A. B. Hill Dunn.
      Thos. W. Harrington Harrington.
      J. V. Deveaney Buie's Creek.
Haywood A. J. Garner Peru J. N. Mease Canton.
      J. R. Boyd Jonathan.
      R. C. Chambers Iron Duff.
Henderson James M. Justice Hendersonville Thos. J. Rickman Hendersonville.
      J. W. Morgan Horse Shoe.
      A. F. Brown Fruitland.
Hertford Hon. J. C. Scarboro Murfreesboro J. D. Riddick Riddicksville.
      L. J. Lawrence Murfreesboro.
      Geo. A. Brown Winton.
Hyde J. M. Watson Swanquarter W. P. Burnes Engelhard.
      T. H. B. Gibbs Fairfield.
      S. S. Mann Swanquarter.
Iredell James A. Butler Statesville J. H. Hill Statesville.
      M. A. Feimster Armfield.
      M. A. White Mt. Mourne.
Jackson J. N. Watson Webster R. L. Madison Painter.
      M. Buchanan Sylva.
      W. T. Deitz Webster.
Johnston Prof. Ira T. Turlington Smithfield W. F. Gerald Pine Level.
      John Stephenson Atfa.
      John W. Wood Rome.
Jones W. H. Hammond Trenton A. H. White Polloksville.
      Berry Brock, Jr Trenton.
      F. M. Dixon Tuckahoe.
Lenoir C. W. Howard Kinston Dr. F. A. Whitaker Kinston.
      W. O. Mosely Kinston.
      W. B. Nunn Repose.
Lincoln G. T. Heafner Crouse A. L. Anickel Lincolnton.
      R. B. Sullivan Lincolnton.
      D. C. K. Wilkinson Chronicle.
Macon J. R. Pendergrass Franklin M. L. Kelly Franklin.
      W. J. Evans Flats.
      J. A. Deal Franklin.
Madison J. M. James Marshall C. A. Henderson Marshall.
      Jasper Ebbs Spring Creek.
      D. S. Ball California Creek.
Martin R. J. Peele Jamesville S. R. Biggs Williamston.
      J. T. Waldo Hamilton.
      S. W. Outterbridge Robersonville.

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County. Superintendent. Post-office. County Board of Directors. Post-office.
McDowell W. F. Wood Marion J. S. Bradley Old Fort.
      H. A. Tate Marion.
      J. R. Denton Dysartsville.
Mecklenburg R. B. Hunter Charlotte J. G. Beard Charlotte.
      W. S. Pharr Charlotte.
      S. S. Henon Loda.
Mitchell A. Masters Bakersville J. S. Hill Elk Park.
      R. G. Wilson Bakersville.
      James Greene Bakersville.
Montgomery D. W. Cochran Troy J. C. Brulou Troy.
      Elsie Shamberger Pekin.
      R. A. Bruton Mt. Gilead.
Moore T. M. Langly Bensalem M. A. McLeod Broadway.
      C. V. Brooks Lemon Springs.
      J. R. Comer Long Leaf.
Nash W. S. Wilkinson Rocky Mount T. V. Avent Hilliardston.
      Thomas Westray Finch.
      J. C. Beal Red Oak.
New Hanover W. Catlett Wilmington W. H. Johnson Wilmington.
      P. B. Manning Wilmington.
      Donald MacRae Wilmington.
Northampton Paul J. Long Jackson B. F. Martin Conway.
      E. B. Lassiter Potecasi.
      J. S. Grant Jackson.
Onslow Asa W. Cooper Jacksonville James B. Grant Sneads Ferry.
      Wm. Murrill Catharine Lake.
      Samuel L. Gerock Maysville.
Orange John Thompson Cedar Grove S. T. Forrest Efland.
      C. H. Burch Chapel Hill.
      Jno. P. Lockhart Hillsboro.
Pamlico M. W. Ball Bayboro Paul Daniels Merritt.
      Wm. T. Mayo Mesic.
      B. F. McColter Alliance.
Pasquotank S. L. Sheep Elizabeth City Joe Commander Elizabeth City.
      Chas. Reed Elizabeth City.
      E. V. Davenport Elizabeth City.
Pender T. H. W. McIntire Ivanhoe John B. Davis Rocky Point.
      F. P. Flynn Viola.
      J. K. James Maple Hill.

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County. Superintendent. Post-office. County Board of Directors. Post-office.
Perquimans W. G. Gaither Hertford W. T. McMullan Hertford.
      L. B. Perry Durant's Neck.
      Jas. H. Miller Winfall.
Person G. F. Holloway Roxboro W. E. Webb Roxboro.
      J. S. Coleman Moriah.
      A. J. Hester Winstead.
Pitt W. H. Ragsdale Greenville A. G. Cox Winterville.
      Wm. F. Harding Greenville.
      S. M. Jones Bethel.
Polk W. M. Justice Mill Spring J. M. Putnam Collinsville.
      W. M. Justice Mill Spring.
      T. T. Ballinger Tryon, S. & R. R.
Randolph W. C. Hammer Ashboro W. N. Elder Maud.
      T. L. Chisholm Ramseur,
      J. W. Birkhead Ashboro.
Richmond J. H. Walsh Rockingham R. A. Johnson Rockingham.
      W. A. Webster Mangum.
      Frank O'Brine Roberdel.
Robeson M. Shepard Sterling J. A. McAllister Lumberton.
      A. B. Pearsall Red Springs.
      J. E. Nye Nye.
Rockingham E. P. Ellington Wentworth H. P. Foard Spray.
      George W. Martin Madison.
      David M. Johnson Reidsville.
Rowan Robt. G. Kizer Salisbury Jno. S. Henderson Salisbury.
      John K. Goodman Rowan P. O.
      P. A. Sloop Yost.
Rutherford A. L. Rooker Rutherfordton C. W. Watkins Rutherfordton.
      A. H. McDaniel Forest City.
      S. B. Grant Jeter.
Sampson Street Brewer Clinton W. J. Pugh Clinton.
      W. A. Bizzell Newton Grove.
      L. L. Matthis Six Run.
Stanly C. J. Black Big Lick S. H. Hearne Albemarle.
      Julius Haithcock Norwood.
      M. Whitley Efird's Mills.
Stokes W. B. Harris Danbury S. B. Taylor Danbury.
      Jno. W. Neal Meadows.
      D. F. Fillatson Slate.
Surry Rev. J. H. Lewellyn Dobson W. M. Cundiff Siloam.
      S. C. Franklin Mt. Airy.
      A. H. Freeman Dobson.
Swain L. V. Marr Bryson City J. S. Woodard Needmore.
      W. T. Conley Bryson City.
      J. H. Teague Whittier.

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County. Superintendent. Post-office. County Board of Directors. Post-office.
Transylvania W. L. Carmichael Brevard C. M. Gallamore Brevard.
      George Lyda Penrose.
      E. M. Whitman Jeptha.
Tyrrell Samuel R. Bateman Columbia B. W. Cohn Columbia.
      J. G. Brickhouse Columbia.
      D. F. Armstrong Gum Neck.
Union A. M. Croxton Monroe J. W. Bivens Wingate.
      A. J. Brooks Richardson's Creek.
      A. W. Heath Waxhaw.
Vance Gideon N. Bray Henderson W. E. Gary Henderson.
      C. L. Blacknall Kittrell.
      Thomas Taylor Townsville.
Wake Rev. W. G. Clements Raleigh Rev. J. L. Foster Ralelgh.
      A. W. Moye Cary.
      Thomas Johns Auburn.
Warren James R. Rodwell Warrenton A. S. Webb Warren Plains.
      W. J. White Warrenton.
      W. G. Coleman Churchill.
Washington B. F. Hassell, Jr. Plymouth H. A. Litchfield Creswell.
      T. W. Blount Roper.
      W. A. Alexander Plymouth.
Watauga B. B. Dougherty Boone S. M. Trivett Hagaman.
      Wiley Farthing Leander.
      Millard Norris Loda Hill.
Wayne E. T. Atkinsen Goldsboro Joseph E. Robinson Goldsboro.
      W. F. English Mount Olive.
      Barnes Aycock Fremont.
Wilkes C. C. Wright Straw R. H. Spainhour Wilkesboro.
      T. C. Land Mount Zion.
      J. W. Dimmette Dimmette.
Wilson James W. Hayes Elm City Wm. Woodard, Jr Wilson.
      Jesse A. Moore Moyton.
      R. T. Barnes Taylor.
Yadkin E. G. Myers Buck Shoal L. A. Speas Huntsville.
      H. W. Douglas Yadkinville.
      F. D. Holcomb Longtown.
Yancey Will D. Peterson Daybook W. H. Anderson Cone River.
      J. W. Bryant Wilhite.
      B. S. Young Micaville.

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        * In the House of Representatives, Raleigh, N. C., December 27, 1898.


TUESDAY EVENING, December 27, 1898.

        The Association of Supervisors met in the House of Representatives and was called to order by the President, Hon. C. H. Mebane, State Superintendent of Public Instruction.

        The registration of members showed the following Supervisors present:

        H. W. Norris, Wake County; Street Brewer, Sampson County; A. M. Maticks, Vance County; D. L. Ellis, Buncombe County; Alex. Baker, Granville County; J. R. Tingle, Pitt County; P. S. Swain, Washington County; J. A. Anthony, Cleveland County; Robt. S. Green, Jr., Davidson County; J. R. Rodwell, Warren County; R. W. Askew, Bertie County; R. B. Hunter, Mecklenburg County; P. J. Long, Northampton County; B. s. Mitchell, Franklin County; L. M. Conyers, Nash County; Jas. W. Hays, Wilson County; R. G. Kizer, Rowan County; E. A. Simpkins, Lenoir County; J. E. Hoover, Lincoln County; Ira T. Turlington, Johnston County; C. W. Massey, Durham County.

        Devotional exercises were conducted by Dr. J. W. Carter, of the First Baptist Church, Raleigh.

        The organization was perfected by the appointment of Paul J. Long, of Northampton County, Secretary.

        The President delivered his annual address as follows:


        "KIND FRIENDS:--One year has passed since we were assembled here as a body of co-workers in the cause of public education, a year of toil and labor, of care and anxiety, mingled of course here and there with joy and pleasure.

        "If you will pardon me for referring to myself, I will say that I have never labored harder and more persistently in my life, never have I felt the weight of responsibility rest so heavily upon me as during the present year, never in all my life have I tried more earnestly to do my whole duty, especially to those whom I serve, which means the whole people, for not only the last year, but for two years.

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        "How much or how little these efforts have been felt, or what the results of these efforts shall be in the future, I can not tell.

        "While it is natural for us in our struggles to look for and even be anxious to see results from our labors, still that which should be our chiefest concern is to see to it that we are faithful first, last and all the time to the powers and responsibilities imposed upon us.

        "We have had wars without and wars within during the year now drawing to a close.

        "During the first half of the year the public mind was absorbed with war with Spain, during the latter part of the year a great political conflict has had the right of way in the minds of our people.

        "Some one may ask, if the first part of the year was occupied by our people in the war with Spain and the latter part was devoted to the political campaign, where does the work of public education come in?

        "While the war was on, and victories being won, while North Carolina won honors through the bravery of her heroic sons, laying their lives upon the altar of our country, while the leaders of the great political parties have swayed and influenced thousands of our people on the political issues of the day, while all these great struggles have been going on, what have we, the leaders of public education, been doing? What have all the friends of public education been doing?

        "Let each Supervisor answer for himself. Let each friend of public education answer for himself.

        "I hear some one say you are our leader, what have you done to lead us towards progress or to victory? In the language of Holy Writ "What I have written, I have written." The record is made, it is not what I would have it be in the line of progress, it is not even what I had hoped for.

        "I am the leader of the Supervisor at very long range, so long that I have not even seen the faces of a great many of them.

        "Dewey gave command at Manila and the work was done. I give command and the Supervisor sometimes obeys it, if he feels like it, or thinks it will be a popular thing to do.

        "It is a source of very great pleasure, however, to me, to know that a large number of the Supervisors have stood by me right nobly in the work.

        "To those who have thus held up my hands, I wish to assure you that you have my heartiest appreciation and sincere thanks.

        "To those who have not seen fit to cooperate heartily with me in the work, I have no ill-will or malice, but simply think you made a mistake by not doing so. I have never advised or requested you to do anything unless I thought it was for the best interest of the

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cause of public education. Of course I have made some mistakes, for, as you know, "To err is human."

        "This occasion reminds us of the uncertainty of life. Since last we met, as a body of Supervisors, one of our number who was with us in interest and earnestness, as well as with us in person, has been called away from earth. I refer to Prof. H. A. Grey, who was Supervisor of Mecklenburg County.

        "While we mourn his loss, yet we have pleasant memories of his zeal in the interest of public education. Personally and officially my relations with him were very pleasant.

        "I found in looking over the list that there have been 19 changes since the Supervisors were elected in 1897.

        "That is, we now have 19 Supervisors who are filling out the terms of those first elected. So far as I know only one of the 19 died.

        "Some resigned because of change of business relations, some moved from one county to another, and one, I am sorry to say, was so unfaithful to duty as to have to be removed from office.

        "One of our number will be in the next State Senate. Several others were candidates for different offices.

        "In this particular I have not been well pleased. I would not have you misunderstand me.

        "Any citizen has a right to be a candidate for a political office, but it is not in accord with my idea of the public school work for a County Supervisor to be a candidate for a political office, and at the same time filling the most important educational office of his county.

        "I think when a County Supervisor becomes a candidate for a political office, he should at once resign as County Supervisor.

        "I am sorry that all my Supervisors have not agreed with me on this point. It is much more pleasant to approve than to disapprove of the actions of our friends and co-workers, yet there are times when we must speak, and speak plainly, to even our best friends.

        " 'In union there is strength.' This is a famous quotation.

        "But my friends, I have been laboring for a division ever since I came into public office, been laboring for a divorce.

        "Yes, have been laboring for a separation of the public schools from politics. Dr. Wiley, in 1855, said: "When party spirit gets into the management of our schools, it is time to shut them up."

        "Have tried to beg and persuade our people to rise above political preference and prejudices, and give the children of the State in every county the benefit of the services of the very best men, regardless of political affiliation.

        "I have also called for a separation of our public schools from

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the church schools. In this separation the children for a term or so may be the losers as to the qualification of their instructors, but the public schools and the cause of public education will in the end make progress by this division or separation.

        "I am free to confess that I am not able to see any special results from my efforts in some counties in regard to divorcing the public schools from politics, but in other counties I think some progress has been made along this line.

        "The thought I wish to leave with you on this point is this: that we as school officers are not to be lacking in efforts for the right in this work, because we can not see results.

        Only a few weeks ago I received a very discouraging letter from one of the most energetic, most enthusiastic Supervisors in the State. Certain politicians had made severe attacks upon him and his work, and had sworn vengeance against him, determined to undo much that he had labored hard to do.

        "I wrote him something like this, 'Courage, my friend, go on and do your duty just as if no election had taken place.'

        "We are not responsible for what future officials tear down or undo, see to it that you are faithful to the last moment and leave the result with the people.

        "Just so long as public school officers are targets for the successful politicians to shoot at, to kill and make alive, unless said officers do the bidding of the successful party, just so long will our public schools be a humbug and a fraud. This is strong language, but I mean every word of it.

        "Listen, my friends, while I make a remarkable statement to you, but the truth and the whole truth. I have been doing official business with ninety-six County Supervisors for nearly two years, and yet out of the ninety-six men I do not know the political affiliation of more than eight or ten of these men. I have not asked a single one what his politics is.

        "Those that I know, I know by having known the men before they were Supervisors.

        "Then let no man say that I am saying these things to-night, because we have recently had a political revolution in this State.

        "I stand here to-night ready to assist in removing any County Supervisor who is not doing his duty. I also stand here to defend the honest, conscientious, faithful Supervisor, and will defend him with all the power I have, without enquiring into his political affiliations, or his religious belief.

        "I stand to-night for worth and merit, just where I stood during the spring of 1897 when these officers were elected.

        "It is a pleasaure to me to know that so many of the Supervisors

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have done the very best they could under the circumstances and conditions. Our people are slow to accept new plans and new regulations in regard to their public schools.

        "It requires tact, judgment, and an extra supply of common sense to make much progress and change in the work in very many places.

        "It has always seemed a little singular to me why it is that more people claim to know just how to teach school and just how to manage schools, without any special thought or reason for any such knowledge than is ever claimed by these people on any other subject.

        "These same people would not think of giving advice to the physician as to what is best for his patients, they would not think of advising the surgeon who is about to perform a serious operation, but these people are just about as competent to give advice along these lines as they are on teaching. They have often studied teaching and how to teach about as much as they have studied medicine and surgery.

        "I remember to have taught in a certain community where there were several good old gentlemen who had never taught a child in their lives, who knew no more about the development of the child-mind than they did about differentiation in calculus, and yet these brethren could tell me a great deal more (?) than I knew after my six or seven years experience as well as study of teaching and how to teach.

        "I merely mention these things, my friends, to show you that we must have patience with some of the very best of our people, and must not expect rapid progress. We must have courage, patience and persistence, as well as tact, judgment and common sense, mentioned before.

        "I am very sorry to say it, but I must tell the truth on my Supervisors, that I have received no small number of letters something like this, after enquiring what was being done along a certain line: 'I have not done anything because our people are opposed to it.'

        "After I send out a request that I feel sure will be beneficial to our cause and work, then to receive information like the above! It is not well pleasing to me, I assure you.

        "Shall we sit down and do nothing because our people oppose our work? Does this opposition mean that I have asked you to do something wrong, or when your people oppose your own efforts in this work, does this mean that your work is wrong? Most assuredly it does not.

        "The majority of the people opposed Christ and His work while on the earth. A great many people oppose the Gospel to-day, but that is not evidence of its being wrong.

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        "Our people opposed Calvin H. Wiley, the first Superintendent of common schools. Did he sit down and shut his mouth because the people opposed him? Nay, verily he did not.

        "Then let no Supervisor sit down and make no effort along any line of needed action.

        "The chiefest object and concern of the Supervisor is to get the people with us, and for us. If the people were with us, were on our side a large part of his work would be done. Alas! Alas! That happy day is not even dawning very brightly upon us at this time much toil, much labor, much courage, much patience, much persistence, must be exercised before the noon-day sun of such a day will shine upon us.

        "I am not finding fault with any Supervisor who has made honest, conscientious efforts, even if he has made very little progress, but the men who have not made efforts, these are the ones of whom complain.

        "I have about three classes of Supervisors, I will not tell any of you to which class you belong, you can decide this for yourself.

        "The first is composed of those who have been given considerable latitude as to the discharge of their official duties, by the County Board of Education.

        "They have used their opportunities wisely and well. They have honestly tried to carry out every request made by the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

        "They have shown courage and prudence in overcoming opposition, have won the people by reason and persuasion; in many instances, have stood up manfully for measures they were unable to put into operation and accepted their defeat like men. They have the respect and confidence of their teachers and have implanted incentives in them for study, for better work, for a broader life, and a wider sphere of usefulness.

        "They have the cooperation and support of their committeemen. They work together for the general good of the schools, and last, but of great importance, they have the respect and confidence of the best people of their counties.

        "The second class of Supervisors is composed of those who have had very little if any latitude given them by their County Boards of Education, but so far as they have had opportunity, have followed in the lines mentioned for the first class.

        "The third class is composed of those who in some instances have had considerable opportunities given them by the County Board. In other instances no opportunities were given, and none especially wanted for general progress, work and improvement.

        "In this class are those who use their office for personal or political

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advantage, to bestow favors on personal friends or relatives, to set aside personal enemies, etc.

        "Those alone who are not for anything nor against anything especially. They will give official information when they feel like it, and this feeling does not come to them often.

        "It is very gratifying for me to know that we have very few of the third class, and I am very sorry that so many are forced into the second class by the County Boards of Education.

        "I most heartily sympathize with a Supervisor whose committeemen have not aided and supported him in many of his best efforts.

        "I have no word of complaint for those committeemen who have done the very best they could. Some of these men have made sacrifices of time and money in order to improve their schools; have employed the very best teachers that could be secured for the means they had. These faithful men, in some places, have been abused and had all manner of evil said of them, yet they have gone straight forward, and have done their duty as faithful representatives of public education.

        "It is remarkable, but nevertheless true, that in some communities the people can get up more enmity, hatred, and raise a bigger row in general, over the public schools, and especially the employment of the teacher, than could be stirred up upon any one subject in the world, except politics. This subject always has the right of way for creating disturbances.

        "The strange thing about these disturbances over school matters, is that the contending parties seem never to become reconciled, and the fellow who is on "B's" side of the question is spotted by "A" and his friends for years to come.

        "A very prominent lawyer not long since told me that under no circumstances would he represent a client of one of these cases of a public school wrangle, because if he did he said he would not get any more practice from any of the opponents of his client for years and years to come.

        "Knowing these peculiar characteristics of some of our people, and how much worry is caused in some places, I am not much surprised at what I heard a good man say. He said he would not serve as committeeman again for one thousand dollars per year.

        "These conditions serve to show us how great is the work before us and our successors in the years to come.

        "We must educate not only the children, but must instruct, persuade, and reason with the fathers and mothers of many communities.

        "The other class of committeemen with which some of you have to contend are those with whom I have no patience myself, and can

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not and do not expect for the Supervisors to have any patience with them.

        "The man who will use his office as the representative of the children, for personal or political gain is unworthy of the position and should be forever condemned by the people and those in authority. With such men worth and merit on the part of the teacher have no consideration. The progress of the schools have no consideration. It makes me heart-sick to call to mind some of the little, mean, contemptible things that have been done by these men. I will not recount them here, but merely wish to let you know that I know what you have to contend with in some sections, and assure you of my warmest sympathy when you have this last class of committeemen to deal with, and to congratulate you if you have the former faithful class of men to aid you in your work.

        "In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation of the sacrifice you have made for the cause of education in your respective counties, especially your sacrifice to attend this meeting.

        "Let this be your meeting. Let no Supervisor hesitate to speak out in general discussions. We want this meeting to be both pleasant and profitable. Let each one have the courage to speak out candidly and plainly for what he thinks best for the promotion and progress of our work.

        "Soon the law-makers of our State will assemble in this very hall. What they will do in regard to our public schools we know not.

        "I do not expect these gentlemen to do anything rash or to in any way damage the cause of public education, but I look for progress.

        "This is my prediction as to the General Assembly of 1899. If in this I am disappointed, the men who disappoint me will be held responsible in the years to come, by the people of this great State.

        "I take this occasion to express my hearty appreciation to the press of North Carolina for the liberal and most generous aid given me in the public school work. I have reached the people in their homes around the fireside as I never could have done, had not the columns of the newspapers been open to the cause of public education.

        "I have heard some criticism of the present Superintendent of Public Instruction, because it is said he seeks publicity; he wants everything he says and writes published.

        "I have sought publicity for the office, and the cause it represents, but have not sought it for the man. The editors know this is true, and if it were not they would have closed their columns to me ere this.

        "I rejoice that we have reached that period in our history of public education that it is possible to reach the great bulk of our

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population through the newspapers. The press of this State has tremendous power, and it is enough to make glad the hearts of every friend of popular education to see so much of this great power on the side of public schools.

        "If it be possible for those who have gone to the Spirit Land to rejoice over the affairs of this life, I am sure that Dr. Calvin H. Wiley rejoices over the means we now have of reaching the people on the subject of education.

        "I know of no one agency that can do so much to hasten on that glad day when every child in North Carolina may have a practical public school education as the press of this State.

        "These men, as editors, who reach the people day after day and week after week, are the moulders of public sentiment on all questions of public interest.

        "May these men in the years to come use their pens and their intellects as never before in behalf of those boys and girls who are to be the future citizens of this State.

        "Then let us see to it that we, as workers for and in this great cause, do our whole duty, so that when this work shall have been committed to other hands, they may be able to say of us and our work: 'They did what they could. They were faithful to the cause they represented in word and in deed.'

        "Thus may it be truthfully said of us."

        Prof. M. C. S. Noble, of the State University, followed with an admirable address on the "Qualifications of the Supervisor." He said--

        "I am glad to be with you gentlemen to-night and bring from the University, which is in close touch with the public schools, a kindly greeting and God-speed. The thought and aspiration of the University is to let the light of education shine into every corner of our State.

        "This is the age of the specialist. The trend is to individualize and not to generalize. And if we expect to carry on the work of education we must strive to become specialists. The time of the smatterer is past. The standard of the County Supervisor can not be too high.

        "The first qualification is scholarship. The very best scholar in the county should be secured if possible for the Superintendent and it should be available scholarship. The County Superintendent should be a man of professional training. He should be familiar with the lives of the great educators. Be acquainted with the history of education in its struggles and advancements. They should be familiar with the lives of Bacon and Martin Luther, and Murphy, and Calvin H. Wiley, of our own State.

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        "The County Superintendent should be a man of practical experience. Common sense and experience teach this.

        "The County Supervisor should not hold the position unless he has taught school. He should be a man who has served in the ranks. He should know something about primary work. Statistics show that half of the boys and girls of the common schools do not go into the fifth reader. He ought to have a personal knowledge in order to approve the work of the teacher. He ought to be an expert in primary work.

        "The County Supervisor ought to have his heart in the work. The Supervisor who thinks that the public schools are to reach a certain class and that anything will do, makes a mistake. To have his heart in the work he must labor in season and out of season. He should attend every meeting and association which is for the benefit of education.

        "The methodologist is a much abused person, but I believe that a County Superintendent should be a methodologist. The teacher would be helped by such a practical Supervisor.

        "A good Supervisor will be the man who is not seeking the position. The seeker for the position is not generally the proper man.

        "I believe in building up our profession. Men should be chosen from their experience and fitness. I do not believe that a County Supervisor should be a man who has failed at every other calling.

        "I have independence and love enough for my profession to say that a County Supervisor should be a teacher. He should not be an adventurer from another profession--a lawyer, a doctor, a carpenter, a locomotive engineer, a steamboat captain, or somebody you know, or somebody else, but he ought to be a teacher. I believe the time is here when the County Supervisors will be teachers. They must be teachers first and Supervisors next."

        Supervisors Ellis, Askew, Conyers, Kizer, Swain, Baker, Hunter and Maticks joined in the general discussion which followed, as to what should be the character of the work and qualifications of the Supervisor. The ideas advanced by Professor Noble were warmly praised and heartily concurred in.

        Supervisor Ellis, of Buncombe, placed in nomination for Vice-President, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Supervisor H. A. Grey, of Mecklenburg County, Prof. Ira T. Turlington, of Johnston.

        Professor Turlington was unanimously elected.


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WEDNESDAY, 10.30 a. m.

        The Association was called to order by the President.

        Devotional exercises were conducted by Rev. B. W. Spilman, of Raleigh.

        The present status of the township system was discussed by Prof. Street Brewer, Supervisor of Sampson County.

        Professor Brewer spoke as follows:


        "One year ago I had the honor of reading before this Association of County Supervisors, at its meeting here, a paper on "Grading the schools of the Township," in which I also argued in favor of the township system of public schools. The subject assigned me today has been announced. In treating this subject, I do not propose to repeat the argument of twelve months ago. It seems to me that subject has passed beyond the sphere of argument into that of demonstration. With unbiased and unprejudiced minds, opposition to the 'township system,' where it has been fairly tested, is now practically a thing of the past, and the wisdom of its enactment plainly evident and generally admitted. The question now is not whether North Carolina will adopt the township system, but will she continue it? Though it has been in operation but a little over a year, we have clearly evinced a commendable spirit of the aggressiveness in the betterment of our public schools, and since its inauguration decided educational advancement throughout the entire State. A steady increase of interest in our public schools, an enlarged conception of their value to the State, and an unmistakable growth of correct educational sentiment is everywhere manifest.

        "A most gratifying tendency toward harmonious cooperation in the administration or school affairs is everywhere in evidence. Our teachers especially seem to be fully conscious of the onward and upward trend of the times, of the larger services demanded, and evince a most praiseworthy desire to avail themselves of every means and opportunity to add to their professional equipment.

