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(title page) Report and Recommendations of the Commission to Study Public Schools and Colleges for Colored People in North Carolina: Authorized by the General Assembly in Resolution no. 28, March 10, 1937, and Appointed by Governor Clyde R. Hoey
Commission to Study Public Schools and Colleges for Colored People in North Carolina.
Raleigh, North Carolina
Call number Cp 379 N87c (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
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To His Excellency, GOVERNOR CLYDE R. HOEY,
To the Members of the General Assembly of 1939:
As members of the Commission appointed to Study the Public Schools and Colleges for Colored People in North Carolina, we have the honor and the pleasure to transmit to you herewith our Report and Recommendations.
J. W. NOELL, Chairman
J. H. McDANIEL
House of Representatives:
H. G. HORTON, Vice-Chairman
F. H. BROOKS
GEO. R. UZZELL
Members of Commission.
In the study of "Public Schools and Colleges for Colored People in North Carolina," this Commission has endeavored:
1. To find basic facts which may be regarded as standards of measurement of the several phases of public education in North Carolina.
2. To compare with these state standards the present status of the colored schools and colleges in the State.
3. To present in this report to the Governor and the General Assembly of 1939 the most accurate statistical, financial and other factual data available to us, based upon the findings under 1 and 2 above; and, to offer recommendations, which to us seem wise and proper, both for the sound development of the colored race in North Carolina, and for the good of the State as a whole.
NOTE: In presenting the data and recommendations we have tried to be as brief, concise and definite as possible, and at the same time to include a sufficient amount of material to make the subjects discussed clear and understandable.
In parallel columns below an effort is made to show state standards in public education for about forty items, on which comparable data are available. These data are given in column one headed "State Standards"; in column two are given comparable facts as to the present status of colored schools and colleges.
|/TD>||State Standards||Colored Schools|
|1. Length of term (days) 1936-37||*163.3||* 162.8|
|2. Teacher-pupil load--||/TD>||/TD>|
|a. Elementary schools||32.9||33.1|
|b. High schools||25.6||27.8|
|3. Percentage of average daily membership in average daily attendance 1936-37||93.5||90.1|
|4. Courses of study and accreditment both elementary and high schools||Identical||/TD>|
|a. No. schools to which children were transported, 1936-37||1,110||211|
|b. No. children transported, 1936-37||269,052||18,855|
|c. No. busses used, 1936-37||3,705||364|
|d. Percentage of rural enrollment transported, 1936-37||59.5||9.8|
NOTE--Number pupils enrolled in one-, two- and three-teacher rural schools, 1936-37
|6. School property valuation, 1936-37||$99,735,904||$13,121,814|
|7. Per pupil (enrollment) value, 1936-37**||158.11||48.60|
|8. Total number elementary schools taught, 1936-37||1,974||2,223|
NOTE--29% of population had 249 more schools than 71%, mainly in standard schools.
|a. One-, two- and three-teacher schools||781||1,817|
|b. Four-, five- and six-teacher schools||341||262|
|c. Seven to twenty or more teachers||852||144|
|9. Operation of Plant--State Funds, 1936-37, (Wages janitors, fuel, light, power, water, janitors' supplies, telephones), Per capita (student) expense||$1.445||$0.523|
|10. Accredited Schools--||/TD>||/TD>|
|(1) Total elementary in 1937||566||29|
|(2) Percentage of children in standard elementary schools, 1935-36||53.9||6.6|
|(3) Percentage in city units, 1935-36||79.7||22.7|
|(4) Percentage in rural units, 1935-36||45.4||1.1|
|b. High Schools:||/TD>||/TD>|
|(1) Total accredited high schools, 1936-37||702||130|
|(2) Total non-accredited, 1936-37||31||79|
|11. Enrollment in high schools, 1936-37||145,046||31,522|
|12. Percentage of enrollment in high schools, 1936-37||23.1||11.7|
|13. Other items of State aid:||/TD>||/TD>|
|a. Libraries ($54,000 appropriation).||/TD>||/TD>|
|b. Supplementary readers in elementary grades.||/TD>||/TD>|
|c. Teaching supplies.||/TD>||/TD>|
|1. Agriculture, 1937-38--||/TD>||/TD>|
|a. No. schools in which vocational agriculture was taught (all day)||310||59|
|b. Enrollment (all day classes)||13,848||2,166|
|c. Evening classes (adult)||267||93|
|d. Enrollment (evening classes)||7,669||1,548|
|e. Day unit (extension)||----||15|
|f. Enrollment (day units)||----||270|
|g. Part-time (in schools)||----||18|
|h. Enrollment (part-time)||----||245|
|i. Expenditures, vocational agriculture:||/TD>||/TD>|
|(1) Federal aid||$269,272.92||$39,271.27|
|(2) State aid||89,751.63||6,533.00|
|(3) Local aid||179,515.26||19,303.21|
|2. Home Economics, 1937-38:||/TD>||/TD>|
|a. No. of departments||201||26|
|c. Expenditures--Home Economics:||/TD>||/TD>|
|(1) Federal aid||$128,343.87||$18,195.90|
|(2) State aid||42,376.32||3,623.08|
|(3) Local aid||84,752.64||7,264.17|
|3. Trades and Industries--1937-38:||/TD>||/TD>|
|a. Number of classes or units||566||75|
|c. Expenditures, Trades and Industries:||/TD>||/TD>|
|(1) Federal aid||$69,223.94||$12,469.96|
|(2) State aid||14,575.58||6,234.98|
|(3) Local aid||33,862.89||1,507.50|
|1. Average Training Index, 1937-38||771||712.6|
|2. Average Training Index, 1929-30||676.1||525.7|
|3. Salaries--State Funds, 1937-38:||/TD>||/TD>|
|a. Maximum --A-8||$990.00||$770.00|
|b. Median --B-6||827.00||638.00|
|c. Minimum --C-2||660.00||504.00|
|1. Students enrolled in State institutions, 1937-38||10,430||3,329|
|2. Average college enrollment per instructor employed, 1937-38||14.1||27|
|3. Per capita (student) cost per annum, State appropriation, 1937-38||$150.00||$73.00|
|4. Total capital outlay in college plants||$27,998,804||$4,838,971|
|5. Graduate and professional instruction||1 to 3 Yrs.||None|
|6. Institutions offering graduate and professional instruction ranging from the Master's to and including the Doctor's degree||4||None|
NOTE.--Basing our judgment upon facts stated above, as well as upon statements which follow, we are strongly convinced:
1. That conditions which exist in our rural Negro schools are extremely distressing and unhappy; almost a thousand one-teacher schools, nine-hundred two- and three-teacher schools, 845 of them pronounced "bad" by competent judges of buildings; lack of consolidation, transportation, good buildings, and additional high schools.
All of these items which need large capital outlay for improvement are now the responsibility of county units. Many of these
units are already burdened to the limit it seems with debt obligations. It is our settled judgment that improvement of these facilities for rural colored school children is the outstanding single development which should take place, and without too great delay.
2. That present offerings in vocational education are so limited as to numbers of pupils reached, immediately expanded programs in this field should be undertaken so as to reach many thousands of Negro children.
3. That a reduction in salary differentials would be very wise in 1939.
4. That considerably increased support should be given to state colleges for Negroes.
5. That some satisfactory plan for providing graduate and professional education should be determined by the Legislature of 1939.
1. The standard pattern for rural schools in North Carolina is, without question, the consolidated school. People of the State have been working consistently at this problem for more than twenty years. Proof, if proof is needed, that the consolidated school is the
standard pattern for rural North Carolina may, in part at least, be found in the following:
1. A beginning has been made in consolidating rural colored schools. In 1936-37 there were:
2. 174,050, or 90.2 percent of colored children in rural districts in 1936-37 were not transported to school.
