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Title: Key and Appendix to Henry Harrisse's Memorial of September 29 and Another Postscript, October 15, 1856: Electronic Edition.
Author: Harrisse, Henry, 1829-1910
Funding from the University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill supported the electronic publication of this title.
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Title of collection: University of North Carolina Papers (#40005), University Archives, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Title of document: Key and Appendix to Henry Harrisse's Memorial of September 29 and Another Postscript, October 15, 1856
Author: Henri Herrisse
Description: 19 pages, 21 page images
Note: Call number 40005 (University Archives, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
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Key and Appendix to Henry Harrisse's Memorial of September 29 and Another Postscript, October 15, 1856
Harrisse, Henry, 1829-1910

[Cover] page
Appendix to Mr. Herrisse's Memorial of the 29 of Sept. 56.
Oct. 15th. 56.

Page [1]
No Ca. University, Chapel Hill. October 15th 1856

the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees


My Memorial of the 29th ulto was read two days ago to the Faculty by the President; and here are the very words of their dignified reply:
"It is a shameful heap of falsehoods!"
"It is the most infamous lie that ever was uttered!"
These pretended "Falsehoods," I shall substantiate with tangible facts. These pretended "Lies," I shall corroborate by quotations from the Faculty Journal. And you, Gentlemen, will judge of the truth of my words!!!
My Memorial is made of facts, and inferences drawn from those facts. Whether my inferences were logically and honestly drawn or not, it is to you to decide. As to the facts, I have derived them from the Faculty Journal, the testimony of impartial witnesses and my own experience de visu et auditu.
To the quotations from the Faculty Journal, I shall add the dates & pages.
To the testimony of impartial witnesses, I shall subjoin the names.
To the assertions derived from my own experience, I now add the solemn oath that I believe them to be true.
And, now, Gentlemen, to the point!!

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1. "A few years ago, the University of Oxford &c &c &c."
This is simply an allegory, and with a little attention it may be easily seen that it is not so much the University of Oxford as the University of North Carolina, which I endeavor to describe.
But lest you should think that my introduction is altogether a metaphorical romance, I beg leave to refer you to the Edinburg Review for June 1831, Dec. 1831, Oct. 1834, Jan. 1835, and especially to Appendix III (d) in Sir William Hamilton's Discussions.
2. "The doors of the University of North Carolina are flung open to all comers . . ."
Since I have been connected with the University (July 53) upwards of Seventy applicants were reported by the examiners as deficient in some important study or studies; and yet, they all were admitted and matriculated notwithstanding. The Journal does not point out a single instance where any of them was removed or advised to leave at any time thereafter, on account of his imperfect scholarship. Some left on their own accord, a few have been dismissed for drunkeness; a certain number graduated — perhaps with college honors; but most of them, whether good or bad, are still in our midst, enjoying the blessing of "mild measures," and basking in the Sun shine.
The ordinances of 1835 permit something of the kind, but

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whether they ever were intended to be stretched to such an extent, it is to you, Gentlemen, to determine.
I beg leave to quote one or two entries.
July 16th 1853.
T. R. Long — Deficient in Virgil, Prosody, Two books of Anabasis, and Plane Geometry
July 15th 1854. P. 247.The following candidates are reviewed. Sophs: T. S. Kenan. Deficient in Algebra, Herodotus, Georgics, Syntax and Prosody.
A simple appeal to reason will soon convince any one that a policy which suffers the admission into college of a young man deemed and proved to be deficient in Greek, Latin and Mathematics, that is, the three most important Departments in the Institution, cannot well conduce to a very high standard of scholarship.
3. "I am free to assert that idleness and intolerable scholarship are never a cause of suspension or dismissal."
There is not a single case on the Faculty Journal of suspension or dismissal for such cases; and indeed it would create no little stir both in the Faculty and college, if a student was summoned expressly to answer the charge of never knowing or studying his lessons. I cannot recollect a single instance.
4. "I have heard those complaints echoed and reechoed by almost all the members of the Faculty and in regard to the same individuals."
In the Class of 1853-4. Messrs Dennis, Jacobs &c.
" " " " 1855-6. " Burwell, Robinson &c &c.