        "School supervision is making encouraging headway, and when fully established, will make teaching far more effective, and pave the way to other desired reforms. For a half century the educational unit in our State was the neighborhood school district, based upon home rule and self-government. It was so associated with our earliest recollections and the school life of our ancestry that we became greatly attached to it--loved its exclusiveness, its direct and

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positive management. And many now, because of their over-conservative tendencies and blind devotion to the past, do not see that it has outlived its usefulness and fails to meet our educational needs. The Legislature of 1897, whatever may have been its mistakes and follies, was wise in its day and generation, by giving heed to the expressed wishes and wise counsel of our leading educators, and thus abolishing the old district system which was the cause of so many petty jealousies and dissensions between families, the bane of our rural schools. This was a long step ahead. It at once made more effective organization practicable, better school facilities possible, and brought us nearer to equality of opportunity. And I assert, without fear of successful refutation, that in those counties where the township system has been fairly tried, they to-day have the best organized system of public schools, with the least friction, at any time in their history. Under the old district system we had too many incompetent school committeemen. They really did not have enough to do to become interested in their work. They employed too many inefficient teachers--'pets,' favorites, or relatives who kept school because they did not have anything else to do only to 'kill time' and draw their salary. As long as our form of government remains unchanged, school committeemen will be necessary to the conduct of our public schools. It is a component part of our democracy; but the small district system, in school administration, is democracy gone to seed. It has rolled upon the hands of those States most strongly under its influence, a burden more hopeless than the stone of Sisyphus: There is no inertia more inert than civic inertia. I was amused some time ago in reading the visitation of a County Superintendent in a certain Northwestern State, under the small district system. It was as follows: Number enrolled, one; average attendance, one; classification, A. No. 1; communication, none; methods, good; register, none; ventilation, good; maps and sharts, well supplied; teacher's wages, $25 per month. The great paramount question, opening up to us for the past few years, is that of the rectification of our mistake in splitting up our school territory into minute fragments by the small district system, and trying the consolidation of these minute but warring units of administration into larger ones. The prime essential is to get schools large enough to warrant fair pay, increase greater permanency in the teaching force, and furnish a field in which good work will be possible. No teacher of ordinary human mold can do good work in a school of ten pupils, no matter how much he is paid. And no school board of the average type can be brought to pay decent wages for the teaching of ten children. Should our township system become a permanent thing and combination of schools

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practicable, we shall witness a much greater improvement in both the teacher and pupils of our public schools. I maintain that the contact with a larger number of pupils excites a healthy emulation, and that the small district school does not bring the pupils into touch with the condition of life which they must meet later. And just so long as the size of our school unit is limited by the length of a child's legs, or by the distance which a little 'tot' is able to traverse twice a day on foot so long there can be no reasonable expectation of any perceptible betterment of the public schools. I regret very much that the attempt to establish the 'township system' in our dear old State, has not met with that approval and hearty cooperation it so justly deserves, especially in some counties. I fear a great many of our Supervisors have not urged the full compliance of the law as its success demands, and the result has been that of modifying failure, so far as general adoption. I have taken the time and pains to write several Supervisors in different sections of the State, in regard to the operation of the 'township system' in their respective counties. Some of their replies have been encouraging, but I am sorry to say that others in their replies show that they are partially biased or uninformed as to the true intent of the law. No one will deny but that there are defects in the present law, which should be corrected by the ensuing Legislature. I lay no claim to great penetration, other minds may discover other ways; but I see no possible solution of the school question in North Carolina, but the retention of the township system, with such eliminations and additions as may be necessary to keep fully abreast with the educational progress of the present age. One leading educator in our State writes me as follows: 'I consider the most essential thing toward bettering our schools to be stronger legislation. If we could have intelligent, honest school officials the present legislation with a few alterations would suffice, but to entrust the welfare of the schools to the generality of school officers, continually tends to demoralize the schools. Not more than 20 per cent of the school officials in this county attend to their duties, or understand them.' His interpretation may be a little exaggerated, yet there is no doubt of needed reform along that line. A great mistake was made in many counties in the election of school committees. Having both white and colored men on the same board has worked detrimentally to the township system, and been the source of much prejudice and complaint against it. In my county we have had no trouble with the one negro committeeman in each township. He has never presumed to interfere with our white schools, but suppose he had so desired, we have, as the law now stands, no legal means to prevent him from such action. By such an assumption

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on his part our only alternative would be an ejection on the Wilmington plan. Most of our County Boards of Education in appointing colored committeemen did it as a matter of race policy, that he might look after the interest of the colored schools, at least that was the intent in my county. If we continue the colored committee, let them be separate and apart for their own schools defined by the law. Let there be restrictions in 'grading the schools (i. e.), the prices paid teachers. This we believe to be the true remedy on that line. Beginning with my boyhood days, the greatest and most unceasing complaint of the white people has been and is now, 'the paying of taxes for support of the negro schools.' Our present township system of 'grading schools' is the only panacea for this 'lion in the way.'

        "The intelligent portion of the white people realize this feature of the present law and commend it irrespective of party lines. I will illustrate in my own county by one township which has about twice as many negro children as white. Under the apportionment plan of the old district system, it was impossible for the white school to run as long as the colored schools, and keep within the limits of the law. The citizens of the township inform me that the negro schools would be a third longer and sometimes twice as long as the white schools. Now under the present arrangement of 'grading,' so as to make the schools of equal length in the township, the white tax payers can control their money and give general satisfaction to both races. This year there are four white schools and six negro schools in the township. It costs $250 per month to run the schools of the township; the four white schools get $130 per month, and the six negro schools get $120. If the 'grading' had been rigidly applied to the negro schools as it should have been, the white people can readily and easily control their tax money under this system. The greater part, and I might say none, of the colored teachers deserve as large a salary as the white teachers. Therefore an intelligent, honest, economic board of school committeemen can so adjust teachers' wages as to give both races schools of the same length, and yet the white race get more of the school fund to which they are entitled. It is not the province of this paper to outline, or attempt to outline, the details of an ideal system based on the township unit. That is a business requiring time and much labor, the labor of many minds, doubtless. But my study of the subject thus far, would lead me to believe that no plan would be wholly successful which retains much of the old district system. A radical abolition of most of the little district boundaries seems to me an indispensable condition of proper freedom of judgment and action in the consolidation and location of the schools in each township.

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To avoid the complaint of those living in sparsely settled localities, and to accommodate their school facilities, the school committee should be empowered to have a minimum of 35 or 40 pupils to the school. There should be a graduating course provided in our public school system. It would serve as a stimulant for the pupils of the public schools, and would prove advantageous to our many high schools and academies all over the State. It would give the poor and unlettered children of the State a better chance in the public schools.

        "North Carolina, as yet, is not able to pay for advanced studies in her public schools. I believe in an entire divorcement of the public and the private school. They should be taught separate and apart. My experience as County Supervisor proves that they, when taught together, give no little trouble and worry. I am satisfied that such separation would give the patrons of the public schools, generally, better satisfaction, and also the boarders and advanced pupils who attend such a combination of schools. Such divorcement might offend some of the high school principals, who might wish the State to help maintain their school at the expense of the poor neglected children who, in a number of instances, receive but little attention in such schools.

        "Again, I think the public money each township pays should be applied and disbursed for the support of the schools in that township. Such an arrangement would add much to the local tax feature of the School Law, by making each township rely on its resources for the education of its own children. Then the township would be the unit, in fact. Another great gain would be made if our County Supervisors should be elected for four years, instead of two. It would make the position more desirable, and so draw to it better men without increasing the salary. In two years a new man just fairly learns his field and gets the mastery of his duties, for the next two years he is worth to the county twice what he was the first two. So apparent is this, that tradition already dictates a second term. But a shift in the balance of power between political parties, or skillful manipulation by cross-roads politicians, often defeats this tradition. Will not our Legislators be fulfilling the popular will, if they by some well-devised plan, put it beyond the reach of political accident to upset so wise an arrangement? This biennial upheaval comes again in a few months. A large body of school officials who, if they have done their duty, have been training in conference, and institutes and actual work are to be displaced by new and untried hands. The work of training must be begun over again with the certainty that they may be thrown away again in two years.

        "Is not the plan now prevailing unnecessarily volcanic, and a

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remedy easy to be applied? To conclude, I will add that the superiority of the township system, both as an administrative unit, and as a taxing unit, must be admitted by every one who has studied the subject.

        "In those counties that have applied the system, the terms of the schools have been increased in every instance, and the schools more judicially and economically managed. Under this system, school-houses will far more likely be built where they are needed, than under the district system. Equality in respect to school-houses, length of school terms, and the ability and character of teachers secured. The interest and enthusiasm of the pupils will be increased. The County Supervisor can deal more effectively with one board of committeemen in a township than from six to ten, therefore, better Supervisors can be secured. There is more simplicity and economy of administration, also an enhancement of official responsibility. The strifes and contentions among districts which were so frequent under the old system will be prevented. Pupils can be transferred much more easily from one school to another, and the consolidation of schools will increase under this system. All the schools being in session at one time is an outgrowth of the township system, and gives more general satisfaction to the teachers than any other plan we have ever had, because it gives every one a chance, and stops the holding over of schools for relatives and special friends, which is so prevalent under the little one-horse system. The Supervisors, meeting with the committeemen to assist in 'grading' the schools and hiring the teachers, seeing that as few incompetents as possible may be employed, is a commendable product of the township system. Now, if legislation were enacted, making this obligatory, and that no teacher should be employed unless the Supervisor approved the contract, a still greater success would be achieved. Some may say that would be giving too much power to one man--the Supervisor. Fellow-citizens, the Supervisor should be a man of power, one who studies and gives his entire thought to make the schools a success; and once the people learned this fact, they would approve and endorse such a movement. The township system makes the Township Teachers' Institute almost a necessity, then the County Institute, and on to the Congressional Institute, which, I believe, if inaugurated, would greatly facilitate the educational interests of the State. Again, the township system adds to the social intercourse of the teachers. Each teacher does not think himself an independent republic, with an educational system equal to that of the German Empire. But whether the township is the ideal unit or not, stronger school legislation is a sine qua non for the public schools. No educational system, municipal or national, has ever reached a high standard of

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results without a large measure of centralization in its control. But tradition and prejudice are strong. Reorganization is not the work of a day, or a year. We, as educational workers, must study, we must agitate, we must interest those men in our State who are able to weigh and judge, and who shape the policies of the State. For my own part, I have faith in the next Legislature of our beloved State. The personnelis magnificent. Some of the members I know personally, a great many of them by reputation. They are sons of North Carolina, and will do nothing to damage or obstruct the educational interests of their own dear mother.

        "To you, Superintendent Mebane, Presidents Alderman and McIver, Professors Noble, Joyner and Claxton, and Editors J. W. Bailey and Josephus Daniels, are we trusting for aid. In you, the teachers, the Supervisors, the County Boards of Education, the School Cimmitteemen, the fathers and mothers, the sons and daughters, and the vast army of children in North Carolina, are confiding. Shall they be disappointed? No. Knowing the interest you have manifested in the past, they feel assured that you will come forth fully prepared to do battle again for the educational advancement of honest old North Carolina."

        Supervisor Ellis spoke of difficulty in managing the negro population with the township system. He recommended an advisory board of three for each school, appointed by the Township Committee, whose duties should be to recommend a teacher to the committee, and look after the interest of the school--keep the building in repair, etc. He also recommended some provision for paying the School Committee.

        Supervisor Anthony, of Cleveland: "The township system works well in Cleveland. I supported the bill in the Senate. I believe the greatest feature of the new law is the local tax feature. We need more religion and less politics in the public schools. I made a campaign last year for local tax."

        Supervisor Hunter, of Mecklenburg: "We must get our people to understand the meaning and force of the township system. There was a great deal of friction and opposition to the law in Mecklenburg. I hope that a committee of five Supervisors will be appointed to go before the next Legislature and recommend such changes in the new law as may be needed."

        Supervisor Hoover, of Lincoln: "Township system has worked well in Lincoln. We have been troubled a little with narrow politicians and incompetent committeemen. We need white men for committeemen. I favor third-grade certificates for negro teachers. We have to import our negro teachers from other counties. This causes considerable opposition and friction between teacher and patrons."

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        Member Board of Education, of Jackson County: "Township system works well in Jackson. The possibilities of the local tax makes the new law far better than the old. Our County Teachers' Association appointed a committee to memorialize the Legislature to continue the local tax feature. One township in Jackson voted the special tax. I favor redistricting the counties, so that the territory of the districts will be nearer equal. I oppose any political consideration in the appointment of school committees. It often compels the board to select incompetent men. I favor all the committeemen being white men. The white man pays the tax and should control the funds. I oppose third-grade certificates. Our counties should draw teachers from the normal schools."

        Supervisor Green, of Davidson: "I do not like the township system. It fails to meet the requirements of the districts. We should have larger districts than under the old system. These should be well defined. We need three committeemen for every school; the committee should be a continuous body. One elected for one, two and three years, respectively. We need a compulsory attendance law with a minimum limit of four months' compulsory attendance Our districts should be so arranged that we could levy a special tax. The School Committee should levy this tax and report to the sheriff, or other collecting officer. The maximum limit should be forty cents on a hundred dollars. If this be unconstitutional, let the Constitution be amended."

        Before adjournment for dinner, Prof. J. Y. Joyner, of the Normal and Industrial College, was invited by the President to address the Association, and he responded in pleasant and earnest style. "We have great cause to feel encouraged by the prospect for the future of the public schools. They are too dear to North Carolina for anybody to lay unholy hands upon them. That for which we stand can never fail. It must win. We stand for the uplifting of the great masses of children of North Carolina; the right of these children to have light of mind and heart. We need faith, courage and determination."

        Dr. E. A. Alderman, President of the State University, addressed the association at the invitation of the President.

        Dr. Alderman said in part: "The supremest need of this State is an adequate system of common schools. It is now the unsolved problem in our civic life of to-day--in this fierce life of the present and the fiercer life of the future. We have now a great sociological problem to solve. Hatred of taxation makes it difficult, especially in rural districts, to build up our common schools. We can not take a pessimistic view of the situation--we feel hopeful about the future."

        Adjournment for dinner.

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        The Association was called to order by the Vice-President, Professor Ira Turlington.

        On motion of D. L. Ellis, of Buncombe County, the President was requested to appoint a committee of three to draft resolutions of respect to the memory of the late Vice-President of this Association, Supervisor H. A. Grey, of Mecklenburg.

        The motion was unanimously adopted, and the President announced the following committee: Supervisors R. B. Hunter, D. L. Ellis, and J. A. Anthony.

        On motion of R. B. Hunter, the President was authorized to appoint a committee of five Supervisors, who should go before the Committee on Education to be appointed by the General Assembly and try to secure proper school legislation. This committee is empowered to act and co-operate with any other committee, or educator, interested in securing better school legislation. Motion adopted.

        The President announced the following for this committee: Supervisors D. L. Ellis, of Buncombe; R. B. Hunter, of Mecklenburg; Street Brewer, of Sampson; Ira T. Turlington, of Johnston, and Jas. W. Hays, of Wilson.

        Prof. Ira T. Turlington discussed, "Defects in the School Law." First. There are many clerical errors. The law should be re-written, substituting "Supervisors of Schools" for "Register of Deeds," and "Board of Education" for "County Commissioners," in many sections of the law. Second. The time for settlement with the Treasurer should be so changed that the treasurers would settle with the Board of Education and the County Commissioners on the same day. The need for this change is apparent. Under the present law, the Treasurer can report a certain amount of money to County Commissioners as being on hand, and then report the same funds to the Board of Education as being to the credit of the school fund. It would be an easy matter for the Treasurer to use a part of the school funds every year in this way without ever being detected.

        Third. We need third-grade certificates again for negro teachers.

        Fourth. We need a law making attendance at Teachers' Institutes compulsory.

        Fifth. Examination days should be more frequent and teachers should be relieved of the fees, as now required, and required to attend on regular days.

        Sixth. The law as it passed the last General Assembly, regulating the sale of maps, charts, etc., should be printed in the School Law.

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This law requires the signature of the chairman of the Board of Education before an order can be paid by the Treasurer.

        Seventh. Township system should be changed; it operates badly in Johnston. It has one good feature--local taxation.

        The present township board might be retained and be given power to appoint a committee for each school. Let this township board consult with the committee and take into consideration the needs of the schools and report to the County Board of Education before the apportionment is made. This township board should grade the schools and fix the salary of teachers.

        Professor Noble and Supervisor Hoover joined in the general discussion. Both of these gentlemen recommended that only white men should serve as school committeemen. This would be to the interest of both races.

        The committee appointed to draft resolutions of respect to the memory of the late Vice-President, H. A. Grey, reported as follows:

        WHEREAS, Our co-worker, friend, and distinguished educator, Supervisor H. A. Grey, of Mecklenburg County, has passed to his reward;

        Resolved, 1. That the Association of County Supervisors, in annual session, deeply deplore his death.

        2. That in his death we lose one of our most devoted and able members, whose long life has been spent in well-directed educational work in the State.

        3. That we hereby tender to his family our condolence.

        4. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family of the deceased, after having been published in the Minutes of the Association.

        5. That a page of the records be devoted to his memory.


        "County Teachers' Association" was discussed by Prof. D. L. Ellis, of Buncombe, as follows:


Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Association of Supervisors:

        "It is with unusual pleasure that I respond on this topic to which I have been named. In my opinion, there is no other subject of greater moment than this, and I shall endeavor to point out some

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of the advantages of such organizations for our county systems of schools and teachers.

        "The County Association should serve as a professional centre, around which should cluster all the professional pride and zeal of the teachers of the county.

        "Meeting here, month after month, each teacher receives that fine impress and toning up, if you please, that we call enthusiasm, engendered by an exchange of ideas on congenial topics, in line with the daily life of the schools.

        "And we need more of this professional spirit; for too many teachers are easily content with the old ways, and their monthly wage, ignoring the higher and nobler phase of their vocation, which is found in the desire to give and take mutually in the great principles of education.

        "Every profession must have its stated meetings, where all things shall be in common, and the right of debate and exposition of the tenets of the profession shall have free course. Nowhere else is this need more imperative than in the teaching profession. And I presume that there is no county in the State that is without this most valuable auxiliary of the educational work among its schools.

        "Again, the County Association should serve as an open court for presenting any desired reform, or expanding or illustrating any theory of education. There is no other way better to enlist the sympathy and co-operation of the teachers than by a full and free debate on any proposed advanced movement. Practically, the success or failure of the movement is secured; for as the wisdom of the more able and experienced leaders points the way, so surely will the rank and file of the body follow.

        "Personally, let me say, many, if not all, of the reforms that have grown up under my administration as Supervisor, have had their origin in the open court of the Teachers' Association; and if I may digress, most of the notable advances in State school legislation began in the State Teachers' Assembly, where, for years past, the leading educators have debated such questions as "A Training School for Women Teachers" (now the State Normal and Industrial College), and various reforms in school legislation, such as are now embodied in the present School Law, enacted in 1897.

        "The Association may, and should be, a school of methods, based on the varied experiences of all the members; for the methods in books are often of little value to the poorly classified, badly "booked"--pardon the license--pupils that come into the district school; but the living method or device of one who has succeeded under given conditions may inspire and enthuse some 'ship-wrecked brother,' now at his wits' end as to what next to do.

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        "The monthly Association furnishes the only reasonable opportunity for social contact between sections of the county teaching body. The teachers should know each other intimately, and, from this close acquaintance, learn how best to aid each other in any case of need. In this social sense, where the whole body of teachers meet and discuss any topic informally, freely questioning and answering, we have the most favorable and hopeful aspect of the work to be done.

        "Too many teachers go on year after year, with a burden of doubt and difficulties that a few minutes of frank explanation, in answer to a pointed question from one who is in trouble, would clear away. Hence, having removed this diffidence, we are at once able to place each shy teacher where she will most profit by the Association work.

        "The Association is the wise Supervisor's most valuable and powerful auxiliary in his work, keeping the whole body of teachers feelingly and sympathetically close to him by monthly contact with all, while the usual field work would possibly reach only a score.

        "Perhaps it may not be amiss to give our plans for conducting our regular Association meetings.

        "First, then, it was necessary to fall upon a suitable time for the meeting, and as all our schools begin and end at the same time, we selected a date for each month that corresponded with the close of each school month; and made the place of meeting at the county seat, so that as the teachers came to get their monthly pay, they could attend the meeting of the Association the same day. The programme was made out and distributed three weeks in advance of the date for meeting, the Supervisor naming speakers for all the topics by private correspondence. General discussion, in five-minute talks, was allowed after the regular papers on any topic. Usually three topics, treating professional ethics, theory, and practice of teaching, were given, covering one and a half hours, beginning to the minute and closing on time, as indicated on the programme.

        "These programmes were published in the daily and weekly papers of the county, about a week before the day of the meeting, and a report of the session also was given to the press for publication.

        "If at any session, necessity arises for any special work, competent committees are named to prepare a report for the next meeting of the Association. Thus keeping up the interest. We have usually had an average attendance of two-thirds of the teachers at every session, and I do not recall one meeting in the eighteen months just closed that we have not had a fine interest and good work done on every subject.

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        "I neglected to say that the expenses for publishing and sending out the programme are met by an annual fee of 25 cents paid by each teacher.

"Supervisor of Buncombe County."


        Professor Anthony: "We have had success in securing good attendance in Cleveland. We make the associational gatherings the occasion for working up a sentiment in favor of public education."

        Supervisor Askew: "We invite the public to the Association in Bertie. We emphasize the social feature and meet with any community that invites the Association."

        Prof. W. T. Whitsett, Secretary of the Teachers' Assembly, discussed "The County Supervisors' and the Teachers' Assembly."

        "The Teachers' Assembly was organized as early as 1856, and held its first session at Goldsboro.

        "In 1857 the Assembly met at Warrenton, and by this time several counties had organized branch assemblies.

        "The Assembly met at New Bern in 1859, and some of the subjects for discussion at this session are live subjects to-day.

        "We notice, among others: 'Uniformity of text-books and normal schools.'

        "The State appropriated six hundred dollars to sustain the Assembly. It was re-organized in 1883, and since that time it has been the common ground for the meeting of college men, high school men, superintendents, and teachers."

        At the close of Professor Whitsett's address, short addresses were made by Professor Poteat, of Wake Forest College, and Professors Massey and D. H. Hill, of the Agricultural and Mechanical College.

        A motion was made and adopted that, "It is the sense of this Association that the township system should be retained."

        Supervisor Askew submitted the following:

        "Resolved, That it is the sense of this Association, that we should have State adoption of text-books."


        Adjournment for supper.

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        The Association was called to order by the President.

        An invitation was extended to the Association to visit in a body, or individually, the Institution for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, by the Superintendent, John E. Ray.

        The Association was then addressed by Rev. John E. White, of Raleigh. Subject: "Points of Power in Popular Education."


(By Rev. John E. White.)

        "One of the chief difficulties with popular education in North Carolina is that it is not popular. There is a disposition which has become a common habit among us to criticise and to sneer at our public schools. In public they are damned with faint praise, and in private, outspokenly disparaged, and brought into contempt. The dignity of their work is freely discredited in current neighborhood gossip, and their importance under-estimated in the wider area of educated opinion in North Carolina. This spirit is manifested by the people for whose very benefit the schools exist, as is shown beyond argument by the fact that only 40 per cent of our school population attend them at all. It is manifest among teachers of high schools and academies, as is often shown by the fact that the presence of a free-school fund in the territory of their schools is regarded as an evil menace to be put out of the way as soon as possible and with as little hurt to their own schools as can be arranged. Unless, as often happens, they may need the public funds to bolster up a failing patronage and threatened financial failure. It is manifested among teachers applying for positions. A young man comes from college and seeks a position as teacher. If it happen that a free school is offered him, he is ashamed to tell his friends that it is a public school he is to teach, and if he has a choice between a public school and a private school, he will invariably accept the private school with its uncertain salary, rather than a public school with a salary guaranteed by law. It is manifested among Legislators, as is shown by the fact that for thirty years they have been coming to Raleigh every two years, swearing by the Constitution, and yet in all that time there has been no decided, no sincere, no generous legislation for the improvement and extension of public education. It is manifested among the people at large, as is shown by the fact that they tolerate with satisfied indifference the abandonment of the Constitution of the State, which says, without equivocation, or a loop-hole for avoidance, that, "The

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State shall maintain a four-months' public school in every district." It was shown by the fact that three years ago they refused to vote taxes on themselves for their own schools; by the fact that out of 938 districts, only seven districts voted for the increased taxation. A gentleman in Wake County of intelligence and experience in gauging public sentiment, told me that in his township two years ago, if the question had been whether they would have any public school at all, they would have voted not to have any public school, by a large majority. I have not mentioned these facts for the purpose at this point of attempting an explanation of them, but merely to call your attention to a prominent difficulty to be met on the threshold by those who seek to extend and improve our public schools. Any effort which does not take notice of the state of the public mind on this question will bountifully fail in its very beginning.

        "Let me remind you, too, that this spirit of criticism and disparagement does not grow out of any dissatisfaction with the machinery of our system. It does not grow out of any criticism of the administration of the system itself. So far as I am a judge, and I have had an opportunity to form judgment at close range, Superintendent Mebane has commended himself greatly to the people of North Carolina. He has been industrious and earnest, in season and out of season, and has been faithful to a high ideal. Nor does this spirit come from any real or substantial hostility to the cause of education in general. The very presence in this city of such a large number of educators, representing so large number of sections, is an evidence that there never was a time in the history of North Carolina when the educational spirit was more aggressive among high schools and colleges. Nor does this spirit come from any jealousy or selfishness from any quarter known to me. Yet, the condition as described, does exist, as you gentlemen are well aware. It not only exists now, and has existed since the war, but it will continue to exist, and to bar the progress of public education, rendering useless and void the best efforts of the best men, disappointing the hopes, defeating the plans of those on whose hearts the cause of public education is resting heavily, until there is a union and an organization of energy and a steady and determined struggle to overcome it. How may it be overcome? It is easy to ask the question. Each of us might give a different answer. There is no specific, no quick cure, in my judgment. There is no avalanche formed, or forming, to sweep the prejudice, or difference out of the public mind. A whole people can not be awakened suddenly. To organize and train a righteous public conscience is the most difficult task of patriotism and statesmanship. There is just such a work as that before those who are willing and

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consecrated enough to undertake the improvement of our public schools, work, hard, slow, unremittent, and discouraging. One man can not do it alone. Superintendent Mebane can not create a spirit of enthusiasm for public schools, even though he shouted a proclamation from the dome of the capitol. A certain King in Norway once undertook to organize a great shout. He sent his proclamations all over his kingdom. The imperial decree demanded that at a certain hour, on a certain day, at a certain minute, and a certain moment, everyone of his subjects was to shout in unison. The greatest interest was taken in the King's strange idea; there was a great movement to and fro, and preparation for the appointed moment; it came, but deathless silence reigned. Only one person shouted, and that was a little woman in the mountains of Norway, who said, 'boo!' All the rest stood waiting to see what the others would do, and to hear the great noise which was expected to ensue. We will find that in dealing with public sentiment in public education in North Carolina there will be a disposition to leave the agitation to one man, or a few men. There must be first of all the organization of a propaganda for public education, which shall enlist the sympathy, and which shall bring to the altar the love and patriotism of every true-hearted, broad-souled North Carolinian, who has had the advantages of education himself. The president of a leading theological seminary was asked the other day what, in his opinion, was the greatest need of foreign missions. He reflected and answered solemnly, "a great missionary." If I were asked what was the primary need of popular education in North Carolina, I would say a great public man, whose heart and brain, time, talents, energy, everything, was devoted to the cause of the wool-hatted and bare-footed army of over six hundred thousand children in North Carolina, whose only hope for instruction is in the public schools. I remarked to a gentleman yesterday that North Carolina was the greatest opportunity for statesmanship in America. What I meant was that the condition of public education in this State, the deplorable situation with regard to our public schools in North Carolina afforded the greatest possible opportunity for some man to be transformed from a politician into a statesman. At the capitol, in Boston, are two statues, which invariably attract the attention of the visitor. One is the figure of Daniel Webster--erect, leonine, to be described as one describes a great mountain, or a gigantic natural wonder; Daniel Webster, the great defender of the Constitution. The other is that of Horace Mann, the Superintendent of Public Schools for the State of Massachusetts. There they stand, side by side, dividing the honor of the public gaze, parceling between them the gratitude of the commonwealth. If Webster was great, Horace Mann was

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greater. And I believe it with all my heart that the man who, in the next ten years, in North Carolina, who has been fashioned and formed by nature and training for leadership, will be beside himself, a fool, a crank, a dedicated, sanctified agitator for better schools, whether parties nominate or people elect him to office; whether he be popular or unpopular; whether he offend, or whether he pleases the newspapers, will create a career so persistent in its claims upon the conscience of our people, will so write himself into the history of our progress, and so entwine his life into the lives of thousands, born and unborn, that sooner or later, when truth and justice get a hearing, as in God's own good time they always do, that in the summing up of achievement and the distribution of laurels, the sage of history, when he comes to make the record, will dip his pen in the ink of justice, and in the clear blue above the names of all our public men who have toiled and striven for the betterment of their people, will write his name in letters of fadeless lustre.

        "But to the point at which I was driving. What is the programme of those who will interest themselves in gaining the sympathy of the people for our public schools? In my judgment, the whole ground of public education needs restatement. The irresistible argument, the unconquerable ground for appeal, the righteous cause of public education demands re-emphasis from one end of the State to the other. We need a campaign of education, and a campaign for education, which shall flame in season and out of season, from every stump and from every rostrum. It seems to me that one of the first points to be insisted on is:

        "1. That the State owes it to itself to afford every child sufficient instruction to fit him decently for the duties of citizenship. I am quite aware that there is a difference of opinion among us as to the proper and legitimate functions of the State in education. There are some who argue that the State owes more than a duty to itself; that philanthropy is one of the grounds of popular education; that it is the State's duty to go into the business of benevolence; that the State should put no limit to its beneficence; that the State is an eleemosynary, as well as political, society. There are educational leaders who wink at paternalism without shame or rebuke of conscience. That is no new theory in this country. It is a theory older than the country itself. It was born among thrones of kings. It first took root in this land in the brain and statesmanship of Alexander Hamilton. I need not say that there are many others who have very little sympathy with it as a theory. We are Jeffersonian Americans, rather than Hamiltonian. I very much agree with the recent writer who says that 'Paternalism' is a mildly contumelious term used by some political economists to designate something

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foolish which is done with kind intentions. We believe in monarchial ideas for a monarchial form of government and Republican ideas for a republican form of government. We do not believe in 'Grand-motherly legislation.' We have still less sympathy with this theory as a theory for North Carolina in its present condition. To say the least, it is the most inexpedient policy to talk about the claims of the child, or the citizen on the philanthropy of the State until at least some real effort has been made to satisfy his claim on the ground of the duty the State owes to itself. But this is not the question to-night. We all agree that the State has the right of self-preservation; that self-defense is one of its primary functions, and that if popular ignorance threaten its security and the illiteracy of the people menace its very existence, then the State certainly is involved in the duty of providing a bulwark against such catastrophe and may even claim the right to require popular education by a compulsory law. Agreed in this, let us notice some of the points of power and advantage in popular education.