3. Of this number 119,221 were enrolled in 1,817 one, two and three-teacher schools.
4. Of these 1,817 one, two and three-teacher schools for colored children, 845, nearly half, have been described in a state-federal survey (W. F. Credle) as "bad". Two paragraphs quoted from this survey are as follows:
"Data in this bulletin show that a considerable number of the rural schools for colored children are small, poorly built, dilapidated, unfurnished, insanitary, and in most every way inadequate to serve modern children in an enlightened progressive commonwealth. Many of these buildings are not
only unsuited for modern school purposes, but are in such a bad state of repair that they are both a menace to health and dangerous to life and limb. Moreover, in the very nature of the case it would be unwise to erect new small buildings on the sites of these old ones."
"Under these conditions county officials now have a first-class opportunity to study and to plan for larger school units which is not only in line with the definite policy of school organization in this State, but to be able to provide a good school building, and the right kind as to size and service, for colored children, especially since so many of the old buildings must be replaced or some other definite steps taken within the next few years to provide a place for these children to attend school."*
5. Counties in which there were in 1936-37 ten or more small rural schools for colored children:
|/TD>||One-Teacher||Two- and Three-Teacher|
Caswell has thirty-two one-teacher schools; Chatham has 28; Bladen and Union have twenty-nine; six have twenty or more and twelve others fifteen or more.
6. Counties with eight or nine one-teacher rural schools for colored children:
|/TD>||One-Teacher||Two- and Three-Teacher|
7. Thirty-five other counties have from one to
seven one-teacher rural schools for colored children and 219 two- and three-teacher schools.
8. In fourteen counties there were 21 one-teacher schools with fewer than ten children in average daily attendance, 27 counties with 44 schools in which the average is 10 to 15; 72 counties with 374 districts in which daily attendance was 15 to 30; 71 counties with 245 schools in which the average daily attendance was 30 to 40; 50 counties with 143 schools in which the average daily attendance is 40 and over. Ten of the last type are in Caswell County, eleven in Halifax, nine in Robeson, six each in Cleveland, Granville, Jones, Pender, Pitt, Rowan, and five each in Union and Warren.
9. The State Department of Education upon requests from county officials has made studies--surveys of colored schools in thirty counties. Since these surveys were made and definite information and recommendations for gradual consolidation were submitted to the county boards of education considerable progress has been made in that direction. (See maps pages 32 and 33 and graphs pages 37 and 48).
10. Two counties are completely consolidated for colored schools as well as for white schools:
NOTE.--Two others in the west--Avery and Jackson practically in the same class of the two named above.
11. Specific data--High Schools.
NOTE: The State rural high school standard is, it may be stated, an accredited high school within reach of every child who is prepared and who may attend these high schools.
|23 COUNTIES||Population (6-21) 1936-37||Total Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent of Population Enrolled||High School Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent H. S.||No. of Vehicles Used||No. High Schools|
|12 COUNTIES||Population (6-21) 1936-37||Total Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent of Population Enrolled||High School Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent H. S.||No. of Vehicles Used||No. High Schools||/TD>|
NOTES.--It will be observed:
a. That eight counties had adequate transportation for high school children--Alexander, Currituck, Durham, Hertford, Johnston, Montgomery, New Hanover and Warren.
b. That twenty-four counties had some transportation for high school children, but not adequate.
c. That three counties did not have any bus transportation--Gates, Martin and Pasquotank.
(2) Forty-eight counties in which the number of accredited high schools is not sufficient to serve the population as distributed at present (Figures for 1936-37).
|38 COUNTIES||Population (6-21)||Total Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent Population Enrolled||High School Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent in H. S.||No. Vehicles Used||No. High Schools||No. 4-yr. Schools Needed|
|38 COUNTIES||Population (6-21)||Total Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent Population Enrolled||High School Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent in H. S.||No. Vehicles Used||No. High Schools||No. 4-yr. Schools Needed|
|10 COUNTIES||Population (6-21)||Total Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent Population Enrolled||High School Enrollment 1936-37||Per Cent in H. S.||No. Vehicles Used||No. High Schools||No. 4-yr. Schools Needed|
NOTE.--Attention is invited to the following facts in the data about 48 counties as outlined above:
(a) That Guilford and Wake had adequate transportation for high school children.
(b) Seven counties did not have in 1936-1937 an accredited high school for Negroes. These are: Davie, Henderson, Lincoln, Surry, McDowell, Polk, and Stokes.
(c) Seventeen counties did not provide any transportation: Camden, Cleveland, Davie, Granville, Lenoir, Lincoln, Northampton, Orange, Pitt, Sampson, Scotland, Surry, Union, McDowell, Polk, Washington and Wilson.
(d) In the 48 counties there were 79 accredited high schools, but on the basis of population there should be at least 130, or an addition of 51.
(e) There were only 162 busses in this entire area covering approximately one-half of the State. Most of these busses were probably used to transport high school children. An average of three or four additional busses per county would provide reasonably adequate transportation for high school children.
NOTE 2.--Since 1936-1937 many of the 83 counties listed in preceding pages have added busses for colored children. The total number has increased from 364 (see page 7) to 445.
(3) Sixteen counties in Western North Carolina in which colored school populations are exceedingly small, almost no provision for high school training is made in any of these counties.
|COUNTY||School Population Ages 6-21||Average Daily Attendance||Total|
|/TD>||/TD>||Grades 1-6||Grade 7||High School||/TD>|
In 1935-1936 it appears there were 66 pupils in these counties enrolled in high schools of one grade or another, and 145 in the
seventh grade, a total of 211 apparently who were qualified to enter high school in 1936-1937 and in 1937-1938. Many appeals from parents of children in these counties have come to the State Department of Public Instruction requesting high school facilities for their children.
A conference was held in Asheville in April 1938, called by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to discuss with superintendents and members of boards of education the possibilities of providing high school facilities for colored children in these and other mountain counties.
Two methods of furnishing high school education for these children it seems to us may prove satisfactory,--one or both of them, as follows:
NOTE.--Dare County in the East is in the same category as to the small number of colored school children. The school in Manteo is the only colored school in the county. The arrangements suggested for high schools for colored children in western counties may apply in Dare.
The present status of rural schools for colored children challenges the most earnest and thoughtful consideration of all official and other leaders in North Carolina. This is true whether considered as a matter of education, economics, race problems, government or otherwise.
The Works Progress Administration, and perhaps, the Public Works Administration, separately or both, may be used to plan and carry out a constructive program that will change permanently, and in a reasonably short period of time, a very unhappy situation. We believe this single problem which involves 119,221 colored children enrolled in 1,817 *
* For a description of many of these small schools see pages 11 and 12.
one to three-teacher rural schools in 1936-37 is one of the most urgent which faces the State, so far as education is concerned, at the present time.
* For a description of many of these small schools see pages 11 and 12.
No adequate program of education, no satisfactory program of health education, nor of industrial training can be offered in these unsanitary one, two and three-teacher Negro schools.
The high percentage of sickness and all kinds of physical ailments among rural Negroes are traceable to ignorance of the common laws of health, and to poverty which compels poor living conditions. Both of these conditions have been reduced or improved where better schools have been provided.
The high percentage of crime and delinquency, it appears, are directly traceable to the very poor inferior schools. Many judges and other public officials have declared unequivocally that crime among Negroes has decreased where educational conditions for them have been improved.
The condition which exists because of 1,817 one-, two and three-teacher colored schools, so far as state-wide need for improvements is concerned, is explained in preceding sections of this chapter. Fairness to the State itself, as well as to the 119,221 colored children who attend these small outworn schools, justifies pointing out here, it seems to us, at least one or two specific illustrations where state (and federal) aid may be used to relieve actual and unquestioned need.
In 1937-1938 there were many counties which it seems would find it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to undertake even the most pressing permanent school improvement needs. In these counties there were in 1937-38, a considerable number of the small schools of the types under discussion, and in them were enrolled thousands of colored children. On a basis of percentages, in the absence of reliable data, at least 40% of these small schools were of the type described in "A Study of Local School Units" referred to in a previous section.
