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Title: Program for the School of Science as Applied to the Arts, November 25, 1853: Electronic Edition.
Author: Phillips, Charles, 1822-1889
Funding from the University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill supported the electronic publication of this title.
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First Edition, 2005
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Publisher: The University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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2005-07-01, Amanda Page finished TEI/XML encoding.
Title of collection: University of North Carolina Papers (#40005), University Archives, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Title of document: Program for the School of Science as Applied to the Arts, November 25, 1853
Author: Charles Phillips
Description: 9 pages, 9 page images
Note: Call number 40005 (University Archives, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
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Program for the School of Science as Applied to the Arts, November 25, 1853
Phillips, Charles, 1822-1889

Page 1
In as much as the session is rapidly drawing to a close, and many other important subjects demand the attention of the Faculty, I will not occupy their time by setting forth in general or in detail the many objects which may profitably engage the energies of the departments now to be organized. I will therefore proceed without further preface to indicate a plan by which those energies may be directed, for a while at least.
It is likely that in the School of Science as applied to the Arts, two kinds of Students will demand attention, which for the sake of convenience, I shall call Amateur and Professional Students. To comply with all the desires of the former kind in Engineering, and to benefit them as much as perhaps is possible, will require an amount of time and instruction not now in our power to bestow. Empirical teaching, if not entirely specious, is far more costly than that which first inculcates the principles of a Science. The amount of time it exacts from the teacher is far greater than that required by the other kind, and even then it appeals almost entirely to the memory of the pupils. I therefore propose that Amateurs be taken only from the Seniors, and from such "partial course". Students as are qualified to improve by the instruction afforded. This instruction should be given during the second session of the Senior year. These Students might be taught many valuable applications of Civil Engineering without attending minutely to the Mathematical principles involved. Their preceding Academic course ought to qualify them to understand

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a good deal of what their text books may present to them. I would use for their instruction at present Maharis Civil Engineering and Gillespie on Roads. To these books lectures on points not fully presented there may be occasionally added as experience may dictate. As the Seniors will have had opportunities, during their previous years, to see and learn somewhat of the use of Engineering Instruments, and as drawing and draughting belong to a professional education would not occupy any portion of their limited time by these subjects. I think that two or three lessons a week will be a fair portion of their time for the subjects here suggested, and at the close of the session these Students should graduate as is usual now. Whether it will be possible or profitable to form this class of Amateur Engineers is left to the decision of the Faculty. Much light can doubtless be thrown on this question by the experience of the Senior Professor who taught Engineering to the whole Senior Class some years ago. I also submit the following questions to the consideration of the Faculty. Shall this, or any other, amount of Engineering be taught to all the Seniors as requisite for their first Academic degree, or only to such as prefer it to what is now given them in the last session of their College course? What studies in our present scheme shall it replace? How much time during each week shall be devoted to it, and shall the needful amount be taken altogether from the present Studies of the Senior Class, or shall some of their now vacant hours be so applied? The Professional Engineers may be distinguished into College and Independent Students. The College class I would form of Seniors at the close of their first session and they ought to continue in the new School at least eighteen months. If some

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changes are introduced into the Mathematical text books of the Academic course, these Students ought to be well qualified to begin at once with superior advantages the course on Engineering Mechanics and Descriptive Geometry. To them also must be given instruction in drawing and draughting; in the various uses of their instruments, and in the reduction and application of the data furnished by their practice in field work, as well as in many other practical matters whereon special treatises have been written, such for instance as Trautwine on Curves and Excavations, D'Aubisson on Hydraulics, Haupt on Bridges, Wright on Mortars, &c, &c.
The Independent Students will enjoy the same instruction as the College Students, reciting, when prepared to do so, with them in all their studies. They are distinguished from the others, in this programme, because they are supposed to join the University only as Students in the Scientific School. As they may not attend to any thing else, their progress in pure Mathematics will be much more rapid than that of the College Classes. In one year they may pass over the ground that requires two years in the Academic course. A knowledge of Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry both plane and spherical should be required of all these Independent Students before they enter the School of Engineering. But it will be so much to the advantage of both teacher and pupils to have none but College Students in this school that it may be worth the while to consider whether any Independent Students shall be invited to join the University.
As text-books for the Professional Engineers I would recommend for the present — Church's Analytical Geometry and Calculus,