        "First, The industrial value of popular eaucation. We know very little in North Carolina of a leisure class. Millionaires are rare animals. People will go as far to see one as to see a bear. People die of many diseases in this State, but never die of what the Europeans call 'Ennui.' If you want to find North Carolina, you must enter through the back-yard. You will not find her in the parlor. If you want to find North Carolina, you will find her on the farm, in the shop, on freight trains, in rock quarries, in the mines, on the steamboats, and a great many of them, like Peter, say every day 'I go a-fishing.' You will find her in the kitchen, by the wash-tub, with the needle, with the broom, in factories, or in homes, where indolence is counted as a sin and industry is reckoned as a virtue. I will tell you, the bread-and-butter question is the greatest question in North Carolina. It is the root question of all. Free silver is an empty slogan, unless it enlists the sympathy and co-operation of the bread-and-butter question. The gold standard is a glittering absurdity, unless you link it with the bread-and-butter question. It is the issue of issues, and the doctrine of doctrines. I say with all reverence that the bread-and-butter question is even a greater question in the minds of the people of North Carolina than the question of the Kingdom of God. So whatever concerns industrial welfare, whatever concerns the dinner-table, the smoke-house, the crib, and the barn, the credit, and the bank account, concerns that which the people regard as their happiness and their comfort. Whatever uplifts North Carolina industrially is a lever underneath the hopes and the prayers and aspirations of the great majority of North

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Carolinians. I make the contention that popular education is a vital necessity in our industrial situation. Our greatest wastes are not from flood or epidemic, but from ignorance. Our wealth, however falsely boasted, is not in farms or mines, or material resources, but it is in the brains which may develop these resources. We put emphasis on the wrong point in our estimate of the wealth of North Carolina. To increase our industrial wealth we must increase our intellectual wealth. Pig-iron is worth twenty dollars a ton; made into horse shoes, ninety dollars; into knife blades, two hundred dollars; into watch springs, one thousand dollars--that is, raw iron twenty dollars, brain power, nine hundred and eighty dollars The great painter, Millet, bought a yard of canvass for twenty cents, paid forty cents more for a hair brush and some colors. Upon this canvass he spread his brain and gave the world "The Angelus." The original investment in raw material was sixty cents; his brain gave that raw material a value of one hundred and five thousand dollars. A man digs ditches for forty cents a day; teach him how to read and he learns the laws of drainage, he is worth a dollar a day. Increase his education with the knowledge of engineering and he is worth five dollars a day, and the scale upward is limitless for wealth-producing capacity keeps pace with intelligence. We are in the habit of saying that North Carolina is a rich State; that her wealth is enormous. We state it as a history fact. In truth, it is only a prophecy. It requires admirable faith to make even the prophecy. In fact, North Carolina is a richer territory to-day than it was when the savage Indians roamed over her uncut forests and untilled lands only as the inhabitants of North Carolina are further up in the scale of intelligence than was the Indian. I am very much disposed to dispute the statement that North Carolina is a rich, a wealthy State. I fear that it is far from the truth. I fear, though I am ashamed to say it, that North Carolina is the poorest State in the Union, with the possible exception of Louisiana. How can I prove it. I point to the census reports for 1890. If I consult my State pride, I am going to vote against the party that authorizes the publication of such statistics as are going the rounds of the press, not because they are untrue or inaccurate, but because they make it impossible for me, as a citizen, to do much boasting where these statistics circulate. The census report shows that North Carolina is the most illiterate of all the States in the Union. Will you believe it? Out of our population of seventeen hundred thousand there are nearly five hundred thousand people in North Carolina who can not read the Bible, which points them to the Almighty and leads their tottering, penitent foot-steps to the Cross of Christ. They can not read the newspapers, which acquaint them

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with current happenings. I realized some time ago what it was to be away from the touch of the world-wide information which the newspapers afford. For two weeks I did not see a railroad train; my journey began on February 14th, and while I travelled peacefully and ignorantly through the country, beyond the sound of the railroad trains, and beyond the reach of the printing press, in Havana harbor the mine was fired which destroyed our battleship Maine, and which precipitated the most gigantic development of American civilization, if not of world-wide civilization, history will record. But to me, it was as if it had never happened. My heart did not thrill with patriotic ardor, my soul did not burn with patriotic indignation, for I was ignorant of it all. Two weeks later, I picked up a copy, at the first opportunity, of a newspaper, and then I felt what thousands and millions had felt two weeks before. Do you know that this illustrates the condition of five hundred thousand of our people, yea, even more than that! For there are thousands who, having eyes, see not, and who, being able to read, read not--a condition closely approximating illiteracy itself. And this condition of things must most vitally affect the industrial productiveness of the State. An ignorant people have never in all the world's history been a prosperous people. Ignorance never was, and never will be, a good farmer. Success and prosperity are in knowing how. 'No richness of climate, no spontaneous productiveness of soil, no facilities of commerce, no stores of gold or diamonds, garnered in the treasure chambers of the earth can cover even worldly prosperity upon an uneducated State.' The State of Massachusetts is the most striking example of the effect of popular education upon industrial progress. Each child in Massachusetts has an average of seven years of two hundred days each of education. The average in North Carolina is only seventy-two days, instead of two hundred. That is, Massachusetts has about five times as much education for her children as North Carolina for hers. In physical condition, Massachusetts is really inferior to North Carolina. She has no navigable river; she has no mountains as has North Carolina, to tempt and satisfy the dreams and fortune of a Monte Cristo. She has no gold nor gems in her soil. 'Her best mineral is granite, and ice is the only pearl to be found in her waters.' And yet, Massachusetts heads the list of great American States. As when Webster spoke, there she stands; behold her! She needs no encomium. She stands there as the greatest American illustration of the relationship which exists between public education as the cause and industrial wealth as the result. There she stands with her assessed and taxable wealth of nearly three billion dollars, over onehalf the total assessed valuation of the thirteen Southern States;

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and how and why? Because she has twice as much education as the Southern States. Dr. Curry puts the truth in a pregnant sentence. He says 'the average amount of wealth is proportionate to the rate of education given by the State. Massachusetts has its wealth increased three hundred million dollars more than it would have had but for its free schools.' We are told that we are too poor to increase the term of our public schools; too poor to be taxed to make them more efficient. I tell you that we are too poor not to be taxed for education. What is the hope of those who make this cry of poverty an insurmountable barrier to better public schools? If we are too poor now, when shall we be richer? Is it the law, or industry, that men or States get richer by irresolution, incapacity, or ignorance? I repeat, we are too poor not to educate. Massachusetts could far better shut up her schools and turn her children into her streets untaught, than can North Carolina refuse to improve hers. She could better afford it. I notice that the papers say that North Carolina is on the threshold of a great industrial revival; that we have more cotton factories than any State in the Union, and more are in course of erection. That before we know it, our ears are going to be drowned by the hum of spindles, by the roar of machinery; our highways blocked by crowding thousands of busy laborers; that milk and honey shall flow in the land, and every mouth shall be fed, and that content and prosperity shall reign supreme from Mt. Mitchell to the surge of the Atlantic Ocean.

        "I am not a prophet, nor should I sit in judgment upon those who are prophets, but to my mind, that prophecy is flatulent nonsense, unless that prophecy reckons that North Carolina is going to provide education for her people. We are not ready for an industrial revival; we are not prepared for prosperity. As is said of the Kingdom of God, many a man who prays 'Our Father who art in Heaven, Thy Kingdom come on earth as it is in Heaven,' would be scared out of his wits if his prayer should be answered. The Kingdom of God is not coming until we are ready for its coming, nor is the kingdom of industry coming to North Carolina until she prepares the way for it, and places herself in readiness for it. And suppose that industrial revival should come. That doubtful prophecy of factories and wheels and shops and dust and smoke. Is there one who fails to see that along with it will come great problems? A manufacturing people will always have the problem of labor and capital to contend with. The Commissioner of Labor Statistics tells me that our manufacturing population already amounts to seventy-five thousand people, and that the people are moving to the factory towns at the rate now of five thousand a

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year. How long is it going to be until the wild-eyed, long-haired, red-shirted socialist will make his appearance among them? Are we prepared to deal intelligently with strikes and riots? Is this population in a condition even now to weigh argument, to arbitrate, to listen to reason? How much less will they be able when on the tide of immigration the fouler element poisons our native-born people with the doctrines of anarchy and communism? Oh, well, some one says that is an argument against popular education. That Massachusetts has educated, and yet has great riots and strikes. And some one proposes that the way for us to avoid the danger and the disaster of labor strikes and labor riots is to keep the people ignorant; that ignorance is satisfied; that illiteracy does not resent or complain. To this suggestion I would say that is North Carolina's immunity from riots, from the problem which afflict manufacturing people by binding chains about the heaving bosoms and free-swinging arms of native-born North Carolinians, who have left the old homestead and turned their backs upon its restraints, its quiet and its privacy, to reach after the glittering inducements of better wages and more comfort for themselves and their families. If North Carolina is to avoid the conditions which prevail in Northern States by creating a population of white slaves, by introducing a system of serfdom in a State whose whole history is a rebuke to tyranny the world over, then I say far better would it be if from this capital, authorized by law, and protected by law, there should march out upon every railroad and by the side of every water power a commission of patriotic citizens to place dynamite underneath every factory; to fling fire into every lint room; to devastate and lay waste and destroy every single vestige of that industrial progress which is made to-day the basis of such glowing prophecy.

        "You mark also another point in this connection. A leading industrial agent recently told me that the greatest difficulty he had in securing immigration of the desirable kind from Western and Northwestern States was the shameful condition of our public schools. He said that one of the first questions asked him by those whom he solicited for immigration was with regard to the opportunity for the education of the children they could hope to find in North Carolina. Capital will not seek investment among people who are ignorant, and if we are looking for immigration for industrial prosperity of North Carolina, we will look in vain for any large accession of power and industrial force until North Carolina reverses her thirty-year policy in regard to public schools.

        "Another point of power; Second: The political value of popular education. I suppose that the spirit of republicanism and freedom comes as near being indigenous to North Carolina soil

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and climate as anywhere on earth. From generation to generation we have inherited the spirit of liberty. Even ignorance and illiteracy have not successfully prevented its propagation from sire to son. There has never been a struggle anywhere on earth that the heart of North Carolina did not beat in sympathy. In every war and in every crisis of liberty she has had a rank of honor in that cause from the time that Sevier's men from the mountains and the Carolina colonists from the Piedmont and plains, clasped hands at King's Mountain and swept back the surge of British thraldom and checked the declining fortunes of American freedom, and by a victory, the influence of which will throb and thrill in every chapter of future American history, gave hope and encouragement to the cause of the feeble colonies, to this last day, when at Cardenas and at Santiago our Bagley and our Shipp representative of the best chivalry of North Carolina, with virtue and heroism worthy of more than marble memory, poured their blood out for the freedom of Cuba, North Carolina has made a record which guarantees her fidelity to republican institutions. But even this is not enough to exempt her from the workings of natural law. Cause and effect will have their sway and way here as elsewhere. There is a law as natural and as inevitable as any law of nature. It is this: Political prosperity is impossible where the rule or rulers are ignorant. In the United States, the citizen is the ruler. We are kings, gentlemen. The ballot is the sceptre. A sceptre which 'performs the free man's will as the lightning does the will of God.' In a republic like ours, every tattered hat is a kingly coronet, under which rests a sovereign's head, and therefore if the citizens of this country are ignorant, political prosperity is impossible. The ballot in the hands of illiteracy is not a weapon of construction, but a weapon of destruction. It can build nothing up; it may tear everything down. I have been very much struck in tracing the truth of this principle in the history of God's dealings with man in all the ages past. Go back to the earliest account of man's social life. Government was one of the first necessities and God provided government for his people suited to their needs. The first form of government was the patriarchial. It seemed always necessary that the father should have a great character, for the father was king. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, ruled their offspring, and ruled them as children, for no more than children were they able to rule themselves. The filial obligation and the law of obedience prevailed until the child was fifty years old. This form of government was an absolute necessity, as man's mind had not expanded, his horizon had not broadened. He was in a state of primary intelligence. As time swept on the mind of the people enlarged; they began to be

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educated in social duties, to see further, feel more, the points of contact were increased. A change from the patriarchial form was necessary, and so it was followed by the government of prophets and judges; the sense of justice began to live; religious obligations began to be recognized in the administration of the prophets. This form of government was suited to their needs at this period of their development. Time swept on and the people of Israel began to think for themselves; individual desire and personal choice, and faint stirrings of a sense their rights became manifest. Instead of waiting for God to move, they moved themselves. When people get ready for large things they begin to demand large things. So the people of Israel demanded of God a king. I have always thought that God's displeasure at the request of the people for a king grew out of the fact that He feared they were not yet ready for that advanced form of government, and the result shows that God's fears were well founded. But a king they had, for the spirit of education was abroad in Israel.

        Come on down through the intervening ages, and except for that dark period, of which there is so little account, four hundred years after Malachi, you can see that the human breast is beginning to heave, that the human pulse is beginning to throb, that the human heart is beginning to beat, with larger and higher aspirations, that the human life is beginning to respond to the call of a better destiny. The fullness of time approached. At the end of that dark period, with a suddenness that dazzled and affrighted the inhabitants of the earth, the Star of Bethlehem leaped into view, and the world's heart began to bound, and the world's horizon began to broaden. With Christ, came the spirit of liberty. He found the individual; He taught and emphasized the immense value of the single soul; with Him he brought education. In the manger was the nucleus, the potentiality of every school, of every college, of every university in Christendom. With this there came the sense of freedom. The word, the thought, the spirit of republicanism, until this time had never been uttered, had never been thought, had never been felt by any human bosom. The carol of the Nativity was the birth song of Democracy. Christ said one great thing: He said, "Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free." That should be the educational motto for the whole universe because it is the educational law of the whole universe. Freedom was to come into His kingdom by knowledge; so must freedom come into our kingdom, our State, by knowledge, and so must it not only come, but by knowledge also, and by knowledge, intelligence, education, alone must it be preserved. Every power on earth may be marshalled, every influence may be brought to bear,

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and yet the combined powers of earth and hell can never give stability to the rule of ignorance over intelligence. I think we are learning this lesson, that freedom should end where intelligence ends. Out in the field I let my dog do pretty much as he pleases; that is his sphere of knowledge; there he knows his business; he is educated to hunt and to point birds; he is educated to bring them to me when I kill them; in a real sense, he is a sovereign; but when I get home he becomes my slave, because he is not educated in house-hold etiquette. Sovereignty and authority ends where intelligence ends. The other day a man in Boston was staggering down the street drunk; he seemed to be having everything at his mercy; from side to side he swayed, swinging his arms against fence and tree and passer-by; until at length he swung his arms once too often and struck a gentleman on the nose; the gentleman at once drew back and planted a blow in the drunken man's forehead, and sent him sprawling out into the gutter, and there he lay, muttering and grumbling and complaining, he said: "I thought this was a free country, that I had as much right on the street as anybody." "Yes," said the gentleman, "this is a free country, but I want you to understand that your freedom ends where my nose begins." The pledge of political prosperity is the establishment of intelligence in the citizenship of a State. Some time ago you were greatly aroused about Cuba. The philanthropic heart of America was stirred to its depths. We said, 'We will go down and give Cuba a republic like ours; we will bring freedom to the oppressed island.' We swept Spain, not only out of Cuba, but out of the western hemisphere, but did we give the Cubans a republic? Have we said, 'Go ahead, elect your president, make your laws.' Are we going to say any such thing? No! Why? When we got down to Cuba and saw that two-thirds of the population were negroes, ignorant, superstitious, absolutely illiterate, this law which I have been stating stood and demanded to be heard, and the public conscience of America has at once approved the determination of our government not to allow the formation of a republic in Cuba until she is able to govern herself.

        "Third: The moral value of public education. I am glad to reach this point, though I shall dwell upon it very briefly, for I am anxious that my insistence upon the industrial value of education should not leave the impression that I regard this as the most valuable thing in popular education. Indeed, it is the least valuable. I want to do nothing to encourage the spirit of materialism. Education is not intended to help men to get on top of each other. I remember an unfortunate illustration which my father, who was a teacher, was in the habit of giving to his scholars to

Page 258

prove the value of an education. He said that once there was an Irishman and a Dutchman traveling together as tramps. They were very hungry, nothing to eat for two days. By good fortune they found a morsel of meat which some one had thrown away by the road side. Both saw it at once, and it was the property of both, but the Irishman said, 'The bite is not enough to satisfy both of us, and besides, we have no knife to cut it.' The Dutchman had no comment to make. A bright idea struck the Irishman. 'Sure,' said he, 'let us pull for it.' The Dutchman nodded assent, so down upon their knees they went, and the meat was placed between the teeth of each. Everything was in readiness for the struggle. They knelt with muscles tense and strained. Said the Irishman, through his clenched and fastened teeth, 'And is you ready?' 'Yah,' said the Dutchman, and his mouth new open with a spring and his grip on the meat was lost. It became the Irishman's property. The point intended to illustrate is, that intelligence and sharpened wit always get the better of the brutish and sluggish mind. It was a bad illustration for a school teacher to make. The purpose of education is not to help men to get the biggest piece. It has a moral element in it, which, if omitted, renders it not only valueless, but dangerous. The State should have nothing to do with religion, but it should have much to do with morality. The State is in a sense, a moral institution. Its courts of justice are moral institutions. Justice itself is a moral quality and quantity. To protect life and property, to maintain order and peace is one of the moral duties of the State. Popular education bears at this point. The school-house is to us what a garrison of soldiers is to Cuba to-day. A public school teacher is an officer of law and order. The discipline of the school room is a training in citizenship. Intelligence gained from study is a guarantee that the rights of others will be recognized; that the rewards of honesty will be regarded as real and lasting; that disorder, injustice, and the rule of wrong will be held as a baleful enemy not only of the individual but of the multitude. People complain that they have to pay their school tax. The Sheriff tells me that he has more trouble collecting school tax than any other kind of tax. When our public school system becomes what it ought to be, and the spirit of popular education takes possession of our people, it seems to me that the Sheriff will find the people clamoring at his office to pay their tax for schools, regarding it as the greatest privilege. I had rather put one dollar into the establishment of a school, and the support of a teacher in a district noted for its lawlessness, and for the desperate character of its people, so far as the establishment of law and order and decency is concerned, than to put in

Page 259

taxes to support a company or regiment of constables who, by force and might, should seek to bring about the same result.

        "Fourth: I have this to say, in conclusion: I read one of the most pathetic stories last night over which my eye ever dropped a tear. My heart was stirred as very rarely. It was not romance I read; not the death of little Nell, nor the plaintive pathos of Dickens, nor the sweet touching tales of Kentucky, by James Lane Allen; nor the deep, moving, heart-finding power of the Bonnie Brier Bush. It was history. It was a chapter in North Carolina history. It was a pamphlet, lately prepared by Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, and published by the Government. The title of it is "The Beginning of the Common School System in North Carolina." In the main, it is a story of the life and work of Calvin H. Wiley. I did not know the man before; I think I will never forget him now. It told of his heroic effort to build up and establish a free school system in North Carolina. He plead, he begged, he spoke, he wrote; his soul burned by night and by day with his passion for the people. At length a free school fund, which amounted to two million dollars was gathered together. To Wiley this fund was sacred; he loved it, he believed in it, he defended it, 'with devotion as humble as that which brings to his idol the Indian's offering, yet as proud as that which the Priestess feels as she nurses the flame at the shrine where she kneels.' Calvin H. Wiley, when enemies threatened, and when there was organized effort to put his fund to other uses than to that which it was sacredly dedicated, stood in its defense like a stone wall, or should I say, as a lioness, wounded and bleeding, stands guard over her offspring. Unbidden and unwelcomed, he boldly marched into the Governor's Council, and with Cromwellian bluntness, told them, in the name of the children of the State, that sacred fund should not be touched. But the red flame of war came. He stood to his post. It is enough to make a man cry aloud to read the record that the historian has made of his sacrifice. He, himself, was brought into sore trouble by the depreciation of the currency. His salary was not enough 'to board a horse,' as he said. and so he concluded, in 1865, to live without it. During that time he wrote: `Throughout the war I have devoted myself to the schools, and tried to live on a salary averaging hardly two hundred dollars, in par funds for four years, and when the State came in the spring of 1865 to pay his two thousand dollars' salary, due for 1864, they gave it to him in State coupons and Confederate currency, which amounted in all to only seven hundred dollars. He kept the light of public education burning through that dark and distressing period. It seemed to me, as I read it, that God himself. or His angels, should come down from heaven to help Wiley; but,

Page 260

alas! when the State passed into the hands of men of whom at least I may say charitably were not statesmen because they were mad with power; were not patriots because they plied the dagger to the commonwealth, poisoned the pools of the State's honor, looted her treasuries, and wrote the blackest page of her history. In this wild and wicked regime, a school fund of two million dollars was lost. What little of it remained was invested in special tax bonds, which the State repudiated. I have used severe language in referring to the iniquity of this transaction. Let me moderate my tone and speak dispassionately. Since that day, while no such corruption and robbery has been known, there has been no real reversal, no substantial alteration in the attitude of the State towards the education of the poor boys and girls of North Carolina. Legislature after Legislature has met, sometimes the best men and sometimes not. Many laws have been made; much has been done of value to the State's welfare; appropriations have been made for higher education; colleges have been built; normal schools have been established; yet with the exception of county taxation, and a whiskey tariff, the same condition and attitude of the State on which Calvin H. Wiley turned his back, with a broken heart, to enter into the peaceful and quiet life of a Presbyterian preacher, stands to-day unaltered, so far as any just and generous change of policy with regard to the public schools is concerned. I know that there are practical difficulties; perhaps some laws will have to be changed; perhaps some constitutional changes will be necessary; but I refuse to believe that a Legislature which represents the sovereign will of the people of North Carolina can not devise some way, can not inaugurate some plan, by which at least a real movement for our public schools may be made practicable. There will be much talk of economy, of economy in salaries of State officers; it is already in the papers. There will be much said about extravagance as a danger to be avoided. But I tell you there can be no extravagance in providing money for public schools. You must begin at the bottom. The old theory of building up a public school system from the top, has had a long trial. It is a dismal and a dismaying failure. Well enough for normal schools, well enough for higher education. Thank God, there is a spirit in North Carolina of devotion to higher education, which has builded, by private beneficence, institutions calculated to meet our wants and our needs for many years to come. Teachers will be necessary. But has our theory and practice of building from the top, produced us teachers for common schools? In the hundred years of its history, the University of Virginia graduated nine thousand Alumni. Of that number, five hundred became teachers, and of this five hundred, I

Page 261

am told, not more than fifty, even for a brief period, devoted themselves to teaching in common schools. Georgia has tried that theory; but somehow or other, men whom the State has graduated have not turned to teach public schools. North Carolina has tried it, with the same result. Is there any blame here to be attached to anything or anybody? I think not. I do not blame; I can not criticise the men who, after years of study and preparation, find themselves under the necessity of securing sufficient salary to support them, and to repay them for their investment in college education. You may lay this down as a truth now, and a truth to-morrow, that men are not going to teach in the common schools of North Carolina until the State makes it possible for them to do so. I do not know that my voice shall reach beyond this Senate chamber, but here I wish to make a plea for the six hundred thousand children in North Carolina who are to become the citizens of the State. If the State is going to do anything for them, it must do it soon. The years of school age are few, and they are passing rapidly. By night and by day, whether awake or asleep, the six hundred thousand children in North Carolina are getting older, and passing beyond the school age. In ten years, six hundred thousand of them will be beyond the reach of help. They will die illiterate, as they have lived. There is a grim and terrible reality for us here in North Carolina in the story of the farmer in the province of Holstein. 'Farmer Jan was walking sadly down the road one day when the village pastor met him. 'Why so sad, farmer Jan?' said the pastor. 'Ah, I have a sad errand, pastor,' said Jan. 'What is it?' 'Farmer Henricks' cow is dead in my pasture, and I am on my way to tell him.' 'A hard task, Jan.' 'Indeed it is, but I shall break it to him gently.' 'How will you do that?' 'I shall tell him first that it is his mother who is dead, and then having opened the way for sadder news still, I shall tell him that it is not his mother but the cow.' I have an idea that if this was a matter of cattle, of mules and horses, which were being destroyed, that the Legislature would pass the most stringent and positive laws; that if it were six hundred thousand sheep which were being killed by six hundred thousand dogs, the tax on dogs would be sure of passage. Do we contemplate the ruin and undoing of six hundred thousand children more complacently? I think we all love our State. Our faces are turned to the future. It is a good thing to be young, and to have a part in what is to be done. If we would serve her, let us lift our voices in this cause. In all the history of heroism there was never a grander exhibition than that enacted before the walls of Sempach, in Switzerland. The Austrians, ten thousand strong, were invading the land. The brave Swiss patriots, only fifteen hundred

Page 262

strong, flung open the gates of the city and marched out to meet the foe. When the Austrian knights saw them advancing to the attack they dismounted and knelt in solid phalanx, presenting a solid line of spears. On came the Swiss. They charged impetuously, but in vain. The solid front of glittering spears was unbroken, and two hundred Swiss lay bleeding and dying on the ground. A council of war was held by the dismayed patriots. They were in despair. Retreat within the walls was advised. 'No,' said one, 'we can overcome them if only we can get among them; if only a way is opened through the line of spears.' And putting himself at their head, Van Winklereid led them on; and just as the Austrian line was reached again, seized with the impulse of heroism, he rushed forward and grasped as many spears in his outstretched arms as he could reach, buried them in his bosom and bore them by his weight to the earth, and as he went down he cried, 'Make way for liberty.' His companions rushed over his body into the breach thus made and slaughtered the armor encumbered knights like sheep, and saved the liberties of their country. The public school will make way for advancement in every direction. Industry will flourish; political freedom be guaranteed; morals improved It will make way with the bad, the dangerous, the menacing, the hurtful agencies which threaten prosperity, and will make way for the good, the true, the solid, the substantial, the upbuilding and elevation of not a part of our people, but of all our people."

        The Association adjourned at the close of Dr. White's able address.

C. H. MEBANE, President.

PAUL J. LONG, Secretary.

Page 263

TABLE NO. I School Fund Received by County Treasurer for the School Year Ending June 30 1899.

Counties. State and County Poll Tax. General Property Special Tax. Special Property Tax. Local Acts. Special Poll Tax, Local Acts. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties. Llquor Licenses. Auctioneers. Estray. State Treasurer. Other Sources. Total Receipts. Balance on Hand Last Report.
Alamance $4,897.50 $8,581.76 ---- ---- ---- $209.74 ---- ---- ---- $243.35 $13,931.85 $1,592.97
Alexander 2,217.08 1,727.95 ---- ---- $14.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- 63.50 4,022.58 295.43
Alleghany 1,376.03 1,205.92 ---- ---- 214.12 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2,796.07 ----
Anson 3,236.55 3,581.38 ---- ---- 76.71 475.00 ---- ---- ---- 53.00 7,422.64 4,203.14
Ashe 3,738.00 2,465.13 ---- ---- 181.21 ---- ---- ---- ---- 39.00 6,423.34 538.94
Beaufort 3,966.13 5,071.15 ---- ---- 78.51 1,301.50 ---- ---- ---- 852.92 11,270.54 4,143.81
Bertie 3,837.16 4,167.79 ---- ---- 92.30 1,694.20 ---- ---- $334.12 1,129.90 11,249.77 2,316.65
Bladen 2,679.00 2,544.25 $229.64 ---- 51.61 ---- ---- ---- ---- 299.30 5,803.80 2,519.13
Brunswick 1,835.67 2,252.51 ---- ---- 49.71 ---- ---- ---- ---- 150.50 4,288.39 1,187.33
Buncombe 6,769.34 17,965.95 ---- ---- 339.64 1,824.00 ---- $16.80 1,786.87 1,934.37 30,636.97 8,365.36
Burke 2,555.03 2,789.01 ---- ---- 61.61 380.00 ---- ---- ---- 59.00 5,844.65 2,059.91
Cabarrus 4,561.44 7,044.41 ---- ---- 250.31 ---- ---- ---- ---- 389.09 12,245.25 1,578.21
Caldwell 5,926.70 ---- ---- ---- 711.15 ---- ---- ---- ---- 105.00 6,742.85 ----
Camden 1,258.50 1,663.29 ---- ---- 53.05 ---- ---- ---- ---- 113.00 3,087.84 ----
Carteret 1,338.22 1,343.15 ---- ---- 12.00 300.00 ---- ---- 400.00 697.04 4,090.41 2,650.13
Caswell 2,043.45 2,690.62 ---- ---- 100.10 855.00 ---- ---- 75.00 2,037.36 7,809.53 ----
Catawba 3,732.07 4,760.22 ---- ---- 351.31 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1,532.08 10,575.68 1,038.85

Page 264


TABLE NO. I --Continued.

