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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
(title page) The Southern Sanitarium. Vol. 1, no. 4 (January 1, 1897)
L. A. Scruggs (Lawson Andrew), 1857-1914
22 p., ill.
Raleigh, N. C.
L. A. Scruggs
Call number VCp610.5 S727s v.1 no.4 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
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RALEIGH. N. C.
KEEPS THE LARGEST, FINEST AND BEST SELECTED STOCK OF
COFFINS AND CASKETS, IN CLOTH,
WOOD AND METAL; ALSO ALUMINUM
CASKETS, BURIAL ROBES, WRAPPERS,
SLIPPERS FOR LADIES, GENTS AND CHILDREN.
ALSO BURGLAR-PROOF GRAVE VAULTS.
J. W. BROWN,
PROPRIETOR, FUNERAL DIRECTOR AND EMBALMER.
WE HAVE four acres of land on which there are to be erected sixteen Pavilions at a cost of $350 each, and one Central or Administration Building at a cost of $20,000. Four Pavilions are already pledged, two of which have been completed and paid for and partly furnished. The institution is now open and we are receiving patients.
VOL. I. RALEIGH, N. C., JANUARY I, 1897. NO. 4.
This is the question so often asked us. We answer that the great majority of medical authorities on both sides of the Atlantic seem to be very well agreed that consumption is contagious or catching.
A firm belief in the contagiousness of this dreaded disease has been the cause of our humble efforts in favor of a special Sanitarium for consumptive Negroes, that those affected might be isolated from those who are not affected by this disease.
What can we hope for but a rapid increase of consumption, when in many cases a whole family of as many as six, eight or ten persons live, cook, eat, wash and SLEEP in one room that has scarcely capacity for two or three at most, and even then quite often one of this large number is sick of consumption in this same room. Do you wonder that the disease spreads rapidly? What is the remedy? Isolation, isolation, with all kindness and sympathy, but isolation where they will have good care, comforts, and a plenty of fresh air, with regulation of habits and conditions.
By this means the diseased ones will live longer and under more comfortable and cheering circumstances, while a much less number will contract the disease than would otherwise have it, had the sick been left in a dull, crowded gloomy home, with unsanitary surroundings.
The following clipping is so much to the point, and so prophetic, that we give it our hearty endorsement by commending it to our readers:
"Should those who are diseased marry?" is a question often asked and discussed. It is impossible to treat the human race as we do our beasts ; we will kill diseased cattle ; entire herds of valuable Jerseys have been destroyed because they were found to be tuberculous.
It would be equivalent to war if such method were adopted in an attempt to stamp out tuberculosis in the human race. Yet we must realize that efforts stronger and more logical than have been and are now being used must eventually be employed for this purpose. Either laws must be passed prohibiting intermarriage between healthy and diseased persons, or compelling the isolation of all who are diseased, irrespective of class, condition, and sex.
This editorial was not written to discuss the best methods of obliterating tuberculosis, but to impress upon the profession the necessity of pointing out dangers which their patients cannot discover. Those who inherit tubercular tendencies should be carefully schooled in habits which will best enable them to guard against the disease ; many who are to-day beyond the hope of recovery would still be on the safer side had they been warned in time. Change of climate, quitting the more dangerous regions for localities more favorable to their condition, has by itself saved many who, had they remained in their former environments, would have died.
Intermarriage between healty and tubercular persons should never be sanctioned. The family physician can warn parents of the dangers of such unions without offending or appearing officious.--Louisville Medical Journal.
We have given above the subject upon which Dr. J. F. Miller, Superintendent of the Eastern Hospital at Goldsboro, N. C., for insane Negroes, read a paper some time ago before the Southern Medico-Psychological Association, and which has since been printed in pamphlet form and circulated.
The paper is a very interesting one from several standpoints, and, indeed, so much so that we cannot pass it by without comment.
It is interesting because of Dr. Miller's experience and his present official relation to the Negro.
It is also of interest because of the practical truth expressed in some parts of it.
But it becomes the more interesting as we note and reflect upon the very illogical and unfounded conclusions the writer claims to have reached.
Such conclusions, if believed, are likely to do the Negro serious damage in the presence of those who do not stop to question the truthfulness of such statements as the doctor makes.
