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Library of Congress Subject Headings, 21st edition, 1998
LC Subject Headings:
Mrs. FANNY JACKSON COPPIN
L. J. Coppin
BOOK IS INSCRIBED TO MY BELOVED AUNT
SARAH ORR CLARK
WHO, WORKING AT SIX DOLLARS A MONTH
SAVED ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIVE
DOLLARS, AND BOUGHT MY FREEDOM
THE author of this work was frequently urged by friends to write, for publication, something that would present a view of the writer's early life, as well as give some of her methods of imparting the intellectual and moral instruction that has proved so eminently successful in influencing and moulding so many lives.
After much persuasion, the work was begun, and carried forward to its present stage.
The final work of editing and directing its publication has fallen into other hands, and however inefficiently done, is a loving service, willingly performed, and sent forth with a hope that it may accomplish much good, especially in the way of inspiring those readers who are anxious to make the most of their opportunities.
L. J. COPPIN.
THERE are some few points in my life which, "some forlorn and shipwrecked brother seeing, may take heart again."
We used to call our grandmother "mammy," and one of my earliest recollections--I must have been about three years old--is, I was sent to keep my mammy company. It was in a little one-room cabin. We used to go up a ladder to the loft where we slept.
Mammy used to make a long prayer every night before going to bed; but not one word of all she said do I remember except the one word "offspring." She would ask God to bless her offspring. This word remained with me, for, I wondered what offspring meant.
Mammy had six children, three boys and three girls. One of these, Lucy, was my mother. Another one of them, Sarah, was purchased by my grandfather, who first saved money and bought himself, then four of his children. Sarah went to work at six dollars a
month, saved one hundred and twenty-five dollars, and bought little Frances, having taken a great liking to her, for on account of my birth, my grandfather refused to buy my mother; and so I was left a slave in the District of Columbia, where I was born.
In my childhood, I had two severe burnings. I understand that at my christening the old folks gave a large party, and I was tied in a chair and placed near the stove. At night, when they took off my stocking, the whole skin from the side of the leg next the stove peeled off.
At another time, when mother was out at work for the day, mammy had charge of the baby. When mother returned, mammy exclaimed: "Here, Lucy, take your child, it's the crossest baby I ever saw." When I was undressed at night, it was found that a coal of fire from mammy's pipe had fallen into the baby's bosom, and had burned itself deep into the flesh. There were no Day Nurseries then.
Passing over years, I distinctly remember having chills and fever. Sometimes I would be taken with a shaking ague on the street, and would have to sit down upon a doorstep until I would stop shaking enough to go on my way. Then, I would have to go to bed, as I could not endure the fever and headache that would follow. When my aunt had finally saved up the hundred and twenty-five dollars, she bought me and sent me to New Bedford, Mass., where another aunt lived, who promised to get me a place to work for my board, and get a little education if I could. She put
out to work, at a place where I was allowed to go to school when I was not at work. But I could not go on wash day, nor ironing day, nor cleaning day, and this interfered with my progress. There were no Hamptons, and no night schools then.
Finally, I found a chance to go to Newport with Mrs. Elizabeth Orr, an aunt by marriage, who offered me a home with her and a better chance at school. I went with her, but I was not satisfied to be a burden on her small resources. I was now fourteen years old, and felt that I ought to take care of myself. So I found a permanent place in the family of Mr. George H. Calvert, a great grandson of Lord Baltimore, who settled Maryland. His wife was Elizabeth Stuart, a descendant of Mary, Queen of Scots. Here I had one hour every other afternoon in the week to take some private lessons, which I did of Mrs. Little. After that, attended for a few months the public colored school which was taught by Mrs. Gavitt. I thus prepared myself to enter the examination for the Rhode Island State Normal School, under Dana P. Colburn; the school was then located at Bristol, R. I. Here, my eyes were first opened on the subject of teaching. I said to myself, is it possible that teaching can be made so interesting as this! But, having finished the course of study there, I felt that I had just begun to learn; and, hearing of Oberlin College, I made up my mind to try and get there. I had learned a little music while at Newport, and had mastered the elementary studies of the piano and guitar. My aunt in Washington still
helped me, and I was able to pay my way to Oberlin, the course of study there being the same as that at Harvard College. Oberlin was then the only College in the United States where colored students were permitted to study.
The faculty did not forbid a woman to take the gentleman's course, but they did not advise it. There was plenty of Latin and Greek in it, and as much mathematics as one could shoulder. Now, I took a long breath and prepared for a delightful contest. All went smoothly until I was in the junior year in College. Then, one day, the Faculty sent for me--ominous request--and I was not slow in obeying it. It was a custom in Oberlin that forty students from the junior and senior classes were employed to teach the preparatory classes. As it was now time for the juniors to begin their work, the Faculty informed me that it was their purpose to give me a class, but I was to distinctly understand that if the pupils rebelled against my teaching, they did not intend to force it. Fortunately for my training at the normal school, and my own dear love of teaching, tho there was a little surprise on the faces of some when they came into the class, and saw the teacher, there were no signs of rebellion. The class went on increasing in numbers until it had to be divided, and I was given both divisions. One of the divisions ran up again, but the Faculty decided that I had as much as I could do, and it would not allow me to take any more work.
When I was within a year of graduation, an application came from a Friends' school in Philadelphia for a colored woman who could teach Greek, Latin, and higher mathematics. The answer returned was: "We have the woman, but you must wait a year for her."
Then began a correspondence with Alfred Cope, a saintly character, who, having found out what my work in college was, teaching my classes in college, besides sixteen private music scholars, and keeping up my work in the senior class, immediately sent me a check for eighty dollars, which wonderfully lightened my burden as a poor student.
I shall never forget my obligation to Bishop Daniel A. Payne, of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, who gave me a scholarship of nine dollars a year upon entering Oberlin.
My obligation to the dear people of Oberlin can never be measured in words. When President Finney met a new student, his first words were: "Are you a Christian? and if not, why not?" He would follow you up with an intelligent persistence that could not be resisted, until the question was settled.
When I first went to Oberlin I boarded in what was known as the Ladies' Hall, and altho the food was good, yet, I think, that for lack of variety I began to run down in health. About this time I was invited to spend a few weeks in the family of Professor H. E. Peck, which ended in my staying a few years, until the independence of the Republic of Hayti was recognized,
under President Lincoln, and Professor Peck was sent as the first U. S. Minister to that interesting country; then the family was broken up, and I was invited by Professor and Mrs. Charles H. Churchill to spend the remainder of my time, about six months, in their family. The influence upon my life in these two Christian homes, where I was regarded as an honored member of the family circle, was a potent factor in forming the character which was to stand the test of the new and strange conditions of my life in Philadelphia. I had been so long in Oberlin that I had forgotten about my color, but I was sharply reminded of it when, in a storm of rain, a Philadelphia street car conductor forbid my entering a car that did not have on it "for colored people," so I had to wait in the storm until one came in which colored people could ride. This was my first unpleasant experience in Philadelphia. Visiting Oberlin not long after my work began in Philadelphia, President Finney asked me how I was growing in grace; I told him that I was growing as fast as the American people would let me. When told of some of the conditions which were meeting me, he seemed to think it unspeakable.
At one time, at Mrs. Peck's, when we girls were sitting on the floor getting out our Greek, Miss Sutherland, from Maine, suddenly stopped, and, looking at me, said: "Fanny Jackson, were you ever a slave?" I said yes; and she burst into tears. Not another word was spoken by us. But those tears seemed to wipe out a little of what was wrong.
I never rose to recite in my classes at Oberlin but I felt that I had the honor of the whole African race upon my shoulders. I felt that, should I fail, it would be ascribed to the fact that I was colored. At one time, when I had quite a signal triumph in Greek, the Professor of Greek concluded to visit the class in mathematics and see how we were getting along. I was particularly anxious to show him that I was as safe in mathematics as in Greek.
I, indeed, was more anxious, for I had always heard that my race was good in the languages, but stumbled when they came to mathematics. Now, I was always fond of a demonstration, and happened to get in the examination the very proposition that I was well acquainted with; and so went that day out of the class with flying colors.
I was elected class poet for the Class Day exercises, and have the kindest remembrance of the dear ones who were my classmates. I never can forget the courtesies of the three Wright brothers; of Professor Pond, of Dr. Lucien C. Warner, of Doctor Kincaid, the Chamberland girls, and others, who seemed determined that I should carry away from Oberlin nothing but most pleasant memories of my life there.
Recurring to my tendency to have shaking agues every fall and spring in Washington, I often used to tell my aunt that if she bought me according to my weight, she certainly had made a very poor bargain. For I was not only as slim as a match, but, as the Irishman said, I was as slim as two matches.
While I was living with Mrs. Calvert at Newport, R. I., I went with her regularly to bathe in the ocean, and after this I never had any more shakes or chills. It was contrary to law for colored persons to bathe at the regular bathing hour, which was the only safe hour to go into the ocean, but, being in the employ of Mrs. Calvert, and going as her servant, I was not prohibited from taking the baths which proved so beneficial to me. She went and returned in her carriage.
After this I began to grow stronger, and take on flesh. Mrs. Calvert sometimes took me out to drive with her; this also helped me to get stronger.
Being very fond of music, my aunt gave me permission to hire a piano and have it at her house, and I used to go there and take lessons. But, in the course of time, it became noticeable to Mrs. Calvert that I was absent on Wednesdays at a certain hour, and that without permission. So, on one occasion, when I was absent, Mrs. Calvert inquired of the cook as to my whereabouts, and directed her to send me to her upon my return that I might give an explanation. When the cook informed me of what had transpired, I was very much afraid that something quite unpleasant awaited me. Upon being questioned, I told her the whole truth about the matter. I told Mrs. Calvert that I had been taking lessons for some time, and that I had already advanced far enough to play the little organ in the Union Church. Instead of being terribly scolded, as I had feared, Mrs. Calvert said: "Well, Fanny, when people will go ahead, they cannot be kept
back; but, if you had asked me, you might have had the piano here." Mrs. Calvert taught me to sew beautifully and to darn, and to take care of laces. My life there was most happy, and I never would have left her, but it was in me to get an education and to teach my people. This idea was deep in my soul. Where it came from I cannot tell, for I had never had any exhortations, nor any lectures which influenced me to take this course. It must have been born in me. At Mrs. Calvert's, I was in contact with people of refinement and education. Mr. Calvert was a perfect gentleman, and a writer of no mean ability. They had no children, and this gave me an opportunity to come very near to Mrs. Calvert, doing for her many things which otherwise a daughter would have done. I loved her and she loved me. When I was about to leave her to go to the Normal School, she said to me: "Fanny, will money keep you?" But that deep-seated purpose to get an education and become a teacher to my people, yielded to no inducement of comfort or temporary gain. During the time that I attended the Normal School in Rhode Island, I got a chance to take some private lessons in French, and eagerly availed myself of the opportunity. French was not in the Oberlin curriculum, but there was a professor there who taught it privately, and I continued my studies under him, and so was able to complete the course and graduate with a French essay. Freedmen now began to pour into Ohio from the South, and some of them settled in the township of Oberlin. During my last year at the college,
I formed an evening class for them, where they might be taught to read and write. It was deeply touching to me to see old men painfully following the simple words of spelling; so intensely eager to learn. I felt that for such people to have been kept in the darkness of ignorance was an unpardonable sin, and I rejoiced that even then I could enter measurably upon the course in life which I had long ago chosen. Mr. John M. Langston, who afterwards became Minister to Hayti, was then practicing law at Oberlin. His comfortable home was always open with a warm welcome to colored students, or to any who cared to share his hospitality.
I went to Oberlin in 1860, and was graduated in August, 1865, after having spent five and a half years.
The years 1860 and 1865 were years of unusual historic importance and activity. In '60 the immortal Lincoln was elected, and in '65 the terrible war came to a close, but not until freedom for all the slaves in America had been proclaimed, and that proclamation made valid by the victorious arms of the Union party. In the year 1863 a very bitter feeling was exhibited against the colored people of the country, because they were held responsible for the fratricidal war then going on. The riots in New York especially gave evidence of this ill feeling. It was in this year that the faculty put me to teaching.
Of the thousands then coming to Oberlin for an education, a very few were colored. I knew that, with the exception of one here or there, all my pupils would
be white; and so they were. It took a little moral courage on the part of the faculty to put me in my place against the old custom of giving classes only to white students. But, as I have said elsewhere, the matter was soon settled and became an overwhelming success. How well do I remember the delighted look on the face of Principal Fairchild when he came into the room to divide my class, which then numbered over eighty. How easily a colored teacher might be put into some of the public schools. It would only take a little bravery, and might cause a little surprise, but wouldn't be even a nine days' wonder.
And now came the time for me to leave Oberlin, and start in upon my work at Philadelphia.
In the year 1837, the Friends of Philadelphia had established a school for the education of colored youth in higher learning. To make a test whether or not the Negro was capable of acquiring any considerable degree of education. For it was one of the strongest arguments in the defense of slavery, that the Negro was an inferior creation; formed by the Almighty for just the work he was doing. It is said that John C. Calhoun made the remark, that if there could be found a Negro that could conjugate a Greek verb, he would give up all his preconceived ideas of the inferiority of the Negro. Well, let's try him, and see, said the fair-minded Quaker people. And for years this institution, known as the Institute for Colored Youth, was visited by interested persons from different parts of the United States and Europe. Here I was given the delightful
task of teaching my own people, and how delighted I was to see them mastering Caesar, Virgil, Cicero, Horace and Xenophon's Anabasis. We also taught New Testament Greek. It was customary to have public examinations once a year, and when the teachers were thru examining their classes, any interested person in the audience was requested to take it up, and ask questions. At one of such examinations, when I asked a titled Englishman to take the class and examine it, he said: "They are more capable of examining me, their proficiency is simply wonderful."
One visiting friend was so pleased with the work of the students in the difficult metres in Horace that he afterwards sent me, as a present, the Horace which he used in college. A learned Friend from Germantown, coming into a class in Greek, the first aorist, passive and middle, being so neatly and correctly written at one board, while I, at the same time, was hearing a class recite, exclaimed: "Fanny, I find thee driving a coach and six." As it is much more difficult to drive a coach and six, than a coach and one, I took it as a compliment. But I was especially glad to know that the students were doing their work so well as to justify Quakers in their fair-minded opinion of them. General O. C. Howard, who was brought in at one time by one of the managers to hear an examination in Virgil, remarked that Negroes in trigonometry and the classics might well share in the triumphs of their brothers on the battlefield.
When I came to the School, the Principal of the
Institute was Ebenezer D. Bassett, who for fourteen years had charge of the work. He was a graduate of the State Normal School of Connecticut, and was a man of unusual natural and acquired ability, and an accurate and ripe scholar; and, withal, a man of great modesty of character. Many are the reminiscences he used to give of the visits of interested persons to the school: among these was a man who had written a book to prove that the Negro was not a man. And, having heard of the wonderful achievements of this Negro school, he determined to come and see for himself what was being accomplished. He brought a friend with him, better versed in algebra than himself, and asked Mr. Bassett to bring out his highest class. There was in the class at that time Jesse Glasgow, a very black boy. All he asked was a chance. Just as fast as they gave the problems, Jesse put them on the board with the greatest ease. This decided the fate of the book, then in manuscript form, which, so far as we know, was never published. Jesse Glasgow afterwards found his way to the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
In the year 1869, Mr. Bassett was appointed United States Minister to Hayti by President Grant; leaving the principalship of the Institute vacant. Now, Octavius V. Catto, a professor in the school, and myself, had an opportunity to keep the school up to the same degree of proficiency that it attained under its former Principal and to carry it forward as much as possible.
About this time we were visited by a delegation of school commissioners, seeking teachers for schools in Delaware, Maryland and New Jersey. These teachers were not required to know and teach the classics, but they were expected to come into an examination upon the English branches, and to have at their tongue's end the solution of any abstruse problem in the three R's which their examiners might be inclined to ask them. And now, it seemed best to give up the time spent in teaching Greek and devote it to the English studies.
As our young people were now about to find a ready field in teaching, it was thought well to introduce some text books on school management, and methods of teaching, and thoroughly prepare our students for normal work. At this time our faculty was increased by the addition of Richard T. Greener, a graduate of Harvard College, who took charge of the English Department, and Edward Bouchet, a graduate of Yale College, and also of the Sheffield Scientific School, who took charge of the scientific department. Both of these young men were admirably fitted for their work. And, with Octavius V. Catto in charge of the boys' department, and myself in charge of the girls--in connection with the principalship of the school--we had a strong working force.
I now instituted a course in normal training, which at first consisted only of a review of English studies, with the theory of teaching, school management and methods. But the inadequacy of this course was so
apparent that when it became necessary to reorganize the Preparatory Departments, it was decided to put this work into the hands of the normal students, who would thus have ample practice in teaching and governing under daily direction and correction. These students became so efficient in their work that they were sought for and engaged to teach long before they finished their course of study.
Richard Humphreys, the Friend--Quaker--who gave the first endowment with which to found the school, stipulated that it should not only teach higher literary studies, but that a Mechanical and Industrial Department, including Agriculture, should come within the scope of its work. The wisdom of this thoughtful and far-seeing founder has since been amply demonstrated. At the Centennial Exhibition in 1876, the foreign exhibits of work done in trade schools opened the eyes of the directors of public education in America as to the great lack existing in our own system of education. If this deficiency was apparent as it related to the white youth of the country, it was far more so as it related to the colored.
In Philadelphia, the only place at the time where a colored boy could learn a trade, was in the House of Refuge, or the Penitentiary!
And now began an eager and intensely earnest crusade to supply this deficiency in the work of the Institute for Colored Youth.
The teachers of the Institute now vigorously applied their energies in collecting funds for the establishment
of an Industrial Department, and in this work they had the encouragement of the managers of the school, who were as anxious as we that the greatly needed department should be established.
In instituting this department, a temporary organization was formed, with Mr. Theodore Starr as President, Miss Anna Hallowell as Treasurer, and myself as Field Agent.
The Academic Department of the Institute had been so splendidly successful in proving that the Negro youth was equally capable as others in mastering a higher education, that no argument was necessary to establish its need, but the broad ground of education by which the masses must become self-supporting was, to me, a matter of painful anxiety. Frederick Douglass once said, it was easier to get a colored boy into a lawyer's office than into a blacksmith shop; and on account of the inflexibility of the Trades Unions, this condition of affairs still continues, making it necessary for us to have our own "blacksmith shop."
The minds of our people had to be enlightened upon the necessity of industrial education.
Before all the literary societies and churches where they would hear me; in Philadelphia and the suburban towns; in New York, Washington and everywhere, when invited to speak, I made that one subject my theme. To equip an industrial plant is an expensive thing, and knowing that much money would be needed, I made it a rule to take up a collection wheresoever I spoke. But I did not urge anyone to give more than
a dollar, for the reason I wanted the masses to have an opportunity to contribute their small offerings, before going to those who were able to give larger sums. Never shall I forget the encouragement given me when a colored man, whom I did not know, met me and said: "I have heard of your Industrial School project, come to me for twenty-five dollars. That man was Walter P. Hall; all honor to him.
In preparing for the industrial needs of the boys, the girls were not neglected. It was not difficult to find competent teachers of sewing and cooking for the girls.
Dressmaking on the Taylor system was introduced with great success, and cooking was taught by the most improved methods.
As the work advanced, other trades were added, and those already undertaken were expanded and perfected.
When the Industrial Department was fully established, the following trades were being taught: For boys: bricklaying, plastering, carpentry, shoemaking, printing and tailoring. For the girls: dressmaking, millinery, typewriting, stenography and classes in cooking, including both boys and girls. Stenography and typewriting were also taught the boys, as well as the girls.
Having taught certain trades, it was now necessary to find work for those who had learned them, which proved to be no easy task.
It was decided to put on exhibition, in one of the
rooms of the dormitory, specimens of the work of our girls in any trade in which they had become proficient, and we thus started an Industrial Exchange for their work. Those specimens consisted of work from the sewing, millinery and cooking departments.
In order to get the work of the Exchange more prominently before our people, I asked and obtained permission to hold some public exhibitions of it in the lecture rooms of the churches.
Those who sent their work to the Exchange were asked to send articles that would be salable.
Our white friends were invited to come and inspect the work of the Exchange. Some of the exhibits were found to be highly creditable, and many encouraging words were given to those who prepared them. There is one class of women, for whom no trades are provided, but who are expected to do their work without any special preparation; and these are the women in domestic service. I have always felt a deep sympathy with such persons, for I believe that they are capable of making a most honorable record. I therefore conceived a pan of holding some receptions for them, where the honorableness of their work and the necessity of doing it well might be discussed. I earnestly hoped that no one should be ashamed of the word servant, but should learn what great opportunity for doing good there is for those who serve others.
There is, and always must be, a large number of people who must depend upon this class of employment for a living, and there is every reason, therefore,
why they should be especially prepared for it. A woman should not only know how to cook in an ordinary way, but she should have some idea of the chemical properties of the food she cooks. The health of those whom she serves depends much upon the nutritive qualities of the food which she prepares. It is possible to burn all the best out of a beefsteak, and leave a pork chop with those elements which should have been neutralized by thorough cooking.
A housemaid should know enough about sanitation to appreciate the difference between well ventilated sleeping rooms and those where impure air prevails.
I have often thought, as I sat in churches, that janitors should be better prepared for their work by being taught the difference between pure air and air with a strong infusion of coal gas.
Then, besides the mere knowledge of how to do things, morality and Christian courtesy are valuable assets for those who serve others. Thoughtful kindness for those we serve is always in place.
As a means of preparation for this work, which I may call an Industrial Crusade, I studied Political Economy for two years under Dr. William Elder, who was a disciple of Mr. Henry C. Carey, the eminent writer on the doctrine of Protective Tariff.