The reasons for the financial condition of these counties are well understood by county and state school officials:
These financial limitations are very real and seem to preclude the possibility of immediate, or even reasonably early action in providing more school buildings and high schools for any group. In the meantime the conditions which exist in the small rural colored schools are "bad" and steadily growing worse. It does not seem possible, viewed from any local, county, state, or other justifiable standpoint, to postpone making improvements in
buildings and equipment in such areas as described herein for the length of time the present financial status of these counties would seem to demand they should be postponed.
In one specific area (there are many similar ones) a reasonably accurate statement of facts reveals conditions about as follows:
Obviously, time and space will not permit a detailed description of similar conditions which exist in other local administrative units. However, it is true that there are many local areas in North Carolina where such conditions do exist, and where there is the most pressing need for improvement. As we see it, there is no hope now or soon under the present financial condition of some of the counties, to provide the buildings and other equipment necessary, without State, and perhaps, national aid. In this connection we call attention to a suggestion stated elsewhere in this report that a state committee or commission be authorized to cooperate with the counties in working out plans for displacing the 1,817 small colored schools and developing a consolidated system in their stead.
In pointing out the distressing conditions which exist in some areas, we desire most emphatically to call attention to the remarkable improvements, in consolidation, transportation and good buildings, which have been provided for colored children in
many sections of the State. These are highly gratifying and encouraging to all good citizens of both races.
The teachers, pupils, and parents in the 1,817 communities where the small rural colored schools are located (as well as in large districts) need the assistance of some sympathetic understanding person who can help them in the difficult situations which they face. Jeanes teachers were employed in 59 counties in North Carolina in 1937-1938. These workers are, in most counties, well-trained and have had wide experience in rural schools. Their duties are to visit the small schools as frequently as may be desired by county superintendents to help the teachers in organizing and carrying out the state school program; to assist parent-teacher groups in making improvements in the school plant, and to help raise money for libraries, school equipment and other improvements. Jeanes teachers were able to raise in their several counties in 1937-1938 $59,493.78, all of which was used under the direction of superintendents for school improvements.
Only a few counties (10 in 1937-1938) since the depression, year of 1933, have found it possible to provide money which with the aid of the Jeanes Fund, was sufficient to employ a full-time Jeanes teacher who gave all her time, under the county superintendents' direction, to visiting and aiding all the elementary colored schools in the county. The others, (49 last year) were regular teachers in some school, giving only odd out-of-school time to the service of the rural schools in her county. This service was meagre and not nearly so effective as full time service described above. The Jeanes Fund appropriated $11,833.78 for this program in 1937-1938.
In pre-depression years the state through its State Equalization Board allotted to the counties about one-half the salary and a sum for travel over the county for each of the Jeanes teachers employed then. We believe that this service, particularly in view of the nearly 2,000 small rural schools is highly valuable and should be restored to the status of about 1930 if possible. The amount necessary for the 59 counties (which include about 70% of the colored school population) would not be large in comparison with the service rendered and the number of schools and people concerned. We are including in Chapter VI a recommendation in regard to this important matter.
If the State has been wise, and we believe it has, in developing the consolidated school as its standard rural school type, we are firm in the conviction that the sooner the State can aid in any way possible the counties and districts to build and equip for satisfactory service similar consolidated units for Negroes, that not only will their educational facilities be improved, but likewise, delinquency and crime will be reduced, health and working conditions made better, and the economic status of the whole group raised to higher levels.
Further, that by giving financial aid and cooperation the State will help to make possible in North Carolina a school system of rural units large enough to include training of all the types, cultural, health, vocations, economic, that may be depended upon to produce, so far as a public school system can be depended upon, useful productive citizens.
In view of the unquestioned need for displacing these inadequate and wornout small ineffective school units, and for establishing in the various rural school districts of the State modern consolidated schools, we recommend:
* There are 33 one-teacher Negro schools now included in city administrative units besides a few larger ones.
administrative units to secure WPA and PWA assistance in building larger schoolhouses in reorganized districts following surveys by State, county and city school officials.
* There are 33 one-teacher Negro schools now included in city administrative units besides a few larger ones.
Since Booker Washington began his program of industrial education at Tuskegee, there has been wide and varied discussion on this subject. It was not long before his plans were being vigorously and heatedly challenged by some powerful members of his own race. This discussion, amounting to bitter controversy in some quarters, continued for several years. Within the last decade, however, there has come to be widespread agreement among all groups of Negroes that the children and young people of their race should have vocational training to fit them for greater usefulness to themselves and to their country.
It is no doubt true that all classes of white people in the South, and, indeed, throughout the Country, have proclaimed their belief also, that colored children should have vocational training. This doctrine has been supported by educational leaders, political leaders, business and industrial leaders, farmers, church and social welfare groups--in fact by every type of white person or group in every strata of society in North Carolina, and all over the South.
A close examination of data given in Chapter I, pages 8 and 9, of this report will reveal how very limited are the opportunities for vocational training provided in North Carolina for colored children.
In North Carolina vocational agriculture is taught in one-sixth as many colored schools as is true in standard schools--59 to 310. If 126 colored schools taught this subject the proportion would be about equal. Likewise, the enrollment of colored children is about one to six. In expenditures from federal, state, and local funds 10.7% were spent on colored vocational agriculture units.
Total expenditures for vocational agriculture from all sources were: Standard Schools $539,539.81--for 71% of the state population, and $65,107.48 for colored schools--29% of the population of the State.
Similar conditions exist in the fields of home economics and trades and industries. In the first there was in 1937-38 one unit in colored schools for each eight in standard schools and one to four in enrollment. In trades and industries one colored unit for seven, and in enrollment one to six. In home economics 10% of
the total expenditures is for colored children and in trades and industries it seems that 14.6 per cent of the total was used in colored classes.
The reasons for such small percentages of colored children participating in the three vocational programs is not due to lack of interest nor of effort on the part of the Division of Vocational Education, but rather to lack of local interest, and failure of local officials to make reasonable appropriations to match state and federal funds. In many counties vocational departments are supported by the commissioners in all standard rural schools, but no appropriation is made for such departments in any colored schools.
In the fall of 1938 a county which has ample economic backing declined to make an appropriation of $300 to match state and federal funds in employing a teacher of vocational agriculture in a good consolidated colored school. The officials are reported to have said--"If we give to that school we will have to do the same for every other colored school in the county". The colored people were told to raise the $300 among themselves if they desired vocational agriculture taught in their school. In all of the seven standard consolidated schools in that county vocational agriculture is taught with aid from county, state and federal funds.
Similar conditions exist in other counties where the tax-levying authorities have refused again and again to help provide in the colored schools this kind of training which every intelligent person of any race insists should be a part of the colored schools.
A competent committee composed of Negroes was requested to give detailed study to the subject of vocational education and to submit a report of their findings. They devoted considerable time to this matter, and have passed in their report and recommendations which, in part, are as follows:
"The problem of vocational and prevocational education for Negro high school youths is one of providing for the 63 per cent of the graduates from high schools for Negroes who do not go to college, and for the approximately 85 per cent of the total enrollment who drop out before graduation, a type of education which will make possible their effective and happy adjustment to the communities in which they will live.
Table I shows the per cent of boys and girls enrolled in each type of school in 1937-1938. Girls constituted 62.4 of the 33,618 enrolled in all public high schools for Negroes.
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Male||Female||Total|
In Table II is shown the distribution of enrollment in all types of schools by sexes. Reading across the table beginning with City Standard, the 5,731 boys in the 53 schools of this group constitute 45.3 per cent of all boys enrolled in high schools for Negroes, and the 9,173 girls are 43.7 per cent of the total enrollment of girls in 205 schools.