While we are aware of the fact that we belong to a dependent race of people, about whom, when taken as a whole, critics may find room to say many hard and discouraging things, yet it is to be remembered that a part of the race are looking upward, and are seeking as best they can to march onward, and therefore should receive encouragement and help from those ahead of them, instead of one in high position seeking, not only to discourage them, but to discourage those who are trying to help them. We do not intend to attempt to deny a single truth the doctor expresses ; in fact we agree with him in the seeming increased coincidence of insanity and tuberculosis among the Negroes. But how, in the name of common reason a man, who claims to be learned in the science of medicine and reading daily, as we suppose, the current literature of the profession, can jump to such conclusions as the following, in the face of all the facts to the contrary, we cannot even surmise.
Dr. J. F. Miller says : "I am fully aware that among the Afro-Americans of the South may be found some orators eloquent in speech ; some who have attained to ripe scholarship, and many others who have demonstrated considerable
capacity in the learned professions and in business circles; but as a rule such are of mixed blood."
The last clause of the doctor's statement, which attributes all the worth of the race to the mixed blooded ones, making the worth of the real Negro the exception, simply demonstrates the fact that the doctor is grossly ignorant of the details of the Negroes' intellectual development, and simply writes from sentiment without regard to the facts in the case.
Now let us see what the facts are: Dr. Blyden, the President of Liberia College in Africa, is acknowledged by American and European scholars to be the most learned Negro known to the educated world. He speaks fluently seven different and distinct languages with as much ease as we do the English language, yet he is as black as a black silk hat.
We would that Dr. Miller could look into his face and have some experience with that bright intellect under that black skin.
The most brilliant legal Negro representation at the American bar is a black man reared (I think) in South Carolina.
Many of the most brilliant and successful Negro medical practitioners in America, Liberia and the West Indies are black Negroes. The silver-tongued orator (who now sleeps the long sleep), Dr. J. C. Price, was a black man of a beautiful hue.
The late Rev. W. W. Brown was possibly, all things considered, America's greatest financier, was born a slave, and never had any special training, yet from almost nothing he accumulated a young fortune and became president of a bank in about ten years. He was truly a black man.
Black Patti, who has been honored before many of the crowned heads of the civilized world, is undoubtedly a gifted singer. She, too, is a black woman.
Blind Tom, the wonder of the world, was a black man.
The Negro pulpit is occupied all over this country with black men, eminent and devout in their calling.
And so we could name them up into the thousands and then not name them all who, though black, are yet eminent. Does this look like what Dr. Miller says? "as a rule, such are of mixed blood."
Dr. Miller also says of the Negro: "But as a class, their mental calibre is small; the convolutions of their brain are few and superficial; their cranial measurement small, and other anitomical facts demonstrate his inferiority."
Now let us see what are the facts in this case:
Dr. Austin Flint in his work on Human Physiology gives an ethnological table derived from 405 autopsies of white and Negro brains, in which the average weight of the brains of 24 whites was 52.06 oz., while the average weight of 141 Negro brains was 46.96 oz.
In another table 278 autopsies upon the brains of white subjects he gave an average of 49½ oz.
Here is a difference in weight that might be taken as conclusive, but the same authority gives another table in which he shows that a congenital imbecile who died in the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in 1876, at the age of 30 years, and whose brain weighed 70.50 oz. A brick-layer also who could not read nor write, but was of fair intelligence, was reported by Dr. James Morris to have a brain weighing 67.00 oz. There was also reported by Dr. Tuke a congenital epileptic idiot, whose brain weighed 60 oz.
Yet a celebrated mineralogist's brain weighed only 43.24. Here was a strong active mind in a small brain, and possibly few convolutions.
A boy also, age 13 years, healthy and intelligent, died from injuries caused by a fall, was reported in the British Medical Journal October 19, 1872, whose brain weighed 58. oz.
We can readily see now that neither the size nor the weight of an individual brain can be taken as an absolute
measurement of the intellectual capacity of that individual. For above quotations show that persons who were born idiots, and whose mental calibre was well known, had brains much more weighty than the great Daniel Webster, whose brain weighed 53.50 oz., or Cuvier, whose brain weighed 64.33 oz., or Abercrombie, whose brain weighed 63 oz. The last three named were great men possessing great intellects.