In the year 1879 the Board of Education of Philadelphia, instructed and admonished by the exhibit of work done in the schools of Europe, as exhibited in the Centennial exhibition of '76, began to consider what
they were doing to train their young people in the industrial arts and trades. The comparison was not very gratifying. The old apprenticeship system had silently glided away, and merchants declared that under the pressure of competition they were not able to compete with other merchants, nor were they able to stand the waste made by those who did not know how to handle the new material economically. At a meeting of some of the public school directors and heads of some of the educational institutions, I was asked to tell what was being done in Philadelphia for the industrial education of the colored youth. It may well be understood I had a tale to tell. And I told them the only places in the city where a colored boy could learn a trade was in the House of Refuge or the Penitentiary, and the sooner he became incorrigible and got into the Refuge, or committed a crime and got into the Penitentiary, the more promising it would be for his industrial training. It was to me a serious occasion. I so expressed myself. As I saw building after building going up in this city, and not a single colored hand employed in the constructions, it made the occasion a very serious one to me. Nor could I be comforted by what the Irishman said, that all he had to do was to put some bricks into a hod and carry them up on the building, and there sat a gentleman who did all the work. The arguments which I then gave were chiefly those which I afterwards repeated in my appeal to the citizens of Philadelphia, and which I elsewhere reproduce.
The next day Mrs. Elizabeth Whitney, the wife of one of the school directors, drove up to my school and said: Mrs. Coppin, I was there last night and heard what you had to say about the limitations of the colored youth, and I am here to say, if the colored people will go ahead and start a school for the purpose of having the colored youth taught this greatly needed education, you will find plenty of friends to help you. Here are fifty dollars to get you started, and you will find as much behind it as you need.
We only needed a feather's weight of encouragement to take up the burden. We started out at once. A temporary organization was formed, with Anna Hallowell as treasurer and Mr. Theodore Starr as president. I was unwilling to be the custodian of any large amount of money which might be begged from the poor colored people, and so myself and those who helped me asked each one to give only one dollar. I cannot mention the incidents which arose during this struggle and endeavor to supply this greatly needed want. We carried on an industrial crusade which never ended until we saw a building devoted to the purpose of teaching trades. For the managers of the Institute, seeing the need of the work, threw themselves into this new business, after their thirty previous years working for the colored youth. Our money in the end amounted to nearly three thousand dollars, and of this we have always been justly very glad. We could have had twenty times as much more, except for my backwardness and unwillingness to press poor
people beyond what I thought they could give. Three thousand dollars was a mere drop in the bucket, but it was a great deal to us, who had seen it collected in small sums--quarters, dollars, etc. It was a delightful scene to us to pass thru that school where ten trades were being taught, altho in primitive fashion, the limited means of the Institute precluding the use of machinery. The managers always refused to take any money from the State, altho it was frequently offered.
Many were the ejaculations of satisfaction at this busy hive of industry. "Ah," said some, "this is the way the school should have begun, the good Quaker people began at the wrong end." Not so, for when they began this school, the whole South was a great industrial plant where the fathers taught the sons and the mothers taught the daughters, but the mind was left in darkness. That is the reason that John C. Calhoun is said to have remarked: "If you will show me a Negro who can conjugate a Greek verb, I will give up all my preconceived ideas of him." So that the managers had builded wiser than many persons knew.
In the fall of the same year, namely, in November, '79, as a means of bringing the idea of industrial education and self help practically before the colored people of the United States, I undertook the work of helping an enterprise, namely, The Christian Recorder, edited and published by colored men at 631 Pine street, Philadelphia. I here reproduce the plea made thirty-four years ago:
The Publication Department of The Christian Recorder
is weighed down by a comparatively small debt, which cripples its usefulness and thus threatens its existence. This paper finds its way into many a dark hamlet in the South, where no one ever heard of the Philadelphia Bulletin or the New York Tribune. A persistent vitality has kept this paper alive thru a good deal of thick and thin since 1852. In helping to pay this debt we shall also help to keep open an honorable vocation to colored men who, if they will be printers, must "shinny on their own side." Knowing the conditions of the masses of our people, no large sums were asked for; the people were requested to club together and send on a number of little gifts, which might be at a stated time exhibited and sold at a fair. And thus the debt liquidated by a co-operative effort would be an instructive lesson of how light a burden becomes when borne by the many instead of the few. "Send something which you yourself have made or produced," we said. "Let what you send be made valuable by your artistic skill, your invention, and your industry." It was hinted that an exhibition of this sort might be greatly useful and creditable to us as a people, and that anything, from a potato to a picture, would be accepted. The result has been such as to gratify the highest expectations. Responses by donations of articles or money have been received from the following States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Arkansas, Kansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New
York, Rhode Island, Florida, Massachusetts, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Indian Territory and the District of Columbia. About two-thirds of the things at this fair were sent from the South, from Texas and some other distant parts, where the expressage on a box would have been large--our sugar cane cost our Florida friends $7 to express--from these points the people sent money; more than $80.00 thus contributed was spent to buy things on commission to help out. It seemed due to the people of the South and West who have so generously sent their little gifts to help keep alive a printing establishment in this city, from which there is no hope of their receiving any pecuniary benefit, it seemed due to them, I repeat, that we should not diminish the profits arising from the sale of these things by the purchase of gaudy and artistic flummery to dress the hall; so those who come to visit us will not , we hope, expect too much. The poor people who have sent us these things have shown a spirit of self-denial and of generous zeal which borders on heroism. All classes, including old people and young children, have vied with each other in sending some little article for the fair. If we had dared last year to predict these wonderful results it would have been set down as transcendental bosh, but we would have spoken "but the words of truth and soberness." The different kinds of needlework, crochet work and worsted work are very creditable; as also is the model of a church in Providence, Rhode Island, sent by a little boy; two ships, full rigged, and especially the decorated plates,
and the pictures, "A Rocky Coast," the "Coast of Maine," and the "Wreck at Cape May" last summer, by H. O. Tanner, son of the editor of The Christian Recorder. The last contributors are colored lads, and I venture nothing in saying that their work would be creditable to any exhibition. The well-known artists, Robert Douglass and Wm. H. Dorsey, have many fine paintings on exhibition, especially an oil painting of Mr. Fred Douglass. The agricultural products could have been far larger than they are but for two reasons; first, it was especially understood in the beginning that this exhibition was to show, not what the few can do when they do a great deal, but what the many can do when each does a little; secondly, we were not able to pay the cost of expressage. I mean no reflection in any quarter when I ask thoughtful people if an exhibition of this kind, and for this cause, is not almost as important as holding a convention and reading a lot of "papers." The great lesson to be taught by this fair is the value of co-operative effort to make our cents dollars, and to show us what help there is for ourselves in ourselves. That the colored people of this country have enough money to materially alter their financial condition, was clearly demonstrated by the millions of dollars deposited in the Freedmen's Bank, that they have the good sense, and the unanimity to use this power is now proven by this industrial exhibition and fair. It strikes me that much of the talk about the exodus has proceeded upon the high-handed assumption that, owing largely to the credit system
of the South, the colored people there are forced to the alternative to "curse God, and die," or else "go West." Not a bit of it. The people of the South, it is true, cannot produce hundreds of dollars, but they have millions of pennies; and millions of pennies make tens of thousands of dollars. By clubbing together and lumping their pennies, a fund might be raised in the cities of the South that the poorer classes might fall back upon while their crops are growing, or else by the opening of co-operative stores become their own creditors and so effectually rid themselves of their merciless extortioners. "O, they won't do anything; you can't get them united on anything!" The best way for a man to prove that he can do a thing is to do it, and that is what we have done. This fair, participated in by twenty-four States in the Union, and got up for a purpose which is of no pecuniary benefit to those concerned in it, effectually silences all slanders about "we won't or we can't do," and teaches its own instructive and greatly needed lessons of self-help, the best help that any man can have, next to God's.
Those who have this matter in charge have studiously avoided preceding it with noisy and demonstrative babblings, which are so often the vapid precursors of promises as empty as themselves; therefore in some quarters our fair has been overlooked. It is not, we think, a presumptuous interpretation of this great movement, to say that the voice of God now seems to utter, "Speak to the people that they go forward." "Go forward" in what respect? Teach the millions of poor
colored laborers of the South how much power they have in themselves, by co-operation of effort, and by a combination of their small means to change the despairing poverty which now drives them from their homes, and makes them a millstone around the neck of any community, South or West. Secondly, that we shall go forward in asking to enter the same employments which other people enter. Within the past ten years we have made almost no advance in getting our youth into industrial and business occupations. It is just as hard to get a boy into a printing office now as it was ten years ago. It is simply astonishing when we consider how many of the common vocations of life colored people are shut out of. Colored men are not admitted to the Printers' Trade Union, nor, with very rare exceptions, are they employed in any city of the United States in a paid capacity as printers or writers, one of the rare exceptions being the employment of H. Price Williams, on the Sunday Press of this city. We are not employed as salesmen, or pharmacists, or saleswomen, or bank clerks, or merchants' clerks, or tradesmen, or mechanics, or telegraph operators, or to any degree as State or Government officials, and I could keep on with the string of "ors" until tomorrow morning, but the patience of a reader has its limit.
Slavery made us poor, and its gloomy, malicious shadow tends to keep us so. I beg to say, kind reader, that this is not spoken in a spirit of recrimination; we have no quarrel with our fate, and we leave your
Christianity to yourself. Our faith is firmly fixed in that "Eternal Providence," that in its own good time will "justify the ways of God to man." But, believing that to get the right men into the right places is a "consummation most devoutly to be wished," it is a matter of serious concern to us to see our youth, with just as decided diversity of talent as any other people, all herded together into three or four occupations. It is cruel to make a teacher or a preacher of a man who ought to be a printer or a blacksmith, and that is exactly what we are now obliged to do. The most advance that has been made since the war has been done by political parties, and it is precisely into political positions that we think it least desirable that our youth should enter. We have our choice of the professions, but, as we have not been endowed with a monopoly of brains, it is not probable that we can contribute to the bar a great lawyer, except once in a great while. The same may be said of medicine; nor are we able to tide over the "starving time," between the reception of a diploma and the time that a man's profession becomes a paying one.
Being determined to know whether this industrial and business ostracism was "in ourselves or in our stars," we have from time to time, knocked, shaken and kicked at these closed doors of work. A cold, metallic voice from within replies, "We do not employ colored people." Ours not to make reply, ours not to question why. Thank heaven, we are not
obliged to do and die, having the preference to do or die, we naturally prefer to do. But we can not help wondering if some ignorant or faithless steward of God's work and God's money hasn't blundered. It seems necessary that we should make known to the good men and women who are so solicitous about our souls and our minds that we haven't quite got rid of our bodies yet, and until we do we must feed and clothe them; and this thing of keeping us out of work forces us back upon charity. That distinguished thinker, Mr. Henry C. Carey, in his valuable works on Political Economy, has shown by the truthful and irresistible logic of history that the elevation of all peoples to a higher moral and intellectual plane, and to a fuller investiture of their civil rights has always steadily kept pace with the improvements in their physical condition. Therefore we feel that resolutely and in unmistakable language, yet in the dignity of moderation, we should strive to make known to all men the justice of our claims to the same employments as other men under the same conditions. We do not ask that any one of our people shall be put into a position because he is a colored person, but we do most emphatically ask that he shall not be kept out of a position because he is a colored person. "An open field and no favors" is all that is requested. The time was when to put a colored boy or girl behind a counter would have been to decrease custom; it would have been a tax upon the employer, and a charity that we were too proud to
accept; but public sentiment has changed. I am satisfied that the employment of a colored clerk or a colored saleswoman wouldn't even be a "nine days' wonder." It is easy of accomplishment, and yet it is not done. To thoughtless and headstrong people who meet duty with impertinent dictation I do not now address myself; but to those who wish the most gracious of all blessings, a fuller enlightenment as to their duty, to those I beg to say, think of what is said in this appeal.
We do not ask our white friends to come out and make this fair a success. If the word "grand" was not so abominably ill used, I would say that we have already made it a grand success; come and help us make it a greater one. For ten days the colored citizens have crowded this fair. They have bought more than half our contributions. From the ministers of the churches, irrespective of denomination, to the ladies who are attending tables, and the United Order of Masons who rented us the hall, all have shown a generosity, devotion and a warmth of public spirit worthy of the highest praise.
Believing that all efforts at self-help are worthy of respect, and when a man is using every effort in his power to help himself he may with propriety call upon his friends for encouragement, I now respectfully submit this matter to the citizens of Philadelphia and cordially invite them to visit us. As those of us who have charge of the fair are working-women, we do not open it until five o'clock in the afternoon. It is held in Masonic Hall, on Eleventh street, between Pine and Lombard, and will continue all this week.
MY DEEP interest centers in elementary education for several reasons; first, because it is at this period of the child's life that habits are formed and tastes cultivated which may guide him in the pursuit of knowledge and happiness in after life, and which by the alchemy of experience are to change the elements of what he has learned into wisdom for his highest happiness. All higher learning is but a combination of a few simple elements, and when these are well taught, it clears away the difficulty of future acquisitions, and nature can spread her beauty before eyes that can see and teach the marvelous precision of her laws, to ears that can hear. I call this opening the doors upward and outward, whereas a different way of instruction is like going out of a room backward.
Again, we want to lift education out of the slough of the passive voice. Little Mary goes to school to be educated, and her brother John goes to the high school for the same purpose. It is too often the case that the passive voice has the right of way, whereas in the very beginning we should call into active service all the
faculties of mind and body. Unfortunately book learning is so respectable, and there is so much of it all about us, that it is apt to crowd out the prosy process of thinking, comparing, reasoning, to which our wisest efforts should be directed.
Now, when we consider how much is lost by those who lose the benefit of the elementary development, and are therefore unable to pursue the higher branches with any degree of success or comfort to themselves or others, it is evident that this subject is worthy of a wise investigation and we must ask ourselves, how far are we responsible for this condition of affairs? I fear that the reason that so many are unable to keep up when they begin the higher studies is because they never mastered the elementary principles.
If a pupil is absent review day, or demonstration day, he is sure to feel the loss keenly in further pursuit of his studies. Growth in learning and acquisition proceeds slowly and by steps, and we must follow nature's direction.
To be at our business punctually and promptly every day is positively necessary for success, and no trifling excuse ought to be sufficient to keep us from our duty. You know what Uncle Dread said: "Scuses, scuses, the world is built on scuses." A habit of always being on hand in time will save the child from much loss in its after life.
I think a very profitable way to help those who have been absent to make up for what they have lost, while at the same time they are getting the work better
understood, is to have daily reviews of at least one half of the lesson; part oral and a part written. Such a course will be beneficial even to those who were not absent. It will be found very profitable always to have two or three divisions of the class. The divisions can be based upon ability to do the work rapidly or slowly. For where a person who is very quick gets beside a person who is very slow, he feels that he is wasting his time and becomes very impatient. And now is the time for the exercise of that Christian courtesy which will help us all the way through life.
Never let the word "dumb" be used in your class, or anything said disrespectful of parents or guardians who may have helped the child. If the teacher has the questions or the review well selected, they can be quickly given out and no one division has to wait for the other. When the teacher has given all the time possible to certain work, the divisions can be stopped, arranged in order and the pupils will profit by the criticisms of one another, the teacher making no corrections that can possibly be made by the class; thus inviting and stimulating the critical knowledge or judgment of all; whether in punctuation, spelling, subject matter, or the appearance of the work; the advanced lesson already having been heard by the teacher.
Blackboards are of great use in schools, and are a mercy to the eyes of the pupils that are thus released from the printed page; or if we can't have blackboards, then we can use brown paper, saved up from bundles containing articles, etc.
I do not see how a teacher can succeed well without ingenuity, because ways of finding means to an end must often be discovered by the teacher. It has been said that not only from the elementary classes, but also from the higher classes, those that drop out do so from the want of better elementary training.
I should like to ask why some of the axioms that might be so helpful are not brought to bear much earlier in the course of instruction. For instance the square of the sum, the square of the difference, and the rectangle of the sum and difference, as (5+3)X(5+3), (5-3)X(5-3) and(5+3)X(5-3)
To do this work and then show by inspection that the first contains
The multiplication table offers a fruitful field for study, developing the tables of 2's, 3's and 4's etc., and picking out cubes and squares in each one.
I've often had teachers say to me, Oh, that was learned long ago.
The numerical cube is the product of a number taken twice as a factor or multiplied into itself once:
The geometrical square is an equilateral rectangle:
The numerical cube is the product of a number taken three times as a factor or multiplied into itself twice.
The geometrical cube is a solid bounded by six equal squares.
One of the most useful operations is, having a fractional part of a number, to find it; as, 30 is 5/7 of what number? We shall meet this operation often, even in higher arithmetic, and it can be easily taught when teaching the multiplication table.
Of course, when pupils are just beginning they cannot be left so much to themselves, for everything must be carefully done.
I AM always sorry to hear that such and such a person is going to school to be educated.
This is a great mistake. If the person is to get the benefit of what we call education, he must educate himself, under the direction of the teacher.
To go into the school and take one's seat is not a favorable sign for the work that is going to be done; the very first thing to do is to get our pupils into an orderly arrangement for working. The teacher probably has two or three divisions; one set will be employed at the blackboard, and one will recite to the teacher the lesson of the day. The work at the blackboard is review work. And just here is a very important step.
What shall the review consist of? I would say let one-half or three-fourths of the lesson be the review, and spend the rest of the time on the advanced lesson; that is, the lesson for the day. In order that no time may be lost in giving out the review, the teacher will have all the points selected for review written off, and some member of the class may pass
these papers round to the division that has the review, and each one as he takes his paper goes to the board to do his work; or, if he has no board, then he must have the paper to write on, but let us hope that a very few will have to use paper, for the eye needs rest from the small writing with the pencil, and the eye of the teacher is also benefited by not having to scrutinize small letters, whereas the chalk on the blackboard sets off the words and is a great relief to the eye.
When the teacher has given as much time as he can with the work on the board, he stops the class that has been reciting to him and both divisions undertake the corrections of the board work; this must be done in a systematic manner.
Where shall we begin?
I should say to begin with what appears to be the poorest work on the board, in order that the most corrections may be made, and now the teacher must show great skill in keeping the attention of the class fixed upon one matter, for when they are enthusiastic, all will want to speak at once, or some will want to make remarks, or to jump from one point to another before the first is completely done.
Those who have been absent from time to time will find the reviews a great benefit to them, for when there is a distinct failure, we often hear the person say, I was absent when that lesson was given, for I don't remember it at all. How, then, could these children
go on with the advanced lesson with any degree of understanding or profit?
Trial examinations upon simple principles that have been given for some time will oftentimes be of great profit to the class.
The teacher is not supposed to be talking or looking out of the window while the examination goes on, but is passing quietly from seat to seat looking at each person's work, so that when the time is up he is quite well informed as to how each person has succeeded in the work required of him, and what the principal errors are.
The vital errors are errors in the principles used. The misspelled words, grammatical errors, and anything else wrong comes in for its share of correction.
This correction by the teacher, coming immediately after the work is done, is very helpful to those being examined, and saves the teacher from carrying the work home and having to go over it all by himself, and besides, the pupils get far more benefit from this co-operative correction, as it may be called.
In order that the teacher may do his best work while his class is with him, it is necessary that he should have his work all arranged in his own mind before he meets the class. If the teacher is ingenious and he cannot be a good teacher without ingenuity, he can think out many helpful ways to occupy his pupils to the best advantage while he is with them. The lowest classes, as well as the highest, will reap
great benefit from this skillful arrangement of their work by their teacher. I have before spoken of division of classes into two or three sections, but the teacher who makes the division must be very careful not to say of number one, this is the slowest division; or of another, this one can go more rapidly.
The teacher knows upon what principle to form his division, but if he begins to state his reasons to the class he will find it like throwing down the apple of discord: there will be no end to the exclamations of those who are in number two, who say that they could go on with number three, and those in number one will declare they can work just as fast as number two.
It is enough for the teacher to say that the classes can be managed and can do far more work when the teacher handles them in smaller numbers, so that one division can be writing while another is reciting, and all are kept busy as bees. The whole class should be working under the eye of the teacher. It ought not be necessary for the teacher to turn around to see if those who are at the board or those who are doing the work in their seats are in good order and not disturbing one another. A skillful arrangement on the part of the teacher can bring the whole under his own supervision. But the teacher should by no means take up a position as if watching the pupils. Put their conduct on high ground at the very beginning, and when they disappoint you by doing what the teacher would object to, we must let them know how disappointed
we are by such a betrayal of trust, and they may start the next day to do better; and so, little by little, these young people will acquire the habit of doing what they know is right, whether the teacher sees them or not.
I have before spoken of talking in classes, because it disturbs the teacher and disturbs the class, but I have often heard them say, suppose I only whisper, would that disturb the class? As far as my experience goes, there can be no compromise with talking or whispering while the work is going on. The habit of self control is not easily acquired, but when the pupil has his tongue under control St. James says, "He is able also to bridle the whole body." I believe that many a dreadful result has followed a too free use of the tongue, for it is well said, one word always brings on another and before we know it we are in the midst of a hot dispute over something. Not only the children, but the teacher may have too nimble a tongue, and may use it, not to explain what is difficult to the pupils, but to discuss why they are so stupid as to need any explanation.
Sometimes the teachers make uncomplimentary remarks about those who need to have the matter explained, saying, anybody could see that. I heard of a little boy once whose father had worked out some examples for him in arithmetic. The teacher should have known that the child did not do the work, and should have been careful about speaking of that work.
"Why, that's a very old-fashioned way of doing that work; we don't do that way now," and other things were said even more uncomplimentary of the person who did the work for the child. Here, again, is a case where the teacher needs to be corrected. It may as well be understood that all remarks which are disrespectful to the parents or guardian ought never to be indulged in by the teacher. Calling names, the words stupid, or dunce, or dumb, serves only to make the pupil angry or to discourage him. Here, again, the teacher ought to think of himself when he was taking his first lessons. Whenever a pupil has spoken disrespectfully to a teacher and the teacher can say with truth, do I not always speak kindly and politely to you? the case is won without any more argument. I have never known this to fail. I have often seen a tear steal down the face of a child, and then I neither asked for an apology nor forced one, but of the child's own volition it came at once.