Page 4
Bartlett's Analytical Mechanics, Davie's Descriptive Geometry, Alahan's Civil Engineering and Industrial drawing, and Gillespie and Trautwine on Roads and Railroads. I mention here only the principle text books, for experience only can determine what treatises on the special applications of general principles it may be advantageous to introduce. I would also recommend that lectures on particular points not sufficiently examined in their text books be delivered to the professional Students as opportunity serves. Whether these lectures be open to the Academic Students deserves consideration. Perhaps it may be useful to suspend an ordinary recitation of the Junior or Senior Classes and allow attendance in the lecture room of the School of Science and Arts, and this not in the Engineering department only.
As to the time requisite to give the instruction suggested above, precise statements cannot be made at present. I can only indicate what appears to me to be the minimum. The Independent Students should have at least two lessons in pure Mathematics every day during the first year of their course. For the remaining eighteen months, or two years, and after they are joined by the College Students, I do not see how this number of daily recitations can be safely diminished. So then while the Engineering department is fully organized and has all the Students herein mentioned, four Mathematical recitations a day must be provided for, in addition to those in the Academic course. Besides these recitations attention must be paid to practice in the field and in the drawing room and to the occasional lectures. It will be obviously out

Page 5
of the power of any one man now amongst us to devote all this time to the Recitation room, and besides make those constant acquisitions necessary to a healthy and progressive instruction. In other Engineering schools it is customary to commit the teaching of the elementary mathematics, such as Analytical Geometry, the Calculus, and Descriptive Geometry to those of the more advanced Students who are capable of rendering such assistance. As a reward for their services, their own instruction in the higher Mathematics is gratuitous, and besides a small salary is offered them, usually $100.00 a year. The Professor in the School is still responsible for this teaching and it should be under his constant supervision. Whether this plan should be adopted here, or whether other members of our Academic corps be requested to help where they have time and inclination is left to the decision of the Faculty.
As to the place and seasons for the instruction I can only suggest that if the mathematical recitations be held at 9 ½ A.M. and 2 ½ P.M. the rooms belonging to the Academic course might be used without interfering with their rightful occupants. The Library might be occupied as a room in which to give instruction in drawing and draughting, and seasons intermediate to those specified above might be devoted to this practice as well as to field work. The whole of Saturday might be occupied by Engineering excursions profitable both to soul and body.
Although Prof. Hedrick has given me a carte blanche to make such arrangements for his department as I think best, yet it is natural that I should feel more diffidence in settling his duties than in my own case. From the very nature

Page 6
of those duties, their programme will not be so formal or formidable as that of the Engineering department, yet the time of the Professor of Applied Chemistry will doubtless be fully occupied. A division of his pupils into classes is almost impracticable, and instruction by recitation and lecture, although given occasionally, will be of minor importance. To enter his department Prof. Hedrick will require from the applicants some acquaintance with the general objects and principles of Chemistry. But in the Analytical Laboratory, each pupil will have to study his text books at his own stand, surrounded by the chemicals and apparatus necessary to repeat and verify the experiments and conclusions of the author before him. So also while engaged in original analyses, each pupil will have to work and to be taught by himself. It will be the duty of the Professor to give constant attention in the Analytical Laboratory, superintending the manipulations of each pupil. His own investigations will also for some years occupy much of his time. To these he will doubtless, at the proper time, call the attention of his pupils to add to their stock of experience or to awaken their curiosity and stimulate their exertions. He will at times lecture to his pupils on special points of interest in theory or practice communicating to them such information as they may not have time or opportunity to collect for themselves. Among these special topics is Agricultural Chemistry, on which he proposes to give a series of lectures closely connected in time and subject matter. These lectures might be advantageously opened to all Students in Chemistry connected with the University. Whether they should be preceded by an elementary introduction, and notice be given to the public of the time of their commencement so that Students