Dr. Flint also says upon this same subject: "If we accept the view, which is in every way reasonable, that the gray substance of the cerebral hemispheres is the generator of the mind, it would be necessary in comparing different individuals, with the view of establishing a definite relation between brain, substance and intelligence, to estimate the amount of gray matter; but it is not easy to see how this can be done with any degree of accuracy."
Now, then, in the face of these facts, coming from such eminent authority of international reputation, we put the question: "How, in the name of truth and justice, can Dr. J. F. Miller jump to the very positive conclusion that the convolutions of the negro's brain are few and superficial, and his cranial measurements small, etc., and that in consequence of which their mental calibre is small." This is what he positively asserts.
We have shown beyond all reasonable doubt that many very small brains have done much greater and better work than other much larger brains with larger cranial measurements.
We have proven that persons possessing the largest brains, with two doubtful exceptions, of which we have any record, were in their mentality exceedingly low, indeed, with scarcely no mental force at all. These persons, of course, had larger cranial measurements.
We have proven by eminent authority that the gray substance of the cerebral hemispheres is the generator of the mind, and that we cannot establish a definite relation between
brain substance and intelligence until we can estimate the amount of gray matter in the brain.
Dr. Flint and others say: "It is not easy to see how this can be done with any degree of accuracy."
If we grant Dr. Miller that the convolutions are superficial and few, what does he gain? He certainly cannot know the amount of gray matter, and therefore cannot know definitely the forces of that certain intellect.
We give one more quotation from a reliable authority in reference to the amount of brain substance, who says:
"A careful study of the weights given in the table shows the impossibility of applying to individuals an absolute rule that the greatest brain-power is connected with the greatest amount of brain substance."
What now becomes of Dr. Miller's so-called scanty and superficial convolutions with small cranial measurements? Let him find them.
Dr. Miller also asserts concerning the Negro, that "The color of his skin is a mark of inferiority, and not the result of climatic influences, as has been declared by some."
Here the Doctor is absolutely certain and positive as he is in every case. Certainly if he has been reading the recent works on physiology that have been written since the days when he used to study the science, he would never make such an incautious and unscientific statement.
If he will revert to the subject of the physiological anatomy of the skin he will find, to his possible surprise, that the best authorities are agreed that the color of the skin is dependant upon the coloring matter or pigment in the pigmentary cells of the malpighian layer of the skin; hence the various colors in the Negro--the color of the Chinaman, the Indian and the Caucasian. It is a well established fact that the skin does change its color (or rather the pigment) under certain conditions of climate, age, season, health, etc. These changes, whether permanent or temporary, of themselves, can have nothing to do with the inherent mental capacity of the individual.
Now, then, we once more ask, will Dr. J. F. Miller, in the face of such authorities as Drs. Flint, Baker, Harris, Elliot and others already named, still contend with his absolute certainty, that all he has said, as quoted by us, is correct, and therefore eminent authorities are mistaken?
It is to be remembered that Dr. Miller has spoken with positive certainty in all he says against the ability of the Negro, expressing no doubt, and therefore seems to defy the best authority and set himself up as the criterion upon this subject. Dr. Miller must admit, however, upon reflection, that there have been many, many more Negroes than he gives credit for, whose African blood could not be doubted and whose skin was certainly black who; under the circumstances, have been a reasonably gratifying success in every avenue in which they have been permitted to operate in this country, and that whether their "cerebral convolutions" were "scanty" and "superficial" and their "cranial measurements small" and their skin black or not, yet whatever the Negro has accomplished of good has been done in consequence of inherant mental powers that were handed down to him from the great mind of God, as a sacred trust, and therefore unwarranted criticisms of their mental and physical construction cannot change inherent conditions.
Some of the probable causes for the very rapid spread of consumption among the Negroes in the South may be suggested as follows:
If the Negro had money sufficient with which to change climate and residence, under medical advice, for the protection of his health and life from the ravages of CONSUMPTION, as do his more favored white friends, I beg to ask, is there a single sanitary shelter at any health resort here in the South under which he could put his head? It is a well-known fact that all of the hotels (many of which are but sanitary institutions) here in the South, as well as the special sanitary institutions for consumptives, are, by long-standing customs and laws, closed against the Negro. He simply cannot be admitted, whatever may be his circumstances. He neither owns nor controls a single sanitary hotel or institution at any of these places of resort in the South.