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||No. of Schools||Percent of Total Enrollment by Sex in Each Type of School|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Total Enrollment||Agr.||Percent of Total||Home Economics||Percent of Total||Trades||Percent of Total|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Manual Training||Percent of Total||Book-keeping||Percent of Total||Stenography||Percent of Total||Type-writing||Percent Total|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||General Business||Percent Total||Total Enrollment in Trades, Industrial Arts||Percent of Total Enrollment|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Total Enrollment||Agr.||Percent Total||Home Economics||Percent Total||Beauty Culture||Percent Total|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Book-keeping||Percent Total||Stenography||Percent Total||Type-writing||Percent Total||General Business||Percent Total|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Total Enrollment in Trades, Industrial Arts||Percent of Total Enrollment|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Agr.||Home Economics||Trades||Manual Training||Business|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Agr.||Home Economics||Auto Mech.||Bldg. Trades||Manual Training||Beauty Culture||Book-keeping|
|TYPE OF SCHOOL||Stenography||Typewriting||General Business|
27.5 per cent of the 12,643 boys in North Carolina's high schools for Negroes are enrolled in courses which prepare for making a living. 13.1 per cent of these boys are in Industrial Arts and Prevocational Courses.
59.4 per cent of the 12,643 boys are not enrolled in vocational or prevocational courses.
Counting the 3,047 girls enrolled in courses taught by teachers of Vocational Home Economics (14.6% of the total 20,975 girls), 23 girls in Beauty Culture there were in 1937-1938 14.7% of all the girls in courses which prepare directly for a vocation, while 28.7% are in Home Economics Courses which are non-vocational. 4.0% are in Industrial Arts or Prevocational Courses.
52.6 per cent of 20,975 girls were not enrolled in any course leading directly to a vocation.
0.8 per cent of all boys enrolled in Auto Mechanics courses.
4.8 per cent of all boys were enrolled in Building Trades Courses.
30 counties provide vocational and industrial arts courses to boys or girls or both in the following combinations:
|Number Counties||Distribution of Service|
|2||Rural boys and city girls|
|5||Rural boys only|
|3||Rural boys and rural girls|
|1||Rural girls and city girls|
|3||Rural boys and city boys and girls|
|5||Rural girls and city boys and girls|
|3||Rural girls only|
|7||City girls only|
|1||Rural boys and girls and city girls|
1. That suitable forms of Vocational Education be made available to all colored high school students,--Home Economics, Agriculture, and such Trades and Industries as may be warranted by existing conditions and environment.
2. That sufficient funds be made available for the provision of a Negro State Supervisor for Trades and Industries.
3. That, we the committee, feel that a program of consolidation would bring larger numbers of students to one center and thereby make possible an economical and better vocational and industrial education program.
4. That due to the fact that it is shown in Table I that 62.4 percent of the pupils in high school are girls while only 37.6 percent are boys--constituting a very serious social and economic problem. We believe that the provision of sufficient vocational educational opportunities in high school for male students would lengthen the period of formal education for a greater number of boys and insure their occupational competence.
Competent welfare workers, trained sociologists, and other people familiar with rural conditions in North Carolina have expressed the conviction that much of the delinquency, incipient
crime and failure of colored boys and girls in those areas are due to the lack of vocational or industrial training in the schools.
It is the belief of our Commission, therefore, that the State itself should cooperate effectively with local administrative units in providing education in the colored schools; that this assistance be both financial, as outlined in our recommendations, and through counsel given by the three agencies which administer our state educational program.
Perhaps the most significant item of progress and development of colored schools in North Carolina in the last two decades may be found in the training of the teachers. At the beginning of the twenty years the number of colored teachers was 3,353 and their average training was about 2¼ years of high school. Even as late as 1925 their average training index was 395.9, or a little less than high school graduation. In 1930 the comparative training index of white and colored teachers respectively was 676.1 and 525.7, a difference of 150.4,--slightly more than one and one-half years of college education. In 1938 the respective indices are --771.0 and 712.6, a difference of 58.4 or a little more than one-half year of college education.
The gain made by colored teachers in one year, 1937 to 1938 in terms of a college year was 26.7--slightly more than one-fourth of a college year. This is remarkable when it is remembered that approximately 7,000 teachers are involved. Similar gain by white teachers the same year was 10.1--a little more than one-tenth of a college year.
Thoughtful consideration of the facts stated above will it seems convince any reasonable person that the Negro teachers in North Carolina have taken advantage of every opportunity--in college, in summer sessions, in extension classes and in correspondence courses to raise the level of their training and their efficiency as workers for the good of the State. Much of this additional training has been secured at real personal sacrifice and great self denial.
Requirements for the issuance of teachers' certificates of all types are the same for colored as for other teachers. They must meet the minimum requirements on all levels in the same way other teachers do. There is no relaxation of regulations in any particular in their behalf. This is true both because state standards of training and efficiency must be maintained, and the colored teachers themselves desire no lowering of these standards for their benefit.
For the training of its colored teachers (and for other purposes) the State maintains five colleges. To prevent too great duplication
MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA
Availability of Accredited High Schools for Negroes 1936-1937.
35 Counties in which the number of accredited high schools is sufficient to serve the present population.
36 Counties in which the high school facilities are fairly adequate.
12 Counties in which the high school facilities are inadequate.
17 Counties in each of which the Negro school population is not sufficient to support a four year accredited high school.
Transportation for Negro High School Pupils, 1936-1937
10 Counties with complete consolidation and transportation for high schools.
Counties with bus transportation in varying stages of completion.
20 Counties without bus transportation.
17 Counties in each of which the Negro school population is not sufficient to support a four year accredited high school.
in program and cost these institutions, so far as teacher training is concerned, undertake to serve the State as follows:
NOTE.--The last two, formerly two-year normal schools, are now four-year teachers colleges, and offer the same general program as does Winston-Salem Teachers College, which began its present program in 1925.
All three of these institutions restrict their program and services to the training of teachers for the elementary colored schools of the State. They attempt to prepare teachers who will be effective useful teachers in both rural and urban communities. Emphasis is being placed upon types of training designed to fit young teachers for successful class-room service not only, but also for wider service in rural life, particularly where expert teachers and leaders are sorely needed in large numbers.
The private Negro colleges have rendered highly valuable service to the State in training teachers for its colored schools. This was particularly true when the State was just beginning to develop its own colleges fifteen to twenty years ago. For a period of ten years, 1921-1931, the State made an appropriation annually to promote the training of teachers in these private colleges. All of these colleges cooperated wholeheartedly and fully with the State in this period of great need for such services while the State was building its own Negro colleges almost "from the ground up".
It does not seem necessary in this report to explain more in detail how and in what ways these private colleges have served the State. It is highly proper and desirable that acknowledgment and recognition be made here of the valuable services these institutions have freely rendered and still are rendering to the State.
In addition to programs for the training of colored teachers given in the regular college year by both the public and private colleges named above, two other definite programs for the training of these teachers have been offered:
During the past two decades the Negro teachers have shown a genuine interest in improving their scholarship through whatever teacher training agency was provided by the State. Throughout this period from sixty to ninety per cent of these teachers have spent from six to twelve weeks in school each summer. The purpose has been to organize these summer sessions in keeping with the needs of teachers and the certification requirements. As late as a decade and a half ago more than half of the summer school enrollment was in the county summer school department, which operated entirely below the college level. Since 1930, however, all courses offered in the summer session are of college grade, taken mainly from the regular offerings of the institutions. The summer sessions, whether carried on in a private or public college, have been self supporting for approximately a decade. This means that the teachers out of their meager earnings have paid for their professional training received in summer schools. Aside from the regular courses the summer schools have arranged for the cultural development of their students through a lyceum program supported jointly by all the schools. The trend is definitely toward making the summer session an integral part of the regular college program.
In 1924-1925 the extension class program was begun with the Negro teachers for a three-fold purpose:
(a) To enrich their teaching through professional study during the time they were employed.
(b) To provide a contact between the college workers and the class-room teachers (particularly those with limited experience) in order that the problems arising out of the school operation might be considered and solutions worked out while the schools were in session.