Counties. State and County Poll Tax. General Property Special Tax. Special Property Tax. Local Acts. Special Poll Tax, Local Acts. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties. Liquor Licenses. Auctioneers. Estray. State Treasurer. Other Sources. Total Receipts. Balance on Hand Last Report.
Chatham $4,983.50 $5,024.44 ---- ---- $124.31 ---- ---- ---- ---- $1,071.93 ---- $3,314.59
Cherokee 1,219.51 2,439.03 $683.11 $341.55 85.80 ---- ---- ---- $179.00 202.75 $5,150.75 3,284.25
Chowan 1,843.41 3,055.83 ---- ---- 36.55 $1,359.93 ---- ---- 273.25 ---- 6,548.97 ----
Clay 1,309.47 ---- 290.00 ---- 2.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 1,630.32 5.23
Cleveland 4,815.00 6,247.14 ---- ---- 554.99 300.00 ---- ---- ---- 3,630.20 15,547.33 4,024.04
Columbus* 3,711.00 2,377.02 ---- ---- 47.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 284.20 6,419.72 908.69
Craven 2,400.00 ---- ---- 5,872.33 144.05 1,620.00 ---- ---- ---- 828.00 10,864.38 1,219.01
Cumberland 3,348.24 7,203.12 ---- ---- 37.78 2,400.00 ---- ---- ---- 370.35 13,359.49 689.79
Currituck ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Dare 1,603.20 874.27 137.85 50.10 104.00 50.00 ---- ---- 187.95 72.25 3,079.62 165.63
Davidson 3,903.08 6,476.88 ---- 24.00 139.00 ---- ---- ---- 255.60 385.20 11,272.36 558.89
Davie 2,090.00 ---- ---- 2,763.70 74.97 ---- ---- ---- ---- 78.00 5,006.67 521.55
Duplin 3,546.83 4,424.12 ---- ---- 38.72 ---- ---- ---- ---- 221.66 8,231.33 1,876.57
Durham 4,084.53 14,861.55 ---- 150.00 537.60 2,280.00 ---- ---- 150.00 1,940.75 24,004.43 ----
Edgecombe 3,846.08 6,592.25 ---- ---- 148.83 3,239.50 ---- ---- ---- 138.50 13,965.16 8,850.38
Forsyth 6,030.83 14,116.79 ---- ---- 327.34 1,420.00 ---- ---- ---- 458.60 22,053.56 ----
Franklin 4,256.48 5,035.29 ---- ---- 213.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 7,010.83 12,015.60 ----

        * From Ex-Treasurer.

Page 265


TABLE NO. I --Continued.

Counties. State and County Poll Tax. General Property Special Tax. Special Property Tax. Local Acts. Special Poll Tax, Local Acts. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties. Liquor Licenses. Auctioneers. Estray. State Treasurer. Other Sources. Total Receipts. Balance on Hand Last Report.
Gaston 4,018.17 6,360.61 ---- ---- 272.69 ---- ---- ---- 510.00 742.50 11,903.97 3,608.08
Gates 1,900.00 2,376.19 ---- ---- 22.85 285.00 ---- ---- ---- 78.00 4,662.04 2,265.45
Graham 600.00 813.06 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 80.00 80.00 1,573.06 ----
Granville 4,726.71 5,401.96 ---- ---- 259.95 750.00 ---- ---- ---- 567.50 11,706.12 978.46
Greene 2,330.90 2,146.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 70.75 4,548.15 2,907.16
Guilford 7,000.00 11,123.34 ---- ---- 53.25 690.00 $10.00 ---- ---- 277.29 19,153.88 1,099.00
Halifax 3,866.00 8,893.04 ---- ---- 33.80 1,385.15 ---- ---- ---- 190.50 14,368.49 6,527.68
Harnett 3,537.93 2,739.96 ---- ---- .95 ---- ---- ---- ---- 87.00 5,365.84 1,308.04
Haywood 2,280.04 4,777.79 ---- ---- 203.44 ---- ---- ---- 880.00 2,446.44 9,927.09 ----
Henderson 2,674.50 3,554.63 ---- ---- 273.12 ---- ---- ---- ---- 427.91 6,910.16 8,220.01
Hertford 2,636.25 3,692.30 ---- ---- 44.30 665.00 ---- ---- 170.00 267.65 7,475.50 160.96
Hyde 1,845.38 1,714.39 $322.67 $134.52 26.55 570.00 ---- ---- 481.25 123.63 5,218.39 3,635.22
Iredell 4,207.92 6,602.54 ---- ---- 471.48 2,200.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 14,082.24 2,982.19
Jackson 1,976.05 2,222.46 ---- ---- 62.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- 2,450.15 4,260.76 34.65
Johnston 7,015.33 6,861.00 ---- ---- 116.30 3,400.00 ---- ---- ---- 119.15 17,511.78 3,687.49
Jones 1,705.38 1,809.57 ---- ---- 37.90 300.00 ---- ---- ---- 73.50 3,926.35 1,839.31
Lenoir 3,451.83 3,380.40 ---- ---- 202.40 1,558.00 ---- ---- ---- 2,407.37 11,000.00 2,636.38
Lincoln 2,733.08 3,695.15 ---- ---- 81.83 ---- ---- ---- ---- 168.00 6,678.06 549.93
Macon 2,217.14 2,010.73 95.94 33.02 44.33 ---- ---- ---- 128.96 248.85 4,778.97 ----
Madison ---- 3,040.33 ---- ---- 13.00 760.00 ---- ---- 982.39 145.00 4,940.72 615.65
Martin 2,479.97 3,881.15 ---- ---- 100.13 2,042.50 ---- ---- ---- 98.50 8,602.25 9,815.55
McDowell * 160.00 ---- ---- 20.00 5.50 ---- ---- ---- 264.00 ---- ---- ----

        * From December 6 to July 1, 1899.

Page 266


TABLE NO. I --Continued.

Counties. State and County Poll Tax. General Property Special Tax. Special Property Tax. Local Acts. Special Poll Tax, Local Acts. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties. Liquor Licenses. Auctioneers. Estray. State Treasurer. Other Sources. Total Receipts. Balance on Hand Last Report.
Mecklenburg $8,460.13 $19,242.99 ---- ---- $182.07 $3,401.00 ---- ---- ---- $1,842.46 $33,128.65 $5,408.92
Mitchell 1,754.83 1,481.57 ---- ---- 119.01 ---- ---- ---- $210.00 ---- 3,355.41 ----
Montgomery 1,994.63 2,007.91 ---- $114.64 55.61 ---- ---- ---- 61.00 ---- 4,294.79 2,748.44
Moore 3,771.00 5,433.55 ---- ---- 135.55 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 9,340.10 538.73
Nash 4,861.69 5,614.72 ---- ---- 123.10 1,730.09 ---- ---- 230.50 1,509.55 14,069.65 ----
New Hanover 2,936.04 12,956.39 ---- ---- 40.75 11,381.00 ---- ---- ---- 791.40 28,105.58 7,865.62
Northampton 4,374.00 5,732.09 ---- ---- 20.70 536.25 ---- ---- 536.50 638.50 11,838.02 198.08
Onslow 1,824.22 ---- ---- ---- 218.21 ---- ---- $4.33 ---- 1,936.33 3,983.09 ----
Orange 2,000.00 4,266.52 ---- ---- 197.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 31.50 6,495.52 8.99
Pamlico 1,770.70 1,033.57 ---- ---- 3.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 115.59 2,922.86 2,190.94
Pasquotank 2,422.50 4,309.50 ---- ---- 28.85 2,033.00 ---- ---- ---- 108.75 8,902.60 1,154.41
Pender 2,091.11 3,231.72 ---- ---- 22.86 ---- ---- ---- ---- 101.00 5,446.69 3,301.41
Perquimans 2,142.00 3,059.67 ---- ---- 125.07 200.00 ---- ---- ---- 82.26 5,609.00 327.50
Person 1,762.00 5,124.03 ---- ---- 127.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 7,013.03 403.11
Pitt * 3,644.00 4,454.38 ---- ---- 29.91 2,520.00 ---- ---- ---- 158.45 10,806.74 7,412.10
Polk 883.30 1,776.70 ---- ---- 17.20 95.00 ---- ---- ---- 34.50 2,796.70 1,257.19
Randolph 4,941.41 6,205.76 ---- ---- 323.72 ---- ---- ---- ---- 919.05 12,389.94 ----

        * Former Treasurer.

Page 267


TABLE NO. I --Continued.

Counties. State and County Poll Tax. General Property Special Tax. Special Property Tax. Local Acts. Special Poll Tax, Local Acts. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties. Liquor Licenses. Auctioneers. Estray. State Treasurer. Other Sources. Total Receipts. Balance on Hand Last Report.
Richmond 3,840.00 5,687.98 ---- ---- 200.95 800.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 10,528.93 4,804.72
Robeson 4,787.77 7,627.42 ---- ---- 89.85 ---- ---- ---- ---- 478.88 12,983.92 5,172.57
Rockingham 6,406.50 8,601.48 ---- ---- 353.91 3,700.00 ---- ---- ---- 162.00 19,227.89 152.62
Rowan 4,632.82 10,612.63 ---- ---- 487.33 893.00 ---- ---- 799.50 1,079.50 18,504.78 2,462.10
Rutherford 3,840,00 3,649.45 ---- ---- 216.98 50.00 ---- ---- ---- 2,945.00 10,701.43 2,727.08
Sampson 4,537.50 3,948.41 ---- ---- 75.70 400.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 8,961.61 8.79
Stanly 2,414.93 2,588.90 ---- ---- 127.46 ---- ---- ---- ---- 271.66 5,402.95 307.84
Stokes 4,249.00 3,771.13 ---- ---- 156.62 380.00 ---- ---- ---- 56.00 8,612.75 107.29
Surry 4,234.41 4,345.98 1,267.50 ---- 150.64 95.00 ---- ---- ---- 1,299.39 12,040.56 130.98
Swain ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Transylvania 1,256.85 1,598.53 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 46.50 ---- 471.78
Tyrrell 1,663.05 892.61 ---- ---- 8.75 66.50 ---- ---- ---- 47.51 2,078.42 1,526.15
Union 4,838.92 5,531.71 ---- ---- 199.65 200.00 ---- ---- ---- 1,308.10 12,078.38 1,675.47
Vance 2,375.00 4,005.00 ---- ---- 48.60 1,520.00 ---- ---- ---- 1,155.06 9,103.66 ----
Wake 7,100.00 18,258.53 12,754.64 ---- 2,547.65 2,783.50 ---- ---- ---- 392.02 43,834.30 12,488.08
Warren 3,082.80 3,815.99 ---- ---- 44.12 785.00 ---- ---- ---- 104.50 7,832.41 921.83
Washington 2,215.49 1,844.91 ---- ---- 56.82 ---- 1,425.00 ---- ---- 93.90 5,636.12 2,270.11
Watauga 2,550.75 2,116.22 ---- ---- 195.98 ---- ---- ---- ---- 161.54 5,024.49 707.61
Wayne 5,769.56 10,334.47 ---- ---- 166.04 1,158.50 ---- ---- ---- 255.31 17,683.88 6,303.63
Wilkes 4,392.45 3,294.85 ---- 241.95 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 631.23 8,566.48 378.24
Wilson 5,130.00 8,272.68 ---- ---- 106.90 2,080.00 ---- ---- ---- 283,60 15,873.18 5,997.34
Yadkin 2,740.94 2,529.07 ---- ---- 128.57 ---- ---- ---- ---- 74.00 5,472.58 582.81
Yancey ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Total 303,313.21 433,836.44 15,781.35 9,751.81 14,413.15 71,122.36 1,435.00 21.13 8,975.89 56,275.36 896,531.96 189,681.17

Page 268

TABLE NO. II--School Fund Disbursed by County Treasurer for School Year Ending June 30, 1899.

Counties. Paid Teachers of White Schools. Paid Teachers of Colored Schools. Paid for School Houses and Sites (white). Paid for School Houses and Sites (color'd). Paid County Superintendent. Paid for Institutes (white). Paid for Institutes (col'd). Paid Treasurers' Commissions. Paid Mileage and Per Diem Board of Education. Paid Expenses of Board of Education. Paid to City Schools. Paid for Other Purposes. Total Disbursements. Balance on Hand July 1, 1899. Amount Due Treasurer.
Alamance $8,332.10 $2,731.79 $2,128.08 $687.11 $285.00 ---- ---- $241.86 $58.70 $62.13 ---- $644.32 $15,771.09 $353.73 ----
Alexander 3,441.40 287.37 ---- ---- 74.00 ---- ---- 77.82 25.40 ---- ---- 174.00 4,079.99 237.92 ----
Alleghany 2,208.30 216.75 218.21 ---- 33.50 ---- ---- 137.47 53.60 1.50 ---- ---- 2,869.33 ---- ----
Anson 4,478.36 2,324.95 506.99 121.63 189.10 ---- ---- 151.56 138.00 18.00 ---- 14.25 7,942.84 3,682.96 ----
Ashe 5,600.62 181.11 99.81 ---- 396.15 $24.50 ---- 131.32 132.80 ---- ---- ---- 6,566.31 395.97 ----
Beaufort 6,476.17 2,972.20 12.50 25.00 ---- ---- ---- 218.03 55.00 11.75 ---- 980.66 10,751.31 4,663.04 ----
Bertie 4,800.08 4,568.33 209,74 256.90 390.00 ---- ---- 216.97 65.20 10.65 ---- 549.41 11,067.28 2,499.14 ----
Bladen 3,528.41 2,421.40 187.67 177.25 366.00 ---- ---- 126.29 89.78 6.30 ---- ---- 6,903.10 1,419.83 ----
Brunswick 2,382.83 1,455.33 167.15 78.00 177.00 ---- ---- 131.38 83.00 8.48 ---- 27.85 4,511.02 964.70 ----
Buncombe 17,124.81 1,597.40 1,714.75 81.00 932.40 350.00 ---- 608.42 193.00 251.83 $6,018.04 2,158.04 31,029.69 7,972.64 ----
Burke 4,812.47 695.91 178.69 ---- 65.00 48.50 ---- 118.64 61.30 9.90 ---- 60.41 6,050.82 1,853.74 ----
Cabarrus 5,597.45 1,746.96 405.98 ---- 114.55 44.40 $35.70 232.19 43.05 ---- 3,373.50 247.94 12,857.22 966.24 ----
Caldwell 4,798.13 843.92 430.38 73.20 370.70 ---- ---- 132.37 102.30 ---- ---- ---- 6,751.00 ---- $8.15
Camden 1,476.79 746.10 100.00 53.99 150.50 ---- ---- 57.94 62.30 ---- ---- ---- 2,717.42 370.42 ----
Carteret 3,985.97 679.00 407.01 ---- 148.00 ---- ---- 108.42 54.40 ---- ---- 146.87 5,529.67 1,210.87 ----
Caswell 2,194.89 1,863.95 609.83 144.84 204.00 ---- ---- 102.52 108.52 ---- ---- ---- 5,228.55 2,580.98 ----
Catawba 7,418.57 812.26 422.99 65.35 39.50 ---- ---- 202.77 36.65 ---- 1,015.26 328.76 10,342.11 1,272.42 ----

Page 269


TABLE NO. II --Continued.

Counties. Paid Teachers of White Schools. Paid Teachers of Colored Schools. Paid for School Houses and Sites (white). Paid for School Houses and Sites (color'd). Paid County Superintendent. Paid for Institutes (white). Paid for Institutes (col'd). Paid Treasurers' Commissions. Paid Mileage and Per Diem Board of Education. Paid Expenses of Board of Education. Paid to City Schools. Paid for Other Purposes. Total Disbursements. Balance on Hand July 1, 1899. Amount Due Treasurer.
Chatham 7,293.43 3,108.54 243.56 221.21 234.00 ---- ---- 176.60 59.20 11.50 ---- 602.41 11,950.45 2,568.32 ----
Cherokee 4,113.65 311.25 133.65 ---- 65.00 ---- ---- 71.17 72.20 ---- 65.91 ---- 4,832.83 3,602.17 ----
Chowan 2,231.15 2,991.72 ---- 178.30 120.00 ---- ---- 121.01 ---- 38.00 ---- 428.26 6,108.44 440.53 ----
Clay 1,173.38 ---- 136.09 ---- 4.00 ---- ---- 32.07 24.00 .35 290.00 ---- 1,659.89 ---- ----
Cleveland 10,351.54 2,577.88 300.00 50.00 528.00 75.00 25.00 314.17 30.00 110.00 1,106.38 230.87 15,708.84 3,862.53 ----
Columbus 3,919.94 2,300.37 459.64 255.15 165.09 ---- ---- 142.80 36.40 8.45 ---- ---- 7,287.84 40.57 ----
Craven 4,532.50 5,282.75 131.00 170.25 393.00 ---- ---- 255.61 136.40 ---- ---- 389.48 11,290.99 792.40 ----
Cumberland 7,480.06 5,192.48 76.55 7.00 256.00 ---- ---- 238.67 136.90 6.25 ---- 538.46 13,932.37 116.91 ----
Currituck ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Dare 1,379.66 249.50 255.00 81.84 23.70 ---- ---- 81.13 111.30 6.46 ---- 32.31 2,320.90 924.35 ----
Davidson 8,739.23 1,384.16 14.90 ---- 92.50 ---- ---- 220.40 32.30 ---- ---- 759.37 11,242.86 588.39 ----
Davie 3,414.96 972.25 302.05 89.50 309.00 ---- ---- 102.44 34.55 11.71 ---- 269.93 5,506.39 21.83 ----
Duplin 4,489.00 2,229.57 1,282.49 800.57 298.50 ---- ---- 183,43 66.11 ---- ---- ---- 9,355.68 752.22 ----
Durham 8,633.12 4,617.58 5,636.70 550,00 398.75 ---- ---- 480.08 97.60 20.33 2,250.00 1,263.20 23,954.38 50.05 ----
Edgecombe 12,175.09 and colored. 67.50 ---- 348.39 ---- ---- 347.14 42.00 102.68 2,842.00 1,779.55 17,704.35 5,111.19 ----
Forsyth 10,021.83 2,029.05 1,400.00 436.11 387.65 143.50 75.00 418.04 352.09 32.89 3,833.00 2,193.73 21,322.89 730.67 ----
Franklin 4,923.74 4,969.37 ---- 86.25 215.55 ---- ---- 212.23 21.25 ---- ---- 330.24 10,824.03 1,191.57 ----
Gaston 8,782.58 2,981.73 1,187.08 244.35 78.00 ---- ---- 52.83 35.60 6.20 ---- 410.05 13,778.42 1,733.63 ----
Gates 2,472.50 1,866.75 ---- 120.00 125.30 ---- ---- 93.10 37.80 ---- ---- 195.92 4,911.37 2,016.12 ----
Graham 1,311.95 ---- ---- ---- 8.00 ---- ---- 30.31 35.50 .50 156.10 29.02 1,571.28 1.78 ----
Granville 5,837.72 4,590.20 880.31 281.83 322.50 ---- ---- 242.11 56.00 13.07 ---- 122.33 12,346.12 338.46 ----
Greene 3,491.09 2,987.66 ---- ---- 257.09 ---- ---- 140.60 46.07 ---- ---- 248.43 7,170.94 284.37 ----
Guilford 9,049.35 2,812.76 886.56 268.14 245.10 ---- ---- 393.17 48.70 66.30 6,282.80 ---- 20,052.88 200.00 ----

Page 270


TABLE NO. II --Continued.

Counties. Paid Teachers of White Schools. Paid Teachers of Colored Schools. Paid for School Houses and Sites (white). Paid for School Houses and Sites (color'd). Paid County Superintendent. Paid for Institutes (white). Paid for Institutes (col'd). Paid Treasurers' Commissions. Paid Mileage and Per Diem Board of Education. Paid Expenses of Board of Education. Paid to City Schools. Paid for Other Purposes. Total Disbursements. Balance on Hand July 1, 1899. Amount Due Treasurer.
Halifax $4,177.75 $5,993.25 $510.81 $237.15 $640.93 ---- ---- $244.64 $38.20 $26.26 $387.50 $1,870.38 $14,221.87 $*6,674.30 ----
Harnett* 3,826.37 1,524.39 423.76 104.32 195.00 $9.00 ---- 159.54 34.50 20.96 ---- 62.00 6,360.14 313.74 ----
Haywood 9,031.15 200.00 200.00 ---- 248.75 ---- ---- 198.98 70.05 ---- ---- ---- 9,948.93 ---- ----
Henderson 4,332.21 624.32 264.00 ---- 93.00 ---- ---- 111.08 ---- 23.10 ---- 209.75 7,304,52 7,825.65 ----
Hertford 3,257.74 3,235.22 145.18 212.62 199.85 25.00 $40.00 110.79 41.51 ---- ---- 222.76 7,796.67 139.79 ----
Hyde 2,318.08 1,205.07 563.63 476.78 141.00 ---- ---- 42.71 81.80 5.00 ---- 23.86 4,857.93 3,995.68 ----
Iredell 9,993.31 3,423.45 430.25 ---- 393.40 ---- ---- 295.95 51.10 28.30 1,435.00 ---- 16,050.76 1,013.67 ----
Jackson 5,215.40 400.06 417.94 ---- 65.15 ---- ---- 125.94 ---- 57.65 ---- ---- 6,380.65 364.91 ----
Johnston 12,888.53 3,628.49 566.61 300.71 198.00 29.90 19.50 362.08 70.05 1.46 ---- 401.06 18,466.39 2,732.88 ----
Jones 2,095.73 1,425.40 ---- ---- 154.25 ---- 45.00 80.07 75.50 4.95 ---- 162.84 4,083.74 1,681.92 ----
Lenoir 5,703.18 3,300.42 1,731.24 223.29 235.50 ---- 30.00 239.50 73.20 11.90 ---- 377.92 11,926.15 169.74 ----
Lincoln 4,767.64 1,191.77 95.36 200.53 117.00 38.00 10.00 131.72 29.10 22.45 ---- 114.40 6,717.97 510.02 ----
Macon 4,242.46 320.28 257.62 ---- 35.85 ---- ---- 98.13 18.40 ---- ---- 32.35 5,005.09 ---- ----
Madison 4,432.15 66.75 ---- ---- 294.00 ---- ---- 95.86 75.20 ---- ---- 101.54 4,998.75 547.62 ----
Martin 3,671.86 2,380.58 1,200.55 1,672.62 247.70 ---- ---- 187.02 125.85 51.99 ---- ---- 9,538.17 8,879.63 ----

        * Due from ex-Sheriff.

Page 271


TABLE NO. II --Continued.

Counties. Paid Teachers of White Schools. Paid Teachers of Colored Schools. Paid for School Houses and Sites (white). Paid for School Houses and Sites (color'd). Paid County Superintendent. Paid for Institutes (white). Paid for Institutes (col'd). Paid Treasurers' Commissions. Paid Mileage and Per Diem Board of Education. Paid Expenses of Board of Education. Paid to City Schools. Paid for Other Purposes. Total Disbursements. Balance on Hand July 1, 1899. Amount Due Treasurer.
McDowell * 653.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 20.00 37.55 ---- ---- ---- 711.80 *1.70 ----
Mecklenburg 14,558.78 6,420.38 1,527.63 136.94 642.00 26.37 117.80 700.83 120.90 23.75 9,156.20 2,054.23 35,485.81 3,051.76 ----
Mitchell 3,035.41 68.50 152.96 ---- 14.00 ---- ---- 67.10 17.25 ---- ---- ---- 3,355.22 ---- ----
Montgomery 3,864.88 982.73 73.73 ---- 124.00 ---- ---- 40.43 48.50 32.27 ---- ---- 5,163.54 1,879.69 ----
Moore 5,225.83 2,774.73 434.68 160.73 189.78 ---- ---- 184.09 51.00 ---- 115.50 ---- 9,136.34 742.49 ----
Nash 7,433.30 4,605.33 208.39 281.68 357.00 ---- ---- 262.29 53.85 30.12 ---- 812.99 14,044.95 24.70 ----
New Hanover 12,690.00 9,017.00 ---- ---- 289.85 ---- ---- 515.36 ---- 151.19 ---- 3,651.22 26,314.67 9,656.53 ----
Northampton 5,519.23 3,578.60 358.00 ---- 666.00 ---- 56.51 221.79 65.55 157.14 ---- 745.12 11,367.94 668.16 ----
Onslow 2,435.47 756.58 42.03 72.85 157.50 ---- ---- 87.42 66.25 ---- ---- 5.50 3,623.60 359.49 ----
Orange 4,034.59 1,641.28 ---- ---- 265.47 ---- ---- 128.63 194.71 7.50 ---- 268.33 6,540.51 ---- $36.00
Pamlico 1,496.52 693.75 70.24 174.21 110.16 ---- ---- 53.42 55.60 ---- ---- ---- 2,647.82 2,465.88 ----
Pasquotank 4,256.32 2,807.56 ---- 412.50 342.00 ---- ---- 166.24 59.40 15.00 ---- 544.51 8,603.53 1,453.48 ----
Pender 2,557.23 1,866.28 510.12 491.82 278.08 ---- ---- 108.50 70.80 ---- ---- 64.40 5,947.23 2,800.87 ----
Perquimans 2,547.14 1,957.34 300.66 246.28 103.65 ---- ---- 137.02 37.40 1.00 ---- 260.35 5,590.84 345.66 ----
Person 3,948.74 2,379.78 215.05 281.17 266.00 ---- ---- 166.65 ---- 69.10 ---- 56.65 7,383.14 33.00 ----
Pitt 6,041.37 3,774.36 10.00 ---- 232.00 ---- ---- 209.50 ---- 172.92 ---- 244.46 10,684.61 7,534.23 ----
Polk 2,199.93 700.46 8.15 ---- 87.00 ---- ---- 61.30 69.50 ---- ---- ---- 3,126.34 927.55 ----
Randolph 9,330.94 1,368.00 219.30 67.78 180.46 16.60 ---- 237.02 ---- ---- 426.58 241.26 12,087.94 302.00 ----
Richmond 5,128.04 5,176.53 264.67 376.48 291.78 ---- ---- 227.42 68.88 ---- ---- 65.00 11,598.80 3,734.85 ----
Robeson 5,750.68 3,341.49 493.33 489.83 191.50 7.55 ---- 237.46 51.30 19.39 ---- 4.08 12,114.56 6,041.93 ----
Rockingham 7,439.87 3,622.93 687.29 ---- 350.00 468.79 114.25 321.45 57.40 70.44 2,252.60 1,820.61 17,205.63 2,174.88 ----
Rowan 12,074.22 3,749.50 536.75 188.75 298.50 36.00 26.25 348.48 58.20 5.00 ---- 427.15 17,748.80 3,218.08 ----

        * December 6 to January 1, 1899.

Page 272


TABLE NO. II --Continued.

Counties. Paid Teachers of White Schools. Paid Teachers of Colored Schools. Paid for School Houses and Sites (white). Paid for School Houses and Sites (color'd). Paid County Superintendent. Paid for Institutes (white). Paid for Institutes (col'd). Paid Treasurers' Commissions. Paid Mileage and Per Diem Board of Education. Paid Expenses of Board of Education. Paid to City Schools. Paid for Other Purposes. Total Disbursements. Balance on Hand July 1, 1899. Amount Due Treasurer.
Rutherford $8,586.47 $1,794.76 $870.25 $81.00 $462.50 $40.86 $20.00 $245.27 $106.00 $36.31 ---- $20.00 $12,263.42 $1,165.09 ----
Sampson 5,115.52 2,945.24 476.90 65.17 222.50 ---- ---- 178.53 93.30 8.29 ---- ---- 9,105.45 ---- 135.05
Stanly 4,596.44 482.25 184.73 4.25 118.83 65.75 ---- 110.00 41.50 ---- ---- ---- 5,599.75 111.04 ----
Stokes 4,829.10 988.87 804.66 ---- 66.85 ---- ---- 178.21 ---- 23.50 ---- ---- 6,891.19 1,828.85 ----
Surry 8,274.61 1,263.99 595.47 234.79 37.50 ---- ---- 209.13 189.30 1.46 ---- 90.57 10,896.87 486.05 ----
Swain ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2,146.41 12.00 ----
Transylvania 2,244.80 267.10 ---- ---- 12.25 ---- ---- 51.74 28.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Tyrrell 1,371.77 444.79 120.82 65.25 92.35 ---- ---- 40.79 48.00 9.50 ---- ---- 2,193.27 1,411.31 ----
Union 8,428.16 2,641.02 685.65 85.23 269.66 ---- ---- 234.93 38.85 22.70 ---- ---- 12,406.20 1,347.65 ----
Vance 3,517.57 4,084.54 63.00 ---- 443.50 ---- ---- 170.52 93.70 3.84 ---- 558.09 8,934.76 168.90 ----
Wake 20,716.85 14,480.13 652.30 512.77 378.12 ---- ---- 940.70 478.74 35.62 $1,651.00 8,760.56 48,192.05 8,125.33 ----
Warren 3,156.69 4,048.53 147.36 333.78 230.85 ---- 36.75 166.87 47.60 ---- ---- 342.40 8,510.83 243.41 ----
Washington 3,090.14 2,260.24 ---- ---- 299.50 ---- ---- 122.10 53.80 7.03 ---- 394.00 6,226.81 1,679.42 ----
Watauga 3,927.12 107.82 555.74 ---- 123.85 ---- ---- 95.43 50.50 ---- ---- 6.70 4,867.16 864.94 ----
Wayne 7,622.14 4,453.52 2,131.17 1,045.34 318.50 60.60 28.25 609,83 76.80 19.62 3,699.20 53.50 20,118.47 3,869.04 ----
Wilkes 6,413.03 737.70 220.22 ---- 54.10 ---- ---- 150.18 84.10 ---- ---- ---- 7,659.33 1,285.39 ----

Page 273


TABLE NO. II --Continued.