Whatever may be his chances to save or protect his life and health from this dreaded disease, the facts remain the same. He is, therefore, doomed to an early death in almost every case as the only relief from the pangs of deprivation and want, to say nothing about the sufferings incident to the disease. He must remain at home and be deprived of any of the benefits that might be gained by a change of residence. And what is this home? It is, in the great majority of cases, only a crowded, unclean, tenement house, too often unfit for the indwelling of so many cattle.
If there were such institutions or hotels open to him, as a part of the general public, there would even then be but a limited number who could command the means with which to pay necessaay expenses. So that, even then, the great majority of Negro sufferers from this disease would still be helpless and almost friendless.
Again, those institutions in the North into which these sufferers might gain admission, are in a climate entirely unsuited to their already diseased lungs.
Now, then, here is the condition of most Negro consumptives: In crowded, unclean and uncomfortable tenement houses, without sufficient and proper food or nursing, often weeks, and even months, go by without any change of night-clothing or bedding; no kind hand to give even what food some neighbor has sent; no money or friend to have the prescription filled that some physician has kindly but hopelessly left; no fuel for fire, no oil for lamp--and when there is a lamp, it often has no globe or chimney, hence the room at night is filled with smoke. The dear old mother, the kind father, or husband, or wife, upon whom the sick is dependent, has to leave at early morning to return late at night in order to provide even these rude excuses for comfort. The poor consumptive
remains thus alone from morning till night, day after day, forsaken by friends, many of whom would at least visit and administer to him some comforts but for the loathsomeness of himself and his surroundings.
I will give only two out of many cases coming under my own observation:
I visited a girl eighteen years of age just before she died. She had been sick for ten months, and for eight months had been confined to her bed. Her bed had, at some time, been filled with straw that had, from long use, become finely powdered and bagged down between the bedslats, leaving only the cloth of the ticking between the body of the patient and the slats, which had cut and lacerated the skin and the soft tissues beneath it, exposing bleeding surfaces of the bones, all of which presented a bloody mass of the lacerated tissues of the back of this miserable sufferer. It was only a few days, however, after I saw her before death came as the only relief.
Another girl whom I saw some time ago was in a crowded, unclean room, on an unclean bed, and dressed in unclean night clothing. The sputa from gangrenous lungs had, for several weeks, been deposited on a bank of sand placed by the bed for that purpose. The odor in the room was simply awful, and the flies swarmed around this surferer as disturbed bees do around their hive. Here she lay for months, day after day, apparently friendless, and certainly helpless, without the friendly hand of a nurse, or even the comforting words of many of her former friends, who did what they could for a while, but soon gave up in despair, and rather than be annoyed by her loathsome surroundings they had left her to do the best she could.
The history of these two cases is the history of many more. Indeed, unless consumptives are kept clean, and have clean surroundings they are, of all patients, the most unpleasant spectacles to the ordinary visitor. These patients must have proper care and treatment.
It is, therefore, to this end that the Pickford Sanitarium has been established. If we could not cure them we might give them comfortable quarters in which to die, at least.
Dr. Richard H. Lewis is the Secretary of the North Carolina Board of Health, also Consulting Surgeon to the Eye Departments of Rex Hospital, Leonard Medical Hospital, St. Agnes Hospital and Professor of Diseases of the Eye in Leonard Medical College, Raleigh, N. C.
Col. A. W. Shaffer is ex-Postmaster, Raleigh, N. C.
Col. Julian S. Carr is the President of the Blackwell Durham Tobacco Company, a philanthropist, one of North Carolina's most widely known and influential citizens, Durham, N. C.
Mr. C. F. Meserve is President of Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C.
Mr. Berry O'Kelly, Merchant, Method, N. C.
Mr. E. A. Johnson, Professor of Law at Shaw University.
Mr. Joseph G. Brown, our treasurer, is President of the Citizens National Bank, of Raleigh, N. C.
Bishop Joseph B. Cheshire, is Bishop of the Diocese of North Carolina.