How can we get the child trained to do what he dislikes to do and to obey our laws without corporal punishment? If the parent begins early enough, there is every hope of success, but, unfortunately, it is thought the child isn't old enough to understand what we wish him to do. For instance, a mother sees her little boy going around the room with a hammer, and of course looking for something to hit with it. She repeatedly tells him to bring the hammer to mamma, but he pays no attention to it. And, waiting a little while, she goes to him and takes the hammer away
from him. He struggles with all his little might to keep it.
The mother should know it will not be very long before that little fellow will be strong enough, not only to keep the hammer, but to do with it as he will. Then was the time, when he paid no attention, for her to have taught that child to obey her and bring her the hammer of his own will. A little battle like that lost or won means victory or defeat for that child's future character.
To learn to give up his own will to that of his parents or teacher, as we must to the Great Teacher of all, will surely make us happy in this life and in the life to come. Happy is the child who has wise parents and guardians, and whose training is continued when he enters the school room. Whereas when a child has had little training in obedience at home it is not long before he gets into trouble in the school room, for there he finds himself surrounded by laws which he must obey if he makes the progress in his studies and in his character which he ought to make, which will give him an honored place in the school and out of it.
IT IS possible for the teacher to notice who those are in the class who do not care for learning what we have to give them; and the question to ask ourselves is, Why? Are the lessons too hard? or are they too long? Is the child well? Above all, does he seem to pass from one to another part of study with ease and comfort to himself, or is he troubled and uncertain? Does he often give excuses for staying away, and does he fail to get the meaning of what we are trying to teach him? When he fails in his lessons, does the teacher let the parent or guardian know, and how is this information supposed to be received at his home?
I have heard of a case where whenever the child failed in his lessons, word was sent to his father, who gave him no dinner and locked him up in the cellar. Would this punishment incline the child to love his studies or to get them any better? On the contrary, would he not hate them and be glad when he is through with them? We should remember that punishments
that do not correct, harden. For this reason we should try to find out what the real trouble is, and then what will best make up for it.
Examinations privately conducted without letting the person know what you are looking for may give the true source of the trouble. And we may discover why the work we have given is not done. For instance, at one time being accused of having promoted a scholar to a higher class who could not multiply, I replied, "I know he can multiply." "Try him yourself," said the teacher. And I did try him myself, and found that when the multiplier and the multiplicand were separated as in long division the child did not know at what end to begin to multiply. As soon as I let in light on this point he went ahead like everything. Sometimes I've said to myself as I've watched the way that a pupil worked, you say you cannot get this example; no, and you never would have gotten it if you had kept on that way. All learning proceeds by steps. And the absences of pupils may be illustrated by a ladder with a rung out here and there. So that instead of the person going up easily and smoothly, he is every now and then distracted by the difficulty of the step. Let the pupils make a ladder, and show these parts out. Every succeeding lesson is carefully planned by a preceding demonstration or piece of instruction, and when a pupil is absent on one of these days it is very difficult to make up for it. We ought to be very careful about apportioning
any severe punishment, and it would be well to sleep over it before we decide.
If the teacher is just as angry as the pupil, which is sometimes the case, he is not apt to do the wisest and kindest thing to bring about a spirit of repentance and a wish to correct what has been wrong. Happy is the teacher who can wait to win his pupil, to what he believes to be right.
I can think of no agency in the formation of a beautiful character that is more powerful than the daily correction and training which we call discipline, and here the teacher is all powerful.
The child can read his books and get much information from them to help him in his education, but he cannot see when he should be corrected, nor how to do so. To be apt in diagnosing a case to find the difficulties that a child labors under, and as apt in the correcting discipline, are valuable qualifications for a teacher. These qualifications cannot be put down in a book to be learned as ordinary lessons. We can only give suggestions, and the teacher must work out his own plans, and acquire the knowledge by actual practice.
Many a child called dull, would advance rapidly under a patient, wise and skillful teacher, and the teacher should be as conscientious in the endeavor to improve himself as he is to improve the child.
LET us understand that the object of punishment is not to make up for wrongdoing, for that cannot be done; but, to prevent the repetition of the wrong. It should always be administered in a kind spirit, and should be so reasonable, that a child's sense of justice would agree with it. He should see that if he repeated the wrong act it would not be good for him nor for the teacher nor his parents nor the school.
Of course no cruel punishment should ever be allowed, and if whipping is to be done it is far better for the parent to do it, for his hand is restrained by love.
I once heard this story. Two little boys were out selling matches; one having sold out met a comrade who had not sold any. Said the one who had been successful to his comrade, "I will take your matches and give you my money. If I am not sold out when I get home I shall get a whipping like yourself. Your master would whip you, but my father would whip me, but he wouldn't whip so hard nor so long as
your master." A page of philosophy could not give us a better understanding of the case, than is given by the incident of these two little match boys.
Habits of obedience can be taught to a child when it is little so that little by little he learns to give up his own will to that of his parents or teacher, which alone can make us happy in this life and the life to come. When spoken to disrespectfully I would say to the child, "Do I not always speak to you kindly and politely?" I never had to make any other argument. I never asked for any apology, and I never failed to get it. Not perhaps at that time, but after it had been thought of. It seems to me that it would be very unwise to send a bad report to the parent concerning the child unless we know the disposition of the parent and his means of correcting. This is very important, for if the child is not corrected of his fault, he is apt to become worse instead of better.
Never be in a hurry about punishing a child. Think well over it first. Always investigate a case thoroughly before you punish a child.
Try never to whip the child yourself; always report the child to the parents when such correction is necessary.
Never deprive a child of all of his recess. He is not a block of wood; he needs fresh air and water and he will not be in a condition to recite unless he has time for that. Some teachers think they haven't
punished enough unless they have taken all of his recess. This is a great mistake. To take a child's lunch from him is a great mistake. There is no use in attempting to teach a hungry child.
The ventilation of the school room may be responsible for what we call stupidity on the part of the child.
Let a stream of oxygen pass through the room and what a waking-up there will be! Sometimes if a child is naughty it will do him good to run out in the yard a minute.
Remember all the time you are dealing with a human being, whose needs are like your own.
A child knows well when a teacher is kind and considerate of him.
Never take away a child's occupation as a punishment.
The secret of good government is occupation of the right kind.
Keep your pupils pleasant by occupying them with your work and they will not be apt so to give you trouble. There are a number of devices called "Busy Work for the School Room." These little occupations are suited to every grade, and the teacher should make a study of them and have them at his command. The teacher knows who the restive pupils are, and work for these should be prepared beforehand. A great deal of what we call mischief is animal activity on the part of the child, and we must
use that activity to make the child do our work and not his.
There is too much repression and suppression in schools.
Let the child do something of himself and see what he will do. The teacher must prepare for his work before he goes into the school by getting together as much simple apparatus as possible, and finding means of illustration.
There are certain kinds of punishments that should never be resorted to, such as shutting a child up in the school house while you go to your dinner, or shutting him up in a dark closet and keeping him there longer than a half hour, or boxing his ears or hitting him over the head or calling him names.
Try kindness; try to find the wiser way for correcting the wrong.
Be careful of arousing a spirit of revenge in your pupils.
WHATEVER we do, the first thing is to have the child know about his Heavenly Father, and that we must all do what will please Him; and no one of us must think of doing the things that He hates. We cannot grow straight and beautiful if we disobey His laws: and so, we must preoccupy the ground very early, for evil is so crafty that even with all our vigilance it will get its work in somewhere. "Didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? whence then hath it tares?"
However brilliant a person may be intellectually, however skillful in the arts and sciences, he must be reliable; he must be trustworthy.
We must know that we can depend upon his word. Obedience, truthfulness, love of right, and sincerity, must be instilled and inculcated by precept and by example, but always in kindness.
Love wins when everything else will fail. You say that your child resists all your efforts to break him of his bad habits and make him become good. Have you tried kindness? Have you tried love?
The Commandments in verse are very easily learned; therefore I would have them taught.
Thou should have no other Gods before me.
Before no idol bend thy knee.
Take not the name of God in vain.
Nor dare the Sabbath Day profane.
Give both thy parents honor due.
Take heed that thou no murder do.
Abstain from words and deeds unclean.
Nor steal though thou art poor and mean.
Nor make a willful lie and love it.
What is thy neighbors do not covet.
With all thy heart love God above,
And as thyself thy neighbor love.
The pieces so called which the child learns, will have much to do with forming his mind, and so we pick them out with a great deal of care.
Love to father and mother, sister and brother; love to home and country; love to animals.
In short fill the mind with what we know will keep it pure and beautiful. Above all things see that the child is getting a love to take in and do what is taught him. Scripture that the child can understand will of course be our first ally, as, "Jesus loves me this I know, for the Bible tells me so."
Bands of Hope must be kept in view, for in the very beginning the child must be taught the danger of strong drink. The selection of pieces to sing must be observed with great care. However pretty a tune is, if it doesn't carry beautiful words we should not choose it.
The books which our children read should also be carefully looked into. We should do well always in Christmas times and other times to be sure that one of the presents is a book. And the child should be encouraged to make his own little library case by utilizing a starch or soap box. Ingenious young people can soon make a very presentable library case.
Studies in history, American, English, French, etc., natural history and poetry, which children love so much, can also be among the books.
Happy are the children whose parents know the importance of teaching them to love and care for books while they are young. Among the little societies in our school, there was one for charitable purposes and entirely in the hands of the children. Each one was invited, not forced, to give one cent a week. This sum amounted to $75 or $100 a year.
They took charge of small cases of want and destitution until they could report them to the proper societies. And it was a great comfort to me when the time came to make their contributions to various charities, such as the Children's Home; the Aged Home; Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and other charities; and to see them making out their little checks was also comforting. There was much merriment when we came to this little business, for how to draw up a money order, or how to make out a check and other little matters of bookkeeping had to be taught.
As I have said; nobody was obliged to give the
penny a week, but they all were invited to do so. When the young people came home after vacation, they had made sums to help themselves along, and those sums added together varied from $2,000 to $2,500.
Of course the students in the higher classes made most, because they could get more responsible work to do. Very interesting incidents cropped out during these reports, but I can only mention one or two. One of our little girls between eleven years and twelve went along as chore girl. But there was consternation in the household when it was discovered that the cook had disappointed. "But," said the little girl, "I can cook." So it was only necessary to change places. And our little girl found her wages increased from $1 to $3 a week.
Another case of a little girl only about seven years who had saved up a little something during the vacation. "Now what did you do?" said I, "I know you couldn't have worked." "I used to go every Sunday and take a blind lady to church. Then she used to give me fifty cents every time I went and I saved it up."
Many incidents might be told of this kind, but I am warned that printing costs money, but the training which bears fruit in a thoughtful application of what we have learned deserves encouragement.
There is, in my opinion, no incompatibility between higher learning and work.
The study room and the workshop ought to have their hours so arranged that both can be advanced together. The saw and the plane waiting with gracious
patience upon the hammer and the anvil, and both accompaniments.
A skillful arrangement of the hours of study and of demonstration will prove the workableness of what I am saying, and ten years hence, when that same carpenter or blacksmith may be wanted to give his opinion on some knotty points in interdependent study which men's reasoning has failed to smooth off, it may be found that our mechanic may have need for the learning which was not thought necessary when he was getting his trade.
Trustworthiness and reliability should be the outgrowth of the moral instruction which we give. Without this fine fruit of all our teaching, all else will be of little account. I might have said of no account.
THE teaching of good manners in the home, is of the highest importance. The little child is taught to say, if you please, and thank you, not only to mother and father, but to brothers and sisters; and I know of nothing that conduces more to the happiness of the home than the manner of speaking to each other by all the members of the family. Some people seem to think that good manners need only be exercised toward our superiors or toward strangers, but this is a great mistake. A gentleman can always be told by the way he speaks to those that he thinks are his inferiors in some respect. His equals be does not wish to offend, his superiors he does not dare to offend, and of those whom he considers his inferiors he would be all the more considerate.
It is a very unsafe thing to graduate our politeness to what we suppose to be the position of the person we are addressing. I have heard of a car conductor who was very impolite to an old gentleman on his train because he was rather shabbily dressed; and he made many inquiries as to how he came by his rate book, with other unnecessary questions, which
did not concern him. A short time after, when he was released from his position, he was astonished to find that he had been talking to the president of the road. Good manners will often take people where neither money nor education will take them.
If we could follow many serious evils in life to their sources, we should find that many of them sprang from what we should regard as very insignificant matters. The girl who could not hold her tongue in school, but was always ready with a smart reply, may trace her broken household some day to that same fluency in speech. For it is indeed true that one word brings on another and the word that is brought on is generally not such as to help matters. We do well to remember that a soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words stir up anger. Words, words, how they can make or mar our lives! The temper must be curbed, must be held in if necessary with "bit and bridle" until it yields to control.
THERE are now so many new ways of teaching reading and spelling that teachers can have their choice and take whatever plan they find the most effective.
To learn to read, write and spell one word the first day, will be found to be very interesting to the children. The word "man" is a good word to begin with, because day after day by the addition of one more letter each day we can form a sentence. Words are more interesting than letters, and sentences are more interesting than words. So that as soon as possible the teacher wants to make a sentence. But it is not supposed that we should omit to teach the alphabet in order, for we know that this is necessary. But by no means allow this to be done mentally. Have the book or the chart with the letters large and distinctly made, and have the children's eyes follow the work as the teacher points to each letter and calls its name. There are many little devices that a teacher can use to get the children interested in the work. Among them may be picking out the printed letters that they have learned when
they see them in a book or paper, and sometimes the teacher will have them in a little box and the children are asked to pick out such and such a letter and bring it to the teacher. The movements of the hand and arm in making letters should be frequently practiced by the pupils, and this is a wonderful help when they come to make the letters on the board or on the paper.
The pupils are thus led along skillfully until they are ready to take the first lessons in their readers; then, how the work will jump! No drawling tones will be heard then, for their preparations will make them feel that they know the whole book. The articles a and the having been pronounced naturally as "a[a with breve]h," "the[e with caron]," the child will read, "The[e with caron] boy has a[a with breve] dog." And not, "The boy has a[a with macron] dog. Sometimes it is very hard to break up this unnatural way of reading. As the child's writing has kept pace with its reading, one child can copy a letter on the board while the teacher hears the others read. When the writing is finished, the whole class turns to the board to correct whatever has been written, and then they have a lively time. From lesson to lesson this plan is pursued until the child gets through with the Third Reader, and then what a mass of information the child has acquired, and what facility in reading, writing and spelling! But there can hardly be a better way to train a child to think and to reason than by the constant comparisons which he has had to make use of in learning the letters and all about them. Besides,
when a person can read, the whole realm of knowledge lies open before him, and if necessary he can go on by himself; for many a learned person had to begin in this way. I will next speak of advanced reading. A clear-cut enunciation of the vowels, the consonants and certain combinations of consonants have been insisted upon during the elementary stages of the child's progress. Nor has he been allowed to drop his final t's or d's nor to say w for v. Fortunate is the child who has had a careful and well-prepared teacher in his early lessons in reading. Before the child begins to read he should know the definitions of the words he is using, and this matter too has had attention in the preceding reading lessons. It would be a great pity to allow the child to consider a lesson learned, simply because he could pronounce the words fluently, for the meaning is all-important. It is very helpful if the definitions of the words in the reading lessons are written at the top of the page as they are in some books; and the preparation for the day's lesson should be to have these words correctly pronounced, and their definitions written upon the board, and as words have more than one definition, it is good practice to see what other meanings the class can give. When the class begins to read, let the pupils read the lesson straight thru, going from one to the other without interruption. If any one has been looking off his book and is not ready, pass him by and go right on to the next one. Do not stop to correct mispronounced words, but wait until the lesson has been
read thru once. In this way we shall get the sense of the lesson. It is objected that if we leave the corrections until the reading is finished, they will be forgotten; but stopping after each one reads, to say what you noticed was wrong, etc., keeps the pupils from getting a connected idea of the lesson, and hence, destroys the interest in it. When the lesson is read thru again the corrections are made. The spelling lesson should consist largely of words taken from the reading lesson, for these will be the most useful that the pupil can have, and when these words are recited, it should be by writing them in sentences. It may be objected that this takes too much time, as the time given to spelling is generally less than that given to other subjects. But are not reading and spelling the most important lessons that the child can have? Five words correctly defined and written in sentences are of more value than twenty words simply spelled correctly. In the very beginning the marks of punctuation should be used, and the marks of contraction and the possessive case should be observed closely, as, John's father was too busy to waste two minutes from his business. The architect planned the building and the carpenter planed some of the joists the next day.
"I do not complain of the boys' work," said their father, "but I wished they had gone farther while they were about it."
Men's and women's clothing is made from different kinds of cloth, It will be seen that the teacher
takes advantage of simple grammatical rules to have the writing correctly done. I will hereafter give a number of sentences to illustrate what I mean. I should have said, that as soon as possible, the child should be taught to write a letter. The words mother, father, sister, brother and teacher should be spelled and written for him so that the little letter beginning Dear mother can begin to be made the subject of instruction.
The child's interest is awakened and he will try his best to learn other words that he will write to his mother. If this begins in the first reader, before the third is finished the child will be quite a little scribe. But we must proceed very slowly with this work. One or two words at a time are all that can be taken, and for this reason, very careful training is necessary on the part of the teacher. If the child gets thoroughly interested in his lessons, it will certainly stop the truancies. It is well worth while to let the child see how he is getting ahead. The English language is certainly not an easy one to learn, and much patience is required to learn to use it correctly; but a thoughtful teacher can by pointing out differences help the pupil to remember the many points necessary in correct reading and spelling
Dictation exercises should begin with the First Reader, and follow all thru the course in reading. It is very unfortunate that reading in schools should be stopped so soon. If a child can pronounce certain words correctly, and especially if he has gone thru
the Fourth Reader, it is supposed that he doesn't need any more instruction in reading, but immediately passes into what are considered more difficult subject's.
This is the reason that more pupils do not acquire a taste for reading, because as soon as they get thru the task of pronouncing words and are just ready to enter upon the delightful task of reading by sight, they are supposed to have finished, and the work stops. Whereas, the pupil is just ready to get the thoughts of others in an easy and intelligent way, and he can learn the thoughts of the very best writers the world has ever seen. And before he knows it they become a part of himself, leading him onward and heavenward. Just as when a person has mastered the scales and exercises on the piano, he is not considered to have finished the course in music, but to be in a position to be introduced to the works of the great masters. After hearing a master of the instrument play "Home, Sweet Home" we make up our minds that we never heard it before, and we never did. This matter of reading is far more important than many of us think, because as I have said, it is to continue all our lives long. A first-class reader may be called an elocutionist, because he makes the thoughts of the writer live again in the minds of those who hear. In the very beginning, the child's eyes are trained to recognize the period and comma when he sees them, and to use them correctly when he is writing. The other marks of punctuation come in for their share
of attention when he is able to understand them. But besides training the eye, we should remember that the ear should be trained. Read a short sentence to the class and see who can repeat it correctly; you will be astonished to see how few can reproduce the sentence just as it was given. It is no wonder that our Lord said, "Take heed how ye hear."
A distinguished teacher of a high school used to try his entering classes, to see if they were prepared to take down correctly the lectures which they were to receive, and he was astonished to find how differently a simple sentence would be written by them. The teacher can try his class himself by asking them to write down any simple sentence which he may give them. Disputes, nay quarrels, oftentimes are produced because one person says I understood him to say so and so, and another one says I did not understand it that way. If each of these persons should write down what he thought was said, the difference in the way they had heard would soon be evident. Now, as lectures and sermons are given by hearing, how necessary it is that the ear should be trained to repeat correctly the sounds which fall upon it, and this is another reason why the sounds of the letters should be distinctly practiced by speakers and hearers, for there is a great difference in the way people pronounce their words, and some of them it is difficult to understand. We must be careful that the final d's and t's, st and st's should be carefully uttered: v and w are made by different positions of the lips and the
vocal organs should be practiced to show how they are to be correctly uttered. As for r it is rarely pronounced correctly, and the same may be said of th following an s, or c as, passeth, ceaseth, rejoiceth. In further writing, I will put down the difficult consonant combinations. If a child has an impediment in his speech, the teacher must be very careful about forcing him to read by himself before he has got over the worst of his difficulties. By no means make him an object of fun to the class, nor allow any pupil to make fun of him with his peculiarities when the class is over.
If the class has five times to read during the week, I would take one of these times for recitations. After reciting, let the pieces be written on the board, and here the eye can correct whatever the ear gave wrong. Misspelled words, misplaced capitals, and whatever else needs correction comes under the teacher's eyes, and is written correctly.
Great care should be taken in making the selections for the children to learn. However short the piece may be, it should include some moral principle, or something of beauty in nature or art; but always something that the pupil can understand. Pieces for the different grades are now selected for the teacher, and this makes it easier to find wise selections. But I would be very careful about the funny pieces, for we should teach nothing but what inculcates some pretty thought.
Obedience to our Heavenly Father; love to parents,
brothers and sisters; love to country, and kindness to dumb animals; and many other selections which will hereafter be given. Children learn poetry far more quickly than they do prose, and so we select what we teach them largely from poets.
There is a world of happy thoughts all about us, and if we make wise selections in teaching, they are quite sure to be remembered. And the grain of truth which they contain is as encouraging in bringing forth fruit, as is the grain of mustard seed. What we sow we reap, and there is no field more fertile than that of a child's mind. If we plant tomatoes, we get tomatoes; we certainly should not expect to find potatoes. And so, if we plant beautiful thoughts and beautiful words in the child's mind, we shall certainly get the same. But I do not forget the parable of the tares of the field, for whatever we do, there is always an active enemy who is doing his sowing at the same time, and for this reason we must humble ourselves and pray that the Lord of the Harvest may protect our child's mind from the sower of evil; for in spite of all you may do, you will find things in that child's mind which you never taught him, and which you cannot account for.
Teaching spelling by dictation exercises is the most profitable way to get the child to learn what might otherwise be dry and uninteresting.
Facility in writing to dictation will train the ear to receive sounds correctly and this is very important. How often do we hear people say, "but that is not
what I thought was said," and so we have a large class of persons of whom it may be said, "Having ears they hear not, neither do they understand."