Counties. Paid Teachers of White Schools. Paid Teachers of Colored Schools. Paid for School Houses and Sites (white). Paid for School Houses and Sites (color'd). Paid County Superintendent. Paid for Institutes (white). Paid for Institutes (col'd). Paid Treasurers' Commissions. Paid Mileage and Per Diem Board of Education. Paid Expenses of Board of Education. Paid to City Schools. Paid for Other Purposes. Total Disbursements. Balance on Hand July 1, 1899. Amount Due Treasurer.
Wilson 8,802.85 5,086.92 132.50 186.33 365.15 ---- ---- 494.49 47.45 ---- ---- 509.30 15,624.99 4,536.29 ----
Yadkin 4,204.62 591.62 585.02 36.18 172.61 50.10 ---- 114.00 50.10 ---- ---- 9.50 5,813.75 241.64 ----
Yancey ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Total 520,415.00 216,491.82 42,237.58 15,061.94 21,175.25 1,556.42 680.01 18,444.21 6,477.21 1,991.91 46,356.57 40,744.41 936,891.95 165,655.48 179.20
Croatans, Robeson County ---- 1,426.85 ---- 101.10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Page 274

TABLE No. III--Showing Number of Children Between Six and Twenty-one Years of Age, Number Enrolled, Average Attendance, and Institute Statistics in the Several Counties of the State During the School Year Ending June 30, 1899.

Counties. Census of White Children. Enrollment of White Children. Average At'ndance White Children.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
Alamance 3,072 3,120 6,192 1,825 1,618 3,443 2,185
Alexander 2,159 2,155 4,314 1,440 1,430 2,870 1,802
Alleghany 1,459 1,355 2,814 1,070 870 1,940 31
Anson 2,016 1,817 3,833 1,163 1,016 2,179 1,444
Ashe 3,606 3,182 6,788 2,670 3,173 4,843 27
Beaufort 2,262 2,212 4,474 1,586 1,437 3,023 1,817
Bertie 1,578 1,463 3,041 966 836 1,802 1,095
Bladen 1,714 1,581 3,295 1,175 1,213 2,388 1,521
Brunswick 1,336 1,226 2,562 752 660 1,412 871
Buncombe 5,070 4,730 9,800 3,989 2,951 6,940 3,230
Burke ---- ---- ---- 1,533 1,438 2,971 1,554
Cabarrus 2,798 2,778 5,576 1,534 1,454 2,988 1,832
Caldwell 2,425 2,405 4,831 2,000 1,850 3,850 2,686
Camden 573 536 1,109 341 286 627 363
Carteret 1,601 1,578 3,179 904 827 1,728 1,060
Caswell 1,133 1,101 2,234 590 610 1,200 760
Catawba ---- ---- ---- 2,128 1,847 3,975 2,607
Chatham 2,933 2,707 5,640 2,198 1,898 4,096 2,455
Cherokee 2,185 2,044 4,229 1,296 1,321 2,617 1,264
Chowan 729 671 1,400 441 352 797 21
Clay ---- ---- ---- 410 326 736 27
Cleveland 4,001 3,906 7,907 2,304 2,469 4,773 3,185
Columbus 2,676 2,568 5,244 2,037 1,730 3,767 2,333
Craven 1,542 1,525 3,067 1,023 997 2,020 1,160
Cumberland ---- ---- 6,432 1,656 1,547 3,203 24
Currituck 547 346 893 850 701 1,551 21
Dare 648 649 1,297 513 530 1,043 650
Davidson 3,628 3,468 7,096 2,493 2,270 4,763 2,897
Davie 1,561 1,496 3,057 1,122 917 2,039 1,125
Duplin 2,394 2,169 4,563 2,284 1,167 3,451 1,431

Page 275


TABLE NO. III --Continued.

Census of Colored Children. Enrollment of Colored Children. Average At'ndance Colored Children. No. Institutes Number of Teachers Attending. Counties.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. White. Colored. White Male. White Female. Col'd Male. Col. Female.
1,308 1,290 2,598 656 659 1,315 692 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Alamance
191 193 384 170 161 331 296 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Alexander
116 112 228 48 37 85 13 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Alleghany
2,104 2,002 4,106 1,089 1,140 2,229 1,368 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Anson
156 146 302 43 38 81 10 1 ---- 34 4 ---- ---- Ashe
1,606 1,680 3,286 885 1,051 1,936 1,059 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Beaufort
2,270 2,203 4,473 1,355 1,427 2,782 1,445 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Bertie
1,652 1,628 3,280 958 1,128 2,086 1,274 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Bladen
978 1,011 1,989 538 589 1,127 680 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Brunswick
686 675 1,361 367 425 792 403 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Buncombe
---- ---- ---- 334 383 717 397 1 1 10 15 7 8 Burke
911 943 1,854 551 519 1,070 609 1 1 31 39 9 17 Cabarrus
400 380 780 280 260 540 505 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Caldwell
392 375 767 228 240 468 229 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Camden
380 270 650 216 308 524 337 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Carteret
1,327 1,295 2,622 800 850 1,650 1,221 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Caswell
---- ---- ---- 273 259 532 301 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Catawba
1,582 1,544 3,126 960 1,080 2,040 1,194 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Chatham
89 97 186 16 13 29 19 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Cherokee
993 1,010 2,003 604 596 1,200 40 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Chowan
---- ---- ---- 7 8 15 2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Clay
945 948 1,893 443 475 918 508 1 1 62 35 13 8 Cleveland
1,348 1,389 2,737 1,023 1,272 2,295 1,371 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Columbus
2,278 2,246 4,524 1,073 1,475 2,548 1,327 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Craven
---- ---- 5,047 1,294 1,519 2,813 25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Cumberland
256 206 462 435 336 771 25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Currituck
84 97 181 64 41 105 74 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Dare
677 653 1,330 363 350 713 430 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Davidson
457 428 885 357 305 662 387 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Davie
1,545 1,600 3,145 777 1,028 1,805 1,188 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Dulpin

Page 276


TABLE NO. III --Continued.

Counties. Census of White Children. Enrollment of White Children. Average At'ndance White Children.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
Durham 2,565 2,498 5,063 1,479 1,335 2,814 1,681
Edgecombe 1,626 1,622 3,248 890 886 1,776 828
Forsyth 4,040 3,856 7,896 2,128 1,838 3,966 1,982
Franklin ---- ---- ---- 737 897 1,634 948
Gaston 3,465 3,523 6,988 1,952 1,738 3,690 2,232
Gates 1,043 921 1,964 716 602 1,318 769
Graham 815 775 1,590 527 467 994 437
Granville 2,027 1,957 3,984 942 950 1,892 957
Greene 998 978 1,970 621 641 1,262 687
Guilford 4,211 4,031 8,242 2,816 2,511 5,327 3,381
Halifax 1,820 1,875 3,695 779 827 1,606 895
Harnett 2,040 1,866 3,906 1,314 1,184 2,498 1,725
Haywood 3,000 3,080 6,080 2,593 2,748 5,341 4,841
Henderson 2,392 2,270 4,662 1,736 1,420 3,156 1,735
Hertford 1,193 1,150 2,333 516 517 1,033 563
Hyde 1,013 844 1,857 623 548 1,278 831
Iredell 3,750 3,522 7,272 2,228 2,001 4,229 2,363
Jackson 2,065 2,020 4,085 1,468 1,359 2,827 1,380
Johnson 4,288 3,943 8,231 2,766 2,495 5,261 2,747
Jones 756 666 1,422 395 500 895 684
Lenoir 1,792 1,657 3,449 1,041 1,006 2,047 1,182
Lincoln 2,247 2,135 4,382 1,420 1,302 2,722 1,676
Macon 2,185 1,990 4,175 1,399 1,258 2,657 1,314
Madison 3,964 3,853 7,817 2,425 2,216 4,641 2,606
Martin 1,514 1,280 2,794 1,302 1,187 2,489 1,578
McDowell 1,800 1,730 3,530 1,000 845 1,845 1,134
Mecklenburg 5,232 5,046 10,278 2,233 2,051 4,284 2,698
Mitchell 2,843 2,993 5,836 1,900 2,100 4,000 ----
Montgomery 1,883 1,643 3,526 956 1,042 1,998 25
Moore 2,697 2,611 5,308 1,630 1,588 3,218 2,533
Nash 2,536 2,567 5,103 1,224 1,159 2,383 1,080

Page 277


TABLE NO. III --Continued.

Census of Colored Children. Enrollment of Colored Children. Average At'ndance Colored Children. No. Institutes Number of Teachers Attending. Counties.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. White. Colored. White Male. White Female. Col'd Male. Col. Female.
1,540 1,595 3,135 914 988 1,902 1,015 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Durham
2,831 2,770 5,601 1,335 1,625 2,960 1,294 1 1 60 30 ---- ---- Edgecombe
1,624 1,707 3,331 538 506 1,044 537 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Forsyth
---- ---- ---- 1,184 1,356 2,540 1,430 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Franklin
1,088 1,120 2,208 891 854 1,745 939 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Gaston
922 916 1,838 637 659 1,296 721 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Gates
29 24 53 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 ---- 12 6 ---- ---- Graham
2,124 2,194 4,323 1,155 1,268 2,423 1,197 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Granville
1,019 918 1,937 526 694 1,220 591 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Greene
2,052 1,875 3,927 1,156 856 2,012 1,351 ---- 1 ---- ---- 15 32 Guilford
3,608 3,689 7,297 1,365 1,831 3,196 1,746 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Halifax
956 956 1,912 523 588 1,111 645 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Harnett
105 113 218 97 89 186 147 3 ---- 37 30 ---- ---- Haywood
334 356 690 177 168 345 168 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Henderson
1,587 1,591 3,178 967 997 1,964 1,126 1 1 6 24 15 32 Hertford
739 739 1,478 683 775 1,428 941 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Hyde
1,279 1,274 2,553 814 802 1,616 983 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Iredell
115 108 223 109 101 210 127 1 ---- 23 18 ---- ---- Jackson
1,492 1,483 2,975 785 917 1,702 862 1 1 20 21 14 16 Johnson
666 692 1,358 430 536 966 770 ---- 1 ---- ---- 13 4 Jones
1,330 1,202 2,532 703 841 1,544 800 ---- 1 ---- ---- 10 21 Lenoir
591 572 1,163 348 347 697 384 1 1 26 21 14 1 Lincoln
141 149 290 68 72 140 85 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Macon
77 78 155 68 70 138 85 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Madison
1,408 1,305 2,713 1,206 1,185 2,391 1,103 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Martin
421 469 890 222 217 439 236 1 1 16 8 6 2 McDowell
3,772 4,013 7,785 1,643 1,660 3,303 1,788 1 1 38 52 73 56 Mecklenburg
100 80 180 60 40 100 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Mitchell
525 505 1,030 384 434 818 25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Montgomery
1,430 1,461 2,891 726 897 1,623 2,520 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Moore
1,928 1,921 3,849 916 1,050 1,966 924 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Nash

Page 278


TABLE NO. III --Continued.

Counties. Census of White Children. Enrollment of White Children. Average At'ndance White Children.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
New Hanover 1,609 1,549 3,158 833 978 1,811 1,246
Northampton 1,700 1,548 3,248 1,010 811 1,821 973
Onslow 1,460 1,253 2,713 1,018 880 1,898 1,090
Orange 1,661 1,463 3,124 860 677 1,537 940
Pamlico 1,034 960 1,994 754 728 1,492 ----
Pasquotank 1,222 1,143 2,365 587 473 1,060 627
Pender 1,215 1,106 2,321 657 585 1,242 808
Perquimans 928 826 1,754 603 565 1,168 655
Person 1,760 1,574 3,374 1,044 858 1,902 28
Pitt 2,737 2,420 5,157 1,540 1,435 2,975 1,763
Polk 1,034 907 1,941 659 622 1,281 724
Randolph 4,365 4,115 8,480 2,906 2,489 5,395 3,768
Richmond 2,335 2,297 4,632 971 897 1,868 1,310
Robeson 3,239 3,080 6,319 1,881 1,766 3,647 2,378
Croatans 823 741 1,564 619 603 1,222 722
Rockingham 3,157 3,231 6,388 1,867 1,597 3,464 1,894
Rowan 3,754 3,593 7,347 2,803 2,451 5,254 3,350
Rutherford 3,346 3,488 6,834 1,909 1,883 3,792 2,217
Sampson 3,041 2,945 5,986 1,859 1,702 3,561 2,042
Stanly 2,390 2,249 4,639 1,575 1,438 3,013 34
Stokes 3,049 2,725 5,774 1,875 1,505 3,380 247
Surry 4,356 3,859 8,215 1,853 1,582 3,435 2,184
Swain 1,380 1,460 2,840 942 863 1,805 958
Transylvania 1,089 1,063 2,152 651 600 1,251 21
Tyrrell 519 485 1,004 305 238 543 328
Union 3,722 3,277 6,999 3,152 2,703 5,855 3,850
Vance 1,110 1,131 2,241 538 524 1,062 23
Wake 4,832 4,668 9,500 2,142 2,028 4,170 2,352
Warren 1,009 976 1,985 542 469 1,011 504
Washington 933 832 1,765 534 481 1,015 585
Watauga 2,472 2,360 4,832 1,518 1,422 2,940 1,610

Page 279


TABLE NO. III --Continued.

Census of Colored Children. Enrollment of Colored Children. Average At'ndance Colored Children. No. Institutes Number of Teachers Attending. Counties.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. White. Colored. White Male. White Female. Col'd Male. Col. Female.
2,193 2,257 4,450 957 1,153 2,110 1,051 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- New Hanover
2,257 2,391 4,648 1,126 1,347 2,473 1,070 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Northampton
662 673 1,335 409 421 830 435 1 1 20 18 13 5 Onslow
793 744 1,537 374 332 706 396 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Orange
476 487 963 408 453 861 30 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Pamlico
985 1,008 1,993 486 544 1,030 590 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Pasquotank
1,235 1,299 2,534 645 743 1,388 842 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Pender
955 863 1,818 644 647 1,291 815 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Perquimans
1,302 1,287 2,589 673 765 1,438 23 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Person
2,586 2,578 5,164 1,116 1,345 2,461 2,050 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Pitt
292 264 556 188 156 344 191 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Polk
767 726 1,493 564 573 1,137 786 1 1 54 65 13 9 Randolph
2,641 2,892 5,533 1,801 1,998 3,799 3,204 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Richmond
2,577 2,662 5,239 1,705 1,964 3,669 1,944 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Robeson
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Croatans
2,010 2,031 4,041 979 1,068 2,047 998 1 1 6 45 18 32 Rockingham
1,287 1,266 2,553 890 912 1,802 937 1 1 60 30 30 20 Rowan
901 958 1,859 569 602 1,171 643 1 1 31 37 14 15 Rutherford
1,858 1,968 3,826 980 1,218 2,198 1,233 1 1 12 33 20 40 Sampson
353 285 638 208 157 365 24 1 ---- 50 20 ---- ---- Stanly
538 496 1,034 329 332 661 185 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Stokes
748 600 1,348 319 322 641 357 1 ---- 48 27 ---- ---- Surry
50 32 82 21 7 28 20 1 ---- 18 14 ---- ---- Swain
119 126 245 64 73 137 26 1 ---- 6 8 ---- 2 Transylvania
272 253 525 195 209 404 262 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Tyrrell
1,609 1,548 3,157 1,220 1,352 2,572 1,331 1 1 54 53 30 25 Union
1,518 1,451 2,969 942 912 1,854 29 1 ---- 1 20 ---- ---- Vance
4,339 4,542 8,881 1,781 2,012 3,793 1,889 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Wake
2,514 2,488 5,002 1,324 1,506 2,830 1,282 ---- 1 ---- ---- 15 23 Warren
937 946 1,883 475 487 962 513 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Washington
67 75 142 37 46 83 44 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Watauga

Page 280


TABLE NO. III --Continued.

Counties. Census of White Children. Enrollment of White Children. Average At'ndance White Children.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
Wayne 3,047 2,940 5,987 1,906 1,922 3,828 2,458
Wilkes 4,928 4,902 9,830 3,882 3,560 7,443 6,232
Wilson 2,404 2,123 4,527 1,444 1,338 2,782 1,544
Yadkin 2,434 2,258 4,692 1,609 1,411 3,020 1,723
Yancey 2,110 2,110 4,220 1,317 1,050 2,367 34
  209,640 199,147 408,787 138,124 125,093 263,217 140,162

Page 281


TABLE NO. III --Continued.

Census of Colored Children. Enrollment of Colored Children. Average At'ndance Colored Children. No. Institutes Number of Teachers Attending. Counties.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. White. Colored. White Male. White Female. Col'd Male. Col. Female.
2,287 2,393 4,680 1,247 1,399 2,646 1,615 1 1 6 37 23 50 Wayne
443 469 912 397 282 779 401 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Wilkes
1,749 1,778 3,527 809 908 1,717 838 1 1 12 19 21 42 Wilson
283 304 587 155 164 319 210 ---- 1 45 16 13 9 Yadkin
34 41 75 12 9 21 15 ---- 3 31 7 ---- ---- Yancey
94,072 104,528 198,600 60,586 66,813 127,399 67,148 29 26 799 752 399 473  

Page 282

TABLE NO. IV.--Reports Showing the Number of Public School Districts, Number of School-houses, Number of Schools Taught, Value of Public School Property, Average Length of Terms in Weeks, and Average Monthly Salary of Teachers in the Several Counties in the State During the School Year Ending June 30, 1899.

Counties. Number of School Districts. Number of Schools Taught. Value of Public School Property. Average Length of Term in Weeks.
White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored. City.
Alamance 67 27 67 25 $16,940 $2,625 15.60 15.22 ----
Alexander 50 8 49 8 4,025 285 11.00 11.00 ----
Alleghany 34 6 30 4 4,695 225 13.00 13.00 ----
Anson ---- ---- 50 37 5,735 3,420 12.27 12.00 ----
Ashe 100 8 96 4 7,089 100 8.92 6.25 ----
Beaufort 69 38 84 44 6,235 2,285 12.00 12.00 ----
Bertie 63 57 62 56 5,583 5,400 13.00 14.00 ----
Bladen 63 44 63 44 3,650 2,200 10.00 10.00 ----
Brunswick 49 28 42 26 1,910 642 8.12 8.20 ----
Buncombe 103 20 93 17 75,000 20,000 17.00 14.00 36
Burke 64 16 ---- ---- ---- ---- 11.00 8.50 ----
Cabarrus 57 24 56 20 12,130 2,840 15.00 13.00 36
Caldwell 82 12 82 12 5,200 1,100 15.00 17.00 ----
Camden 20 12 18 12 2,000 1,160 15.00 17.00 ----
Carteret 50 12 35 11 4,700 1,000 13.20 11.80 ----
Caswell 37 36 30 29 1,500 1,200 13.00 13.00 ----
Catawba 79 17 78 16 8,025 1,210 14.00 10.00 ----
Chatham 90 45 90 45 5,560 2,265 13.00 12.00 ----
Cherokee 47 3 44 1 4,985 100 15.00 8.00 ----
Chowan 20 15 20 15 3,875 2,587 14.20 17.00 ----
Clay 17 1 16 1 ---- ---- 14.00 8.50 ----
Cleveland 83 21 83 21 13,000 3,000 16.00 12.00 32
Columbus 85 41 79 39 18,135 3,360 11.00 11.00 ----
Craven 36 34 36 34 ---- ---- 14.00 14.00 36
Cumberland 78 66 75 65 5,850 4,725 13.00 14.00 ----
Currituck 32 26 30 24 2,750 1,225 16.00 16.00 ----
Dare 18 3 17 3 1,693 313 10.00 12.00 ----
Davidson 97 24 94 23 7,020 1,390 12.00 11.00 ----
Davie 43 16 43 16 3,000 800 13.00 12.00 ----

Page 283


TABLE NO. IV.--Continued

Average Salary of Teachers Per Month. Number of School-Houses. Counties
White. Colored.
White Male. White Female. Color'd Male. Colored Female. Number. Log. Frame. Brick. Number. Log. Frame.
$29.55 $24.95 $24.32 $24.35 61 8 53 ---- 23 10 13 Alamance
20.00 18.00 18.00 15.00 50 15 35 ---- 8 4 4 Alexander
20.00 18.00 16.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Alleghany
24.23 22.46 20.25 18.66 43 ---- 43 ---- 35 2 33 Anson
21.90 19.33 17.00 ---- 65 26 39 ---- 4 1 3 Ashe
26.74 24.94 23.44 21.21 66 4 61 1 28 4 24 Beaufort
23.00 22.67 24.50 23.00 62 ---- 62 ---- 56 ---- 56 Bertie
24.03 21.33 22.20 18.56 63 8 55 ---- 44 11 33 Bladen
24.32 21.28 23.84 22.92 32 ---- 32 ---- 17 3 14 Brunswick
29.88 27.48 21.53 25.55 95 13 75 7 21 1 20 Buncombe
25.00 24.00 23.00 23.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Burke
26.96 28.58 24.45 24.23 54 6 47 1 16 5 11 Cabarrus
21.50 20.00 18.50 18.33 82 ---- 82 ---- 12 ---- 12 Caldwell
23.00 25.00 21.00 20.00 19 ---- 19 ---- 12 ---- 12 Camden
28.00 21.00 22.00 19.00 34 ---- 34 ---- 10 ---- 10 Carteret
25.25 24.0. 24.00 22.00 36 23 13 ---- 36 11 25 Caswell
24.00 22.00 20.00 18.00 66 3 63 ---- 19 9 10 Catawba
23.77 21.65 21.89 18.65 65 16 49 ---- 32 9 23 Chatham
28.00 19.00 25.00 15.00 36 15 21 ---- 1 ---- 1 Cherokee
26.25 26.00 25.00 24.00 20 ---- ---- ---- 15 ---- ---- Chowan
21.10 20.00 18.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Clay
25.00 23.00 23.00 20.00 82 ---- 82 ---- 21 ---- 21 Cleveland
24.06 25.07 25.76 24.55 82 4 78 ---- 39 1 38 Columbus
28.00 28.00 24.00 24.00 36 35 1 ---- 35 35 ---- Craven
24.18 23.07 21.88 21.95 74 ---- ---- ---- 62 ---- ---- Cumberland
30.00 25.00 25.00 20.00 30 ---- 30 ---- 13 ---- 13 Currituck
31.00 19.25 20.00 20.00 18 ---- 18 ---- 3 ---- 3 Dare
25.66 23.67 22.96 19.57 80 28 52 ---- 25 16 9 Davidson
22.81 21.90 19.96 22.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Davie

Page 284


TABLE NO. IV.--Continued

Counties. Number of School Districts. Number of Schools Taught. Value of Public School Property. Average Length of Term in Weeks.
White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored. City.
Duplin 72 39 64 38 $6,191 $2,600 10.50 9.00 ----
Durham 38 26 38 26 38,960 10,250 21.00 21.00 38
Edgecombe 42 39 42 39 6,700 6,540 22.00 21.00 32
Forsyth 72 18 72 18 63,300 15,180 16.50 16.42 ----
Franklin 53 50 49 52 ---- ---- 15.00 13.00 ----
Gaston 80 32 80 32 7,000 3,300 16.00 16.66 ----
Gates 32 28 32 28 2,980 1,625 13.25 14.00 ----
Graham 20 2 17 ---- 3,960 200 13.00 ---- ----
Granville 52 41 52 41 5,000 4,475 17.50 17.00 ----
Greene 33 24 33 24 1,807 1,247 16.00 15.00 ----
Guilford 95 33 93 33 39,800 8,300 15.00 14.00 40
Halifax 59 70 59 70 6,032 7,845 9.80 13.60 16
Harnett 61 27 58 26 5,015 1,451 10.40 10.20 ----
Haywood 58 3 57 3 7,526 575 14.00 14.00 ----
Henderson 57 11 55 10 10,400 925 15.66 14.00 ----
Hertford 32 32 32 32 3,542 4,560 19.00 15.00 ----
Hyde 41 31 41 31 3,735 1,950 9.00 7.00 ----
Iredell 93 38 90 37 18,488 4,605 14.50 13.00 32
Jackson 44 4 42 4 7,000 700 16.00 17.00 ----
Johnston 108 39 108 38 9,084 2,500 17.00 15.00 ----
Jones 28 23 28 23 1,820 1,420 14.50 14.00 ----
Lenoir 44 28 44 28 5,785 3,560 17.20 16.00 ----
Lincoln 57 15 57 14 10,700 1,900 13.50 13.00 ----
Macon 58 4 56 4 7,135 350 14.25 16.50 ----
Madison 75 4 67 3 12,200 100 17.40 12.00 ----
Martin 49 30 46 29 7,500 2,900 12.33 12.75 ----
McDowell 56 13 43 11 3,200 375 9.00 7.00 ----
Mecklenburg 93 69 91 68 6,180 5,365 17.50 13.00 ----
Mitchell 58 4 53 3 11,600 200 10.00 8.00 ----
Montgomery 52 18 51 18 3,115 970 8.50 8.50 ----
Moore 84 44 83 41 4,496 2,725 13.33 13.20 ----

Page 285


TABLE NO. IV.--Continued

Average Salary of Teachers Per Month. Number of School-Houses. Counties
White. Colored.
White Male. White Female. Color'd Male. Colored Female. Number. Log. Frame. Brick. Number. Log. Frame.
$22.50 $22.25 $20.00 $19.00 63 6 57 ---- 35 6 29 Duplin
25.00 31.00 29.50 25.00 38 6 32 ---- 26 6 20 Durham
29.50 29.33 27.00 24.00 41 ---- 41 ---- 43 ---- 43 Edgecombe
28.96 27.00 26.09 22.08 72 2 70 ---- 18 4 14 Forsyth
26.00 25.00 25.00 24.00 47 6 41 ---- 40 7 33 Franklin
31.24 24.16 22.70 21.61 67 8 59 ---- 31 7 24 Gaston
24.00 20.00 21.00 20.00 33 ---- 33 ---- 25 ---- 25 Gates
24.00 24.00 ---- ---- 17 8 9 ---- 2 1 1 Graham
24.08 24.56 23.19 22.36 44 8 36 ---- 36 12 24 Granville
31.00 24.25 23.00 21.00 33 ---- 33 ---- 24 ---- 24 Greene
25.65 23.32 22.56 21.33 85 18 60 4 31 18 13 Guilford
23.33 22.20 22.85 22.41 32 ---- 32 ---- 53 12 41 Halifax
23.85 21.45 22.50 18.23 49 1 48 ---- 22 1 21 Harnett
27.40 25.00 22.50 20.00 54 19 31 4 3 2 1 Haywood
29.43 26.30 23.00 21.25 50 2 47 1 9 2 7 Henderson
21.00 21.00 22.50 21.00 33 ---- 33 ---- 32 2 30 Hertford
24.00 24.50 21.00 22.00 25 ---- 25 ---- 17 ---- 17 Hyde
25.92 23.10 21.90 19.00 94 25 68 1 35 17 18 Iredell
30.00 21.00 26.25 20.00 42 1 41 ---- 4 1 3 Jackson
27.52 25.26 25.12 22.59 94 ---- ---- 94 34 ---- ---- Johnston
24.00 22.00 23.00 20.00 29 3 26 ---- 23 2 21 Jones
34.35 23.40 22.50 20.25 42 ---- 42 ---- 25 ---- 25 Lenoir
24.11 23.54 23.21 19.00 51 11 27 3 14 6 8 Lincoln
20.00 20.45 20.72 18.81 60 14 46 ---- 4 2 2 Macon
24.58 23.54 18.85 ---- 59 21 38 ---- 1 ---- 1 Madison
26.00 26.00 25.00 25.00 49 ---- 49 ---- 30 ---- 30 Martin
28.00 21.11 22.32 14.50 25 7 18 ---- 5 1 4 McDowell
34.00 29.00 23.00 22.00 61 10 51 ---- 39 7 32 Mecklenburg
22.50 20.00 18.00 15.00 55 9 46 ---- ---- ---- ---- Mitchell
22.50 20.00 22.19 19.00 68 13 55 ---- 12 3 9 Montgomery
24.50 21.50 24.00 21.00 72 ---- 72 ---- 40 ---- 40 Moore

Page 286


TABLE NO. IV.--Continued

Counties. Number of School Districts. Number of Schools Taught. Value of Public School Property. Average Length of Term in Weeks.
White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored. City.
Nash 63 42 60 41 $7,200 $4,940 19.00 18.00 ----
New Hanover 14 16 14 16 76,690 17,500 23.60 22.33 32
Northampton 49 45 49 44 2,400 2,200 16.00 13.66 ----
Onslow 48 20 48 20 2,420 725 12.00 8.00 ----
Orange 50 25 38 19 5,290 3,140 13.00 14.00 ----
Pamlico 30 16 30 16 2,043 716 9.00 7.00 ----
Pasquotank 22 18 21 18 12,050 4,550 16.00 15.00 ----
Pender 44 37 36 30 3,035 2,460 12.00 10.00 ----
Perquimans 29 19 29 19 4,185 3,005 14.00 15.00 ----
Person ---- ---- 38 31 1,500 1,000 15.00 13.00 ----
Pitt 90 59 89 58 7,540 4,605 12.62 13.39 ----
Polk 36 13 36 13 1,870 255 11.00 12.00 ----
Randolph 110 23 110 23 13,650 1,895 15.80 15.25 ----
Richmond 56 59 56 59 2,650 5,684 12.00 13.00 ----
Robeson 95 63 87 71 5,585 3,938 7.00 7.00 ----
Croatan ---- 22 ---- 33 1,485 ---- 7.00 ---- ----
Rockingham 73 41 70 40 3,617 2,100 15.00 15.00 ----
Rowan 79 40 88 35 19,154 5,105 18.25 16.00 ----
Rutherford 71 24 65 24 5,425 880 16.00 14.00 ----
Sampson 80 52 80 52 7,000 3,500 12.00 11.00 ----
Stanly 71 12 71 10 3,792 580 8.00 8.00 ----
Stokes 83 24 74 18 ---- ---- 11.21 11.00 ----
Surry 58 13 58 13 2,700 530 19.00 13.00 ----
Swain 33 1 32 1 3,350 40 11.00 12.00 ----
Transylvania 32 3 30 3 2,855 275 12.00 12.00 ----
Tyrrell 30 9 30 9 2,800 800 6.50 8.00 ----
Union 84 32 84 32 6,850 2,050 16.00 16.00 ----
Vance 27 32 25 32 2,175 3,260 15.00 14.00 ----
Wake 93 74 90 71 6,640 5,505 17.50 17.34 ----
Warren 34 43 24 43 3,425 3,540 16.00 16.00 16
Washington 28 18 28 18 3,850 2,450 17.00 17.00 ----