Mrs. C. J. Pickford, philanthropist, Lynn, Mass.
Dr. James McKee, Superintendent of Health and President of the Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C.; Professor Obstetrics in Leonard Medical College, and Visiting and Consulting Physician to St. Agnes, Rex and Leonard Hospitals, Raleigh, N. C.
Prof. A. W. Pegues, Professor of Theology, Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C.
Mr. John T. Patrick, Secretary of the Southern Inter-State Immigration and Industrial Association, also Chief of Industrial Department S. A. L., Southern Pines, N. C.
Rev. R. H. W. Leak, pastor of the St. Paul A. M. E. Church, and editor National Outlook, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. Edward O. Otis, prominent physician, Boston, Mass.
Dr. H. C. Fulkner, well-known physician, Boston, Mass.
Bishop A. J. Gaines, Bishop of A. M. E. Church, Atlanta, Ga.
No unnecessary idleness will be encouraged at this institution. Sufficient garden land will be provided, so that patients may take very moderate out-door exercise, and in this way, when able so to do, the patient will not only help to feed himself, but will take, under healthy rules, such physical exercise in the open air as will prove to be a great help in expanding the lung cells to a moderate degree, and in securing for him certain necessary muscular development.
We propose to have a well-aired, suitable building, in which carpenters, shoemakers, blacksmiths, tin-workers, carving and scroll cutters, printers and others of the industrial arts, may find welcome homelike employment. In this way, with the garden, or little farm and shop work, our institution will take such a stand as to commend itself both to the sufferer and the public in general. This light labor will prove to this class of patients not only a pleasant duty in warm days in winter, but a desirable, as well as an acceptable method of exercise as a part of the treatment which they seek.
My friend, will you help us, and thereby have a hand in this work for the most wretchedly diseased of your fellow-beings? Will you, on this day of good health, and in the midst of a prosperous life, turn a deaf ear to the husky, feeble call of the suffering and dying, or will you help to make comfort for the comfortless? Remember, that you and all you have belong to the Lord, therefore don't with-hold from His suffering creatures that which He would
have you give them. As you give to help others who are actually in great need, so will He give more abundantly to you.
Please read Matt. 25: 40-45 inclusive.
OUR friends who so kindly send us barrels and packages will please prepay freight or express on the same, as we have no funds that we can use for such purposes, and in this way greatly help and oblige the General Manager.
NOTWITHSTANDING the hard times and the opposition we have had to meet, we thank the Lord that two buildings are up and paid for, grounds and all. The institution is now open and receiving patients at twelve dollars per month.
IN EACH copy of this Journal will be found a pledge card, which we urge the friends of our cause to fill out and return to us. You can help us! You must help us! Our needs are many. Anything in the line of food and clothing, bedding, etc., will be gratefully received.
WE WILL place the name of any one on a marble slab, and place the same in the wall of any one of the seventeen buildings he may choose to erect, or furnish us with the means with which to erect, and name the building after the donor. Three hundred and fifty dollars will erect any one of the sixteen cottages. Twenty thousand dollars will erect the Central or Administration Building.
JUST think! In one city here in the South, the number of deaths from consumption in ten years was 3,119, of which 611 were white people and 2,508 were colored people,
showing a death rate of about one of the former to three of the latter, by population. The negroes in this country constitute less than (1-10) one tenth of the population, and at the same time nearly 40 per cent. of the mortality from consumption alone. Is this not cause for alarm? The facts answer.
OWING to the long and severe illness of the Secretary and General Manager, we could not have our public exercises at the opening of our Institution, so we opened in a quiet way, but under most encouraging circumstances. After all, we close the year with our two buildings completed and very nearly furnisned, with a debt of about $50.00 only.
So you see we have the Kind Providence on our side. We should not owe one dime on our permanent improvements but for our physical inability right at the close of the year.
Who will help us pay this at once? Answer.
DR. BIGGS, of the Board of Health, made some startling statements before the Board of estimates while that body was to-day considering the city budget for 1898. The Board of estimates was asked to approve a grant of $60,000 for the care of tuberculosis in a special hospital. Dr. Biggs, speaking for the Board of Health, in support of the appropriation, declared that one out of every seven persons who die in his city are victims of tubercular consumption. Dr. Biggs further stated that among the working classes the per centage of deaths due to this disease was one quarter. The Board of Health approved the $60,000 asked for.