The distinct utterance of the vocal elements must be insisted upon, and those elements in their difficult combinations which I have already mentioned.
Sermons, lectures, and much of the instruction which we receive must depend upon the ear for its faithful reproduction. A professor giving a lecture at one time to a number of students of different grades of instruction saw a little boy industriously taking notes, and he asked one of the teachers to let him have the child's paper when he was through.
This was done, and he made the exclamation as he glanced over the notes, "This is wonderful." Then followed the questions. In what class is this child and who is his teacher?
It is evident if the teacher corrects each dictation exercise individually the other pupils will lack the valuable practice which would follow looking over many papers themselves; therefore having exchanged papers each one is called upon for the correction of what he sees wrong on the paper which he has, and the correct form is written on the board. It is also very useful for pupils to learn to read the handwriting of different persons.
I have been asked if I approved teaching the rules of spelling; not all of them by any means, because the pupil can easily learn the rules by his own practice. But the rule for monosyllables and words accented
on the last syllable should be thoroughly learned, because it is so frequently applied, as it refers to the formation of so many words in the English language.
About sixty per cent. of our words are old English or Anglo-Saxon.
Thirty per cent. are latin, five per cent. are Greek, and five per cent. words taken from many other languages. Nearly all the monosyllables in the language are old English and are very plain words, and most easily understood. The pronouns, the conjunctions, and nearly all the prepositions are old English, and words of one syllable as we know are old English. These form a sturdy stock like the people that first used them. The Bible, Shakespeare and Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" abound in these words.
They are strong and easy to be understood, whereas the Latin words and the Greek are formed of many syllables, and express different shades of thought and of mental states and action. I suppose these are the "words of learned length and thundering sound, which amazed the gaping rustics gathered round," and made the schoolmaster so famous.
Scientific words are written in the Greek language.
Always avoid using what are called big words when writing on any topic, for they often do nothing but "Darken counsel by words without knowledge." Whereas the duty of the speaker or writer is to get before his hearers or his readers as clear an idea of his thoughts as he can.
Now I am advocating a careful and thorough teaching of spelling, if it is taught by dictation exercises, with a clear knowledge of the use of words, whether it is in the elementary school or the high school, because such instructions are immensely valuable to pupils in all their writings.
The printer at his desk or the writer for the paper, or lawyer in his briefs, or the orator in his pleadings, will be thankful for their thorough knowledge of words and their uses. As the pupils advance in their lessons, it will be a very good thing to have many little essays written on the power of words to bless or destroy, and on the responsibility of those who use them, for, "By thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned." Again it has been said, "A wholesome tongue is a tree of life." Let us therefore guard the tongue with wise vigilance, and those whom we teach must be inspired to think about the different effect of kind words and unkind words, therefore to think before they use them. Many a quarrel which has ended even in death started from one bitter word. Many cases could be mentioned which would help to make us more thoughtful and careful in our speech. The pupils must notice the kind of words which are used by the best writers in the books which they are studying, and in the extracts from the best English writers which we are supposed to give them in their weekly lessons. In a school in Africa I found our little children studying the story of Hiawatha, and just as those who have to live upon
coarse food may show its effects in their body, so those whose minds are fed upon pure food thought, whether of Longfellow or Whittier or any other first-class poet, will soon show in their spiritual development what they have been studying. "Upon what meat hath this our Caesar fed that he hath grown so great." Can we not see the wisdom of that question and look out for the mental food upon which our children are feeding?
There ought to be a censorship of the press in America, that books that give foolish, unreal or evil ideas of life should never be printed nor reach the eyes of our children. The so-called yellow literature must be offset until it is scouted out of the land by forming the taste for what is pure and good and true in the youth.
Fairy stories, the child delights in, and we must see that what we give them is not too heavy for their young minds.
Hans Christian Anderson has a grain of truth in every one of his stories, and let us see to it that the child has that in other stories which will build up strong moral fibre and encourage him to love the truth. This shows why the teacher should be well-prepared for all classes, but especially for the lower classes, because for them he must supply such reading as he knows will be profitable in the child's daily life. For the kind of reading which is given should be equal to little classics which he will probably remember all his life long, and his taste being thus
slowly formed for what is purest and best in literature, will reject what is foolish and inferior.
The teacher will thus be sending a pure stream to form that "Well of English undefiled," which in the future will become a source of purer happiness than that which can be found in the stories of many brilliant writers.
IT IS not necessary to wait until children can learn rules of grammatical construction before we teach them how to speak correctly. For be it known that children do not speak according to rules, but according to what they hear.
It will be observed that those who associate with persons who use incorrect grammar will be very apt to fall into the same habit themselves, while those who associate with persons who speak correctly will be found to speak also correctly without any instruction; and in this way you can often tell the kind of associates that one is accustomed to have.
It is for this reason that it is much easier to learn to speak German in Germany, or to speak French in France, than in a country where all the sounds you hear are those of the English language. For this reason, too, teachers of German or French should speak to their pupils in those languages, and not be satisfied with simply reading it to them.
Those who are able to have a German and French nurse for their children will find that the child will
speak German to the German nurse and French to the French nurse without difficulty; this ought to teach us something about how languages are acquired.
To speak a language correctly, and also to write it correctly, are of the first importance. Therefore, at the beginning we simply correct what is incorrect in the child's speech, and do not square it by the rules of grammar until he is able to understand it.
We know the grammatical rules which are most likely to be violated, such as singular verbs with plural subjects, and vice versa; as, "Mary and Jane has not finished their lessons yet"; or, "I has no more time to give to the subject."
Another common error is the past tense of the verb for the past participle, as, "I seen him when he done it, and I haven't saw him since."
A child should immediately be corrected when heard to say: "Is you going to the fair?" "I would have went had I been invited."
Why should a child be allowed to say: It is me, it is him, it is her, and not be corrected? Or, I didn't do nothing on my work today; or, I written to my mother yesterday. Such errors are passed unnoticed in children, when that is the very time when corrections should be made and can be made most effectively.
The only way to teach them to write correctly is to have them write. A good rule would be to have them write a little essay once a week, and have it corrected,
seeing that all the rules of grammatical construction are properly observed. See that you do not have a singular pronoun represented by a plural antecedent, as, "let every one attend to their own affairs."
The classes of pronouns, being difficult to learn, should be given at an early stage of the child's progress.
There are four classes of pronouns--personal, relative, interrogative and adjective.
The adjective pronouns are themselves divided into four classes, and it will help the child to remember them by a little device like this, pidd, viz.: personal--my hat, her hand, his ball; indefinite--none, any, all, whole, some; demonstrative--this, that-- with the plurals--these, those; distributives--each, every, either, neither.
Personal pronouns are those which show by their forms what person is meant; I, thou, you, he, she, and it. They are declined: nominative, I; possessive, my or mine; objective, me. Plural, nominative, we; possessive, our or ours; objective, us.
Second person--Nominative, thou; possessive, thy or thine; objective thee; plural, nominative, you; possessive, your or yours; objective, your.
Third person--Nominative, it; possessive, its; objective, it. Plural, nominative, they; possessive, their or theirs; objective, them.
Relative pronouns--Nominative, who; possessive, whose; objective, whom; there is no difference for the plural.
Interrogatives who, which and what, are not declined at all.
Compound pronouns are formed by adding "self," viz.: myself, himself, themselves, etc. Ever and soever, added to the relative who, gives it an indefinite force, as, whoever sins, must suffer; whosoever will, let him come.
With respect to the parts of speech, we may say that anything we can see or think of is a noun; as, house, goodness. Any word that we can say something with--make a statement, is a verb. I can say I run, but cannot say I house.
Conjunctions are the joining words, and with a number of these on hand, we can begin to make up sentences. John and James can go, but Mary must help her mother, unless she does not need her. James is as helpful as John, but Thomas works faster than either of them.
Prepositions always govern the objective case, therefore the child must not be allowed to say, between I and you; nor, between you and I, for between you and me.
Teaching the verb is very interesting. The attributes, viz.: voice, mood, tense, number and person, are not equally difficult. For instance, we know what person and number the verb is by the person and number of its subject, for they must agree.
We can think of three divisions of time or tense; as, I write today, I wrote yesterday, I shall write tomorrow.
There are three more tenses, called perfect, or finished: I have written today, I had written when I saw you, and I shall have written before I see you again.
When a past act happens before some other, which is also passed, we call it the past perfect; as, I had written the letter before the man called for it.
When a future act happens before some other which is also future, we call it future perfect; as, I shall have finished the dress before the lady will call for it. So much for tense.
Now, as to voice. We mean that form of the verb which shows whether the subject acts, or is acted upon; as, John made the table; or, the table was made by John. Here the child can be shown that only verbs which have an object in the active can be put in the passive form, for the action passes over from the subject to the object; hence the word transitive for the verb, which simply means going across. When the verb has no object, it is called intransitive; as, the baby sleeps, the mother lies down for a little rest.
Neuter, when referring to verbs, means that the subject neither acts nor is acted upon, and here comes in the use of the verb to be--that is to say--to exist; as, Jane is my sister, those boys are occupied. It is by means of this great verb to be, that we can put any other verb in the passive voice, or show an act continuing; as, the road was constructed by the engineer, the work is finished: the cattle are fed. Hence, to put a verb in the passive voice, we conjugate the verb to be, and write after all its moods and tenses the past
participle of the verb; as, I am, I was, I shall be; I have been, I had been, I shall have been. I may, can, or must be; might, could, would or should be; I may, can or must have been; I might, could, would or should have been; to be, to have been; being, been and having been. Take any past participle of a transitive verb and write after this synopsis, and you have put the verb in the passive voice.
Now, if after the same synopsis we put the present participle of the verb, we shall have the progressive form of the verb, and not the passive voice; as, I am writing, they are writing, we shall be writing, etc.
Mistakes are often made when persons see parts of the verb to be, and conclude that the verb is in the passive voice; but the test is, does the subject act? For while active and passive are shown by the form of the verb, it is really the subject that is active or passive.
We have one other attribute to account for, namely mood, which means the manner of expressing our thought; as, the indicative, which declares a thing to be so; the potential, showing that a thing may be so; the subjunctive, noting a condition; the infinitive, which cannot be used as a verb at all, but expresses the thought in a general or indefinite way, and is therefore used as a neuter noun.
Verbs have three participles, present, as writing; past, as written; perfect, as having written. The same
participles in the passive voice are, being written, written, having been written.
The child will observe that the middle participle--written-- has the same form in both the active and passive voice, hence we can only tell which voice is meant by the context.
The past passive participle is very useful, being a shortened form, not carrying with it the sign of tense or voice; as, the book written by your brother was readily sold. Observe how frequently this form of participle is used by writers. For an illustration from Thanatopsis: "Scourged to his dungeon, but sustained and soothed by an unfaltering trust."
Shortened forms of expression are desirable, when they are not ambiguous. Many long-drawn-out sentences might be shortened and made more compact and forcible if the use of the participles were better known.
There are few points relating to tense and mood which the teacher will do well to call the pupils' attention to; as, shall in the first person denotes futurity, but in the second and third, determination; whereas, will, in the first person denotes determination, but in the second and third, futurity. To conjugate the future indicative correctly, we must say: I shall go, you will go, he will go. But if I say, I will go, you shall go, he shall go, it denotes determination.
Again, we must notice that the past tense refers to what is completely past; as, I saw your brother yesterday. We would not say, "I saw your brother
today," as the time has not completely passed; I saw him yesterday, I have seen him today.
Again, we should not say, I intended to have written; but, I intended to write. I wanted to have seen the show, should be, I wanted to see the show. In each case the acts are present, with reference to the past time.
The old form of the subjunctive mood is passing out of use, and we are using the conditional indicative. Instead of saying, if he return by tomorrow, we say, if he returns.
The form of the present subjunctive is a contracted future; as, if he be innocent, means, if he shall be. Following the Latin construction, however, propositions which are impossible, or contrary to fact, should be expressed by the imperfect subjunctive; as, if I were you.
There are many other points in grammar which the teacher will find it necessary to explain to his pupils, if they would acquire the habit of correct speaking.
It is a good rule to remember that the distributive pronouns, each, every, either, neither, are always third person, singular number, and require the verb and pronoun to agree with them accordingly.
With reference to subject and predicate--and their modifiers--of sentences, they can be brought more clearly before us by a diagram than by an analysis with words.
Here is a little device for remembering the parts of speech:
A noun is the name of anything,
As school, or garden, hoop, or swing.
Adjectives tell the kind of noun;
As great, small, pretty, white or brown.
Conjunctions join the words together;
As, bread and butter; wind or weather.
Verbs tell of something to be done;
As sing, or play or skip, or run.
A preposition stands before
A noun; as in or through a door
How things are done the adverbs tell;
As, slowly, quickly, ill or well.
An exclamation shows surprise;
As, ah! how pretty! oh! how wise!
Three little words you often see
Are articles; a or an and the.
Instead of nouns the pronoun stands;
Your book, his work, her hat, my hand.
The whole are called nine parts of speech;
Which reading, writing, speaking, teach.
This little bit of poetry saves us from many definitions, and it has helped many pupils who have understood it.
In arranging our sentences, we remember the kind of verbs we are using, as transitive verbs require an object to complete their meaning; as, the carpenters finished their work yesterday.
The verbs that do not take an object are complete
in themselves. Such are chiefly verbs of locomotion; as, Mary has gone to her mother.
These are simple sentences, but when they are compound or complex, or when the verb is in the imperative mood, they are not so easily diagramed; the same is true when there are many modifiers both of the subject and the predicate; and it is important to know what clause a connective introduces; as, the day seems gloomy, but the sun is shining behind the clouds.
The man whom you sent did the work which was required.
The pupil may remember that whatever answers the question, when, where or how, is adverbial in character; but, whatever answers the question, of what
kind, is adjective in character, especially relative pronouns, because they relate to some preceding noun, for a relative cannot represent an adjective.
The pupil will do well to notice how useful the word that is, for as a relative, it can relate to persons, lower animals and things; as, the man that you saw, and the cart that he rode in, brought back the dog that had run away.
It is also used as a connective, and as a demonstrative; as, I saw that that book would not answer the purpose; the first that being a connective, and the second a demonstrative.
We give children a great deal of poetry to learn; this involves the question of metre--or measure. To read poetry correctly, the right words must be accented.
In scanning a line of poetry, a measure consisting of one foot is called a monometre; two feet, a dimetre; three feet; a trimetre; four feet, a tetrametre; five feet, a pentametre; six feet, a hexametre, etc.
The iambus consists of a short and a long syllable, and this foot is principally the one used in English verse. To illustrate:
"From all that dwell below the skies,
Let the Creator's praise arise."
This is the long metre, and consists of all iambic tetrametres.
The common metre consists of tetrametres and trimetres alternating; as,
"Jerusalem my happy home,
Name ever dear to me."
The short metre is three iambic trimetres and one iambic tetrametre; as,
Great is the Lord, our God,
And let His praise be great;
He makes His churches His abode,
His most delightful seat.
The iambic pentametre is used in epic verse, and corresponds to the Latin hexametre; as,
Stretch forth thy hand to God, 'tis not for thee
To question aught, nor all His purpose see.
The hand that led thee through the dreary night,
Does not thy counsel need when comes the light.
The opposite of the iambus is the trochee. The dactyl-- Greek for finger--has one long and two short syllables.
The opposite of the dactyl is the anapaest, two short and one long syllable.
A beautiful illustration of the trochaic metre is Longfellow's Psalm of Life:
"Tell me not in mournful numbers,
Life is but an empty dream;
For the soul is dead that slumbers
And things are not what they seem."
I THINK a great mistake is made by giving to those who begin geography a book to begin the study. As we are going to teach about this earth, its form, etc., why not begin with a ball? But as the child will find it difficult to conceive of a round object, let us make for him the continents of North and South America on a board, showing him where the mountains and rivers are found, and having him help us all that he can, putting the Rocky Mountains in their place and then the Sierras, and lastly the Coast Range, so called because they are so near the coast and accounting for the fact that the rivers are very short on that side. The teacher will need some strings of different lengths to show the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, but all this must go on very slowly, for the child must learn what we mean by elevations and depressions. He must make the Great Lakes of North America and show their outlet, the St. Lawrence River, carrying their waters into the Atlantic Ocean. Rivers must run as the land slopes, and as the Mississippi flows south and the St. Lawrence flows in an easterly direction, it shows there must
be a high ridge of land between them, so that one river is turned south and the other in an easterly direction.
Little by little the child must learn the names of the bodies of water; why one is called a river, and all that he can tell you about a river. Names of bodies of land and water are very interesting to the child when he himself has made the picture of them on his map and can see the difference between a strait and an isthmus, the formation and use being the same, but one is water and the other is land; the difference between an island and a lake, one being land surrounded by water and the other being water surrounded by land. Little by little he goes over both continents, learning the names of the bodies of land and, of course, learning to spell them correctly. When we have thus prepared both continents, we lay off the bounds of the people who inhabit this land.
We suppose that the child has learned something about climate, why some parts are cold and some hot, and so, when he plants his people in the northern parts of the continents. good time for him to be introduced to the Esquimaux, and, traveling farther south, he finds different people living in different parts, differing in their appearances or looks and in their occupations.
The study now becomes more interesting, as the child can fill out for himself the characteristics and the industries of the people who live in the different part, he knows that it is very cold there.
A very good picture of the globe can be made by a newspaper on which a line may be drawn showing the equator, then drawing another line a quarter of the way from the top, we may lay off the cold zone; and the torrid or hot zone, lying on both sides of the equator, can be equally well shown. Between the very hot and the very cold is the one which we call temperate, and now we can teach about the different seasons, the very hot and the very cold, having only two.
In the meantime, constant map drawing has prepared the pupil to draw upon the board that part of the country in which he lives, and another world of research and inquiry is open to him, and now he finds out facts for himself without having them forced upon him. When the pupils come into the geography room, there should be pictures of different lands, and as many specimens of the objects about them as they can get. Many questions in physical geography, that is, the geography of nature, will come up in the beginning lessons of geography, and are oftentimes very interesting; as, how does the water get into the clouds from the land; into the river; from the river into the sea; from the sea into the air; into the clouds; from the clouds upon the land again, and from the land into the river? Why the water of the Gulf of Mexico is warm? Some have said there are hot springs of water at its base.
The lightning and thunder form a fruitful subject to teach the children all about electricity, and
the man who discovered that lightning and electricity are the same.
In teaching mathematical geography, the teacher will need two circles which he can easily make out of ordinary wire. The number of degrees in a circle, the half of one, the quarter of one, can easily be taught. That the earth is round cannot be demonstrated to very young people, but people have traveled around it, starting from one point and coming back to the same, and people have sailed around it. Now the distance around all round bodies, is three hundred and sixty degrees, and the half, one hundred and eighty, and the quarter is ninety. We know that all these lines upon the surface of the earth are merely imaginary, and are placed on our globes for convenience. For instance, we take a line to reach around the earth equally from the north and south poles, as we call them; and we call this the equator.
We know that when the sun shines farthest north, it will reach exactly twenty-three and a half degrees over the north pole, and we put a circle there to mark this distance, and call it the arctic circle. Now when it begins to recede or go back, as it were, and reaches the southernmost limit, it shines twenty-three and a half degrees over the south pole, and we draw a line, which, being opposite to the Arctic, we call the Antarctic circle. Again, when the rays strike down perpendicularly, we notice that they never go farther than twenty-three and a half degrees north of our middle line, and twenty-three and a half degrees south
of our middle line, or equator. We speak of the sun being overhead here at twelve o'clock, but the sun is never overhead out of the tropics. We call these limitation lines tropics, or turning points, because when the sun gets to one, it seems to turn back to the other. This limitation of the sun's vertical rays on the north is called the tropic of cancer, and the opposite one on the south is called the tropic of capricorn. Now, as cancer means a crab, and capricorn means a goat, why in the world should these circles be thus named? We shall have to answer this question by referring to the ancients' study of astronomy.
The heavens were a fruitful source of study to the ancients; and the groups of stars, which are constellations, received certain names, according to whatever they seemed to resemble. The group toward the north looked to them like a crab, and the one toward the south looked to them like a goat.
I found an old table, and drew a line upon it to represent the equator. I found some sand, and having drawn an outline of the eastern and western continents, I took the sand and made the elevations and depressions on both sides. The children could see where the tropic of cancer struck on the western continent, and trace it across to the eastern.
Keeping such an illustrative map before the eyes of the pupils, they can get a practical idea of the relative position and climate of places on both continents. Questions of latitude and longitude can best be settled in this way.
When we take from ninety degrees the limitation of the Arctic circle (twenty-three degrees on the south being the limit of the vertical rays of the sun) we have left forty-three degrees, the width of the north temperate zone, bounded on the north by the Arctic circle, and on the south by the Antarctic circle, and on the north by the Tropic of Capricorn. We find four seasons in the temperate zone, which we call Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter; and the torrid zone, two, the wet and the dry; and in the frigid zone a very short summer and a long, cold winter. We have called the spaces thus marked off by rays of the sun zones, or belts, because they are parallel portions of the earth's surface. The Eastern Hemisphere is more difficult to mould and draw than the Western, and it is well to have them both on the other lines put in their places, and then the pupil can compare the climate on the Western Hemisphere. Having the zones marked off, they can easily tell us how many seasons each one of those countries has. I should like the children to know where the words arctic, cancer and capricorn come from. A constellation is a bunch of stars, or a number of stars taken together, which form a certain figure in the heavens. For instance, the children have all seen in the heavens, probably, what we call the big dipper, and the little dipper, because they look like dippers, having a bowl and a curved handle. Another name for these two constellations is Ursa Major and Ursa Minor; or, big bear and little bear.
A few lessons in astronomy upon the simplest
facts will open the door to interest the children, and when they are able to study the great science of astronomy they can learn a great deal more. With two circles made of wire, the teacher can represent the equator.