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5. "Impunity, repeated impunity, removes all checks, opens all sluices and hardens the most timid of students."
Vide my Memorials in the Whitaker's affair, and the references I make to the cases of Messrs Hargrave, Jacobs and the "Pente."
6. "The People, the Trustees, are not aware and could scarcely realise to what extent disorder is suffered to exist within the walls of the University of North Carolina."
Did I think that they knew to what extent disorder is suffered to exist in our recitation rooms, I would certainly never have written fifteen pages to denounce it to the Trustees.
7. "It is a matter of daily regret to the instructors."
How often did I hear Messrs Hubbard , Wheat , Hedrick and Lucas lament it!
How often did we all hear Dr. Phillips protest against a policy which "made of the University a Botany Bay"! Why! at the commencement of 1854, Prof. Charles Phillips emphatically protested against degrees being conferred on some members of the graduating class, and went even as far as to refuse peremptorily to sign their diplomas!
8. "So far as I can judge from the opinion expressed by the young men who come here from abroad, and the members of the

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Faculty who have visited or been educated in other colleges, there is not a single Institution in the land, except ours, where students are suffered to be inattentive, talkative and clamorous to such a degree."
Mr. T. P. Stoney, late of the So. Ca. college and the University of Va. told me and told Tutor Lucas, that he was shocked the first time he attended our recitations
Mr. Huber Harvey, late of Randolph Macon, made a similar statement to me; as late as yesterday. I give the names to these two gentlemen, because they rank high both as scholars and well-behaved young men. Prof. Hubbard , a graduate and ex-member of the Faculty of Williams College, has often told me so.
Prof. Hedrick , for a long time at Cambridge, has made the same statement to me.
9. "Not a day, not a recitation hour passes, but an outcry, a burst of ironic laughter echoes and reechoes to our most distant groves . . . . . . ."
For a long time, I used to hear my classes in the Old Chapel, which contains four recitation rooms.
I assert that I have frequently heard very great noises in all those rooms except one.
I now hear my classes in the South Building .
I assert that I frequently hear loud tumults burst forth from the very recitation rooms in that building.

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And although the words "not a day, not a recitation hour," are too high colored, yet I do not hesitate to assert that it is not uncommon as you enter the campus, to hear at a distance the uproar caused by the students in the recitation rooms, during recitation hours. I have heard it, Prof. Hubbard has heard it, Prof. Hedrick has heard it, Tutor Lucas has heard it, Tutor Wetmore has heard it.
This charge of disorder does not include Dr Mitchell . Although noises are not unfrequent in his Laboratory; yet, I have often stated — even before my Memorial had been written — that from the necessity of the case and the nature of the experiments which he has to perform, such a state of things is excusable in the Chemical Chambers.
10. "Does the instructor censure his class for the impropriety of their conduct, they laugh again; does he order them to appear before the Faculty, are they in the very presence of the Faculty, they laugh still!"
I state that in the last four weeks, I have seen Gov. Swain on several occasions censure students for laughing when being reprimanded by the Faculty. I can only recollect the names of two of the delinquents: Mr. R. Badger on the 11th of September, and Mr B. Smith this very morning.
11. "There are some recitation rooms where such outbreaks rarely take place; I know one where no noise is ever heard."

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I regret having made this discrimination, although I believe it to be true. For a very worthy man has become thereby the object of very unjust denials on the part of my adversaries. I must say, that for upwards of a year, I used to hear my classes in the room adjoining Prof. Hubbard's ; and I never heard any noise in that room. It is due to truth, however, to state that Prof. Hubbard , said this morning that "his classes at times are not as orderly as they might be."
All I can say I reply is that Prof. Hubbard is known to be a modest man.
12. "In the Mathematical Department for instance, no great disturbance need be apprehended. And yet even there, we hear of hubbubs."
Prof. Charles Phillips teaches Mathematics, and he repeatedly complained within the last month of the disorderly conduct of the third section of the Sophomore class. He summoned before the Faculty, Mr. Robinson on the 15th, Messrs Singletary and Williams on the 22d, and at his instance Mr Singletary was dismissed from college on the 26th of September / 56.
13. "But let the same crowd assemble in the other Departments; let one or two sections be thrown together and then the ordeal commences. If you call a whole class, it is no longer a recitation room but a circus!"