Thank the Lord! New York City has come in line with Massachusetts. Other cities and States must follow. Isolation of the tuberculous subject will prove to be the only salvation for the non-tuberculous.
It is therefore proposed, "God being willing," in His great name, to build a sanitarium and dedicate it to the cause of human suffering so that when many, if not all of us, are sleeping that long and, I trust, peaceful sleep, there may, even then, be some spot on this Southern soil, to which the ghastly consumptive Negro may look, if not for a cure, at least for a mitigation of his suffering, that when dying he or she may have some sunray of comforting light to shine upon that wasting form.
Furniture and ware for dining-room.
Furniture, etc., for Matron's room and office.
Bed clothing of all kinds, new or second-handed--only clean.
Buckets, cuspidores, towels, napkins, soaps, night clothing, disinfectants, drugs, medicines, cotton cloth, etc.
Twenty-five dollars with which to dig a well that we may have fresh water. Who will help us to this extent?
Food, such as tea, coffee, corn meal, flour sugar, fat meat, crackers, oat meal, rice, syrup, salt fish; $25,000 to complete our other fiften buildings out of the seventeen (17) proposed. When this is done we shall have capacity for two hundred and fifty (250) patients. Now, then, my friend, is there not something in this list of Immediate Needs you can give us? Read the list again, and think of these poor, helpless sick people upon us to be cared for. You CAN help! WILL YOU DO SO?
"If you cannot give your thousands
You can give the widow's mite,
And the least you do for Juesus
Will be precious in His sight."
It is to be remembered that the Pickford Sanitarium is a NATIONAL INSTITUTION open to all parts of this great country for the Negro. There are to be 36 trustees, who shall represent all parts of our interests.
No politics shall be introduced with its afiairs.
No special denomination or religious belief shall dominate its worship.
It is a Christian institution in the broadest and most liberal sense, founded upon the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man.
We beg to tender our sincere thanks to the following named persons for aid received for the Pickford Sanitarium since our last issue:
Rev. and Mrs. A. B. Hunter, Raleigh, N. C., $50.
Rev. John T. Pullen, Raleigh, N. C., $5.
Messrs Park, Davis & Co., Detroit Mich., one lot of medicines.
Messrs Fredrick Stearns & Co., Detroit Mich., one lot of medicines.
Messrs Henry K. Wampole & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., one lot of medicines.
Messrs Schering & Glatz, New York, one lot of medicines.
The G. F. Harvey Company, Saratoga Springs, N. Y., one lot of medicines.
These are very valuable gifts and certainly are highly appreciated.
We have also assurances from Messrs Robinson, Pettet & Co., of Louisville, Ky.
The Purdue Fredrick Company, of New York, and the Paul Paquin Laboratories of St. Louis, that their contributions will be forthcoming. Thanks, gentlemen.
The geographical location and the geological formation of the State are peculiarly adapted to the production of those conditions which make for health in general. As to climate, we occupy the vantage-ground of the golden mean, inclining somewhat to the warmer side. It is neither too not nor too cold. While we have a generous summer, long enough to mature two crops of many kinds, the thermometer does not rise as high as it often does far to the northward of us, and the summer temperature is not usually oppressive. We also have a sufficiency of winter, with occasional light snows, and once in every few years, ice thick enough to skate on in safety, and with rain and dark days, but on the whole it is bright and sunshiny. The late Bishop Lyman, who lived many years in Italy, said that the climate of Raleigh was superior to that of Florence--more sunshine in it. Our winters are just long enough and severe enough to restore the snap and vigor and elasticity that may have been weakened by the summer--we are enabled to fully recoup any physical wastes attributable to long continued heat. The conditions, so far as they relate to the proportion of heat and cold, are just those which, while permitting easy and comfortable living from the opportunities afforded for work throughout the entire year--the special advantage of the South--do not enervate and weaken the desire and power of work. In a word, the conditions are exactly suited to the healthful and pleasant existence of the average man.