Traveling on any round body is measured in degrees, minutes, seconds, etc. As the sun moves from west to east, but seems to travel from east to west, we can show that every fifteen degrees on the earth's surface, going toward the east, bring us nearer the sun by one hour of time, so we can go on and show that when we have traveled seventy-five degrees toward the east, we will find the time at the end of our journey to be five hours later than at the place we started from. Therefore, as we travel toward the east, which may be called the rising sun, we will find that our time is faster than that which we left, and we can keep on that way until we get half way around the globe, and then we shall find that when it is ten o'clock at night over on the other side of the globe it is ten o'clock in the morning on this side. Many illustrations should be given about time to make it plain to children about the movements of the sun, and then they will understand what we mean by standard time. The most delightful part of geography is when we can begin teaching by journeys. Now tomorrow we are going to make a visit to England, and we will ask the children to find out how long it will take us to get there; and whether we go by land or sea; and what great city should we go to see when we
get there; how we should get across the great Atlantic Ocean; how many miles wide it is, what city we would start from on this side, and what line of steamships would we take and why; the different kind of sailing vessels.
And then the story of Columbus, and how he first came over will be in order. How long it took him, and how long it takes one of our vessels now. How much coal it takes to last one of these steamers across the ocean, and what is the average time for crossing. It will be seen that the teacher must be well furnished with information of a practical character. Keeping the moulded map of the two continents before the children's eyes, they can readily trace their way from one country to another, and tell where they could go by land, and how far they must go by water. How the people of different countries are employed is a very important subject, for we mean, how do they get their living; how do they find the means of sustenance?
Then comes the question, why are some nations employed in agriculture and why some are engaged in manufacturing, and some in mining, and some in trade and transportation; and what we mean by those engaged in commerce, foreign and domestic; and in this way we call attention to different occupations of the people who live on the earth. The difference in the clothing and food of people in the different countries will also claim our attention. And when we get ready to make these imaginary journeys, each child can be taught that it must pack its trunk with the kind of
clothes it will probably need, and this will make a great deal of merriment. This is caused by the children not understanding about climate, the difference in the towns on the sea coast, and the towns in the interior. This also calls up the question where all the great cities on the globe are located, and why. The history of the people on the globe is a most interesting one. Where did the people of our own country, the Western settlers, come from; and why did they come? Little by little the children learn much about our country from their geographical travels, and the story of Columbus is like a fairy tale. How he set out westward to find a northwest passage to India. For he believed that the earth was round and he knew nothing of the great continent lying between. So starting out, he was three months with his three little ships sailing about on the ocean, and when he came to the American continents he supposed he had come to India, and for that reason he called the first land he came to, the West Indies, and the island, he called Hispaniola, or Little Spain. It was not until Amerigo discovered the mainland that it was known that not an island, but a whole new world had been discovered by Columbus. The history of this great man is full of romance, and the teacher has a fine field to get the children to thinking and to draw out their thoughts when this subject comes up. Why had sailors always gone eastward when they wanted to go to India? Why had they never ventured beyond what is called the pillars of Hercules, that is, beyond the strait of Gibraltar, leading
out into the Atlantic Ocean? An old writer has said: For years and years mankind had confined himself to the Mediterranean Sea, and there we lived like frogs in a pond.
The history of the compass must now be studied, for by its invention mankind was no longer confined to any one place of the earth's surface, but the needle, always pointing to the north, became a sure guide when they were looking for a strange place; and so Columbus could tell in what direction he was sailing, because then men knew the use of the compass. The question may arise, why does the needle point to the north? It is because of the magnetic attraction of the north pole. The compass is divided into thirty-two parts, and when a sailor knows all of these points he is said to be able to box the compass.
Little by little, discovery has traced the lightning to its source. Benjamin Franklin found this out, and as soon as men knew what it was, they made machines and harnessed its powerful force into their service, and made it to carry their messages over the whole world, and by it we talk to people hundreds of miles away; aye, thousands of miles away. And when men stop wrangling and hating one another, they will begin to learn more of scientific law, and we may have wireless telephone, not only extending over this earth, but extending to the moon and to Mars.
We are now trembling on the eve of a great discovery which I have said God will show us when we delight to know more of His way. At first it was
thought we could only talk by the telephone a few miles apart, but now we have the long distance telephone. Who would have ever believed that cables could be laid in the deep ocean to carry the telegraphic message. But by wireless telegraphy the cable may now be displaced, and it is not too much to suppose that it will not be many years before we shall be able to talk with the people on Mars, and if there are none in the moon we shall be able to know it! but we can easily imagine that all the great planets swinging in space are not there for nothing. When we use the Orrery, we see the position of this earth among the other heavenly bodies, and we see that it is so small and insignificant in size that it looks like a mere ball of putty, and yet we allow our thoughts and aspirations to be limited by its twenty-five thousand miles of circumference.
Unholy ambition never succeeds well in anything, nor will the Great Creator of the universe reveal His secrets to those whose only desire is to shine in the eyes of men. But the light of Heaven will shine all around the man who humbly and fervently asks for more light, more light.
There are only two things we can do in arithmetic, put together and take apart. Multiplication is a quick way to add and Division is a quick way to subtract. Show these two processes by several examples.
It has often been asked, how shall I begin numbers? We begin by counting and making the numbers up to ten. Be careful, in making numbers, to make them neatly. Do not make a 4 like an x nor a 7 like a 9; nor make a 5 with the stem flying in the air. The children can count, for practice, any article in the room. Begin as soon as possible the Multiplication table, for that is one of the best instruments that I know of in teaching arithmetic. Problems may easily be learned in simple multiplication which we would suppose to belong to higher arithmetic. I do not see why we should not go from 1 to 25, although it is usual to stop at 12. Teaching the squares and cubes found in them is very helpful, and assists in solving many apparently difficult problems.
Counting by 5's and counting by 10's backward and forward. Making change by running up to a naught or a five. Finding cost of simple articles in a grocery.
We find that Foreigners seldom make a mistake in handling our money in the markets and stores. Illustration: You buy something that comes to 33 cents; 33 and 2, 35; and 5, 40; and 10, 50; and you gave 50 cts., and you know you have your right change. 10, 5, 2 equals 17. The other, and less convenient way, would be to put down 33 under 50 and subtract.
Define powers and roots. Let us see what powers we can get out of the tables 3's, 4's, 5's, etc. Whenever we multiply a number into itself we get a power, as: 5 5s, 3 3s, 8 8s, 7 7s. Roots of numbers are those equal factors, which multiplied together will produce them. Cube root, one of the 3 equal factors, square root one of the 2 equal factors, as: square root of 64 is 8. Cube root of 64 is 4.
In finding the cost of simple articles in play store, etc., we found it necessary to give good attention to dates.
How many threes can you get out of 21, how many out of 24, 36? How many fives can you get out of 15, how many out of 20, how many out of 40? Then divisors with remainders over, as: How many fives can you get out of 17, how many out of 29, and what over? As, I bought 4 lbs. of sugar at 5 cts. a pound. How much change have I from a quarter? I bought
5 lbs. of sugar at 51/2 cts. lb. How much change ought I to have from 25 cts.?
So many times a number to find it. Fractional part of a number to find it, as: 12 is 4 times what number? 3 times, 6 times, 12 times. These same questions must be asked with other multiples. 8 is 1/3 of what number? 1/4, 1/5, etc. Now put the two together and ask, 12 is 3/6 of what number? 4/6 of what number?
I have shown how much can be taught by using the multiplication table as an instrument and how it will lead out in higher arithmetic. After reading and writing numbers up to ten, go on to a hundred.
And now we must teach the difference in value according to place. To show that the first period is ones, second is thousands, third is millions. 100,100,100.
Show how these differ according to the period they are in. Write a hundred in each one. The first is 100 ones, the second is 100 thousand, the third, 100 millions.
In order to read a number correctly, separate it into periods of three figures each, beginning at the right. Remember that the first period is ones, second thousands, third millions, fourth billions, fifth trillions, and so on.
Extension means the act of drawing out; extension in one direction gives a line; extension in two directions gives a surface; extension in three directions gives a solid. So we notice that linear measure is the measure of lines. A surface has two dimensions, length
and breadth. So we measure surface by square measure.
A solid has three dimensions, length, breadth and thickness; so we measure solids by cubic measure.
Capacity means extent of room or space. There are two measures of capacity, liquid and dry measures.
The distance around an angular object is called perimeter. The distance around a round object is called circumference. In order to find the perimeter of a rectangle, add the length to the breadth and multiply by two. When you add the length and breadth together, we get half way around, and so we multiply by two to get the whole distance.
In order to get the area of a rectangle, multiply the length by breadth; as, give to each unit in length one unit in breadth, and we shall then have 12 square units; there will be as many rows of these as there are units in the breadth. If one row contains 8 units, twelve rows contain 12 x 8 units, or 96 units. If we should multiply the length by the breadth, we should have the same result. To find the number of cubic inches, multiply length, breadth and height together. One of the best ways to get work quickly given out is to have it written down on manila paper.
First, the board is clean; second, one division is sent to the board; third, while they are facing the teacher, some pupil passes the papers around. There must be no time for picking or choosing. Then each one turns to the board and begins to work. The teacher must keep his class doing regular work in reviewing
exercises. One-half of the work should be reviewed every day. When children first begin to think about a subject they cannot possibly take in all at once; here is where teachers often make mistakes. When a child is learning a rule, he has only begun. He will learn more little by little. Every time the review is given the children learn something new about the subject. There should be frequent mental exercise. A teacher must think more comprehensively than his pupil.
Reading signs is very important, especially for pupils who are beginning, as: 8 + 4, 8 - 4, 8 ÷ 4, or 10 - 5, 10 ÷ 5, 10 + 5. Letting the child see the different operations.
How can a teacher teach mental arithmetic and practical arithmetic at the same time? About forty-five minutes is given to a class in arithmetic, and if we should add to this fifteen minutes to mental drill, it would give more time to arithmetic than its share, considering the other studies.
But if the teacher separates the class in two divisions, then one set can be doing practical work while the other is getting mental drill.
The mental drill is exceedingly important.
The teacher can do a great deal in ten minutes and give a variety of exercises very useful in building up mental power.
The second division of the class can be doing practical work at the board or while seated.
There should be two ways in examining a class
in arithmetic. First--one is to see if the pupil can handle large numbers and is accurate in his work, and then we must not give more than four or five examples.
Second--We must examine in power of reasoning; then we can give ten problems with numbers of two places, as: Find the sum of 1/2 of 20; 1/3 of 18; 1/5 of 40 cts.
John earns one day 1/2 of a dollar, another day 1/10 of $1.00; he afterward spent 1/4 of $1.00.
If rice is 9 cts. a lb., how many lbs. can you get for 96 cts.?
John has 20 cts., and this is 2/3 of Mary's money; how much has Mary? And many such simple examples should be given, which will show you how much your pupil can reason.
From the sum of 20 and 30 take their difference.
Multiply the sum of 8 + 6 by their difference and add 4 to the result. Divide the sum of 4 and 16 by 1/3 of their difference.
From the product of five times 8 take three times 2 and add 50 to the result.
To the quotient 27 divided by 3 add their product plus their sum.
25 ÷ 5416 X 2 - 6 ÷ 2 = ? 25 - 5 X 5 + 10 - 2 X 5 = ?
It is never necessary to wait and do nothing, but while we are waiting we can always find something else to do, and so make good use of the time. Remember Washington Irving, who became a learned man by
using his spare minutes for reading. And remember Elihu Burritt; he is called the learned blacksmith. During his spare moments he learned fifty languages. Let us learn what to do with odds and ends of time. When the sum and difference of two numbers is given, to find the numbers, add the difference to the sum, and we get twice the greater number. When we have twice the number and divide by two, we get the number.
One fractional part of a number is one fractional part of another number. Several fractional parts of numbers are several fractional parts of another number, as: 1/4 of 20 is 1/7 of what number; 3/4 of 20 is 5/9 of what number?
Beginning children in numbers is harder than any other part of the work. First, they must be taught to count consecutively up to one hundred, and at the same time the counting must be done with objects: rose leaves, grains of corn or the objects in the room.
Addition, multiplication, division made all at once: No good teacher will think of following the book. Take any number of objects, say 10, with a board in front; objects laid out in piles of ten. Take one away, count the number left, then 9 + 1 = 10, until the child understands. Take 3, 5 away, see what is left. Then separate ten in five equal parts, some one making piles of two, and see how many piles are in 10. The child sees five piles with two each equal 10, or, 5 X 2 = 10. Alter this, abstract reasoning immediately; show use of it. As, bread is 5 cts. a loaf, how many can we get
for 10 cts.? One yeast cake at 2 cts. and one loaf of bread from 10, how many have you left? And many problems of like character.
The teacher who is a master of the multiplication table will find he has a means of investigation in arithmetic and algebra all ready to his hand. The factors which produce certain products, the squares and cubes hidden away in their depths, all come to light before they are hidden away in some apparently difficult problem in proportion or percentage.
The teacher who is expert in the use of multiplication table can easily teach involution and evolution, proportion and other apparently difficult processes in arithmetic and algebra in this simple way. Now is the time to teach the square of the sum, the square of the difference and the rectangle of the sum and difference, thus preparing for algebra. It is well just here to define what we mean by the numerical square and the geometrical square. The numerical square being the product of the two equal factors, and the geometrical square an equilateral rectangle; also the numerical cube being the product of three equal factors, and the geometrical cube a solid bounded by six equal squares.
The teacher must go into his room, having prepared the work in arithmetic and algebra as far as the learners have advanced. Do not be satisfied with the few problems which their books upon the subject present. The teacher should have consulted ten or twenty
books on the same subject and come to his class prepared to test the children's knowledge upon what they are learning, and their ability to understand the principles and to handle the work with success.
Our knowledge in mathematics is largely increased by what we know of the right-angle triangle and of the ratio between numbers, and I have said this can be taught when we are studying the multiplication table, as: 5 : 7 :: 15 : some number. Now it is common in proportion to say, when three terms are given, multiply the means together and divide by the other extreme, or multiply the extremes together and divide by the given means. Now 5 is the same part of 7 that 15 is of some number. We know that 5 is 5/7 of 7, so 15 must be 5/7 of some number. If 15 is 5/7, 1/7 must be 1/5 of 15, or 3. And 7/7, or the whole, will be 7 X 3, or 21; therefore 5 : 7 :: 15 : 21. So we see the great importance of teaching what part one number is of another as leading out afterwards to ratio and proportion.
A good rule for long division: Try the first figures of the divisor into the first figures of the dividend, and about as many times as it is contained, about so many times the whole divisor will be contained into the whole dividend. You may have heard of the poet who made a coop for his chickens. He made a big door for the big chickens and a little door for the little chickens. Now, which door was not necessary?
Numbers in English are written upon a geometrical progression of ten, and a number standing in
front of a number is ten times greater than the number back of it and a hundred times greater than the one back of that, and a thousand times greater than the first one, and standing in the fifth place, ten thousand times greater. This rapid increase soon places the head numbers out of sight of the back ones. That is the reason we call the head numbers the big chickens. We call the first figures of the divisor the big chickens and the corresponding one of the dividend the big door. In long division, if you have a remainder greater than the divisor, then the figure in the quotient is too small. A very useful rule in mathematics is to always prove your subtraction. Instead of using the terms subtrahend and minuend, etc., say, add what you take away to what you had left, and if you get what you had at first the work is right. It will be some time before they completely realize what you take away is the subtrahend, and what you have left the remainder, and minuend the sum to be diminished.
To add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions need not be at all difficult. We mean by reducing to a common denominator, making the parts equal in size. We can then see how many we have, find the difference between them or see how many times one is contained into another. When we are reducing to a common denominator we are multiplying fractions, as: We have one apple divided into 3 parts and another divided into 2 parts; we will take one of the 3 equal parts, which is 1/3, and one of the 2 equal parts, which
is 1/2. We will cut each third into 2 equal parts, thus getting 1/2 of 1/3 and we see that the whole unit consists of six of those parts; so 1/2 of 1/3 is 1/6. Then we cut each half in three equal parts; the unit will consist of 6 of those parts, and we see that 1/3 of 1/2 = 1/6 of a whole. Now if we had 1/3 and 1/2 of anything we can see that it is 5/6 of the whole.
We also see that 3/6-2/6=1/6. Again 1/2 ÷ 1/3=3/6 ÷ 2/6=1/2. The question is how much of the greater can you measure off on the smaller; 3 cannot be measured off on 2, but we can measure off 2/3 of the measuring line--1/3 ÷ 1/2 = 2/3. The same principles apply to decimal fractions. These are very beautiful and very important, because we use them in finding interest.
It can easily be shown that it is not difficult to tell what rate of interest is being received on any sum of money, and it is now very important that we should teach interest in a businesslike way, and remember that percentage is not interest. First find the cost of what we bought, and to this sum add all the after expenses, then see what rate per cent. this is on our money.
As a general thing, bookkeeping is left for the higher classes, but it ought to be taught much lower down, and it is for this reason that decimals, which can be so easily used in the operation of finding interest, should be well taught. For instance: A house is bought for $3000 and rents for $25 a month; what rate of interest does the investment pay? Nothing was said of taxes, nothing of the repairs and nothing of the
time when the house was unrented, and yet this was given as a problem for some one to find the rate of interest. A good rule is to find what the money would have gained if it had been on interest at one per cent. for the given time and divide the given interest by it.
IN THE year 1888, the Centenary of Missions was held in London, and all Foreign Missionary Societies were invited to send delegates to the meeting. I was at that time President of the Women's Home and Foreign Missionary Society of the A. M. E. Church, and was elected a delegate to represent the Society at that meeting. For the better understanding of the work, I went to New York and met the different heads of the Societies in America. Among these was Doctor Kincaid, a classmate of mine at Oberlin College, and a representative minister in his church.
Doctor Kincaid reminded me of an incident which happened at Oberlin, when he and I, among others, were examined for the First Church choir. He asked if I remembered how sorry I was when he failed in his examination. I certainly had forgotten all about it.
When the time came for me to go to England, I did not look upon the visit with much favor. Never having been abroad before, and not knowing a soul on the ship, I had many doubts as to how I would get
along. And so I had it out with the Lord. Thou seest, O Lord, that I have no one to help me, and if I get nausea I may faint and be very troublesome to those about me. Thou seest, O Lord, that I must not get sick. And I wasn't sick.
From time to time, when I had the least feeling of nausea, I would walk up and down the deck of the vessel and sing. Patriotic songs, Sunday school hymns, all came in for a share of my singing devotion.
It so happened that the French Minister to Madagascar was aboard the ship; and as the notes of that noble melody, the Marseillaise, rolled out upon the water, he expressed himself as being delighted, and what Frenchman wouldn't. So, I began to make friends. Not less, also, when the "Star Spangled Banner" came up for a share. I knew that I could sing as much as I pleased; nobody was disturbed, and the least inkling of sickness entirely disappeared. I can recommend singing as one of the best preventatives against seasickness.
We arrived at Liverpool. Out in the Mersey the ship was blowing and blowing. I asked what this was for, and was told that it was a call for a tender. What is that? said I. Very soon I saw a little steamer leaving the wharf and coming toward us, bobbing up and down like a duck.
Soon we were at the Custom House where the officers were waiting to examine our "luggage," as they call it there. It didn't take long to get thru mine, but a dear old Irish friend that I had made on
the vessel got held up on some little bags of candy which she was taking to her grandchildren. It's tobacco, said the officer. It's candy, said my Irish friend. I felt that I could not remain longer, for the cab was waiting to take us to the train. But my friend came out with the verdict in favor of candy.
Having arrived at the train, my friend said, I am going to cable home. One word tells the story. What is your code? I had no code. Did not understand what a convenience it was. One word could have informed friends at home that I arrived safe and in good condition. My Irish friend had often crossed the water and had learned what to do. I should have decided upon a code before I left home. As it was, they had to wait at home until they could hear from me by letter.
Off for London now, where Edwards' Family Hotel gave me safe shelter until I could communicate with the committee.
This having been attended to at Exeter Hall, I was informed that Lady--had signified her intention to take some of the delegates. I thought it no more than fair that she should be informed that I was a colored woman. Ah shucks, said the committee, we do not care anything about that.
And so off I went to what turned out to be a most agreeable stopping place.
Next came the meeting with that assembly of gray-headed men and women, who for many years
had been living in far-away lands, carrying the Gospel into the benighted places of the earth.
What a glorious thing it was to hear their experiences. Fairy stories could not be more entrancing.
I knew that there was much to be seen in London, but I could not be lured away from this religious assembly, so long as the meetings continued.
In a few days I was informed that Dr. William B. Derrick had arrived from America and was eloquently giving his story of the uplift among his people.
The English people were deeply touched by the fact that, tho hardly a decade out of slavery, the colored people had organized for work in heathen lands.
A Presbyterian minister, in speaking, told the women repeatedly that they must not assume any ecclesiastical functions. This got me riled, and in reply I tried to make it plain that the Lord God alone gives the limit to the functions of woman's religious work. I never had any desire to assume ecclesiastical functions, and I always considered the pulpit a sacred place, and therefore have always refused to make speeches from it.
In addressing the meeting, I spoke in part as follows, (taken from the printed minutes): Sometimes when a thought comes uppermost it is better to get it out of the way, as it may be very troublesome afterwards. Now, with reference to what we have heard this morning, I wish to say this. I think there is nothing in the law of God's universe, that was made without having ample space to move in, without trenching
upon its neighbor's domain; and it may very well be said of women, that while they are and were created second, they were not only created with body, but they were created also with a head, and they are responsible therefore to decide in certain matters and to use their own judgment.