(c) To bring the college instructor into contact with classroom situations in the field so that the teacher training program would be as practicable and adjustable as possible.
The courses are usually taken from the regular college offerings or from special courses arranged to expand the general or meet specific needs of the teachers. This service has been self-supporting due to fees paid by teachers taking these courses. The instructors are regular members of the college faculties. During the session 1937-1938, the extension class service reached 2,198 teachers in 64 centers, which were taught by 53 instructors.
An examination of the statements given above in this chapter will show that the colored teachers for many years have been "at school" themselves practically twelve months in each year,--in college, in summer sessions, and in extension classes. Their persistent efforts have been rewarded by increased training, and have made it possible for them to be more effective teachers, and consequently, to render more valuable service to the State.
In the matters of training and certification, colored teachers, as has been explained, are required to meet state standards as are other teachers. They do not, however, receive standard salaries according to state salary scales. The differentials are less now than was true twenty years ago. Then, differences in salaries ranged as high as fifty, and sometimes even one-hundred per cent. Since 1933, when the State assumed full responsibility for salaries on state levels the differentials have been as low as twenty-two per cent in some cases and twenty-nine per cent in others.
Salaries paid in 1937-1938 (state funds) were:
|/TD>||State Standard Salary Scale||/TD>||Salaries Paid Colored Teachers|
In view of all the facts involved in this important matter, which are available to us, both those contained in this report and those which are a part of general knowledge of the State and its affairs, we believe a further reduction of differentials in the salaries paid to colored teachers and the state salary scale should be
Average Salary Schedule State Standards, Colored Schools, Recommendations of Commission
made beginning with the school year 1939-1940. As will be noted from figures quoted above, the differential between the salary of a colored teacher holding an A-8 grade certificate, and the state salary scale for the same grade certificate is $220,--($990 -- $770 = $220). Comparative differences exist for lower grade certificates.
Our judgment is that one-fourth of the differential in salaries on all grades of certificates should be eliminated in 1939-1940. If that is done the salaries as of 1937-1938 scale would be:
|/TD>||State Standard Salary Scale||Salaries Colored Teachers||Differential Remaining|
If this recommendation is approved there would be corresponding increases on all other grades of certificates, and corresponding differentials remaining after the increases are made.
1. The oldest of the five institutions operated by the State is the Normal School, now teachers college, at Fayetteville. This was established under the leadership of Governor Vance in 1877. So far as facts available show, this is the oldest school of its type for either race in the entire South. One other similar school of this kind was established in Mississippi about 1870, but that ceased to exist soon after the turn of the century, about 1904.
2. Six other normal schools were established by the State, but all of these except those at Elizabeth City (1892) and the Teachers College (1892) at Winston-Salem have gone out of existence.
3. The Agricultural and Technical (formerly Mechanical) College was established at Greensboro in 1891.
At the beginning all four of these institutions were a composite of elementary schools, high schools, and some feeble attempts in college courses. Gradually, as the communities in which these institutions were located assumed responsibility for elementary colored schools, these grades disappeared from the normal schools and the college at Greensboro. A similar process of gradual elimination removed the high school grades also. However, the dropping of the elementary and high schools from the then known college programs was a slow long drawn out process. Even within the last twenty years both these departments were still flourishing in some of these institutions.
4. In 1923 another institution came into the program of higher education for colored people. In that year the legislature created the State Normal School at Durham. In 1925 the General Assembly gave it a charter as the first liberal arts college for Negroes in North Carolina or in the South. This college was originally established as the National Religious Training School--a private institution, many years before the State made it a public college.
5. All five of these state-owned institutions, ranging in age, so far as the State is concerned, from sixty-one years (Fayetteville State Normal School) to fifteen years (North Carolina College for Negroes, Durham) operate now only on the four-year college level.
Elementary and high school departments have been out for several years, except, of course, the training departments which are now provided as a part of the state public school system and not, as formerly, an organized part of the college themselves.
1. The institutions at Elizabeth City and Fayetteville, since the elimination of the elementary and high school departments, were operated as two year normal schools until 1936 when they embarked upon a four-year teachers college program. The first four-year college classes will graduate from these two institutions in June 1939.
2. The teachers college at Winston-Salem began its career as a four-year teachers college in 1925. This college and those at Elizabeth City and Fayetteville compose the back-bone of the State's facilities for training teachers for its colored elementary schools. Their total average annual enrollments are beyond 500 each, 1,500 for all three. They will probably graduate next June (1939) about 250 four-year college trained teachers for the elementary schools. About 100 or more beyond that number will be needed to fill the vacancies in the colored elementary schools in September 1939. This latter number--100--will probably be supplied by the private colleges in the State and college trained applicants from outside the State. In the colored elementary schools there are almost exactly 6,000 teachers. The annual need for beginning teachers ranges from about 350 to 500.
3. Judging from the facts stated above, it appears that the State can depend upon its three institutions (and the private colleges) for training to provide its annual needs hereafter so far as teachers for its elementary colored schools are concerned. All of these teachers to be trained on four-year college levels, and to have had necessary training to fit them to be good effective teachers in small or large rural, as well as urban schools.
4. The Agricultural and Technical College at Greensboro, and the North Carolina College for Negroes at Durham have not had their aims and functions so well defined and specified by state authority as is true of the three teacher-training colleges described above. There has been considerable discussion, much of it probably unwise and ill-advised, as to the aims and purposes of these two institutions. There is no need here to enter into a prolonged discussion of any phase of this matter, further than to point out a few pertinent facts:
5. In a general way, so far as training teachers is concerned, these two colleges have served the State as follows:
NOTE.--Both colleges train students for other vocations and for general good citizenship.
6. In addition to the teachers trained for high school service by these two institutions the seven or eight private colleges are also turning out teachers for high schools. In June 1938, the two public and five private colleges issued diplomas, and the State granted certificates to 347 persons to teach in colored high schools. According to the best estimates obtainable not more than 100 of these could be absorbed by the colored high schools in North Carolina (to fill vacancies in high school teacher-groups of about 1,000). The other 247, so far as high school teaching in this State is concerned were left without jobs, or they sought work in the elementary schools, thus displacing trained elementary teachers--and having themselves to accept a cut of approximately ten per cent in salaries for teaching "out of their fields of training".
7. In the same year, 1938, only 153 (to fill vacancies in elementary school teacher groups of about 6,000) students received both college diplomas and "A" grade certificates for teaching in colored elementary schools. This number was abnormally low because of the change in programs of the normal schools at Elizabeth City and Fayetteville. That is to say, in the number
who received certificates for teaching in elementary schools. No two-year normal school certificates were issued in 1938.
8. The bare statement of the facts included in the preceding few paragraphs exposes a serious problem which both the State and the colleges--public and private--must face and make some definite effort to adjust satisfactorily. This problem is too significant and too important to attempt in this report to discuss it fully and suggest solutions or adjustments. The best we can do in view of limitations of this report both in time and space is to raise a few questions and offer a few dogmatic statements:
1. The total annual enrollments of the five state institutions have grown rapidly in the last twenty years. No reliable data are available for 1918,--twenty years ago. Enrollments have increased from 109 in 1923 to 805 in 1928, to 1,207 in 1933 and to 2,435 in 1938.
2. Increase in high school enrollments since 1923 also shows remarkable growth as follows: 1923, 3,477; 1928, 14,330; 1933, 21,980; and in 1938, 33,242. These figures indicate continued rapid growth in college enrollments. Predictions cannot be absolutely correct, but based upon increased attendance in the last fifteen years (both in high schools and in colleges) the next ten years will probably show about 3,500 college students in state institutions in 1943 and 4,000 in 1948.