Page 7
in the Engineering department and others from a distance may be induced to attend is a matter of detail to be settled hereafter. The use of Chemistry in Geology, Mineralogy and Engineering will be developed mainly in the daily practice of the Analytical Laboratory.
The Students of the University will not be qualified to enter the Chemical Department of the new School until the second session of their Senior year. It is hoped that they can be induced to attend the whole of the Academic course of lectures on Chemistry, for it will be of very great advantage to them, even it they be excused from the attendant recitations. Eighteen months at least will be necessary to secure the full benefit of the course on Analytical and Synthetic Chemistry. Whether the aid of assistants may not be used advantageously to the whole system of the University is a question for time and experience to answer. Also whether it is advisable for Prof. Hedrick to have a class of Independent Students, or whether all beginners should be referred to the Academic course for one session is a question for him and the Faculty to decide hereafter. Of course beginners if he can find time to attend to them will advance much more rapidly with Prof. Hedrick hearing daily recitations, than if they waited for the less frequent instructions of the College course. Whether there shall be a special course in Geology and Mineralogy is another question submitted to the consideration of the Faculty. It is also left to the decision of the Faculty to decide whether the Candidates for the usual College Diploma be invited to spend some of their vacant hours in the Analytical Laboratory during their last session here, as well as in the Engineering department. But caution is necessary here for these amateur Students often do worse damage to the

Page 8
chemicals and apparatus of the Laboratory than good to themselves. The special Students in Engineering do not now seem to me to have time within the two and a half years allotted to their professional studies to devote to Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology. But because an acquaintance with these branches of Science is of the utmost importance to them, I recommend that they be strongly advised, if not required, to spend an additional six months in the Analytical Laboratory.
The seasons for Prof. Hedrick's instruction have been already suggested, as extending from Monday Morning to Saturday night. I know of no other place suitable for an Analytical Laboratory, wherein no lectures can be delivered, but a part of the basement of the Library building. A large room, in all probability, will not be needed for some years. One of the rooms adjacent to the Library might serve for a while as a room for his delicate balances.
As to the rewards to be held out to the pupils in the School of Science as applied to the Arts, some difficulty may arise from the fact that very few will be inclined to take the full course both in Engineering and in Chemistry. But I would suggest that the degree of Master of Arts be conferred on all the College who shall have faithfully attended to the full course of professional instruction in either Engineering or in Chemistry, that the degree of Bachelor of Science (or of Philosophy) be given to all the Independent Students who shall have attended the full course in Engineering together with some Chemistry, Mineralogy, & Geology, or to the full course in Chemistry, and that certificates of connections with this University be given to the partial course students of the Scientific School.
It will be observed that many branches of Natural Science of their applications have been omitted in this sketch. An acquaintance with Electricity, Magnetism, Acoustics, Optics, and Astronomy is of great importance to the Chemist as well as to the Engineer. The great difficulty of attending to these subjects in the course of Instruction afforded by our new departments arises

Page 9
from the want of time and of teachers. Still the necessity of these branches of Science should be deeply impressed on all our pupils and they should be urged to all diligence in obtaining acquaintance with them. But unless the Independent Students be allowed access to the Academic lectures on these subjects, and so become at least aware of their existence, it is evident that they will labour under very great disadvantages when compared with the College Students. A knowledge of the French language is at present almost indispensable to an accomplished Engineer. Notwithstanding the labours of Stephenson, Brunel, Fairbaiou, Haupt and our corps of Topographical Engineers, no Engineer's library is complete whilst wanting the Annales des Ponts et Chaussies and the Memoires de la Societe des Engineurs. Many other matters of detail are left for future consideration, or to be determined by the light of experience.

All which is respectfully submitted

Charles Phillips
Chairman of Com.