It is also very true, as I will certainly say, that fools often rush in where angels fear to tread; but then I question as to whether all fools are confined to the feminine gender. Ladies and gentlemen, time is very brief, indeed, and I am overwhelmed with the thoughts of looking upon English people and upon English faces, the historic land of liberty. No one here can understand how the women occupying the great seaboard yonder, have looked upon this land--those who, like myself, bear the yoke with them. Now, there are in the United States, distributed among eleven of the former Southern States, over eight million of my people. Of these, more than 3,000,000 are women, and those three millions whom the Lord God, in His inscrutable providence, has seen fit to pass through a hard school, distributed, as I say, along there and very nearly in the majority, they send greetings here today and wish me to speak about what their feeling is towards the Christianization of the colored races of the earth. You will not, I am sure, deny us the very peculiar interest, as I say, in the Christianization of all races. These poor women, less than a decade out of slavery, established a Foreign Missionary Society and have their foreign missionaries in the island of
Hayti, in San Domingo, in Trinidad, in St. Thomas and Sierra Leone, on the west coast of Africa. They have not a whole loaf to share, as we all know; they have not even a half loaf to share with their sisters and brothers in foreign lands. They have but a crust; but, poor as they are, they sent me here--three millions of those women sent me 3000 miles--to say to all who are here assembled that their hearts are in that work, and that they intend to devote not only what little they have of money and resources to sustain their missionaries in those lands, but they are prepared to give themselves.
How I wanted yesterday to say, as Mr. Guinness spoke of Africa, what wonderful transmutations under God's providence have been taking place among these people, and what a missionary spirit has been developed amongst them. The problem how to reach the colored people on the Western Coast has been for years one which civilized nations have been unable to unravel, but He, in His own time, will make it plain. Who hath known the mind of the Lord in those things? And yet we have been hampered on all sides by presupposed ideas of what was meant by the enslavement of all these people. Now, let me say something about them. The spirit of missionaries, the spirit of mission work, is the spirit of sharing all we have. Those to whom God gives intelligence and wealth, He gave it simply that it might be shared. Did He give you more intelligence than another? Then He gave some one else less, and it is your bounden duty to use it to help
that one who has not so much as you. Did He make you rich? Then He has made another poor, and the greatest of blessings, and the truest happiness is to share all that you have with those who need it. But if not from the grace and blessedness, I do think from the very necessity of the fact that all history teaches that those who have had more light from God, or more of the good things of this life, and who have not shared it with those about them, they have had every bit taken away from them, as you very well know; and the light passed on, and on, and on, thru the Eastern countries, westward until it beamed equally on all men, as the Lord God intended that it should do.
TO GO to Africa, the original home of our people, see them in their native life and habits, and to contribute, even in a small degree, toward the development, civil and religious, that is going on among them, is a privilege that anyone might be glad to enjoy.
After having spent thirty-seven years in the school room, laboring to give a correct start in life to the youth that came under my influence, it was indeed, to me, a fortunate incident to finish my active work right in Africa, the home of the ancestors of those whose lives I had endeavored to direct.
All this came about thru my marriage in 1881 to Rev. L. J. Coppin who, in 1900, was elected one of the Bishops of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and assigned to South Africa.
It may not be of special interest to the reader to hear all about the trip across the Atlantic to Liverpool on the steamship Umbria, of the Cunard Line, nor of the voyage from London, down the river Thames to Southampton, on the steamship German, and thence down the coast via Teneriffe Island.
The objective point was Cape Town, South Africa, and when on Sunday morning, November 30, 1902, we came to anchor in Table Bay, a new world seemed to rise before me, and a new vision.
Our new residence was at Cape Town, where rooms had been prepared on the second floor of a building, which constituted our headquarters when not traveling over the work.
Cape Town is, in a sense, a modern city. It has been occupied a long time by the English, and such sanitary conditions obtain as might be expected of a city under English rule.
The historic Table Mountain affords a natural reservoir, and supplies the town with drinking water of a superior quality. The markets are not large, and much of the food is imported, and the "high cost of living" is a familiar topic. Being situated right on the Bay, fishing is one of the daily vocations, and we have fish in abundance. But then, even missionaries will tire of fish if they are the daily food, for surely man can no more live on fish alone than on bread alone.
We were made as comfortable in our quarters as missionaries have reason to expect, and the one absorbing thought was, how shall we accomplish the work for which we left our homes.
In uniting with the A. M. E. Church after my marriage, I asked my husband what particular work I would be required or expected to do, and was told that a certain portion of missionary work was given by the Church to its women. Now, here was the field,
for, with all the outward show of civilization at this English seaport, the needs of the native and "coloured" people were everywhere plain to be seen.
The colored people are the mixed bloods, a condition that obtains wherever a stronger people force their way into a country and take possession.
In many cases, the children of the dominant race were cared for by being given, at least, a primary education, and such employment as enabled them to have a fair proportion of the necessities of life. But the much larger portion of "Cape coloured" people were left to live their lives as best they might, and rear their children in or out of wedlock.
It was not an unusual sight to see my husband marry couples and at the same time baptise both their children and their grandchildren, and that within a very short distance of Cape Town.
The homes in which many of them lived in those nearby places might well be called huts, and very poor ones at that.
The Dutch farmers who gave them employment were largely engaged in grape farming, and the manufacture of wine, the poorest brands of which would be given to those miserable dependents as part wages.
In Cape Town itself, saloons were plentiful. Sometimes one on every corner of street after street, and occasionally one between.
It surely cannot be difficult to imagine how easily a people so neglected in the higher ideals of life would turn to the drink habit as a mere pastime.
The native people--those of unmixed African blood--who came down from the country beyond, and found employment principally as loaders and unloaders of ships, and the heavier work along the railroads, would be quartered in "Locations" a mile or two beyond the city limits. The cabins, or huts, provided for them by the government at Cape Town, are very inferior for comfort to those built by the natives in their rural habitat before being brought into contact with our so-called civilization. The Cape Town Location was on a tract of land that would be fairly flooded with water during the rainy season, and many who came down hale and hearty would return consumptives--a disease practically unknown to the "heathen"--or never return at all.
The drink habit would soon be learned by those raw natives, and their last state would become worse than the first.
We were often asked why we made our headquarters at Cape Town instead of going and remaining far away into the interior, doing work entirely among the uncivilized. But it was hard indeed for us to turn away entirely from the conditons that met us upon the very entrance into the country. It is true the bulk of our work was far away from Cape Town, and among people in primitive life; but it was a good thing to have a base at this seaport town, where occasionally we could ourselves return to modern life, and where we could also work among those who needed us quite as much as those who had not been introduced into the
blessedness (?) of a civilization that places the acquisition of wealth far above the redemption of souls.
Well, here my "special" work began. My husband, who preceded me on the field, had purchased a building and turned it into a school and mission house-- Bethel Institute--and here I called the women together, the women who had risen above their environments, really noble, faithful, Christian women, and began my temperance work.
We organized after the model of our work at home. A local society was started, not only at Cape Town, but at many nearby places where we had mission stations, and, drawing from their membership, a Conference Branch was organized for the Cape Colony Conference.
At our first Annual Session of the Conference, which met at Port Elizabeth, the sight of native and colored women in a missionary session was one of the features of the Conference; and a glorious and inspiring sight it was. Gathered about me on the platform, and around the altar, were women who never before had appeared in public for Christian work, at least, never before to take a leading part in it. They had been lately organized, and now they were called upon to do the work of officers, and to speak to the public gathering for themselves; some in Dutch-- their mother tongue--some in broken English, and some in their own God-given native language.
In my travels over the work with my husband I went as far as Bulawayo, 1360 miles from Cape
Town. The journey was long, tiresome and trying. At the meeting held there in our mission house, I had a new and not pleasant experience, for, after endeavoring to forget the fatigue caused by the journey, I made my accustomed address by the aid of an interpreter, and was seized with a fainting spell. I had for years been accustomed to hard work, and often deprivations, but had never before fallen at my post.
I was tenderly carried by the loving hands of native women out into the open, while Mr. Coppin went on with the meeting.
The small child of one of the native women was much disturbed when the mother left it in the care of others while she waited on me. The little one was not yet old enough to take in the situation, and so, openly revolted against such neglect, caused by a stranger who had been speaking in an unknown tongue.
At this particular meeting we afterwards learned that the government had spies on hand, native spies, to observe all that was said, and report to the authorities. The fear seemed to be that the instruction likely to be given to the natives would cause them to become dissatisfied with their lot, and, as some said, "bring on a native problem, as they had had a Boer problem." The spirit of suspicion was everywhere prevalent, and did much, for a time, to retard our work. I think, however, the authorities finally came to understand that we were missionaries pure and simple, and not politicians, and if there was any cause for alarm it must
grow out of the fact that enlightenment does indeed enable people to see their true condition, and that they do sometimes become dissatisfied when convinced that injustice, and a general lack of the Christian spirit of brotherhood, is responsible for much of their misery.
The route to Bulawayo is upon the road constructed by that great empire builder, John Cecil Rhodes, with the view of carrying out his scheme, "from Cape to Cairo." It goes thru a large portion of country that is governed entirely by native chiefs, with, of course, the English oversight that is now given to all of South Africa, for there is no portion of the country that is absolutely in the hands of native rulers, such as obtained previous to the coming of the white man. But, in those native colonies like Basutoland, for instance, the land is occupied by the people of a given tribe, or "nation," as they like to call themselves, with a chief--paramount chief--in authority. The chief is the ruler and judge in all matters, not including capital punishment, or the leasing of lands to foreigners. They live their shepherd life and pay but little attention to agriculture. Having learned the value of money as an exchange, they go to the mining camps and work for periods of time, six months, a year, or even more, according to contract; take their money, return home, buy cattle, and, if they wish, add more wives to their household.
Many of them have never been away from their desert homes, and when the trains pass periodically thru their country, they come out to the Halts, where
water is taken on and telegraphic connections made. Those Halts, or stations, are in the care of English officials. Perhaps a man, his wife and their children are the only occupants of that home, away out into the desert, far removed from civilization, in the midst of native people, called heathen, who are counted by multiplied thousands, but they have no fear and suffer no harm.
These innocent children of the forest come out to meet the trains. They come in great numbers and in native garb, which cannot be called clothing, but merely a sheep skin, or strings of beads about their loins. They seem amazed as they gaze at the trains, filled with people so unlike themselves in appearance. They chatter away among themselves. Just what they are thinking and saying, their distinguished guests have no means of knowing.
But when we, as missionaries, turn aside and go among them with our interpreters, we have an opportunity to come in possession of their thoughts and find out what manner of people they are.
That which always seems to be the prevailing desire among them is to acquire a knowledge of the new conditions which they see, but cannot understand.
They soon learn what is meant by school, and immediately express a desire to have their children taught. In my experience among them, I have never found them entirely satisfied with mere abstract teaching of religion. They have religious views before we reach them. Crude, of course; unenlightened, uncertain,
speculative, false, just as all people hold who have not been given the true word of God. When those who come to them win their confidence, they readily modify their religious views, regarding their teachers as their superiors in matters religious. But there is nothing like a superstitious worshipping of their benefactors, nor of the new doctrines which they bring. With an incredible clearness of vision, they look forward to and expect some practical and really tangible benefits to grow out of their new relation.
They already have, as it were, an intuitive sense of right and wrong, hence they do no harm to the stranger in their midst. Indeed, our religious teaching is, in a sense, but an explanation of their own religious impulses.
In their own moral and religious ethics they teach thou shalt, and thou shalt not, without being able to give philosophical reasons for it. Now when light is thrown into their benighted minds, and reasons are given for certain ways of life required of them, and their own creeds revised, taken from and added to, imagine their surprise when they see their teachers, disregarding in their lives, their own teaching. With child-like credulity they turn from the old to the new, and when disappointed in those who bring them the light they are not prepared at first to conclude, by a process of reasoning, that there is chaff among the wheat, dross with the gold, but, rather, they feel that they have been deceived, and this accounts for some of the lapses of which we hear so much.
Our interpreters are native men who have come in contact with civilization by being trained at mission schools. Some of them have been to England and America and studied. But many of them have never been out of Africa, and yet they speak fluently English, Dutch and several of the tribal languages, and read the Bible in those languages. We are dependent upon the interpreter, and greatly indebted to the forerunners in the mission fields who made such indispensible aid possible.
On our way from Bulawayo we stopped at Mafeking and spent some time. There was a public reception given to us at the Masonic temple. Mafeking became famous during the Anglo-Boer war on account of the siege, and the gallant defense by General Baden-Powell.
John Cecil Rhodes was there during the siege, and when they brought him butter he refused to eat it, and sent it to the sick soldiers. Some of our societies were called the Cecil Rhodes Bands of Mercy.
Living at Mafeking are a large number of Malay people who are Mohammedans. The leading spirit among them is a merchant, Hadje Ben Hassen. Ben Hassen is his name, and he is a Hadje by virtue of having made a pilgrimage to Mecca. One of the moving spirits in the reception which was tendered was this Hadje. He headed a delegation of his countrymen and fellow religionists to the hall, and himself occupied a seat on the platform among the speakers. In his address he said that it was not customary for
Christians and Mohammedans to thus come together, but, as there was a Negro Bishop in their midst, he felt that the religious idea should be set aside, and that all should come out to do honor to a distinguished member of the race.
Some of the Mohammedan people sent their children to our school at Cape Town, and even provided them with Bibles that they might take part in the opening services of the school.
Perhaps one of the things that has caused Mohammedans to step over the religious barriers that have kept the dark races apart in Africa, is the fact that, when the lines of proscription are drawn--and this is becoming more and more so-- the Malay, the Indian--East Indian--the native and the "coloured" are all treated alike in matters social. Some of the Malays and Indians are very wealthy, and the renewal of license has been refused to some of the Indian merchants because it was said that English merchants could not compete with them. This happened at Port Elizabeth during the time that we were there in conference sessions.
Much wisdom and patience will be required on the part of our ministers and teachers lest they should add to the spirit of unrest that comes of injustice and proscription. Wisdom dictates that by all means a conflict between the races should be avoided. The Europeans, armed and drilled, would have the advantage of all others, and there could be but one result. The Kingdom of God does not proceed in its conquests by
the employment of carnal weapons, and right can afford to be patient because it is bound to win in the end.
The native people have had enough of war. Their vocation in the ages past was to war among themselves, and it would not be difficult to impress them that that is not the way to right their wrongs. But the new life which we offer them is the life of peace and good will, and they cannot believe in God and our holy religion without believing that He is able to carry out His purposes, tho He be long-suffering.
My stay in Africa was pleasant, for I did not count the deprivations, and sometimes hardships. We were graciously kept from disease, even the bubonic plague that came to our very door. I was permitted to go with my husband thru the greater portion of his work, and mingle with and talk to the women upon the subjects of righteousness, temperance and the judgment to come. If some seed was sown that took root, and will never be entirely uprooted, the visit to Africa was not in vain. In selecting names for our local auxiliary societies, we chose the names of some of the women at home who labored during their lifetime in home missions, besides helping the foreign work. And so we have the Mary A. Campbell Society at one place, the Florida Grant at another, and other names of worthy ones which will be handed down to posterity, and be a means of inspiring those who will be told of their work and worth.
W. C. BOLIVAR
IT WAS Carlyle who said "the human anecdotal is the best of all writing," and this part of the posthumous effort of Fanny M. Jackson-Coppin will have a measure of interest, along with the direct personal output from the pen of one of the brainiest, best and most useful women of Negro origin. For many years the writer urged with others some tangibility from her pen, and it was only after an enforced home keeping, through sickness, that it was at last undertaken. She "crossed the bar" in January and the autumn prior found the book practically finished. In several talks, including one, just five days previous to her final leavetaking, she was full of regret that the data accumulated by her had not taken the finished form of the first part. It was at hand, however, but not codified and arranged in sequence. The spirit of altruism, the self-abnegations of a lifetime, were obvious in her motive in the other part she had planned. She meant that those who had helped her, and that some of the exceptional scholars from the school in which she had taught for nearly forty years, should be a part of her last effort. All the details, and all the persons noted in the pages to follow, were her thought, suggestion, and arrangement. She is recalled
by the writer from the time of her advent in Philadelphia, and all the way thru he has followed her career not only with profit and interest, but with admiration. He knows of the many needy, ambitious and purposeful boys and girls she helped, not only by suggestions, but practically. He is aware of the initial steps to combine both head and hand training, and how as far back as the Centennial days, which seemed to be the fulcrum for her lever, she started the project, that was seen in the trades that were taught along with academics. The managers had a practical demonstration of her belief in the way she secured several thousand dollars as an earnest of it. This was even before 1880, antedating Tuskegee, and a few years later the Managers were convinced, and the school set in motion with the money in hand. Two efforts of a tentative character, with the head and hand combination, were made with insufficient funds in the '30's, at Eddington and Chester County. There was then a halt, and the school was not started again until the '40's, and carried on for a brief span by Ishmael Locke. There was another closing of the school, but money came by bequest and gift, and the idea of mind training alone was set in motion, and continued under Professors Reason and Bassett and Mrs. Coppin herself, until the change came as narrated.
This is simply a supplementary pointer to an aftermath of splendid effort, as seen in the first part; and in no sense an introduction--for who is there to introduce a woman like Fanny M. Jackson-Coppin?
WILLIAM C. BOLIVAR.
INSTITUTE FOR COLORED YOUTH
Charles L. Reason.--Ishmael Locke was the first teacher for the Institute for Colored Youth, and his tenure was brief, for the reason of insufficient funds. When this was secured, the managers put up the building at 716-18 Lombard street, and secured Prof. Charles L. Reason as its head. Prof. Reason was a native of New York city, and a graduate of the McGrawville College, N. Y. In 1849 he was called to the chair of Belles Lettres and Mathematics, in New York Central College, and relinquished his work there to come to Philadelphia. He remained but two years, when he went to his native city and became principal of the largest public school there. He was a man of rare personality and finely equipped for teaching. He was cultured beyond most of his contemporaries, and wrote strongly and gracefully both verse and prose. In all the anti-slavery publications he was a contributor, as well as to the Anglo-African Magazine, begun in New York in 1859 under men like Dr. James McCune Smith. He lived to a ripe age, and not only in the educational field was he a potency, but in all the concerns of a public character in which his race was a
part. A singular coincidence was the fact of a call to Grace M. Mapps, of this city, as the head of the Girls' Department, I. C. Y., at the time of Professor Reason's call. She was a graduate of McGrawville College, and the pioneer colored woman as a college graduate.
Hon. Ebenezer D. Bassett was the principal in charge of the Institute for Colored Youth who immediately preceded Mrs. Fanny Jackson-Coppin.
Mr. Bassett was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, attended the Birmingham Academy, now known as the Derby High School, and was graduated from the Connecticut State Normal School at New Britain in 1853. He also studied at Yale in '54 and '55. It was in the fall of '55 that he accepted the position as principal of the Institute for Colored Youth. He remained here for fourteen years. He was an earnest, forceful teacher, always painstaking, always faithful to his duties, and was especially successful in the teaching of mathematics and the classics, in which he had excelled while a student at Yale.
In 1869 he was appointed first United States Minister to Haiti by President Grant, and served in this capacity until 1879.
Our government's appreciation of his services is shown in the acceptance of his manual on the "Resources and Government of Haiti" as authoritative by the Bureau of American Republics, at Washington.
During one of his visits to his home at New Haven
he was invited and delivered an address upon "The Right of Asylum," before the Law School at Yale.
On his return to the States the Haitien Government appointed him Consul General at New York city. This position he held for twelve years. Again in 1898, at the outbreak of the Spanish War, the people of Haiti, fearing that they might be included in the annexation which was then under discussion, desired the advantage of Mr. Bassett's experience and advice. He was then reappointed as Vice Consul. This position he held until his death, November 13, 1908.
It was during Mr. Bassett's administration as principal of the Institute that the first examination and appointment of colored teachers obtained in our public schools.
Octavius V. Catto was born in Charleston, S. C., February 22, 1840, but came to Philadelphia with his parents at an early age.
He attended the Institute for Colored Youth and graduated therefrom as the valedictorian of his class in 1858. He was immediately appointed assistant to the Principal, the late Hon. E. D. Bassett, as teacher of English and Mathematics.
In the early "sixties" he was called to the principalship of a Grammar School in Brooklyn, but, declining this offer, he remained assistant to Mr. Bassett until 1869, when the latter was appointed Minister to Haiti by President Grant. Mr. Catto then became Principal of the Boys' High School Department of the Institute.
The following year he was granted a month's leave of absence by the Board of Managers so that he might go to Washington, D. C., at the request of the school authorities there, to revise the course of instruction for the public schools of that city. This was done because he had declined the appointment of Superintendent of Colored Schools which they had tendered him, as the Managers of the Institute were equally desirous of retaining him here in Philadelphia.
He was one of the famous ninety colored men who answered the first call for troops in the North in the late Civil War, and who were turned away from the Capitol at Harrisburg by Governor Curtin, who declared no colored soldiers should cross the State of Pennsylvania while he was Governor.
He drafted the Bill of Rights for equal accommodation for all in the cars of our city, and was also one of the committee who repeatedly visited Harrisburg, accompanied by the late Prof. Jacob C. White, Jr., who for many years was Principal of the Roberts Vaux School, of the Fourteenth Section. Thru the persistent efforts of Mr. Catto and his committee the passage of the bill was secured, and it remains intact to-day.
Mr. Catto was one of the founders of the Banneker Institute, a literary association of considerable merit, which was in existence over twenty years. He was also an active, member of the Philadelphia Library
Company, which had been organized in 1832 and was not disbanded until after his death.
He was a speaker of pleasing voice, gracious yet forceful manner and persuasive power. He was an upright, intelligent citizen, who took active part in all intellectual affairs of the hour.
His strong belief in the power of education in the development of a people is well shown in the following quotation from one of his addresses: "It is the duty of every man, to the extent of his interest and means, to provide for the immediate improvement of the four or five millions of ignorant and previously dependent laborers who will be thrown upon society in the reorganization of the Union. It is for the good of the nation that every element of its population be wisely instructed in the advantages of a republican government, that every element of its people, mingled tho they be, shall have a true and intelligent conception of the allegiance due to the established powers."
He was cruelly assassinated by a political enemy, on October 10, 1871, while returning to his home from school.
The city authorities accorded him as great honor as was ever given to any citizen, the city officials attending the funeral, which expenses were borne by the city government.
A just condemnation of the deed which caused his untimely end, no less than a just appreciation of his many manly and noble traits, led the Board of
School Directors of the Seventh Section, with the late Thomas Durham as President, to request the Board of Education to name the Public School on Lombard street, west of Twentieth street, in his honor, at its dedication in January, 1879.