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I ask permission to cite a single instance, which perhaps never would have been officially known, but for the insidious question "Doctor, what was the matter in your room the other day?"
The whole Junior class had, a few weeks ago, to attend Dr Wheat in the Chapel. A good many made their entrance rather boistrously, as is often the case elsewhere; and a certain number followed in close ranks, Mr Benbury who acting as their Marshall on the occasion pompously entered the Chapel, struck the floor with his stick, and in imitation to the exercises at commencement, announced the "Junior Orators."
Messrs Bell, Campbell, Whitaker and others took possession of the rostrum, with the intention as they alleged, to deliver "original speeches." They called on Dr Wheat to announce the speakers, which he condescended to do. — commencing either with Mr Bell or "Mr William Campbell of Louisiana," to the sound of giglings and sneers. Mr Campbell then announced Mr Bell "of Alabama," amidst a perfect explosion of ironic laughter. But if we are to believe the reports, you should have heard the speeches!!
At last the noise became so intense, that Dr Wheat got up and remarked that the other day, on the hustings, one of the candidates, being interrupted in his speech, said that it would be a good idea for his friends each to take one of the disorderly hearers away. These words were scarcely uttered, when in a spirit of fun, Mr Richard Swain was dragged by one door and Mr William Whitaker by the other.
This is what I call a circus.

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I was not present, but obtained those details from truthful students who saw the performance. I hold their names at your disposal. I also heard some members of the Faculty speak of it.
14. "Let the President himself venture to adress all the classes in the Chapel; it matters little whether his remarks are useful and well-worded; it matters little whether he be the first officer of the Institution, a man of note, a man of age; it matters little whether they are in a consecrated place, a place of public worship; in three cases out of four, they laugh, stamp and almost drown his voice."
Most of my recitations are in the morning, — so that I am required to attend prayers only three evenings in the week. And I donot hesitate to state again that so far as my experience goes, when the Governor addresses the classes there, in three cases out of four, the students laugh and stamp.
15. "The glory of the Institution does not consist in . . . having a library without books."
The history of our College Library for the last thirty years — I should have said "Ball room," for there exists a great deal of doubt concerning which of those two names actually belongs to the building, is really a very curious chapter in the Library history of the N.C. University. If called upon, I am ready to relate it.

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16. "and $200 000 in Bank and Railroad stocks."
It should be only $100 000, Gov. Swain says.
$100.000 Bank Stock
10.000 Va "
8.000 N.C. "
22.000 Bonds
17. "I find on the Faculty Journal for the last collegiate year (from July 55 — to July 56) from fifty five to sixty summons for irregularity of conduct in the recitation room."
A mere glance at the Journal will soon convince you whether that is true or not.
18. "Some of the delinquents actually appearing for the Eleventh and Fifteenth time!!"
Mr. John C. Jacobs
1. Nov. 25. 1853. P. 219.
2. Feb. 6. —54 " 227 & 228.
3. Nov. 8 —54 " 267
4. April. 16. —55 " 295
5. " " 23. " 55 " 296
6 Octob. 30th. " 55 " 328.
7 Nov. 14. " 55 334.
8 Jan. 19. " 56 P. —1. (New Journal.
9 Feb. 22 " 56 " — 10. " "
10 " 29 " " " — 11. " "
11. Aug. 6. " 56 " " 39 " "

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Mr Jesse Hargrave.
1. Sept 16. 1853. P. 214.
2. Octob. 27 " " " 227
3 Sept. 4. 1854. " 261
4. " " 11. " " " "
5 " " 18. " " " 262.
6 Jan. 27 1855 " 280
7 May 29 " " " 300
8. July 31st " " " 312
9 Aug. 27. " " " 313
10 " 29 " " " " "
11 Nov. 1st. " " " 328.
12 April 1st 1856. " 16 (New Journal)
13 " " 9 " " " 16 "
14 May 3 " " " 22
15. Aug. 3. " " " 39.
I leave out those which are omitted on the Journal of the Faculty.
If it be in order, I beg leave to add Mr Whitaker's list
Oct. 4th 55 These four were at my instance.
Nov. 13 — "
Feb. 15 " 56.
Aug 14. " "
May. 9th. 56. P. 23. At the instance of other members of the Faculty.
March 27. 54. " 234.
Sept. 8 56. " 46.
and to-day again.
19. Out of these Fifty five, Four were sent home. There is no doubt of their having been part and parcel of an association called the "Pente."
No one denies that.
20 They had been before the Faculty several times
Feb. 26. 56. P. 11 May 9th. 56 P. 23. dismissed.
March 5. " " 11
" 14. " " 14.
April 11. " " 16
" 26. " " 19.