Page 287


TABLE NO. IV.--Continued

Average Salary of Teachers Per Month. Number of School-Houses. Counties
White. Colored.
White Male. White Female. Color'd Male. Colored Female. Number. Log. Frame. Brick. Number. Log. Frame.
$34.71 $24.52 $24.00 $22.36 58 ---- 58 ---- 39 1 38 Nash
70.00 36.77 40.00 37.10 14 ---- 14 ---- 16 ---- 16 New Hanover
25.28 25.44 22.82 22.08 49 ---- 49 ---- 46 2 44 Northampton
22.90 23.33 21.33 22.00 39 ---- 39 ---- 17 ---- 17 Onslow
25.30 23.70 22.00 21.10 44 22 22 ---- 34 20 14 Orange
23.64 20.12 22.75 21.17 20 ---- 20 ---- 12 ---- 12 Pamlico
32.86 27.24 27.78 24.32 22 ---- 21 1 18 ---- 18 Pasquotank
25.44 23.67 22.44 16.98 43 5 38 ---- 39 15 24 Pender
25.00 23.60 24.66 22.97 29 ---- 29 ---- 19 ---- 19 Perquimans
25.00 26.00 23.75 23.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Person
24.00 24.00 23.00 22.00 86 1 85 ---- 56 ---- 56 Pitt
24.00 22.50 22.00 22.50 28 7 21 ---- 12 7 5 Polk
24.00 22.50 22.00 20.00 92 22 70 ---- 20 9 11 Randolph
23.57 23.57 26.20 26.20 46 ---- 46 ---- 48 18 30 Richmond
27.77 22.31 25.32 22.89 71 3 68 ---- 44 1 43 Robeson
28.50 21.60 ---- ---- 16 ---- 16 ---- ---- ---- ---- Croatan
27.64 26.47 24.47 21.07 67 20 47 ---- 36 16 20 Rockingham
28.00 26.80 23.07 21.08 72 26 44 1 32 18 14 Rowan
27.32 22.82 20.81 19.46 66 9 57 ---- 17 6 11 Rutherford
22.14 24.15 20.30 18.64 77 22 55 ---- 50 17 33 Sampson
27.00 27.00 26.00 26.00 55 4 51 ---- 8 2 6 Stanly
23.88 22.24 21.10 20.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Stokes
23.00 23.00 20.00 20.00 36 17 19 ---- 6 4 2 Surry
22.23 23.08 22.00 ---- 33 13 19 1 1 ---- 1 Swain
24.00 19.75 22.00 ---- 32 5 27 ---- 3 ---- 3 Transylvania
25.00 23.00 25.00 20.00 30 2 28 ---- 8 1 7 Tyrrell
25.00 25.00 20.00 18.00 77 ---- 77 ---- 31 5 26 Union
25.00 26.00 22.00 23.00 24 ---- 24 ---- 31 8 23 Vance
31.50 27.65 29.25 24.70 64 2 62 ---- 49 4 45 Wake
20.00 22.31 21.07 20.77 34 1 33 ---- 41 ---- 41 Warren
26.46 26.46 24.86 24.86 28 ---- 28 ---- 17 ---- 17 Washington

Page 288


TABLE NO. IV.--Continued

Counties. Number of School Districts. Number of Schools Taught. Value of Public School Property. Average Length of Term in Weeks.
White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored. City.
Watauga 66 6 62 5 $8,000 $120 11.25 7.00 ----
Wayne 67 42 66 42 17,025 9,730 17.00 16.00 ----
Wilkes 112 21 108 21 8,615 560 14.00 11.00 ----
Wilson 47 29 47 29 15,520 5,005 17.00 17.00 ----
Yadkin 63 9 59 9 3,500 250 13.00 12.00 ----
Yancey 47 11 45 1 1,300 100 13.50 8.00 ----
Total 5,443 2,515 5,172 2,395 826,662 267,143 14.06 12.82 34.08

Page 289


TABLE NO. IV.--Continued

Average Salary of Teachers Per Month. Number of School-Houses. Counties
White. Colored.
White Male. White Female. Color'd Male. Colored Female. Number. Log. Frame. Brick. Number. Log. Frame.
$22.00 $18.50 $17.75 $18.00 64 23 41 ---- 3 1 2 Watauga
28.54 25.70 26.74 21.34 67 ---- 66 1 ---- ---- ---- Wayne
22.00 14.00 19.00 17.00 112 60 52 1 18 16 2 Wilkes
28.50 26.00 25.50 24.50 47 ---- 47 ---- 29 ---- 29 Wilson
20.25 20.80 20.00 22.50 49 36 13 ---- 5 4 1 Yadkin
21.25 18.00 15.00 ---- 50 13 37 ---- 3 1 2 Yancey
26.32 23.65 22.53 19.70 4,676 715 3,733 121 2,108 417 1,691 Total

Page 290

TABLE No. V--Number of Teachers Examined and Approved during the School Year Ending June 30, 1899, Showing Race, Sex and Grade.

Counties. White.
First Grade. Second Grade.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
Alamance 30 39 69 6 12 18
Alexander 32 5 37 12 3 15
Alleghany 5 1 6 24 1 25
Anson 24 14 38 2 6 8
Ashe 48 6 54 45 1 46
Beaufort 30 41 71 1 5 6
Bertie 4 43 47 6 13 19
Bladen 15 43 58 4 8 12
Brunswick 13 5 18 8 9 17
Buncombe ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Burke 8 3 11 22 10 32
Cabarrus 36 30 66 2 3 5
Caldwell 38 30 68 3 ---- 3
Camden 11 6 17 ---- ---- ----
Carteret 11 4 15 3 7 10
Caswell 3 12 15 3 4 7
Catawba 49 16 65 14 7 21
Chatham 39 16 55 16 22 38
Cherokee 16 1 17 20 7 27
Chowan 4 10 14 1 2 3
Clay 8 2 10 4 1 5
Cleveland 50 30 80 12 5 17
Columbus 32 28 60 4 1 5
Craven 5 40 45 1 4 5
Cumberland 45 30 75 9 7 16
Currituck 8 9 17 1 1 2
Dare 8 9 17 1 2 3
Davidson 40 21 61 35 11 46
Davie 34 15 49 6 2 8
Duplin 14 53 67 ---- 7 7
Durham 28 23 51 4 6 10

Page 291


TABLE No. V--Continued.

Colored. Total White. Total Colored. Counties.
First Grade. Second Grade.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
5 5 10 14 16 30 36 51 87 19 21 40 Alamance
2 3 5 ---- 3 3 44 8 52 5 3 8 Alexander
---- 3 3 ---- ---- ---- 29 2 31 ---- 3 3 Alleghany
9 3 12 13 5 28 26 20 46 22 8 30 Anson
---- ---- ---- 3 ---- 3 93 7 100 3 ---- 3 Ashe
9 12 21 9 17 26 31 46 77 18 29 47 Beaufort
13 11 24 10 21 31 10 56 66 23 32 55 Bertie
15 8 23 5 22 27 19 51 70 20 30 50 Bladen
8 3 11 6 4 10 21 14 35 14 7 21 Brunswick
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Buncombe
1 ---- 1 8 1 9 30 13 43 9 1 10 Burke
7 10 17 3 7 10 38 33 71 10 17 27 Cabarrus
4 2 6 3 3 6 41 30 71 7 5 12 Caldwell
6 4 10 2 1 3 11 7 18 8 5 13 Camden
---- 1 1 4 8 12 14 11 25 4 9 13 Carteret
4 10 14 4 4 8 6 16 22 8 14 22 Caswell
6 1 7 9 3 12 63 23 86 15 4 19 Catawba
17 ---- 17 21 12 33 55 38 93 38 12 50 Chatham
---- ---- ---- 1 ---- 1 36 8 44 1 ---- 1 Cherokee
5 8 13 7 10 17 5 12 17 12 18 30 Chowan
---- ---- ---- 1 ---- 1 12 3 15 1 ---- 1 Clay
10 5 15 3 3 6 62 35 97 13 8 21 Cleveland
22 14 36 4 3 7 36 29 65 26 17 43 Columbus
11 18 29 7 27 34 6 44 50 18 45 63 Craven
24 35 59 8 24 32 54 37 91 32 59 91 Cumberland
15 3 18 4 3 7 9 10 19 7 6 13 Currituck
1 1 2 1 1 2 9 11 20 2 2 4 Dare
4 1 5 10 10 20 75 32 107 14 11 25 Davidson
3 3 6 12 1 13 40 17 57 15 4 19 Davie
8 13 21 3 25 28 14 60 74 11 28 39 Duplin
11 7 18 6 24 30 32 29 61 17 31 48 Durham

Page 292


TABLE No. V--Continued.

Counties. White.
First Grade. Second Grade.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
Edgecombe 3 22 25 2 17 19
Forsyth 34 21 55 23 12 35
Franklin 14 31 45 5 4 9
Gaston 22 17 39 17 25 42
Gates 2 12 14 5 7 12
Graham 6 4 10 5 3 8
Granville 6 44 50 ---- 4 4
Greene 6 26 32 ---- 4 4
Guilford 16 12 28 18 26 44
Halifax 3 47 50 ---- 2 2
Harnett 28 12 40 6 3 9
Haywood 12 10 22 20 21 41
Henderson 27 9 36 1 1 2
Hertford 7 22 29 ---- 6 6
Hyde 10 13 23 3 2 5
Iredell 43 19 62 33 11 44
Jackson 11 10 21 4 5 9
Johnston 44 27 71 21 20 41
Jones 6 11 17 3 9 12
Lenoir 11 36 47 2 5 7
Lincoln 27 24 51 10 5 15
Macon 14 5 19 19 18 37
Madison 26 20 46 8 6 14
Martin 9 11 20 14 13 27
McDowell 12 8 20 11 5 16
Mecklenburg 48 35 83 1 6 7
Mitchell 39 8 47 6 3 9
Montgomery 24 17 41 13 8 21
Moore 28 21 49 10 9 19
Nash 16 32 48 5 8 12
New Hanover 3 40 43 ---- ---- ----

Page 293


TABLE No. V--Continued.

Colored. Total White. Total Colored. Counties.
First Grade. Second Grade.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
9 1 10 20 14 34 5 39 44 29 15 44 Edgecombe
5 ---- 5 14 10 24 57 33 90 19 10 29 Forsyth
18 20 38 12 20 32 19 35 54 30 42 72 Franklin
6 ---- 6 20 9 29 39 42 81 26 9 35 Gaston
2 5 7 5 13 18 7 21 28 7 18 25 Gates
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 11 7 18 ---- ---- ---- Graham
16 18 34 9 17 26 6 48 54 25 35 60 Granville
6 5 11 5 8 13 6 30 36 11 13 24 Greene
7 4 11 10 12 22 34 38 72 17 16 33 Guilford
19 26 45 17 32 49 3 49 52 36 58 94 Halifax
5 1 6 6 8 14 34 15 49 11 9 20 Harnett
2 ---- 2 ---- 1 1 32 31 63 2 1 3 Haywood
---- 2 2 3 2 5 28 10 38 3 4 7 Henderson
24 6 30 13 10 23 7 38 45 37 6 43 Hertford
1 4 5 3 2 5 13 15 28 4 6 10 Hyde
9 13 22 31 22 53 76 30 106 40 35 75 Iredell
2 1 3 ---- ---- ---- 15 15 30 2 1 3 Jackson
5 1 6 11 16 27 65 47 112 16 17 33 Johnston
3 ---- 3 10 7 17 9 20 29 13 7 20 Jones
5 7 12 14 13 27 13 41 54 19 20 39 Lenoir
7 1 8 3 5 8 37 29 66 10 6 16 Lincoln
1 ---- 1 2 2 4 33 23 56 3 2 5 Macon
---- ---- ---- 4 ---- 4 34 26 60 4 ---- 4 Madison
7 2 9 7 15 22 23 24 47 14 17 31 Martin
3 ---- 3 5 2 7 23 13 36 8 2 10 McDowell
26 14 40 19 20 39 49 41 90 45 34 79 Mecklenburg
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 45 11 56 ---- ---- ---- Mitchell
3 1 4 8 6 14 37 25 62 11 7 18 Montgomery
11 9 20 6 12 18 38 30 68 17 21 38 Moore
8 7 15 6 23 29 21 40 61 14 30 44 Nash
7 26 33 ---- 2 2 3 40 43 7 28 35 New Hanover

Page 294


TABLE No. V--Continued.

Counties. White.
First Grade. Second Grade.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
Northampton 7 15 22 1 3 4
Onslow 6 13 19 17 5 22
Orange 10 14 24 2 4 6
Pamlico 6 3 9 1 4 5
Pasquotank 6 17 23 4 6 10
Pender 7 22 29 5 2 7
Perquimans 3 19 22 5 4 9
Person 3 22 25 2 11 13
Pitt 11 43 54 8 23 31
Polk 2 14 16 17 7 24
Randolph 51 21 72 18 24 42
Richmond 19 12 31 12 8 20
Robeson 27 12 39 16 29 45
Rockingham 13 65 78 3 ---- 3
Rowan 29 18 47 18 11 29
Rutherford 16 15 31 25 26 51
Sampson 30 54 84 9 10 19
Stanly 59 15 74 1 3 4
Stokes 30 14 44 17 17 34
Surry 24 25 49 23 9 32
Swain 8 9 17 8 8 16
Transylvania 11 12 23 5 3 8
Tyrrell 12 1 13 4 3 7
Union 20 22 42 37 31 68
Vance 2 30 32 ---- ---- ----
Wake 37 48 85 1 6 7
Warren 1 35 36 ---- ---- ----
Washington 17 7 24 4 1 5
Watauga 38 6 44 6 4 10
Wayne 9 40 49 2 10 12
Wilkes 61 16 77 37 8 45

Page 295


TABLE No. V--Continued.

Colored. Total White. Total Colored. Counties.
First Grade. Second Grade.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
3 2 5 14 9 23 8 18 26 17 11 28 Northampton
3 ---- 3 8 4 12 23 18 41 11 4 15 Onslow
3 1 4 10 6 16 12 18 30 13 7 20 Orange
2 4 6 1 6 7 7 7 14 3 10 13 Pamlico
10 10 20 8 10 18 10 23 33 18 20 38 Pasquotank
10 1 11 7 13 20 12 24 36 17 14 31 Pender
3 4 7 3 12 15 8 23 31 6 16 22 Perquimans
2 3 5 10 14 24 5 33 38 12 17 29 Person
15 3 18 17 25 42 19 66 85 32 28 60 Pitt
1 2 3 3 7 10 19 21 40 4 9 13 Polk
6 1 7 10 11 21 69 45 114 16 12 28 Randolph
8 4 12 17 18 35 31 20 51 25 22 47 Richmond
8 7 15 8 7 15 43 41 84 16 14 30 Robeson
20 15 35 6 15 21 16 65 81 26 30 56 Rockingham
8 3 11 10 6 16 47 30 77 18 9 27 Rowan
1 1 2 13 12 25 41 41 82 14 13 27 Rutherford
17 30 47 10 24 34 39 64 103 27 54 81 Sampson
3 1 4 7 7 14 60 18 78 10 8 18 Stanly
2 ---- 2 11 3 14 47 31 78 13 3 16 Stokes
5 2 7 5 2 7 57 34 91 10 4 14 Surry
---- ---- ---- 1 ---- 1 16 17 33 1 ---- 1 Swain
1 ---- 1 2 ---- 2 16 15 31 3 ---- 3 Transylvania
2 ---- 2 ---- 5 5 16 4 20 2 5 7 Tyrrell
2 2 4 27 17 44 57 53 110 29 19 48 Union
17 13 30 ---- 6 6 2 30 32 17 19 36 Vance
36 33 69 8 34 42 38 54 92 44 67 111 Wake
14 30 44 2 17 19 1 35 36 16 47 63 Warren
5 3 8 3 3 6 21 8 29 8 16 24 Washington
---- ---- ---- 2 1 3 44 10 54 2 1 3 Watauga
10 3 13 7 25 32 11 50 61 17 28 45 Wayne
4 2 6 8 3 11 98 24 122 12 5 71 Wilkes

Page 296


TABLE No. V--Continued.

Counties. White.
First Grade. Second Grade.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
Wilson 20 18 38 ---- 3 3
Yadkin 16 4 20 44 11 55
Yancey 17 5 22 ---- 5 5
Total 1,873 1,897 3,770 886 734 1,620

Page 297


TABLE No. V--Continued.

Colored. Total White. Total Colored. Counties.
First Grade. Second Grade.
Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.
6 11 17 4 11 15 20 21 41 10 22 32 Wilson
1 ---- 1 7 3 10 60 15 75 8 3 11 Yadkin
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 22 5 27 ---- ---- ---- Yancey
665 549 1,214 703 897 1,600 2,874 2,540 5,414 1,341 1,435 2,776 Total

Page 298

TABLE No. VI--Showing Number White Pupils of Different Ages from Six to Twenty-one Studying Different Branches, Year ending June 30, 1899.

Counties. Six Years. Seven Years. Eight Years. Nine Years. Ten Years. Eleven Years. Twelve Years. Thirteen Years. Fourteen Years.
Alamance 352 342 380 343 312 253 323 252 190
Alexander 265 127 333 200 300 125 100 126 124
Alleghany 197 122 144 142 185 145 212 143 156
Anson 166 171 192 188 213 190 204 150 184
Ashe 453 383 414 415 410 349 415 362 314
Beaufort 206 271 262 271 290 240 286 214 209
Bertie 136 145 168 173 174 149 163 146 138
Bladen 191 168 190 187 221 182 219 169 200
Brunswick 128 109 124 117 125 109 133 117 102
Buncombe ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Burke 303 323 270 252 260 234 231 208 195
Cabarrus 292 302 292 319 311 266 241 224 219
Caldwell 300 280 270 240 220 240 210 260 235
Camden 43 62 66 61 59 59 60 65 51
Carteret 103 127 151 175 158 153 169 140 158
Caswell 81 82 102 123 124 95 117 109 86
Catawba 372 346 410 401 383 348 392 317 285
Chatham 325 332 370 338 391 327 355 301 287
Cherokee 241 229 219 215 229 217 222 192 193
Chowan 61 71 69 74 81 61 78 55 60
Clay 52 75 68 74 55 70 67 73 45
Cleveland 415 498 731 332 664 581 737 737 830
Columbus 306 354 306 331 360 285 327 277 311
Craven 96 91 116 92 98 87 75 153 117
Cumberland 222 242 254 250 334 253 292 242 241
Currituck 54 90 79 82 78 77 74 70 55
Dare 94 121 99 100 99 97 98 105 68
Davidson 463 399 450 430 451 399 394 355 331
Davie 137 170 194 162 206 159 192 151 150
Duplin 185 198 219 217 230 119 205 129 120
Durham 292 291 354 288 293 252 273 193 208
Edgecombe 180 197 190 184 189 160 161 123 111
Forsyth 407 365 364 386 383 331 346 295 258

Page 299


TABLE No. VI--Continued.

Fifteen Years. Sixteen Years. Seventeen Years. Eighteen Years. Nineteen Years. Twenty Years. No. Studying Arithmetic. No. Studying Geography. No. Studying English Grammar. No. Studying North Carolina History. No. Studying United States History. No. Studying Physiology and Hygiene. Counties.
170 142 161 75 62 59 2,472 1,174 763 272 543 237 Alamance
120 81 81 60 10 9 900 523 305 62 231 80 Alexander
122 111 98 61 40 28 705 374 213 72 119 84 Alleghany
134 141 96 72 44 38 1,556 838 560 75 180 189 Anson
305 266 213 180 111 81 1,694 691 703 85 219 279 Ashe
171 172 130 105 71 75 2,235 1,362 852 303 430 530 Beaufort
118 108 90 64 30 27 1,306 777 486 231 323 182 Bertie
186 148 106 101 78 62 1,607 760 595 251 140 271 Bladen
109 59 66 55 32 27 550 331 235 123 75 104 Brunswick
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Buncombe
205 147 114 71 46 30 1,476 823 357 133 263 259 Burke
176 134 101 67 41 27 1,912 1,104 765 267 303 188 Cabarrus
175 175 115 75 95 40 710 310 200 75 125 99 Caldwell
45 29 17 12 10 4 414 210 116 59 90 19 Camden
107 94 69 42 27 21 1,125 496 352 180 241 248 Carteret
76 72 55 44 20 16 944 528 380 131 254 94 Caswell
254 213 115 89 45 17 2,108 1,237 660 419 230 170 Catawba
295 240 198 138 108 91 2,843 1,324 889 596 419 345 Chatham
172 157 135 97 53 46 1,016 542 342 38 228 59 Cherokee
61 52 22 20 11 6 571 333 216 791 361 110 Chowan
48 37 32 24 20 5 267 121 90 5 34 25 Clay
166 737 415 249 249 332 3,280 1,476 1,558 902 902 328 Cleveland
290 231 210 150 121 130 2,082 875 622 136 234 2,993 Columbus
69 66 59 41 12 12 796 245 289 126 152 109 Craven
199 142 97 63 75 75 2,133 1,150 846 373 386 527 Cumberland
42 32 14 14 7 4 501 321 147 70 202 77 Currituck
59 43 23 16 11 9 418 250 150 100 95 30 Dare
300 262 177 155 91 82 2,676 1,314 847 466 347 224 Davidson
140 118 108 67 41 22 1,100 533 343 131 194 109 Davie
181 117 84 81 29 55 1,806 864 526 253 219 169 Duplin
147 110 70 45 27 20 2,034 1,383 1,111 572 636 529 Durham
98 84 49 31 12 7 1,302 740 490 215 356 166 Edgecombe
264 186 137 88 67 61 2,023 1,061 704 173 330 199 Forsyth

Page 300


TABLE No. VI--Continued.

Counties. Six Years. Seven Years. Eight Years. Nine Years. Ten Years. Eleven Years. Twelve Years. Thirteen Years. Fourteen Years.
Franklin 135 153 160 185 171 165 149 156 160
Gaston 421 394 424 345 408 296 295 287 229
Gates 86 109 117 124 149 135 147 132 125
Graham 117 78 96 78 97 79 88 87 68
Granville 176 166 180 154 183 162 186 131 171
Greene 111 107 124 115 117 129 111 63 100
Guilford 388 395 356 378 365 398 331 308 296
Halifax 135 146 171 152 176 128 140 132 143
Harnett 152 225 224 224 223 180 238 187 187
Haywood 217 298 556 581 662 730 580 536 353
Henderson 272 265 245 261 254 253 223 252 251
Hertford 79 84 99 88 98 108 89 85 87
Hyde 40 41 70 65 43 68 71 83 58
Iredell 365 385 366 370 402 360 336 301 302
Jackson 110 165 172 188 190 180 192 168 194
Johnston 411 464 485 491 452 420 490 376 397
Jones 54 75 112 90 105 92 64 62 72
Lenoir 168 136 183 196 188 148 218 190 135
Lincoln 220 247 261 240 267 227 246 171 202
Macon 234 216 259 233 269 219 247 212 201
Madison 472 365 424 374 386 395 398 363 269
Martin 103 2e3 312 286 275 282 127 143 135
McDowell 155 148 165 171 142 136 152 150 153
Mecklenburg 330 384 416 424 407 348 413 325 287
Mitchell 175 215 240 320 360 390 415 315 380
Montgomery 197 187 190 182 209 174 226 143 162
Moore 230 240 265 252 290 284 265 226 228
Nash 208 211 247 213 239 195 237 197 192
N'w Hanover 89 128 181 219 234 224 206 175 143
Northam'ton 113 141 154 135 163 145 162 141 169
Onslow 166 180 139 145 161 148 156 134 144
Orange 89 101 124 141 147 136 138 134 122
Pamlico 146 120 144 168 146 118 121 92 129

Page 301


TABLE No. VI--Continued.

Fifteen Years. Sixteen Years. Seventeen Years. Eighteen Years. Nineteen Years. Twenty Years. No. Studying Arithmetic. No. Studying Geography. No. Studying English Grammar. No. Studying North Carolina History. No. Studying United States History. No. Studying Physiology and Hygiene. Counties.
105 91 81 59 26 23 1,293 651 365 166 211 134 Franklin
197 136 116 79 30 33 2,329 1,266 788 340 522 508 Gaston
101 102 104 68 46 21 1,052 614 411 189 207 64 Gates
68 48 30 26 25 8 361 147 115 32 59 154 Graham
122 84 55 62 30 30 1,273 842 599 241 357 388 Granville
76 67 44 31 13 9 942 405 258 108 152 54 Greene
249 210 132 131 84 66 2,722 1,577 867 334 627 956 Guilford
98 80 47 29 21 8 1,174 683 461 197 240 238 Halifax
153 142 122 113 59 37 1,688 662 466 196 299 105 Harnett
207 164 149 127 118 98 3,015 2,229 2,015 429 363 219 Haywood
245 183 154 105 96 70 1,612 830 559 79 318 372 Henderson
57 41 40 21 26 15 1,023 617 459 122 297 297 Hertford
38 39 26 14 8 10 482 192 279 123 94 325 Hyde
291 238 200 140 91 82 2,372 1,412 784 234 297 170 Iredell
142 118 82 73 44 42 1,086 704 385 115 248 172 Jackson
326 282 221 155 115 78 3,159 1,433 1,128 353 828 361 Johnston
60 51 56 30 20 10 740 620 460 182 520 470 Jones
142 128 89 71 31 24 1,673 890 633 210 281 260 Lenoir
171 142 110 86 57 36 1,574 780 452 304 294 119 Lincoln
177 131 100 58 56 48 1,384 728 392 112 264 139 Macon
279 254 214 150 183 115 1,591 780 511 107 182 270 Madison
146 132 108 104 72 51 2,325 1,605 1,375 640 507 790 Martin
140 118 79 55 42 39 933 446 263 103 136 48 McDowell
287 241 187 117 71 27 2,934 1,668 1,158 465 740 318 Mecklenburg
270 220 230 202 188 80 1,500 575 240 ---- 125 55 Mitchell
138 133 74 66 47 45 1,007 453 338 136 79 77 Montgomery
230 230 220 118 80 60 1,976 956 818 235 216 243 Moore
172 118 93 57 45 42 1,631 759 571 225 247 126 Nash
104 58 31 15 4 ---- 1,911 1,711 1,711 1,711 1,711 1,711 N'w Hanover
142 197 84 63 52 35 1,335 858 572 292 430 235 Northam'ton
141 106 98 75 58 52 1,227 717 463 320 131 951 Onslow
94 89 78 50 39 27 1,113 585 411 297 215 148 Orange
93 100 67 59 31 30 998 548 414 186 263 177 Pamlico

Page 302


TABLE No. VI--Continued.

Counties. Six Years. Seven Years. Eight Years. Nine Years. Ten Years. Eleven Years. Twelve Years. Thirteen Years. Fourteen Years.
Pasquotank 77 95 115 113 113 105 124 103 79
Pender 80 85 92 103 104 80 108 98 115
Perquimans 85 104 120 110 122 98 101 85 89
Person 150 165 182 172 183 135 184 162 171
Pitt 240 282 293 244 310 255 279 229 221
Polk* ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Randolph 546 612 540 450 496 412 475 396 256
Richmond* ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Robeson 266 292 327 333 364 284 324 273 286
Croatan 69 77 95 107 122 103 127 115 107
Rockingham 294 308 365 325 339 284 309 284 267
Rowan 489 465 541 476 534 432 436 343 412
Rutherford 169 197 178 364 322 264 474 461 532
Sampson 255 279 293 305 322 308 321 274 220
Stanly 278 305 323 302 354 344 264 275 250
Stokes 286 277 309 286 397 275 311 272 202
Surry 347 286 346 306 342 268 298 281 261
Swain 177 125 160 140 135 128 140 115 131
Transylvania 128 93 97 108 83 108 6 13 12
Tyrrell 41 54 52 52 48 57 48 44 47
Union 512 440 493 455 441 400 458 450 466
Vance 61 76 83 120 97 88 96 67 78
Wake 329 317 347 395 380 395 392 322 325
Warren 89 80 90 95 92 89 94 86 100
Washington 86 106 84 88 91 87 85 87 82
Watauga 305 246 258 241 300 222 256 251 218
Wayne 289 257 285 263 308 238 284 227 217
Wilkes 409 459 494 500 509 529 559 674 509
Wilson 279 237 231 256 267 252 259 216 215
Yadkin 290 171 295 233 299 194 281 141 193
Yancey 217 197 183 290 198 193 160 189 156
Total 20,325 20,052 22,357 21,882 23,436 20,691 21,991 19,434 18,652

        * Not reported.

Page 303


TABLE No. VI--Continued.