Although it is not as dry as it is in some sections of our country, still in our long leaf-pine, sand-hill region, where the porous soil takes up the water so rapidly that one can walk dry-shod in a half-hour after the heaviest rain, it is dry enough for the consumptive, and yet he can enjoy the sight and smell of the "blessed rain from heaven," and be lulled
to sleep by its patter on the roof. Neither can we boast so great elevation as some other localities, but in the matter of altitude we have sufficient variety, from the sea-level to Mitchell's Peak of nearly 7,000 feet, to suit any constitution. Roan Mountain, which it is interesting to know has a greater variety of flora between its summit and half-way to its base than the whole continent of Europe, is noted for the relief its rare pure air affords to the sufferer from hay-fever. For consumptive, the high mountain plateau of Asheville and vicinity, including particularly, the country about Highlands and Blowing Rock, affords very favorable conditions. To those of this class who do not bear high altitudes well, the pure dry air of the pine-clad sand-hills, of Moore and adjoining counties, of which Southern Pines is the centre, often proves a healing balm. It is said by many who have tried the pine-country further south and that of our State, both, that they prefer the latter because the climate is not so enervating.
Although it must, in candor, be said that malarial diseases occur in certain sections of the State--as they do in many favored sections of higher latitude--they are of a milder type, less malignant than in warmer regions. This class of diseases has, however, been robbed of its terrors since the recent demonstration of the fact that they are chiefly, if not entirely, attributable to the drinking of the surface water and not to bad air. (For evidence on this point apply to the Secretary of the State Board of Health, at Raleigh, for a copy of the health pamphlet on "Drinking Water in its Relation to Malarial diseases.") It is practically in the power of every person to protect himself from malaria, if he desires to do so by confining himself to the water of cisterns and deep bored wells. And it is to be noted as an interesting fact that some of the more serious and fatal disease common to every section of the globe, as typhoid fever, for example, are of a milder type and less deadly than in other localities not frequented by the plasmodium malariae.
In this day of scientific accuracy, an appeal to carefully collated facts is desirable. Upon turning to the mortuary tables of the Fifth Biennial Report of the State Board of Health, we find that the average total death-rate in the larger cities and towns where the records are carefully kept is 15.5 per thousand--for the whites 12.5, and for so-called malarious section the death-rate is actually less than the average for the whole number.
The machinery provided by the State for protecting the health of its citizens, consists of a State Board and of County Superintendents of Health--to say nothing of municipal organizations for that purpose. The former has general supervision of the sanitary interests of the people, and the latter are charged with the particular care of those in their respective counties. Any special information that may be desired can be obtained by addressing the Secretary of the State Board at Raleigh.
3:40 P. M., DAILY.--Solid vestibuled train, with sleeper from Raleigh to Chattanooga, via Salisbury, Morganton, Asheville, Hot Springs and Knoxville. Connects at Durham for Oxford, Clarksville and Keysville, except Sunday; at Greensboro with Washington and Southwestern Vestibuled (limited) train for all points North, and with main-line train No. 12 for Danville, Richmond and intermediate stations; also has connection for Winston-Salem, and with main-line train No. 35, "United States Fast Mail," for Charlotte, Sparatanburg, Greenville, Atlanta and all points South; also Columbia, Augusta, Charleston, Savannah, Jacksonville, and all points in Flordia. Sleeping-car for Atlanta, Jacksonville, and at all points in Flordia. Sleeping-car for Atlanta, Jacksonville, and at Charlotte with sleeping-car for Augusta.
11:45 A. M., DAILY.--Solid train, consisting of Pullman sleeping-cars and coaches, from Chattanooga to Raleigh, arriving at Norfolk at 5:20 P. M., in time to connect with the Old Dominion, Merchants & Miners, Norfolk & and Washington, and Baltimore, Chesapeake & Ricemond Steamship Companies for all points North and East. Connects at Selma for Fayetteville and intermediate stations on the Wilson and Fayetteville Short-Cut, daily; daily except Sunday for Newbern and Morehead City; daily for Goldsboro and Wilmington and intermediate stations on the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad.
8:53 A. M., DAILY.--Connects at Durham, for Oxford, Keysville, Richmond; at Greensboro for Washington and all points North.
3:40 P. M., DAILY.--For Goldsboro and intermediate stations.