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Robinson. March 5. 56. P. 11
" " April 11. " " " 16.
" " May. 9. " " " 23.
Shepard. March. 19. " " " 14.
" April 11. " " " 16.
" May. 9. " " 23
Williams Feb. 18. " " 9
" March 19. " " 14
" April 26 " " 19
May 9. " " 23.
21. "They were all four reinstated a short time afterwards."
They were dismissed May 9th, their petition was granted on the 16th following, to take effect at the beginning of the ensuing session.
22 "Now mark the effect. One had scarcely returned when the Faculty had to suspend him again for repeated disobedience and disorder"
Singletary = July 29. P. 29
" " 31. 31 suspended 2 weeks.
" Aug. 20. 43.
" Sept. 22. 52.
" " 26. 54. Dismissed.
23. "Another, after appearing under the charge of being publicly intoxicated."

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Mr Robinson Aug. 20th P. 43.
24. "and disturbing the recitation." Sept. 15. 47
25. "was made to send a written pledge." Sept. 19. 48
again. Sept. 24. 53.
26. "The third has been admonished several times for the same offence."
Shepard. July 23. 56. P. 37
" " 26. " " 44
" Sept. 11. " " 47
" " 12. " " 47.
27. "The fourth for a gross exposure of his person"
Mr. Williams — the charge was made by Gov. Swain , in presence of the whole Faculty, after it had been reported by Tutor Lucas. Aug. 25th 56.
The Journal does not specify it.
28. "And I am sorry to say, for having been absent from college duties upwards of thirty times in the very first month of his reinstatement."
Gov. Swain says "this is a gross and malicious falsehood.
Here is the Journal.
Monday. Aug. 25. P. 44.
"The following students were called and admonished

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on account of their numerous absences from prayers and recitation during the first five weeks of the term. viz: Messrs. H. L. S. T. Williams (Sophomore) &c. The Secretary was instructed to write to . . . Also it was resolved that the father of Mr A. and the guardian of Mr Williams be notified that without a prompt reformation in the habits of those young men, they should be dismissed from the Institution."
I took pains to ascertain the precise number of instances, but did not succeed, although I put the question to Gov. Swain himself before writing my Memorial.
The Common Law of college, and such as it has been enforced since I have been here, renders the students liable to an admonition and perhaps a letter to the parents, if they miss one third of the college duties. No one can deny that. Now, there are in one month 52 attendances to prayers, 4. Chapels and 60 recitations. In all 116. Williams, if I am not mistaken, returned a little after the beginning of the session, which was in the middle of July; he was brought before the Faculty on the 25th of August following; and admonished and his Guardian written to " on account of his frequent absences from recitations and prayers, says the Journal. How else could I infer but he had been absent upwards of thirty times? It is not much more than one fourth instead of one third of the college duties during that time!!!

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Mr Williams has also been before the Faculty
Aug. 26. P. 44.
Sept. 8. " 46
" 22. " 52.
29. "When the stranger, the uninitiated one, enquires and wonders at such a strange and unaccountable leniency, he is politely told by the older members of the Faculty
"You donot understand it; that is the way we always did manage to get along; it is a good policy, it keeps the young men here, and after all they are gradually improving."
And here Gentlemen, it is with anguish that I see myself at variance with a man whom I have always respected and cherished. A man who notwithstanding forty months of deference and affection, did not hesitate to brand me with the name of "infamous liar!" I had to come to Chapel Hill to hear for the first time such horrid epithets. But my conscience whispers to me that I am innocent; and nothing will make me flinch from what I deem my duty!
Dr Mitchell , Prof. Hubbard and myself had long been in the habit to walk home together on our way from the Chapel, where such offenses are generally tried. I frequently complained to the Doctor , and in very strong language, of the lax manner in which the discipline is refereed here. Now, I assert that on several occasions he made use in reply, of the very