Fifteen Years. Sixteen Years. Seventeen Years. Eighteen Years. Nineteen Years. Twenty Years. No. Studying Arthmetic. No. Studying Geography. No. Studying English Grammar. No. Studying North Carolina History. No. Studying United States History. No. Studying Physiology and Hygiene. Counties.
65 51 49 18 3 4 921 381 271 132 127 58 Pasquotank
105 82 75 56 31 28 931 438 312 123 166 69 Pender
78 61 46 42 21 10 818 508 353 106 214 124 Perquimans
107 102 78 63 33 25 1,182 648 385 219 279 116 Person
199 159 109 94 53 33 1,833 1,045 638 332 342 168 Pitt
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Polk*
420 262 270 189 46 16 3,985 2,812 1,167 936 1,289 569 Randolph
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Richmond*
250 225 152 126 86 54 2,072 1,274 871 280 377 244 Robeson
71 70 47 46 34 22 446 143 94 33 48 29 Croatan
194 192 133 85 47 40 2,415 1,257 673 219 609 359 Rockingham
308 266 184 153 99 60 2,967 1,799 1,029 498 678 379 Rowan
309 204 192 88 16 22 2,812 1,078 716 148 302 292 Rutherford
240 225 167 147 97 61 2,285 1,073 882 430 471 303 Sampson
232 198 147 136 52 62 1,347 673 489 171 210 115 Stanly
207 188 119 95 55 51 1,426 861 451 179 218 319 Stokes
235 182 159 107 57 61 1,488 1,081 837 212 197 342 Surry
112 72 70 60 30 19 625 290 125 57 110 200 Swain
7 8 6 23 ---- 8 514 361 189 31 66 37 Transylvania
35 44 13 4 3 1 503 180 120 104 86 21 Tyrrell
360 330 213 236 140 85 2,000 1,112 874 314 182 194 Union
55 43 42 18 10 6 791 500 286 102 220 225 Vance
228 221 170 123 95 55 2,899 1,559 1,109 546 589 449 Wake
76 64 25 20 6 7 774 496 314 66 223 114 Warren
55 51 37 21 14 11 674 411 285 135 152 119 Washington
167 153 110 83 55 53 1,192 601 429 99 125 81 Watauga
166 163 129 9 53 43 2,189 1,188 706 198 547 543 Wayne
519 524 534 404 389 314 1,305 1,950 1,580 1,575 1,525 1,580 Wilkes
200 136 90 80 37 27 1,722 967 772 461 521 360 Wilson
196 179 139 106 63 44 1,274 668 527 192 96 76 Yadkin
171 115 93 71 46 52 630 296 263 28 65 61 Yancey
18,832 13,759 10,557 7,513 5,175 4,143 141,816 78,472 53,980 24,194 30,255 26,832 Total

        * Not reported.

Page 304

TABLE NO. VII.--Showing Number of Colored Pupils of Different Ages from Six to Twenty-one Studying Different Branches.

Counties. Six Years. Seven Years. Eight Years. Nine Years. Ten Years. Eleven Years. Twelve Years. Thirteen Years. Fourteen Years
Alamance 88 105 106 91 119 92 130 107 105
Alexander 28 30 19 45 25 30 19 29 21
Alleghany 4 1 4 4 ---- ---- 2 3 4
Anson 134 162 172 169 205 154 206 200 190
Ashe 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1
Beaufort 168 262 153 252 181 153 181 167 166
Bertie 166 213 202 216 241 211 200 255 240
Bladen 83 133 150 168 180 131 183 186 168
Brunswick 87 82 102 107 118 73 97 77 86
Buncombe ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Burke 68 74 62 64 56 48 48 46 61
Cabarrus 68 85 103 88 114 88 103 93 88
Caldwell 50 45 45 45 36 25 36 40 36
Camden 37 34 48 43 45 49 35 53 48
Carteret 48 44 30 39 25 25 51 46 43
Caswell 125 128 150 140 148 141 180 145 141
Catawba 42 38 44 48 39 35 56 42 55
Chatham 111 132 143 150 178 170 178 170 175
Cherokee 4 5 2 5 2 1 1 3 2
Chowan 72 98 111 115 130 105 128 125 106
Clay 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 ----
Cleveland 88 44 44 88 88 44 66 44 88
Columbus 151 190 182 166 191 138 188 182 188
Craven 176 198 206 240 253 251 274 316 232
Cumberland 157 232 223 225 273 241 257 227 219
Currituck 42 35 35 45 51 50 38 38 39
Dare 7 8 15 5 10 7 10 19 5
Davidson 49 53 55 59 61 49 51 54 65
Davie 37 46 62 42 61 49 66 61 60
Duplin 129 120 136 159 153 153 177 204 181
Durham 195 123 167 172 202 146 165 162 123
Edgecombe 290 287 283 291 292 258 280 264 200
Forsyth 101 80 94 104 91 85 86 66 73

Page 305


TABLE NO. VII.--Continued.

Fifteen Years. Sixteen Years. Seventeen Years. Eighteen Years. Nineteen Years. Twenty Years. No. Studying Arithmetic. No. Studying Geography. No. Studying English Grammar. No. Studying North Carolina History. No. Studying United States History. No. Studying Physiology and Hygiene. Counties.
93 93 76 48 23 27 756 371 246 272 543 237 Alamance
18 14 33 8 9 5 200 62 30 4 9 16 Alexander
4 2 4 5 3 ---- 40 6 7 3 12 ---- Alleghany
181 134 112 83 48 20 1,556 838 560 255 305 161 Anson
3 3 3 6 2 3 19 17 14 ---- 6 8 Ashe
141 117 86 81 47 17 1,273 589 479 204 353 966 Beaufort
227 218 156 115 57 36 ---- ---- ---- 231 138 580 Bertie
188 151 125 109 64 67 981 407 326 37 31 227 Bladen
77 64 54 48 25 10 364 220 114 4 37 112 Brunswick
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Buncombe
56 50 27 27 12 11 310 257 122 32 35 28 Burke
63 63 54 38 20 9 735 394 174 45 154 173 Cabarrus
50 26 25 21 15 15 305 112 75 20 40 40 Caldwell
35 25 20 11 3 3 219 120 75 19 14 50 Camden
20 29 27 14 12 6 288 151 120 25 31 111 Carteret
111 85 60 48 21 18 152 466 182 48 144 151 Caswell
35 32 18 17 15 12 258 189 124 20 72 160 Catawba
151 153 119 94 65 51 1,088 595 417 219 64 246 Chatham
2 1 1 ---- ---- ---- 8 2 ---- ---- ---- ---- Cherokee
88 84 43 36 18 13 807 503 375 197 274 434 Chowan
1 ---- 1 ---- ---- 1 3 1 1 ---- ---- ---- Clay
66 66 66 22 66 22 527 352 396 242 220 154 Cleveland
141 144 128 103 74 63 1,269 736 521 290 291 1,448 Columbus
161 164 140 107 16 13 1,701 1,162 987 202 860 923 Craven
243 164 146 81 76 49 1,451 713 373 173 87 160 Cumberland
35 31 11 4 4 ---- 332 201 187 37 26 174 Currituck
8 5 4 3 4 4 62 24 20 9 ---- 10 Dare
34 41 24 20 12 5 363 191 124 36 64 74 Davidson
43 51 24 25 15 9 339 195 709 31 41 66 Davie
177 144 113 75 55 50 1,009 444 269 253 96 108 Duplin
103 107 78 43 35 30 1,143 563 420 155 326 289 Durham
192 139 104 50 25 5 1,840 755 524 193 338 433 Edgecombe
62 71 45 35 22 14 463 334 223 64 48 86 Forsyth

Page 306


TABLE NO. VII.--Continued.

Counties. Six Years. Seven Years. Eight Years. Nine Years. Ten Years. Eleven Years. Twelve Years. Thirteen Years Fourteen Years
Franklin 141 185 185 182 202 174 222 176 199
Gaston 144 152 150 131 185 149 161 128 160
Gates 63 94 96 101 142 108 121 127 113
Graham ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Granville 173 171 194 225 219 166 222 184 194
Greene 96 104 87 122 123 78 107 104 102
Guilford 92 140 132 109 115 114 126 118 126
Halifax 212 269 289 280 320 259 327 285 273
Harnett 80 66 79 81 99 72 95 69 92
Haywood 14 16 21 29 18 16 14 13 11
Henderson 34 34 26 32 22 31 29 31 22
Hertford 121 136 146 187 203 280 188 158 191
Hyde 53 82 81 121 95 104 117 137 128
Iredell 155 122 131 133 140 128 132 137 126
Jackson 17 19 26 10 21 14 17 15 19
Johnston 113 104 119 113 126 123 144 125 129
Jones 64 65 90 88 90 96 72 50 64
Lenoir 113 130 144 136 152 102 151 136 115
Lincoln 55 53 59 53 67 52 56 52 57
Macon 10 10 17 10 10 11 13 14 11
Madison 10 15 21 18 14 9 10 5 9
Martin 178 305 332 295 206 172 140 137 112
McDowell 42 34 37 42 32 28 45 39 28
Mecklenburg 273 256 321 285 301 261 314 288 242
Mitchell 6 4 11 9 9 7 10 3 8
Montgomery 34 51 53 59 70 51 66 65 49
Moore 110 120 140 150 125 135 160 130 128
Nash 124 147 158 179 185 167 203 154 162
New Hanover 104 153 233 260 266 259 225 212 177
Northampton 135 171 151 184 236 194 252 236 212
Onslow 63 45 80 68 77 36 82 59 60
Orange 58 40 54 54 60 45 64 55 60
Pamlico 64 67 63 66 55 67 68 79 63

Page 307


TABLE NO. VII.--Continued.

Fifteen Years. Sixteen Years. Seventeen Years. Eighteen Years. Nineteen Years. Twenty Years. No. Studying Arithmetic. No. Studying Geography. No. Studying English Grammar. No. Studying North Carolina History. No. Studying United States History. No. Studying Physiology and Hygiene. Counties.
175 138 104 90 57 32 1,281 842 577 255 243 673 Franklin
115 90 76 56 35 20 828 477 237 340 522 508 Gaston
110 102 104 68 46 21 761 350 261 71 56 113 Gates
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Graham
177 159 125 101 49 33 1,219 723 538 182 203 544 Granville
109 64 51 52 18 15 710 361 221 89 74 193 Greene
109 88 89 47 33 13 817 473 338 98 163 333 Guilford
234 186 138 116 38 32 1,732 903 647 227 229 360 Halifax
74 82 50 59 35 23 639 307 190 80 75 104 Harnett
9 7 8 6 3 1 87 49 32 14 11 6 Haywood
15 17 11 10 9 10 199 68 122 2 20 102 Henderson
180 142 113 72 50 51 1,234 725 560 133 240 470 Hertford
94 86 77 62 27 16 742 446 ---- 245 258 400 Hyde
108 101 74 66 45 18 1,005 486 284 186 177 314 Iredell
9 10 10 4 4 4 100 55 44 18 33 21 Jackson
130 114 118 88 48 27 883 358 296 160 213 395 Johnston
72 54 61 38 37 20 682 610 315 164 460 350 Jones
110 94 65 56 24 16 766 392 150 151 67 384 Lenoir
52 43 32 28 14 10 269 165 88 22 65 39 Lincoln
7 5 9 7 2 4 79 56 47 11 23 36 Macon
6 8 7 4 1 1 30 12 6 ---- 6 4 Madison
101 93 74 87 93 76 1,625 1,160 728 326 230 420 Martin
28 26 17 10 13 8 161 135 96 3 13 80 McDowell
225 204 122 85 47 8 1,763 774 493 169 343 232 Mecklenburg
10 8 8 6 3 1 21 11 ---- ---- ---- ---- Mitchell
52 36 41 62 47 45 387 172 141 70 37 98 Montgomery
120 105 102 44 34 20 1,113 486 480 132 94 63 Moore
132 115 72 59 41 28 1,302 649 559 193 178 573 Nash
122 63 20 10 6 ---- 1,960 1,960 1,960 1,960 1,960 1,960 New Hanover
189 195 128 111 61 38 1,268 694 443 265 99 435 Northampton
63 60 51 32 18 11 363 187 117 46 37 53 Onslow
52 39 42 26 12 7 397 171 104 39 57 78 Orange
62 48 48 40 18 15 456 259 203 128 100 215 Pamlico

Page 308


TABLE NO. VII.--Continued.

Counties. Six Years. Seven Years. Eight Years. Nine Years. Ten Years. Eleven Years. Twelve Years. Thirteen Years Fourteen Years
Pasquotank 87 84 78 95 82 104 97 92 55
Pender 120 143 95 105 114 89 112 100 106
Perquimans 86 104 105 89 111 88 116 110 106
Person 106 95 127 111 133 126 150 133 108
Pitt 206 787 214 205 216 205 222 186 170
Polk ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Randolph 102 127 137 142 122 88 92 85 76
Richmond ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Robeson 251 278 357 268 350 306 367 302 284
Rockingham 148 149 181 172 174 159 195 179 179
Rowan 141 168 186 168 177 148 165 118 128
Rutherford 62 72 65 100 137 112 118 120 138
Sampson 120 156 157 164 205 160 207 199 180
Stanly 23 28 27 29 44 20 25 25 6
Stokes 54 51 65 49 66 39 50 69 40
Surry 48 48 42 59 54 47 44 41 41
Swain 5 4 4 4 ---- ---- 4 1 1
Transylvania 14 11 9 9 11 10 13 72 100
Tyrrell 29 43 35 34 43 23 44 30 26
Union 203 200 267 188 195 171 171 177 200
Vance 204 181 178 202 230 195 225 213 195
Wake 266 299 296 308 328 244 347 287 332
Warren 138 199 203 219 250 256 237 273 242
Washington 69 93 88 94 94 76 90 122 82
Watauga 5 7 7 7 11 8 8 7 9
Wayne 173 164 166 185 199 147 187 163 147
Wilkes 30 40 62 53 61 62 72 70 50
Wilson 128 118 151 128 183 141 175 147 134
Yadkin 21 15 17 24 28 21 22 27 22
Yancey 2 4 1 1 2 2 1 6 1
Total 8,498 10,089 10,119 10,153 11,177 9,561 10,805 10,185 9,709

Page 309


TABLE NO. VII.--Continued.

Fifteen Years. Sixteen Years. Seventeen Years. Eighteen Years. Nineteen Years. Twenty Years. No. Studying Arithmetic. No. Studying Geography. No. Studying English Grammar. No. Studying North Carolina History. No. Studying United States History. No. Studying Physiology and Hygiene. Counties.
58 52 30 29 25 11 520 197 127 76 16 171 Pasquotank
100 92 60 68 43 41 719 352 203 85 59 116 Pender
91 107 78 51 40 19 838 424 364 158 122 401 Perquimans
98 74 82 53 24 19 618 335 281 65 100 72 Person
156 138 112 71 53 45 976 457 256 104 125 285 Pitt
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Polk
62 49 20 15 13 9 628 346 193 42 57 93 Randolph
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Richmond
227 209 138 119 75 41 1,816 717 329 100 127 271 Robeson
138 124 93 80 40 22 1,218 634 432 177 214 206 Rockingham
105 89 66 54 26 22 917 696 388 123 375 229 Rowan
87 57 40 28 20 15 392 213 103 36 49 166 Rutherford
162 139 129 97 70 47 1,417 626 461 214 279 703 Sampson
25 27 12 20 5 4 169 86 57 20 17 26 Stanly
44 53 32 22 19 8 270 185 112 23 29 38 Stokes
35 46 42 36 17 7 336 217 617 28 33 8 Surry
---- 4 1 1 ---- ---- 18 10 4 1 3 ---- Swain
58 65 46 46 13 15 98 29 23 7 3 58 Transylvania
30 19 21 4 13 3 158 92 61 35 43 17 Tyrrell
181 136 141 81 30 25 782 489 380 139 140 163 Union
141 105 45 48 20 12 1,437 746 439 124 98 555 Vance
250 245 199 142 93 61 2,229 1,065 704 360 191 605 Wake
237 199 144 81 49 12 842 899 657 201 215 641 Warren
61 48 33 13 4 5 438 217 135 44 50 107 Washington
5 6 3 7 2 2 49 8 1 1 6 5 Watauga
137 134 98 83 46 28 1,196 463 315 120 138 294 Wayne
52 65 45 15 13 12 380 390 400 320 275 500 Wilkes
127 111 67 50 30 27 1,034 521 360 104 202 485 Wilson
24 31 18 16 9 13 207 102 72 37 39 49 Yadkin
4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2 3 4 1 1 1 Yancey
8,555 7,477 5,768 4,209 2,623 1,737 64,254 35,905 25,849 10,844 13,951 23,246 Total

Page 310

TABLE NO. VIII --Showing Amount Apportioned to White and Colored, Assessed Value of Property of White and Colored, Insolvent Polls. Poll Tax Levied and Amount Applied to Schools.

Counties. Amount Apportioned to Whites. Amount Apportioned to Colored. Assessed Value of Property of Whites. Assessed Value of Property of Colored.
Alamance $10,191.01 $3,099.80 $5,042,557.00 $87,897.00
Alexander 3,441.40 287.37 994,562.00 98.66
Alleghany 2,607.64 211.28 662,610.00 7,343.00
Anson 3,449.70 3,695.40 1,722,109.00 79,459.00
Ashe 4,484.81 194.21 1,360,940.00 8,578.00
Beaufort 5,342.49 3,923.82 2,526,967.00 160,428.00
Bertie 4,915.76 4,433.42 2,595,614.00 256,740.00
Bladen 3,204.61 1,993.89 1,611,225.56 123,651.00
Brunswick 2,650.56 1,461.26 966,949.00 97,450.00
Buncombe 14,743.88 1,423.00 8,982,834.00 149,887.00
Burke 5,417.10 and col'd 1,190,672.00 28,550.00
Cabarrus 8,564.00 2,781.00 3,188,149.00 68,482.00
Caldwell 5,158.47 833.53 1,640,736.00 15,204.00
Camden 2,210.30 825.00 540,634.00 41,655.00
Carteret 2,543.00 526.40 736,172.00 34,781.00
Caswell 2,456.95 2,445.17 1,286,412.00 48,284.00
Catawba 10,262.20 and col'd 2,770,789.00 26,685.00
Chatham 6,768.00 3,751.20 2,748,452.00 112,353.00
Cherokee 4,219.00 196.00 1,349,729.00 3,060.00
Chowan 2,176.86 2,863.18 1,305,337.00 138,078.00
Clay 1,551.12 46.00 490,366.00 874.00
Cleveland 8,460.49 2,025.51 3,511,455.00 ----
Columbus 5,244.00 2,737.00 1,539,559.00 125,238.00
Craven ---- ---- 2,629,555.00 394,568.00
Cumberland 7,440.41 5,814.15 2,862,382.00 181,581.00
Currituck ---- ---- 551,956.00 25,110.00
Dare 1,203.80 346.90 376,308.00 12,993.00
Davidson 10,180.80 ---- 3,192,258.00 32,470.00
Davie ---- ---- 1,527,305.00 31,892.00
Duplin 5,773.00 3,336.00 1,732,638.00 96,311.00
Durham 12,657.50 7,837.50 7,597,473.00 151,231.00
Edgecombe 16,100.00 and col'd 2,938,044.00 130,000.00

Page 311


TABLE NO. VIII --Continued.

Number White Polls. Number Colored Polls. Number of Insolvent White Polls. Number of Insolvent Colored Polls. Total Poll Tax Levied. Amount Poll Tax Paid for Schools. Amount Actually Paid by Whites on Property and Polls. Amount Actually Paid by Colored on Property and Polls. Counties.
2,782 788 183 122 $2.25 $1.50 $12,957.82 $1,154.21 Alamance
1,391 88 11 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Alexander
1,083 49 103 ---- 230 150 2,662.70 86.72 Alleghany
1,598 1,296 1,474 and colored 230 150 ---- ---- Anson
2,433 59 135 and colored 2.00 1.50 5,588.26 91.55 Ashe
2,142 1,380 242 511 2.40 1.29 6,999.54 1,409.78 Beaufort
1,508 1,536 55 330 2.10 1.50 6,155.38 2,264.07 Bertie
1,389 779 96 192 1.50 1.50 4,617.04 1,103.00 Bladen
1,098 608 89 176 2.45 1.29 3,087.33 731.29 Brunswick
5,291 1,308 1,381 and colored 2.00 1.50 6,769.34 ---- Buncombe
154 ---- ---- ---- 3.00 1.50 5,074.82 268.28 Burke
2,300 624 170 170 2.45 1.56 ---- ---- Cabarrus
1,903 203 60 30 2.00 1.50 ---- ---- Caldwell
529 340 10 20 1.50 1.50 ---- ---- Camden
1,378 196 344 117 2.10 1.50 2,836.24 156.46 Carteret
1,027 892 150 300 2.46 1.50 2,305.56 86.91 Caswell
2,516 258 ---- ---- 2.00 1.50 ---- ---- Catawba
2,436 953 ---- ---- 2.30 1.50 ---- ---- Chatham
1,165 27 160 20 3.40 1.50 4,420.85 46.01 Cherokee
756 802 129 and colored 2.00 1.29 ---- ---- Chowan
592 13 ---- ---- 1.50 1.50 1,630.32 46.00 Clay
3,476 ---- 266 ---- 2.60 1.50 11,534.61 ---- Cleveland
2,058 662 125 118 ---- 1.50 7,076.87 1,041.43 Columbus
1,535 1,841 ---- ---- 3.20 1.56 ---- ---- Craven
2,165 1,097 1,173 and colored 2.24 1.50 8,789.48 2,169.73 Cumberland
920 296 ---- ---- 2.00 1.50 2,373.52 489.20 Currituck
709 70 525 255 ---- 1.29 1,183.08 591.54 Dare
2,860 279 325 75 ---- 1.50 9,548.21 433.44 Davidson
290 173 63 ---- 2.00 ---- ---- ---- Davie
2,132 807 300 150 2.00 1.50 6,054.73 1,271.50 Duplin
2,350 1,190 100 300 1.50 1.50 18,924.67 1,605.00 Durham
1,642 2,057 1,000 and colored 2.57 1.50 9,589.00 2,459.00 Edgecombe

Page 312


TABLE NO. VIII --Continued.

Counties. Amount Apportioned to Whites. Amount Apportioned to Colored. Assessed Value of Property of Whites. Assessed Value of Property of Colored.
Forsyth $13,443.25 $3,628.50 $7,695,082.00 $147,589.00
Franklin 5,329.36 5,036.08 2,466,722.00 173,825.00
Gaston 12,414.60 both 3,616,217.00 59,307.00
Gates 2,749.60 2,573.20 1,271,927.00 79,678.00
Graham 1,590.00 11.00 619,108.00 ----
Granville 6,623.51 4,879.43 2,804,973.00 147,274.00
Greene 3,520.00 2,125.00 1,353,908.00 72,521.00
Guilford 13,368.59 6,684.29 6,478,356.00 166,758.00
Halifax 13,760.00 both 3,405,192.00 315,342.00
Harnett 3,219.32 1,567.84 1,327,202.00 54,794.00
Haywood 6,080.00 218.00 1,858,180.00 9,300.00
Henderson 5,797.25 863.50 2,179,484.61 21,926.00
Hertford 3,493.72 3,460.77 1,984,684.00 211,661.00
Hyde 2,097.63 1,653.37 947,932.00 29,526.00
Iredell 10,180.80 3,574.20 3,592,067.00 76,015.00
Jackson 4,282.40 200.00 1,144,265.00 50,566.00
Johnston 12,622.45 3,514.19 3,227,596.00 99,682.00
Jones 1,909.36 1,789.36 963,460.00 58,837.00
Lenoir 6,508.51 3,120.50 1,980,130.00 107,817.00
Lincoln 5,015.35 1,305.95 2,100,509.00 33,408.00
Macon 4,353.25 304.50 1,092,347.00 9,155.00
Madison 6,103.50 120.90 1,532,242.00 4,200.00
Martin 4,968.41 3,079.09 1,939,374.00 133,984.00
McDowell 3,530.00 780.00 901,936.00 7,499.00
Mecklenburg 16,065.20 7,163.01 10,699,778.00 292,572.00
Mitchell 3,501.60 108.00 855,049.00 6,851.00
Montgomery 3,420.23 927.43 1,321,865.00 1,753.00
Moore 6,010.18 3,174.10 2,392,177.00 76,864.00
Nash 7,144.20 5,273.13 3,076,638.00 130,370.00
New Hanover 12,632.00 17,800.00 7,425,411.11 445,613.87
Northampton 6,204.89 3,844.78 2,550,564.00 241,890.00
Onslow 3,569.15 1,248.20 1,393,111.00 52,019.00
Orange 4,391.51 1,688.09 1,953,186.00 85,644.00

Page 313


TABLE NO. VIII --Continued.

Number White Polls. Number Colored Polls. Number of Insolvent White Polls. Number of Insolvent Colored Polls. Total Poll Tax Levied. Amount Poll Tax Paid for Schools. Amount Actually Paid by Whites on Property and Polls. Amount Actually Paid by Colored on Property and Polls. Counties.
3,765 1,722 350 700 $2.30 $1.19 $17,921.98 $1,481.84 Forsyth
2,084 1,642 198 633 2.00 1.50 7,515.72 1,776.05 Franklin
2,633 781 251 both 2.00 1.50 12,514.51 both Gaston
870 498 20 65 2.00 1.50 3,551.47 753.42 Gates
572 5 80 ---- 3.39 1.50 1,538.95 ---- Graham
1,757 1,583 152 412 2.00 1.50 9,272.37 2,045.35 Granville
1,031 800 ---- ---- 2.64 1.69 5,036.90 1,531.56 Greene
3,907 946 550 425 1.50 1.50 18,952.88 1,100.00 Guilford
1,737 2,685 ---- ---- 2.15 1.60 ---- ---- Halifax
1,605 525 ---- ---- 2.40 1.50 4,980.62 566.63 Harnett
1,872 44 497 ---- 2.75 1.19 4,975.90 both Haywood
1,626 157 124 73 3.12 1.50 6,362.08 298.67 Henderson
982 1,032 16 146 2.00 1.50 5,021.43 1,731.93 Hertford
919 543 63 117 1.50 1.50 2,990.28 692.15 Hyde
3,042 790 436 314 2.25 1.56 10,531.08 879.38 Iredell
1,334 50 153 8 2.78 1.50 4,200.00 150.00 Jackson
3,705 972 258 150 2.00 1.56 12,630.60 1,432.32 Johnston
905 606 40 81 2.75 1.29 3,728.92 728.12 Jones
1,704 985 273 336 2.45 1.50 3,710.74 1,167.57 Lenoir
1,643 266 20 4 1.50 1.50 5,986.37 441.86 Lincoln
1,499 72 94 34 ---- 1.60 ---- ---- Macon
2,758 70 365 25 2.76 1.50 6,464.66 160.00 Madison
1,282 940 ---- ---- 2.00 1.50 ---- ---- Martin
1,228 122 390 both 2.30 1.50 ---- ---- McDowell
4,305 2,505 779 both 2.00 1.50 ---- ---- Mecklenburg
1,610 31 75 10 ---- ---- 3,953.00 58.53 Mitchell
1,524 406 107 103 2.30 ---- 4,351.67 554.44 Montgomery
2,252 827 175 150 2.15 1.50 8,150.60 2,305.55 Moore
2,372 1,394 152 304 1.46 ---- 8,784.00 1,828.79 Nash
1,953 1,905 452 1,130 2.78 1.29 14,496.86 1,300.70 New Hanover
1,536 1,650 43 255 2.03 1.50 7,589.18 2,516.89 Northampton
1,455 424 74 76 1.50 1.50 4,599.56 609.63 Onslow
1,465 683 ---- ---- 2.00 1.50 ---- ---- Orange

Page 314


TABLE NO. VIII --Continued.

Counties. Amount Apportioned to Whites. Amount Apportioned to Colored. Assessed Value of Property of Whites. Assessed Value of Property of Colored.
Pamlico $1,726.78 $936.24 $608,654.00 $49,939.00
Pasquotank 8,067.10 both 1,914,590.00 171,698.00
Pender 2,777.43 2,223.22 1,778,957.24 114,948.00
Perquimans 2,896.68 2,218.19 12,297,242.00 121,065.00
Person 3,367.40 2,857.90 1,796,886.00 65,067.00
Pitt 6,505.63 3,668.55 3,836,029.00 both
Polk 1,924.00 541.00 944,213.00 14,040.00
Randolph 10,607.00 1,853.00 3,822,300.00 52,297.00
Richmond 4,858.16 5,820.26 3,447,488.00 69,106.00
Robeson 13,122.00 both 3,326,718.00 280,973.00
Rockingham 8,943.20 5,657.40 3,834,605.00 117,008.00
Rowan 12,619.50 3,809.50 5,463,764.00 138,383.00
Rutherford 7,609.59 1,474.73 2,176,400.00 44,669.00
Sampson 5,088.10 3,252.10 1,818,223.00 83,897.00
Stanly 4,639.00 638,00 1,492,680.00 23,141.00
Stokes 6,818.00 both 1,814,016.00 20,928.00
Surry 7,505.00 1,079.00 2,537,874.00 3,551.00
Swain 2,356.57 66.00 1,037,176.95 235.00
Transylvania 2,152.00 245.00 904,036.00 3,235.00
Tyrrell 1,369.20 630.00 500,738.00 21,276.00
Union 11,374.72 both 2,786,630.00 52,307.00
Vance 3,002.95 4,845.90 2,298,054.00 149,712.00
Wake 17,008.20 15,906.60 9,506,702.00 565,879.00
Warren 3,324.05 4,419.06 2,420,796.66 273,598.00
Washington 2,704.58 2,304.38 1,012,843.00 71,714.00
Watauga 4,542.08 133.48 1,233,009.00 5,772.00
Wayne 9,579.20 7,488.00 4,581,098.00 254,158.00
Wilkes 7,143.12 793.68 1,804,417.00 17,332.00
Wilson 7,333.74 5,713.74 3,701,759.00 124,528.00
Yadkin 4,645.08 581.13 1,390,998.00 14,037.00
Yancey 2,443.61 13.90 511,852.00 750.00
Total 575,441.77 226,894.36 246,723,769.97 8,980,350.53

Page 315


TABLE NO. VIII --Continued.