3. Enrollment data for the five state institutions, regular session, summer school and extension classes for 1937-1938 were as follows:
|Institution||Regular Session||Summer School (1938)||Extension|
|A. & T. College||663||929||206|
|N. C. College for Negroes||430||558||382|
|Winston-Salem Teachers College||547||948||273|
|Elizabeth City State Normal||404||1,011||396|
|Fayetteville State Normal||391||1,225||440|
4. Eight private colleges contributed to the total college enrollment of colored people in North Carolina in 1937-1938 as follows:
|Institution||Regular Session||Summer School (1938)||Extension|
|*Immanuel Lutheran College||78||----||----|
|J. C. Smith University||375||398||237|
|*Palmer Memorial Institute||63||----||----|
|St. Augustine College||213||----||----|
5. Teacher output of colleges for Negroes in North Carolina 1937-1938. (Both public and private).
|Institution||High School Certificates||Elementary School Certificates||Total|
|A. & T. College||117||----||117|
|N. C. College for Negroes||42||----||42|
|Winston-Salem Teachers College||5||45||50|
|Elizabeth City State Normal||----||22||22|
|Fayetteville State Normal||----||42||42|
|*Immanuel Lutheran College||----||----||----|
|J. C. Smith University||41||----||41|
|*Palmer Memorial Institute||----||----||----|
|St. Augustine College||32||----||32|
*Junior Colleges. 6. Number graduates from Negro state colleges.
Name of College
a. Prior to accreditment as four-year college by State Department of Public Instruction
b. After its recognition as a Junior College or Normal School
c. After its accreditment as a four-year college
A. & T. College
Elizabeth City State Normal School
Fayetteville State Normal School
North Carolina College for Negroes
Winston-Salem Teachers College
a. Four-Year 486
b. Two-Year 333
6. Number graduates from Negro state colleges.
NOTE.--Private colleges report graduates from their institutions on the three bases named for public institutions as follows:
|Name of College||a. Prior to accreditment as four-year college by State Department of Public Instruction||b. After its recognition as a Junior College or Normal School||c. After its accreditment as a four-year college|
|J. C. Smith University||629||----||559|
|Palmer Memorial Institute||----||30||----|
|St. Augustine College||683||----||225|
7. What have graduates done--or, are doing?
In answer to the question: "What have your graduates done to prove themselves very useful members of society in this or other states", replies from the six institutions reporting are so significant they are quoted in part below:
1. Permanent Improvements. The property value of the State-owned colored colleges in 1920 (four then) was exceedingly small. Since that time, within eighteen years, the State has given serious attention to the urgent need for buildings and equipment. The total property value of these four institutions in 1920 was about $75,000 each. In 1937-1938 the value*
*Of the five state institutions.
had grown to $4,838,971. The special session of the General Assembly in 1938 made available for them, with PWA assistance, an additional sum of $925,900. When this is expended the property value of these colored colleges (now five) will amount to $5,779,071. The average value of these plants will then exceed a million dollars.
*Of the five state institutions.
The attitude and action of the several Governors of the State and the members of the nine or ten sessions of the General Assembly since 1920 in gradually, but surely, providing these Negro colleges with increasingly satisfactory buildings and equipment has, we believe, been worth untold sums in the improvement of sound and happy race relations.
There are still a few very necessary improvements needed now at these institutions. We understand some of those needs will be presented to the Governor and the General Assembly by the presidents and trustees with requests for action in 1939. We hope these requests will be complied with in full if possible. Because of rapid high school development college enrollments will increase correspondingly, and additional buildings and equipment will be urgently needed in 1941 and 1943.
As shown in Chapter I, page 9, the property value of standard state institutions of higher learning was in 1937-1938 about $5.78 for each $1.00 invested in colored colleges. The population percentages in 1930 was 71 and 29 respectively.
2. Annual Maintenance.
a. In 1937-1938 the state-owned colleges for colored people were supported as follows:
PER CAPITA COST--STATE APPROPRIATIONS--STATE STANDARDS COLORED SCHOOLS--RECOMMENDATIONS OF COMMISSION
|Institution||State Appropriation||Other Revenues||Total|
|A. & T. College||$ 60,997.00||$122,828.00*||$183,825.00|
|N. C. College for Negroes||44,455.00||46,500.00||90,955.00|
|Winston-Salem Teachers College||48,033.00||67,605.00||115,638.00|
|Elizabeth City State Normal||28,565.00||62,405.00||90,970.00|
|Fayetteville State Normal||34,696.00||66,280.00||100,976.00|
|/TD>||*State Stds.||**Colored Schools||*State Stds.||**Colored Schools||*State Stds.||**Colored Schools||*State Stds.||**Colored Schools|
|Average No. Employees:||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>|
|Average Annual Salary:||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>|
|(a) Admr.||$2,671||$ 1,898||$1,894||$ 1,429||$ 2,291||$ 1,988||$2,460||$ 1,796|
|(b) Instruc.||$2,131||$ 1,486||$1,619||$ 1,138||$1,872||$ 1,385||$2,134||$ 1,556|
|Av. Enrollment per Instruc.||13.4||15||14.5||20||14.4||26||14.1||27|
|Per Capita Cost per Annum:||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>|
|(a) (1) Amount||$ 362||$ 217||$ 311||$ 163||$ 360||$ 169||$ 402||$ 192|
|(b) (1) Own Receipts||$ 234||$ 127||$ 216||$ 107||$ 242||$ 113||$ 252||$ 119|
|(1) Amount||$ 128||$ 90||$ 95||$ 56||$ 118||$ 56||$ 150||$ 73|
The two outstanding facts in the above statements are:
1. The average enrollment per instructor in standard as compared with colored colleges,--14.1 and 27 respectively. It will be noted that the average in colored colleges has grown from 15 in 1931-32 to 27 in 1938, almost doubled, while the standard average has remained almost stationary throughout the six year period--13.4 to 14.1. Obviously, it is impossible for Negro instructors to teach successfully nearly double the number of students as the
standard college instructor is required to teach. The fact that the Negro instructor, under existing conditions, has had more difficulty to secure adequate training places him at a disadvantage and his students likewise suffer handicaps.
2. The per capita state appropriation for college students enrolled in standard and colored colleges,--$150 and $73 respectively for 1937-1938.
The State cannot hope to buy for its Negro college students instruction of as high value for one dollar as that for which it is paying two dollars in standard institutions. We do not believe the State is doing too much for its fine standard institutions of higher learning; more is needed for them. We do believe it is doing too little for the colored colleges. At the present moment it seems to us the supreme need of the colleges for colored students is lowering considerably the per instructor average student load, and increasing the per capita student allotment from $73.00 to at least $100 (see Recommendations, pages 56-57). This would make possible the employment of
more instructors and better trained instructors.
NOTE.--Two simple comparisons will show excessive loads being carried by colored college instructors.
a. If the Elizabeth City State Normal School had been allotted instructors on the same basis of average enrollment per instructor as_____College (22) for the year 1935-1936, there would have been 27 instructors instead of 19. If the Elizabeth City State Normal School had been allotted instructors on the basis of average enrollment per instructor as_____College (16) for the year 1935-1936, there would have been 37 instructors instead of 19.
b. If the Fayetteville State Normal School had been allotted instructors on the same basis of average enrollment per instructor as the_____College (22) for the year 1935-1936, there would have been 32 instructors instead of 20. If the Fayetteville State Normal School had been allotted instructors on the basis of average enrollment per instructor as_____College, there would have been 44 instructors instead of 20.
Since the lower salary schedule in the Negro colleges tends toward a faculty with less average training, it does seem unwise that the instructor in the Negro college should be responsible for a larger average class enrollment. Unavoidably the State must pay the toll for such overloading of college instructors through the shortages of the teaching personnel provided for its public school system.