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expressions above quoted. Prof. Hubbard was present; and I ask that the question be put to him whether my assertions are true or not.
30 "However, not very long since, our students burnt one of the Professors in effigy, amidst the reels and stamping of three hundred and fifty young men, dancing by the glare of the funeral pile, to the music of their own yells and vociferations!"
It was Prof. Charles Phillips , on the 9th and 10th of October 1855.
The fact itself is unquestionable. I apprehend, however, that I may have committed a lapsus permae, in giving the number of students. For instead of 350, I understand there were only 330 on the Hill; and it is barely possible they should all have been engaged in the riot. I have heard it cited as one of the most formidable disturbances ever known here; and Tutor Lucas tells me that he heard Gov Swain himself make remarks to that effect.
31. "How was it in the days of Dr Caldwell ". . .
In this instance, I have followed the tradition; and if the galaxy I have cited does not suffice, I beg leave to appeal to your memory = for you also, Gentlemen, have been the pupils of that worthy man.

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32. "The evil could be easily checked. We possess ordinances which, if fully enforced would soon remove all obstacles."
A meeting was called during the last vacation, and a committee appointed "to report what new regulations should be adopted to promote order and decorum of manners "in the Institution." (Faculty Journal, page 35).
I moved the addition to the committee of Messrs Charles Phillips , Hubbard and Shipp , as each of these gentlemen followed a different mode of enforcing the college discipline. Uniformity of action being in my opinion the great desideratum in such matters. They reported that no new rules, but that "those which we already possess should be thoroughly enforced." The behaviour of the students in the Chapel being really scandalous, the Committee also reported that they should be seriously warned in regard to their conduct in a place of public worship. The students fancied that we were in earnest, and the noise subsided at once. Had the same unanimity of action prevailed in reference to the Recitation rooms, I would not be to-day before you as a petitioner for redress, and neither students nor professors, neither Doctor of Laws nor Doctor of Divinity would have had the long sought opportunity to heap upon me imprecations and insults which I can never forget!!!

I am, Gentlemen,
Your obednt servant

Henri Herrisse

Page [18]

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Postscript to my Key and Appendix.
P.S. My introductory remarks are intended for an allegory; and I think it requires but little ingenuity to all that it is not so much the University of Oxford as the University of No Carolina which I endeavor to describe. But as an account of my imperfect knowledge of the language, I may have failed to attain my object, I beg leave to add a Key. I desire you, however, not to mention it to the Trustees unless they should experience some difficulty in unraveling it.
1. Q "The number of students was rapidly increasing"
R See our tables of matriculates since 1850.
Q. "Districts which usually sent their young men to be educated in other institutions now directed their steps toward Exeter."
R. Students now flock to Chapel Hill from Texas, Tennessee, Mississippi. Alabama alone is represented by nearly 30.
Q "The old chairs were being filled up."
R. The chair of French is coeval with the foundation of the University; and at, when I was first appointed, it was a mere appendage to Latin or History.
Q. "New Professorships established"
R. Engineering, Agriculture Chemistry
Q. "The endowment had been increased."
R. The escheats were restored to us by the last Legislature."
Q. "Most of the salaries raised."
R. All, except mine, as late as last year.
Q. The dilapidated buildings pulled down
R. "The old Sherman Hall.

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Q "and new, spacious halls erected in their place."
R. "The Assembly Rooms.
Q. and [unrecovered] except the Library which by a strange policy possessed but few books
R. "Notwithstanding this annual appropriation made by the Trustees and the repeated demands of the Faculty — no books have been purchased for the Coll. Library in the last Thirty years! Last session, I believe, two members of the faculty purchased about $300 worth on their own respectability, saying that they would pay for them if the Institution refused to do it. Gov. Swain is bitterly opposed to purchase of books.
Q "And no name at all."
R. There are constant wranglings whether the Trustees built it for a Library or a Ball room; for both say we; but it is universally called "The Ball Room."
Q. "All seemed to thrive and florish under the enlightened administration of the Lord Rector"
R. I make use of the words "Lord Rector," although I am aware that they have neither Rectors nor Curators at Oxford, on account of the high offices once filled by our President.
The rest is chiefly a mere anticipation of and a modest pointing out, towards what I deem just and likely. But as I wish the Trustees to understand that my allegory is not altogether lame I refer them in the Key, to publications which are easy of access.

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