Among the number of young people who were inspired by the late Fanny Jackson Coppin to take advantage of the opportunities offered for skilled hand training in the Industrial Department of the I. C. Y. were Ida A. Burrell and Helen M. Burrell, granddaughters of the late Jno. Pierre Burr, one of the prime movers in having the Humphrey Fund applied to the education of Negro Youth and thereby marking the beginning of the Institute for Colored Youth. Both of these young women have become examples of what industry, skill and close attention to business will do for any one who is steadfast and earnest in his purpose in life.
Pliny Ishmael Locke.--Born April 27, 1850, eldest son of Ishmael Locke, teacher and first principal of the school under the Humphrey bequest that eventually became the Institute for Colored Youth. Educated I. C. Y., graduated 1867. Taught in Tennessee under the Freedman's Bureau, '67-'68. Instructor at the I. C. Y., '68-'71, in mathematics and other branches. Appointed clerk Freedman's Bureau, Washington, '71-'72, first colored appointee under the civil service, clerkship second auditor's office, Treasury Department, Washington, '72-'76. Studied law at Howard University, , LL. B., 1874. Principal colored school,
Chester, Pa., '79-'83. In '83 first colored appointee under the local civil service to clerkship money order department, Philadelphia Postoffice, '83-'86. Returned to principalship Chester school, '87-'90. Customs clerk, '90-'91, and '91-'92 clerk Department of Public Works, Philadelphia. Died August 23, 1892.
Henrietta R. Farrelly, 1876, is principal of the Pollock School and William E. Cooper, 1867, of the Wilmot School, in Philadelphia.
William H. F. Armstead was for many years head of the Camden, N. J., grammar school, and was later on succeeded by Malachi Cornish, who still holds the position.
Among the former pupils of the I. C. Y. to graduate from the U. of P. are: James T. Potter, George R. Hilton, Eugene T. Hinson, William H. Warrick, Conwell Banton, Hiram Williams.
William E. Augusta, Andrew F. Hill and John H. Smythe were three I. C. Y. graduates to serve as cashiers of banks under the Freedmen's Bureau.
Among the first principals and teachers in the schools at the National Capital, after grading, were; Sarah L. Daffin, Sarah Iredell, Laura Iredell, Maria C. Barney, Laura J. Barney, Lucretia Douglass, Narcissa George, Louisa P. Matthews and Martha N. Matthews.
Morris Layton, an alumnus, has been the head of the Harrisburg, Pa., grammar school for more than a quarter of a century.
Rebecca J. Cole, class of 1863, studied medicine at the Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia, and the first of the race from that institution.
Mary E. Lindsey, now Murdah, class of 1880, studied kindergarten and was the first teacher of that system in Philadelphia.
Caroline Still, now Anderson, an undergraduate of the I. C. Y., is a graduate of Oberlin College, Ohio, and afterward of the Women's Medical College, Philadelphia.
Martha Howard, of Fall River, Mass., was for several years an assistant to Sarah M. Douglass in the Girls' Preparatory Department.
Richard T. Greener, a native Philadelphian, graduated from Harvard University in 1869, and began to teach at the I. C. Y. in 1870. He was a well-equipped man and a clever writer. He went to South Carolina and became Dean of the Law School at the capital of that state. During the Russian-Japanese war he was consul at Vladivostok, and held his position through all of that contest. He is now practising law in Chicago.
W. H. Josephus was a native of B. W. I., a scholarly man and taught for several seasons in the I. C. Y. under Fanny M. Jackson.
Joseph E. Lee was born in Philadelphia and graduated in the class of 1869. The most of his active life
has been spent in Florida, where he studied law, became a legal officer of the state, Collector of Internal Revenue and Collector of the Port. He is a man with remarkable ability, and has held important offices, both state and national, longer than any other colored person. He has acquired a considerable fortune.
Laura F. Barney, was born in Philadelphia. Her first schooling was in the Friends' School, Byberry, 23d ward. She entered the I. C. Y. and graduated in 1871. She taught at Chester, Pa., and then in Washington, D. C., finally becoming Assistant Superintendent of the High School there, where she had the finest rating. In the list of the premier teachers in the Washington, D. C., schools the following were from the I. C. Y.: Laura F. and Maria C. Barney, Sarah L. and Laura Iredell, Sarah L. Daffin, Narcissa George, Lucretia. M. Douglass, Louisa P. and Martha N. Matthews, Sarah L. Iredell taught in the I. C. Y. and in Vaux Public School, Philadelphia, and years after became head nurse at Freedmen's Hospital, Washington, D. C.
It is a noteworthy fact that Theophilus J. Minton, John, W. Cromwell, William J. Cole, and Pliny I. Locke, all I. C. Y. graduates, held the highest grade departmental clerkships at the national capital, and John W. Cromwell is now Principal of a grammar school there.
Theophilus J. Minton graduated from the I. C. Y. in 1866. He represented Forney's Philadelphia Press in Virginia during the Reconstruction Period and then
gravitated to S. C. Here he took up the law and practised his profession, as well as holding public office. Later on he went to Washington and entered the government service, and then to Philadelphia (his birthplace), where he practised law until his death.
James F. Needham, a native of Philadelphia, who graduated at 14; clerk, teacher at Chester and the I. C. Y., and connected with the tax office as clerk, discount officer and for a while Deputy Collector of Taxes. Much of the present tax office system evolved from and was shaped by him. Grand Master of the Odd Fellows for two terms and now Grand Secretary. A wonderful mathematician, an excellent scholar and a clever business man.
Richard E. DeR. Venning, born in Philadelphia, graduated from I. C. Y., class 1867. Taught in Maryland, the I. C. Y., was engaged in business for a span and afterward (1881) entered the government service at Washington, D. C., where he still remains. He had high rating as teacher of mental arithmetic.
Jeremiah Scott, a native of Philadelphia and class 1870. First colored man to be admitted to the Philadelphia courts as an attorney.
Sarah M. Douglass was one of the most unique figures in the field of education. A native of this city, and born over one hundred years ago, she was educated by tutors, and began teaching directly after and continued that work for more than sixty years. She began
at the I. C. Y. in 1853 and continued on during the principalships of Professors Reason and Bassett and Fanny M. Jackson-Coppin. She adhered to the tenets of the Friends and always attended their meetings. Her whole course was as teacher in the Girls' Preparatory Department. She was a contributor to the early anti-slavery publications, and a lecturer of note.
Grace A. Mapps was the first among the women of her race to finish a college course at McGrawville, New York State. She came to the Institute for Colored Youth, along with Prof. Reason, and taught about twelve years, as head of the Girls' High School. She was a frequent contributor to several periodicals prior to the Civil War, and had a literary rating of a high order. She was a native of Burlington, N. J., and died there several years ago.
Martha A. Farbeaux, afterward Minton, was the first woman graduate of the Institute for Colored Youth, and taught there under Prof. Bassett until her marriage. Years after, she again taught during the principalship of Fanny M. Jackson-Coppin. She was an excellent teacher and endeared herself to all who came under her. She is still living, and the solitary link between the original school and today.
James M. Baxter, a native Philadelphian, graduated from the I. C. Y. in 1864, at eighteen. Directly after he received a call to Newark, N. J., to take charge of its only public school for colored children, and continued as its head for forty-six years. He developed the
school, and it became a very large one, ranking with the best in that city. He not only made an impression as an educator, but was active in all the affairs of his adopted city, both secular and religious. Many of the scholars attained distinction, in business and the professions. He kept pace with all the modern systems of teaching and was rated by the educational authorities as a teacher of rare value.
Charles A. Dorsey, a native of Philadelphia; his first school life was at Birds School, now the James Forten, then at the I. C. Y., under Prof. Chas. L. Reason. He left and matriculated at Oberlin College, Ohio, graduating therefrom in 1863. He immediately accepted the Principalship of a large school in Brooklyn, and taught for more than forty-five years. He was before his career closed, school supervisor of Brooklyn. In all the affairs of his adopted city, religious, civil and political, he was a potent factor. He was a man of wide learning, a teacher of merit and a citizen of the best character. For a while he was a fellow-student of the author of this book.
William Adger, born in the city of Philadelphia, June 8, 1857. He received his early education at the I. C. Y., graduating with the brightest honors in 1875, after which he prepared himself for the University of Pennsylvania, entering the college department in 1879, and graduating with a B. A. degree in 1883. His college career was rather interesting from the fact of his being the first colored man to enter the University
and the first colored man, up to that time, to graduate from the Academic Department with the B. A. degree.
The Faculty and students from the time of his entrance till his successful closing watched him with a degree of closeness that thoroughly enabled them to say of him, that by his scholarly and moral deportment he made it possible for the doors of the University of Pennsylvania to remain open to the members of his race. His moral and educational training prepared him to be one of the best equipped students to enter the Episcopal Seminary in the fall of 1883.
He was secretary to Mrs. Fanny J. Coppin for ten years. His short life ended October 10, 1885, during his senior year in the Seminary.
The Institute for Colored Youth has had its representatives in the different professions and activities of the District of Columbia for more than a generation. When colored clerks in the civil service were considerably fewer than today, it was only thru rigid examinations that colored men were appointed. Among the first were John H. Smythe and James Le Count, Jr., in the census office. This was forty years ago. Next was William J. Cole, in the census office. Smythe's career was most remarkable. He became clerk in the Freedmen's Bank, an assistant cashier in Wilmington, N. C., then a member of the Constitutional Convention of that state. During the Hayes administration he went to Washington, resumed the practice of law, until
his appointment as U. S. Minister to Liberia, which position, with only a brief interval, he filled until the election of President Cleveland, in 1885. Subsequently he went to Virginia, became active in the affairs of the True Reformers, was for a time its editor, and subsequently, as the crowning event of his life, he established the Negro Reformatory, the first of its kind in the South. William J. Cole, as clerk in the census, rose to a confidential position, frequently representing the office before Congressional Committees. Theophilus J. Minton, after holding the position of bookkeeper in the Treasurer's office of South Carolina, went to Washington and entered the U. S. Treasury Department, and as law clerk in the office of the Controller, wrote many of the opinions of that official. Miss Laura J. Barney became Assistant Principal in the M St. (academical) High School, and as such shaped the educational training of hundreds who became successful teachers in the public schools of the national capital. Among other graduates of the I. C. Y. may be named Mrs. Sarah A. Fleetwood and Laura Hawkesworth. Mrs. Lucretia M. Kelley is still a clerk in the land office of the Interior Department, after years of service as teacher and matron.
Mr. Pliny I. Locke and R. E. De R. Venning, both former instructors in the Institute for Colored Youth, also reflected credit on their alma mater in the civil
service at Washington, D. C., the last named for many years an examiner of pensions.
Mr. J. W. Cromwell, also of the same institution, was one of the first colored men in Washington to reach a high grade clerkship in the civil service, and that entirely by competitive examinations. For fourteen years he published "The People's Advocate" and was one of the organizers of the American Negro Academy, of which he is still the Corresponding Secretary. He is also principal of one of the grammar schools.
Mr. Charles N. Thomas was the first colored lawyer to practice before the courts of the District of Columbia, having been admitted with several others, graduates of the first law class from Howard University, in 1871. Before his phenomenal public career in Florida, Joseph E. Lee held a confidential clerkship to the late Alexander Shepherd, Governor of the District of Columbia.
Eugene R. Belcher, also a representative of the Institute, for many years prominent in the federal politics of Georgia, while in Washington was clerk in the Freedmen's Bureau, and was recognized as one of the very best classical and mathematical scholars "on the Hill," as Howard University was known, where he was eagerly sought by all perplexed students.
Of later Institute graduates, residents of Washington, D. C., was Miss Lucy Addison. Miss Addison, at Roanoke, Va., has done a monumental work as an
educator, and her influence as such is recognized thruout southwest Virginia.
Fanny Ramsey Harris, Pennsylvanian by birth, graduate of the I. C. Y., in 1881, studied and taught kindergarten until 1883. Entered upon duty as teacher of kindergarten and elementary studies at the "House of Industry," Philadelphia, September, 1883, and remained until June, 1892. In September of the same year joined the corps of teachers at the I. C. Y. and continued there until its close, June, 1902. In August, 1902, was appointed assistant matron at the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored Persons, continued as such until October, 1904.
Helen Brooks Irvin, a graduate of the I. C. Y., is a member of the staff of teachers at Howard University, Washington, D. C.
Miss Frazelia Campbell is a graduate of the I. C. Y., class '67, and has taught continuously since. Specialized in Latin, German and Spanish. Has gained an enviable reputation as a teacher and as a woman with great strength of character.
When the Institute for Colored Youth discontinued its academic work and moved to the country to make a specialty of Normal and Industrial work , Miss Campbell accepted a call to Allen University, at Columbia, S. C., where she has taught with marked success, and where she now teaches.
Dr. Alice Woodby McKane, now a practicing physician in Boston, is one among many graduates of the
I. C. Y. who has had an active and interesting career. With her husband, she established a hospital at Savannah, Ga., and at Monrovia, west coast of Africa.
Edward Alexander Bouchet, born September 15th, 1852, at New Haven, Conn., prepared for college in New Haven High School and Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven. Entered Yale College, 1870. Graduated, A. B., 1874, and received the degree Ph. D. in 1876. Came to the Institute for Colored Youth September 1, 1876, and was teacher of chemistry and physics to June, 1902, a period of 26 years. Is at present Principal of Lincoln High School, at Gallipolis, Ohio.
Martha F. Minton graduated from the I. C. Y., 1858, was appointed assistant teacher in 1859 and taught until 1863. Afterwards taught at the "Bee Hive," also a "Friends' School," at Locust Street and Raspberry Alley, where the Joseph Sturge Sunday School was and is still held.
Returned again to the I. C. Y. as teacher of sewing and examiner of pupils for dressmaking classes in the Industrial Department of the school until she resigned.
Robert Campbell, a native of the British West Indies and a man deeply grounded in the sciences, came to the I. C. Y. just after the induction of Ebenezer D. Bassett as Principal. He taught for four years and then went to Africa at the expense and instance of the Colonization Society, and with the further object of research work. His investigations were wide reaching,
and set forth in two books, one of which, "My Motherland," attracted widespread attention. His tenure in Africa covered several years, ending only with his death. He had the gift of imparting, and while at the Institute for Colored Youth endeared himself to its scholars by reason of that and many other worthy attributes.
Jacob C. White, Jr., went from Bird's School to the new Institute for Colored Youth when Prof. Charles L. Reason became its head. He was its first and solitary graduate and, before receiving his diploma, organized and taught in the preparatory department. He then became its full-fledged head and remained until 1864, when he was elected Principal of the Robert Vaux Public School. He was its head until his retirement in 1905, a period of forty-one years. Scores of boys and girls passed from under his care, and the general result of his training has been obvious in every avenue of life in this city and elsewhere. When he became a pensioner, the Board of Education passed a series of resolutions of the most flattering character. Not only was Mr. White noted as an educator, but he was a force in all the general activities of his native city, as founder of the Banneker Institute; in the affairs of the Underground Railroad; the Social, Civil and Statistical Association; first President of the Board of Managers of the Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital; the Equal Rights League; the State Militia; one of the first ninety to offer service in the War of the Rebellion in 1863; as correspondent of the
Anglo-African; Secretary of the Pythian Club; Elder in the First Presbyterian Church, and in scores of efforts for the betterment of his kind. He was not only the premiere graduate of the I. C. Y., but among the most distinguished pupils.
Jesse Ewing Glasgow left before his graduation and was given a certificate of proficiency by the Principal and Managers of the I. C. Y. He was well enough grounded in Greek, Latin, Philosophy and the higher mathematcs to matriculate at Glasgow University, Scotland, in 1856.
At this ancient seat of learning he pursued his studies for nearly four years and died before his graduation. He ranked high as a scholar, and while at the Scottish University excelled in both Mathematics and Literature. He came of Quaker City stock and was a blood relative of the eminent Henry Highland Garnet.
Frances E. Rollin Whipper was an undergraduate and left one year before the end of her course. She went to Charleston and taught school, just after the United States army had captured the city. She wrote the life of Major Martin R. Delaney, an ample work and in excellent style. She was a bright scholar, and besides the book just noted, contributed to the publications just at the close and after the Civil War. Her husband was a state senator in South Carolina and the nephew of William Whipper, of Pennsylvania.
W. F. Brooks, native of Philadelphia, Pa., a former
teacher in the Institute for Colored Youth and a teacher of 24 years of experience. A Presbyterian minister. Degrees, A. B.; S. T. B.; and D. D. from Lincoln University, where he taught two years in the preparatory department and ten years in the I. C. Y. at Philadelphia. Taught as Principal of the Normal and Preparatory School of Biddle University.
C. Robert Thompson was born in New Brunswick, N. J., where he attended the public schools. Entered the I. C. Y. in 1891, from which school he graduated. Taught in the State of Delaware and at Somerville, N. J.
In 1900 he accepted the position of Principal of the Witherspoon Public School at Princeton, N. J.. which position he now holds.
Thos. H. Murray, a native of Philadelphia, attended the Birds School, Philadelphia, now known as the James Forten Public School. A graduate of the I. C. Y. and attributes his success in life to the training he received at this school. He was the first colored person to receive a Principal's certificate to teach in the schools of Philadelphia. He is now teaching at Asbury Park, N. J.
John H. Smythe, LL. D., born 1844, in Richmond, Va. At the age of seven, Mr. Smythe was sent to Philadelphia to be educated. He attended private and public schools and graduated from the I. C. Y. in 1862. He was the first colored student admitted to the Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia. He
joined the life class when 16 years of age. Later he turned his attention to elocution. In 1862 he went to England in an attempt to see Ira Aldridge, the colored tragedian, who at that time was in Russia. He returned to America, studied law at Howard University, graduating in 1870. Was a clerk in the United States Treasury at Washington. Later he moved to Wilmington, N. C. From this State was sent as Minister Resident and Consul General to Liberia, West Africa. After 9 years of diplomatic service he returned to America. In 1892 he accepted the editorship of "The Reformer," a Negro weekly published in Richmond, Va. He soon became interested in the youthful Negro delinquents of his State, and the crowning act of his life was the establishment of the Manual Labor School of the Negro Reformatory Association of Virginia.
Maggie Augustine-Jones.--When the Industrial Department of the I. C. Y. was shaped and set in motion by Fanny M. Jackson-Coppin, Maggie Augustine was installed as teacher of cooking. She organized this department, shaped and carried on its work until her marriage to Ferdinand Jones. She brought to this task splendid ability, and this was to be expected from the granddaughter of Peter Augustine, the first man to introduce high art gastronomy in this country, as far back as 1816. Our subject settled in Mexico, where she died a few years ago. Her school life, singular to say, was in New York,
under Chas L. Reason, the predecessor of E. D. Bassett.
Miles Tucker, class of 1876, entered University of Pennsylvania and won distinction in the Wharton School of that University as essayist and mathematician.
Harriett Johnson Loudin graduated in 1864 and taught in the Friends School, Wager Street, until called to the principalship of the Girls' Department, Allegheny, Pa.
John H. Anderson taught at the I. C. Y. in the early eighties. He was educated in New York State, and after a short tenure here, went West, and continued his profession.
Malachi Dunmore Cornish was born April 11, 1860 in Philadelphia, Pa. He is the son of David and Rachel Cornish. He attended the James Forten Grammar School (formerly the Bird School) and the Institute for Colored Youth, 9th and Bainbridge Sts., Philadelphia, Pa., graduating from the latter school in June, 1878.
He has taught in the following places: Nanticoke and Barren Creek Springs in Wicomico County, Md.; Merchantville, N. J.; Woodbury, N. J. He was also S. P. of the Colored Schools in the latter place. After remaining here five years, he resigned to take a position as Principal of the Gouldtown, N. J., public school. Four years later the Board of Education of the City of Camden, N. J., appointed him teacher of
pupils in the West Jersey Orphanage. After a year he was made Principal of the Mt. Vernon Grammar School, Camden, N.J., which position he has held for the last fourteen years.
Henrietta Shepard Cornish, the wife of Malachi D. Cornish, was born in Philadelphia, Pa. She is the daughter of Jackson and Emily Shepard. She graduated from the I. C. Y., June, 1879.
She taught one year in Harford County, Md., four years in Glenolden, Pa. She was married August 26, 1884. A daughter was born May 15, 1885. In 1891, H. S. Cornish was appointed Principal of the North Woodbury School, which position she has filled for twenty-one years.
Andrew J. Jones, class of 1861, was for several years editor of the Philadelphia Sentinel.
Richard J. Warrick is one of the United States Civil Service examiners and secretary of the Board.
Elizabeth Ramsey, now Still, is a successful real estate dealer. She also taught for many years in the O. V. Catto Public School.
William W. Still is a lawyer. After leaving the I. C. Y., he entered Lincoln University, graduating therefrom.
Samuel J. Diton, after graduating from the I. C. Y., became a pupil of the Musical Department, University of Pennsylvania, and received the degree of Bachelor of Music.
Benjamin F. Sayre and R. J. Warrick, Jr., are dentists in successful practice.
Louise Parm is an instructor in the Baltimore High School.
Bertha T. Perry was for years business manager of The Philadelphia Tribune.
John Stephens Durham.--Born in Philadelphia, graduated from the Institute for Colored Youth in 1876. Was reporter on the Philadelphia Press, Philadelphia Times, editor of "The Pensylvanian"--University of Pennsylvania; Assistant Editor of the Evening Bulletin. Taught school in Delaware. Clerk in Philadelphia Postoffice. Graduated from University of Pennsylvania, class --. Read law and admitted to Philadelphia Bar. U. S. Consul to San Domingo. U. S. Minister to Haiti. Manager of a large sugar plantation in Cuba. Promoter of sugar interests on a large scale.
That Mr. Durham was given the Ministership to Haiti when he was quite a young man and with but little experience at that time in public affairs is an evidence of the fact that he is a man of unusual learning and strength of character.