3. Allotments needed each year of the biennium 1939-1941. If the recommendations in this report (see Chapter VI, page 61) are approved the colored colleges would receive about $100 for each student in the composite enrollment of the five institutions
as determined by the Advisory Budget Commission as of 1937-1938. The total enrollment for that year was 3,329 in the budget estimates. The appropriation on the basis suggested would be for each year of the new biennium $332,900 for all five colored colleges. This sum, while still about $50.00 per student less than similar appropriations for standard institutions in 1937-1938, would enable the colored colleges to make two very essential improvements:
For many years, the major function of Negro colleges has been to train teachers. In North Carolina they have succeeded so well it appears they must begin at least to place emphasis upon training for other services. As previously mentioned in this report there is already an over-supply of high school teachers. In a very few years, particularly, since both the public and private colleges are training teachers for elementary schools, there will be a surplus in that field also.
Economists, educational and political leaders, as well as sociologists, are claiming that our country is now in the midst of a new era--an era of economic and social crises. They insist that colleges and universities must step-up their programs to include more of the social sciences, civics, health and vocational education. In broad general terms the colleges for colored people in North Carolina must have the same major aims and purposes as do our standard institutions.
In the three colored teachers colleges beginnings are being made, in addition to the regular courses for training elementary school teachers, in three special courses: (a) Home Living,--not intended to train teachers of home economics, but for every student who is to become a teacher; (b) a practical useful program dealing with certain phases of farm life--gardens, poultry, the cow, etc.; (c) a unit dealing with the major concerns of rural life,--the school, church, parent-teacher associations, farm and home clubs, home ownership, tenancy, library service, and others.
It is no doubt true that two phases of training, in addition to the time-tried curricula, must be emphasized now by some or all the Negro colleges in North Carolina:
NOTE.--For further discussion and recommendations on this subject--graduate and professional education--see Chapter VI--Recommendations, page 53.
Data included in the first chapter of this report reveal the comparative standing of the white and the colored schools in North Carolina. The standards achieved in the white schools and colleges may be considered
State Standards in public education in this State. Throughout the report we have used the term State Standards in public education, therefore, instead of white schools and colleges.
Using these Standards as a basis of measurement it will be noted that the colored schools and colleges compare favorably with such
standards in a few items. On the whole, however, there are wide differences between the status of the colored schools and colleges and the state standards. In a few instances, notably higher education, the financial support (per student) given by the State to Negro colleges is less than half that given to standard institutions.
It will be observed that since the adoption in 1933 of a statewide program of state support of the public elementary and secondary schools for eight months the colored schools, on two of the most important items in public education, length of term and teacher-pupil load, have been brought up almost exactly to the state standard levels. This remarkable gain has been made in five years under state support, and cooperation with county and city units.
It seems reasonable to believe that definitely well-worked out plans for certain types of financial aid to the local administrative units and the active cooperation and counsel of the state government would produce equally valuable results in reducing differentials on other items in public education. Among these are: Consolidation and transportation, sorely needed buildings and equipment and more high schools; expansion of vocational education programs; adjustment of teachers' salaries; largely increased support for higher education--including graduate and professional training.
We feel, therefore, that our first and foremost recommendation should be to urge upon all who are connected with state and local
governments the very great desirability of reducing consciously and definitely the differentials which now exist in the colored schools and colleges as compared with the standards which the State has established in public education,--that yearly improvements be made, even though in some instances they may be slight, in order that these schools which are a part of the state program may be brought up to acceptable standards.
Within the present decade North Carolina has undertaken to support its public schools directly from state funds. In this respect it has embarked upon a program which is unique and challenging among the states of the American Union. At the same time it is a system which the State has been gradually developing under authority of and by direction of its own Constitution.
By gradual growth and development large schools of standard type in the towns and cities, and the consolidated schools in rural districts, have come into being for a large part of the school population. In these schools a modern program of education can and is being offered including health education and vocational training of a superior type.
All of the sixty-nine city administrative units, with a few exceptions, have very satisfactory school buildings, equipment and teachers for colored children. In the rural districts, however, the 1,817 one-, two- and three-teacher schools for colored children constitute the weakest link in the state program of public education.
In view of the gradual but steady progress which has been made in recent years and the present standard types of school plants, rural and urban for practically all except rural Negro children, we recommend that the state aid the counties and the rural districts to eliminate the 1,817 small rural schools for colored children, that this aid include financial assistance, and cooperation of the State Board of Education, the State Department of Public Instruction and the State School Commission; that the State and the counties begin in early 1939 this cooperative development to eliminate the weakest and most ineffective segment of the public school program by making careful joint studies of each county to determine where consolidated school units should be established, work out a plan of gradual development which over a reasonable period of years would bring the rural schools for colored children up to the standard type or pattern for rural schools in North Carolina.
Our specific recommendations are as follows:
1. That an active cooperating committee or commission of some kind be appointed to give direct, definite and continuing assistance to county and city school officials in making studies, or surveys, and in securing financial aid from State, Federal and other agencies for the improvement of colored schools. That this committee or commission be composed of members of the three state agencies responsible for state education programs, viz: The State Board of Education, The State Department of Public Instruction, and the State School Commission.
2. Aid to county and city administrative units.
a. That the State make available in 1939 a substantial sum to aid county and local units to build and equip consolidated schools. That about one-half million dollars be made available for the biennium 1939-1941. That grants from this fund be made equal to 25% of the total cost of a consolidated school plant--such completed plant to include:
The state grant of 25% to cover one-fourth the total cost of the plant as itemized above.
NOTE.--If the State will make available a similar sum in 1941, 1943, 1945 and in 1947, we believe by the end of 1949, that the entire rural school program for both races will be composed of excellent consolidated units in which the children of North Carolina of both races will have opportunities for training unsurpassed by any state in the Nation.
NOTE 2.--It seems possible that considerable aid from the Works Progress Administration and the Public Works Administration could be secured for such a program as that briefly outlined above. Particularly, since the official agencies of the State itself would cooperate with and aid the several administrative units in working out their improvement problems.
b. That a small annual sum of about $25,000 be made available for vocational education to aid:
3. Salaries of Teachers.
For several years there has been considerable discussion in the State about the differential between the state standard salary scale and the salaries paid Negro teachers. These differences are shown in the comparative figures given below:
|/TD>||State Standard Salary Scale||State Certificates (1937-38)||Salaries Paid Negro Teachers|
Additional data and information on the matter of teachers' salaries are included in our complete report, of which these recommendations form a part. Attention is called here again to the fact that the programs set up by the State for the training and certification of teachers are the same for all teachers of whatever race. That is to say, all groups must meet identical standards for the different types of certificates.
In view of these facts, we recommend that the Legislature of 1939 provide appropriations sufficient to reduce the differential between salaries of Negro teachers and the standard salary scale of the State at least twenty-five per cent.*
4. Support for Negro Colleges.
a. That the Legislature of 1939 appropriate to each of the Negro colleges owned by the State for maintenance annually:
NOTE.--The form of recommendations made for increased state support of these institutions is intended to explain and to emphasize the very urgent need for such added support. These added annual amounts though still small will make it possible to employ and to keep some of the best instructors in the country, to reduce the per instructor number of students in the five Negro colleges from the average of 27 in 1937-38 nearer to the standard state average of 14.1 for the same year, and to render a higher and more satisfactory service not only to our Negro population but to the State as a whole.
The recommendations are intended also to encourage a gradual increase each biennium for these institutions so that they may approximate nearer and nearer each year the standards which the State has established for undergraduate college education.
b. That the Governor be empowered to appoint a committee or commission who would aid the North Carolina College for Negroes at Durham, and the Agricultural and Technical College at Greensboro to adjust their programs to the needs, and in accordance with the aims of these respective institutions.
NOTE. We do not think this proposed committee or commission should have any function except to study the programs and policies of the two institutions and to make recommendations of such adjustments as to them may seem wise to the Governor and the State Board of Education, who, in cooperation with the trustees and presidents of the two institutions, will make final any changes in curriculum, program or policy that they may deem proper.