2:00 A. M., DAILY.--Connects at Greensboro for all points North and South, and Winston-Salem and points on the Northwestern North Carolina Railroad; at Salisbury for all points in Western North Carolina, Knoxville, Tenn., Cincinnati and Western Points; at Charlotte for Spartanburg, Greenville, Athens, Atlanta and all points South.
3:40 P. M., DAILY.--From Atlanta, Charlotte, Greensboro and all points South.
7:10 A. M., DAILY.--From Greensboro and all points North and South. Sleeping-car from Greensboro to Raleigh.
3:40 P. M., DAILY.--From all points East, Norfolk, Tarboro, Wilson and water lines. From Goldsboro, Wilmington, Fayetteville and all points in Eastern Carolina.
11:45 A. M., DAILY.--From New York, Washington, Lynchburg, Danville and Greensboro, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Hot Springs and Asheville.
9:00 P. M., DAILY EXCEPT SUNDAY.--From Goldsboro and all points East.
8:53 A. M., DAILY.--From Goldsboro.
FOR TICKETS, routes and rates, or other information, call on or write to Thad. C. Sturgis, Ticket Agent, Raleigh, N. C.
J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. H. GREEN, Gen. Supt. W. A. TURK, G. P. A.
VESTIBULED LIMITED TRAINS. Dou ble Daily service. Shortest and Quickest Route to Atlanta, New Orleans, Norfolk, Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston, New York. Schedule in effect November, 1, 1896.
2.16 a. m. Daily. "Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule for Henderson, Weldon, Petersburg, Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and all points North. Buffet drawing-rooms sleepers and Pullman coaches Atlanta to Washington, parlor cars Washington to New York; Pullman sleeping-car Monroe to Portsmouth. Arrives at Washington 11:43 a. m., Baltimore 12:45 noon, Philadelphia 3:50 p. m., New York 6:23 p. m. Also for Portsmouth, Norfolk, Old Point, and local stations Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad.
11.35 a. m. Daily. For Henderson, Weldon, Suffolk, Portsmouth, Norfolk and intermediate stations; connects at Portsmouth with Bay Line for Old Point and Baltimore; with Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Company for Washington, with N. Y., P. & N. Railroad for Philadelphia and points North; also at Weldon with Atlantic Coast Line for Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York; and with Scotland Neck Branch for Greenville, Washington and Portsmouth. Pullman sleepirg-car Atlanta to Portsmouth.
2.11 a. m. Daily. "Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule, for Southern Pines, Hamlet, Wilmington, Monroe, Charlotte, Lincolnton, Shelby, Chester, Clinton, Greenwood, Abbeville, Athens, Atlanta, Augusta, Columbia, Macon, Montgomery, Mobile, New Orleans, Chattanooga, Nashville, Memphis and points South and Southwest; through Pullman buffet sleepers and day coaches Washington to Atlanta, connecting directly at Union Depot, Atlanta, with diverging lines; also Pullman sleeping-car Portsmouth to Monroe.
3.40 p. m. Daily. For Wilmington, Charlotte, Chester, Greenwood, Athens, Atlanta and all intermediate stations, connecting at Union Station, Atlanta, with diverging lines. Pullman Sleeping-car Portsmouth to Atlanta.
3:40 P. M. DAILY. From Norfolk, Portsmouth, and all points North via Bay Line and New York P. & N. Railroad, Petersburg, Richmond and Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston; also from Greenville, Plymouth, Washington, N. C., and Eastern Carolina points, via Weldon.
2:16 A. M. DAILY. "Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule, from Atlanta and points South, Athens, Abbeville, Greenwood and Chester.
11:30 A. M. DAILY. From Charlotte, Athens, Atlanta and intermediate stations.
2:11 A. M. DAILY. "Atlanta Special," from Norfolk, Portsmouth, Henderson, Weldon, Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and the East
Magnificent Pullman Vestibuled Trains. NO EXTRA FARE.
Apply to ticket agent, or to H. S. LEARD, Sol. Pas. Ag't, Raleigh, N. C.
E. ST. JOHN, Vice-President and General Manager,
H. W. B. GLOVER, Traffic Manager.
T. J. ANDERSON, General Passenger Agent.
V. E. McBEE, General Superintendent.