Number White Polls. Number Colored Polls. Number of Insolvent White Polls. Number of Insolvent Colored Polls. Total Poll Tax Levied. Amodnt Poll Tax Paid for Schoole. Amount Actually Paid by Whites on Property and Polls. Amount Actually Paid by Colored on Property and Polls. Counties.
871 483 74 128 $2.60 $1.50 ---- ---- Pamlico
1,084 751 10 26 2.00 1.50 ---- ---- Pasquotank
1,007 793 39 354 2.00 1.50 ---- ---- Pender
853 620 23 22 2.20 1.50 $3,614.54 $1,147.91 Perquimans
1,478 920 221 both ---- 1.50 5,451.39 1,497.12 Person
2,591 1,896 123 329 1.40 ---- ---- ---- Pitt
726 116 ---- ---- 1.50 1.50 2,700.47 199.27 Polk
3,596 435 939 both 2.15 1.50 12,419.64 562.50 Randolph
1,823 1,376 125 514 1.50 1.50 8,752.96 1,417.39 Richmond
2,887 2,379 250 350 1.95 1.46 9,943.59 3,549.29 Robeson
2,950 1,321 623 both 1.50 1.50 ---- ---- Rockingham
3,313 825 381 170 1.80 1.35 14,824.07 1,161.01 Rowan
2,622 450 24 95 2.20 1.50 8,586.47 1,794.76 Rutherford
2,675 826 150 250 2.30 1.50 7,285.31 1,390.11 Sampson
1,756 185 153 85 2.75 1.50 4,997.19 185.00 Stanly
2,558 348 ---- ---- 2.00 1.50 8,020.13 both Stokes
3,237 339 ---- ---- 2.00 1.50 9,423.84 572.49 Surry
859 9 81 3 2.90 1.29 2,190.21 20.00 Swain
822 60 147 20 2.50 1.50 2,860.24 99.42 Transylvania
609 200 31 29 1.50 1.50 1,780.70 175.06 Tyrrell
2,785 839 191 177 ---- 1.50 9,193.46 1,352.65 Union
1,068 1,190 98 130 ---- ---- ---- ---- Vance
4,470 2,894 800 970 2.00 1.50 20,031.03 5,327.50 Wake
995 1,503 60 236 2.30 1.43 5,694.48 2,304.28 Warren
935 734 34 61 2.45 1.50 4,666.02 1,120.08 Washington
1,847 38 75 20 2.25 1.50 4,845.11 37.38 Watauga
2,864 1,683 198 496 2.28 1.50 12,145.67 2,207.98 Wayne
3,151 243 296 both ---- 1.50 4,726.50 364.50 Wilkes
2,238 1,182 ---- ---- 2.19 1.50 11,405.53 1,997.15 Wilson
1,957 142 170 30 2.00 1.50 5,439.30 238.27 Yadkin
4,486 32 ---- ---- ---- ---- 921.33 12.63 Yancey
181,548 71,744 20,076 18,233 ---- ---- 522,808.90 71,183.05 Total

Page 316

TABLE NO. I--School Fund Received by County Treasurer for the School Year ending June 30, 1900.

Counties. State and County Poll Tax. General Property Special Tax. Special Property Tax. Local Acts. Special Poll Tax. Local Acts. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties.
Alamance $5,629.50 $8,105.80 ---- ---- $404.13
Alexander 2,128.03 1,816.04 ---- ---- 65.00
Alleghany 1,486.50 1,271.54 ---- ---- 54.15
Anson 3,034.04 3,841.01 ---- ---- 172.73
Ashe 3,375.82 2,632.31 ---- ---- 187.34
Beaufort 4,893.45 4,969.28 ---- ---- 55.82
Bertie 3,899.28 4,229.81 ---- ---- 176.27
Bladen 2,065.36 3,489.26 ---- ---- 126.05
Brunswick 1,911.78 2,290.34 ---- ---- 58.87
Buncombe 6,972.53 17,442.55 ---- ---- 385.39
Burke 2,750.25 3,204.35 ---- ---- 10.38
Cabarrus 4,261.37 6,502.62 ---- ---- 249.18
Caldwell ---- 6,009.81 ---- ---- 127.88
Camden 1,247.25 2,309.69 ---- ---- 77.38
Carteret 2,059.12 ---- $1,760.85 ---- 3.00
Caswell 2,707.50 2,876.05 ---- ---- ----
Catawba 3,771.97 5,248.79 ---- ---- 368.04
Chatham 4,178.00 4,035.07 ---- ---- 212.16
Cherokee 1,893.33 3,786.66 753.33 $376.66 46,00
Chowan 1,799.55 2,503.60 ---- ---- 52.18
Clay 2,223.17 ---- ---- ---- 32.72
Cleveland 4,502.92 6,661.32 ---- ---- 183.52
Columbus 3,649.43 5,505.89 ---- ---- 169.10
Craven 2,400.00 4,385.46 ---- ---- 69.00
Cumberland 3,807.00 4,919.80 ---- ---- 123.95
Currituck ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Dare 625.06 464.04 123.64 27.30 34.50
Davidson 4,093.55 6,836.81 ---- ---- 143.93
Davie 2,131.22 2,858.39 ---- ---- 200.01
Dupliu 4,546.10 3,763.39 ---- ---- 56.08
Durham 4,417.03 18,110.93 ---- ---- 424.81
Edgecombe 4,312.00 7,444.56 ---- ---- 296.40
Forsyth 5,803.35 14,576.37 ---- ---- 609.28

Page 317


TABLE NO. I--Continued.

Liquor Licenses. Auctioneers. Estray. State Treasurer. Other Sources. Total Receipts. Balance on Hand Last Report. Counties.
---- ---- ---- $1,340.22 $140.50 $15,620.15 $353.83 Alamance
---- ---- ---- 712.15 64.00 4,785.22 237.92 Alexander
---- ---- ---- 460.85 ---- 3,273.04 ---- Alleghany
$927.51 ---- ---- 1,210.69 1,611.77 10,797.74 3,682.96 Anson
---- ---- ---- 1,081.22 568.81 7,845.51 ---- Ashe
1,140.00 ---- ---- 1,183.40 108.50 12,350.45 4,387.12 Beaufort
2,422.50 ---- ---- 1,145.88 813.83 12,687.57 2,499.14 Bertie
---- ---- $10.00 1,002.68 143.37 6,836.72 1,419.83 Bladen
100.00 ---- ---- 694.03 91.57 5,146.59 964.70 Brunswick
1,550.00 ---- ---- 2,266.30 4,934.50 33,551.27 5,701.72 Buncombe
---- ---- ---- 907.68 ---- 6,872.66 1,853.74 Burke
---- ---- ---- 1,133.07 456.52 12,602.76 966.24 Cabarrus
---- ---- ---- 850.29 88.00 7,075.98 ---- Caldwell
800.00 $5.00 ---- 284.35 ---- 4,723.67 ---- Camden
370.00 ---- ---- 580.25 43.00 4,816.22 1,210.87 Carteret
700.00 ---- ---- 700.00 ---- 6,983.55 2,570.98 Caswell
---- ---- 8.30 1,330.71 1,350.35 12,078.16 1,272.42 Catawba
---- ---- ---- 1,336.81 956.31 10,718.35 2,568.32 Chatham
---- ---- ---- 669.17 16.00 7,541.47 3,602.17 Cherokee
1,425.00 ---- ---- 515.78 39.50 6,335.61 440.53 Chowan
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2,255.89 ---- Clay
---- ---- ---- 1,494.50 362.20 13,204.46 3,862.53 Cleveland
---- ---- ---- 1,209.66 1,123.25 11,657.33 40.57 Columbus
3,340.00 ---- ---- 1,157.62 188.75 11,541.63 792.44 Craven
500.00 ---- ---- 1,750.54 3,749.75 14,851.04 116.91 Cumberland
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Currituck
---- ---- ---- 223.94 66.50 1,564.98 924.35 Dare
---- ---- ---- 1,284.96 92.50 12,451,75 588.39 Davidson
---- ---- ---- 601.15 30.00 5,826.77 21.77 Davie
---- ---- ---- 1,175.47 1,132.85 10,643.89 752.22 Dupliu
2,665.00 ---- ---- 1,251.19 188.50 26,957.46 50.05 Durham
3,230.00 ---- ---- 1,349.47 372.72 17,005.15 5,111.19 Edgecombe
1,700.00 ---- ---- 1,712.11 36.00 24,437.11 730.67 Forsyth

Page 318


TABLE NO. I--Continued.

Counties. State and County Poll Tax. General Property Special Tax. Special Property Tax. Local Acts. Special Poll Tax. Local Acts. Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties.
Franklin $4,178.10 $4,816.68 ---- ---- $114.96
Gaston 14,399.18 ---- ---- ---- 595.13
Gates 2,092.29 2,210.00 ---- ---- 108.20
Graham 925.50 1,103.30 ---- ---- ----
Granville 4,100.50 4,700.80 ---- ---- 811.57
Greene 2,503.50 2,383.61 ---- ---- 139.11
Guilford 7,200.00 10,952.20 ---- ---- 427.51
Halifax 3,779.50 9,900.39 ---- ---- 26.00
Harnett 2,533.65 3,077.90 ---- ---- 3.00
Haywood ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Henderson 2,775.00 3,838.73 ---- ---- 339.13
Hertford 2,376.90 3,930.71 ---- ---- 183.03
Hyde 1,796.03 1,720.85 ---- ---- 56.32
Iredell 5,148.00 7,245.55 ---- ---- 151.55
Jackson 2,184.00 2,348.74 ---- ---- 60.83
Johnston 6,940,44 7,284.43 ---- ---- 58.80
Jones 1,364.82 2,009.42 ---- ---- 22.00
Lenoir 3,486.50 3,872.19 ---- ---- 73.92
Lincoln 3,801.00 3,687.00 ---- ---- 426.97
Macon ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Madison 5,008.00 ---- ---- ---- 24.30
Martin 3,090.82 3,521.96 ---- ---- 101.30
McDowell ---- ---- ---- ---- 58.10
Mecklenburg 9,625.32 21,598.65 $265.17 $50.05 140.53
Mitchell 2,169.00 1,557.53 ---- ---- 30.19
Montgomery 2,087.17 2,525.95 164.80 ---- 384.43
Moore 9,924.25 ---- ---- ---- 135.55
Nash 4,888.96 6,472.95 ---- ---- 200.20
New Hanover 3,857.61 13,194.14 ---- ---- 555.04
Northampton 3,904.34 6,616.30 ---- ---- 67.83
Onslow 6,401.32 ---- ---- ---- 76.84
Orange 1,350.00 6,349.69 ---- ---- 129.75
Pamlico 1,382.76 1,307.40 ---- ---- 24.52

Page 319


TABLE NO. I--Continued.

Liquor Licenses. Auctioneers. Estray. State Treasurer. Other Sources. Total Receipts. Balance on Hand Last Report. Counties.
$190.00 ---- ---- $1,229.21 ---- $10,528.95 $1,191.57 Franklin
---- ---- ---- 1,402.39 $281.00 16,677.70 1,733.63 Gaston
380.00 ---- $1.60 579.80 97.60 5,469.49 2,016.12 Gates
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 1,747.40 ---- Graham
550.00 ---- ---- ---- 209.25 10,372.12 331.62 Granville
760.00 ---- ---- 596.73 625.00 7,007.95 ---- Greene
900.00 ---- ---- 1,855.77 849.90 22,385.38 200.00 Guilford
2,755.00 ---- 7.36 ---- 64.00 16,532.25 6,674.30 Halifax
---- ---- ---- ---- 87.00 6,583.39 395.97 Harnett
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Haywood
---- ---- ---- 816.16 443.99 8,213.01 7,825.65 Henderson
665.00 ---- ---- 840.42 191.79 8,187.85 ---- Hertford
570.00 ---- ---- 505.46 33.72 4,682.38 3,995.68 Hyde
1,300.00 ---- ---- 1,498.31 127.82 15,471.23 1,013.69 Iredell
---- ---- ---- 652.93 14.93 5,261.43 364.91 Jackson
3,100.00 ---- ---- 1,708.91 334.50 19,427.08 2,732.88 Johnston
200.00 ---- ---- 421.33 53.46 4,071.03 1,681.92 Jones
1,748.00 ---- ---- 904.98 525.56 10,612.25 169.74 Lenoir
---- ---- ---- 830.36 72.00 7,917.33 510.02 Lincoln
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Macon
570.00 ---- ---- 1,215.73 ---- 6,818.03 605.65 Madison
1,805.00 ---- ---- 839.81 612.49 9,971.38 8,879.63 Martin
---- ---- ---- 674.05 3,401.48 4.133.63 ---- McDowell
3,211.00 ---- ---- 2,754.60 793.84 38,439.16 3,051.76 Mecklenburg
---- ---- ---- 911.81 50.00 4,618.53 ---- Mitchell
---- ---- ---- 690.52 50.00 6,902.87 1,879.69 Montgomery
---- ---- .96 1,242.68 20.00 10,323.44 742.49 Moore
2,405.00 ---- ---- 1,365.18 205.54 15,537.83 1,989.05 Nash
10,602.00 ---- ---- 1,160.22 824.56 30,193.57 9,656.53 New Hanover
789.75 ---- ---- ---- 38.83 11,417.05 668.16 Northampton
---- ---- ---- 617.32 21.50 7,116.98 359.49 Onslow
---- ---- ---- ---- 65.00 7,894.44 *27.41 Orange
---- ---- ---- 450.94 38.84 3,204.46 2,465.88 Pamlico

        * Due Treasurer.

Page 320


TABLE NO. I--Continued.

Counties. State and County Poll Tax. General Property Special Tax. Special Property Tax. Local Acts. Special Poll Tax. Local Acts. Fines, Forfeittures and Penalties.
Pasquotank $2,300.00 $3,445.53 ---- ---- $23.75
Pender 1,988.83 3,299.85 ---- ---- 34.17
Perquimans 2,032.59 2,794.19 ---- ---- 75.94
Person 3,679.39 1,632.00 ---- ---- 17.10
Pitt 5,823.98 7,051.41 ---- ---- 269.93
Polk 906.25 1,812.51 ---- ---- 32.50
Randolph 5,083.50 6,366.42 ---- ---- 807.27
Richmond 2,956.40 6,897.96 ---- ---- 47.50
Robeson 8,858.27 8,795.25 ---- ---- 238.26
Rockingham 6,780.00 9,063.29 ---- ---- 401.07
Rowan 4,773.41 11,480.93 ---- ---- 249.71
Rutherford 4,364.00 5,570.75 ---- ---- 244.71
Sampson 4,517.25 3,778.06 ---- ---- 151.85
Stanly 2,613.00 3,316.61 ---- ---- 55.24
Stokes 4,330.00 3,848.77 ---- ---- 724.28
Surry 4,694.34 4,798.71 ---- ---- 355.00
Swain 1,197.00 1,171.78 ---- ---- 32.70
Transylvania 1,256.85 1,598.53 ---- ---- 47.25
Tyrrell 1,227.00 1,040.66 ---- ---- 75.00
Union 4,582.87 6,082.03 ---- ---- 355.57
Vance 2,360.37 4,808.75 ---- ---- 175.30
Wake 8,497.00 20,005.67 ---- ---- 346.18
Warren 2,587.80 4,823.25 ---- ---- 16.53
Washington 2,190.66 2,206.62 ---- ---- 91.52
Watauga 2,478.88 2,247.90 ---- ---- 180.25
Wayne 5,982.00 10,539.48 ---- ---- 160.77
Wilkes 4,986.07 3,394.30 ---- ---- 299.29
Wilson 5,310.00 8,266.07 ---- ---- 146.35
Yadkin 3,058.05 2,427.10 ---- ---- 325.58
Yancey ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Total 339,265.68 454,452.99 $3,067,79 $454.01 16,882.43

Page 321


TABLE NO. I--Continued.

Liquor Licenses. Auctioneers. Estray. State Treasurer. Other Sourcss. Total Receipts. Balance on Hand Last Report. Counties.
$2,000.00 ---- ---- $654.59 $128.75 $8,562.62 $1,453.48 Pasquotank
---- ---- ---- ---- 43.00 6,106.23 2,656.47 Pender
---- ---- ---- 441.37 56.85 5,500.94 345.66 Perquimans
400.00 ---- ---- 897.71 ---- 6,626.20 33.00 Person
2,800.00 ---- ---- 1,573.95 238.56 17,757.83 7,534.06 Pitt
95.00 ---- ---- 378.44 ---- 3,224.70 927.55 Polk
---- ---- ---- 1,511.56 1,320.04 15,088.79 ---- Randolph
1,541.00 ---- ---- 1,541.00 133.79 13,117.65 3,734.85 Richmond
---- ---- ---- 2,001.10 158.72 20,051.60 6,041.93 Robeson
3,383.33 ---- ---- 1,580.67 479.64 21,688.00 2,174.88 Rockingham
798.00 ---- ---- 1,509.75 336.35 19,148.15 3,218.07 Rowan
50.00 ---- ---- 1,325.68 86.46 11,641.60 1,165.09 Rutherford
522.50 ---- ---- 1,496.33 498.83 10,664.82 *135.05 Sampson
---- ---- ---- 947.63 92.50 7,024.98 101.04 Stanly
285.00 ---- ---- 1,166.47 54.50 10,409.02 1,828.85 Stokes
95.00 ---- ---- 1,450.00 503.20 11,896.05 532.46 Surry
50.00 ---- ---- ---- 1,030.00 4,181.48 ---- Swain
---- ---- ---- 363.69 ---- 3,266.32 90.99 Transylvania
100.00 ---- ---- 233.17 25.3 2,701.14 1,411.30 Tyrrell
---- ---- ---- 1,548.79 1,588.31 14,157.57 1,347.65 Union
650.00 ---- ---- 794.52 721.77 9,510.71 168.90 Vance
2,983.00 ---- ---- 2,803.10 673.60 48,790.02 8,125.33 Wake
500.00 ---- ---- 1,065.51 86.50 9,079.59 243.41 Warren
1,805.00 ---- ---- 556.32 45.93 6,896.05 1,679.42 Washington
10.00 ---- ---- 758.53 23.75 5,699.31 864.94 Watauga
1,520.00 ---- ---- 1,626.71 179.10 20,008.06 3,869.04 Wayne
190.00 ---- ---- 1,628.11 1,254.58 11,752.35 68.97 Wilkes
2,370.00 ---- ---- 1,228.23 80.00 17,400.65 4,536.29 Wilson
---- ---- ---- 805.04 ---- 6,615.77 241.75 Yadkin
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Yancey
75,518.58 $5.00 $28.22 90,379.73 38,743.19 1,031,327.94 162,417.45 Total

        * Deficient.

Page 322

TABLE No. II--School Fund Disbursed by County Treasurer for School Year Ending June 30, 1900.

Counties. Paid Teachers of White Schools. Paid Teachers of Colored Schools. Paid for School Houses and Sites (white). Paid for School Houses and Sites (color'd). Paid County Superintendent. Paid for Institutes (white).
Alamance $10,414.81 $2,969.45 $292.35 ---- $301.50 ----
Alexander 3,521.12 407.00 117.00 $15.15 114.00 ----
Alleghany 2,487.22 145.29 ---- ---- 52.27 ----
Anson 4,456.78 2,310.50 357.51 385.10 227.35 ----
Ashe 3,809.19 101.61 ---- ---- 75.00 ----
Beaufort 5,767.29 2,733.35 416.45 167.91 294.00 ----
Bertie 5,884.94 4,557.71 294.41 263.86 411.00 $23.30
Bladen 4,036.33 1,988.00 52.32 63.39 162.00 ----
Brunswick 2,501.24 1,471.45 187.84 70.45 219.00 ----
Buncombe 20,777.73 3,142.50 397.57 40.00 549.00 50.00
Burke 4,117.88 670.83 476.01 30.80 80.00 34.17
Cabarrus 5,523.36 1,625.52 16.50 ---- 207.73 ----
Caldwell 5,081.09 750.37 531.99 102.95 266.35 ----
Camden 2,431.42 1,045.00 42.50 ---- 60.00 ----
Carteret 2,996.50 454.48 190.22 27.95 175.86 ----
Caswell 3,389.32 2,644.43 424.90 108.14 291.50 ----
Catawba 7,502.86 1,109.84 865.57 311.01 96.56 16.44
Chatham 6,205.38 2,519.55 6.00 137.50 208.25 ----
Cherokee 5,106.44 301.50 153.14 ---- 58.76 ----
Chowan 2,134.76 1,920.30 ---- ---- 126.00 ----
Clay 1,450.05 46.00 222.55 ---- 8.00 ----
Cleveland 10,289.40 1,662.25 250.13 70.34 484.00 ----
Columbus 4,569.81 2,459.49 362.82 279.00 195.00 ----
Craven 3,405.82 2,906.35 233.12 105.98 360.00 25.00
Cumberland 8,585.84 4,858.30 327.07 90.64 300.00 ----
Currituck ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Dare 1,233.62 94.00 89.75 ---- ---- ----
Davidson 9,001.68 1,654.88 400.84 ---- 119.80 ----
Davie 3,531.97 1,170.19 ---- ---- 360.00 ----
Duplin 5,540.34 2,270.92 341.65 242.59 357.58 ----
Durham 12,399.33 4,987.53 ---- ---- 589.75 ----
Edgecombe 7,187.67 4,825.50 ---- ---- 317.08 25.00
Forsyth 12,803.79 2,896.20 ---- ---- 175.80 71.00

Page 323


TABLE No. II--Continued.

Paid for Institutes (col'd). Paid Treasurers' Commissions. Paid Mileage and Per Diem Board of Education. Paid Expenses of Board of Education. Paid to City Schools. Paid for Other Purposes. Total Disbursements. Balance on Hand July 1,1900. Counties.
---- $293.97 $28.70 $178.05 ---- $722.68 $15,201.51 $772.47 Alamance
---- 85.85 43.75 1.92 ---- 68.36 4,359.00 664.14 Alexander
---- 163.80 ---- 75.91 ---- 30.00 2,984.79 349.42 Alleghany
---- 150.19 ---- 170.00 ---- 162.78 8,220.21 6,260.49 Anson
---- 80.87 ---- 54.30 ---- 3.46 4,124.43 3,721.08 Ashe
---- 234.70 62.00 34.72 $2,198.95 60.30 11,969.67 4,767.90 Beaufort
---- 242.12 40.80 20.15 ---- 711.47 12,349.79 2,836.92 Bertie
---- 120.48 64.20 21.15 ---- 56.24 6,564.11 1,692.44 Bladen
---- 138.57 130.70 34.30 ---- 4.24 4,757.78 1,353.51 Brunswick
---- 709.13 199.20 209.60 8,280.71 1,905.90 36,261.34 2,991.65 Buncombe
$15.83 112.05 61.65 18.90 ---- 102.27 5,720.39 3,006.01 Burke
---- 227.75 50.70 ---- 3,621.22 1,543.97 12,816.75 752.25 Cabarrus
---- 135.92 50.80 ---- ---- 25.36 6,944.74 131.24 Caldwell
---- 110.52 41.80 12.12 ---- ---- 3,743.36 980.31 Camden
---- 77.78 44.55 ---- ---- ---- 3,967.16 2,059.93 Carteret
---- 124.74 53.54 3.51 ---- ---- 7,040.08 2,524.45 Caswell
---- 231.85 65.45 ---- 1,201.80 423.08 11,824.44 1,526.14 Catawba
---- 147.32 67.90 20.31 ---- 656.83 9,969.04 3,307.63 Chatham
---- 120.15 50.00 ---- 442.00 452.96 6,684.95 4,458.69 Cherokee
---- 115.53 ---- 46.62 ---- 393.78 4,736.99 2,039.15 Chowan
---- 43.26 34.00 .50 443.75 30.10 2,278.21 ---- Clay
---- 300.29 66.00 11.20 1,367.64 819.72 15,295.97 1,752.02 Cleveland
---- 160.99 119.31 8.90 ---- 55.25 8,210.57 3,487.33 Columbus
25.00 213.45 114.75 16.25 3,213.46 265.49 10,884.67 1,449.36 Craven
---- 291.21 59.45 24.70 ---- 312.09 14,850.20 117.75 Cumberland
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Currituck
---- 39.12 75.00 6.24 ---- 157.76 1,695.49 793.84 Dare
---- 236.20 60.70 12.50 ---- 559.95 12,046.55 993.59 Davidson
---- 101.62 66.48 16.74 ---- 398.27 5,645.27 203.27 Davie
---- 176.63 72.60 ---- ---- 7.19 9,009.50 2,386.61 Duplin
---- 502.65 176.20 17.95 ---- 1,662.12 25,635.53 1.371.98 Durham
25.00 317.08 70.70 175.04 2,916.60 972.85 16,848.57 5,267.77 Edgecombe
75.00 475.87 135.30 12.10 5,160.75 1,481.80 24,269.82 897.96 Forsyth

Page 324


TABLE No. II--Continued.

Counties. Paid Teachers of White Schools. Paid Teachers of Colored Schools. Paid for School Houses and Sites (white). Paid for School Houses and Sites (col'd). Paid County Superintendent. Paid for Institutes (white).
Franklin $5,245.87 $3,643.26 $210.00 ---- $298.00 ----
Gaston 9,340.96 3,253.70 610.62 $136.00 86.00 ----
Gates 2,585.75 1,918.00 ---- ---- 195.63 ----
Graham ---- ---- 338.17 ---- 10.00 ----
Granville 5,294.04 3,750.80 329.70 126.12 405.00 ----
Greene 3,715.10 2,075.29 244.00 ---- 228.79 ----
Guilford 9,024.35 3,071.85 875.20 209.03 231.35 ----
Halifax 5,674.06 6,578.27 880.01 150.25 432.45 ----
Harnett 3,120.04 1,019.44 156.59 80.85 225.00 $45.00
Haywood ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Henderson 6,036.75 935.04 148.84 20.00 111.77 46.36
Hertford 2,843.30 2,533.52 513.49 116.30 150.00 ----
Hyde 2,655.42 1,088.23 181.01 255.85 183.70 ----
Iredell 9,320.50 2,536.55 492.51 252.00 455.00 ----
Jackson 3,825.04 195.79 628.23 30.00 141.92 ----
Johnston 12,914.40 3,387.54 ---- 25.00 213.00 28.20
Jones 1,742.91 1,514.82 60.00 85.00 136.50 ----
Lenoir 4,765.10 1,673.72 390.02 345.10 200.00 ----
Lincoln 5,119.36 1,407.04 223.15 63.01 173.50 25.00
Macon ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Madison 5,515.03 151.09 ---- ---- 267.00 50.00
Martin 4,410.64 2,672.79 660.49 147.89 135.00 18.90
McDowell 3,211.03 618.45 194.30 61.65 28.00 ----
Mecklenburg 16,123.63 6,573.11 662.00 430.60 651.00 50.00
Mitchell 3,854.50 44.40 361.64 36.48 ---- ----
Montgomery 3,563.41 830.05 86.92 20.89 178.75 ----
Moore 5,291.44 2,295.37 213.10 96.64 300.00 ----
Nash 6,941.29 4,168.37 20.80 138.90 424.81 15.00
New Hanover 14,001.50 7,759.50 628.51 ---- 694.00 ----
Northampton 5,507.01 4,440.35 145.50 ---- 285.00 47.00
Onslow 2,996.63 857.13 298.48 94.09 300.00 50.00
Orange 4,697.84 1,935.00 102.75 ---- 380.27 ----
Pamlico 1,816.26 961.85 82.61 12.43 108.44 ----

Page 325


TABLE No. II--Continued.

Paid for Institutes (col'd). Paid Treasurers Commissions. Paid Mileage and Per Diem Board of Education. Paid Expenses of Board of Education. Paid to City Schools. Paid for Other Purposes. Total Disbursements. Balance on Hand July 1, 1899. Counties.
---- $200.08 $119.25 $23.50 ---- $464.11 $10,204.07 $1,516.45 Franklin
---- 505.77 36.00 14.88 ---- 483.82 14,468.55 3,942.78 Gaston
---- 97.17 33.50 ---- ---- 397.04 5,227.09 2,258.52 Gates
---- 42.15 34.50 ---- ---- ---- 1,747.40 ---- Graham
---- 208.94 96.00 73.74 ---- 361.91 10,646.25 57.49 Granville
---- 134.45 41.28 ---- ---- 417.82 6,856.73 151.22 Greene
$20.00 429.13 55.70 5.35 $7,939.80 23.62 21,885.38 500.00 Guilford
35.55 293.59 38.80 19.55 356.00 1,195.10 15,653.63 7,552.92 Halifax
---- 117.44 24.40 22.80 ---- 3.55 4,815.11 2,164.25 Harnett
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Haywood
12.00 156.53 74.90 61.75 ---- 312.00 7,916.04 8,122.62 Henderson
---- 124.29 78.60 9.25 ---- 5.14 6,374.59 1,813.26 Hertford
---- 84.37 141.30 5.00 ---- 38.37 4,633.25 4,044.81 Hyde
---- 312.00 34.00 76.35 1,758.40 674.75 15,912.06 572.84 Iredell
---- 97.83 ---- 50.47 ---- ---- 4,989.28 525.07 Jackson
13.50 352.75 70.65 31.45 ---- 955.74 17,990.23 4,169.73 Johnston
---- 71.91 56.40 5.95 ---- 383.22 4,056.71 1,696.24 Jones
---- 193.65 61.90 6.50 2,166.50 73.40 9,875.59 906.40 Lenoir
25.00 150.75 36.00 17.10 ---- 444.05 7,683.96 743.39 Lincoln
---- ---- ----</