Jackson B. Shepard, M. D., was born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 17, 1869. He is the son of Jackson and Emily Shepard. He attended the Primary School in the 8th Ward of Philadelphia, which was under the control of Quakers, and later on the Institute for Colored
Youth, the Principal being Mrs. F. J. Coppin from which he graduated in 1886.
In 1888 he taught school in St. Mary's County Md. The following year, he was made one of the corps of teachers at the Christiansburg Institute Christiansburg, Va. He also taught in Merchantville Camden County, N. J.
During the next five years he was a clerk in the U. S. Pension Office, Washington, D. C. He graduated from the Medical Department of Howard University in 1894. He became Interne at Freedmen's Hospital. The next year and on July 1, 1895, was appointed by the Secretary of the Interior Department--First Assistant Surgeon at Freedmen's Hospital.
In August, 1896, he began the practice of medicine in Pittsburgh, Pa., where he still remains. He was married June 30, 1897, to Cora V. Smith, of Washington, D. C., the daughter of Richard and Elizabeth Smith.
William H. Polk, a native of Snow Hill, N. J., a graduate of the I. C. Y. class of 1886. Also a graduate of the Theological Department of Wilberforce University. His short and useful career ended after a few years' pastorate in the state of Ohio.
James Henry Williams, born October 23, 1864 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He received his earliest education in Quaker Schools, graduating from the Institute for Colored Youth in 1882.
He accepted the position of Assistant Principal of
the State Normal School at Salisbury, N. C., term of 1882-1883. Having passed the Civil Service Examination, he entered the Postal Service in Philadelphia as a clerk in 1884. Two years later he was appointed Principal of a school in Elizabethtown, Kentucky, remaining for one term. Entered the annual examination, held at Louisville, Ky., for teachers in the public schools, was successful and received an appointment as teacher in the Grammar grade of one of the largest schools in that city. At the end of the term, Mr. Williams returned to Philadelphia and became a member of the firm, in the upholstery business, which had been established by his father, Carter Williams, in 1866, at Twelfth Street below Walnut Street.
Having finished a course at the Business College, and prepared himself in the knowledge of the trade, he became the active manager of the business. At the death of his father the firm became J. H. Williams & Co.
Julia I. Songow.--One of the well-known graduates of the I. C. Y. is Mrs. Julia I. Songow Williams, who immediately after her graduation was appointed as Principal of one of the Maryland schools--and by her earnest zeal and charming personality, was soon recognized as one of the most successful educators of her race. Her love for her alma mater encouraged a number of her pupils to finish their school course at the I. C. Y., some of whom are now ranked among the successful graduates.
In 1891 she received an appointment in the J. E.
Hill School, Philadelphia, and acted as Assistant to the Principal in the Day School and as Principal of the Night School.
In 1902 she married Mr. James H. Williams, a graduate of the I. C. Y. and a prominent business man.
Mrs. Williams is a member of the Board of Managers of the Frederick Douglass Hospital, Vice President of the W. U. Day Nursery; Assistant Secretary of the Young Women's Christian Association and is active in many other charities.
P. Etienne Vidal, class of 1869, graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, Medical Department, and took post courses at Paris and Vienna.
Spencer P. Irvin has been Principal of a large school at Trenton, N. J., for more than thirty years, and is about to retire as a pensioner. He developed the system there, and his scholars have all made good in higher training.
Perry D. Robinson, M. D., is in lucrative practice of medicine in Lexington, Ky.
Joseph T. Seth, of the I. C. Y., is the owner of one of the largest undertaking establishments in Philadelphia.
Miss Annie Reeves, of the I. C. Y., holds a distinguished position as trained Nurse in the Public Schools of Philadelphia.
Carlton Miller Tanner was born in Philadelphia,
Pa., in the old building where the Christian Recorder was established and within one square of "Mother Bethel," the "cradle of African Methodism in America."
He is a graduate of the Institute for Colored Youth; of the Divinity School of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Philadelphia; a Doctor of Divinity of Wilberforce University, Payne Theological Seminary.
For twenty years he has been an active pastor and has held some of the largest, charges in the A. M. E. Connection, now being the pastor of Big Bethel Church, Atlanta, Ga., with a membership of 2600 souls.
He was formerly secretary of the Tract Society of his Church; has traveled extensively thru the church in America, in the West Indies, and South Africa. In the latter field he remained for some time as a missionary. He established the South African Christian Recorder in 1902. He is the author of the " Probationer's Guide" and a "Manual of the A. M. E. Church," books adopted by the Church as text books for all applicants to enter the ministry of the A. M. E. Church.
Chas. L. Moore, born in the State of Virginia, February 3, 1861, attended school at his native home and in Philadelphia, at the House of Industry, Seventh and Catharine Streets. From this school he went to the Institute for Colored Youth, from which he graduated in 1881 as valedictorian and won the Latin
prize of $15, which was given by the board of managers.
He taught in Maryland and in New Jersey. Was one of the organizers of the Maryland Colored State Teachers' Association, and of the "Educational Era," a paper printed during the school months in the interest of the colored pupils, schools and teachers of Maryland.
Returned to the I. C. Y. in September, 1892, as a teacher, which work he pursued successfully until the institute was moved from the city.
Hannah Jones-Brown, wife of Rev. Howard D. Brown, is a native of Freehold, Monmouth County, N. J. She graduated from the Institute for Colored Youth during the principalship of the author, and taught for ten years at Freehold, N. J., her home town. She then accepted the position of principal of the Western District Colored School, 7th and Catharine Streets, Philadelphia, where she taught very acceptably for eighteen years, when she resigned to become the wife of Rev. H. D. Brown.
Chas. Henry Boyer, born at Elkton, Md., where he attended the public school and afterward went to the I. C. Y., Philadelphia, in September, 1881. Graduated in June, 1886. The salutatorian of his class. Taught four years in Maryland. In 1890 he went to New Haven, entered the Hopkins Grammar School to prepare for college. Graduated from Hopkins in '92, winning the prize for oratory. Entered Yale in
the fall, in the class of '96, with which class he graduated. Now has charge of St. Augustine College at Raleigh, where he has given 17 years of valuable service.
John W. Harris.--Another example of the energy of the Philadelphia-born man is John W. Harris, a real estate and insurance broker, of No. 1116 South Nineteenth Street. Mr. Harris began his course of education at the old Raspberry Street School and later graduated from the Institute for Colored Youth (1886), Immediately after the commencement, he entered the office of The Philadelphia Tribune as clerk and performed his duties so well that he was in due time promoted to the managing editorship of the paper, at the age of twenty-two.
For fourteen years he was connected with The Tribune, during which time he engaged in the real estate business, managing the Conservative Company, in which he was very successful. The Tribune, upon which he was formerly employed, speaks of him as "hustling, reliable and painstaking in all of his business transactions" and representing "the best among our progressive young men."
Besides the home in which he lives, Mr. Harris owns several other properties in this city. He is Secretary of the Mercy Hospital and Training School for Nurses, Treasurer of the Alumni Association of the Institute for Colored Youth, a Director of the Berean Building and Loan Association, Secretary of the Donaldson Medicine Company, a Director of the
Concord Building and Loan Association, of which less than twelve per cent. of the stockholders are colored.
Mr. Geo. L. Smiley.--The subject of this sketch, Mr. George Louis Smiley, has the honor of being one of the youngest graduates of the Institute (having graduated at the precocious age of 15 years).
Immediately after graduation he became a clerk in one of the largest wholesale drug houses in this country, where he is still employed, having risen to a responsible position in the finance department of that concern.
Early in life Mr. Smiley became convinced of the expediency of versatility, hence did not confine his talents to one field, but delved into the art of photography; particularly excelling in the photography of horses and dogs. While yet a boy, he was invited to exhibit his photographs at the National Export Exposition. His exhibit there attracted marked attention and flattering comment. His pictures--entitled "The First Milking Lesson," and "The Little Pool" (illustrating one of Dunbar's poems)--at the close of the exposition were purchased by one of the leading magazines.
While on the subject of photography it would be well to note that the major part of the illustrations in this volume were made by this young man when he was 13 years old.
Another evidence of the versatility of this young man is found in his excellent elocutionary powers,
which he has devoted to the rendition of Dunbar's poems, giving private recitals in the homes of some of the most exclusive millionaires. His rendition of Dunbar is "delightfully different"-- Dunbar himself having said in the presence of the writer: "Young Smiley gets more of the subtle meaning out of my works than any other person I've heard. He has the rarest dialect and a fund of natural humor; never burlesques the race or resorts to facial grimaces, but makes you laugh with the race, not at them."
In addition to these widely different accomplishments, Mr. Smiley has achieved marked success as a writer of dialect stories; in fact his name might now be a household word, did he not modestly hide his identity under a "nom de plume."
I. Walter Sutton was born in the State of Louisiana and received his early education in Gilbert Industrial and Agricultural College.
He came to Philadelphia in the fall of 1890 and entered the I. C, Y., completing a course in carpentry in 1897 in that institution, and in 1898 graduated from the Academic Department.
September, 1898, he entered Hahnemann Homeopathic College Hospital of Philadelphia, graduating from that institution in 1903 and afterwards began the practice of medicine in Philadelphia.
Later in 1907 he returned to his alma mater and took a post-graduate course in Obstetrics; in 1907 was elected chief obstetrician of Mercy Hospital and Training School. He still retains the same position.
He is a member of the County Homeopathic Medical Society and also a member of the Academy of Medicine and Allied Sciences.
Julia F. Jones, daughter of the late Robert Jones and Elizabeth Durham, is a native of Philadelphia, as were her parents. She is a lineal descendant of Absalom Jones, the founder of St. Thomas P. E. Church.
She was educated at the Institute for Colored Youth. Immediately after graduating Miss Jones assisted Sarah M. Douglas in the Preparatory Department of the Institute. She then took a position as principal of a public school in New Brunswick, N. J. There she remained ten years, demonstrating unusual ability as a wide-awake instructor and an excellent disciplinarian. She taught for two years in the State Normal School at Holly Springs, Mass., with marked success. At the end of this time, a vacancy occurring among the corps of teachers in the Institute, she was offered a position and urged to accept it. She returned to Philadelphia and was a highly honored member of the faculty until the closing of the Institute in Philadelphia. She specialized in botany, drawing and elocution.
The Civic Club of Philadelphia, an organization composed of some of Philadelphia's most intelligent and public-spirited women, nominated Miss Jones as school director of the Seventh ward.
Miss Jones has always been largely interested in benevolent work. She was president of the Women's
Union Missionary Society for a number of years, until that work was merged into the Women's Union Day Nursery. Miss Jones has been president of the Nursery ever since its establishment, in 1898.
Charlotte Bassett.--Miss Bassett was the daughter of the Hon. E. D. Bassett. She was a graduate of the Institute and began her career there as a teacher soon after graduation. Upon the closing of the Institute, in 1902, she was appointed an assistant in the Octavius V. Catto School.
With the passing of the Catto School, she was transferred to the Durham School. Here her efficient work led to her appointment as teacher in the grammar department.
On the ninth of December, 1912, Miss Bassett was suddenly called from her labors. Her death, so sudden and unexpected, was indeed a great shock to the community.
She was a woman of rare intellectual attainments, well versed as a linguist, especially in French, genial and amiable in manner, yet firm in controlling, kind and courteous to all. She was indeed the distinguished daughter of her distinguished father.
Her very presence was a benediction. She was in truth the most beloved of us all.
Requiescat in Pace.
Robert Jones Abele is a native of Philadelphia and a graduate of the Institute for Colored Youth, class of 1891. Directly after leaving the I. C. Y., he taught
school at Belair, Maryland, for one year, and then matriculated at the Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, where he finished the course in the distinguished list. He began the practice of medicine here at his home, and his ability at college was recognized by an appointment as one of the assistant surgeons at his Alma Mater, where he served as such for ten years. In the examination before the Pennsylvania State Board he obtained an average of ninety-seven and three-tenths, the highest known. From the beginning of the Mercy Hospital he has been on its staff. His practice is one of the largest and most lucrative in this city. He comes of a lineage that has been of great value to Philadelphia, one of his forbears being Absalom Jones, founder of the Protestant Episcopal Church among colored people in the United States, in 1792, as well as Clayton Durham, a co-worker with Richard Allen, in the organization of the A. M. E. Church Conference, in 1816.
Mrs. Sarah Maffett, teacher of Sewing and Dressmaking in the Girls' High and Normal School in Philadelphia, was appointed in the beginning to take charge of that work also in the Industrial Department of the I. C. Y. The teaching of so many classes was a great tax upon the strength of Mrs. Maffett, and she determined to give up some of them. She noticed that there was one pupil, who with some additional training, might be appointed as her successor. One of the requirements of the course was the drafting and making of a pattern at home. One day when the
class was called upon to present patterns, one pupil found that her pattern was missing. She immediately asked the teacher to grant her a few minutes in which to make another, which she did, and won for herself the highest commendation.
This was the pupil that Mrs. Moffitt determined should be her successor. Mrs. Moffitt had the pupil apply herself at the school and after hours gave her further instructions in her own home to get the required course in less time.
After due consideration this pupil, Ida A. Burrell, was asked to assist Mrs. Moffit for a term of six months to demonstrate her ability to teach the work. At the expiration of this term of probation she was appointed to take charge of these classes, which she held until the close of the work of this school in Philadelphia. During this period of time she was called on to take charge of classes in sewing at the Hutchinson Street School for Colored Children and the classes formed during the existence of the Colored Women's Exchange and Dormitory for Girls, 754 South Twelfth St., managed and supervised by Mrs. F. J. Coppin.
Seeing the necessity for advancement, Miss Burrell took advanced work in New York City at S. T. Taylor's Establishment in Cutting and Designing. Special work at Drexel Institute in dressmaking. Knowing that the demand was for teachers in Manual Training who knew all branches of the work, Miss Burrell entered and completed the normal course in the Philadelphia Cooking School, and in September,
1906, received an appointment in Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, Mo., to teach Domestic Science. She remained here one year, leaving to accept a position in the same work in the public schools in the city of St. Louis, Mo., where she taught four years, resigning to become the wife of J. W. Myers, instructor normal department, Sumner High School, of St. Louis, Mo.
Helen M. Burrell, by diligent application to work, attracted the attention of the teacher of Domestic Science (in the Industrial Department of the Institute for Colored Youth, Philadelphia, Pa.), Miss Imogene C. Belden. It was thru the influence of Miss Belden that the work of Miss H. Burrell was brought to the attention of Mrs. Sarah Tyson Rorer, principal of the Philadelphia Cooking School. When the course was completed, and during the annual exhibition of the work of the pupils of the I. C. Y., Mrs. Rorer visited the school, interviewed Mrs. Coppin concerning this pupil's work and personally invited Helen Burrell to take the normal course to prepare herself to teach the work. Being without funds to defray her expenses, Mrs. Rorer again came to the rescue and made it possible for her to work her way thru the school term by doing extra work before and after school hours.
When the Colored Women's Exchange and Dormitory for Girls was opened, on South Twelfth street, this young woman prepared and offered for sale preserved fruits, homemade candies, prepared by her own hands. It was thru the encouragement of Mrs.
Coppin that she was enabled to earn her first money in the practical work of preparing, cooking and serving a course dinner in honor of the birthday of one of the A. M. E. Bishops. Teaching seemed to be the profession that Miss Burrell was best fitted for, as she was successful in her season of teaching in the country schools of Maryland. She was called to take charge of the Domestic Science classes for colored girls when the Board of Education of the city of St. Louis decided to add manual training as part of the curriculum in that city. Here she taught successfully for over ten years, resigning her position to become the wife of Mr. Henry A. Smith, of the firm of Clark & Smith, Negro merchant tailors and haberdashers, in St. Louis, Mo., where she now resides.
William Oscar Davis graduated from the manual training department of the I. C. Y. (shoemaking department) in the class of 1893, and from the academic department, class 1894; was installed as a teacher in the Institute and taught during the years 1894-1897; went to Wilberforce in 1897 and studied theology at Payne Seminary, graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Divinity in 1900. After spending some time in the traveling ministry, entered Drew Theological Seminary at Madison, N. J, finished a three-years' course in two years, graduating with the class of 1904.
Besides successful ministerial work in the United States, he was pastor of the church at Hamilton, Bermuda, and Presiding Elder of the work on the Island
for four years. Returned to the United States, and is now pastoring at Wheeling, West Virginia.
Joseph E. Hill, who died on January 18, 1892, was a Philadelphian. His post-school training was under Miss Ada H. Hinton, followed by a short tenure at the Birds, but now James Forten School. Then he became a pupil at the Institute for Colored Youth, where he took the full course, graduating in 1873. He taught in Chester for awhile, and then became a part of the teaching staff of his alma mater, which only ended with his death. His work as teacher was indeed efficient, and it was a rule with him never to let a pupil go until he had grasped his lesson. He was not only faithful to his duties, but exceptionally conscientious. He never watched the clock, and only considered his school work ended when every task was finished. He took up expert accounting and bookkeeping, and received a diploma from one of our best business colleges. He was among the first students to matriculate at the Pennsylvania Academy of Industrial Arts, from which he graduated with honors. This equipment added to his duties at the Institute, and pretty soon the art course there became a feature. When Mrs. Fanny M. Jackson Coppin set in motion an industrial department, our subject assisted her. Not only in the detail work of its formation, but in all its movements afterwards. He was a man of engaging personality, and his whole career as teacher was a success. The moral sense in him was strong, and its effect on the
students of the Institute for Colored Youth was indeed pronounced. He was secretary of the Central Presbyterian Church Sunday-school, one of the founders and president, for eleven and a half years, of the Amphion Singing Society.
Mrs. Charles E. Bentley (born Florence A. Lewis, in Philadelphia,) entered the preparatory department of the I. C. Y. and finished the full course in 1876. She was an apt scholar and widely read, even as a girl. Directly after her graduation she took the teacher's examination for the public schools of her native city, and was appointed to a place in the Vaux School under Jacob C. White, Jr. She taught for many years, and then resigned to go into newspaper work. Her first place was with Golden Days, a children's paper, and then on the Times, under Colonel Alexander McClure, as a special writer. During the World's Fair at Chicago she was the correspondent of the Times. Coming home, she joined the staff of the Philadelphia Press, under Editor Charles Emory Smith, and remained with that paper until her marriage. She used the pen name of "Alice Irving," and ranked high as a clever writer in the journalistic field. For a while she was a contributor to the Chicago Times-Herald.
Theodore Gould, Jr., of the class of 1879, entered the University of Pennsylvania soon after, and duly graduated as an engineer four years later. He has pursued his profession in Boston quite successfully ever since.
Miss Esther A. Reese was born and reared in Philadelphia. She was graduated from the Institute for Colored Youth in the class of '85, taught a few years in the Industrial Department of said Institute. During these years Miss Reese had the care of an invalid and widowed mother.
While a scholar in the I. C. Y., Miss Reese showed such aptitude in art that, at the death of her mother, and through the kind patronage of her former preceptress, the late Mrs. Fanny J. Coppin, she entered and took the four years' teacher's course in the Penn Museum and School of Industrial Art. Then, not having the means at her command to pursue her art studies, again entered the schoolroom for teaching, this time in the City of Brooklyn as one of the five teachers in the Brooklyn Howard Colored Orphan Asylum, under the late Prof. Wm. F. Johnson, as superintendent, where she remained until the close of Doctor Johnson's career.
Since which time she has devoted more time to her specialty--art. She is now located in Philadelphia, giving both private and class lessons in drawing, painting, china painting and art-needlework. Miss Reese has given several very creditable exhibitions of her work in Philadelphia, Brooklyn and Asbury Park.
John Q. Allen was a teacher a part of the time of the incumbency of Mrs. Fanny M. Jackson-Coppin. He had a high rating for general scholarship, and resigned from, the I. C. Y. to accept the principalship of a public school in Brooklyn.
Miss Matilda Baptiste, after graduating, engaged in business, and is associated with her sister in the largest catering trade in Philadelphia.
Mary Hawkins Locke. Graduate I. C. Y. 1869; teacher Chester school 1878-81; teacher Camden, N. J., 1881 to present date.
A private school organization conducted by Cordelia A. Jennings, a graduate of the Institute, was transferred to the public school system as an unclassified school, thru the untiring efforts of the Seventh School Section, of which the late Lewis Elkin was a member, and the donor of more than a million of dollars for the establishment of a fund for the retirement of teachers after twenty-five years of service.
When the Board of Education accepted the school, Miss Jennings was retained as principal.
So great was the increase of pupils that the services of three additional teachers were needed. It was at this time, September, '64, that the Board of Education decided to hold the first examination for teachers, which resulted in the appointment of Caroline R. Le Count, Mary V. Brown and Mary H. Matthews. Two were graduates of the Institute, of the classes of '63 and '64, and the other, an undergraduate of the class of '63.
This school was known as the Ohio Street Unclassified School.
In 1867 Miss Jennings was called to Louisville to take charge of a high school in that city. Another
examination was held in January of this year to the vacancy caused by Miss Jennings' resignation. As a result of this examination Miss Le Count was chosen principal.
A few years later, in 1878, the board decided to erect the building on Lombard street, west of Twentieth-- the Octavius V. Cato School.
Since that time, until the closing of the building in December, 1910, the Institute furnished the greater number of the teachers, notably Lucretia C. Miller, Elizabeth Ramsey Still, Annie E. Marriett, John Durham, John H. Clifton, Melinda J. Amos, Maria G. Jones, Dora Cole Lewis, Charlotte Bassett, M. Inez Cassey.
Let it here be recorded to the credit of the Institute and teachers that at neither of these two examinations did any graduate or undergraduate fail to receive a certificate. Nor should this fact be omitted that Mrs. Mary F. Randolph, nee Durham, former pupil of the O. V. Catto School, undergraduate of Institute and graduate of the Girls' High and Normal School; Miss Annie E. Marriett and Miss Henrietta R. Farrelly, graduates of the Institute, are the first to obtain certificates entitling them to hold positions as supervisors of the elementary schools.
In January, 1911, the Octavius V. Catto School was merged with two other schools of the district in the building located at Sixteenth and Lombard streets, as the Thomas Durham School. At this time Miss Miller and Miss Le Count retired from the profession.