5. Graduate and Professional Instruction.
Our State has not made provision for graduate and professional training of its Negro citizens. Eight southern and border states have made such provision. The need for this type of education is increasing in North Carolina. By the 1930 census there were 918,674 Negroes in this State. That was 29% of the population. In 1935 the United States Census Office estimated the Negro population in North Carolina to be 990,000.
The State Negro college faculties in 1937-1938 included six with PhD. degrees, nineteen with two years of graduate training, and sixty-four who have earned the Masters degree. All this graduate instruction amounting to 120 years of such training above the baccalaureate degree had to be secured outside of North Carolina.
We believe our State should make a beginning in providing graduate and professional training for its Negro citizens, and we recommend:
a. That courses leading to graduate and professional degrees be offered at the North Carolina College for Negroes in Durham, and that provision should be made in the fields of agriculture and technology for graduate and professional training at the Agricultural and Technical College at Greensboro.
b. That sufficient sums be appropriated for these two colleges to:
c. That reasonable amounts be made available for 1939-1941 about as follows:
NOTE.--In the beginning of this program of graduate and professional instruction for Negroes in North Carolina two considerations should be definitely stated:
1. It is possible that both the University of North Carolina (three units) and Duke University can and will offer considerable assistance in organizing, teaching, and standardizing the courses in the proposed programs of graduate and professional instruction outlined above.
2. That the heads of departments and others in the graduate and professional schools would do considerable teaching in the undergraduate colleges also, thus providing some of the additional instructors needed in these classes.
NOTE 2.--It seems to us this whole program, in its beginnings at least, should be worked out and guided by the committee or commission recommended to assist the North Carolina College for Negroes and the Agricultural and Technical College to adjust their programs, in cooperation with the State Board of Education and the trustees and the presidents of the colleges.
We know that the full fruition of the program of graduate and professional instruction recommended above will require considerable time and the expenditure of much money. A university cannot be built in a year. In the process of its building and development, which we believe should be as prompt, definite and rapid as possible, there are, and will be, Negroes in North Carolina who desire graduate and professional training in the second and third years leading to the Ph.D. and D.Sc. and other similar degrees. For some of these, who themselves prefer such a plan, particularly those who desire third year courses leading to such degrees, the North Carolina College for Negroes and the Agricultural and Technical College might develop a plan of extra-mural training by which students seeking courses in the second and third years of graduate and professional training, would be sent to other universities for these higher courses, while the two colleges named above are developing on their own campuses programs which will include complete graduate and professional schools in their separate and distinct fields as determined by the State. We understand that a plan of extra-mural training is recognized and used by many of the leading universities in the United States.
In the belief that the State will proceed to lay the ground work for graduate and professional training for its Negro citizens, and build upon such foundations as rapidly as possible; and further, that extra-mural training may benefit some Negro
students who are already seeking the last year or two leading to graduate and professional degrees, we recommend:
That an annual appropriation of $15,000 to $20,000 be made to enable the North Carolina College for Negroes at Durham and the Agricultural and Technical College at Greensboro to provide extra-mural training for graduates and professional students who themselves prefer such opportunities for the third year, and possibly the second, leading to the Ph.D. and D.Sc. and other similar degrees.
d. Summarizing the Proposed Graduate and Professional Instruction Program, we desire to emphasize three considerations in regard to this program which is a new undertaking in North Carolina, but one for which the State as a whole is responsible:
a. While the program would be new in this State, it is not new in the South, since eight other southern and border states have already developed similar plans for their Negro citizens. These states alphabetically arranged are: Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia. The experience of these states in outline is as follows:
|STATES||Negro Population 1930||Annual Appropriation for fellowships Outside State||Amounts Actually Spent||Amounts Paid Per Student Fellowship||Number Students on Fellowships||How Satisfactory|
|/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||a. To Negroes
b. To State Government
|Kentucky||226,040||$5,000+$2,500 added by Governor||$7,500.00||Fees not exceeding $175.00||----||a. Very satisfactory
b. Very satisfactory
|Maryland||276,379||(no data received)||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>|
|Missouri||223,840||$15,000||$22,000 each Yr. past 2 Yrs.||Cost of tuition only||(1937) 127
|Oklahoma||172,198||$5,000||$1,612.61 Yr. ending June 30, 1936||Not to exceed $250.00||(1936) 27||a. Quite satisfactory
b. Quite satisfactory
|Tennessee||477,646||$2,500||----||Estimated on comparative costs||----||a. Law needs revising
b. Law needs revising
|Texas||854,964||(State College at Prairie View, Texas, offers courses leading to Masters degree)||/TD>||/TD>||/TD>||a. Negroes divided
b. Feel sane beginning made
1938-"$25,000.00 at least"
Granted as high as $460-1 yr.
|a. Regards plan as temporary
b. No data
|West Virginia||114,893||$8,000||1937-$ 7,000.00
|$150 college yr.
$50 summer term
|397 last 5 yrs.||a. Satisfactory as to operation, but not allowances
b. Very satisfactory
It will be noted that three of these states are strictly southern states, viz: Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. The other five are border states, with definite southern history backgrounds and traditions, sympathies and modes of life. North Carolina has a larger Negro population than any one of the eight states named above.
The adoption of the program which we recommend would provide our State an opportunity to make an honest effort to study and to experiment with a problem which squarely faces the State, which has been a baffling one, and one in which we would have the opportunity to observe and perhaps to cooperate with eight other sister states engaged in similar programs.
b. The plans we propose for graduate and professional instruction are simple, and outside of buildings and permanent improvements, will not require large appropriations. If the maximum amounts we have suggested are made available the annual total for the next biennium would not exceed:
c. The population to be served by this proposed graduate program, according to the United States Census Bureau in 1935 is about 990,000 persons. We believe this proposal would appeal strongly to Negroes in the State, and would receive the hearty approval and approbation of the State's leaders among our white people. The sum proposed is a small amount to offer for the increased loyalty of our colored people, and for the certain improvement in the friendly race relations which would result.
NOTE.--After some experimentation, further study and observation, the State might desire to investigate the advisability of developing a State University for Negroes at Durham with collaboration of the college at Greensboro and possibly one of the teacher-training colleges. A recent study of Negro populations living within a radius of about 200 miles of Durham revealed a population of 2,362,493 in that area. One or two of our neighboring states might be interested in such an institution to the extent of making appropriations for its support on condition that Negroes from their states desiring graduate training could attend on equal terms with colored students in this State. Such an institution located in North Carolina would be approximately midway between Washington, D. C., and Atlanta, where there are now growing universities for Negroes. It could have, too, the cooperation and counsel of the State's two great universities--at Chapel Hill and Duke.
6. Summary.--Estimated additional state expenditures recommended for improvement of public schools and colleges for colored people in North Carolina, for each year of the biennium, 1939-1941:
This total constitutes a considerable sum of money, but the services it will provide, in our judgment, far outweigh the cost. This sum made available would be a little more than seventy-five cents for each colored person in the State's population, and about two dollars for each of the 340,000 colored school children recorded in the last census.
We earnestly recommend that our Governor, members of the General Assembly, and the people of North Carolina seriously consider the wisdom and the justice of adopting the program outlined in this report in its entirety.
In advising this action we invite careful study of the statistics in Chapters
I and II and other data in this report which show the status of the colored schools and colleges as compared with standards in each item of the educational program the State has established. It will be clearly seen and understood that the Public Schools and Colleges for Colored People in North Carolina will, after the program we recommend is adopted, still be far below state standards in all the forty and more items listed in Chapter I and the facts stated in Chapter II of this report--with a very few exceptions. In these few the differences will be small.
In conclusion we recommend:
1. That each succeeding Legislature authorize the Governor to appoint a commission of its members who would make a study of Negro education each biennium and thus be in position to recommend to the Governor and each next succeeding Legislature the necessary action to be taken to improve the colored schools and colleges of the State.
2. That such action be taken with the definite and distinct purpose of working out over a period of years a school system for Negroes which will approximate nearer and nearer each year the standards which this State has established in public education.